DRM035 - Freescale Semiconductor

DRM035 - Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Power Line Modem
Reference Design
Designer Reference
Manual
56800
Hybrid Controller
DRM035/D
Rev. 0, 03/2003
MOTOROLA.COM/SEMICONDUCTORS
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Power Line Modem
Reference Design
Designer Reference Manual — Rev 0
by:
Zdenek Kaspar
Jaromir Chocholac
portions by Milan Brejl, PhD and Frantisek Dobes
MCSL - Motorola Czech Systems Laboratories
Roznov p. Radhostem
Czech Republic
[email protected]
[email protected]
DRM035 — Rev 0
Designer Reference Manual
MOTOROLA
3
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Revision history
To provide the most up-to-date information, the revision of our
documents on the World Wide Web will be the most current. Your printed
copy may be an earlier revision. To verify you have the latest information
available, refer to:
http://www.motorola.com/semiconductors
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The following revision history table summarizes changes contained in
this document. For your convenience, the page number designators
have been linked to the appropriate location.
Revision history
Date
Revision
Level
January
2003
1
Description
Initial Release
Designer Reference Manual
Page
Number(s)
N/A
DRM035 — Rev 0
4
MOTOROLA
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
List of Sections
Section 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Section 2. Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Section 3. Hardware Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Section 4. Software Module Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Appendix A. References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Appendix B. Bill of Materials and Schematics . . . . . . . . 83
Appendix C. Source Code Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Appendix D. Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
DRM035 — Rev 0
Designer Reference Manual
MOTOROLA
5
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
List of Sections
Designer Reference Manual
DRM035 — Rev 0
6
MOTOROLA
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Table of Contents
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Section 1. Introduction
1.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
1.2
Application intended functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3
Benefits of our solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Section 2. Quick Start
2.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
2.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3
Main PLM features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4
PLM demonstration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Section 3. Hardware Description
3.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3
Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.4
Power Line Modem Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.5
Board Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.6
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.7
Memory Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Section 4. Software Module Descriptions
4.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
DRM035 — Rev 0
Designer Reference Manual
MOTOROLA
7
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Table of Contents
4.3
Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.4
FSK communication parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.5
PLM project introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.6
PLM Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Appendix A. References
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Appendix B. Bill of Materials and Schematics
B.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Appendix C. Source Code Files
C.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
C.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
C.3
pl.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
C.4
pl.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
C.5
tmrfsk.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
C.6
tmrfsk.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
C.7
demfsk.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
C.8
demfsk.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
C.9
coderoutines.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
C.10 coderoutines.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
C.11 scicomm.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
C.12 scicomm.h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
C.13 tea.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
C.14 tea.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
C.15 CRCtable.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
C.16 FECtable.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
C.17 demfskconst.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
C.18 appconfig.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
C.19 linker_flash.cmd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Designer Reference Manual
DRM035 — Rev 0
8
MOTOROLA
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Appendix D. Glossary
DRM035 — Rev 0
Designer Reference Manual
MOTOROLA
9
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table of Contents
Designer Reference Manual
DRM035 — Rev 0
10
MOTOROLA
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
List of Figures
Figure
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
2-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
Title
Page
Scheme of PLM connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
PLM Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Regulatory Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
The Coupling Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Test set-up for output voltage measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Frequency Response of the Output Amplifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Frequency Response of the Output Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Frequency Response of the Output Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Frequency Response of the Input Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
PLM Component Side Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
PLM Solder Side Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Block diagram of the communication system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Format of the packet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
State model of the FSK demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
FSK generation principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Scheme of demfskDem() function calling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Error control coding path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Interleaving technique of PL transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
State diagram of the Power Line Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Detailed information about the buffers used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Main loop flowchart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
PLM_BLOCKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Power Stage&Coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Output Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Input Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
RS232 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
DRM035 — Rev 0
Designer Reference Manual
MOTOROLA
11
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
List of Figures
Designer Reference Manual
DRM035 — Rev 0
12
MOTOROLA
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
List of Tables
Table
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
B-1
Title
Page
Extended Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
JTAG/OnCE Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
DSP56F801 Program Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
DSP56F801 Data Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Quad Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
ADC A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
GPIO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Length of the communication packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Memory usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
PLM_5 board bill of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
DRM035 — Rev 0
Designer Reference Manual
MOTOROLA
13
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
List of Tables
Designer Reference Manual
DRM035 — Rev 0
14
MOTOROLA
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Section 1. Introduction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
1.1 Contents
1.2
Application intended functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3
Benefits of our solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2 Application intended functionality
Power Line Modem (PLM) is a device designed to communicate through
the power line (mains). This PLM implementation is using the frequency
band “B” of the CENELEC EN 50065-1 regulation (frequency band 95 to
125 kHz). Device is based on the Motorola DSP56F801 Hawk 1 family
and is capable of performing using European 230 V as well as US 110 V
voltage. FSK modulation technique is used for communication.
1.3 Benefits of our solution
•
Both FSK modulation / demodulation routines are fully handled by
the DSP s/w.
•
Low cost low speed solution with baudrate 10 kbps.
•
Communication according to the CELENEC EN 50065-1
“Signaling on low-voltage electrical installations in the frequency
range 3 kHz to 148.5 kHz” regulation.
•
Transmitted data encrypted by Tiny Encryption Algorithm.
•
Data consistency is secured by FEC (Forward Error Correction),
16 bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) and interleaving
technique.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Introduction
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
15
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Introduction
Designer Reference Manual
16
DRM035 — Rev 0
Introduction
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Section 2. Quick Start
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
2.1 Contents
2.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3
Main PLM features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4
PLM demonstration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4.1
HyperTerminal settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4.2
Connecting the PLM boards to the PC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4.3
Demo configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
2.2 Introduction
In this reference design a complete description of software and
hardware of the Power Line Modem (PLM) based on the DSP56F801 is
given. The PLM board is a hardware platform of the Power Line Modem
reference design.
The PLM is a device designed to communicate through the power line
(mains), DSP56F801 is a member of Motorola’s Hawk V1 family of 16-bit
Digital Signal Processors (DSP).
The result of this reference design is a protocol independent media
access interface for the connection of different devices coupled through
a power line. The functionality of the PLM design is demonstrated by the
provided application demo stored in the internal FLASH memory of the
DSP. Beyond that, the PLM board enables the implementation and
testing of the user software. For this purpose the board is equipped with
a JTAG/OnCE interface for flash reprogramming and debugging.
In Section 2, a brief introduction to the project is given, together with a
description of the connection and startup of the Power Line Modem
demo application. Section 3 details the PLM board as the hardware part
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Quick Start
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
17
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Quick Start
of an implementation of the PLM design. A full-scale description of the
PLM software is presented in section 4. In section 5, a bill of materials
and schematics of the PLM board is given, and finally, in section 6, the
complete source code of the PLM can be found.
2.3 Main PLM features
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This chapter describes some of the most important features and
parameters of the designed solution.
The Power Line Modem presented in this reference design operates in
the band B of the CENELEC EN 50065-1 regulation (see 3. CENELEC
EN 50065-1: “Signaling on low-voltage electrical installations in the
frequency range 3 kHz to 148.5 kHz”, 1991). It operates in half-duplex
mode using a Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulation with a
communication speed of 10 kbps.
For more information regarding this topic, see 4.4 FSK communication
parameters and 4.5.6 Communication parameters.
2.4 PLM demonstration
In this section, the connection and startup of the Power Line Modem
(PLM) board demo application is described.
PLM serves as a transparent channel. This means that data coming in
from the SCI (Serial Communication Interface) module are received,
formatted to a packet (or frame), processed and then sent to the mains
(power line). For return communication, the process is analogue.
This means that the only thing needed for the PLM demonstration is the
controlled dataflow of the serial data. The easiest way is to use two
HyperTerminal programs since this is a standard part of the MS
Windows.
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
The settings for HyperTerminal for this kind of demonstration can be
found in 2.4.1 HyperTerminal settings.
Designer Reference Manual
18
DRM035 — Rev 0
Quick Start
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Quick Start
PLM demonstration
On the other hand there are a lot of other possibilities which can be used.
One of the most exciting is a system like emWare’s Embedded Micro
Interworking Technology, known as EMIT® software. It is a complete
communication and device / information management solution for
connecting numerous embedded devices to the Internet. For more
information, see http://www.emware.com.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
2.4.1 HyperTerminal settings
There are several parameters to be set in HyperTerminal:
•
proper serial port (COM1, COM2, COM3...)
•
communication speed (bit rate) of the PLM demonstration is
38400 bps
•
8 data-bits per character
•
none parity
•
1 stop bit
•
no flow control
2.4.2 Connecting the PLM boards to the PC
The board supply-current can be delivered by the AC/DC convertor
mounted on the PLM board or by an external 12V AC/DC convertor.
Perform the following steps to connect the PLM board cables:
1. Connect the serial extension cable to the selected serial port of the
host computer or end device.
2. Connect the other end of the serial extension cable to J2 on the PLM
board. This provides the connection which allows the host computer /
end device to communicate with the PLM board.
3. Connect the power supply plug to a 230V (120V) AC power source.
The red Power-On LED will illuminate when the power is correctly
applied.
4. Follow steps 1 to 3 for the second PLM board.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Quick Start
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
19
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Quick Start
NOTE:
It is necessary that both PLM’s are connected to the same phase of the
mains.
2.4.3 Demo configuration
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
There are several possible Power Line Modem connections. The most
typical one is shown in Figure 2-1. where the End device sits on one side
of the communication channel, on the other side the Client control
terminal or host computer (for example personal computer) is located.
Figure 2-1. Scheme of PLM connections
For demonstration purposes personal computers with HyperTerminal
programs running are used on both sides of the communication channel;
the first one as an end device while the second one acts as a control
terminal. For this configuration, either one PC with two serial COM ports
or two PCs have to be used.
Designer Reference Manual
20
DRM035 — Rev 0
Quick Start
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Section 3. Hardware Description
3.1 Contents
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3
Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3.1
DSP56F801 Processor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3.2
PLM Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.3.3
PLM Functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.4
Power Line Modem Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.4.1
Power Stage&Coupling module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.4.2
Output Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.4.3
Input Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.4.4
Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.4.5
RS232 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.6
Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.5
Board Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.6
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.6.1
Expansion Connector - J3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.6.2
JTAG/OnCE Connector - J29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.6.3
RS232 Interface Connector - J2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.7
Memory Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.2 Introduction
This reference design of the Power Line Modem (PLM) provides a
modem able to transmit data through a power line (mains) with a
transmission speed up to 10 kbps. The PLM is based on a DSP56F801,
a 16-bit Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The result of the reference
design is a protocol independent media access interface for the
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
21
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
connection of different devices. For example, connection between
appliances or connection appliances to a PC or a similar host.
The PLM board is the hardware platform for the power line modem
reference design. The board supports the provided demo application,
which is stored in the integrated FLASH memory of the DSP56F801.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Beyond that, the PLM board enables the implementation and testing of
the user software. For that purpose, the board is equipped with
a JTAG/OnCE interface for reprogramming and debugging.
3.3 Technical Data
This subsection provides technical data for both the DSP56F801
processor and the PLM board.
3.3.1 DSP56F801 Processor
The main component of the PLM board is the DSP56F801, a Motorola
16-bit DSP. Features of the DSP56F801 include:
DSP Core Features
•
16-bit DSP56800 family DSP engine with dual Harvard
architecture
•
As many as 40 MIPS at 80 MHz core frequency
•
Single-cycle 16 × 16-bit parallel Multiplier-Accumulator (MAC)
•
Two 36-bit accumulators including extension bits
•
16-bit bidirectional barrel shifter
•
Parallel instruction set with unique DSP addressing modes
•
Hardware DO and REP loops
•
Three internal address buses
•
Four internal data buses
•
Instruction set supports both DSP and controller functions
Designer Reference Manual
22
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Technical Data
•
Controller style addressing modes and instructions for compact
code
•
Efficient C Compiler and local variable support
•
JTAG/OnCE Debug Programming Interface
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DSP Memory Features
•
Harvard architecture permits as many as three simultaneous
accesses to program and data memory
•
On-chip memory including a low cost, high volume flash solution
– 8K × 16-bit words of Program Flash
– 1K × 16-bit words of Program RAM
– 1K × 16-bit words of Data RAM
– 1K × 16-bit words of Data Flash
– 2K × 16-bit words of BootFLASH
DSP Peripheral Circuit Features
•
12-bit Analog to Digital Convertors (ADCs) which support two
simultaneous conversions with two 4-pin multiplexed inputs
•
General Purpose Quad Timer
•
Serial Communication Interface (SCI0)
•
Pulse Width Modulator module (PWMA) with 6 PWM outputs
•
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) with configurable four-pin port
•
Computer Operating Properly (COP) Watchdog timer
•
Two dedicated external interrupt pins
•
Eleven multiplexed General Purpose I/O (GPIO) pins
•
External reset pin for hardware reset
•
JTAG/OnCE for unobtrusive, processor speed-independent
debugging
•
Software-programmable, Phase Lock Loop-based frequency
synthesizer for the DSP core clock
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
23
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
•
Oscillation flexibility between external crystal oscillator or on-chip
relaxation oscillator for lower system cost and two additional GPIO
lines
3.3.2 PLM Board
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Features of the PLM board include:
•
DSP56F801FA80 DSP packaged in a 48-pin Plastic Quad Flat
Pack (LQFP)
•
Five Light-Emitting diodes (LED)
– Power ON
– Tx_enable
– Data_out
– Data_in
– CD_out
•
JTAG/OnCE interface for in-system programming and debugging
•
RS232 interface for connection to PC or a similar host
•
Push button for IRQA (User defined function)
•
Application dedicated DSP pins accessible via a 20-pin header
connector
The PLM board is shown in Figure 3-1.
Designer Reference Manual
24
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Hardware Description
Technical Data
Figure 3-1. PLM Board
3.3.3 PLM Functionality
The PLM is dedicated for use in the low cost Home Interconnectivity
market.
The transceiver meets the regulations for AC mains signalling of
CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization),
FCC (Federal Communication Commission) and Industry Canada
(formerly DOC).
Under FCC Section 15.107 “Limits for carrier current systems,” as well
as Industry Canada guidelines, communication frequencies are
allocated as shown in Figure 3-2. To protect aircraft radio navigation
systems that operate between 190kHz and 525kHz, restrictions on
power line communication above 185kHz have to be considered.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
25
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
In conformity with CENELEC EN 50065-1 “Signalling on low-voltage
electrical installations in the frequency range of 3kHz to 148.5kHz” Part
1 “General requirements, frequency bands and electromagnetic
disturbances”, the communication frequencies are allocated as shown in
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2. Regulatory Considerations
3.4 Power Line Modem Architecture
Schematics of the PLM board are provided in Appendix B. Bill of
Materials and Schematics. The Power Line Modem block diagram can
be seen in Figure B-1.
The PLM is a flexible system, designed to demonstrate the
communication capability through the power line.
The electrical circuitry can be logically divided into following basic
blocks:
•
Power Stage&Coupling module
•
Output Filter
•
Input Stage
•
Microcontroller
Designer Reference Manual
26
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Power Line Modem Architecture
•
RS232 interface
•
Power module
3.4.1 Power Stage&Coupling module
3.4.1.1 Coupling with the Power Line
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The coupling network is the interface between the power line and the low
voltage transmitter output and receiver input pins of the modem. For low
cost applications, when the insulation with the mains is not required, a
double LC network can be used. For home applications, where
insulation is mandatory, then an HF transformer should be used. Apart
from the insulation with the power line, the transformer has also to
perform the appropriate filtering for both the transmission and the
reception. The Newport’s 78250 converter transformer can be used for
this application. The basic coupling network can be seen in Figure 3-3.
PHASE
F1
Fuse
4
D9
V275LA4
NEUTRAL
R28
1M
C30
47nF/X2
Tr_78250
3
2
L4
6
47uH
1
T1
Figure 3-3. The Coupling Network
To provide an efficient transmission coupling, a 1:1 winding ratio is used.
An extra LC serial filter is needed to provide rejection of unexpected
harmonics in order to comply with standards. In fact, the behavior of the
1:1 winding is mainly a high pass filter, and does not provide efficient
filtering of high frequency harmonics.
In reception mode, the 1:1 winding ratio, fitted with the tuning capacitor,
provides a high pass filter with an efficient rejection of the 50 Hz signal.
For instance, the 50 Hz amplitude is 230 V rms or 167 dBuV, and the
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
27
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
maximum sensitivity of the modem is 80 dBuV. To take advantage of the
detection performance, the filter must reject the 50 Hz for more than
80 dB.
For the frequency band (95 kHz to 125 kHz) which is quite wide, the
quality factor (Q) of the coupling filter needs to be low. Otherwise an
unacceptably large attenuation at the band edges would result, that
would avoid good coupling performances, sensitive to a wide range of
loads. For a band-pass filter of this configuration, the quality factor is
proportional to the reciprocal of the coupling capacitance. For low Q, the
value of C30 needs to be large. On the other hand, the capacitance
should not be too large in order to limit significantly 50 Hz mains current
passing through the transformer:
The coupling capacitor C30 is used to couple the PLM with the power
line and it must be a X2 type, rated for mains voltage.
The transformer possesses leakage inductance that can be tuned with
the coupling capacitor to form a band-pass filter. Because the leakage
inductance of the transformer 78250 is small (2 uH), some external
inductance should be added to create a band-pass filter. Resistor R28
serves to discharge C30 when the device is disconnected from the
power line. Varistor D9 provides protection against high voltage
transients on the power line.
3.4.1.2 Modem output voltage
The maximum output voltage of a power line modem is defined by the
CENELEC norm EN50065-1 and should be 116 dBuV maximum in the
frequency range 95 kHz to 148.5 kHz. A measurement of the carrier
amplitude on a standard CISPR16 load with a 50 Ohms spectrum
analyser should be done. The CISPR16 network provides an attenuation
of 6 dB, due to its structure. The maximum rms voltage measured on the
analyser must then be max 122 dBuV that equals 3.56 V peak to peak.
The test set-up for output voltage measurement can be seen in Figure
3-4.
Designer Reference Manual
28
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Power Line Modem Architecture
230V
CISPR16
NETWORK
230V
Power Line
Modem
50 OHM
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
Figure 3-4. Test set-up for output voltage measurement
3.4.1.3 Power stage
The impedance of the mains network at the signalling frequencies is
relatively low and varies in a wide range (1 Ω to 100 Ω). This circuit has
been designed to drive a 4 Ω mains line over the 95 kHz to 125 kHz
bandwidth. The signalling impedance of the mains network fluctuates as
different loads are switched on or off during the day.
When transmitting, the transmitter appears as a low-impedance signal
source on the mains network. If the transmitter was left in the active
mode whether or not transmitting, this load would reduce the mains
impedance and a signal arriving from a distant transmitter would be
severely attenuated. To overcome this problem, the transmitter needs to
present a high impedance to the mains network when it is not
transmitting.
The TLE2301 amplifier has a 1-A output drive capability with short-circuit
protection. Hence, it carries out the requirements. The TLE2301
incorporates an output 3-state facility and in addition, it has a low
standby current in the 3-state mode.
The Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulated output signal is created by
the general DSP output in form of a square wave signal. To meet
CENELEC regulation, some filtering has to be done to convert the signal
to a sine wave. From the harmonics point of view, only odd harmonics
are contained in the square wave signal. Any frequency components
above transmission band must be eliminated by a low-pass filter. The
attenuation of the third harmonic must be more than -56 dB to meet
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
29
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
CENELEC regulation. Concerning this fact we need a low-pass filter with
an attenuation slope of -120 dB/dec. The chosen solution is to use a two
stage passive LC low-pass filter (-80 dB/dec) and output amplifier as an
active second order low-pass filter (-40 dB/dec), in cascade.
The schematic of the output stage can be seen in Figure B-2. The output
passive LC low-pass filter is described in section 3.4.2.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The output amplifier U4 and external components (capacitors C22, C28
and resistors R29, R30) create a Butterworth second order low-pass
filter with cut-off frequency 110 kHz. Capacitor C28 provides a positive
feedback path.
The operation can be described qualitatively:
•
At low frequencies, where C22 and C28 appear as open circuits,
the signal is simply buffered to the output.
•
At high frequencies, where C22 and C28 appear as short circuits,
the signal is shunted to ground at the amplifier’s input. When f>>fc
signals are attenuated by -40 dB/dec.
•
Near the cut-off frequency, where the impedance of C22 and C28
is on the same order as R29 and R30, positive feedback through
C28 provides Q enhancement of the signal.
The measured frequency response of the Output amplifier can be seen
in Figure 3-5.
Designer Reference Manual
30
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Power Line Modem Architecture
0,0
-5,0
-10,0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Gain [dB]
-15,0
-20,0
-25,0
-30,0
-35,0
-40,0
-45,0
1000
10000
Fre quency [Hz]
100000
1000000
Figure 3-5. Frequency Response of the Output Amplifier
3.4.1.4 Transient and Overvoltage Protections
The Power stage of the modem has to be protected against many risks
of damage, mainly due to the direct connection to the mains. Some
protection against a transient overstress during power-up and an
overvoltage on the power line is done. The fast recovery diodes (D7, D8)
are used to clamp the surge voltage of the secondary windings and to
avoid any stress and reverse voltage at the output pin of the operational
amplifier. See Figure B-2.
3.4.2 Output Filter
The output filter is a simple two stage LC low-pass filter with cut off
frequency of 110 kHz. The schematic of the output stage can be seen in
Figure B-3. The filter is created by inductors L5, L6 and capacitors C13,
C14. The measured frequency response of the Output Filter can be seen
in Figure 3-6. and measured frequency response of the entire Output
Stage can be seen in Figure 3-7.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
31
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
0,0
-10,0
-20,0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Gain [dB]
-30,0
-40,0
-50,0
-60,0
-70,0
-80,0
-90,0
1000
10000
Frequency [Hz]
100000
1000000
Figure 3-6. Frequency Response of the Output Filter
0,0
-10,0
-20,0
-30,0
Gain [dB]
-40,0
-50,0
-60,0
-70,0
-80,0
-90,0
-100,0
1000
10000
Freque ncy [Hz]
100000
1000000
Figure 3-7. Frequency Response of the Output Stage
Designer Reference Manual
32
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Power Line Modem Architecture
3.4.3 Input Stage
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3.4.3.1 Input Filter
As was described in section 3.4.1.1, the transformer (T1) fitted with the
tuning capacitor (C30), see Figure B-2., provides a high pass filter with
an efficient rejection of the 50 Hz signal. Since the input signal is read by
A/D converter, aliasing can be a problem when the input signal contains
frequency components above half the A/D sampling rate. These higher
frequencies can “fold over” into the lower frequency spectrum and
appear as erroneous signals that cannot be distinguished from valid
sampled data. By limiting the input signal bandwidth we can avoid this
problem. A low-pass input filter is used to eliminate unwanted
high-frequency noise and interference introduced prior sampling.
Figure B-4. shows the schematic for an Input Stage. The inductors (L1,
L2) and capacitors (C3, C6) create the input high-pass filter with a cut-off
frequency of 110 kHz.
3.4.3.2 Transient and Overvoltage Protections
The dual diode D10 serves to clamp the voltage level applied to the input
of the input amplifier to the power supply range of the device.
3.4.3.3 Input Amplifier&Limiter
The schematic diagram of the input amplifier and limiter can be seen in
Figure B-4. The LF351 high speed JFET input operational amplifier (U1)
is used to amplify the input signal. To achieve a high input impedance,
the non inverting configuration of the amplifier is used. The open loop
voltage gain of the LF351 at a frequency 100 kHz is less than 40 dB
(100). Note that the gain of the closed-loop should be small compared to
the open-loop gain to get the accurate output driven by external
components. The closed-loop gain is set up to 100, then the gain in the
band is limited by the open-loop gain. The input amplifier is followed by
a diode limiter to keep the amplitude of the signal in the range suitable
for the A/D converter input. Next, a low-pass filter created by inductor L3
and capacitor C8 with cut-off frequency of 110 kHz is used to eliminate
high-frequency components from the signal prior to sampling. The
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
33
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
measured frequency response of the Input Amplifier can be seen in
Figure 3-8.
45,0
40,0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
35,0
30,0
25,0
20,0
15,0
10,0
5,0
0,0
1000
10000
F re q u e n cy [Hz]
100000
1000000
Figure 3-8. Frequency Response of the Input Amplifier
3.4.4 Microcontroller
Motorola 16-bit DSP56F801 (U20) is the main component of the PLM
board. The schematic diagram can be seen in Figure B-5. The output
FSK modulated signal is provided from the Timer D Channel 2 pin and
the input signal is read by A/D converter channel 0. Free pins of the DSP
are connected to the Extension Connector (J3) for use by an user
designed application.
The External Interrupt Request A (IRQA) input is dedicated for any user
specified purpose. It can be programmed to be level-sensitive or
negative-edge-triggered. The push button (S1) is connected to the IRQA
pin and it is bridged with capacitor (C37), to avoid noise. Pushing the
button is an input event that results in the generation of an interrupt by
the DSP. This interrupt can then be used by the program.
Designer Reference Manual
34
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Power Line Modem Architecture
For communication status optical signalling, four LEDs (D1, D2, D3, D4)
are attached to port B.
The JTAG/OnCE interface signals are connected to a JTAG Connector
(J29) for reprogramming and debugging purpose.
3.4.4.1 Extended Signals
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 3-1. Extended Signals
Signal
Name
Signal
Type
State
During
Reset
Signal Description
A0-A5
Output
Output
PWMA0–5—Six PWMA output pins.
Setting an output control enable bit
enables software to drive the PWM
outputs instead of the PWM generator. 1)
TD0
Input/
Outp
ut
Input
Timer D Channel 0—TD0 can alternately
be used as GPIOA0. After reset, the
default state is the quad timer input.
TD1
Input/
Outp
ut
Input
Timer D Channel 1—TD1 can alternately
be used as GPIOA1. After reset, the
default state is the quad timer input.
FLT
Input
Input
FAULTA0—This Fault input pin is used for
disabling selected PWMA outputs in
cases where fault conditions originate
off-chip.
AN1-AN3
Input
Input
Analog inputs to ADCA, channel 1
AN4-AN7
Input
Input
Analog inputs to ADCA, channel 2
1) More details in chapter 11 of “DSP56F801/803/805/807 16-Bit Digital
Signal Processor User’s Manual”.
3.4.4.2 In-circuit JTAG/OnCE Port
A standard JTAG pin header connector is present on the PLM board to
provide access from a host computer to the JTAG/OnCE port signals on
the DSP device. Table 3-2. shows the required signals. It is
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
35
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
recommended to use a standard command converter to interface to the
JTAG signals and the CodeWarrior tool to download the program.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 3-2. JTAG/OnCE Signals
Signal
Signal Description
TDI
Test Data Input--This input provides a serial data stream to the JTAG
and the OnCE module. It is sampled on the rising edge of TCK and
has an on-chip pull-up resistor.
TDO
Test Data Output--This tri-stateable output provides a serial data
stream from the JTAG and the OnCE module. It is driven in the
Shift-IR and Shift-DR controller states of the JTAG state machine
and changes on the falling edge of TCK.
TCK
Test Clock Input--This input proves a gated clock to synchronize the
test logic and shift serial data through the JTAG/OnCE port. The
maximum frequency for TCK is 1/8 the maximum frequency of the
DSP56F801. The TCK pin has an on-chip pull-down resistor.
TMS
Test Mode Select Input--This input sequences the TAP controller’s
state machine. It is sampled on the rising edge of TCK and has an
on-chip pull-up resistor.
TRST
Test Reset--This input provides a reset signal to the TAP controller.
This pin has an on-chip pull-up resistor.
3.4.5 RS232 Interface
The PLM board provides an RS-232 interface for connection to PC or a
similar host. Refer to the RS-232 schematic diagram in Figure B-6. The
RS-232 level converter (U5) transitions the SCI +3.3 V signal levels to
RS-232 compatible signal levels and connects to the host’s serial port
via connector J2. Flow control is not provided.
3.4.6 Power Supply
A schematic of the power supply is shown in Figure B-7. Power can be
supplied to the PLM board by using an external 12 Vac/dc convertor or
via the AC/DC convertor mounted on the PLM board. The power supply
provides 12 VDC for analog circuits and 3.3 VDC for the microcontroller
and the RS232 interface. LED D5 indicates the power on state.
Designer Reference Manual
36
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Board Layout
3.5 Board Layout
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A detailed layout plans of the PLM board with the names of all
components are shown in Figure 3-9. (component side) and Figure 3-10.
(solder side).
Figure 3-9. PLM Component Side Layout
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
37
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Hardware Description
Figure 3-10. PLM Solder Side Layout
Designer Reference Manual
38
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Connectors
3.6 Connectors
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3.6.1 Expansion Connector - J3
VCC
1
2
MGND
TD1
3
4
TD0
A5
5
6
A4
A3
7
8
A2
A1
9
10
A0
VA
11
12
GND
AN7
13
14
AN6
AN5
15
16
AN4
AN3
17
18
AN2
AN1
19
20
FLT
TDI
1
2
GND
TDO
3
4
GND
TCK
5
6
GND
N.C.
7
8
KEY
/RESET
9
10
TMS
+3.3V
11
12
N.C.
N.C.
13
14
/J_TRST
3.6.2 JTAG/OnCE Connector - J29
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
39
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3.6.3 RS232 Interface Connector - J2
N.C.
1
6
Jumper to 4
Rx
2
7
Jumper to 8
Tx
3
8
Jumper to 7
Jumper to 6
4
9
N.C.
GND
5
3.7 Memory Map
The DSP56F801 has a dual Harward memory architecture, with
separate program and data memory spaces.
Table 3-3. DSP56F801 Program Memory Map
From
To
Size
Content
0x0000
0x0003
4 bytes
On-Chip Boot Flash
0x0004
0x1FFF
8k - 4
On-Chip Program Flash
0x2000
0x7BFF
22k
Reserved
0x7C00
0x7FFF
1k
Program RAM
0x8000
0x87FF
2k
Boot Flash
0x8800
0xFFFF
30k
Reserved
Table 3-4. DSP56F801 Data Memory Map
From
To
Size
Content
0x0000
0x03FF
1k
On-Chip Dual Port Data RAM
0x0400
0x0BFF
2k
Reserved
0x0C00
0x0FFF
1k
On_Chip Peripheral Registers
0x1000
0x17FF
2k
On-Chip Flash
0x1800
0x1FFF
2k
Reserved
Designer Reference Manual
40
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Hardware Description
Memory Map
Table 3-4. DSP56F801 Data Memory Map
0x2000
0xFFF7F
56k-128
Not supported external memory access
0xFF80
0xFFFF
128bytes
On-Chip Core Configuration Registers
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
For a detailed description of the DSP56F801 memory map, refer to the
DSP586801/803/805/807 User’s Manual, Motorola document order
number DSP56F801-7UM/D - Rev. 3.0.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
41
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Hardware Description
Designer Reference Manual
42
DRM035 — Rev 0
Hardware Description
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Section 4. Software Module Descriptions
4.1 Contents
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
4.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2.1
Software basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2.2
Application basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2.3
Over the data operations basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.4
Packet format basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.3
Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.1
FSK modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.2
FSK demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4
FSK communication parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.5
PLM project introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.5.1
Coding convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.5.2
List of the project files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.5.3
Used DSP peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.5.4
Used interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
4.5.5
Main variables of the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
4.5.6
Communication parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.5.7
Linker command file modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.5.8
Memory usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.6
PLM Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.6.1
Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
4.6.2
Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.6.3
CRC calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.6.4
FEC calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.6.5
Encryption / Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.6.6
Interleaving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.6.7
States of the PL modem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
4.6.8
SCI reception / PL transmission phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.6.9
PL reception / SCI transmission phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
43
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
4.6.10
4.6.11
Buffer details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Main loop description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.2 Introduction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This section of the reference design provides complete documentation
of the Power Line Modem (PLM) software.
As described before, PLM is a device designed to communicate through
the power line (mains). This implementation of PLM operates in band B
of the CENELEC EN 50065-1 regulation in half-duplex mode using
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulation and a communication speed
equal to 10 kbps. The PLM board is based on the Motorola 16-bit Digital
Signal Processor DSP56F801 which is a member of Motorola Hawk V1
family.
4.2.1 Software basics
All embedded software of this project was written using CodeWarrior
version 4.0.2 by Metrowerks Corporation
(http://www.metrowerks.com).
Low level drivers for direct peripheral access were used through the
development. For more information, see 4.5.2 List of the project files.
Although this software is dedicated to the PLM board based on the
DSP56F801, code is written in the way that it is fully applicable for the
other member of the Motorola DSP family - the DSP56F803 device. The
only necessary change is to modify the appconfig.h and linker_flash.cmd
files, and add the linker_ram.cmd if an external RAM target is required.
Note that the last mentioned file is not present in the PLM DSP56F801
project since this core does not allow external memory addressing.
4.2.2 Application basics
The communication itself is performed in a very straightforward way.
Serial data coming into the PLM board through the SCI (Serial
Communication Interface) module are received, then they are formatted
Designer Reference Manual
44
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Introduction
to the packet (frame), processed, and then sent out to the mains (power
line). For the opposite direction of communication the process is
equivalent - the packet is received through the mains, the data are
checked and if there is no inconsistency error they are sent through the
SCI to an appliance or a control terminal.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This approach is called the transparent channel or transparent mode of
the frame (packet) oriented protocol and it is shown in Figure 4-1.
len frame #1 CRC
PLM
data #1
SCI
PL
PLM
PL
data #2
data #1
SCI
len frame #2 CRC
data #2
Figure 4-1. Block diagram of the communication system
4.2.3 Over the data operations basics
It is necessary to process the transmitted data packet before it can be
sent out. The following operations have to take place:
•
Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) computation is used to generate
the CRC field which contains information that is added to any
transmitted frame. The CRC field is used to verify the integrity of
every transmitted frame since this information is checked and
compared to a recalculated CRC field on the recipient’s side.
•
Encryption technique ensures the security of the transmitted data.
This PLM board software utilizes the Tiny Encryption Algorithm
(TEA) by David Wheeler and Roger Needham. TEA is a Feistel
cipher with XOR and and addition as the non-linear mixing
functions.
•
Forward Error Correction (FEC) uses added redundancy
information in order to correct errors which occurred during the
transmission. Since the Power Line Modem operates in a very
harsh and noisy environment, it is necessary to use some kind of
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
45
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
error detection/correction technique. This PLM implementation
uses a quite straightforward method of error detection/correction
called the Linear Block Codes with added redundancy
characterized by the expression (7, 4).
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
•
NOTE:
Interleaving is another technique which assures better
consistency of the transmitted data when combined with FEC. It
simply modifies the sequence of bits of the frame to be transmitted
in a defined way.
Encryption/Decryption and Interleaving routines do not modify the length
of the final frame (packet). On the other hand, the CRC and FEC routines
add redundancy and therefore modify the length of the packet.
4.2.3.1 Processing order of operations on the PL transmission side
1. CRC computation
2. TEA encryption
3. FEC coding
4. Interleaving
4.2.3.2 Processing order of operations on the PL reception side
1. De-interleaving
2. FEC decoding
3. TEA decryption
4. CRC check
4.2.4 Packet format basics
Figure 4-2. shows the format of the transferred packet (frame) before it
undergoes any of the operations described above except the CRC
calculation (last 2 characters of the packet).
Although the Cntrl value usually carries just the frame length information,
it can be easily modified when necessary. For example, an extra
application or protocol flags could be added to it.
Designer Reference Manual
46
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Theory
n - length of the data part of the frame
N - total length of the frame, N = n + 3
Cnrtl
Data part (1..n) in B
CRClow CRChigh
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure 4-2. Format of the packet
Since the TEA encryption algorithm is implemented in the Power Line
Modem, there is a restriction of the total length N of the frame. The
restriction is the following: the total length N must be a multiple of 8 and
therefore the length of the data part n is equal to n = (N - 3). For more
information see 4.5.6 Communication parameters and 4.6.5
Encryption / Decryption.
NOTE:
An extra part called Header is transmitted before each packet , it is not
shown in Figure 4-2. This extra part of the packet allows the bit
synchronization of the FSK demodulation, see 4.3.2.3 Synchronization
and windowing for more details.
4.3 Theory
In this section of the reference design document the theory behind the
Power Line Modem implementation is given and explained. The first part
provides the FSK Modulation principles, in the second part the FSK
Demodulation algorithm is fully explained.
4.3.1 FSK modulation
A subset of 2-state Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) called Minimal Shift
Keying (MSK) was chosen for the Power Line Modem implementation.
A typical feature of this kind of modulation is the fact that a bit period Tb
of the FSK modulated signal is equal to a multiple of the halves of two
periods T0 and T1 standing for two discrete frequencies f0 and f1
representing logic states 0 and 1.
T0
fb
T b = n ⋅ ----- → f 0 = n ⋅ ---2
2
and
T1
fb
T b = ( n + 1 ) ⋅ ----- → f 1 = ( n + 1 ) ⋅ ---2
2
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
(EQ 4-1.)
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
47
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Solving these two equations the frequency separation ∆f is defined as:
f1 –f0
fb
∆f = ------------ = ---2
4
(EQ 4-2.)
and then using a carrier frequency fc the signaling frequencies f0 and f1
can be written in the following form:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
fb
f 0 = f c – ---4
and
fb
f 1 = f c + ---4
(EQ 4-3.)
For the approximate bandwidth calculation of such a signal (both FSK
and MSK modulation) we can write this equation:
fb
B 2FSK ≅ 2 ⋅  ---- + ∆f
2

(EQ 4-4.)
4.3.2 FSK demodulation
4.3.2.1 Introduction
The approach of the software FSK demodulation algorithm has the
following advantages:
•
number of hardware components is reduced to a minimum since
they are replaced by software
•
frequency of a signal element can be determined by mathematical
computation (using DTFT - Discrete Time Fourier Transformation)
that is an ultimate solution for such a noisy and harsh environment
like a power line
•
the output of the algorithm is the transferred message - not only a
binary signal
4.3.2.2 Main idea of algorithm
The DTFT computes a continual frequency function of a given
discrete-time signal. Here, the DTFT is used to compute the values F0
and F1 of the frequency function at 2 discrete points only - at frequencies
Designer Reference Manual
48
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Theory
f0 and f1. Where f0 is the frequency of a signal element corresponding to
bit 0, and f1 is the frequency of a signal element corresponding to bit 1.
N–1
N–1
F0 =
∑ s(n) ⋅ e
– jω 0 n
F1 =
∑ s(n ) ⋅ e
– jω 1 n
(EQ 4-5.)
n=0
n=0
where:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
f0
ω 0 = 2π ⋅ ---fs
and
f1
ω 1 = 2π ⋅ ---fs
(EQ 4-6.)
and s(n) is the signal element sample, fs is the sampling frequency.
By the comparison between F0 and F1 values it is decided if the signal
element transfers a bit with a logical “0” or “1” value. Let’s establish a
binary vector MSG as the received message. Then
MSG ( j ) = F 1 > F 0
(EQ 4-7.)
where j is index of an actual bit element.
Further tasks are required to establish synchronization to the signal
element within the coming FSK signal and to suppress noise influence.
4.3.2.3 Synchronization and windowing
In correspondence with the rule of digital signal minimal frequency
differentiation the signal element length T is chosen
1
1
T = ----------------- = --------f1 – f0
2∆f
(EQ 4-8.)
to obtain the maximum bit rate. Then the number of samples is
N = fs ⋅ T
(EQ 4-9.)
This requirement modifies the equation for the frequency separation ∆f,
as defined in 4.3.1 FSK modulation, into the form:
fb
∆f = ---2
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
(EQ 4-10.)
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
49
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
An incoming signal is windowed by a rectangular window of length N.
The rectangular window shape and the window length N are necessary
to accomplish maximum frequency differentiation.
Let's establish an index i for indexing each signal window and
corresponding variables.
The computation of F0(i) and F1(i) and the consequential comparison is
done for each signal window:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
b ( i ) = F1 ( i ) > F0 ( i )
(EQ 4-11.)
The approximate beginning of the data burst is set from the signal
window where the instantaneous value SB(i) of a short-term sliding
average of the F0 and F1 sum crosses the doubled value SA(i) of a
long-term sliding average of the F0 and F1 sum.
SB ( i ) > 2 ⋅ SA ( i )
(EQ 4-12.)
The sliding averages SA(i) and SB(i) are computed in each step as
follows:
SB ( i ) = λB SB ( i – 1 ) + ( 1 – λB ) ⋅ [ F0 ( i ) + F1 ( i ) ]
(EQ 4-13.)
if SB(i) < 2SA(i) then
SA ( i ) = λA SA ( i – 1 ) + ( 1 – λA ) ⋅ [ F0 ( i ) + F1 ( i ) ]
(EQ 4-14.)
otherwise the SA long-term sliding average value is not updated:
SA ( i ) = SA ( i – 1 )
(EQ 4-15.)
λA and λB are Forgetting factors which are less than but close to 1.
λA > λB makes the SA value a long-term sliding average and SB a
short-term sliding average.
To achieve a synchronization of the signal windows and the signal
elements a synchronization byte called a Header is transmitted in the
pre-control (initial) part of each data burst (packet). The synchronization
Designer Reference Manual
50
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Theory
byte is formed by a bit sequence [1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]. The transmitter and
receiver clocks are supposed to be precise enough to keep the
synchronization during the whole data burst.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The best fit of the synchronization sequence is computed as the position
where the divergence between the sequence of b(i) coming from the
F0(i) and F1(i) comparison and interpolated synchronization bit
sequence (interpolated Header) is minimal:
idx = index of min ( SYN )
(EQ 4-16.)
∑ ( b XOR [111000111000000111000111] )
(EQ 4-17.)
where
SYN ( i ) =
The incoming signal is windowed with 33% overlap. For this overlap the
synchronization bit sequence has to be interpolated by a 3:1 ratio.
Due to this overlap, each signal element (received bit) stored in the MSG
output buffer is calculated from 3 values of the comparison results b(i)
(so called subbits). When 2 or 3 of the subbit values b(i) belonging to one
particular bit indicate a logical “1”, that bit equal to one is added to the
MSG output sequence buffer. Otherwise (2 or 3 subbits indicate logical
“0”) bit 0 is added into the MSG buffer.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
51
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
4.3.2.4 State model of the PLM FSK demodulation
Initialization state:
-
[
]
− jϖ n N −1
[
]
− jϖ n N −1
e 1 n=0
e 0 n=0
prepare sequences
sync pattern [111000111000000111000111]
buffers bBuf for b(i), received message MSG
S A (0) = 0.002, S B (0) = 0.0004
λ Α = 0.99, λ Β = 0.8
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
State 0: No transmission
-
signal windowing
F 0 (i) and F 1 (i) computation
S A (i) and S B (i) computation
b(i) = F 0 (i) < F 1 (i) subbit calculation
circular buffering b(i) to bBuf
S B (i) > 2S A (i)
S B (i) < 2S A (i)
-
signal windowing
F 0 (i) and F 1 (i) computation
S A (i) and S B (i) computation
b(i) = F 0 (i) < F 1 (i) subbit calculation
circular buffering b(i) to bBuf
actualSync = sum(b XOR [111000… 000111])
if actualSync < minSync:
then minSync = actualSync; idx = i
Packet received
No data - false reception
State 1: Looking for the sync pattern
72-times done & minSync < 8
State 2: Data reception
- signal windowing
S B (i) < 2S A (i)
for each in last 5 - F 0 (i) and F 1 (i) computation
- S A (i) and S B (i) computation
repetitions
- b(i) = F 0 (i) < F 1 (i) subbit calculation
- circular buffering b(i) to bBuf
- in each third repetition:
MSG buffer
full
MSG (i ) = [b (idx + 1 ) + b (idx + 2 ) + b (idx + 3 )] ≥ 2
Figure 4-3. State model of the FSK demodulation
Designer Reference Manual
52
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
FSK communication parameters
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
Values of parameters given in the previous figure were set during the
testing phase of the Power Line Modem development. These tests were
carried out in the noisy office environment of our lab. However some
values should be changed by the user if necessary.
Very important is a value of the multiplier in the SB ( i ) > 2 ⋅ SA ( i ) sliding
average comparison. Depending on the ratio of signal to noise its value
may be changed if necessary. The source code allows you to set a value
such as 1, 2, 4... very easily using the symbolic constant
DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE which, in the source code, is used in the way
2^(DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE).
4.4 FSK communication parameters
Some of the most important parameters and the respective values
of the implemented FSK algorithm are shown here, calculated and
commented if necessary:
•
communication is held in the CENELEC B band (95 kHz 125 kHz)
•
bit period Tb is equal to 100 µs; bit rate is therefore fb = 10.000 bps
•
f0 and f1 signaling frequencies can be set to these values:
100 kHz, 105 kHz, 110 kHz, 115 kHz and 120 kHz
•
but possible f0 and f1 signaling frequency combinations are only
f
the following (since the ∆f = ---2b- condition validity and because of
the bandwidth):
a) 100 kHz and 110 kHz with centre frequency fc = 105 kHz
b) 105 kHz and 115 kHz with centre frequency fc = 110 kHz
c) 110 kHz and 120 kHz with centre frequency fc = 115 kHz
•
lower frequency called f1 signals the binary “1” value
•
rough bandwidth calculation B2FSK is equal to 20 kHz which is an
appropriate value for all three chosen centre frequencies fc in the
CENELEC B band
•
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) sampling frequency fs is set to
500 kHz, sampling period Ts is therefore 2 µs
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
53
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
•
therefore, the length N of the rectangular window is equal to 50
samples
4.5 PLM project introduction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This section gives the introductory information and a description of the
software part of the Power Line Modem project.
4.5.1 Coding convention
All source codes were written using several rules and guidelines which
make the final product more readable, reusable and portable.
Here is the list of the most important ones:
•
File prefix is used in each identifier that is used globally; it gives a
very quick cross-reference mechanism from identifier to definition
and implementation
– variables are named in the form fileprefix_NameOfVar
– for functions the form is fileprefixNameOfFunc
– for a symbolic constant the form is: FILEPREFIXCONST (all
written in upper case)
•
Special prefix characters are used to further identify attributes
associated with the type being specified
– “s” for struct type
– “u” for union type
– “p” for pointer variable
All advantages mentioned above are also ensured by using the Low
level drivers architecture dependent routines and on-chip peripheral
drivers.
The general form of the Low level drivers command is the following:
ioctl(peripheral_module_identifier,command,command_
specific_parameter);
Designer Reference Manual
54
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM project introduction
This approach makes the final source code even more readable and
also shortens development time.
4.5.2 List of the project files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Here is a list of all source code files of the Metrowerks CodeWarrior
project:
•
pl.c contains the periphery initialization, global variables
declaration and the main PLM routine
•
pl.h is theheader file of the main PLM routine; it contains whole set
of PLM-related symbolic constants as well as the structure
definition
•
tmrfsk.c consists of two main timer-based routines (bit rate
generation for the FSK transmission and the timeout indication of
the SCI reception, both done as interrupt service routines)
•
tmrfsk.h is a header file which includes all timer periphery related
project macros, the GPIO related symbolic defines and function
style macros are located here as well
•
demfsk.c and demfsk.h contain the whole routines of the FSK
demodulation (demodulation initialization, FSK demodulation
itself, ADC End Of Scan interrupt service routine and a couple of
other support routines); the header file includes demodulation
related symbolic constants and also function style macros for ADC
management using the Timer C2 as the ADC A TriggerTmr
•
scicomm.c and scicomm.h include all SCI periphery basis
routines; Interrupt service routines for both transmission (ISR
Transmitter Empty) and reception (ISR Receiver Full and ISR
Receiver Error)
•
coderoutines.c and coderoutines.h incorporate all data coding and
decoding routines, such as FEC coding and decoding, CRC
computation and the de-interleaving algorithm
•
tea.c and tea.h hold the implementation of all Tiny Encryption
Algorithm routines (for both encryption and decryption)
•
demfskconst.c is a look-up table used for FSK demodulation
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
55
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Software Module Descriptions
•
FECtable.c is a look-up table for Forward Error Correction
algorithm implementation
•
CRCtable.c is a look-up table for CRC computation
•
appconfig.h is the header file of the static periphery configuration
made by the Low level drivers suite
•
linker_flash.cmd is the linker command file of the Metrowerks
CodeWarrior project
The complete source code routines of the Low level drivers is stored in
\src subdirectory of the project.
4.5.3 Used DSP peripherals
This section briefly describes all used DSP peripheral components used
in the project.
A list and short description of the Quad Timer modules used is given in
the following table.
Table 4-1. Quad Timers
NOTE:
QTimer
Symbolic name
Purpose
ISR function
C2
TriggerTmr
trigger for ADC
-
D1
BitTmr
bit rate generation timer
for the FSK modulation
tmrfskBitISR
D2
CarrierTmr
carrier generation timer for
the FSK modulation
-
D3
TimeOutTmr
SCI reception timeout tmr
tmrfskTimeOutISR
The dedicated input/output pin TD2 (GPIOA2) of the QTimer D2 is used
for the carrier frequency generation (set as an output).
Usage of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is given in a next table.
Designer Reference Manual
56
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM project introduction
Table 4-2. ADC A
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
Sample
Time Slot
Input
analog pin
Purpose
ISR function
Sample 0
AN 0
data collection for FSK
demodulation
demfskEndOfScanISR
Data sampling (PL reception) is controlled (started and stopped) via the
TriggerTmr C2.
A list and description of the GPIO pins used is given in the following
table.
Table 4-3. GPIO
NOTE:
GPIO
Direction
Symbolic
name
Purpose
control /
signal
GPIOB4
output
TXENABLE
enable / disable the transmit
amplifier
control
GPIOB5
output
TXD
transmitted data signalization
signal
GPIOB6
output
RXD
received data signalization
signal
GPIOB7
output
CD
carrier detection signalization
signal
The control signal influences the behavior of the Power Line Modem, the
signaling ones are used just for the LED indications.
For the DSP56F803 project the table would be exactly the same with the
only exception that there is the GPIOD port used instead of the GPIOB
which is not available on the DSP56F801 core.
For a description of the SCI periphery module, see Table 4-4.
4.5.4 Used interrupts
All interrupts of the Power Line Modem peripherals which are used are
briefly detailed in this section:
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
57
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 4-4. Interrupts
Symbolic name /
periphery module
ISR function
Type of the
interrupt
Priority of
the INTR
INTR enabled
after start?
BitTmr / D1
tmrfskBitISR
output
compare
2
yes
TimeOutTmr / D3
tmrfskTimeOutISR
output
compare
1
yes
ADC A
demfskEndOfScanISR
end of scan
interrupt
5
yes
SCI0 transmission
scicommTxEmptISR
transmitter
empty
1
no
SCI0 - reception
scicommRxFullISR
receiver full
1
no
SCI0 - reception
scicommRxErrISR
receiver
error
2
no
4.5.5 Main variables of the project
In this section an enumeration of the most important variables is given
together with brief descriptions.
The four main communication buffers (variables are declared in pl.c,
data structure in pl.h) are:
•
pl_uRxFromSCI pl_RxFromSCI is a buffer dedicated to SCI
reception operations
•
pl_uTxToSCI pl_TxToSCI serves for the SCI transmission
operations
•
pl_uRxFromPL pl_RxFromPL stores the final data frames
received from the Power Line
•
pl_uRxFromSCI pl_TxToPL is a buffer dedicated to Power
Line transmission
Data types of all buffer variables are defined as unions of two structure
types - a dedicated structure and a simple array. This approach makes
the operations over the buffers very flexible.
typedef union
// complete union of the SCI reception
Designer Reference Manual
58
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM project introduction
{
pl_sStructRxFromSCI Struct; // frame AS STRUCTURE
pl_sArrayRxFromSCI Array;
// frame AS ARRAY
} pl_uRxFromSCI;
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
Note that the pl_uRxFromSCI data type is used for pl_RxFromSCI as
well as for pl_TxToPL variables.
•
Word16 xBuf[XBUFLENGTH] (declared in demfsk.c) is a circular
buffer of samples as they are read from the AN0 pin of the ADC A
module during its ADCEndOfScanISR routine.
•
Word16 demfsk_NewFrmCounter (declared in demfsk.c) is a
counter for the ADCEndOfScanISR routine, it is decremented
each time the function is performed
•
UWord32 demfsk_MSGBuf[DEMFSK_MSGBUFLEN] (declared in
demfsk.c) is another buffer aimed at FSK demodulation and
therefore PL reception. Rough binary data (before any
manipulation is done with them) are stored there as a result of the
FSK demodulation routine.
•
pl_sFlags pl_Flags is a following structure which contains
the state and another ”error” flag of the PL modem device (taken
from pl.h):
typedef struct
{
UWord16 ModeOfModem : 4;
/* Mode of the modem */
/* Here are the possible states of pl_FlgModeOfModem variable */
/*
State:
Description of PL Modem Mode: */
/* STATE0
No operation, no communication of modem */
/* STATE1
SCI reception could be started, RxFromSCI buffer
is ready */
/* STATE2
SCI reception in progress */
/* STATE3
SCI reception has been finished */
/* STATE4
PL transmission could be started, TxToPL buffer
is ready */
/* STATE5
PL transmission in progress */
/* STATE6
PL / SCI transmission has been finished */
/* STATE7
PL reception has been started */
/* STATE8
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/*
Demstate 0 (waiting until F0 or F1 is present) */
/* STATE9
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/*
Demstate 1 (finding synchronization pattern) */
/* STATE10
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/*
Demstate 2 (data reception) */
/* STATE11
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
59
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
/*
/*
STATE12
/*
STATE13
Demstate 3 (data reception finished) */
SCI transmission could be started, TxToSCI buff
is ready */
SCI transmission in progress */
UWord16 DataError : 1; /* Data Error occured in Rx PL frame */
/* bad CRC code or bad data length */
/* 0 - no error */
/* 1 - error occured */
} pl_sFlags;
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
If desirable, extra application flags can be added by user very easily into
this bit array structure.
•
const tea_uKey pl_TeaKey = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8} is an encryption key for the TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm)
computation
4.5.6 Communication parameters
As mentioned in 4.2.4 Packet format basics, there is a length limitation
of the data part of the packet due to the TEA algorithm usage. Moreover,
the FSK demodulation routine requires that the length of the frame to be
received is known. In order to choose the proper length of the packet
from the application point of view (Table 4-5. Length of the
communication packets), the following symbolic constant should be
set correctly in pl.h:
#define PL_FRAMETYPE
//
//
//
//
//
LONG
/* choose:
SHORT
MEDIUM
LONG */
if SHORT is used, length of the data part of packet is 13w
if MEDIUM is used, length of the data part of packet is 21w
if LONG is used, length of the data part of packet is 29w
Note when FEC is OFF, just lower 8 bits of the word are used
ON, lower 14bits of the word carry the data
Table 4-5. Length of the communication packets
PL_FRAME
TYPE
Length of
cntrl part [w]
Length of data
part [w]
Length of
CRC part [w]
Total length
[w]
SHORT
1
13
2
16
MEDIUM
1
21
2
24
Designer Reference Manual
60
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM project introduction
Table 4-5. Length of the communication packets
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
PL_FRAME
TYPE
Length of
cntrl part [w]
Length of data
part [w]
Length of
CRC part [w]
Total length
[w]
LONG
1
29
2
32
This table is valid for both PL_FECTYPE possible values (see next
chapter). When it is equal to PL_NOFEC, just the lower 8 bits are stored
in each word of the buffer, otherwise 14-bit long values are used (6 bits
of redundant information added by FEC).
There are other symbolic constants (defines) to be set according to the
application requirements in pl.c file:
•
the following setting allows the user to control the FEC technique
used during the communication (switched FEC on or off):
#define PL_FECTYPE PL_1STFEC
/* choose PL_NOFEC or PL_1STFEC */
For more information about FEC see 4.6.4 FEC calculation.
•
in order to perform TEA encryption over the buffers this line should
be placed in pl.h file:
#define PL_TEACRYPT 1
/* if defined perform TEA encryption */
•
as mentioned in 4.5.6 Communication parameters chapter,
there are several f0 and f1 possible signaling frequency
combinations; the following conditional macro definition placed in
pl.h allows the user to choose one of them:
/* Choose the carrier frequencies */
#if 0
#define PL_CARRIERLOW
CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS
#define PL_CARRIERHGH
CARRIERHGH_100KHZ10KBPS
#endif
#if 1
#define PL_CARRIERLOW
#define PL_CARRIERHGH
#endif
#if 0
#define PL_CARRIERLOW
#define PL_CARRIERHGH
CARRIERLOW_115KHZ10KBPS
CARRIERHGH_105KHZ10KBPS
CARRIERLOW_120KHZ10KBPS
CARRIERHGH_110KHZ10KBPS
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
61
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
#endif
4.5.7 Linker command file modifications
Several linker command file modifications were done in the original Low
level drivers stationary template during development, see
linker_flash.cmd for the whole file listing:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
•
look-up table variables (taken from CRCtable.c, FECtable.c and
demfskconst.c files) are placed in the xflash (data flash)
memory area
.main_Application_constants :
{
_consts_start= .;
#place your constants here: const.c (.data)
FECtable.c (.data)
# place constants into the XFlash area
CRCtable.c (.data)
demfskconst.c (.data)
_consts_size= . - _consts_start;
F_Xdata_start_in_ROM = .;
} > .xflash
•
3 variables of the demfsk.c (demfsk_NewFrmCounter, pxBuf
and prevSample) are stored in the very beginning of the internal
data memory area called avail. They are used in the ADCA End
Of Scan interrupt service routine demfskEndOfScanISR(). The
reason why they are placed there is the cycle time reduction.
.internal_memory_30:
{
OBJECT (FprevSample, demfsk.c)
OBJECT (FpxBuf, demfsk.c)
OBJECT (Fdemfsk_NewFrmCounter, demfsk.c)
} > .avail
•
two circular buffers of the FSK demodulation routine have to be
aligned properly in the data memory area:
. = ALIGN(0x80);
# these definitions must be above * (.bss)
OBJECT (FxBuf, demfsk.c)
. = ALIGN(0x80);
OBJECT (FbBuf, demfsk.c)
•
size of the .data and .stack memory areas were modified
Designer Reference Manual
62
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
4.5.8 Memory usage
The following table shows the PLM software memory allocation:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 4-6. Memory usage
Type of memory
Total size (w)
Used memory (w)
Free memory (%)
program flash (P.FLASH)
2000h
9F1h
approx. 69%
data (X.RAM) for stack
100h
-
-
data (X.RAM)
2C0h
1E1h
approx. 32%
data flash (X.FLASH)
800h
384h
approx. 56%
4.6 PLM Implementation
In this section the complete descriptions of the key software modules of
the PLM are given.
4.6.1 Modulation
The theoretical introduction of this topic is presented in 4.3.1 FSK
modulation. All FSK modulation coding can be found in tmrfsk.c and
tmrfsk.h files.
As mentioned in 3.4.1.3 Power stage, the FSK modulation output of the
DSP is in a square wave form and it became a harmonic signal after the
HW filtration.
The CarrierTmr Quad Timer D2 (see 4.5.3 Used DSP peripherals) is
dedicated to carrier generation. It is configured to “Count repeatedly”
(Count Once ONCE bit is cleared) and “Count until compare, then
re-initialize” (Count Length LENGTH bit is set). The Output Mode is set
to “Toggle OFLAG output on successful compare” while the “OFLAG
output bit is enabled” by setting the Output Enable (OEN) bit.
These settings prepare the timer for autonomous FSK generation, its
frequency is given by the value CarrierTmr (Qtimer D2) Compare
Register #1.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
63
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
The BitTmr Quad Timer D1 (see 4.5.3 Used DSP peripherals) is aimed
for the bit rate generation of the PL transmission. It simply means that
during its Output compare ISR the proper value of the CarrierTmr’s
Compare Register #1 is loaded according to the current bit value. Two
function style macros are used for this purpose (taken from tmrfsk.c):
tmrfskSetCarrierHigh(); // set logical "1" carrier
tmrfskSetCarrierLow(); // set logical "0" carrier
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The used modulation technique is shown in Figure 4-4.
CarrierTmr Output
compare ISR
CarrierTmr output
compare ISR
bit period #1 with f0 signal
BitTmr Output
compare ISR
bit period #2 with f1 signal
BitTmr Output
compare ISR
BitTmr Output
compare ISR
Figure 4-4. FSK generation principle
Here is the main part of the tmrfskBitISR routine of the BitTmr timer
(tmrfsk.c):
if (mask & pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[index]) // current bit is "1"
{
if (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COMPARE_REG1, NULL) ==
PL_CARRIERLOW); // if previous value was logical "0"
{
while (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COUNTER_REG, NULL) >=
PL_CARRIERHGH - TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE);
tmrfskSetCarrierHigh(); // set logical "1" carrier
tmrfskTxDLEDOn();
// Set transmit LED indication
}
}
else
// current bit is "0"
{
if (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COMPARE_REG1, NULL) ==
PL_CARRIERHGH); // if previous value was logical "1"
{
while (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COUNTER_REG, NULL) >=
Designer Reference Manual
64
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
PL_CARRIERHGH - TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE);
tmrfskSetCarrierLow(); // set logical "0" carrier
tmrfskTxDLEDOff(); // Clear transmit LED indication
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
NOTE:
A new value of the Compare Register #1 of the CarrierTmr is not loaded
immediately when the counter is too close to the compare value. For this
purpose, two while() conditions are in the code. A slight delay (less than
or equal to 0.75µs) is added to the bit period (100µs for the 10kbps)
which does not have any negative influence on the result.
NOTE:
A value of the Compare Register #1 is not modified when the current bit
value is equal to the prior one.
4.6.2 Demodulation
The theory behind the FSK demodulation is given in 4.3.2 FSK
demodulation section. All FSK demodulation routine can be found in
demfsk.c and demfsk.h files.
4.6.2.1 Data sampling
The ADCA module is used (see 4.5.3 Used DSP peripherals for more
details) for data sampling during the PL reception phase. It is triggered
by the TriggerTmr, therefore the ADC module samples each 2 µs with
the End of scan interrupt enabled (EOSIE) bit set.
The ADCA demfskEndOfScanISR routine stores the analog values of
its AN0 pin into a dedicated xBuf circular buffer and also decrements
the demfsk_NewFrmCounter counter variable (see 4.5.5 Main
variables of the project).
NOTE:
There are two versions of the demfskEndOfScanISR function made by
conditional compilation. The first one as described in the previous
paragraph, is used in the project and therefore primary recommended.
The second one adds a highpass filter in the form y(n) = x(n)-x(n-1) to
the functionality of the former one. Although it is probably not so suitable
for such a well-filtered input signal as is present in this PLM board design
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
65
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
(see 3.4.3 Input Stage), according to the tests it is possible to use it as
well.
4.6.2.2 Demodulation algorithm
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
As shown in the code listing containing the demodulation part of the main
loop from pl.c file, the demodulation routine demfskDem() is called
when the demfsk_NewFrmCounter variable crosses a value of zero.
while(1)
{
if ((demfsk_NewFrmCounter <= 0) &&
(pl_FlgModeOfModem >= STATE7) &&
(pl_FlgModeOfModem <= STATE10))
demfskDem();
/* condition for the SW FSK Demodul. */
/* mode equal to PL reception */
/* call SW FSK Demodulation routine */
...
}
The demfskDem()routine contains the complete implementation of the
algorithm shown in 4.3.2.4 State model of the PLM FSK
demodulation.
As any other source codes of the project, the demfskDem()routine is
commented very precisely so just a couple of additional notes can be
mentioned regarding the implementation itself:
•
As described in 4.3.2.3 Synchronization and windowing each
signal element (received bit) is calculated from the 3 results
(subbits) of the demfskDem() routine. When 2 or 3 of the subbit
values belonging to one particular bit indicate a logical “1” that bit
is equal to one. Otherwise (2 or 3 subbits indicate a logical “0”) bit
0 is added to the MSG buffer.
•
The variable demfsk_NewFrmCounter is set to 17, 16 and then
to 17 in order to have ( 17 + 16 + 17 ) ⋅ Ts = ( 17 + 16 + 17 ) ⋅ 2 µs = 100µs time
period equal to bit period Tb of the signal with a 10 kbps bitrate.
The technique used here is shown in the following figure:
Designer Reference Manual
66
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
100µs = bit period
bit A of message
bit B of message
buffer for subbit #A1 demodul.
buffer for subbit #A2 demodul.
buffer for subbit #A3 demodul.
34µs
buffer for subbit #B1 demodul.
34µs + 32µs
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
100µs = bit period
buffer for subbit #B2 demodul.
buffer for subbit #B3 demodul.
Figure 4-5. Scheme of demfskDem() function calling
•
When a given number of bits (see 4.3.2.4 State model of the PLM
FSK demodulation) of the message is received (stored in the
resulting demfsk_MSGBuf message buffer) the PL reception
phase is stopped.
•
UWord16 demState variable is used as a State variable
mentioned in 4.3.2.4.
4.6.3 CRC calculation
The Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) method is used to verify the
integrity of every frame sent. An additional field is added to every data
block at the time of transmission and then it is checked at the time of
reception for correctness. One of the well-known 16-bit CRC polynoms
called CRC-16 is used in this Power Line Modem application:
x16+ x15+ x2+ 1.
Further mathematical details can be found in 4. IEEE Micro magazine:
“A Tutorial on CRC Computations”, article in IEEE Micro magazine,
August 1988.
A lookup table computation algorithm has been chosen to implement the
CRC calculation. A table const UWord16 CRCtable[256] located in
CRCtable.c file is stored in the data flash memory area. The CRC
calculation routine (taken fromcoderoutines.c) is as follows:
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
67
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
Word16 codeCRCCalc(UWord16 *buffer, UWord16 n)
{
Word16 crc = 0;
while (n--)
crc = ((crc >> 8) & 0xff) ^ CRCtable[(crc ^ *buffer++) & 0xff];
return crc;
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
The same routine is used for both CRC field computations - before the
transmission as well as after the data reception. The CRC field is
generated from the cntrl part and the data part of the packet (see 4.2.4
Packet format basics).
If the received frame is correct, the result of the CRC computation of this
packet has to be equal to the CRC field that was generated (and added
to the CRC part of the frame) during transmission.
4.6.4 FEC calculation
As mentioned in 4.2.3 Over the data operations basics, the Forward
Error Correction (FEC) technique is using added redundancy
information in order to correct the errors of transmission. During
transmission the redundancy data are calculated and added into a data
stream, while during reception this added information is used for error
detection and correction.
This reference design uses quite a straightforward method of FEC called
Linear Block Codes. In general, block codes break up the data stream
into k-bit blocks and (n-k) check (parity) bits are added to these blocks.
In the literature, it is referred as a (n, k) block code.
A FEC coder outputs a unique n-bit codeword v for each of the 2k
possible input k-bit blocks called messages u, on the other hand the FEC
decoder generates k-bit long decoded received sequence u’ for each of
the 2n possible n-bit inputs so called received sequences r. The following
Figure 4-6. Error control coding path gives a graphical explanation of
the current chapter.
Designer Reference Manual
68
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
Transmitter
u
Encoder
v
Modulator
Noise
r
u’
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Receiver
Transmission
path
Decoder
Demodulator
Discrete noisy
channel
Figure 4-6. Error control coding path
Added redundancy and therefore the quality of the used FEC technique
is defined by the expression (7, 4). It means that each codeword has 4
data bits and 3 redundant parity bits.
The minimal Hamming distance dmin (the minimal distance between two
codewords) of this configuration is dmin = 3. Knowing that dmin >= 2t + 1,
where t is the number of errors that can be corrected, the used FEC
algorithm is able to correct one bit error in a block of 7bits.
More details about this topic can be found in: 5. Lee, Charles:
“Error-control block codes for communication engineers”, Artech
House inc., 2000.
Implementation of the FEC algorithm is based on two look-up tables
placed in FECtable.c file. These tables were taken from the
http://www.tisl.ukans.edu/~paden/Reference/ECC/index.html, but
this page is probably no longer available. However, similar tables can be
found for example in above mentioned book.
•
const UWord16 FECtableCoder[16] is the look-up table
dedicated to the FEC encoder
•
const UWord16 FECtableDecoder[128] is the look-up table
of the FEC decoder
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
69
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
The following piece of code (taken from the codeMoveAndFECBuff
routine in demfsk.c) is responsible for the FEC coding:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
for (i = FRAME_PRELEN; i < length + FRAME_PRELEN; i++)
{
temp = ((pl_RxFromSCI.Array.Byte[i] >> 4) & 0x0F);
temp = FECtableCoder[temp] << 7;
temp += FECtableCoder[(pl_RxFromSCI.Array.Byte[i] & 0x0F)];
pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[i] = temp;
}
For FEC decoding the following code is used (taken from the
codePLtoSCI routine in demfsk.c):
for (i = 0; i < FRAME_TOTALLEN; i++)
// FEC Decoder
{
temp = FECtableDecoder[(pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] &
0x3F80)>>7];
pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] = (temp << 4) +
FECtableDecoder[(pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] & 0x007F)];
}
To summarize the idea, the FEC coding routine replaces the two nibbles
of data to be sent by the two 7-bit long blocks taken from the look-up
table while the FEC decoding generates two nibbles back from the 14-bit
long block.
4.6.5 Encryption / Decryption
The Encryption technique ensures the security of the transmitted data.
This PLM board software utilizes The Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA)
by David Wheeler and Roger Needham. For more information, see 6.
David Wheeler and Roger Needham: “TEA, a Tiny Encryption
Algorithm”, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, 1994,
ftp://ftp.cl.cam.ac.uk/papers/djw-rmn/djw-rmn-tea.html.
TEA is a Feistel cipher with XOR and and addition as the non-linear
mixing functions. It uses a 128-bit long encryption key (stored in
pl_TeaKey) and a 64-bit long temporary buffer called tea_IO for
calculation. This is the reason for the frame length restriction mentioned
in 4.2.4 Packet format basics.
Designer Reference Manual
70
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
The encryption/decryption implementation simply divides the whole
packet into parts 8-Bytes long, performs the encryption/decryption over
each of these parts and then forms them back to the frame.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
As an example, here is a teaEncryptBuff routine taken from the
tea.c, for the reverse decryption approach the principle is analogous:
void teaEncryptBuff(UWord16 *ptr, UWord16 roundLen)
{
UWord16 i;
UWord16 j = 1;
UWord16 *backPtr;
/* pointer for back transfer */
backPtr = ptr;
/* save a pointer */
do
{
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
/* 8bit => 16bit */
tea_IO.w[i] = *ptr++ + (*ptr++ << 8);
/* just 8bit values at *Ptr */
teaCode();
/* perform an encryption */
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
/* 16bit => 8bit */
*backPtr++ = (tea_IO.w[i] & 0x00FF);
*backPtr++ = (tea_IO.w[i] & 0xFF00) >> 8;
}
} while ( 8*j++ < roundLen);
/* the length is a multiple of 8 */
}
4.6.6 Interleaving
The sequence of transmitted bits is modified in a way shown in Figure
4-7. Interleaving technique of PL transmission. The depth of
interleaving is therefore equal to the length of the frame to be
transmitted. The de-interleaving procedure during the PL reception
phase is similar.
The interleaving algorithm is implemented directly in the
tmrfskBitISR routine (placed in tmrfsk.c, see 4.3.1 FSK modulation
for more details) just by changing the order of transmitted bits.
The de-interleaving routine is called deinterleave() and is located in
coderoutines.c.
More details about the implementation itself can be found in Figure 4-9.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
71
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
prepared data for transmission
(TxToPL buffer)
A16 ... A10 A9 A8 ... A3 A2 A1
B16 ... B10 B9 B8 ... B3 B2 B1
C16 ... C10 C9 C8 ... C3 C2 C1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
direction
for reading
X16 ... X10 X9 X8 ... X3 X2 X1
A1 B1 C1
X1A2 B2 C2
X2 A3 B3 C3
C16
X16
t
Figure 4-7. Interleaving technique of PL transmission
NOTE:
The Header part is sent in a normal linear way, there is no interleaving
used.
4.6.7 States of the PL modem
State diagram of the PLM software is shown in Figure 4-8. State
diagram of the Power Line Modem.
Abbreviations used in the figure:
•
pl_FlgModeOfModem variable -> MODE
•
demState variable -> state
•
powerline reception -> PL Rx
•
powerline transmission -> PL Tx
•
serial communication reception -> SCI Rx
•
serial communication transmission -> SCI Tx
Designer Reference Manual
72
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
MODE = 0
no operation
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
MODE = 7
PL Rx has been started
SCI data received
Rx Full IRQ enabled
otherwise
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MODE = 8
PL Rx in progress (state = 0)
waiting for F0, F1 signals
SCI data received
Rx Full IRQ enabled
MODE = 1
SCI Rx could be started
signals are present
SCI data received
Rx Full IRQ enabled
MODE = 9
PL Rx in progress (state = 1)
looking for synchro
first SCI Rx ISR occurred
MODE = 2
SCI Rx in progress
SCI Rx finished
synchro found
(either SCI Rx timeout occurred
or SCI Rx buffer is full)
MODE = 10
PL Rx in progress (state = 2)
reception in progress
MODE = 3
SCI Rx finished
whole msg received & checked
MODE = 11
PL Rx in progress (state = 3)
reception finished
data prepared
data bad
MODE = 4
PL Tx could be started
data OK
BitTmr started
first BitTmr ISR occurred
MODE = 12
SCI Tx could be started
SCI Tx Empty IRQ enabled
first SCI Tx ISR occurred
MODE = 5
PL Tx in progress
MODE = 13
SCI Tx in progress
PL Tx finished
SCI Tx finished
MODE = 6
PL / SCI Tx is finished
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
Figure 4-8. State diagram of the Power Line Modem
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
73
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
NOTE:
The left column of the state diagram describes the whole PL reception /
SCI transmission phase (see 4.6.9), the right one the SCI reception / PL
transmission part (see 4.6.8 for more details).
NOTE:
By calling the demfskStartADCRxFromPL() function style macro PL
data sampling is started and therefore the whole PL reception phase is
activated.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
4.6.8 SCI reception / PL transmission phase
As it is shown in Figure 4-8. State diagram of the Power Line Modem,
this phase is started by the SCI reception located in
scicommRxFullISR routine (pl_FlgModeOfModem = 1 and 2). The
SCI reception (data stored in pl_RxFromSCI buffer) is finished
(pl_FlgModeOfModem = 3) when:
•
the pl_RxFromSCI buffer is full
•
or if an SCI reception time out occurs by the tmrfskTimeOutISR
routine of the TimeOutTmr QTimer D3 (see the timer section in
4.5.3 Used DSP peripherals)
When SCI reception is over then a codeSCItoPL() routine (
coderoutines.c) is called. It is aimed for data preparation before the PL
transmission; specifically it performs:
– CRC calculation
– TEA Encryption (if enabled)
– FEC coding (if enabled)
– prepared data are stored in the pl_TxToPL buffer
– pl_FlgModeOfModem is set to 4
And then the PL transmission part itself can be started. It goes through
the following steps:
•
by calling the function style macro tmrfskSetTxEnable() the
output amplifier is switched on
Designer Reference Manual
74
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
•
by calling the function style macro tmrfskStartCarrierTmr()
the CarrierTmr QTimer D2 (see 4.5.3 Used DSP peripherals) is
started as the FSK carrier generator
•
delay approx. 0.8 ms
•
by the tmrfskStartBitTmr() function style macro the BitTmr
QTimer D1 (see 4.5.3) is enabled for the bit rate generation during
the PL transmission
Please notice that the interleaving is implemented in this part of the code
(as mentioned in 4.6.6).
•
tmrfskBitISR routine of the BitTmr (see 4.6.1 Modulation) is
used during the PL transmission of the pl_TxToPL data buffer
(pl_FlgModeOfModem = 5)
•
when the whole pl_TxToPL buffer is sent, transmission is
finished:
– tmrfskClearTxEnable() switches off the transmit amplifier
– tmrfskStopCarrierTmr() stops the CarrierTmr timer
– tmrfskStopBitTmr() stops the BitTmr timer
– pl_FlgModeOfModem is set to 6
– then by calling the demfskStartADCRxFromPL() function
style macro the PL data sampling (whole PL reception) is
started as shown in Figure 4-8. State diagram of the Power
Line Modem. The pl_FlgModeOfModem variable value is set
to 7.
NOTE:
A delay included before the PL transmission is necessary for the proper
data demodulation on the reception side.
NOTE:
The algorithm can be easily rewritten by the user when necessary using
the current state diagram structure. Most probably a built-in application
itself would generate the data for PL transmission, in such a case the
SCI reception routines would be omitted.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
75
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
4.6.9 PL reception / SCI transmission phase
The PL reception algorithm (pl_FlgModeOfModem in the range from 7
to 11) shown in Figure 4-8. is detailed in 4.3.2.4 State model of the PLM
FSK demodulation.
When the whole received message is stored in the demfsk_MSGBuf
buffer (pl_FlgModeOfModem = 12) the codePLtoSCI()routine is
called. It then performs:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
– de-interleaving (data are moved from the demfsk_MSGBuf
buffer to pl_RxFromPL during this operation, see 4.5.5 Main
variables of the project)
– FEC decoding (if enabled)
– TEA decryption (if enabled)
– check the length and the CRC of the received message
If there were data consistency errors the received data are then thrown
out, SCI transmission is omitted (pl_FlgModeOfModem set to 6) and PL
reception is restarted (pl_FlgModeOfModem set to 7), otherwise:
CAUTION:
•
data are moved to the pl_TxToSCI buffer
•
pl_FlgModeOfModem is set to 12, SCI Tx Empty IRQ is enabled
•
when the first SCI Tx ISR occurred pl_FlgModeOfModem is set
to 13 and the SCI transmission is in progress
•
when the whole pl_TxToSCI buffer is sent,
pl_FlgModeOfModem is set to 6 and PL reception is restarted
(pl_FlgModeOfModem is equal to 7)
During PL reception (pl_FlgModeOfModem in the range from 7 to 11)
there should not be any ISR activated (except the ADCA End of scan)
since almost all computation power is consumed by the PL
demodulation algorithm. This is the reason why there is a condition
testing of the SCI Receiver Data Register Full Flag (bit RDRF) in the
main loop (see 4.6.11 Main loop description).
Designer Reference Manual
76
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
4.6.10 Buffer details
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
In the following figure, detailed parameters of the used communication
buffers (such as ranges, options) can be found. For more information,
see also 4.5.5 Main variables of the project, 4.5.6 Communication
parameters and also 4.6.6 Interleaving.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
77
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
14 bits with FEC
8 bits
no FEC
direction of transmission
due to the interleaving
start
A1
B1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
pl_TxToPL buffer
(array of words)
16 / 24 / 32
depending on
chosen length
of the frame
PL transmission
mains
PL reception
16 / 24 / 32 depending on chosen length of the frame
B1 A1
demfsk_MSGBuf buffer (array of dwords)
8 with no
FEC chosen
14 with FEC
de-interleaving routine
14 bits with FEC
8 bits
no FEC
A1
B1
pl_RxFromPL buffer
(array of words)
16 / 24 / 32
depending on
chosen length
of the frame
Figure 4-9. Detailed information about the buffers used
Designer Reference Manual
78
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Software Module Descriptions
PLM Implementation
4.6.11 Main loop description
The flowchart of the main loop is shown in Figure 4-10.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Abbreviations in this figure are described here:
•
pl_FlgModeOfModem variable -> MODE
•
demfsk_NewFrmCounter -> Counter
•
powerline reception -> PL Rx
•
serial communication reception -> SCI Rx
start
MODE equal
to PL Rx?
yes
no
SCI Receiver
Full flag?
Counter OK
for PL Rx?
no
yes
MODE equal
to SCI Rx?
yes
Call demfskDem()
demodulation routine
yes
Stop data sampling
no
no
demfskStopADCRxFromPL
Set MODE to SCI Rx
Clear SCI Rx Full flag
Enable SCI Rx IRQ
Figure 4-10. Main loop flowchart
NOTE:
The main routine is not written according to the coding rules such as no
function calling in the interrupt service routines (ISR), short ISRs, testing
of global flags in the main loop..., etc. It has one and only one reason it is optimized for the speed and efficiency of the PL algorithm.
For example, almost all global flags are tested in respective ISRs since
there is no PL computation at that time. If these tests were done in the
main loop, it would be too time consuming during the PL reception
phase.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
79
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Software Module Descriptions
Designer Reference Manual
80
DRM035 — Rev 0
Software Module Descriptions
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Appendix A. References
1. MOTOROLA INC.: “DSP56F80x User’s Manual”, Motorola User’s
Manual, 2000, http://e-www.motorola.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
2. MOTOROLA INC.: “DSP56800 Family Manual”, Motorola Family
Manual, 2000, http://e-www.motorola.com
3. CENELEC EN 50065-1: “Signaling on low-voltage electrical
installations in the frequency range 3 kHz to 148.5 kHz”, 1991
4. IEEE Micro magazine: “A Tutorial on CRC Computations”, article
in IEEE Micro magazine, August 1988
5. Lee, Charles: “Error-control block codes for communication
engineers”, Artech House inc., 2000
6. David Wheeler and Roger Needham: “TEA, a Tiny Encryption
Algorithm”, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, 1994,
ftp://ftp.cl.cam.ac.uk/papers/djw-rmn/djw-rmn-tea.html
7. MOTOROLA INC.: “AN2262/D: Wireless HC08 Modem”, 2002
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
References
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
81
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
References
Designer Reference Manual
82
DRM035 — Rev 0
References
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Appendix B. Bill of Materials and Schematics
B.1 Contents
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This section includes:
•
PLM_5 board bill of materials - Table B-1.
•
PLM_5 board schematics
– PLM_BLOCKS - Figure B-1.
– Power Stage&Coupling- Figure B-2.
– Output Filter - Figure B-3.
– Input Stage - Figure B-4.
– Microcontroller - Figure B-5.
– RS232 Interface - Figure B-6.
– Power - Figure B-7.
Table B-1. PLM_5 board bill of materials
Part
Value
C1,C2,C4,C20
2.2uF/10V
C3
6.8nF
C13
5.6nF
C5,C9,C11,C12
10nF
C6,C8
680pF
C14
330pF
C7,C24,C31,C32,C33,C34,C35,
C37,C43,C44,C45,C46,C47,C49
100nF
C10
3.3nF
C18,C19,C36
33uF/16V
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
83
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table B-1. PLM_5 board bill of materials
C22
100pF
C23
220uF/16V
C25
100uF/16V
C26
47pF
C27
39pF
C28
220pF
C29
470nF
C30
47nF/X2
C38
4.7uF/10V
D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
LED 3mm
D7, D8
Diode P6KE10A
D9
V275LA4
D10
Diode BAV99LT1
D11, D12, D14
Diode 1N4148
F1
Fuse
JP1
Connector 2 screws
J2
Connector Cannon 9
J3
Header 10x2
J29
Header 10x2
L1, L5
Inductor 0.33mH
L2, L3, L6
Inductor 3.3mH
L4
Inductor 47uH
L102, L103, L104
Ferrite Bead
R1,R2,R8,R9,R18,R24,R27,R29,
R30,R53,R55,R56,R59,R60
10k
R4, R5
100R
R6,R7,R11,R20,R50,R54,R112
1k
R19, R12
4.7k
R16
18k
R23
33R
Designer Reference Manual
84
DRM035 — Rev 0
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
Contents
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table B-1. PLM_5 board bill of materials
R25
100k
R26
4.7R
R28
1M
R45
10M
R101
47R/4W
S1
Pushbutton
T1
Trafo 78250
U1
LF351
U4
TLE2301
U5
MAX3232ECAE
U8
MC33269DT_3.3
U20
DSP56F801FA80
U23
74AC00
Y1
Xtal 8MHz
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
85
2
1
CON/2screws/big
JP1
F1
Fuse
Power Stage&Coupling
NEUTRAL
PHASE
Power Stage
Power
NEUTRAL
PGND
PGND
PHASE
PVCC
Power
GND
TX_enable
FSK_input
VA
GND
MGND
+3.3V
GND
FSK_input
VA
Designer Reference Manual
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
+3.3V
PLM_5
OF
DATA_out
DATA_in
Microcontroller
DATA_out
GND
VA
TX_enable
DATA_in
MICRO
TXD
RS232
RXD
TXD
MGND
RXD
RS232
TX
+3.3V
RX
CON/CANNON9/90DEG/FEMALE
J2
Figure B-1. PLM_BLOCKS
Modify Date: Thursday, September 20, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
of
1
7
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
+3.3V
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: PLM_BLOCKS
A
D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
Design File Name:
Title
Output Filter
GND
FSK_output
VA
Input Stage
IS
MGND
1
6
2
7
3
8
4
9
5
86
PVCC
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
FSK_output
NEUTRAL
PHASE
V275LA4
D9
C30
47nF/X2
R28
1M
47uH
L4
6
4
DRM035 — Rev 0
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
1
2
3
P6KE10A
D8
470nF
C29
PLM_5
TLE2301
6
3
100nF
-
+
U4
9
11
14
8
C28 220pF
R25 100k
R29 10k
C20
R30 10k
2.2uF/10V
R27 10k
R24
10k
100uF/16V
GND
VA
PGND
GND
TX\_enable
FSK_output
VA
PVCC
FSK_input
Modify Date: Thursday, September 20, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
of
2
7
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
100pF
C22
R23 33
C25
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: Power Stage&Coupling
A
Design File Name: D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
Title
R26 4.7
39pF
C27
C26
47pF
1
C24
220uF/16V
16
Figure B-2. Power Stage&Coupling
T1
Tr_78250
TP1
P6KE10A
D7
C23
2
7
15
13
12
10
5
4
MOTOROLA
+
+
+
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
Contents
Designer Reference Manual
87
88
GND
FSK_output
C12 10nF
C13
5.6nF
C14
330pF
L6 3.3mH
L5
0.33mH
C11 10nF
Designer Reference Manual
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
10k
R18
PLM_5
DATA_out
Modify Date: Tuesday, October 23, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
of
4
7
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: Output Filter
A
Design File Name: D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
Title
R16 2.2k
Figure B-3. Output Filter
TP4
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
GND
FSK_input
VA
L1
0.33mH
R4 100R
C3
6.8nF
L2
3.3mH
680pF
C6
D10 BAV99LT1
C5 10nF
3.3nF
R9 10k
C10
DRM035 — Rev 0
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
2 -
3 +
PLM_5
R1 10k
6
U1
LF351
D11
1N4148
100nF
TP3
R20
1k
L3 3.3mH
D12
1N4148
10k
R19
10k
TP2
Modify Date: Thursday, October 11, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
Figure B-4. Input Stage
GND
DATA_in
+3.3V
3
7
of
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
C8
680pF
C9 10nF
R12
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: Input Stage
A
Design File Name: D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
Title
R2
10k
R8 10k
R5
100R
C4 2.2uF/10V
C7
7
1
MOTOROLA
+
4
5
VA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
Contents
Designer Reference Manual
89
90
Designer Reference Manual
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
74AC00
8
U23C
74AC00
6
S1
10
9
U23B
+3.3V
USER
+3.3V
TXD
RXD
TX\_enable
4
5
74AC00
11
U23D
74AC00
3
13
12
U23A
J29
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
2
1
+
R45 10M
Y1
+3.3V
R54 1K
8.00MHz
VDD1
VDD2
VDD3
VDD4
VSS1
VSS2
VSS3
VSS4
TDI
TDO
TCK
TRST
TMS
DE
TCS
XTAL/MPIOB2
EXTAL/MPIOB3
RESET
IRQA
TXD0/MPIOB0
RXD0/MPIOB1
MOSI/MPIOB5
MISO/MPIOB6
SCLK/MPIO4
SS/MPIOB7
DSP56F801FA80
10
20
28
42
9
19
29
43
17
23
14
24
15
12
13
22
21
25
16
8
11
6
5
7
4
PWMA0
PWMA1
PWMA2
PWMA3
PWMA4
PWMA5
100nF
C47
C1
PLM_5
+
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
AN6
AN7
2.2uF/10V
18
41
26
27
31
32
33
35
36
37
38
39
34
FLT
TD0
TD1
1
2
3
30
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
40
44
45
46
47
48
+3.3V
L104
C2
2.2uF/10V
+3.3V
FLT
AN2
AN4
AN6
GND
A0
A2
A4
TD0
MGND
DATA_in
DATA_out
GND
VA
Modify Date: Friday, September 21, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
of
5
7
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
+
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
HEADER 10X2
J3
FERRITE BEAD
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
C49 100nF
AN1
AN3
AN5
AN7
VA
A1
A3
A5
TD1
VCC
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: Microcontroller
A
Design File Name: D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
Title
VCAPC2
VCAPC1
VDDA
VSSA
AN0
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
AN6
AN7
VREF
FAULTA0
TD0/MPIOA0
TD1/MPIOA1
TD2/MPIOA2
100nF
100nF
100nF
100nF
U20
C46
C45
C44
C43
+3.3V
Figure B-5. Microcontroller
+3.3V
R60 10k
KEY
TMS
/J_TRST
VCC
C38
4.7uF/10V
R55 10k
TP5
R56 10k
JTAG Connector
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
R6 1k
R11 1k
TDO
TDI
CD_out
DATA_in
DATA_out R7 1k
TX_enable R50 1k
C37
100nF
D1
D4
D2
D3
R59 10k
R53 10K
+3.3V
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
MOTOROLA
C34 100nF
C33 100nF
Vcc
C1+
GND
V+
T1OUT
C1R1In
C2+
C2- R1OUT
T1IN
VT2OUT T2IN
R2IN R2OUT
U5
DRM035 — Rev 0
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
PLM_5
C32 100nF
Modify Date: Tuesday, October 23, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
Figure B-6. RS232 Interface
TX
RX
MGND
TXD
RXD
+3.3V
6
7
of
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: RS232
A
Design File Name: D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
Title
C35
MAX3232ECAE
100nF
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
C31 100nF
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
Contents
Designer Reference Manual
91
92
NEUTRAL
PHASE
2
1
AC
TPL 10112
AC2in
93-264VAC
AC1in
PC1
DC
12V/0.9A
NC
NC
NC
-Vout
-Vout
+Vout
6
4
3
7
5
8
Designer Reference Manual
Bill of Materials and Schematics
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
+
VOUT
1N4148
2
GC3
+
TP6 TP8
+
1k
GND
PGND
R112
Power
D5
GND
PGND
MGND
+3.3V
PVCC
Modify Date: Monday, October 01, 2001
Sheet
Copyright Motorola 2001
POPI Status:
7
7
of
General Business
Rev
0.1
MCSL Roznov
1. maje 1009
756 61 Roznov p.R., Czech Republic, Europe
TP7
Ground_Connection
GC2
C18
33uF/16V
C36
33uF/16V
Ground_Connection
FERRITE BEAD
L103
FERRITE BEAD
L102
Author: Jaromir Chocholac
Size Schematic Name: Power
A
Design File Name: D:\CCWORK\R28107_PLM_VIEW_LATEST\ICONN\PL\HW\00130_05\00130_05.DSN
PLM_5
MC33269DT_3.3
GND
VIN
Title
1
3
U8
D14
Figure B-7. Power
33uF/16V
C19
R101
47R/4W
12V
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bill of Materials and Schematics
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Appendix C. Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.1 Contents
C.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
C.3
pl.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
C.4
pl.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
C.5
tmrfsk.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
C.6
tmrfsk.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
C.7
demfsk.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
C.8
demfsk.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
C.9
coderoutines.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
C.10 coderoutines.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
C.11 scicomm.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
C.12 scicomm.h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
C.13 tea.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
C.14 tea.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
C.15 CRCtable.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
C.16 FECtable.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
C.17 demfskconst.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
C.18 appconfig.h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
C.19 linker_flash.cmd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
C.2 Introduction
This subsection is comprised of the source code used by this design
reference.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
93
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.3 pl.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: pl.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: Powerline modem main routine
*
* MODULES INCLUDED:
*
main()
*
plProjectInit()
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “arch.h”
#include “periph.h”
#include “mc.h”
#include “appconfig.h”
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
“adc.h”
“cop.h”
“gpio.h”
“itcn.h”
“qtimer.h”
“sci.h”
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
“pl.h”
“tea.h”
“scicomm.h”
“tmrfsk.h”
“demfsk.h”
“coderoutines.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void plProjectInit(void);
/******************************************************************************/
Designer Reference Manual
94
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
pl.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
// Note that structure type pl_uRxFromSCI is used for the RxFromSCI as well as
// for the TxToPL buffers
pl_uRxFromSCI
pl_RxFromSCI;
/* Buffer dedicated for SCI reception */
pl_uRxFromSCI
pl_TxToPL;
/* Buffer dedicated for Power Line transmission */
pl_uRxFromPL
pl_RxFromPL;
/* Buffer dedicated for Power Line reception */
pl_uTxToSCI
pl_TxToSCI;
/* Buffer dedicated for SCI transmission */
volatile pl_sFlags
pl_Flags;
/* contains the state and another flags
of PL modem device */
const tea_uKey
pl_TeaKey = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 };
/* Key for TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm) computation */
/* extern of SW FSK Demodulation variable taken from the demfsk.c file */
extern volatile Word16 demfsk_NewFrmCounter;
/* used as a counter in ADCEndOfScanISR */
extern UWord32 demfsk_MSGBuf[DEMFSK_MSGBUFLEN];
/* buffer of received message of FSK demodulation routine */
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void plProjectInit(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function initializes the core peripherals (static configuration
*
is taken from the appconfig.h file generated by config tool)
*
Note that some core peripheral parameters depend on the global defines
*
situated in pl.h file
*
It initialises global variables as well.
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgModeOfModem is set to STATE 0 “No operation”
*
- flag pl_FlgDataError is cleared
*
For the global data description of the demfskInit() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
PL_COPINUSE is a symbolic constant, it defined the Watch Dog is used
*
DSP56F803 is a symbolic constant, if defined the 56F803 core is used
*
DSP56F801 is a symbolic constant, if defined the 56F801 core is used
*
PL_PLBAUDRATE is a symbolic constant which controls the PL
*
communication speed
*
PL_CARRIERLOW is a symbolic constant which controls the frequecy of one
*
of PL carrier
*
PL_TIMEOUTVALUE is a symbolic constant which controls the time-out value
*
of TimeOut timer TmrD3
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
95
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
*
PL_SCIBAUDRATE is a symbolic constant which controls the SCI
*
communication speed
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void plProjectInit(void)
{
/******************************************************************************/
/* PERIPHERY INITIALIZATION
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* init COP if desired */
#ifdef PL_COPINUSE
ioctl(COP, COP_INIT, NULL);
ioctl(COP, COP_DEVICE, COP_ENABLE);
ioctl(COP, COP_CLEAR_COUNTER, NULL);
// the COP service sequence
#endif
/* Initially the COP module is disabled by startup.asm code but if there is
/* the global define
/* #define PL_COPINUSE
/* if defined the Watch Dog is used */
/* placed in the pl.h file, it finally switch the COP on */
/* init GPIO */
#ifdef DSP56F803
ioctl( GPIO_E, GPIO_INIT, NULL);
#endif
#ifdef DSP56F801
ioctl( GPIO_B, GPIO_INIT, NULL);
#endif
tmrfskClearTxEnable();
tmrfskTxDLEDOff();
tmrfskRxDLEDOff();
tmrfskCDLEDOff();
//
//
//
//
set
set
set
set
initial
initial
initial
initial
pin
pin
pin
pin
value
value
value
value
/* init ADCA */
ioctl(ADC_A, ADC_INIT, NULL);
/* init TmrC2 - TriggerTmr for ADC */
ioctl(QTIMER_C2, QT_INIT, NULL);
/* init TmrD1 - BitTmr */
ioctl( QTIMER_D1, QT_INIT, NULL );
ioctl( QTIMER_D1, QT_WRITE_COMPARE_REG1, PL_PLBAUDRATE);
/* There is no valid definition of TmrD1 Compare register 1 value in appconfig.h
/* configuration, it depends on the global define placed in the pl.h file:
/* #define PL_PLBAUDRATE
PL_10000BPS
/* choose: PL_10000BPS */
Designer Reference Manual
96
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
pl.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/* init TmrD2 - CarrierTmr */
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_INIT, NULL);
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_WRITE_COMPARE_REG1, PL_CARRIERLOW);
/* There is no valid definition of TmrD2 Compare register 1 value in appconfig.h
/* configuration, it depends on the global define placed in the pl.h file:
/* #define PL_CARRIERLOW
CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS */
/*
/*
/*
/*
/* init TmrD3 - TimeOutTmr */
ioctl(QTIMER_D3, QT_INIT, NULL);
ioctl(QTIMER_D3, QT_WRITE_COMPARE_REG1, PL_TIMEOUTVALUE);
There is a zero value of TmrD3 Compare register 1 written in appconfig.h
configuration, this register is filled according the global define
#define PL_TIMEOUTVALUE 1000
/* time out of SCI receive */
placed in the pl.h file */
/* init SCI */
ioctl( SCI_0, SCI_INIT, NULL);
ioctl( SCI_0, SCI_SET_BAUDRATE_DIV, PL_SCIBAUDRATE);
/* There is no definition for SCI baudrate value in appconfig.h configuration,
/* it depends on the global define placed in the pl.h file:
/* #define PL_SCIBAUDRATE SCI_BAUD_38400 /* choose:
SCI_BAUD_38400 */
/* not tested:
SCI_BAUD_4800
SCI_BAUD_9600
SCI_BAUD_19200 */
/* Enable Interrupts in three steps */
/* - first, set interrupt priorities in Group Priority Registers (GPR)
according to defined ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_xx in appconfig.h. */
ioctl(ITCN, ITCN_INIT_GPRS, NULL);
/* - second, in Interrupt Priority Register (IPR):
-- enable interrupt channels according to defined ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_xx
in appconfig.h
-- configure external interrupts according to defined config items
in appconfig.h */
ioctl(ITCN, ITCN_INIT_IPR, NULL);
/* - third, enable maskable interrupts in Status Register SR, bits I1 and I0 */
archEnableInt();
// Enable maskable (Level 0) interrupts
/******************************************************************************/
/* VARIABLES INITIALIZATION
*/
/******************************************************************************/
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE0; // set mode - No operation
pl_FlgDataError = 0;
// clear the flag
demfskInit();
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void main()
*
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
97
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
* Description:
*
Main routine of the PowerLine modem project
*
* Returns: None
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void main (void)
{
UWord16 temp;
plProjectInit();
// initializes the core peripherals and variables
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
// start PL data sampling (PL reception)
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE7; // set Mode of modem flag
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I M P O R T A N T
N O T E
*/
/******************************************************************************/
// This main loop is very critical because of its speed!!!
// Call demfskDem() routine as frequently as possible
while(1)
{
if ((demfsk_NewFrmCounter <= 0) && // condition for the SW FSK Demodul.
(pl_FlgModeOfModem >= STATE7) &&
// mode equal to PL reception
(pl_FlgModeOfModem <= STATE10))
demfskDem();
// call SW FSK Demodulation routine
if (ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_RX_FULL, NULL)) // SCI Rx is full
{
if ((pl_FlgModeOfModem >= STATE6) && // SCITx or PLTx is finished or
(pl_FlgModeOfModem <= STATE9))
// PLRx is started
{
// (in demState = 0 or 1)
demfskStopADCRxFromPL();
// stop PL data sampling
// (stop Rx from the PL side)
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE1; // set Mode of modem flag
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_RX_ERROR_INT, SCI_ENABLE); // enable interrupt
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_RX_FULL_INT, SCI_ENABLE);
// enable interrupt
}
else
{
if (ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_RX_FULL, NULL))
// clear flag
temp = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_READ_DATA, NULL);
if (ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_ERROR, NULL))
// clear flags
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_CLEAR_STATUS_REG, NULL);
}
Designer Reference Manual
98
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
pl.c
}
#ifdef PL_COPINUSE
ioctl(COP, COP_CLEAR_COUNTER, NULL);
#endif
// the COP service sequence
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
/* IMPORTANT NOTE:
/* Call this condition with demfskDem() routine as frequently as possible */
/*
if ((demfsk_NewFrmCounter <= 0) && // condition for the SW FSK Demodul.
(pl_FlgModeOfModem >= STATE7) &&
// mode equal to PL reception
(pl_FlgModeOfModem <= STATE10))
demfskDem();
// call SW FSK Demodulation routine
*/
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Although this condition should be placed here in main loop, it is situated
at the end of SCI Rx routine tmrfskTimeOutISR() because of the main loop
speed optimalization. */
if (pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE3)
// pl_RxFromSCI buff is full
{
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_RX_FULL_INT, SCI_DISABLE); // disable interrupt
if (ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_RX_FULL, NULL))
// clear flag
Dummy = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_READ_DATA, NULL);
codeSCItoPL();
// prepare data from SCI to PL
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE4;
// set Mode of Modem
tmrfskSetTxEnable();
// switch on the transmitter
tmrfskStartCarrierTmr();
// start generation of FSK carrier
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// Tx of the carrier before the
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// header and data part transmission
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// total 0.8ms
archDelay(0x1FFF);
tmrfskStartBitTmr();
// start FSK transmission
}
*/
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Although this condition should be placed here in main loop, it is situated
at the end of demfskDem() routine because of the main loop speed
optimalization. */
if (pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE11)
//
{
codePLtoSCI();
//
if (pl_FlgDataError == 0)
//
{
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE12;//
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_TX_EMPTY_INT,
pl_RxFromPL finished
prepare data from PL to SCI
check the data consistency
set Mode of Modem
SCI_ENABLE); // enable SCI Tx IRQ
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
99
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
}
else
{
// Bad data consistency
pl_FlgDataError = 0;
// clear flag
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE6; // set Mode of Modem
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
// start PL data sampling
// (start Rx from the PL side)
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE7; // set Mode of Modem
}
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
*/
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Although this condition should be placed here in main loop, it is situated
at the end of TxToPL and TxToSCI routines because of the main loop speed
optimalization. */
if (pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE6)
{
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE7;
// pl_TxToPL or pl_TxToSCI finished
// start PL data sampling
// (PL reception)
// set Mode of Modem
}
*/
C.4 pl.h
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
********************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: pl.h
*
* DESCRIPTION: Header file for Powerline modem main routine (pl.c)
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#ifndef _PL_H
#define _PL_H
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
Designer Reference Manual
100
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
pl.h
/******************************************************************************/
/* G L O B A L
P L
M O D E M
S T A T E
M A C H I N E
D E F I N E S */
/******************************************************************************/
// NOTE: These defines are used for the pl_FlgModeOfModem variable definition
//
state:
description of PL Modem Mode:
#define STATE0
0
/* No operation, no communication of modem */
#define STATE1
1
/* SCI reception could be started, RxFromSCI buffer */
/* is ready */
#define STATE2
2
/* SCI reception in progress */
#define STATE3
3
/* SCI reception has been finished */
#define STATE4
4
/* PL transmission could be started, TxToPL buffer */
/* is ready */
#define STATE5
5
/* PL transmission in progress */
#define STATE6
6
/* PL / SCI transmission has been finished */
#define STATE7
7
/* PL reception has been started */
#define STATE8
8
/* PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/* Demstate 0 (waiting until F0 or F1 is present) */
#define STATE9
9
/* PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/* Demstate 1 (finding synchronization pattern) */
#define STATE10
10
/* PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/* Demstate 2 (data reception) */
#define STATE11
11
/* PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
/* Demstate 3 (data reception finished) */
#define STATE12
12
/* SCI transmission could be started, TxToSCI buffer */
/* is ready */
#define STATE13
13
/* SCI transmission in progress */
/******************************************************************************/
/* G L O B A L
D E F I N E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#define PL_SCIBAUDRATE SCI_BAUD_38400 /* choose:
SCI_BAUD_38400 */
/* not tested: SCI_BAUD_4800
SCI_BAUD_9600
SCI_BAUD_19200 */
#define PL_PLBAUDRATE
TMRFSK_10000BPS /* choose:
TMRFSK_10000BPS */
#define PL_FRAMETYPE
//
//
//
//
//
SHORT
MEDIUM
LONG */
if SHORT type is used, length of the data part of packet is 13 words
if MEDIUM type is used, length of the data part of packet is 21 words
if LONG type is used, length of the data part of packet is 29 words
Note when FEC is OFF, just lower 8 bits of the word are used
ON, lower 14bits of the word carry the data
#define PL_FECTYPE
LONG
PL_1STFEC
#define PL_TEACRYPT 1
/* choose:
/* choose
PL_NOFEC
PL_1STFEC */
/* if defined perform TEA encryption */
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
101
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
#define PL_TIMEOUTVALUE 1000
/* time out of SCI receive */
/* 1000 is tested for SCI_BAUD_38400 */
//#define PL_COPINUSE
/* if defined the Watch Dog is used */
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/* Choose the carrier frequencies */
#if 0
#define PL_CARRIERLOW
CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS
#define PL_CARRIERHGH
CARRIERHGH_100KHZ10KBPS
#endif
#if 1
#define PL_CARRIERLOW
#define PL_CARRIERHGH
#endif
CARRIERLOW_115KHZ10KBPS
CARRIERHGH_105KHZ10KBPS
#if 0
#define PL_CARRIERLOW
CARRIERLOW_120KHZ10KBPS
#define PL_CARRIERHGH
CARRIERHGH_110KHZ10KBPS
#endif
/******************************************************************************/
/* D E B U G
D E F I N E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
//#define PL_NOINTERLEAVING
// if defined the PL transmission didn’t perform
// the interleaving
/* NOTE: use this define just for testing of PL transmission because it modifies
/* only the PL Tx routine, the PL reception needs the interleaving!
/******************************************************************************/
/* P R I V A T E
D E F I N E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* NOTE: when carrier is called “low” (used for log. “0”)
=> frequencies are higher and vice versa */
#define CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS
182 - 1 /* half period of 110kHz, 10kBps */
#define CARRIERHGH_100KHZ10KBPS
200 - 1 /* half period of 100kHz, 10kBps */
#define CARRIERLOW_115KHZ10KBPS
#define CARRIERHGH_105KHZ10KBPS
174 - 1 /* half period of 115kHz, 10kBps */
190 - 1 /* half period of 105kHz, 10kBps */
#define CARRIERLOW_120KHZ10KBPS
#define CARRIERHGH_110KHZ10KBPS
167 - 1 /* half period of 120kHz, 10kBps */
182 - 1 /* half period of 110kHz, 10kBps */
#define SHORT
#define MEDIUM
#define LONG
0
1
2
#define PL_NOFEC
#define PL_1STFEC
8
14
#if (PL_FECTYPE == PL_NOFEC)
#define PL_TXMASK
0x0080
Designer Reference Manual
102
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
pl.h
#else
#define PL_TXMASK
#endif
0x2000
#define PL_HEADERTXMASK
0x0080
#define FRAME_PRELEN
1
// length of pre-control part of packet [in bytes]
// 1B of header
// this is the header of the frame
#define FRAME_HEADER 0xA5
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
#define FRAME_CNTRLLEN 3
// length of the non-data part of packet [in bytes]
// 1B of length, 2B of CRC
#if (PL_FRAMETYPE == SHORT)
#define FRAME_DATALEN 13
#elif (PL_FRAMETYPE == MEDIUM)
#define FRAME_DATALEN 21
#else
#define FRAME_DATALEN 29
#endif
#define FRAME_TOTALLEN
// length of the data part of packet [in bytes]
// length of the data part of packet [in bytes]
// length of the data part of packet [in bytes]
(FRAME_DATALEN + FRAME_CNTRLLEN)
// length of the data and CNTRL part of packet
#if (PL_FECTYPE == PL_NOFEC)
#define FRAME_TOTALBITS (FRAME_TOTALLEN * 8) // total number of bits for Rx
#else
#define FRAME_TOTALBITS (FRAME_TOTALLEN * 14) // total number of bits for Rx
#endif
/******************************************************************************/
/* S T R U C T U R E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
typedef struct
// frame AS STRUCTURE of the SCI reception
// Note that this structure is used also for PL transmission
{
UWord16 Header[FRAME_PRELEN];// header
UWord16 Cntrl;
// len
UWord16 Data[FRAME_DATALEN];// data part
UWord16 CRC[2];
// 2B of CRC, low byte first
} pl_sStructRxFromSCI;
typedef struct
// frame AS ARRAY of the SCI reception
{
UWord16 Byte[FRAME_PRELEN + FRAME_DATALEN + FRAME_CNTRLLEN];
} pl_sArrayRxFromSCI;
typedef union
// complete union of the SCI reception
{
pl_sStructRxFromSCI Struct; // frame AS STRUCTURE of the SCI reception
pl_sArrayRxFromSCI Array;
// frame AS ARRAY of the SCI reception
} pl_uRxFromSCI;
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
103
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
/******************************************************************************/
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
typedef struct
//
{
UWord16 Cntrl;
//
UWord16 Data[FRAME_DATALEN];//
UWord16 CRC[2];
//
} pl_sStructRxFromPL;
frame AS STRUCTURE of the PL reception
len
data part
2B of CRC, low byte first
typedef struct
// frame AS ARRAY of the PL reception
{
UWord16 Byte[FRAME_CNTRLLEN + FRAME_DATALEN];
} pl_sArrayRxFromPL;
typedef union
// complete union of the PL reception
{
pl_sStructRxFromPL Struct; // frame AS STRUCTURE of the PL reception
pl_sArrayRxFromPL Array;
// frame AS ARRAY of the PL reception
} pl_uRxFromPL;
/******************************************************************************/
typedef struct
// frame AS STRUCTURE of the SCI transmission
{
UWord16 Cntrl;
// len
UWord16 Data[FRAME_DATALEN];// data part
} pl_sStructTxToSCI;
typedef struct
// frame AS ARRAY of the SCI transmission
{
UWord16 Byte[FRAME_CNTRLLEN + FRAME_DATALEN - 2];
// minus 2B of CRC
} pl_sArrayTxToSCI;
typedef union
// complete union of the SCI transmission
{
pl_sStructTxToSCI Struct;
// frame AS STRUCTURE of the SCI transmission
pl_sArrayTxToSCI Array;
// frame AS ARRAY of the SCI transmission
} pl_uTxToSCI;
/******************************************************************************/
typedef struct
{
UWord16 ModeOfModem : 4;
/* Mode of the modem */
/* Here are the possible states of pl_FlgModeOfModem variable */
/*
State:
Description of PL Modem Mode: */
/* STATE0
No operation, no communication of modem */
/* STATE1
SCI reception could be started, RxFromSCI buffer is ready */
/* STATE2
SCI reception in progress */
/* STATE3
SCI reception has been finished */
/* STATE4
PL transmission could be started, TxToPL buffer is ready */
/* STATE5
PL transmission in progress */
/* STATE6
PL / SCI transmission has been finished */
Designer Reference Manual
104
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
tmrfsk.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
STATE7
STATE8
STATE9
STATE10
STATE11
STATE12
STATE13
PL reception has been started */
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
Demstate 0 (waiting until F0 or F1 is present) */
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
Demstate 1 (finding synchronization pattern) */
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
Demstate 2 (data reception) */
PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in */
Demstate 3 (data reception finished) */
SCI transmission could be started, TxToSCI buff is ready */
SCI transmission in progress */
UWord16 DataError : 1; /*
/*
/*
/*
} pl_sFlags;
Data Error occured in Rx PL frame */
bad CRC code or bad data length */
0 - no error */
1 - error occured */
/******************************************************************************/
/* SHORT-CUT DEFINES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#define pl_FlgModeOfModem
pl_Flags.ModeOfModem
#define pl_FlgDataError
pl_Flags.DataError
#endif
C.5 tmrfsk.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: tmrfsk.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file consists of all timer-based routines needed for the PL
*
modem (such as FSK bit rate ISR and Timeout ISR).
*
* MODULES INCLUDED:
*
tmrfskBitISR()
*
tmrfskTimeOutISR()
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
105
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “arch.h”
#include “periph.h”
#include “appconfig.h”
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
#include “qtimer.h”
#include “gpio.h”
#include “sci.h”
#include “tmrfsk.h”
#include “demfsk.h”
#include “coderoutines.h”
#include “pl.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
extern pl_uRxFromSCI
pl_TxToPL;
/* Buffer dedicated for Power Line transmission */
extern volatile pl_sFlags pl_Flags;
/* contains the state and another
flags of PL modem device */
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void tmrfskBitISR(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function is the ISR of the Bit Timer (TmrD1). It is used during the
*
PL transmission, it generates the interrupt each bit period. After each
*
bit period it is necessary to set the proper timing values for FSK
*
carrier generation. This FSK carrier generation is done by CarrierTmr
*
(TmrD2).
*
Note that transmission consists of two steps:
*
1) Tx of HEADER part which is sent in normal (non-interleaved) way
*
2) Tx of the rest of the packet is sent using the interleaving technique
*
(when PL_NOINTERLEAVING is not defined) or without the interleaving
*
(PL_NOINTERLEAVING is defined)
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgModeOfModem - if the Mode was set to STATE4,
*
“PL transmission could be started” then it is switched
*
to STATE5 “PL transmission in progress”. When PL Tx is
*
finished, it is set to STATE6 “PL / SCI transmission
*
has been finished” and then to STATE7 “PL reception has
*
been started”
*
pl_TxToPL is a buffer to be sent
*
PL_NOINTERLEAVING is a symbolic constant, if defined the interleaving
Designer Reference Manual
106
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
tmrfsk.c
*
over the transmission is NOT performed
*
PL_TXMASK is a symbolic constant which controls the mask of the PL
*
transmission
*
PL_HEADERTXMASK is a symbolic constant which controls the mask of the PL
*
transmission of the Header
*
PL_CARRIERLOW and PL_CARRIERHGH are symbolic constants describing both
*
carrier frequencies
*
PL_FECTYPE is a symbolic constant describing the type of used FEC
*
correction
*
FRAME_TOTALLEN is a symbolic constant describing the total length of
*
the whole packet [in B] to be sent
*
FRAME_PRELEN is a symbolic constant describing the length of header
*
part of the packet
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: Only when pl_FlgModeOfModem is equal to STATE4 or STATE5, the
*
PL transmission is performed
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#pragma interrupt
void tmrfskBitISR(void)
{
static UWord16 mask;
// mask in array of transmit frame
static UWord16 index;
// index in array of transmit frame
static bool txHeader;
// Tx of header part in prograss [yes / no]
ioctl( QTIMER_D1, QT_CLEAR_FLAG, QT_COMPARE_FLAG);
#ifndef PL_NOINTERLEAVING
// PL Tx with INTERLEAVING
if ( pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE4)
// test Mode of Modem condition
{
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE5;
// set Mode of Modem
index = 0;
mask = 1;
txHeader = 1;
// send Header part now
}
if ( pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE5)
// test Mode of Modem condition
{
if (mask <= PL_TXMASK)
{
if (mask & pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[index])
// currect bit is “1”
{
if (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COMPARE_REG1, NULL) ==
PL_CARRIERLOW); // if previous value was logical “0”
{
while (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COUNTER_REG, NULL) >=
PL_CARRIERHGH - TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE);
tmrfskSetCarrierHigh(); // set logical “1” carrier
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
107
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
tmrfskTxDLEDOn();
// Set the transmit LED indication
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
else
{
// currect bit is “0”
if (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COMPARE_REG1, NULL) ==
PL_CARRIERHGH); // if previous value was logical “1”
{
while (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COUNTER_REG, NULL) >=
PL_CARRIERHGH - TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE);
tmrfskSetCarrierLow(); // set logical “0” carrier
tmrfskTxDLEDOff();
// Clear the transmit LED indication
}
}
if (txHeader == 1) // Header part (just 8bits) is beeing transmited
{
// in linear way (no interleaving)
mask <<= 1;
// movement in packet array in a row direct
if (mask > PL_HEADERTXMASK)
// check the 8bit length
{
txHeader = 0;
// Header part has been transmitted
index = FRAME_PRELEN;
mask = 1;
}
}
else
// Interleaving of the data packet part
{
// movement in packet array in a column direction
if (index == FRAME_TOTALLEN + FRAME_PRELEN - 1)
{
mask <<= 1;
index = FRAME_PRELEN;
}
else
index++;
}
}
#else
// PL Tx with NO INTERLEAVING
if ( pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE4)
{
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE5;
index = 0;
#if (PL_FECTYPE == PL_NOFEC)
mask = 1;
#else
pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[0] <<= 6;
mask = 0x40;
#endif
}
if ( pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE5)
{
// test Mode of Modem condition
// set Mode of Modem
// Mask for 8bit Header with no FEC
// right shift of Header
// Mask for 8bit Header with FEC
// test Mode of Modem condition
Designer Reference Manual
108
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
tmrfsk.c
if (index < FRAME_TOTALLEN + FRAME_PRELEN)
{
if (mask & pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[index])
{
if (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COMPARE_REG1, NULL) ==
PL_CARRIERLOW); // if previous value was logical “0”
{
while (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COUNTER_REG, NULL) >=
PL_CARRIERHGH - TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE);
tmrfskSetCarrierHigh(); // set logical “1” carrier
tmrfskTxDLEDOn();
// Set the transmit LED indication
}
}
else
{
if (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COMPARE_REG1, NULL) ==
PL_CARRIERHGH); // if previous value was logical “1”
{
while (ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_READ_COUNTER_REG, NULL) >=
PL_CARRIERHGH - TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE);
tmrfskSetCarrierLow(); // set logical “0” carrier
tmrfskTxDLEDOff(); // Clear the transmit LED indication
}
}
if (mask == PL_TXMASK)
{
mask = 1;
index++;
}
else
mask <<= 1;
}
#endif
else
{
// end of frame
tmrfskClearTxEnable(); // Disable the transmit amplifier
tmrfskStopCarrierTmr(); // Stop the carrier generation Tmr
tmrfskStopBitTmr();
// Stop the Bit period Tmr
tmrfskTxDLEDOff();
// set initial pin value
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// wait a while after the transmission
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// in order to settle the line
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE6;
// set Mode of Modem
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
// start PL data sampling
// (PL reception)
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE7;
// set Mode of Modem
}
}
}
/*******************************************************************************
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
109
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
*
* Module: void tmrfskTimeOutISR(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function is the ISR of the TimeOut Timer (TmrD3). It generates the
*
timeout to indicate that the SCI reception was stopped before fulfilling
*
the whole SCI Rx buffer. It simply gives the order to stop the SCI
*
reception and start the PL transmission part.
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgModeOfModem - the Mode is inicially set to STATE3,
*
“SCI reception has been finished” but after the
*
codeSCItoPL() routine the data for PL transmission is
*
ready so it switches to STATE4 “PL transmission could
*
be started”.
*
For the global data description of the codeSCItoPL() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#pragma interrupt
void tmrfskTimeOutISR(void)
{
UWord16 temp;
archPushAllRegisters();
ioctl( QTIMER_D3, QT_CLEAR_FLAG, QT_COMPARE_FLAG);
// clear the flag
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE3;
// set Mode of Modem
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_RX_FULL_INT, SCI_DISABLE); // disable interrupt
if (ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_RX_FULL, NULL))
// clear flag
temp = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_READ_DATA, NULL);
codeSCItoPL();
// prepare data from SCI to PL
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE4;
// set Mode of Modem
tmrfskSetTxEnable();
// switch on the transmitter
tmrfskStartCarrierTmr();
// start generation of FSK carrier
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// Tx of the carrier before
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// the header and data part transmission
archDelay(0x1FFF);
// total 0.8ms
archDelay(0x1FFF);
tmrfskStartBitTmr();
// start FSK transmission
archPopAllRegisters();
}
Designer Reference Manual
110
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
tmrfsk.h
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.6 tmrfsk.h
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: tmrfsk.h
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file consists of all timer-based macro defines needed for
*
the PL modem. It also incorporates the GPIO-based macro defines.
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#ifndef _TMRFSK_H
#define _TMRFSK_H
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “arch.h”
#include “periph.h”
#include “qtimer.h”
#include “gpio.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void tmrfskBitISR(void);
void tmrfskTimeOutISR(void);
/******************************************************************************/
/* PL Transmission And Baudrate Speed Defines
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#define TMRFSK_10000BPS
4000 - 1
/* 10000pbs */
#define TMRFSK_19200BPS
2084 - 1
/* 19200pbs */
#define TMRFSK_SAFETYRESERVE
30
/******************************************************************************/
/* GPIO Mapping Defines
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#define TXENABLE 0x0010 /* bit No. 4 transmission disabled / enabled pin */
#define TXD
0x0020 /* bit No. 5 transmission data pin */
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
111
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
#define RXD
#define CD
0x0040
0x0080
/* bit No. 6
/* bit No. 7
reception data pin */
carrier detection pin */
/******************************************************************************/
/*
M A C R O S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* Timer D1 section */
#define tmrfskStartBitTmr()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D1, QT_WRITE_COUNTER_REG, 0);
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D1, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_COUNT_RISING_EDGES_MODE)
/* clear and start the Bit Timing Tmr [D1] */
#define tmrfskStopBitTmr() \
ioctl(QTIMER_D1, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_NO_OPERATION)
/* stop the Bit Timing Tmr [D1] */
/* Timer D2 section */
#define tmrfskSetCarrierHigh()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_WRITE_COMPARE_REG1, PL_CARRIERHGH)
// switch tmr D2 oscillation to High transmit frequency */
#define tmrfskSetCarrierLow()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_WRITE_COMPARE_REG1, PL_CARRIERLOW)
/* switch tmr D2 oscillation to Low transmit frequency */
#define tmrfskStartCarrierTmr()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_WRITE_COUNTER_REG, 0);
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_COUNT_RISING_EDGES_MODE)
/* clear and start the Carrier Timing Tmr [D2] */
#define tmrfskStopCarrierTmr() \
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_NO_OPERATION);
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_FORCE_OFLAG, 0);
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D2, QT_EXT_OFLAG_FORCE, QT_ENABLE)
/* stop the Carrier Timing Tmr [D2], force the OFLAG bit to be logic. “0” */
/* Timer D3 section */
#define tmrfskStartTimeOutTmr()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D3, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_COUNT_RISING_EDGES_MODE)
/* start the Time Out Timer [D3] */
#define tmrfskStopTimeOutTmr()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D3, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_NO_OPERATION);
\
ioctl(QTIMER_D3, QT_WRITE_COUNTER_REG, 0x0000)
/* stop the Time Out Timer [D3] and write a start value into */
#define tmrfskClearTimeOutTmr() ioctl(QTIMER_D3, QT_WRITE_COUNTER_REG, 0x0000)
/* set TimeOut Tmr to a start value [D3] */
/* GPIO section */
#ifdef DSP56F803
/* Note that TxEnable output pin control the function of the modem
/* If the PowerLine modem should:
/*
perform a transmission then pin TxENABLE is cleared and the indication
/*
LED is switched on
/*
not perform a transmission then pin TxENABLE is set and the indication
/*
LED is switched off
Designer Reference Manual
112
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
tmrfsk.h
/* See that signal TxEnable is inverted; to enable it has to be cleared
/* and vice versa */
#define tmrfskSetTxEnable()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, TXENABLE)
#define tmrfskClearTxEnable()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_SET_PIN, TXENABLE)
/* Note that TxD output pin is only for signalization
/* If the PowerLine modem transmission data value (Tx) is:
/*
logical “1” then pin TxD is cleared to 0 and LED is switched on
/*
logical “0” then pin TxD is set to 1 and LED is switched off */
#define tmrfskTxDLEDOn()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, TXD)
#define tmrfskTxDLEDOff()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_SET_PIN, TXD)
/* Note that RxD output pin is only for signalization
/* If the PowerLine modem reception data value (Rx) is:
/*
logical “1” then pin RxD is cleared to 0 and LED is switched on
/*
logical “0” then pin RxD is set to 1 and LED is switched off */
#define tmrfskRxDLEDOn()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, RXD)
#define tmrfskRxDLEDOff()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_SET_PIN, RXD)
/* Note that CD output pin is only for signalization
/* If the PowerLine modem reception is:
/*
processing then pin CD is cleared to 0 and LED is switched on
/*
not processing then pin CD is set to 1 and LED is switched off */
#define tmrfskCDLEDOn()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, CD)
#define tmrfskCDLEDOff()
ioctl(GPIO_E, GPIO_SET_PIN, CD)
#endif
#ifdef DSP56F801
/* Note that TxEnable output pin control the function of the modem
/* If the PowerLine modem should:
/*
perform a transmission then pin TxENABLE is cleared and the indication
/*
LED is switched on
/*
not perform a transmission then pin TxENABLE is set and the indication
/*
LED is switched off
/* See that signal TxEnable is inverted; to enable it has to be cleared
/* and vice versa */
#define tmrfskSetTxEnable()
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, TXENABLE)
#define tmrfskClearTxEnable()
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_SET_PIN, TXENABLE)
/* Note that TxD output pin is only for signalization
/* If the PowerLine modem transmission data value (Tx) is:
/*
logical “1” then pin TxD is cleared to 0 and LED is switched on
/*
logical “0” then pin TxD is set to 1 and LED is switched off */
#define tmrfskTxDLEDOn()
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, TXD)
#define tmrfskTxDLEDOff()
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_SET_PIN, TXD)
/* Note that RxD output pin is only for signalization
/* If the PowerLine modem reception data value (Rx) is:
/*
logical “1” then pin RxD is cleared to 0 and LED is switched on
/*
logical “0” then pin RxD is set to 1 and LED is switched off */
#define tmrfskRxDLEDOn()
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, RXD)
#define tmrfskRxDLEDOff()
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_SET_PIN, RXD)
/* Note that CD output pin is only for signalization
/* If the PowerLine modem reception is:
/*
processing then pin CD is cleared to 0 and LED is switched on
/*
not processing then pin CD is set to 1 and LED is switched off */
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
113
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
#define tmrfskCDLEDOn()
#define tmrfskCDLEDOff()
#endif
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_CLEAR_PIN, CD)
ioctl(GPIO_B, GPIO_SET_PIN, CD)
#endif
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.7 demfsk.c
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
********************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: demfsk.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: Source file for the SW FSK demodulator
*
* MODULES INCLUDED:
*
demfskInit()
*
demfskDem()
*
demfskEndOfScanISR()
*
calcDTFT()
*
slidAverage()
*
numOnes()
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “arch.h”
#include “periph.h”
#include “appconfig.h”
#include
#include
#include
#include
“qtimer.h”
“gpio.h”
“adc.h”
“sci.h”
#include
#include
#include
#include
“demfsk.h”
“tmrfsk.h”
“coderoutines.h”
“pl.h”
#undef add
Designer Reference Manual
114
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
#undef sub
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
asm Word16 calcDTFT(Word16 *pCoeff);
asm void slidAverage(Word16 *Si, Word16 lambi, Word16 f);
UWord16 numOnes(UWord32 tempVar);
/******************************************************************************/
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
volatile Word16 demfsk_NewFrmCounter;
/* used as a counter in ADCEndOfScanISR */
UWord32 demfsk_MSGBuf[DEMFSK_MSGBUFLEN];
/* buffer of received message of FSK demodulation routine */
extern volatile pl_sFlags pl_Flags;
/* contains the state and another
flags of PL modem device */
/******************************************************************************/
/*
LOOK-UP TABLE GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
extern const Word16 K100[2*DEMFSK_FRAMELEN]; // FSK demodulator const of 100kHz
extern const Word16 K105[2*DEMFSK_FRAMELEN]; // FSK demodulator const of 105kHz
extern const Word16 K110[2*DEMFSK_FRAMELEN]; // FSK demodulator const of 110kHz
extern const Word16 K115[2*DEMFSK_FRAMELEN]; // FSK demodulator const of 115kHz
extern const Word16 K120[2*DEMFSK_FRAMELEN]; // FSK demodulator const of 120kHz
/******************************************************************************/
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES OF THE FILE
*/
/******************************************************************************/
Word16 SA;
/* long-term sliding average of (F0+F1) */
Word16 SB;
/* short-term sliding average of (F0+F1) */
Word16 lambA;
/* forgetting factor (for long-term) */
Word16 lambB;
/* forgetting factor (for short-term) */
UWord16 demState;
/* state of demodulation process */
volatile UWord16 jj;
/* step [17 16 17] variable for proper
demfsk_NewFrmCounter computation */
UWord16 *pidx;
/* pointer to the subbit where the synchronization
pattern was detected */
UWord16 eachThird;
/* help counter variable since 1bit of message is
derived from 3 subsequent frames (subbits) */
UWord32 last24SubBits;
/* last 24 received subbits, LSB is the newest one
it is used for header pattern synchronization */
Word16 xBuf[XBUFLENGTH];
/* circular buffer of input samples from ADC, xBuf
base address must be multiple of 2^k, defined in
linker command file */
UWord16 bBuf[BBUFLENGTH];
/* circular buffer of decoded subbits from frames
calculations, bBuf base address must be multiple
of 2^k, defined in linker command file */
Word16 *pxBuf;
/* pointer to the xBuf buffer used when sample (read
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
115
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
UWord16 *pbBuf;
Word16 *pK0Base;
Word16 *pK1Base;
Word16 *pInFrame;
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Word16 *prevSample;
UWord32 *pMSGBuf;
from ADC) is stored to xBuf */
/* pointer to the bBuf buffer */
/* base address of the e ^ (-j * Omega0 * n)
coefficients */
/* base address of the e ^ (-j * Omega1 * n)
coefficients */
/* pointer (reading data pointer for DTFT
calculations) to the sample buffer xBuf
(modulo in xBuf!!) */
/* previous input sample */
/* pointer to the MSGBuf buffer */
/*******************************************************************************
* Module:
void demfskInit(void)
*
* Description: Initialization of FSK demodulation
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
SA - set initial value to long-term sliding average of (F0+F1)
*
SB - set initial value to short-term sliding average of (F0+F1)
*
lambA - set const. value to forgetting factor (for long-term average)
*
lambB - set const. value to forgetting factor (for short-term average)
*
*pbBuf - pointer is set to the bBuf (circular buffer of decoded subbits
*
from frames calculations)
*
*pxBuf - pointer (pointer for saving the ADC samples) is set to the xBuf
*
(circular buffer of samples read from ADC)
*
*pInFrame - pointer (reading data pointer for DTFT calculations) is
*
initially set near the xBuf (circular buffer of samples read from
*
ADC) buffer end
*
*pMSGBuf - pointer is set to the demfsk_MSGBuf (buffer of received
*
message of FSK demodulation routine)
*
demState - state of demodulation process is set to 0
*
last24SubBits - last 24 received subbits is cleared
*
jj - step [17 16 17] variable is cleared
*
demfsk_NewFrmCounter - a counter in ADCEndOfScanISR is cleared
*
*pK0Base - set base address of the e ^ (-j * Omega0 * n) coefficients
*
*pK1Base - set base address of the e ^ (-j * Omega1 * n) coefficients
*
K100[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] - array of FSK dem. coefficients for 100kHz
*
K105[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] - array of FSK dem. coefficients for 105kHz
*
K110[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] - array of FSK dem. coefficients for 110kHz
*
K115[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] - array of FSK dem. coefficients for 115kHz
*
K120[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] - array of FSK dem. coefficients for 120kHz
*
PL_CARRIERLOW and PL_CARRIERHGH are symbolic constants describing both
*
carrier frequencies
*
CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS, CARRIERLOW_115KHZ10KBPS,
*
CARRIERLOW_120KHZ10KBPS, CARRIERHGH_100KHZ10KBPS,
*
CARRIERHGH_105KHZ10KBPS and CARRIERHGH_110KHZ10KBPS are symbolic
*
constants describing each carrier frequency in term of number
*
Designer Reference Manual
116
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void demfskInit(void)
{
SA
= FRAC16(0.002);
SB
= FRAC16(0.0004);
lambA
= FRAC16(1.0 - 0.01);
lambB
= FRAC16(1.0 - 0.2);
pbBuf
= bBuf;
pxBuf
= xBuf;
pInFrame
= xBuf + XBUFLENGTH - 33;
pMSGBuf
= demfsk_MSGBuf;
demState
= 0;
last24SubBits = 0;
jj
= 1;
demfsk_NewFrmCounter = 17;
#if (PL_CARRIERLOW == CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS) // set FSK Dem. frequencies
pK0Base
= (Word16 *) K110;
// for F0 calculation
#elif (PL_CARRIERLOW == CARRIERLOW_115KHZ10KBPS)
pK0Base
= (Word16 *) K115;
#elif (PL_CARRIERLOW == CARRIERLOW_120KHZ10KBPS)
pK0Base
= (Word16 *) K120;
#endif
#if (PL_CARRIERHGH == CARRIERHGH_100KHZ10KBPS) // set FSK Dem. frequencies
pK1Base
= (Word16 *) K100;
// for F1 calculation
#elif (PL_CARRIERHGH == CARRIERHGH_105KHZ10KBPS)
pK1Base
= (Word16 *) K105;
#elif (PL_CARRIERHGH == CARRIERHGH_110KHZ10KBPS)
pK1Base
= (Word16 *) K110;
#endif
}
/*******************************************************************************
* Module:
void demfskDem(void)
*
* Description: This function performs the FSK demodulation routine. It
*
processes one frame of data samples saved in xBuf and perform the DTFT
*
(Discrete time Fourier transformation) calculation over them.
*
It determines if samples contain the valid PL data or not. There are
*
four possible states of the PL reception stored in demState variable:
*
= 0 : waiting state until F0 or F1 frequency components is present
*
= 1 : F0 or F1 present, finding the synchronization pattern state
*
= 2 : synchronization pattern was found, data reception state
*
= 3 : whole message received and saved; demState value is cleared
*
immediately to 0 so this state is not treated by switch
*
condition.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
117
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
*
The resulting message is stored to demfsk_MSGBuf variable.
*
Note that 1 bit value is calculated from 3 subsequent frames, so lets
*
call the demodulation result coming from one frame “subbit”.
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgModeOfModem - there are 5 possible modes of PL
*
reception: (Note that these modes are controled by the
*
demState variable described above)
*
STATE7 - PL reception has been started
*
STATE8 - PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in
*
Demstate 0 (waiting until F0 or F1 is present)
*
STATE9 - PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in
*
Demstate 1 (finding synchronization pattern)
*
STATE10- PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in
*
Demstate 2 (data reception)
*
STATE11- PL reception in progress, FSK demodulation in
*
Demstate 3 (data reception finished)
*
- flag pl_FlgDataError (modified by codePLtoSCI() routine) is
*
checked and if set it is cleared
*
demfsk_NewFrmCounter - a counter in ADCEndOfScanISR set either to 16 or
*
17. This demfskDem() routine is called when this variable is equal
*
to 0 (the frame is ready for computation) since it is decremented
*
each time the ADCEndOfScanISR routine is performed.
*
jj - step [17 16 17] variable for proper demfsk_NewFrmCounter settings
*
*pK0Base - base address of the e ^ (-j * Omega0 * n) coefficients
*
*pK1Base - base address of the e ^ (-j * Omega1 * n) coefficients
*
last24SubBits - each calculated subbit is stored into this variable,
*
which is used for the header pattern synchronization
*
*pbBuf - each calculated subbit is stored into bBuf (circular buffer
*
of decoded subbits from frames calculations)
*
SA - updated long-term sliding average of (F0+F1) is stored here
*
SB - updated short-term sliding average of (F0+F1) is stored here
*
lambA - constant value of forgetting factor (for long-term average)
*
lambB - constant value of forgetting factor (for short-term average)
*
demState - state of demodulation process as described above
*
*pidx - pointer is set to the subbit where the synchronization pattern
*
was detected
*
demfsk_MSGBuf[DEMFSK_MSGBUFLEN] - is a buffer of received message of
*
the FSK demodulation routine
*
*pMSGBuf - pointer to the demfsk_MSGBuf (buffer of received message)
*
eachThird - help counter variable since 1bit of message is derived from
*
3 subsequent frames (subbits)
*
*pInFrame - data reading pointer in xBuf for DTFT calculations
*
For the global data description of the codePLtoSCI() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE - a symbolic constant describing the multiple of SA
*
sliding average for comparison if (SB < 2^(DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) * SA)
*
BBUFLENGTH - a symbolic constant describing the length of the bBuf
*
DEMFSK_SYNCPATTERN is a symbolic constant describing the synchronization
Designer Reference Manual
118
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
*
pattern
*
FRAME_TOTALLEN - a symbolic constant describing the total length [in B]
*
of transmitted interleaved packet. The numBitsMSGBufDWord variable
*
(counter of bits in one 32 bit long word) uses this constant
*
FRAME_TOTALBITS - a symbolic constant describing the data length [in
*
bits] of transmitted packet. The numBitsReceived variable (counter
*
of received bits of message) is compared with this value and if it
*
is equal, the reception is finished
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
******************************************************************************/
void demfskDem(void)
{
volatile UWord16 tempBit111; // bit value result calculated from 3
// subsequent frames (subbits)
static UWord16 minSync;
// minimal number of errors in comparison with Header Sync pattern
static UWord16 demCount;
// used as a counter of frames as soon as F0 or F1 appeared
static UWord16 numBitsReceived;
// counter of received bits of message
static UWord16 numBitsMSGBufDWord;
// counter of bits in one 32 bit long word of the MSGBuff since the
// number of bits saved in 1 Dword depends on the data length [in B] of
// transmitted interleaved packet
Word16 f0, f1;
// f0 determines the level of frequency 0 component in sampled signal
// f1 determines the level of frequency 1 component in sampled signal
UWord16 actualSync;
// actual number of errors in comparison with the Header Sync pattern
demfsk_NewFrmCounter = 16; // set the condition for next FSK Dem calling
if (jj & 1)
// it is called in the way [17, 16, 17]
{
demfsk_NewFrmCounter++;
}
/* f0 and f1 calculation, saturation mode must be off */
f0 = calcDTFT(pK0Base);
f1 = calcDTFT(pK1Base);
/* f0, f1 comparison and store decoded bit to bBuf buffer */
last24SubBits <<= 1;
last24SubBits &= 0x00FFFFFF;
if (f1 > f0)
{
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
119
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
*pbBuf = 1;
last24SubBits |= 1;
// save subbit value to bBuf
// save subbit value to last24SubBits
}
else
{
*pbBuf = 0;
}
pbBuf++;
// modulo addressed buffer
if (pbBuf >= bBuf + BBUFLENGTH)
// modulo addressing
pbBuf = bBuf;
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
asm {
move
add
asr
rnd
move
}
f1,a
f0,a
a
a
a,f0
/* calculation f0 += f1; */
/* saturation mode must be off */
slidAverage(&SB, lambB, f0);
// short-term sliding average calcul
if (((SB >> DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) < SA) && (demState != 2))
// if (SB < 2^(DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) * SA)
{
slidAverage(&SA, lambA, f0);
// long-term sliding average calcul
}
switch (demState)
{
case 0: /* wait state until f0 or f1 is present */
{
if ((SB >> DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) > SA)
// if (SB > 2^(DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) * SA)
{
demState = 1;
minSync = 24;
demCount = 0;
}
break;
}
case 1: /* f0 or f1 is present, find synchronization pattern state */
{
demCount++;
actualSync = numOnes(last24SubBits ^ DEMFSK_SYNCPATTERN);
// correlation with the synchronization header pattern
if (actualSync < minSync)
{
minSync = actualSync;
pidx = pbBuf;
}
// low f0 or f1 level
if ((SB >> DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) < SA)
Designer Reference Manual
120
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
// if (SB < 2^(DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) * SA)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
{
}
demState = 0;
}
if (demCount == 72)
// stop looking for the Sync header pattern
{
if (minSync < 8)
// the Sync header pattern was found
{
pMSGBuf = demfsk_MSGBuf;
demState = 2;
eachThird = 1;
demCount = 0;
numBitsReceived = 0;
numBitsMSGBufDWord = FRAME_TOTALLEN;
// set counter
(*pMSGBuf) = 0; // clears the MSGBuf
}
else
// the Sync header pattern was not found
{
demState = 0;
// start from the demodulation state 0 again
}
}
break;
// end case 1
case 2: /* synchronization pattern was found, data reception state */
{
if (eachThird == 3)
// 3 frames (subbits) carry just 1 bit info
{
numBitsReceived++;
eachThird = 1;
asm { /* calculate tempBit111 = *(pidx) + *(pidx+1) + *(pidx+2);
pidx += 3; */
move
m01,r1
/* store value of m01 */
move
pidx,r0
/* r0 - address of actual bit */
move
#BBUFLENGTH-1,m01
/* r0-modulo addressing in bBuf,
bBuf address must be multiple of 2^k */
nop
move
x:(r0)+,a
/* a - *pidx */
move
x:(r0)+,x0
/* x0 - *(pidx + 1) */
add
x0,a
x:(r0)+,x0
add
x0,a
/* a - *pidx+*(pidx+1)+*(pidx+2) */
move
r0,pidx
/* store updated pidx pointer */
move
a,tempBit111
/* store result */
move
r1,m01
/* restore value of m01 */
nop
/* due to pipelining */
}
(*pMSGBuf) <<= 1;
if (tempBit111 > 1)
{
// MSG result buffer
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
121
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
(*pMSGBuf) |= 1;
tmrfskRxDLEDOn();
// write a bit value into Dword MSG
// RxD LED control
tmrfskRxDLEDOff();
// RxD LED control
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
else
numBitsMSGBufDWord--;
if (!numBitsMSGBufDWord) // Dword of MSGBuf is full (received)
{
numBitsMSGBufDWord = FRAME_TOTALLEN;
// set counter
pMSGBuf++;
// next Dword of MSGBuf is empty
(*pMSGBuf) = 0;
// clears the MSGBuf
}
}
else
{
eachThird += 1;
}
}
if (numBitsReceived == FRAME_TOTALBITS) // whole message received
{
demfskStopADCRxFromPL();
// stop PL data sampling
// (stop Rx from the PL side)
demState = 3;
// whole message received
}
if (((SB >> DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) < SA) &&
(numBitsReceived < FRAME_TOTALBITS / 4))
{
// if noise detected (F0 or F1 is not present now)
demCount++;
if (demCount > 5)
{
// if noise detected (F0 or F1 was not 5 times present)
demState = 0;
}
}
break;
} // end case 2
// end switch
asm {
/* Update pointer pInFrame
move
m01,r1
/*
move
pInFrame,r0
/*
move
#16,n
move
#XBUFLENGTH-1,m01
/*
/*
bftstl #0x1,jj
/*
bcs
__NO17
/*
lea
(r0)+
/*
/*
__NO17:
lea
(r0)+n
/*
move
r0,pInFrame
/*
[17 16 17] using modulo arithmetic */
store value of m01 */
r0 - address of input frame */
r0 - modulo addressing in xBuf, xBuf */
address must be multiple of 2^k */
if (jj & 1)
*/
{
*/
pInFrame++; */
}
*/
pInFrame += 16; */
store updated pInFrame pointer */
Designer Reference Manual
122
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
move
nop
r1,m01
/* restore value of m01 */
/* due to pipelining */
}
jj++;
if (jj & 4)
{
jj = 1;
}
// jj is from the range < 1,3 >
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
pl_FlgModeOfModem = demState + 8;
if (demState == 3)
{
demState = 0;
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE11;
// set Mode of modem flag
// whole message received
// set Mode of modem flag
codePLtoSCI();
//
if (pl_FlgDataError == 0)
//
{
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE12;//
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_TX_EMPTY_INT,
}
else
//
{
pl_FlgDataError = 0;
//
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE6; //
demfskInit();
//
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
//
//
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE7; //
}
prepare data from PL to SCI
check the data consistency
set Mode of Modem
SCI_ENABLE); // enable SCI Tx IRQ
Bad data consistency
clear flag
set Mode of Modem
reinitialise FSK demodulator
start PL data sampling
(start Rx from the PL side)
set Mode of Modem
}
if (demState == 0)
{
tmrfskCDLEDOff();
tmrfskRxDLEDOff();
}
else
tmrfskCDLEDOn();
// PL reception LED signalization
// CD LED control
// RxD LED control
// CD LED control
}
/******************************************************************************
* Module:
demfskEndOfScanISR()
*
* Description: ADC A End of Scan ISR (Interrupt Service Routine)
*
First version:
*
- reads sample from ADC A and stores it in circular xBuf buffer
*
Second version:
*
- adds highpass filter saved value y(n) equal to actual sample
*
x(n) minus the previous sample x(n-1)
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
123
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
addrPXBUF - symbolic constant, address of pxBuf pointer
*
addrNEWFRMCOUNTER - symbolic constant, address of the
*
demfsk_NewFrmCounter variable
*
addrPREVSAMPLE - symbolic constant, address of prevSample variable
*
XBUFLENGTH - symbolic constant, length of xBuf (circular buffer of
*
input samples read from ADC)
*
* Arguments:
None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
******************************************************************************/
asm void demfskEndOfScanISR(void)
{
#if 1 /* version without highpass filter */
lea
(sp)+
/* saving registers */
move
y0,x:(sp)+
/* saving registers */
move
r0,x:(sp)+
/* saving registers */
move
m01,x:(sp)
/* saving registers */
move
move
move
move
move
x:<addrPXBUF,r0
#XBUFLENGTH-1,m01
x:0x0e89,y0
y0,x:(r0)+
r0,x:<addrPXBUF
decw
x:<addrNEWFRMCOUNTER
bfset
#0x800,x:0x0e86
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
r0 - pointer to xBuf buffer, “moves pxBuf,r0” */
modulo addressing */
y0 - input sample, &ArchIO.AdcA.ResultReg[0] */
input sample to xBuf buffer */
store pointer to xBuf, “move r0,pxBuf” */
/* decw demfsk_NewFrmCounter */
/* a counter in ADCEndOfScanISR */
/* clear EOSI flag, &ArchIO.AdcA.Control1Reg */
move
x:(sp)-,m01
/* restoring registers */
move
x:(sp)-,r0
/* restoring registers */
move
x:(sp)-,y0
/* restoring registers */
rti
#else
/* version with added highpass filter y(n) = x(n)-x(n-1) */
lea
(sp)+
/* saving registers */
move
y0,x:(sp)+
/* saving registers */
move
r0,x:(sp)+
/* saving registers */
move
m01,x:(sp)
/* saving registers */
move
x:<addrPXBUF,r0
move
#XBUFLENGTH-1,m01
/* r0 - pointer to xBuf buffer,
“moves pxBuf,r0” */
/* modulo addressing */
Designer Reference Manual
124
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
move
sub
move
move
move
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
move
x:0x0e89,y0
/* y0 - input sample,
&ArchIO.AdcA.ResultReg[0] */
x:<addrPREVSAMPLE,y0
/* y0 - actual sample - previous sample,
“sub
prevSample,y0” */
y0,x:(r0)+
/* input sample to xBuf buffer */
r0,x:<addrPXBUF
/* store pointer to xBuf, “move r0,pxBuf” */
x:0x0e89,y0
/* y0 - input sample,
&ArchIO.AdcA.ResultReg[0] */
y0,x:<addrPREVSAMPLE
/* store actual sample,
“move y0,prevSample” */
decw
x:<addrNEWFRMCOUNTER
bfset
#0x800,x:0x0e86
/* clear EOSI flag, &ArchIO.AdcA.Control1Reg */
x:(sp)-,m01
x:(sp)-,r0
x:(sp)-,y0
/* restoring registers */
/* restoring registers */
/* restoring registers */
move
move
move
rti
#endif
}
/* decw demfsk_NewFrmCounter */
/* a counter in ADCEndOfScanISR */
/******************************************************************************
* Module: asm Word16 calcDTFT(Word16 *pCoeff)
*
* Description: Calculation of DTFT coefficient Fi (i = 0,1):
*
abs(Fi)^2 =
*
= ( sum{Input(n)*CoeffReal(n)/(2^DEMFSK_FSCALE)}^2
*
+ sum{Input(n)*CoeffImag(n)/(2^DEMFSK_FSCALE)}^2 ) / 2
*
for n = 0 to 49.
*
* Returns:
*
Function returns abs(Fi)^2
*
* Global Data:
*
*pInFrame - pointer (reading data pointer for DTFT calculations) to
*
the sample buffer xBuf (modulo in xBuf!!)
*
XBUFLENGTH - symbolic constant, length of xBuf (circular buffer of
*
input samples read from ADC)
*
DEMFSK_FRAMELEN - symbolic constant, length of frame [in samples]
*
DEMFSK_FSCALE
- symbolic constant, scaling factor
*
* Arguments:
*
pCoeff - pointer to table of coefficients, coefficients must be in the
*
order: real0, imag0, real1, imag1...
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: saturation mode must be off
*
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
125
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
* Others: - buffer of input samples should be in internal data RAM memory
*
- tables of coefficients should be in XFlash data memory area (56F801
*
source or FLASH target in 56F803 source) or in internal RAM data
*
memory area (RAM target in 56F803 source)
******************************************************************************/
asm Word16 calcDTFT(Word16 *pCoeff)
{
move
m01,r1
/* store value of m01 */
move
pInFrame,r0
/* r0 - address of input samples */
move
#XBUFLENGTH-1,m01
/* r0 - modulo addressing in xBuf,
xBuf address must be multiple of 2^k */
move
r2,r3
/* r3 - address of coefficients */
/* calculation of real and imag part of F0, no pipeline dependency */
clr
a
x:(r0)+,y1 /* a - real part of F0, y1 - input sample */
clr
b
x:(r3)+,x0 /* b - imag part of F0,
x0 - real part of coeff. */
do
#DEMFSK_FRAMELEN,__END
mac
x0,y1,a
x:(r3)+,x0 /* x0 - imag. part of coeff. */
mac
x0,y1,b
x:(r0)+,y1 x:(r3)+,x0 /* y1 - input sample,
x0 - real part of coeff. */
__END:
do
asr
asr
__END1:
rnd
move
mpy
rnd
move
mac
asr
rnd
move
move
rts
#DEMFSK_FSCALE,__END1
a
b
a
a,y0
y0,y0,a
b
b,y0
y0,y0,a
a
a
a,y0
r1,m01
/* scaling */
/* a - a / 2 ^ DEMFSK_FSCALE */
/* b - b / 2 ^ DEMFSK_FSCALE */
/* a - (real part of F0)^2 */
/* a - (real part + imag part of F0)^2 */
/* a - a/2, scaling */
/* the return value to y0 */
/* restore value of m01 */
}
/******************************************************************************
* Module: asm void slidAverage(Word16 *Si, Word16 lambi, Word16 f)
*
* Description: Calculation of Si (i = A,B): Si = lambi*Si + (1-lambi)*f
*
* Returns: Result is returned in Si
*
* Global Data: None
*
* Arguments:
Designer Reference Manual
126
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
demfsk.c
*
*Si - pointer to Si (SA or SB) sliding average
*
lambi - forgetting factor lambA or lambB
*
f - new value for sliding average calculation
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
******************************************************************************/
asm void slidAverage(Word16 *Si, Word16 lambi, Word16 f)
{
/* r2 - Si, y0 - lambi, y1 - f */
move
x:(r2),x0
/* x0 - Si */
mpy
y0,x0,a
/* a - lambi*Si */
add
#-32768,y0
/* y0 - (-1 + lambi) */
macr
-y1,y0,a
move
a,x:(r2)
/* store result */
rts
}
/******************************************************************************
* Module: UWord16 numOnes(UWord32 tempVar)
*
* Description: Function returns the number of ones in lower 24 bits of parameter
*
tempVar.
*
* Returns: Number of ones in lower 24 bits of parameter tempVar
*
* Global Data: None
*
* Arguments:
*
tempVar - variable where to calculate
*
* Range Issues: none
*
* Special Issues: none
******************************************************************************/
UWord16 numOnes(UWord32 tempVar)
{
asm
/* A - tempVar, Y0 - result */
{
clr
b
clr
y0
clr
y1
do
#24,__END
asr
a
adc
y,b
__END:
move
b0,y0
}
}
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
127
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.8 demfsk.h
/*****************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: demfsk.h
*
* DESCRIPTION: Header file for the SW FSK demodulator
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
******************************************************************************/
#ifndef _DEMFSK_H
#define _DEMFSK_H
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “pl.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/* Defines for SW FSK Demodulation
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#define DEMFSK_MSGBUFLEN
14
// length of MSGBuf buffer
/* for the FRAME_TOTALLEN equal to 16,24 or 32 and PL_FECTYPE equal to PL_NOFEC
/*
the length should be >= 8 */
/* for the FRAME_TOTALLEN equal to 16,24 or 32 and PL_FECTYPE equal to PL_1STFEC
/*
the length should be >= 14 */
#define DEMFSK_FRAMELEN
50
// length of frame [in samples]
#define DEMFSK_SYNCPATTERN 0x00E381C7
/* synchronization pattern is equal to 1110 0011 1000 0001 1100 0111 */
#define XBUFLENGTH
100
// length of xBuf buffer
#define BBUFLENGTH
100
// length of bBuf buffer
#define DEMFSK_FSCALE
4
// both real and imag parts of F0 and F1 are scalled down by 2^DEMFSK_FSCALE
#define DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE
1
/* SA multiple for comparison
(SB < 2 ^ (DEMFSK_SAMULTIPLE) * SA)*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* Defines for memory mapping used in ADC End Of Scan ISR routine
*/
/******************************************************************************/
Designer Reference Manual
128
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
coderoutines.c
// Note that the sequence of these defines has to be identical with the sequence
// as defined in linker_ram and linker_flash command files
#define addrPREVSAMPLE
0x0
#define addrPXBUF
0x1
#define addrNEWFRMCOUNTER
0x2
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void demfskInit(void);
void demfskDem(void);
asm void demfskEndOfScanISR(void);
/******************************************************************************/
/*
M A C R O S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* Timer C2 section */
#define demfskStartADCRxFromPL()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_C2, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_COUNT_RISING_EDGES_MODE)
// start the Tmr C2 which triggers the ADC conversion =>
// it starts the data sampling for the SW FSK Demodulation routine
#define demfskStopADCRxFromPL()
\
ioctl(QTIMER_C2, QT_SET_COUNT_MODE, QT_NO_OPERATION);
\
ioctl(ADC_A, ADC_CLEAR_STATUS_EOSI, NULL)
// stop the Tmr C2 which triggers the ADC conversion =>
// it stops the data sampling for the SW FSK Demodulation routine
// and clears the ADC End of Scan Interrupt flag as well
#endif
C.9 coderoutines.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: coderoutines.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file contains the routines of data coding / decoding,
*
specifically: FEC code / decode, CRC computation
*
* MODULES INCLUDED:
*
codeCRCCalc()
*
codeSCItoPL()
*
codeMoveAndFECBuff()
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
129
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
*
codePLtoSCI()
*
deintrleave()
*
*******************************************************************************/
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “arch.h”
#include “periph.h”
#include “sci.h”
#include
#include
#include
#include
“pl.h”
“tea.h”
“coderoutines.h”
“demfsk.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
extern pl_uRxFromSCI
pl_RxFromSCI;
/* Buffer dedicated for SCI reception */
extern pl_uRxFromSCI
pl_TxToPL;
/* Buffer dedicated for Power Line transmission */
extern pl_uRxFromPL
pl_RxFromPL;
/* Buffer dedicated for Power Line reception */
extern pl_uTxToSCI
pl_TxToSCI;
/* Buffer dedicated for SCI transmission */
extern volatile pl_sFlags
pl_Flags;
/* contains the state and another
flags of PL modem device */
/* extern of SW FSK Demodulation variable taken from the demfsk.c file */
extern UWord32 demfsk_MSGBuf[DEMFSK_MSGBUFLEN];
/* buffer of received message of FSK demodulation routine */
/******************************************************************************/
/*
LOOK-UP TABLE GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
extern const UWord16 CRCtable[256];
// table of the 16bit CRC codes
extern const UWord16 FECtableCoder[16];
/* table of the linear block Forward error correction - coding part */
extern const UWord16 FECtableDecoder[128];
/* table of the linear block Forward error correction - decoding part */
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
Word16 codeCRCCalc(UWord16 *Buffer, UWord16 n);
void codeMoveAndFECBuff(UWord16 fec_Mode, UWord16 Length);
Designer Reference Manual
130
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
coderoutines.c
asm void deintrleave(UWord32 *pInput, UWord16 *pOutput,
UWord16 numRows, UWord16 numColumns);
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: Word16 codeCRCCalc(UWord16 *buffer, UWord16 n)
*
* Description:
*
This function generates the 16 bit CRC
16
15
2
*
using the following polynom:
X
+ X + X + 1
*
* Returns: calculated CRC value
*
* Global Data:
*
CRCtable[256] - look-up table for 16 bit CRC computation
*
* Arguments:
*
*buffer - pointer to buffer to be calculated
*
n - length of the buffer
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
* Others: - look-up table called CRCTable should be located in XFlash data
*
memory area (56F801 source or FLASH target in 56F803 source) or in
*
internal or external RAM data memory area (RAM target in 56F803
*
source)
*
*******************************************************************************/
Word16 codeCRCCalc(UWord16 *buffer, UWord16 n)
{
Word16 crc = 0;
while (n--)
crc = ((crc >> 8) & 0xff) ^ CRCtable[(crc ^ *buffer++) & 0xff];
return crc;
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void codeSCItoPL(void)
*
* Description:
*
This routine completely prepare the data from the SCI Rx buffer side to
*
PL Tx side: it clears the rest of data bytes of pl_RxFromSCI buffer,
*
calculate the CRC of the frame, call the TEA encyption algorith and
*
finally call the routine that moves the pl_RxFromSCI buffer to
*
pl_TxToPL buffer and perform FEC during this move.
*
* Returns: None
*
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
131
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
* Global Data:
*
pl_RxFromSCI - a buffer of SCI received data
*
pl_TxToPL - a buffer of data prepared for PL transmission
*
FRAME_DATALEN - a symbolic constant describing the data length [in B]
*
of packet.
*
For the global data description of the codeCRCCalc() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
PL_TEACRYPT - a symbolic constant, if defined the Tiny Encryption is
*
processed over the packets
*
For the global data description of the teaEncryptBuff() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
FRAME_TOTALLEN - a symbolic constant describing the total length of
*
the whole packet [in B] to be sent
*
For the global data description of the codeMoveAndFECBuff() routine see
*
the description of the routine itself
*
PL_FECTYPE - a symbolic constant describing the type of used FEC
*
correction
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void codeSCItoPL(void)
{
UWord16 temp;
for (temp = pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Cntrl; temp < FRAME_DATALEN; temp++)
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Data[temp] = 0; // clear the rest of the data
// CRC calculation (1B of CNTRL + Data)
temp = codeCRCCalc(&pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Cntrl,
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Cntrl + 1);
// CRC is calculated only over the really used data
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.CRC[0] = (UWord16) 0x00FF & temp;
// low CRC byte
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.CRC[1] = (UWord16) (0xFF00 & temp) >> 8;// high CRC byte
#ifdef PL_TEACRYPT
// ENCRYPT
teaEncryptBuff(&pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Cntrl, FRAME_TOTALLEN);
#endif
codeMoveAndFECBuff(PL_FECTYPE, FRAME_TOTALLEN);
// Move & perform FEC (if required) from pl_RxFromSCI to pl_TxToPL buffer
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void codeMoveAndFECBuff(UWord16 fec_Mode, UWord16 length)
*
Designer Reference Manual
132
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
coderoutines.c
* Description:
*
This routine moves the pl_RxFromSCI to pl_TxToPL buffer and also
*
perform the FEC coding (if required).
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
pl_RxFromSCI - a buffer of SCI received data
*
pl_TxToPL - a buffer of data prepared for PL transmission
*
FECtableCoder - table of the coding part of the linear block Forward
*
error correction
*
FRAME_PRELEN - a symbolic constant describing the length [in B]
*
pre-control [header] part of packet
*
PL_NOFEC and PL_1STFEC - symbolic constants defining the type of used
*
FEC coding
*
* Arguments: FEC_Mode:
*
- either PL_NOFEC [no FEC correction]
*
- or PL_1STFEC - [FIRST version of FEC correction]
*
length - an actual length of the pl_RxFromSCI / pl_TxToPL buffer
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
* Others: - look-up table called FECtableCoder could be located in XFlash data
*
memory area (56F801 source or FLASH target in 56F803 source) or in
*
internal or external RAM data memory area (RAM target in 56F803
*
source)
*******************************************************************************/
void codeMoveAndFECBuff(UWord16 fec_Mode, UWord16 length)
{
UWord16 i, temp;
for (i = 0; i < FRAME_PRELEN; i++)
// transfer the header part of frame
pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[i] = pl_RxFromSCI.Array.Byte[i];
if (fec_Mode == PL_NOFEC)
// 8 data bits represents ONE byte
{
// transfer packet
for (i = FRAME_PRELEN; i < length + FRAME_PRELEN; i++)
pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[i] = pl_RxFromSCI.Array.Byte[i];
}
else
if (fec_Mode == PL_1STFEC) // 14 coded bits represents ONE byte
{
// transfer & FEC packet
for (i = FRAME_PRELEN; i < length + FRAME_PRELEN; i++)
{
temp = ((pl_RxFromSCI.Array.Byte[i] >> 4) & 0x0F);
temp = FECtableCoder[temp] << 7;
temp += FECtableCoder[(pl_RxFromSCI.Array.Byte[i] & 0x0F)];
pl_TxToPL.Array.Byte[i] = temp;
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
133
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
}
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void codePLtoSCI(void)
*
* Description:
*
This routine completely transfer the data from the PL Rx buffer side to
*
SCI Tx side: it call the de-interleaving routine, align the PL Rx
*
buffer, if FEC is used then perform the de-FEC algorithm, check the
*
consistency of the received packet (using the length and CRC values)
*
and finally move the pl_RxFromPL to the pl_TxToSCI buffer.
*
*
Returns: None
*
*
Global Data:
*
For the global data description of the deintrleave() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
demfsk_MSGBuf - buffer of received message of FSK demodulation routine
*
pl_RxFromPL is a buffer of received data from the PL side
*
FECtableDecoder - table of the decoding part of the linear block Forward
*
error correction
*
For the global data description of the teaDecryptBuff() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgDataError is set if either CRC or length error
*
occured
*
FRAME_TOTALLEN - a symbolic constant describing the total length of
*
the whole packet [in B] to be sent
*
PL_FECTYPE - a symbolic constant describing the type of used FEC
*
correction
*
PL_NOFEC and PL_1STFEC - symbolic constants defining the type of used
*
FEC coding
*
PL_TEACRYPT - a symbolic constant, if defined the Tiny Encryption is
*
processed over the packets
*
FRAME_DATALEN - a symbolic constant describing the data length [in B]
*
of packet.
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
* Others: - look-up table called FECtableDecoder could be located in XFlash data
*
memory area (56F801 source or FLASH target in 56F803 source) or in
*
internal or external RAM data memory area (RAM target in 56F803
*
source)
*******************************************************************************/
void codePLtoSCI(void)
Designer Reference Manual
134
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
coderoutines.c
{
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
UWord16 i, temp;
deintrleave(demfsk_MSGBuf, pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte, FRAME_TOTALLEN,
PL_FECTYPE);
// do the complete deinterleaving of the demfsk_MSGBuf
for (i = 0; i < FRAME_TOTALLEN; i++)
// align the RxFromPl buffer
{
#if (PL_FECTYPE == PL_1STFEC)
// if 1st method of FEC coding
pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] >>= 2;
#elif (PL_FECTYPE == PL_NOFEC)
// if NO FEC coding
pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] >>= 8;
#endif
}
// if “NO FEC” correction type is set, do nothing because Data in a buffer
// are in a non-coded form
#if (PL_FECTYPE == PL_1STFEC)
// if 1st method of FEC coding chosen
for (i = 0; i < FRAME_TOTALLEN; i++)
// FEC Decoder
{
temp = FECtableDecoder[(pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] & 0x3F80) >> 7];
pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] = (temp << 4) +
FECtableDecoder[(pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i] & 0x007F)];
}
#endif
#ifdef PL_TEACRYPT
// decrypt the Rx buffer
teaDecryptBuff(pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte, FRAME_TOTALLEN);
#endif
if ((pl_RxFromPL.Struct.Cntrl >= 1) &&
// if length is OK
(pl_RxFromPL.Struct.Cntrl <= FRAME_DATALEN))
{
temp = (pl_RxFromPL.Struct.CRC[1] << 8) + pl_RxFromPL.Struct.CRC[0];
// original CRC value
if (codeCRCCalc(pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte,pl_RxFromPL.Struct.Cntrl+1) ==
temp)
// if calculated CRC value is equal to the original, the packet is OK
{
// store only CNTRL and DATA
for (i = 0; i < pl_RxFromPL.Struct.Cntrl + 1; i++)
pl_TxToSCI.Array.Byte[i] = pl_RxFromPL.Array.Byte[i];
}
else
{
pl_FlgDataError = 1; // set bad data consistency (Data Error) flag
}
// bad CRC
}
else
{
pl_FlgDataError = 1;
// set bad data consistency (Data Error) flag
}
// bad length
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
135
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
/******************************************************************************
* Module:
asm void deintrleave(UWord32 *pInput, UWord16 *pOutput,
*
UWord16 numRows, UWord16 numColumns)
*
* Description: Function performes de-intearleaving of input data pInput
*
and returns de-interleaved data in buffer pOutput.
*
The 14 / 8 data bits (with FEC or without FEC) are located in
*
upper 14 / 8 bits of words in pOutput buffer.
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data: None
*
* Arguments:
*
Inputs: pInput - pointer to input buffer
*
pOutput - pointer to output buffer
*
numRows - 16, 24 or 32 (number of transfered bytes in one packet)
*
numColumns - 14 or 8 (with FEC or without FEC)
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
* Others: routine doesn’t require linear addressing (i.e. m01 to be $FFFF)
******************************************************************************/
asm void deintrleave(UWord32 *pInput, UWord16 *pOutput,
UWord16 numRows, UWord16 numColumns)
{
/* r2 - pInput, r3 - pOutput, y0 - numRows, y1 - numColumns */
move
y0,n
/* calculate end address of Output buffer */
nop
/* pipeline dependency */
lea
(r3)+n
lea
(r3)move
r3,r0
/* r0 - pOutput+numRows, r0 and r3 changed because
r3 uses always linear addressing and enables
“index by short displacement” addressing mode */
__OUTER:
move
r0,r3
/* r3 - pointer to output buffer */
move
x:(r2+1),a
move
x:(r2)+,a0
lea
(r2)+
do
y0,__INNER
move
x:(r3),x0
asr
a
/* c - LSB */
ror
x0
/* x0 - shift right */
move
x0,x:(r3)__INNER:
decw
y1
/* decrement outer loop count */
bgt
__OUTER
/* branch to top of OUTER loop if not done */
rts
Designer Reference Manual
136
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
coderoutines.h
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.10 coderoutines.h
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: coderoutines.h
*
* DESCRIPTION: A header file for coderoutines.c
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#ifndef _CODEROUTINES_H
#define _CODEROUTINES_H
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void codeSCItoPL();
/* prepare data from SCI to PL */
void codePLtoSCI();
/* prepare data from PL to SCI */
#endif
C.11 scicomm.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: scicomm.c
*
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
137
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
* DESCRIPTION: This file consists of all SCI-based routines needed for the
*
PL modem (such as SCI Rx Full ISR and SCI Tx Empty ISR)
*
* MODULES INCLUDED:
*
scicommRxErrISR()
*
scicommRxFullISR()
*
scicommTxEmpISR()
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “arch.h”
#include “periph.h”
#include “appconfig.h”
#include “sci.h”
#include “gpio.h”
#include
#include
#include
#include
“scicomm.h”
“tmrfsk.h”
“demfsk.h”
“coderoutines.h”
#include “pl.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
extern pl_uRxFromSCI
pl_RxFromSCI;
/* Buffer dedicated for SCI reception */
extern pl_uTxToSCI
pl_TxToSCI;
/* Buffer dedicated for SCI transmission */
extern volatile pl_sFlags pl_Flags;
/* contains the state and another
flags of PL modem device */
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void scicommRxErrISR(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function is the ISR of the SCI Receiver error. It clears the Noise
*
flag (NF), Parity error flag (PF), Framing error flag (FE) and Overrun
*
flag (OR) whenever it is needed.
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data: None
*
Designer Reference Manual
138
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
scicomm.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: None
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#pragma interrupt
void scicommRxErrISR(void)
{
UWord16 temp;
temp = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_STATUS_REG, NULL);
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_CLEAR_STATUS_REG, NULL);
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void scicommRxFullISR(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function is the ISR of the SCI Rx Full. It reads the new data, save
*
them to the pl_RxFromSCI buffer. There are two way how this SCI Receive
*
could be finished, either it fills up the whole pl_RxFromSCI buffer or
*
communication Timeout (generated by Timeout Tmr TmrD3) occurs.
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgModeOfModem - if the Mode was set to STATE1 *
“SCI reception could be started”, the SCI Rx is started
*
and mode is switched to STATE2 “SCI reception in
*
progress”.
*
When SCI Rx is finished the mode is set to STATE3 “SCI
*
reception has been finished”. The codeSCItoPL() prepares
*
the data for PL Tx packet and mode is set to STATE4 “PL
*
transmission could be started”
*
pl_RxFromSCI - a buffer of SCI reception
*
For the global data description of the codeSCItoPL() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
*
FRAME_HEADER - a symbolic constant descriing the header value of packet
*
over the transmission is NOT performed
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: Only when pl_FlgModeOfModem is equal to STATE1 or STATE2, the
*
SCI reception is performed
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
139
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
#pragma interrupt
void scicommRxFullISR(void)
{
static UWord16 index;
UWord16 temp;
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
archPushAllRegisters();
tmrfskClearTimeOutTmr();
if ( pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE1)
{
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE2;
index = 0;
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Cntrl = 0;
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Header[0] =
tmrfskStartTimeOutTmr();
}
// reset the time-out timer
// test Mode of Modem condition
// set Mode of Modem
// clear the “Control” of the frame
FRAME_HEADER;
// set header
// start the time-out timer
if ( pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE2)
// test Mode of Modem condition
{
temp = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_STATUS_REG, NULL);
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Data[index] = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_READ_DATA, NULL);
index++;
pl_RxFromSCI.Struct.Cntrl = index; // set Length
if (index == FRAME_DATALEN)
// the RxFromSCI buffer is full
{
tmrfskStopTimeOutTmr();
// stop the time-out timer
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE3; // set Mode of Modem
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_RX_FULL_INT, SCI_DISABLE); // disable interrupt
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_RX_ERROR_INT, SCI_DISABLE); // disable interrupt
codeSCItoPL();
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE4;
tmrfskSetTxEnable();
tmrfskStartCarrierTmr();
archDelay(0x1FFF);
archDelay(0x1FFF);
archDelay(0x1FFF);
archDelay(0x1FFF);
tmrfskStartBitTmr();
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
prepare data from SCI to PL
set Mode of Modem
switch on the transmitter
start generation of FSK carrier
Tx of the carrier before the
header and data part transmission
total 0.8ms
// start FSK transmission
}
}
archPopAllRegisters();
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void scicommTxEmpISR(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function is the ISR of the SCI Transmitter empty. It sends the
Designer Reference Manual
140
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
scicomm.c
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
data part of packet. The length of data part is taken from the pl_TxToSCI
variable itself.
Returns: None
Global Data:
pl_Flags - flag pl_FlgModeOfModem - if the Mode was set to STATE12 “SCI transmission could be started”, the SCI Tx is
started and mode is switched to STATE13 “SCI
transmission in progress”.
When whole packet was transmitted the mode is set to
STATE6 “PL / SCI transmission has been finished”. Than
the ADC data sampling is started and mode is set to
STATE7 “PL reception has been started”
pl_TxToSCI - a buffer to be sent
Arguments: None
Range Issues: Only when pl_FlgModeOfModem is equal to STATE12 or STATE13, the
SCI transmission is performed
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#pragma interrupt
void scicommTxEmpISR(void)
{
UWord16 temp;
static UWord16 index;
if (pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE12)
// pl_TxToSCI is ready
{
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE13;
// set Mode of Modem
index = 0;
}
if (pl_FlgModeOfModem == STATE13)
// pl_TxToSCI is being processed
{
temp = ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_GET_STATUS_REG, NULL);
// clear Transmit Register Empty Flag
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_WRITE_DATA, pl_TxToSCI.Struct.Data[index]); // SCI Tx
index++;
if (index >= pl_TxToSCI.Struct.Cntrl)
// whole packet was transmitted
{
ioctl(SCI_0, SCI_TX_EMPTY_INT, SCI_DISABLE); // disable SCI Tx IRQ
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE6;
// set Mode of Modem
demfskStartADCRxFromPL();
// start PL data sampling
// (PL reception)
pl_FlgModeOfModem = STATE7;
// set Mode of Modem
}
}
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
141
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.12 scicomm.h
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: scicomm.h
*
* DESCRIPTION: A header file for scicomm.c
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#ifndef _SCICOMM_H
#define _SCICOMM_H
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void scicommTxEmpISR(void);
void scicommRxErrISR(void);
void scicommRxFullISR(void);
#endif
C.13 tea.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: tea.c
Designer Reference Manual
142
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
tea.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file contains the complete Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA)
*
implementation
*
* MODULES INCLUDED:
*
teaCode()
*
teaDecode()
*
teaEncryptBuff()
*
teaDecryptBuff()
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “pl.h”
#include “tea.h”
#include “types.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void teaCode(void);
void teaDecode(void);
/******************************************************************************/
/*
GLOBAL VARIABLES
*/
/******************************************************************************/
extern const tea_uKey pl_TeaKey;
/* Key for TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm) computation */
/******************************************************************************/
/*
LOCAL VARIABLES OF THE FILE
*/
/******************************************************************************/
tea_uIO tea_IO;
// own buffer for TEA computation, 64bits long
/******************************************************************************/
/* TEA (The Tiny Encryption Algorithm) authors description
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
The Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) by David Wheeler and Roger Needham
of the Cambridge Computer Laboratory.
Placed in the Public Domain by David Wheeler and Roger Needham.
ftp://ftp.cl.cam.ac.uk/papers/djw-rmn/djw-rmn-tea.html
**** ANSI C VERSION (New Variant) ****
Authors notes:
TEA is a Feistel cipher with XOR and and addition as the non-linear
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
143
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
mixing functions.
Takes 64 bits of data in tea_IO (dw[0] and dw[1]) and returns the 64 bits long
result again into tea_IO. Takes 128 bits of key in k[0] - k[3].
TEA can be operated in any of the modes of DES. Cipher Block
Chaining is, for example, simple to implement.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
n is the number of iterations. 32 is ample, 16 is sufficient, as few
as eight may be OK. The algorithm achieves good dispersion after six
iterations. The iteration count can be made variable if required.
Note this is optimised for 32-bit CPUs with fast shift capabilities.
It can very easily be ported to assembly language on most CPUs.
teaDelta is chosen to be the real part of the golden ratio
Sqrt(5/4) - 1/2 ~ 0.618034 multiplied by 2^32.
This version has been amended to foil two weaknesses identified by
David A. Wagner ([email protected]): 1) effective key length of
old-variant TEA was 126 not 128 bits 2) a related key attack was possible
although impractical.
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
N O T E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
The Tiny Encryption Algorithm operates over its own 64bit long buffer, so the
final buffer to be encrypted / decrypted has to be multiple of the 8B value!
*/
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void teaCode(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function perform the TEA encryption over the its own 64-bit long
*
buffer
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
tea_IO - 64bits long buffer for TEA computation
*
y - a short-cut define for tea_IO.dw[0]
*
z - a short-cut define for tea_IO.dw[1]
*
pl_TeaKey - Key for TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm) computation
*
k[4] - a short-cut define for pl_TeaKey.dw[4]
*
TeaDelta - TEA constant chosen to be the real part of the golden ratio
*
Sqrt(5/4) - 1/2 ~ 0.618034 multiplied by 2^32
*
Designer Reference Manual
144
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
tea.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: Note that it performs the encryption over the 64 bits, so the
*
final buffer to be encrypted should be a multiple of this value!
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void teaCode(void)
{
Word16 i = 32;
UWord32 sum = 0;
while(i-- > 0)
{
y += (z << 4 ^ z >> 5) + z ^ sum + k[sum & 3];
sum += TeaDelta;
z += (y << 4 ^ y >> 5) + y ^ sum + k[sum >> 11 & 3];
}
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void teaDecode(void)
*
* Description:
*
This function perform the TEA decryption over the own 64-bit long buffer
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
tea_IO - 64bits long buffer for TEA computation
*
y - a short-cut define for tea_IO.dw[0]
*
z - a short-cut define for tea_IO.dw[1]
*
pl_TeaKey - Key for TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm) computation
*
k[4] - a short-cut define for pl_TeaKey.dw[4]
*
TeaDelta - TEA constant chosen to be the real part of the golden ratio
*
Sqrt(5/4) - 1/2 ~ 0.618034 multiplied by 2^32
*
* Arguments: None
*
* Range Issues: Note that it performs the decryption over the 64 bits, so the
*
final buffer to be encrypted should be a multiple of this value!
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void teaDecode(void)
{
Word16 i = 32;
UWord32 sum = 0xC6EF3720;
// sum = teaDelta << 5
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
145
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
// in general sum = teaDelta * n;
while(i-- > 0)
{
z -= (y<<4 ^ y>>5) + y ^ sum + k[sum>>11 & 3];
sum -= TeaDelta;
y -= (z<<4 ^ z>>5) + z ^ sum + k[sum&3];
}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void teaEncryptBuff(UWord16 *ptr, UWord16 roundLen)
*
* Description:
*
This function calls the TEA encryption algorithm and move the data to
*
and back to the temp buffer
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
tea_IO - 64bits long buffer for TEA computation
*
For the global data description of the teaCode() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
* Arguments:
*
*ptr - pointer to the data-buffer
*
roundLen - the length of the buffer to be encrypted (must be a multiple
*
of 8, this project uses following length values: 16, 24 and 32)
*
* Range Issues: roundLen value has to be a multiple of 8
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void teaEncryptBuff(UWord16 *ptr, UWord16 roundLen)
{
UWord16 i;
UWord16 j = 1;
UWord16 *backPtr;
// pointer for back transfer
backPtr = ptr;
// save a pointer
do
{
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
// 8bit => 16bit
tea_IO.w[i] = *ptr++ + (*ptr++ << 8);
// just 8bit values at *Ptr
teaCode();
// perform an encryption
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
*backPtr++ = (tea_IO.w[i] & 0x00FF);
// 16bit => 8bit
*backPtr++ = (tea_IO.w[i] & 0xFF00) >> 8;
}
Designer Reference Manual
146
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
tea.c
} while ( 8*j++ < roundLen);
// the length is a multiple of 8
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
}
/*******************************************************************************
*
* Module: void teaDecryptBuff(UWord16 *ptr, UWord16 roundLen)
*
* Description:
*
This function calls the TEA decryption algorithm and move the data to
*
and back to the temp buffer
*
* Returns: None
*
* Global Data:
*
tea_IO - 64bits long buffer for TEA computation
*
For the global data description of the teaCode() routine see the
*
description of the routine itself
* Arguments:
*
*ptr - pointer to the data-buffer
*
roundLen - the length of the buffer to be encrypted (must be a multiple
*
of 8, this project uses following length values: 16, 24 and 32)
*
* Range Issues: roundLen value has to be a multiple of 8
*
* Special Issues: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
void teaDecryptBuff(UWord16 *ptr, UWord16 roundLen)
{
UWord16 i;
UWord16 j = 1;
UWord16 *backPtr;
// pointer for back transfer
backPtr = ptr;
// save a pointer
do
{
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
//
tea_IO.w[i] = *ptr++ + (*ptr++ << 8);
//
teaDecode();
//
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
*backPtr++ = (tea_IO.w[i] & 0x00FF);
*backPtr++ = (tea_IO.w[i] & 0xFF00) >> 8;
}
} while ( 8*j++ < roundLen);
// the length is a
8bit => 16bit
just 8bit values at *Ptr
perform an encryption
// 16bit => 8bit
multiple of 8
}
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
147
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.14 tea.h
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: tea.h
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file is a header file for tea.c
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
#ifndef _TEA_H
#define _TEA_H
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “pl.h”
#include “types.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/*
S T R U C T U R E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
typedef union
/* TEA buffer */
{
UWord16 w[4];
UWord32 dw[2];
} tea_uIO;
typedef union
{
UWord16 w[8];
UWord32 dw[4];
} tea_uKey;
/* TEA Encryption key */
/******************************************************************************/
/* L O C A L
D E F I N E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#define TeaDelta 0x9E3779B9 /* TEA constant chosen to be the real part of the
golden ratio Sqrt(5/4) - 1/2 ~ 0.618034 multiplied by 2^32 */
#define y tea_IO.dw[0]
#define z tea_IO.dw[1]
#define k pl_TeaKey.dw
/* a short-cut define for tea_IO */
/* a short-cut define for tea_IO */
/* a short-cut define for pl_TeaKey */
Designer Reference Manual
148
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
CRCtable.c
/******************************************************************************/
/*
P R O T O T Y P E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
void teaEncryptBuff(UWord16 *Ptr, UWord16 RoundLen);
void teaDecryptBuff(UWord16 *Ptr, UWord16 RoundLen);
#endif
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.15 CRCtable.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: CRCtable.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file contains table of the 16bit CRC codes. Linker command
*
file locates this file either into the XFlash data memory area (56F801
*
source or FLASH target in 56F803 source) or to internal RAM data memory
*
area (RAM target in 56F803 source).
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/* CRC Constants (Look-up table located at XFlash or XRAM data memory area)
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
CRC-Berechnung und Implementierungstips
Dies ist nicht der richtige Ort, um die Theorie der zyklischen Redundanzüberprüfung (cyclic redundancy check, CRC) zu erläutern. Hierzu sei auf
die Arbeit von Michael Röhner, DC4OX [2] verwiesen. Dieser Abschnitt
schildert nur die für eine Implementierung notwendigen Details.
Als Prüfpolynom wird das CRC16-Polynom verwendet. Dieses hat die Gestalt
16
15
2
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
149
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
X
+ X
+ X
+ 1
Der CRC-Generator wird mit 0 vorbesetzt. Berechnet wird der CRC über alle
Datenbytes einschließlich des Kommandobytes 0x80.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Bekanntlich wird im KISS-Protokoll die Abgrenzung der Rahmen mit dem
FEND-Zeichen (0xc0) durchgeführt. Der Fall, daß dieses Zeichen im
Datenstrom vorkommt, wird gesondert behandelt. Dieser Vorgang wird
SLIP-Encoding genannt.
Der CRC muß berechnet werden, bevor das SLIP-Encoding stattfindet, und
ueberprüft werden, nachdem das SLIP-Decoding stattgefunden hat. Dafür
gib es mehrere Gründe:
- Die CRC Bytes könnten FESC, TFEND, FEND usw enthalten.
- Der SLIP En/Decoder wird in manchen Host-Implementierungen (z.B. WAMPES)
auch unabhängig von KISS benutzt, um beispielsweise die Verbindung zum
Unix-Kernel herzustellen. In diesem Fall wären CRC-Überprüfungen zwar
auch wünschenswert, werden aber von der anderen Seite nicht verstanden.
Die CRCs gehören also logisch zum KISS Layer.
Die Berechnung findet wie folgt statt:
- CRC-Generator mit 0 vorbesetzen.
- Alle Datenbytes nacheinander in den Algorithmus hineintun, einschließlich
der beiden CRC-Bytes.
- Am Ende muß wieder 0 im CRC-Generator stehen. Ist der Wert ungleich 0, so
ist ein Übertragungsfehler aufgetreten und der Rahmen muß verworfen werden.
Verschiedene Algorithmen für den CRC-Generator werden in [2] beschrieben.
Hier sei ein einfacher tabellengesteuerter Algorithmus in der Programmiersprache C angegeben, der den CRC eines Puffers (buf) der Länge n berechnet.
<snip>
Literatur
[1] Karn, Phil, KA9Q; Proposed “Raw” TNC Functional Spec, 6.8.1986;
veröffentlicht in den USENET-News;
[2] Röhner, Michael, DC4OX; Was ist CRC?; veröffentlicht im Packet-Radio
Mailbox-Netz, Mai 1988
[3] FTP Software, Inc.; PC/TCP Version 1.09 Packet Driver Specification;
Wakefield, MA 1989
[4] Schiefer, Jan, DL5UE; WAMPES - Weiterentwicklung; Vortrags-Skriptum
des 5. überregionalen Packet-Radio-Treffens; Frankfurt 1989;
*/
const UWord16 CRCtable[256] =
{
0x0000, 0xc0c1, 0xc181, 0x0140, 0xc301, 0x03c0, 0x0280, 0xc241,
0xc601, 0x06c0, 0x0780, 0xc741, 0x0500, 0xc5c1, 0xc481, 0x0440,
0xcc01, 0x0cc0, 0x0d80, 0xcd41, 0x0f00, 0xcfc1, 0xce81, 0x0e40,
Designer Reference Manual
150
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
FECtable.c
0x0a00,
0xd801,
0x1e00,
0x1400,
0xd201,
0xf001,
0x3600,
0x3c00,
0xfa01,
0x2800,
0xee01,
0xe401,
0x2200,
0xa001,
0x6600,
0x6c00,
0xaa01,
0x7800,
0xbe01,
0xb401,
0x7200,
0x5000,
0x9601,
0x9c01,
0x5a00,
0x8801,
0x4e00,
0x4400,
0x8201,
0xcac1,
0x18c0,
0xdec1,
0xd4c1,
0x12c0,
0x30c0,
0xf6c1,
0xfcc1,
0x3ac0,
0xe8c1,
0x2ec0,
0x24c0,
0xe2c1,
0x60c0,
0xa6c1,
0xacc1,
0x6ac0,
0xb8c1,
0x7ec0,
0x74c0,
0xb2c1,
0x90c1,
0x56c0,
0x5cc0,
0x9ac1,
0x48c0,
0x8ec1,
0x84c1,
0x42c0,
0xcb81,
0x1980,
0xdf81,
0xd581,
0x1380,
0x3180,
0xf781,
0xfd81,
0x3b80,
0xe981,
0x2f80,
0x2580,
0xe381,
0x6180,
0xa781,
0xad81,
0x6b80,
0xb981,
0x7f80,
0x7580,
0xb381,
0x9181,
0x5780,
0x5d80,
0x9b81,
0x4980,
0x8f81,
0x8581,
0x4380,
0x0b40,
0xd941,
0x1f40,
0x1540,
0xd341,
0xf141,
0x3740,
0x3d40,
0xfb41,
0x2940,
0xef41,
0xe541,
0x2340,
0xa141,
0x6740,
0x6d40,
0xab41,
0x7940,
0xbf41,
0xb541,
0x7340,
0x5140,
0x9741,
0x9d41,
0x5b40,
0x8941,
0x4f40,
0x4540,
0x8341,
0xc901,
0x1b00,
0xdd01,
0xd701,
0x1100,
0x3300,
0xf501,
0xff01,
0x3900,
0xeb01,
0x2d00,
0x2700,
0xe101,
0x6300,
0xa501,
0xaf01,
0x6900,
0xbb01,
0x7d00,
0x7700,
0xb101,
0x9301,
0x5500,
0x5f00,
0x9901,
0x4b00,
0x8d01,
0x8701,
0x4100,
0x09c0,
0xdbc1,
0x1dc0,
0x17c0,
0xd1c1,
0xf3c1,
0x35c0,
0x3fc0,
0xf9c1,
0x2bc0,
0xedc1,
0xe7c1,
0x21c0,
0xa3c1,
0x65c0,
0x6fc0,
0xa9c1,
0x7bc0,
0xbdc1,
0xb7c1,
0x71c0,
0x53c0,
0x95c1,
0x9fc1,
0x59c0,
0x8bc1,
0x4dc0,
0x47c0,
0x81c1,
0x0880,
0xda81,
0x1c80,
0x1680,
0xd081,
0xf281,
0x3480,
0x3e80,
0xf881,
0x2a80,
0xec81,
0xe681,
0x2080,
0xa281,
0x6480,
0x6e80,
0xa881,
0x7a80,
0xbc81,
0xb681,
0x7080,
0x5280,
0x9481,
0x9e81,
0x5880,
0x8a81,
0x4c80,
0x4680,
0x8081,
0xc841,
0x1a40,
0xdc41,
0xd641,
0x1040,
0x3240,
0xf441,
0xfe41,
0x3840,
0xea41,
0x2c40,
0x2640,
0xe041,
0x6240,
0xa441,
0xae41,
0x6840,
0xba41,
0x7c40,
0x7640,
0xb041,
0x9241,
0x5440,
0x5e40,
0x9841,
0x4a40,
0x8c41,
0x8641,
0x4040
};
C.16 FECtable.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: FECtable.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file contains table of the linear block Forward error
*
correction codes. Linker command file locates this file either into the
*
XFlash data memory area (56F801 source or FLASH target in 56F803 source)
*
or to internal RAM area (RAM target in 56F803 source)
*
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
151
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
*
*******************************************************************************/
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/* FEC Constants (Look-up table located at XFlash or XRAM data memory area)
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* Linear Block Code taken from the following address:
/* http://www.tisl.ukans.edu/~paden/Reference/ECC/linear/index.html */
const UWord16 FECtableCoder[16] =
{
0x00,
// 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0x51,
// 1
1 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
0x72,
// 2
1 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0x23,
// 3
0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0x34,
// 4
0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0
0x65,
// 5
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1
0x46,
// 6
1 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0x17,
// 7
0 0 1 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
0x68,
// 8
1 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0x39,
// 9
0 1 1 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
0x1A,
// A
0 0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0
0x4B,
// B
1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
0x5C,
// C
1 0 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0
0x0D,
// D
0 0 0 1 1 0 1
1 1 0 1
0x2E,
// E
0 1 0 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0
0x7F,
// F
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
};
const UWord16
{
0x0, 0x0,
0x0, 0xD,
0x0, 0x1,
0xA, 0x9,
0x0, 0x3,
0x8, 0x9,
0x4, 0x9,
0x9, 0x9,
0x0, 0x1,
0x8, 0xB,
0x1, 0x1,
0xC, 0x1,
0x8, 0x5,
0x8, 0x8,
0x2, 0x1,
0x8, 0x9,
FECtableDecoder[128] =
0x0,
0xA,
0xA,
0xA,
0x3,
0xE,
0x2,
0xA,
0x6,
0xB,
0x2,
0xA,
0x2,
0x8,
0x2,
0x2,
0x3,
0xB,
0x7,
0xA,
0x3,
0x3,
0x3,
0x9,
0xB,
0xB,
0x1,
0xB,
0x3,
0xB,
0x2,
0xF,
0x0,
0xD,
0x4,
0xC,
0x4,
0xE,
0x4,
0x4,
0x6,
0xC,
0xC,
0xC,
0x5,
0x8,
0x4,
0xC,
0xD,
0xD,
0x7,
0xD,
0x5,
0xD,
0x4,
0x9,
0x5,
0xD,
0x1,
0xC,
0x5,
0x5,
0x5,
0xF,
0x6,
0xE,
0x7,
0xA,
0xE,
0xE,
0x4,
0xE,
0x6,
0x6,
0x6,
0xC,
0x6,
0xE,
0x2,
0xF,
0x7,
0xD,
0x7,
0x7,
0x3,
0xE,
0x7,
0xF,
0x6,
0xB,
0x7,
0xF,
0x5,
0xF,
0xF,
0xF,
Designer Reference Manual
152
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfskconst.c
};
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C.17 demfskconst.c
/******************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2001 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* FILE NAME: demfskconst.c
*
* DESCRIPTION: This file contains the FSK demodulator constants. Linker command
*
file locates this file either into the XFlash data memory area (56F801
*
source or FLASH target in 56F803 source) or to internal RAM data memory
*
area (RAM target in 56F803 source)
* MODULES INCLUDED: None
*
*******************************************************************************/
/******************************************************************************/
/*
I N C L U D E S
*/
/******************************************************************************/
#include “types.h”
#include “demfsk.h”
/******************************************************************************/
/* Coefficient Look-up tables (located at XFlash or XRAM data memory area)
*/
/******************************************************************************/
/* { Omega = 2 * pi * f / fsamp }
/* { e ^ ( -j * Omega * n) }
/* where:
f is the nominal frequency
/*
fsamp is the sample frequency
/*
n is the integer number from range <0, 49> */
/******************************************************************************/
/* f = 100kHz
*/
/******************************************************************************/
const Word16 K100[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] = {
/* real part
imag part */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 0 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 1 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(-0.587785), /* 2 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(+0.587785), /* 3 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(+0.951057), /* 4 */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 5 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 6 */
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
153
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+1.000000),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
7 */
8 */
9 */
10 */
11 */
12 */
13 */
14 */
15 */
16 */
17 */
18 */
19 */
20 */
21 */
22 */
23 */
24 */
25 */
26 */
27 */
28 */
29 */
30 */
31 */
32 */
33 */
34 */
35 */
36 */
37 */
38 */
39 */
40 */
41 */
42 */
43 */
44 */
45 */
46 */
47 */
48 */
49 */
};
/******************************************************************************/
/* f = 105kHz
*/
/******************************************************************************/
const Word16 K105[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] = {
/* real part
imag part */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 0 */
Designer Reference Manual
154
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfskconst.c
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
FRAC16(+0.248690),
FRAC16(-0.876307),
FRAC16(-0.684547),
FRAC16(+0.535827),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.062791),
FRAC16(-0.982287),
FRAC16(-0.425779),
FRAC16(+0.770513),
FRAC16(+0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.368125),
FRAC16(-0.992115),
FRAC16(-0.125333),
FRAC16(+0.929776),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(-0.637424),
FRAC16(-0.904827),
FRAC16(+0.187381),
FRAC16(+0.998027),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.844328),
FRAC16(-0.728969),
FRAC16(+0.481754),
FRAC16(+0.968583),
FRAC16(-0.000000),
FRAC16(-0.968583),
FRAC16(-0.481754),
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(+0.844328),
FRAC16(-0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.998027),
FRAC16(-0.187381),
FRAC16(+0.904827),
FRAC16(+0.637424),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(-0.929776),
FRAC16(+0.125333),
FRAC16(+0.992115),
FRAC16(+0.368125),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.770513),
FRAC16(+0.425779),
FRAC16(+0.982287),
FRAC16(+0.062791),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.535827),
FRAC16(+0.684547),
FRAC16(+0.876307),
FRAC16(-0.248690),
FRAC16(-0.968583),
FRAC16(-0.481754),
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(+0.844328),
FRAC16(-0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.998027),
FRAC16(-0.187381),
FRAC16(+0.904827),
FRAC16(+0.637424),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(-0.929776),
FRAC16(+0.125333),
FRAC16(+0.992115),
FRAC16(+0.368125),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.770513),
FRAC16(+0.425779),
FRAC16(+0.982287),
FRAC16(+0.062791),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.535827),
FRAC16(+0.684547),
FRAC16(+0.876307),
FRAC16(-0.248690),
FRAC16(-1.000000),
FRAC16(-0.248690),
FRAC16(+0.876307),
FRAC16(+0.684547),
FRAC16(-0.535827),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(+0.062791),
FRAC16(+0.982287),
FRAC16(+0.425779),
FRAC16(-0.770513),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.368125),
FRAC16(+0.992115),
FRAC16(+0.125333),
FRAC16(-0.929776),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.637424),
FRAC16(+0.904827),
FRAC16(-0.187381),
FRAC16(-0.998027),
FRAC16(-0.309017),
FRAC16(+0.844328),
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(-0.481754),
FRAC16(-0.968583),
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
1 */
2 */
3 */
4 */
5 */
6 */
7 */
8 */
9 */
10 */
11 */
12 */
13 */
14 */
15 */
16 */
17 */
18 */
19 */
20 */
21 */
22 */
23 */
24 */
25 */
26 */
27 */
28 */
29 */
30 */
31 */
32 */
33 */
34 */
35 */
36 */
37 */
38 */
39 */
40 */
41 */
42 */
43 */
44 */
45 */
46 */
47 */
48 */
49 */
};
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
155
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
/******************************************************************************/
/* f = 110kHz
*/
/******************************************************************************/
const Word16 K110[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] = {
/* real part
imag part */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 0 */
FRAC16(+0.187381), FRAC16(-0.982287), /* 1 */
FRAC16(-0.929776), FRAC16(-0.368125), /* 2 */
FRAC16(-0.535827), FRAC16(+0.844328), /* 3 */
FRAC16(+0.728969), FRAC16(+0.684547), /* 4 */
FRAC16(+0.809017), FRAC16(-0.587785), /* 5 */
FRAC16(-0.425779), FRAC16(-0.904827), /* 6 */
FRAC16(-0.968583), FRAC16(+0.248690), /* 7 */
FRAC16(+0.062791), FRAC16(+0.998027), /* 8 */
FRAC16(+0.992115), FRAC16(+0.125333), /* 9 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 10 */
FRAC16(-0.876307), FRAC16(-0.481754), /* 11 */
FRAC16(-0.637424), FRAC16(+0.770513), /* 12 */
FRAC16(+0.637424), FRAC16(+0.770513), /* 13 */
FRAC16(+0.876307), FRAC16(-0.481754), /* 14 */
FRAC16(-0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 15 */
FRAC16(-0.992115), FRAC16(+0.125333), /* 16 */
FRAC16(-0.062791), FRAC16(+0.998027), /* 17 */
FRAC16(+0.968583), FRAC16(+0.248690), /* 18 */
FRAC16(+0.425779), FRAC16(-0.904827), /* 19 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(-0.587785), /* 20 */
FRAC16(-0.728969), FRAC16(+0.684547), /* 21 */
FRAC16(+0.535827), FRAC16(+0.844328), /* 22 */
FRAC16(+0.929776), FRAC16(-0.368125), /* 23 */
FRAC16(-0.187381), FRAC16(-0.982287), /* 24 */
FRAC16(-1.000000), FRAC16(-0.000000), /* 25 */
FRAC16(-0.187381), FRAC16(+0.982287), /* 26 */
FRAC16(+0.929776), FRAC16(+0.368125), /* 27 */
FRAC16(+0.535827), FRAC16(-0.844328), /* 28 */
FRAC16(-0.728969), FRAC16(-0.684547), /* 29 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(+0.587785), /* 30 */
FRAC16(+0.425779), FRAC16(+0.904827), /* 31 */
FRAC16(+0.968583), FRAC16(-0.248690), /* 32 */
FRAC16(-0.062791), FRAC16(-0.998027), /* 33 */
FRAC16(-0.992115), FRAC16(-0.125333), /* 34 */
FRAC16(-0.309017), FRAC16(+0.951057), /* 35 */
FRAC16(+0.876307), FRAC16(+0.481754), /* 36 */
FRAC16(+0.637424), FRAC16(-0.770513), /* 37 */
FRAC16(-0.637424), FRAC16(-0.770513), /* 38 */
FRAC16(-0.876307), FRAC16(+0.481754), /* 39 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(+0.951057), /* 40 */
FRAC16(+0.992115), FRAC16(-0.125333), /* 41 */
FRAC16(+0.062791), FRAC16(-0.998027), /* 42 */
FRAC16(-0.968583), FRAC16(-0.248690), /* 43 */
FRAC16(-0.425779), FRAC16(+0.904827), /* 44 */
FRAC16(+0.809017), FRAC16(+0.587785), /* 45 */
Designer Reference Manual
156
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
demfskconst.c
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(-0.535827),
FRAC16(-0.929776),
FRAC16(+0.187381),
FRAC16(-0.684547),
FRAC16(-0.844328),
FRAC16(+0.368125),
FRAC16(+0.982287),
/*
/*
/*
/*
46
47
48
49
*/
*/
*/
*/
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
};
/******************************************************************************/
/* f = 115kHz
*/
/******************************************************************************/
const Word16 K115[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] = {
/* real part
imag part */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 0 */
FRAC16(+0.125333), FRAC16(-0.992115), /* 1 */
FRAC16(-0.968583), FRAC16(-0.248690), /* 2 */
FRAC16(-0.368125), FRAC16(+0.929776), /* 3 */
FRAC16(+0.876307), FRAC16(+0.481754), /* 4 */
FRAC16(+0.587785), FRAC16(-0.809017), /* 5 */
FRAC16(-0.728969), FRAC16(-0.684547), /* 6 */
FRAC16(-0.770513), FRAC16(+0.637424), /* 7 */
FRAC16(+0.535827), FRAC16(+0.844328), /* 8 */
FRAC16(+0.904827), FRAC16(-0.425779), /* 9 */
FRAC16(-0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 10 */
FRAC16(-0.982287), FRAC16(+0.187381), /* 11 */
FRAC16(+0.062791), FRAC16(+0.998027), /* 12 */
FRAC16(+0.998027), FRAC16(+0.062791), /* 13 */
FRAC16(+0.187381), FRAC16(-0.982287), /* 14 */
FRAC16(-0.951057), FRAC16(-0.309017), /* 15 */
FRAC16(-0.425779), FRAC16(+0.904827), /* 16 */
FRAC16(+0.844328), FRAC16(+0.535827), /* 17 */
FRAC16(+0.637424), FRAC16(-0.770513), /* 18 */
FRAC16(-0.684547), FRAC16(-0.728969), /* 19 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(+0.587785), /* 20 */
FRAC16(+0.481754), FRAC16(+0.876307), /* 21 */
FRAC16(+0.929776), FRAC16(-0.368125), /* 22 */
FRAC16(-0.248690), FRAC16(-0.968583), /* 23 */
FRAC16(-0.992115), FRAC16(+0.125333), /* 24 */
FRAC16(-0.000000), FRAC16(+1.000000), /* 25 */
FRAC16(+0.992115), FRAC16(+0.125333), /* 26 */
FRAC16(+0.248690), FRAC16(-0.968583), /* 27 */
FRAC16(-0.929776), FRAC16(-0.368125), /* 28 */
FRAC16(-0.481754), FRAC16(+0.876307), /* 29 */
FRAC16(+0.809017), FRAC16(+0.587785), /* 30 */
FRAC16(+0.684547), FRAC16(-0.728969), /* 31 */
FRAC16(-0.637424), FRAC16(-0.770513), /* 32 */
FRAC16(-0.844328), FRAC16(+0.535827), /* 33 */
FRAC16(+0.425779), FRAC16(+0.904827), /* 34 */
FRAC16(+0.951057), FRAC16(-0.309017), /* 35 */
FRAC16(-0.187381), FRAC16(-0.982287), /* 36 */
FRAC16(-0.998027), FRAC16(+0.062791), /* 37 */
FRAC16(-0.062791), FRAC16(+0.998027), /* 38 */
FRAC16(+0.982287), FRAC16(+0.187381), /* 39 */
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
157
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(-0.904827),
FRAC16(-0.535827),
FRAC16(+0.770513),
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(-0.876307),
FRAC16(+0.368125),
FRAC16(+0.968583),
FRAC16(-0.125333),
FRAC16(-0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.425779),
FRAC16(+0.844328),
FRAC16(+0.637424),
FRAC16(-0.684547),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.481754),
FRAC16(+0.929776),
FRAC16(-0.248690),
FRAC16(-0.992115),
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
};
/******************************************************************************/
/* f = 120kHz
*/
/******************************************************************************/
const Word16 K120[2 * DEMFSK_FRAMELEN] = {
/* real part
imag part */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 0 */
FRAC16(+0.062791), FRAC16(-0.998027), /* 1 */
FRAC16(-0.992115), FRAC16(-0.125333), /* 2 */
FRAC16(-0.187381), FRAC16(+0.982287), /* 3 */
FRAC16(+0.968583), FRAC16(+0.248690), /* 4 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 5 */
FRAC16(-0.929776), FRAC16(-0.368125), /* 6 */
FRAC16(-0.425779), FRAC16(+0.904827), /* 7 */
FRAC16(+0.876307), FRAC16(+0.481754), /* 8 */
FRAC16(+0.535827), FRAC16(-0.844328), /* 9 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(-0.587785), /* 10 */
FRAC16(-0.637424), FRAC16(+0.770513), /* 11 */
FRAC16(+0.728969), FRAC16(+0.684547), /* 12 */
FRAC16(+0.728969), FRAC16(-0.684547), /* 13 */
FRAC16(-0.637424), FRAC16(-0.770513), /* 14 */
FRAC16(-0.809017), FRAC16(+0.587785), /* 15 */
FRAC16(+0.535827), FRAC16(+0.844328), /* 16 */
FRAC16(+0.876307), FRAC16(-0.481754), /* 17 */
FRAC16(-0.425779), FRAC16(-0.904827), /* 18 */
FRAC16(-0.929776), FRAC16(+0.368125), /* 19 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(+0.951057), /* 20 */
FRAC16(+0.968583), FRAC16(-0.248690), /* 21 */
FRAC16(-0.187381), FRAC16(-0.982287), /* 22 */
FRAC16(-0.992115), FRAC16(+0.125333), /* 23 */
FRAC16(+0.062791), FRAC16(+0.998027), /* 24 */
FRAC16(+1.000000), FRAC16(+0.000000), /* 25 */
FRAC16(+0.062791), FRAC16(-0.998027), /* 26 */
FRAC16(-0.992115), FRAC16(-0.125333), /* 27 */
FRAC16(-0.187381), FRAC16(+0.982287), /* 28 */
FRAC16(+0.968583), FRAC16(+0.248690), /* 29 */
FRAC16(+0.309017), FRAC16(-0.951057), /* 30 */
FRAC16(-0.929776), FRAC16(-0.368125), /* 31 */
FRAC16(-0.425779), FRAC16(+0.904827), /* 32 */
FRAC16(+0.876307), FRAC16(+0.481754), /* 33 */
Designer Reference Manual
158
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Source Code Files
appconfig.h
FRAC16(+0.535827),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(-0.637424),
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(+0.728969),
FRAC16(-0.637424),
FRAC16(-0.809017),
FRAC16(+0.535827),
FRAC16(+0.876307),
FRAC16(-0.425779),
FRAC16(-0.929776),
FRAC16(+0.309017),
FRAC16(+0.968583),
FRAC16(-0.187381),
FRAC16(-0.992115),
FRAC16(+0.062791),
FRAC16(-0.844328),
FRAC16(-0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.770513),
FRAC16(+0.684547),
FRAC16(-0.684547),
FRAC16(-0.770513),
FRAC16(+0.587785),
FRAC16(+0.844328),
FRAC16(-0.481754),
FRAC16(-0.904827),
FRAC16(+0.368125),
FRAC16(+0.951057),
FRAC16(-0.248690),
FRAC16(-0.982287),
FRAC16(+0.125333),
FRAC16(+0.998027),
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
};
C.18 appconfig.h
/*****************************************************************************
*
* Motorola Inc.
* (c) Copyright 2000 Motorola, Inc.
* ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
*
******************************************************************************
*
* File Name: appconfig.h
*
* Description: file for static configuration of the application
*
(initial values, interrupt vectors)
*
* Modules Included:
*
*****************************************************************************/
#ifndef __APPCONFIG_H
#define __APPCONFIG_H
/*.********************************************************************
*
*
RADEGAST configuration file generated by Hawk Configuration Tool
*
***********************************************************************.*/
#define
#define
DSP56F801
EXTCLK
8000000L
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
159
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
/*.
OCCS, COP & External interrupts configuration
------------------------------------------Core freq.=80.000 MHz, IPBus freq.=40.000 MHz
COP disabled, COP period =838.86 ms
External interrupts: None
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
.*/
#define COP_TIMEOUT_REG
extern void Start(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_1
0x0fff
Start
/*.
Quad Timer C2 configuration
---------------------------Count mode: No operation
Primary count source: Prescaler (IP BUS clock divide by 1)
Secondary count source: Counter #0 input pin
Input polarity: True polarity
Output polarity: True polarity
Input capture mode: Capture disabled, input edge flag INTdisabled
Output capture mode: Toggle OFLAG output on succesful compare
Count once: Count repeatedly
Count direction: Count up
Coinit disabled, Master mode disabled, Output disabled
Interrupts: None
.*/
#define QT_C2_CONTROL_REG
#define QT_C2_COMPARE_REG1
0x1023
0x0027
/*.
Quad Timer D1 configuration
---------------------------Count mode: No operation
Primary count source: Prescaler (IP BUS clock divide by 1)
Secondary count source: Counter #0 input pin
Input polarity: True polarity
Output polarity: True polarity
Input capture mode: Capture disabled, input edge flag INTdisabled
Output capture mode: Asserted while counter is active
Count once: Count repeatedly
Count direction: Count up
Coinit disabled, Master mode disabled, Output disabled
Interrupts: Compare interrupt
.*/
#define QT_D1_CONTROL_REG
#define QT_D1_STATUS_CONTROL_REG
extern void tmrfskBitISR(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_31
0x1020
0x4000
tmrfskBitISR
Designer Reference Manual
160
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
appconfig.h
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_31
0x0002
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/*.
Quad Timer D2 configuration
---------------------------Count mode: No operation
Primary count source: Prescaler (IP BUS clock divide by 1)
Secondary count source: Counter #0 input pin
Input polarity: True polarity
Output polarity: True polarity
Input capture mode: Capture disabled, input edge flag INTdisabled
Output capture mode: Toggle OFLAG output on succesful compare
Count once: Count repeatedly
Count direction: Count up
Coinit disabled, Master mode disabled, Output enabled
Interrupts: None
.*/
#define QT_D2_CONTROL_REG
#define QT_D2_STATUS_CONTROL_REG
0x1023
0x0001
/*.
Quad Timer D3 configuration
---------------------------Count mode: No operation
Primary count source: Prescaler (IP BUS clock divide by 128)
Secondary count source: Counter #0 input pin
Input polarity: True polarity
Output polarity: True polarity
Input capture mode: Capture disabled, input edge flag INTdisabled
Output capture mode: Asserted while counter is active
Count once: Count until compare and stop
Count direction: Count up
Coinit disabled, Master mode disabled, Output disabled
Interrupts: Compare interrupt
.*/
#define QT_D3_CONTROL_REG
0x1e60
#define QT_D3_STATUS_CONTROL_REG
0x4000
extern void tmrfskTimeOutISR(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_33
tmrfskTimeOutISR
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_33
0x0001
/*.
Analog to digital converter A configuration
-------------------------------------------Clock frequency = 5.000 MHz
Trigger source: SYNC input
Scan mode: Triggered Sequential
Sample 0 mapped to AN0, zero crossing disabled
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
161
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Interrupts: End of scan
.*/
#define ADC_A_CONTROL_REG1
0x1804
/*Stop off */
#define ADC_A_CONTROL_REG2
0x0003
#define ADC_A_CHANNEL_LIST_REG1
0x3210
#define ADC_A_CHANNEL_LIST_REG2
0x7654
#define ADC_A_SAMPLE_DISABLE_REG
0x00fe
/*only Sample 0 is enabled */
#define ADC_A_OFFSET_REG0
0x3ffc
/*Offset for signed results */
extern void demfskEndOfScanISR(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_55
demfskEndOfScanISR
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_55
0x0005
/*.
Serial communication interface 0 configuration
----------------------------------------------Baud rate: Not defined Bd
Receiver: enabled
Transmitter: enabled
Data word length: 8 bits
Parity: None
Polarity: True polarity
Wake-up condition: By idle
Wait mode function: SCI disabled in Wait Mode
Loop mode: Disabled
Interrupts: None
.*/
#define SCI_0_CONTROL_REG
0x000c
/*SCI Rx Full ISR disabled */
extern void scicommTxEmpISR(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_51
scicommTxEmpISR
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_51
0x0001
extern void scicommRxFullISR(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_53
scicommRxFullISR
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_53
0x0001
extern void scicommRxErrISR(void);
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_52
scicommRxErrISR
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_52
0x0002
/*.
GPIO B configuration
--------------------Pin 0 - Direction: Input, Mode: Peripheral, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 1 - Direction: Input, Mode: Peripheral, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 2 - Direction: Input, Mode: Peripheral, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 3 - Direction: Input, Mode: Peripheral, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 4 - Direction: Output, Mode: GPIO, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 5 - Direction: Output, Mode: GPIO, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 6 - Direction: Output, Mode: GPIO, Pull-up: Disable
Pin 7 - Direction: Output, Mode: GPIO, Pull-up: Disable
GPIO interrupt disabled
Designer Reference Manual
162
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
appconfig.h
.*/
#define GPIO_B_DATA_DIRECTION_REG 0x00f0
#define GPIO_B_PERIPHERAL_ENABLE_REG 0x000f
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
/*.
End of autogenerated code
*************************************************** ..*/
/*****************************************************************************
* N O T E S
*****************************************************************************/
/*
C O P
/* Initially the COP module is disabled by startup.asm code but when there is
/* the global define
/* #define PL_COPINUSE
/* if defined the Watch Dog is used */
/* placed in the pl.h file, it finally switch the COP on */
/*
T M R
D 1
/* There is no definition for TmrD1 Compare register 1 value in appconfig.h
/* configuration, it depends on the global define placed in the pl.h file:
/* #define PL_PLBAUDRATEPL_10000BPS/* choose: PL_10000BPS */
/*
T M R
D 2
/* There is no valid definition of TmrD2 Compare register 1 value in appconfig.h
/* configuration, it depends on the global define placed in the pl.h file:
/* #define PL_CARRIERLOW
CARRIERLOW_110KHZ10KBPS */
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
T M R
D 3
There is a zero value of TmrD3 Compare register 1 written in appconfig.h
configuration, this register is filled according the global define
#define PL_TIMEOUTVALUE 1000/* time out of SCI receive */
placed in the pl.h file */
/*
S C I
/* There is no definition for SCI baudrate value in appconfig.h configuration,
/* it depends on the global define placed in the pl.h file:
/* #define PL_SCIBAUDRATE
SCI_BAUD_38400/* choose: SCI_BAUD_38400 */
/* not tested: SCI_BAUD_4800
SCI_BAUD_9600
SCI_BAUD_19200 */
/*****************************************************************************
*
* Interrupt vectors definition
*
*****************************************************************************/
/*
Example of interrupt vector definition:
extern void userISRFunction(void);
prototype of the ISR must be
placed in your code
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
163
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
#define INT_VECTOR_ADDR_yy
#define ITCN_INT_PRIORITY_yy
userISRFunction
value 0-7 (0 = disabled,
(1 = lowest interrupt priority,
7 = highest interrupt priority)
where:
yy
is interrupt vector number
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
*/
/*****************************************************************************
*
* Default components initialization values
*
*****************************************************************************/
/*
Example of initialization values definition for GPIO:
#define
#define
GPIO_x_PERIPHERAL_ENABLE_REG
GPIO_x_DATA_DIRECTION_REG
0x0000
0x0000
where:
x
is GPIO port
*/
#endif
C.19 linker_flash.cmd
MEMORY {
.pflash
.pram
.bflash
.avail
.cwregs
(RX)
(RWX)
(RX)
(RW)
(RW)
:
:
:
:
:
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
=
=
=
=
=
0x0000,
0x7C00,
0x8000,
0x0000,
0x0030,
LENGTH
LENGTH
LENGTH
LENGTH
LENGTH
=
=
=
=
=
0x2000
0x0400
0x0800
0x0030
0x0010
.data
.stack
.regs
.xflash
(RW)
(RW)
(RW)
(R)
:
:
:
:
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
ORIGIN
=
=
=
=
0x0040,
0x0300,
0x0C00,
0x1000,
LENGTH
LENGTH
LENGTH
LENGTH
=
=
=
=
0x02C0
0x0100
0x0400
0x0800
.onchip (RW)
: ORIGIN = 0xFF80, LENGTH = 0x0080
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
program flash memory
program ram memory
boot flash memory
available
C temp registrs in
CodeWarrior
data
stack
periperal registers
flash memory to place
constant and initialized
values for data
on-chip core
configuration registers
}
FORCE_ACTIVE {FconfigInterruptVector, boot_start}
Designer Reference Manual
164
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
linker_flash.cmd
FORCE_ACTIVE {FK100, FK105, FK110, FK115, FK120}
FORCE_ACTIVE {FprevSample, FpxBuf, Fdemfsk_NewFrmCounter}
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SECTIONS {
.main_Application_code :
{
config.c (.text)
*(Startup.text)
*(Main.text)
*(rtlib.text)
*(fp_engine.text)
*(.text)
} > .pflash
.flash_booting :
{
*(Boot.text)
} > .bflash
.internal_memory_30:
{
OBJECT (FprevSample, demfsk.c)
OBJECT (FpxBuf, demfsk.c)
OBJECT (Fdemfsk_NewFrmCounter, demfsk.c)
} > .avail
.main_Application_constants :
{
_consts_start= .;
#place your constants here: const.c (.data)
FECtable.c (.data)
# place constants into the XFlash area
CRCtable.c (.data)
demfskconst.c (.data)
_consts_size= . - _consts_start;
F_Xdata_start_in_ROM = .;
} > .xflash
.main_application_data : AT (ADDR(.xflash)+_consts_size)
#init values of global variables are placed in xflash after constants
{
F_StackAddr
= ADDR(.stack);
F_StackEndAddr = ADDR(.stack) + SIZEOF(.stack) / 2 - 1;
F_Xdata_start_in_RAM = .;
_data_start= .;
* (.data)
* (fp_state.data)
* (rtlib.data)
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
165
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Source Code Files
. = ALIGN(0x80);
OBJECT (FxBuf, demfsk.c)
. = ALIGN(0x80);
OBJECT (FbBuf, demfsk.c)
# these definitions must be above * (.bss)
* (.bss)
* (rtlib.bss.lo)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
F_Xdata_size = . - _data_start;
} > .data
FArchIO
= ADDR(.regs);
FArchCore = ADDR(.onchip);
}
Designer Reference Manual
166
DRM035 — Rev 0
Source Code Files
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Designer Reference Manual — PLM
Appendix D. Glossary
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A — See “accumulators (A and B or D).”
accumulators (A and B or D) — Two 8-bit (A and B) or one 16-bit (D) general-purpose registers
in the CPU. The CPU uses the accumulators to hold operands and results of arithmetic
and logic operations.
acquisition mode — A mode of PLL operation with large loop bandwidth. Also see ’tracking
mode’.
address bus — The set of wires that the CPU or DMA uses to read and write memory locations.
addressing mode — The way that the CPU determines the operand address for an instruction.
The M68HC12 CPU has 15 addressing modes.
ALU — See “arithmetic logic unit (ALU).”
analogue-to-digital converter (ATD) — The ATD module is an 8-channel, multiplexed-input
successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter.
arithmetic logic unit (ALU) — The portion of the CPU that contains the logic circuitry to perform
arithmetic, logic, and manipulation operations on operands.
asynchronous — Refers to logic circuits and operations that are not synchronized by a common
reference signal.
ATD — See “analogue-to-digital converter”.
B — See “accumulators (A and B or D).”
baud rate — The total number of bits transmitted per unit of time.
BCD — See “binary-coded decimal (BCD).”
binary — Relating to the base 2 number system.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
167
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
binary number system — The base 2 number system, having two digits, 0 and 1. Binary
arithmetic is convenient in digital circuit design because digital circuits have two
permissible voltage levels, low and high. The binary digits 0 and 1 can be interpreted to
correspond to the two digital voltage levels.
binary-coded decimal (BCD) — A notation that uses 4-bit binary numbers to represent the 10
decimal digits and that retains the same positional structure of a decimal number. For
example,
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
234 (decimal) = 0010 0011 0100 (BCD)
bit — A binary digit. A bit has a value of either logic 0 or logic 1.
branch instruction — An instruction that causes the CPU to continue processing at a memory
location other than the next sequential address.
break module — The break module allows software to halt program execution at a
programmable point in order to enter a background routine.
breakpoint — A number written into the break address registers of the break module. When a
number appears on the internal address bus that is the same as the number in the break
address registers, the CPU executes the software interrupt instruction (SWI).
break interrupt — A software interrupt caused by the appearance on the internal address bus
of the same value that is written in the break address registers.
bus — A set of wires that transfers logic signals.
bus clock — See "CPU clock".
byte — A set of eight bits.
CAN — See "Motorola scalable CAN."
CCR — See “condition code register.”
central processor unit (CPU) — The primary functioning unit of any computer system. The
CPU controls the execution of instructions.
CGM — See “clock generator module (CGM).”
clear — To change a bit from logic 1 to logic 0; the opposite of set.
clock — A square wave signal used to synchronize events in a computer.
clock generator module (CGM) — The CGM module generates a base clock signal from which
the system clocks are derived. The CGM may include a crystal oscillator circuit and/or
phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit.
Designer Reference Manual
168
DRM035 — Rev 0
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
comparator — A device that compares the magnitude of two inputs. A digital comparator defines
the equality or relative differences between two binary numbers.
computer operating properly module (COP) — A counter module that resets the MCU if
allowed to overflow.
condition code register (CCR) — An 8-bit register in the CPU that contains the interrupt mask
bit and five bits that indicate the results of the instruction just executed.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
control bit — One bit of a register manipulated by software to control the operation of the
module.
control unit — One of two major units of the CPU. The control unit contains logic functions that
synchronize the machine and direct various operations. The control unit decodes
instructions and generates the internal control signals that perform the requested
operations. The outputs of the control unit drive the execution unit, which contains the
arithmetic logic unit (ALU), CPU registers, and bus interface.
COP — See "computer operating properly module (COP)."
CPU — See “central processor unit (CPU).”
CPU12 — The CPU of the MC68HC12 Family.
CPU clock — Bus clock select bits BCSP and BCSS in the clock select register (CLKSEL)
determine which clock drives SYSCLK for the main system, including the CPU and buses.
When EXTALi drives the SYSCLK, the CPU or bus clock frequency (fo) is equal to the
EXTALi frequency divided by 2.
CPU cycles — A CPU cycle is one period of the internal bus clock, normally derived by dividing
a crystal oscillator source by two or more so the high and low times will be equal. The
length of time required to execute an instruction is measured in CPU clock cycles.
CPU registers — Memory locations that are wired directly into the CPU logic instead of being
part of the addressable memory map. The CPU always has direct access to the
information in these registers. The CPU registers in an M68HC12 are:
•
A (8-bit accumulator)
•
B (8-bit accumulator)
– D (16-bit accumulator formed by concatenation of
accumulators A and B)
•
IX (16-bit index register)
•
IY (16-bit index register)
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
169
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
•
SP (16-bit stack pointer)
•
PC (16-bit program counter)
• CCR (8-bit condition code register)
cycle time — The period of the operating frequency: tCYC = 1/fOP.
D — See “accumulators (A and B or D).”
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
decimal number system — Base 10 numbering system that uses the digits zero through nine.
duty cycle — A ratio of the amount of time the signal is on versus the time it is off. Duty cycle is
usually represented by a percentage.
ECT — See “enhanced capture timer.”
EEPROM — Electrically erasable, programmable, read-only memory. A nonvolatile type of
memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
EPROM — Erasable, programmable, read-only memory. A nonvolatile type of memory that can
be erased by exposure to an ultraviolet light source and then reprogrammed.
enhanced capture timer (ECT) — The HC12 Enhanced Capture Timer module has the features
of the HC12 Standard Timer module enhanced by additional features in order to enlarge
the field of applications.
exception — An event such as an interrupt or a reset that stops the sequential execution of the
instructions in the main program.
fetch — To copy data from a memory location into the accumulator.
firmware — Instructions and data programmed into nonvolatile memory.
free-running counter — A device that counts from zero to a predetermined number, then rolls
over to zero and begins counting again.
full-duplex transmission — Communication on a channel in which data can be sent and
received simultaneously.
hexadecimal — Base 16 numbering system that uses the digits 0 through 9 and the letters A
through F.
high byte — The most significant eight bits of a word.
illegal address — An address not within the memory map
illegal opcode — A nonexistent opcode.
Designer Reference Manual
170
DRM035 — Rev 0
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
index registers (IX and IY) — Two 16-bit registers in the CPU. In the indexed addressing
modes, the CPU uses the contents of IX or IY to determine the effective address of the
operand. IX and IY can also serve as a temporary data storage locations.
input/output (I/O) — Input/output interfaces between a computer system and the external world.
A CPU reads an input to sense the level of an external signal and writes to an output to
change the level on an external signal.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
instructions — Operations that a CPU can perform. Instructions are expressed by programmers
as assembly language mnemonics. A CPU interprets an opcode and its associated
operand(s) and instruction.
inter-IC bus (I2C) — A two-wire, bidirectional serial bus that provides a simple, efficient method
of data exchange between devices.
interrupt — A temporary break in the sequential execution of a program to respond to signals
from peripheral devices by executing a subroutine.
interrupt request — A signal from a peripheral to the CPU intended to cause the CPU to
execute a subroutine.
I/O — See “input/output (I/0).”
jitter — Short-term signal instability.
latch — A circuit that retains the voltage level (logic 1 or logic 0) written to it for as long as power
is applied to the circuit.
latency — The time lag between instruction completion and data movement.
least significant bit (LSB) — The rightmost digit of a binary number.
logic 1 — A voltage level approximately equal to the input power voltage (VDD).
logic 0 — A voltage level approximately equal to the ground voltage (VSS).
low byte — The least significant eight bits of a word.
M68HC12 — A Motorola family of 16-bit MCUs.
mark/space — The logic 1/logic 0 convention used in formatting data in serial communication.
mask — 1. A logic circuit that forces a bit or group of bits to a desired state. 2. A photomask used
in integrated circuit fabrication to transfer an image onto silicon.
MCU — Microcontroller unit. See “microcontroller.”
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
171
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
memory location — Each M68HC12 memory location holds one byte of data and has a unique
address. To store information in a memory location, the CPU places the address of the
location on the address bus, the data information on the data bus, and asserts the write
signal. To read information from a memory location, the CPU places the address of the
location on the address bus and asserts the read signal. In response to the read signal,
the selected memory location places its data onto the data bus.
memory map — A pictorial representation of all memory locations in a computer system.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MI-Bus — See "Motorola interconnect bus".
microcontroller — Microcontroller unit (MCU). A complete computer system, including a CPU,
memory, a clock oscillator, and input/output (I/O) on a single integrated circuit.
modulo counter — A counter that can be programmed to count to any number from zero to its
maximum possible modulus.
most significant bit (MSB) — The leftmost digit of a binary number.
Motorola interconnect bus (MI-Bus) — The Motorola Interconnect Bus (MI Bus) is a serial
communications protocol which supports distributed real-time control efficiently and with
a high degree of noise immunity.
Motorola scalable CAN (msCAN) — The Motorola scalable controller area network is a serial
communications protocol that efficiently supports distributed real-time control with a very
high level of data integrity.
msCAN — See "Motorola scalable CAN".
MSI — See "multiple serial interface".
multiple serial interface — A module consisting of multiple independent serial I/O sub-systems,
e.g. two SCI and one SPI.
multiplexer — A device that can select one of a number of inputs and pass the logic level of that
input on to the output.
nibble — A set of four bits (half of a byte).
object code — The output from an assembler or compiler that is itself executable machine code,
or is suitable for processing to produce executable machine code.
opcode — A binary code that instructs the CPU to perform an operation.
open-drain — An output that has no pullup transistor. An external pullup device can be
connected to the power supply to provide the logic 1 output voltage.
Designer Reference Manual
172
DRM035 — Rev 0
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
operand — Data on which an operation is performed. Usually a statement consists of an
operator and an operand. For example, the operator may be an add instruction, and the
operand may be the quantity to be added.
oscillator — A circuit that produces a constant frequency square wave that is used by the
computer as a timing and sequencing reference.
OTPROM — One-time programmable read-only memory. A nonvolatile type of memory that
cannot be reprogrammed.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
overflow — A quantity that is too large to be contained in one byte or one word.
page zero — The first 256 bytes of memory (addresses $0000–$00FF).
parity — An error-checking scheme that counts the number of logic 1s in each byte transmitted.
In a system that uses odd parity, every byte is expected to have an odd number of logic
1s. In an even parity system, every byte should have an even number of logic 1s. In the
transmitter, a parity generator appends an extra bit to each byte to make the number of
logic 1s odd for odd parity or even for even parity. A parity checker in the receiver counts
the number of logic 1s in each byte. The parity checker generates an error signal if it finds
a byte with an incorrect number of logic 1s.
PC — See “program counter (PC).”
peripheral — A circuit not under direct CPU control.
phase-locked loop (PLL) — A clock generator circuit in which a voltage controlled oscillator
produces an oscillation which is synchronized to a reference signal.
PLL — See "phase-locked loop (PLL)."
pointer — Pointer register. An index register is sometimes called a pointer register because its
contents are used in the calculation of the address of an operand, and therefore points to
the operand.
polarity — The two opposite logic levels, logic 1 and logic 0, which correspond to two different
voltage levels, VDD and VSS.
polling — Periodically reading a status bit to monitor the condition of a peripheral device.
port — A set of wires for communicating with off-chip devices.
prescaler — A circuit that generates an output signal related to the input signal by a fractional
scale factor such as 1/2, 1/8, 1/10 etc.
program — A set of computer instructions that cause a computer to perform a desired operation
or operations.
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
173
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
program counter (PC) — A 16-bit register in the CPU. The PC register holds the address of the
next instruction or operand that the CPU will use.
pull — An instruction that copies into the accumulator the contents of a stack RAM location. The
stack RAM address is in the stack pointer.
pullup — A transistor in the output of a logic gate that connects the output to the logic 1 voltage
of the power supply.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
pulse-width — The amount of time a signal is on as opposed to being in its off state.
pulse-width modulation (PWM) — Controlled variation (modulation) of the pulse width of a
signal with a constant frequency.
push — An instruction that copies the contents of the accumulator to the stack RAM. The stack
RAM address is in the stack pointer.
PWM period — The time required for one complete cycle of a PWM waveform.
RAM — Random access memory. All RAM locations can be read or written by the CPU. The
contents of a RAM memory location remain valid until the CPU writes a different value or
until power is turned off.
RC circuit — A circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors having a defined time constant.
read — To copy the contents of a memory location to the accumulator.
register — A circuit that stores a group of bits.
reserved memory location — A memory location that is used only in special factory test modes.
Writing to a reserved location has no effect. Reading a reserved location returns an
unpredictable value.
reset — To force a device to a known condition.
SCI — See "serial communication interface module (SCI)."
serial — Pertaining to sequential transmission over a single line.
serial communications interface module (SCI) — A module that supports asynchronous
communication.
serial peripheral interface module (SPI) — A module that supports synchronous
communication.
set — To change a bit from logic 0 to logic 1; opposite of clear.
Designer Reference Manual
174
DRM035 — Rev 0
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
shift register — A chain of circuits that can retain the logic levels (logic 1 or logic 0) written to
them and that can shift the logic levels to the right or left through adjacent circuits in the
chain.
signed — A binary number notation that accommodates both positive and negative numbers.
The most significant bit is used to indicate whether the number is positive or negative,
normally logic 0 for positive and logic 1 for negative. The other seven bits indicate the
magnitude of the number.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
software — Instructions and data that control the operation of a microcontroller.
software interrupt (SWI) — An instruction that causes an interrupt and its associated vector
fetch.
SPI — See "serial peripheral interface module (SPI)."
stack — A portion of RAM reserved for storage of CPU register contents and subroutine return
addresses.
stack pointer (SP) — A 16-bit register in the CPU containing the address of the next available
storage location on the stack.
start bit — A bit that signals the beginning of an asynchronous serial transmission.
status bit — A register bit that indicates the condition of a device.
stop bit — A bit that signals the end of an asynchronous serial transmission.
subroutine — A sequence of instructions to be used more than once in the course of a program.
The last instruction in a subroutine is a return from subroutine (RTS) instruction. At each
place in the main program where the subroutine instructions are needed, a jump or branch
to subroutine (JSR or BSR) instruction is used to call the subroutine. The CPU leaves the
flow of the main program to execute the instructions in the subroutine. When the RTS
instruction is executed, the CPU returns to the main program where it left off.
synchronous — Refers to logic circuits and operations that are synchronized by a common
reference signal.
timer — A module used to relate events in a system to a point in time.
toggle — To change the state of an output from a logic 0 to a logic 1 or from a logic 1 to a logic 0.
tracking mode — A mode of PLL operation with narrow loop bandwidth. Also see ‘acquisition
mode.’
DRM035 — Rev 0
MOTOROLA
Designer Reference Manual
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
175
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Glossary
two’s complement — A means of performing binary subtraction using addition techniques. The
most significant bit of a two’s complement number indicates the sign of the number (1
indicates negative). The two’s complement negative of a number is obtained by inverting
each bit in the number and then adding 1 to the result.
unbuffered — Utilizes only one register for data; new data overwrites current data.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
unimplemented memory location — A memory location that is not used. Writing to an
unimplemented location has no effect. Reading an unimplemented location returns an
unpredictable value.
variable — A value that changes during the course of program execution.
VCO — See "voltage-controlled oscillator."
vector — A memory location that contains the address of the beginning of a subroutine written
to service an interrupt or reset.
voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) — A circuit that produces an oscillating output signal of a
frequency that is controlled by a dc voltage applied to a control input.
waveform — A graphical representation in which the amplitude of a wave is plotted against time.
wired-OR — Connection of circuit outputs so that if any output is high, the connection point is
high.
word — A set of two bytes (16 bits).
write — The transfer of a byte of data from the CPU to a memory location.
Designer Reference Manual
176
DRM035 — Rev 0
Glossary
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
HOW TO REACH US:
USA/EUROPE/LOCATIONS NOT LISTED:
Motorola Literature Distribution;
P.O. Box 5405, Denver, Colorado 80217
1-303-675-2140 or 1-800-441-2447
JAPAN:
Motorola Japan Ltd.; SPS, Technical Information Center,
3-20-1, Minami-Azabu Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8573 Japan
81-3-3440-3569
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
ASIA/PACIFIC:
Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.;
Silicon Harbour Centre, 2 Dai King Street,
Tai Po Industrial Estate, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong
852-26668334
Information in this document is provided solely to enable system and software
implementers to use Motorola products. There are no express or implied copyright
licenses granted hereunder to design or fabricate any integrated circuits or
integrated circuits based on the information in this document.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER:
Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products
1-800-521-6274
herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the
suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any
HOME PAGE:
http://motorola.com/semiconductors
liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically
disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental
damages. “Typical” parameters which may be provided in Motorola data sheets
and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual
performance may vary over time. All operating parameters, including “Typicals”
must be validated for each customer application by customer’s technical experts.
Motorola does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of
others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as
components in systems intended for surgical implant into the body, or other
applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which
the failure of the Motorola product could create a situation where personal injury or
death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such
unintended or unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola
and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless
against all claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable attorney fees
arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated
with such unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Motorola
was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part.
Motorola and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark
Office. digital dna is a trademark of Motorola, Inc. All other product or service
names are the property of their respective owners. Motorola, Inc. is an Equal
Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
© Motorola, Inc. 2003
DRM035/D
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement