Mesh Generator

Mesh Generator
Mesh
Generator
Version 1.2
User’s Manual
Copyright © 1988-2003 Amtec Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. Except for personal use, this manual
may not be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated in any form, in whole or in
part, without the express written permission of Amtec Engineering, Inc., 13920 Southeast Eastgate Way, Suite 220,
Bellevue, Washington, 98005, U.S.A.
This software and documentation are furnished under license for utilization and duplication only according to the
license terms. Documentation is provided for information only. It is subject to change without notice. It should not be
interpreted as a commitment by Amtec Engineering, Inc. Amtec assumes no liability or responsibility for documentation errors or inaccuracies.
SOFTWARE COPYRIGHTS
Mesh Generator, Tecplot RS, Tecplot © 1988-2003 Amtec Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.
ENCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Software Library and Utilities © 1988-1998 The Board of Trustees of the
University of Illinois. All rights reserved. Contributors include National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA) at the University of Illinois, Fortner Software (Windows and Mac), Unidata Program Center (netCDF), The
Independent JPEG Group (JPEG), Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler (gzip). Bmptopnm, Netpbm © 1992 David W.
Sanderson. Dlcompat © 2002 Jorge Acereda, additions and modifications by Peter O’Gorman. Ppmtopict © 1990 Ken
Yap.
TRADEMARKS
Mesh Generator, Tecplot RS, Tecplot, Preplot, Framer and Amtec are registered trademarks or trademarks of Amtec
Engineering, Inc.
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NOTICE TO U.S. GOVERNMENT END-USERS
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (a)
through (d) of the Commercial Computer-Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52.227-19 when applicable, or in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013, and/or in similar or successor clauses in the DOD or NASA FAR Supplement. Contractor/manufacturer is Amtec Engineering, Inc.,
Post Office Box 3633, Bellevue, WA 98009-3633.
ii
Contents
CHAPTER 1
Getting Started
1
Starting and Stopping Mesh Generator
1
Starting and Stopping on UNIX Systems 1
Starting and Stopping on Windows Systems 2
Getting Acquainted with Mesh Generator
Creating Simple Meshes 3
2
Mesh Generation 3
Creating the Boundaries 4
Creating the Mesh 9
Modifying and Converting Boundaries and Meshes
11
Modifying Boundaries 12
Modifying Meshes 13
Converting Meshes 14
Saving Your Work
Import NURB File
Open Project 16
Save Project 16
Mesh Output 16
15
16
Macro Files 17
Getting Help in Mesh Generator
CHAPTER 2
Creating Boundaries
17
19
Polylines 19
Line Definition 20
Node Distribution 22
iii
Contents
Labeling a Polyline 22
Creating a Polyline 23
Circular Arcs
23
Line Definition 24
Node Distribution 25
Labeling a Circular Arc Boundary 25
Creating a Circular Arc Boundary 25
Conic Arcs
25
Line Definition 25
Node Distribution 27
Labeling a Conic Arc Boundary 27
Creating a Conic Arc Boundary 27
Importing Boundary Files
29
Loading Tecplot Data Files 29
Importing NURB Files 30
Creating New Boundaries from Existing Boundaries
Creating Boundary Lines from Existing Lines 31
Labeling the Boundary 32
Creating the Boundary 32
Extracting New Boundaries
33
Extracting from a Selected Line 33
Labeling the Boundary 35
Creating the Boundary 35
Extracting from a Selected Mesh 35
Labeling the Boundary 36
Creating the Boundary 36
Distributing Nodes Along the Boundaries 37
Node Distribution 37
Number of Nodes 38
Node Spacing 39
Interpolation 40
Editing a Selected Line 41
Deleting a Selected Line 42
Displaying Selected Line Information
CHAPTER 3
Creating Structured Meshes
Creating Algebraic or Elliptic Meshes
iv
42
45
45
30
Specifying Boundaries 46
Algebraic Mesh Control 47
Labeling an Algebraic Structured Mesh 48
Creating an Algebraic Structured Mesh 48
Elliptic Mesh Control 48
Labeling an Elliptic Structured Mesh 49
Creating an Elliptic Structured Mesh 49
Creating Hyperbolic Meshes
51
Specifying Boundaries 51
Hyperbolic Mesh Control 52
Labeling a Hyperbolic Structured Mesh 53
Creating a Hyperbolic Structured Mesh 53
Editing and Deleting Structured Meshes 55
Mesh Connectivity 55
CHAPTER 4
Creating Unstructured Meshes
Selecting Closed-Loop Boundaries 59
Unstructured Mesh Control 61
Editing and Deleting Unstructured Meshes
Unstructured Mesh Creation
CHAPTER 5
Exporting Meshes
59
61
62
65
Selecting the Format 65
The Tecplot Format 66
The PLOT3D Format 68
Mesh Conversion
69
Conversion to a Single Quadrilateral Zone 70
Conversion to a Single Triangular Zone 71
CHAPTER 6
Extended Macros
73
The ADDONCOMMAND Tecplot Macro
Macro Command Summary 74
Macro Commands 75
Parameter Assignment Values 94
73
v
Contents
Raw Data
CHAPTER 7
95
Examples
97
Two-Dimensional Flat Plate Example with a Structured
Mesh 97
Creating the Boundary 97
Creating an Algebraic Mesh 100
Editing to Create an Elliptic Mesh 101
Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hyperbolic Structured
Mesh 102
Creating Branch Connectors 102
Creating a Hyperbolic Mesh 104
Editing the Hyperbolic Mesh 105
Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hybrid Mesh
106
Creating Element Extensions 106
Creating the Hyperbolic Meshes 107
Extracting to Create Internal Boundaries 108
Creating a Circular Outer Boundary 109
Creating the Unstructured Mesh 109
Editing the Unstructured Mesh 110
Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Modified C-Mesh
Creating the Hyperbolic Meshes 111
Extracting the Downstream Boundaries 112
Creating the Mixing Region Meshes 113
Extractng to Create Internal Boundaries 114
Creating the Circular Outer Boundary 114
Creating the Unstructured Mesh 115
CHAPTER 8
vi
Index
117
111
CHAPTER 1
Getting Started
Mesh Generator is a Tecplot add-on that provides the ability to create multi-zone two-dimensional meshes. Both IJ-ordered (structured) and finite-element (unstructured) meshes may be
generated using Mesh Generator. In addition, you can create hybrid meshes that combine both
structured and unstructured mesh zones.
As an add-on, Mesh Generator is a shared library (dynamic link library in Windows) which is
loaded at run time by the $!LOADADDON macro command in the tecplot.add file in your
Tecplot Home Directory. Please refer to the Tecplot User’s Manual for further information
about Tecplot add-ons.
1.1. Starting and Stopping Mesh Generator
The first thing you must know is how to begin a session in Mesh Generator, and how to end a
session. The following describes how to start and stop Mesh Generator on various operating
systems.
1.1.1. Starting and Stopping on UNIX Systems
Once Mesh Generator has been installed simply start Tecplot by your usual method. The words
Mesh Generator should appear in the Tecplot Tools menu. On a UNIX operating system, to
manually load Mesh Generator, type:
tecplot -loadaddon <fullpathname>/libmeshgen
In either case, from the Tecplot menu bar, you should then select the Tools menu, then select
Mesh Generator. The Mesh Generator main dialog will appear; Mesh Generator is now running. You may move the Mesh Generator dialog to the side of the screen to avoid obstructing
the Tecplot workspace.
1
Chapter 1. Getting Started
To end a session in Mesh Generator, simply exit Tecplot. You may close Mesh Generator’s
main dialog by clicking Close on the lower left-hand side of the dialog. Selecting Mesh Generator from the Tools menu on the Tecplot menu bar will call it up again.
1.1.2. Starting and Stopping on Windows Systems
On Windows 95, 98 and NT 4.0, you should first start Tecplot. From the Tecplot menu bar,
select Tools, then select Mesh Generator from the menu. The Mesh Generator main dialog will
appear. Mesh Generator is now running.
To end a session in Mesh Generator, simply exit Tecplot. You may close Mesh Generator’s
main dialog by clicking Close on the lower left-hand side of the dialog. Selecting Mesh Generator from the Tools menu on the Tecplot menu bar will call it up again.
1.2. Getting Acquainted with Mesh Generator
Mesh Generator’s main dialog is shown in Figure 1-1. The Mesh Generator main dialog is
divided up into three menus and a check box:
• File: You may import IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) files containing
NURB (Non-Uniform Rational B-splines) curve entities, read or write a Mesh Generator
project file, or output generated meshes to an external file. A project file is a Tecplot layout
file with Mesh Generator macro commands embedded in it. You can write a project file to
save the current state of the mesh so that it may be used later.
• Boundary: All boundaries are lines which exist as one-dimensional I-ordered Tecplot
zones with added geometry. A user can create and edit boundaries, set and distribute the
nodes along these boundaries, get information about a specific boundary, and delete boundaries.
• Mesh: All two-dimensional zones are called meshes, whether IJ-ordered (structured) or
finite-element (unstructured). Meshes may be generated using one of the four methods
available: algebraic, elliptic, hyperbolic, or unstructured triangulation. Meshes may also be
modified or deleted.
• Hide 2D Mesh: This check box enables or disables all two-dimensional zones. Disabling
makes selecting a line in the current Tecplot frame easier.
The main dialog also provides the number of boundary lines and meshes.
2
1.3. Creating Simple Meshes
Figure 1-1. The
Mesh Generator main dialog.
1.3. Creating Simple Meshes
This section will guide you through the creation of a simple mesh in Mesh Generator. First, it
is helpful to have an introduction to the types of meshes which can be created in Mesh Generator, and the criteria for creating them.
1.3.1. Mesh Generation
Mesh generation information is stored based on Tecplot zones, therefore, you are strongly
encouraged not to delete any zones by using the Delete Zone option under the Data menu in
Tecplot. Instead, Mesh Generator zone deletion (Delete Selected Line or Delete Selected
Mesh) should be used. We also recommend that while using Mesh Generator, all layout and
project reading be done from Mesh Generator’s Open Project option under the File menu. Tecplot’s Open Layout option should only be used by first selecting the New Layout option from
Tecplot’s File menu. Without this, Tecplot’s Open Layout option will create complications in
Mesh Generator.
3
Chapter 1. Getting Started
Mesh Generator creates multi-zone, IJ-ordered (structured) and finite-element (unstructured)
meshes. Two-dimensional meshes are defined by boundary lines. You define the lines and distribute the mesh points (nodes) along them.
Meshes may be generated using one of the four methods available: algebraic, elliptic, hyperbolic, and unstructured Delaunay triangulation. Any combination of structured or unstructured
meshes may be converted into either unstructured triangular meshes or unstructured rectangular meshes during the output operation.
When a mesh is generated using either algebraic or elliptic methods, this surface is defined by
selecting lines that form the four boundaries (IMin, IMax, JMin and JMax) of the mesh.
Hyperbolic mesh generation only requires the mesh be defined by selected lines that form one
boundary (JMin). The two side boundaries (IMin and IMax) may be restricted by selecting
available constraints. However, the fourth boundary (JMax) remains free. This method is very
fast and robust, but because of the free nature of the fourth boundary it may be better suited for
meshes used for external flow calculations.
Unstructured meshes require each boundary to be a closed-loop which starts and ends at the
same point. You can select lines in the current Tecplot frame to be added to a boundary in the
boundary list. When a boundary is not a closed-loop, it is labeled as incomplete in the boundary list. Once the user selects all the lines which make up a closed-loop, it will be shown as
either an external or internal boundary on the list. More than one boundary may be specified
for an unstructured mesh.
1.3.2. Creating the Boundaries
Algebraic and elliptic meshes are formed from bounding edges identified as IMin, IMax, JMin
and JMax, corresponding to the minimum and maximum values of the indices for the two families of lines (I and J) that define the structure (order) of the mesh. The lines defining these
bounding edges are entered into the Algebraic/Elliptic mesh generator by referencing their
Tecplot zone numbers. A minimum of one boundary line is required to define each bounding
edge. However, more than one boundary line may be used. To maintain consistency of the
mesh points, opposing bounding edges must have equal numbers of mesh points. Therefore,
the IMax and IMin edges must both have the same number of mesh points. Similarly, the JMin
and JMax edges must both have an equal number of mesh points.
4
1.3. Creating Simple Meshes
Additionally, these mesh boundaries must be closed and the following points must be coincident:
•
•
•
•
IMin=1 and JMin=1.
IMin=max and JMax=1.
IMax=max and JMax=max.
IMax=1 and JMin=max.
Under these requirements IMin and IMax must increase in the same direction, and JMin and
JMax must increase in the same direction.
Note: When mesh boundaries are created from multiple boundary lines, adjacent lines must
have coincident mesh points (nodes). One of these nodes will be automatically removed after
the boundary is assembled.
1.3.2.1. Creating the JMin Boundary. To create the JMin boundary, perform the following steps:
1.
Click on the Boundary menu, then select the Create Circular Arc option. This will call up
the Circular Arc dialog, shown in Figure 1-2. The first option in the Line Definition area of
the dialog is Specify. Here, there are options: Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle; and Starting, Ending Point, Radius. Click on the latter.
2.
In the Arc area of the dialog, enter 0 for X and 0 for Y in the Start text fields, and 1 for X
and 1 for Y in the End text fields. Accept the remaining default values. Use the Line Label
text field to name this boundary line “b1” and click on Create. The arc will be created in the
current Tecplot frame. Close the Circular Arc dialog.
3.
Now we will add a polyline to the JMin boundary. Call up the Polyline dialog by selecting
the Create Polyline option from the Boundary menu. The Polyline dialog is shown in Figure 1-3.
4.
On the left of this dialog is a list titled Control Points. When you are first defining a new
polyline boundary, this list will be empty. To the right of the Control Points list are two text
fields labeled X and Y. There are three ways to enter the control point values for your
polyline: by using Tecplot’s Selector tool in conjunction with the Select Endpt. button on
the Polyline dialog, by entering the values manually into the text fields, and by converting a
Tecplot geometry. For this polyline we will use the first and second.
5.
With the Tecplot Selector tool click on b1 near one of its nodes closet to its end point of 1,
1. On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt. This inserts b1’s end points into the X and Y
text fields. Click on Insert Before to enter the point into the list. Now enter 5 for X and 1 for
Y in the text fields. Click Insert After.
5
Chapter 1. Getting Started
Figure 1-2. The
Circular Arc dialog.
6.
Now click Node Distribution on the Polyline dialog. This will call up the Node Distribution
dialog, shown in Figure 1-4. In the Node Distribution area, set the Distribution drop-down
to Even Spacing. Next, set Number Of Nodes to 30. Accept all other default values and
click OK.
7.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary line “b2.” Click
Create. The new boundary line will be drawn in your current Tecplot frame.
Boundary lines b1 and b2 form a blunt body, as shown in Figure 1-5.
1.3.2.2. Creating the IMin Boundary. To create the IMin boundary, IMin=1 must be coincident with JMin=1. Perform the following steps:
6
1.3. Creating Simple Meshes
Figure 1-3. The
Polyline dialog.
1.
With your Tecplot Selector tool, select a node on b1 near its starting point of 0, 0. Click
Select Endpt. on the Polyline dialog to enter the X and Y values in the Control Points list.
In this case, X and Y will each be shown as 0. Click Insert Before. Now manually enter the
values -5, 0, for X and Y, and click Insert After.
2.
Now click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Even
Spacing, Number Of Nodes to 30, and accept all other default values. Click OK.
3.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary line “b3.” Click
Create. The new boundary line will be drawn in your current Tecplot frame.
4.
From the Tecplot menu bar, select the View menu, then select the Data Fit option to display
all of the newly created boundary line.
1.3.2.3. Creating the IMax Boundary. To create the IMax boundary, according to the
boundary orientation rules, the highest index of JMin must be coincident with IMax=1. Thus,
this boundary should be a polyline which begins at 5, 1, and which will end at 5, 6. Perform the
following steps:
7
Chapter 1. Getting Started
Figure 1-4. The
Node Distribution dialog.
1.
With the Selector, click on a node near the end point of b2 near 5, 1. Click Select Endpt. It
will automatically enter the X and Y values of the nearest end point. Click Insert Before.
Now manually enter 5 and 6, as the X and Y coordinates for the IMax boundary. Click
Insert After.
2.
Click Node Distribution and set Distribution to Even Spacing, Number Of Nodes to 30, and
accept all other default values. Click OK.
3.
Use the Line Label text field on the Polyline dialog to name this boundary line “b4.” Click
Create. Close the Polyline dialog.
4.
From the Tecplot menu bar, select the View menu, then select the Data Fit option to display
all of the newly created boundary line.
1.3.2.4. Creating the JMax Boundary. To create the JMax boundary, the JMax starting
node, JMax=1, must be coincident with IMin=max. Also, the JMax=max and IMax=max must
be coincident. Finally, JMax must have 59 nodes, the same number as b1 and b2 (though both
8
1.3. Creating Simple Meshes
boundaries have 30 nodes, they lose one at the overlapping node), the JMin boundary. Perform
the following steps:
1.
Call up the Create Circular Arc dialog under the Boundary menu. First, set the Specify
option button to Starting, Ending Point, Radius. Use of the Selector tool method to insert
IMin’s start point of -5, 0, as JMax’s start point and IMax’s end point of 5, 6, as JMax’s end
point. Set the Radius text field to 10.
2.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Number Of Nodes to 59. All
other default values are correct for our arc. Click OK.
3.
Use the Line Label text field on the Circular Arc dialog to name the JMax boundary “b5.”
Click Create. Close the dialog.
The resulting boundaries are shown in Figure 1-5.
7
b5
6
b4
JMax
5
Y
4
IMax
3
2
1
b2
b1
0
b3
-1
JMin
IMin
-2
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
X
Figure 1-5. The
blunt body with boundaries in place.
1.3.3. Creating the Mesh
With the boundaries defined, you are now ready to create the mesh. To do this, perform the following steps:
9
Chapter 1. Getting Started
1.
Use the Mesh menu to select the create Algebraic/Elliptic Structured. The Mesh menu is
shown in Figure 1-6. The Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog offers three methods for
Figure 1-6. The
Mesh menu.
inserting boundaries into the four mesh boundary zone fields. The information can be
entered manually, by clicking Add From List and selecting the appropriate boundary line
from the menu, or by using the Tecplot Selector tool to select a boundary line and then
clicking Add Selected. Ensure that no zones are selected in the current Tecplot frame by
clicking on a blank region of the frame.
10
2.
Enter the IMin boundary by selecting the Add From List on the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog, which is shown in Figure 1-7. Select the boundary line b3, the boundary corresponding to zone 3, from the list. Click OK.
3.
For the IMax boundary, enter boundary line b4 by using the Selector to select it in the current frame. Note Add From List changes to read Add Selected. Click Add Selected. Use
any method to define JMin as b1 and b2, and finally JMax as b5.
4.
Accept the default Mesh Control Method of Algebraic-Arclength, name the mesh as
“arclength” in the Mesh Label text field, then click Create. The Working dialog will appear
while the new mesh is generated. When mesh generation is complete, close the dialog.
1.4. Modifying and Converting Boundaries and Meshes
Figure 1-7. The
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 1-8.
Leave this example in your current Tecplot frame, as we will refer to it again in following sections.
1.4. Modifying and Converting Boundaries and Meshes
Mesh Generator allows you to modify your existing boundaries and meshes in a number of
ways. As an introduction to Mesh Generator’s capabilities, we will now change the node distribution and method of mesh generation on the blunt body configuration we have developed in
the previous examples.
11
Chapter 1. Getting Started
6
Y
4
2
0
-2
-4
-2
0
2
4
X
Figure 1-8. The Algebraic-Arclength mesh.
1.4.1. Modifying Boundaries
First, we will change the node distribution on the JMin boundary lines, b1 and b2, then the
JMax boundary line, b5. To make line selection easier, you may find it useful to click on the
Hide 2D Mesh check box on the Mesh Generator main dialog, and then click Redraw on the
Tecplot sidebar. The existing mesh will no longer be shown. Now perform the following steps:
12
1.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, click on a node on b1.
2.
On the Boundary menu, choose Edit Selected Line. This will call up the Circular Arc dialog, displaying the information for b1.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, change Distribution to Exponential and Number Of Nodes to 15. Accept the other values and click OK.
4.
On the Circular Arc dialog, click on Replace, then click Close.
5.
Click on b2, the second line making up the JMin boundary. Then select Edit Selected Line
from the Boundary menu.
1.4. Modifying and Converting Boundaries and Meshes
6.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Exponential,
Number Of Nodes to 15, and accept all other default settings. Click OK.
7.
On the Polyline dialog click Replace, then close the dialog.
8.
Click on b5, the JMax boundary line. Then choose Edit Selected Line from the Boundary
menu.
9.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Polynomial,
Number Of Nodes to 29, click on the One-Sided (Initial) option, and accept all other default
settings. Click OK.
10.
On the Circular Arc dialog click Replace, then close the dialog.
The result of these changes is shown in Figure 1-9.
6
Y
4
2
0
-2
-4
-2
0
2
4
X
Figure 1-9. The existing boundaries with the node distribution changed.
1.4.2. Modifying Meshes
Next we will change the existing mesh. Deactivate the Hide 2D Mesh option, then click
Redraw. Now perform the following steps:
13
Chapter 1. Getting Started
1.
Click on the existing mesh labeled arclength, then go to the Mesh menu and click Edit
Selected Mesh.
2.
Under Mesh Control on the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog, set Method to EllipticLaplace, and accept its default values. Use the Mesh Label text field to rename the new
mesh “laplace” and click on Replace. The Working dialog will appear while the new mesh
is generated. Close the dialog when mesh generation has completed.
The resulting Laplace mesh is shown in Figure 1-10.
6
Y
4
2
0
-2
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
X
Figure 1-10. The
modified Laplace mesh.
1.4.3. Converting Meshes
Mesh Generator can convert structured meshes to unstructured meshes quickly through its
mesh conversion capabilities. To do this, select the File menu, then select the Write Mesh File.
This will call up the Mesh Output dialog. Here you have the option of selecting either Single
14
1.5. Saving Your Work
Triangular or Single Quadrilateral Zone conversion, which may be performed on selected
meshes in your current Tecplot data set.
The Mesh Output dialog is shown in Figure 1-11.
Figure 1-11. The
Mesh Output dialog.
Note: Mesh conversion can be performed for PLOT3D files, however, PLOT3D files do not
contain any boundary information. Also, PLOT3D files may contain either structured or
unstructured zones, not both.
1.5. Saving Your Work
There are four options on Mesh Generator’s File menu which are associated with input/output.
These are:
• Import NURB file.
15
Chapter 1. Getting Started
• Open project.
• Save Project.
• Write Mesh file.
1.5.1. Import NURB File
This allows you to read a curve from a NASA-IGES NURBS-ONLY file. Clicking Read
NURB file calls up a standard file input dialog box. After the file is selected, a one-dimensional Tecplot zone is created by distributing a default number of evenly spaced mesh points
along the NURB curve. The distribution of the mesh points along the NURB curve may be
changed by editing the line using the Edit Selected Line option.
1.5.2. Open Project
Project files store the current state of a Mesh Generator session. If a session is interrupted, you
may write a Project file, exit Tecplot, and continue at a later time by reading in the Project file.
1.5.3. Save Project
Project files store the current state of a mesh generation session, and also include a history of
your previous iterations. When writing a project file a standard output dialog appears, with the
default extension shown as .lay (layout file). If the Tecplot zones were saved in a .plt
(plot file) you would be unable to edit the mesh later.
1.5.4. Mesh Output
Mesh Generators’s goal is to create a two-dimensional structured and/or unstructured (finiteelement) mesh for use by analysis codes. If it is a multiple zone mesh, the analysis code may
also require information describing connectivity the between the zones. This information is
saved in a mesh file. Clicking Mesh Output calls up the Mesh Output dialog. In this dialog
there is an option for choosing the mesh file format, a multi-selection list for picking the zones
to include the mesh file, and the standard OK, Cancel, and Help buttons. Mesh file formats
supported are Tecplot and PLOT3D, both ASCII and binary. Only two-dimensional zones are
included in the multi-selection list. Clicking OK in the Mesh Output dialog calls up the standard file output dialog.
Note: Project files that contain Mesh Generator commands will not work as expected when
reading into the Tecplot applications which do not have Mesh Generator installed.
16
1.6. Macro Files
1.6. Macro Files
Another feature which may be useful to you is the ability to record macros in Mesh Generator.
This creates a record of steps you have taken in your current Tecplot session. To record a
macro, perform the following steps:
1.
Click File on the Tecplot menu bar (not in Mesh Generator), and select Macro, then Record.
2.
Name your file and save it as a .mcr (macro) file. This will call up the Macro Recorder
dialog. See Section 26.1.1, “Recording Macros” in your Tecplot 7.5 User’s Manual for
more information about this dialog.
3.
You can stop recording at any time by clicking Stop Recording on the Macro Recorder dialog.
4.
You can replay your macro recording by selecting the File menu on the Tecplot menu bar,
selecting Macro, and then Play.
Note: Once you begin recording a macro, you must not resize your Tecplot workspace, or you
will cause an error in your recording and be unable to play it back later. Macro files that
contain Mesh Generator commands will not work as expected in Tecplot applications which do
not have Mesh Generator installed.
1.7. Getting Help in Mesh Generator
Mesh Generator features an on-line help system, which is integrated into the interface. Help is
always available by clicking the Help button in any of the Mesh Generator dialogs.
Help is also available from 6:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Pacific Standard Time from Technical
Support at (425) 653-9393. You can also send e-mail to [email protected] with your
support questions.
17
Chapter 1. Getting Started
18
CHAPTER 2
Creating Boundaries
This chapter discusses creating and editing the boundaries for your mesh. Boundaries are the
lines used to define the sides, or edges, of your mesh. It is not necessary for each boundary line
to completely define a mesh, since they can be combined at the time the mesh is created. This
gives you the flexibility to create the mesh boundaries in sections. Each created boundary line
exists as a Tecplot one-dimensional I-ordered zone, and can be uniquely labeled for easy identification.
Mesh Generator features several options for creating boundary lines. By selecting the Boundary menu, you will display these options, as shown in Figure 2-1. You can create boundary
lines from simple geometries such as polylines, circular arcs, and conic arcs. They can also be
created from existing boundary lines, or by extracting from other I- or IJ-ordered Tecplot
zones. You can use Mesh Generator to convert Tecplot geometries to boundary lines. Mesh
Generator will also let you import an IGES-NURB file, which will allow you to create boundaries based on NURB definitions.
2.1. Polylines
A simple method for creating a boundary line is to specify a polyline. A polyline is a set of
connected line segments. A line segment is defined by entering its starting and ending point
coordinates. Polylines are created by specifying the coordinates of more than two points. The
points you specify are called control points.
Control points are used to define the shape of a boundary. Several options are available to let
you specify control points: they may be entered manually, selected from the end point of an
existing boundary line, or converted from a Tecplot polyline geometry. You may not define two
identical control points, one after another.
To call up the Polyline dialog in Mesh Generator, select the Boundary menu, then choose the
Create Polyline. The Polyline dialog is shown in Figure 2-2.
19
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
Figure 2-1. The
Boundary menu.
2.1.1. Line Definition
The Line Definition area of the Polyline dialog is where control points are entered for the
polyline you wish to create. On the left of this dialog is a list labeled Control Points. When you
are first defining a new polyline boundary, this list will be empty. The list will expand as you
add control points.
2.1.1.1. Entering Control Points. To the right of the Control Points list are two text fields
labeled X and Y. These are the X- and Y-coordinate text fields where you can enter a new
control point or edit an existing control point.
Next to the X and Y text fields is the Select Endpt. button, which is active only when a boundary line is selected in the current Tecplot frame. This button allows you to automatically enter
the coordinates of the end point closest to a node selected with the Tecplot Selector tool. This
allows an exact specification of a given end point without having to manually enter the values.
It avoids mismatch errors which can create problems when attempting to combine the multiple
boundaries of a mesh.
20
2.1. Polylines
Figure 2-2. The
Polyline dialog.
After coordinates have been entered into the X and Y text fields, you can use one of the four
action buttons directly below the fields. These are:
• Replace: Replaces a selected point in the Control Points list with the values shown in the X
and Y text fields. It is used to edit an existing control point, and is inactive until at least one
control point is defined.
• Insert Before: Adds a control point to the list by inserting the values shown in the X and Y
text fields, either before a point you have selected in the list, or as the first point if the list is
empty.
• Insert After: Adds a control point by inserting the values shown in the X and Y text fields
after a point you have selected in the list, or as the first point if the list is empty.
• Delete: Removes a selected control point from the list. It is inactive until at least one control point is defined.
2.1.1.2. Converting Polyline Geometries to Boundaries. To the right of the four
action buttons is the Convert Polyline Geometry Insert After button. This is active only when a
Tecplot polyline geometry is selected in the current frame with the Selector tool. Clicking on
21
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
this button will convert a selected polyline geometry into a set of control points, which are then
inserted after a selected point in the Control Point list. This will allow you to draw a polyline
with the Tecplot drawing tool, then convert it directly into a boundary, without having to manually enter the control points.
Note: After using the Convert Polyline Geometry Insert After button, the selected geometry is
deleted from the current Tecplot frame.
2.1.1.3. Using a Subset of the Specified Control Points. An option to use a subset of
the control points you have specified is also available. You can do this by specifying the starting and ending indices of the desired control points as they appear in the Control Points list.
The starting and ending indices are entered into the two text fields labeled Start and End in the
Line Definition area of the Polyline dialog. These are shown on Figure 2-2. The default value
for the starting index is 1, and the default value for the ending index is Mx. The ending index
will accept any integer between 1 and Mx as well as Mx-a where a is some integer provided
that Mx-a is greater than or equal to 2. The starting point of the newly created polyline will be
the control point defined by the Start index, and the ending point will be the control point
defined by the End index. Any interpolations performed on the resulting polyline will be based
on all of the control points you have specified in the Control Points list, regardless of the starting and ending index values.
2.1.2. Node Distribution
The number of nodes, the distribution option, and the interpolation on a boundary is set by
clicking Node Distribution. The button is active only after at least two control points have been
specified. When you click Node Distribution, the Node Distribution dialog will be called up.
This is discussed in Section 2.7, “Distributing Nodes Along Boundaries.” The default Distribution is As Is and default Number Of Nodes is the number of control points available.
2.1.3. Labeling a Polyline
A name can be assigned to each polyline you create. This simplifies boundary definition when
choosing from a list to create your mesh. The Line Label text field is located at the bottom of
the Polyline dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
22
2.2. Circular Arcs
2.1.4. Creating a Polyline
The new polyline will be created and displayed in the current Tecplot frame after you click
Create. It will be a Tecplot I-ordered zone. After clicking Create, the Polyline dialog will be
reset with its default values.
2.2. Circular Arcs
Mesh Generator provides three ways to create boundaries using circular arcs. To call up the
Circular Arc dialog, select Boundary from Mesh Generator’s menu, then select Create Circular
Arc. The resulting Circular Arc dialog is shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3. The
Circular Arc dialog.
23
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
2.2.1. Line Definition
The Line Definition area of the Circular Arc dialog allows you to create circular arcs using one
of three different methods.
2.2.1.1. Specifying Circular Arcs. Two options are available by clicking on the option
buttons under Specify in the Line Definition area of the Circular Arc dialog. These are:
• Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle: Specifies the center (origin), the starting point on the
circumference of a circle, and the arc angle of a circle.
• Starting, Ending Point, Radius: Specifies both the starting and ending points on the circumference of a circle with a specified radius.
The default direction of circular arcs in Mesh Generator is clockwise. You may reverse the
direction by clicking on the Counter Clockwise check box.
Note: In instances where two solutions are possible, the smaller arc will always be selected.
Depending upon which option is selected under Specify, the text fields in the Arc area of the
Circular Arc dialog will be active or inactive. The X- and Y-coordinates for the appropriate
points may be manually entered into the text fields labeled X and Y. You must enter a value in
units of degrees in the Arc Angle text field. The value entered in the Radius text field must
have units consistent with the X- and Y-coordinates.
Next to the X and Y text fields for Start and End are two Select Endpt. buttons, which are
active only when another boundary line is selected in the current Tecplot frame. The Select
Endpt. buttons allow you to automatically enter the coordinates of the end point closest to a
node selected with the Tecplot Selector tool. This allows an exact specification of a given end
point without having to manually enter the values. It avoids mismatch errors which can create
problems when attempting to combine the multiple boundaries of a mesh.
2.2.1.2. Converting Circle Geometries into Boundaries. To the right of the Counter
Clockwise check box is the Convert Circle Geometry button. This is active only when a
Tecplot circle geometry is selected in the current frame. By clicking on this button, the selected
circle geometry is converted into a circular arc of 360 degrees. This allows you to draw a circle
with the Tecplot circle drawing tool and directly convert it into a boundary in Mesh Generator.
Note: After clicking Convert Circle Geometry, the selected circle geometry is deleted from the
current Tecplot frame.
24
2.3. Conic Arcs
2.2.2. Node Distribution
The number of nodes, the distribution option, and the interpolation on a circular arc is set by
clicking Node Distribution. When you click Node Distribution, the Node Distribution dialog
will be called up. This is discussed in Section 2.7, “Distributing Nodes Along Boundaries.”
The default Distribution is Even Spacing and default Number Of Nodes is 30.
2.2.3. Labeling a Circular Arc Boundary
A name can be assigned to each boundary you create. This simplifies boundary selection when
choosing from a list to create your mesh. The Line Label text field is located at the bottom of
the Circular Arc dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
2.2.4. Creating a Circular Arc Boundary
The new circular arc boundary will be created and displayed in the current Tecplot frame after
you click Create. It will be a Tecplot I-ordered zone. After clicking Create, the Circular Arc
dialog will be reset with its default values.
2.3. Conic Arcs
The conic arc option allows you to create analytically defined boundaries such as ellipses,
parabolas, and hyperbolas. To call up the Conic Arc dialog, click Boundary on the Mesh Generator menu, then select Create Conic Arc. The Conic Arc dialog is shown in Figure 2-4.
2.3.1. Line Definition
The Line Definition area of the Conic Arc dialog allows you to input values that control the
shape and extent of your conic arc. A conic arc is defined by entering the X- and Y-coordinates
of the Start and End points of the arc, and entering the Vertex, which joins the Start and End
point to form a triangle enclosing the conic arc. The X- and Y-coordinates for these points are
entered in the text fields labeled X and Y.
Next to the X and Y text fields for Start and End are two Select Endpt. buttons, which are
active only when another boundary is selected in the current Tecplot frame. The Select Endpt.
buttons allow you to automatically enter the coordinates of the end point closest to a node
selected with the Tecplot Selector tool. This allows an exact specification of a given end point
25
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
Figure 2-4. The
Conic Arc dialog.
without having to manually enter the values. It avoids mismatch errors which can create problems when attempting to combine the multiple boundaries of a mesh.
The Length Ratio defines where the conic arc curve intersects the bisection line creating the
middle point (mid point between the Start and End points) and the Vertex. This number is the
ratio of length from the middle point to the intersection point, and the length from the middle
point to the vertex. The value entered in the text field for the Length Ratio determines the analytic shape of the conic arc.
Acceptable values for the Length Ratio are: 0<Length Ratio<1.0.
Also:
• Ellipse: 0<Length Ratio<0.5.
• Parabola: Length Ratio=0.5.
• Hyperbola: 0.5<Length Ratio<1.0.
26
2.3. Conic Arcs
2.3.2. Node Distribution
The number of nodes, the distribution option, and the interpolation on a conic arc is set by
clicking on Node Distribution. When you click Node Distribution, the Node Distribution
dialog will be called up. This is discussed in Section 2.7, “Distributing Nodes Along Boundaries.” The default Distribution is Even Spacing and default Number Of Nodes is 30.
2.3.3. Labeling a Conic Arc Boundary
A name can be assigned to each boundary you create. This simplifies boundary selection when
choosing from a list to create your mesh. The Line Label text field is located at the bottom of
the Conic Arc dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
2.3.4. Creating a Conic Arc Boundary
The conic arc will be created and displayed in the current Tecplot frame after you click Create
button. It will be a Tecplot I-ordered zone. After clicking Create, the Conic Arc dialog will be
reset with its default values.
To illustrate the creation of boundaries using variations of the options discussed above, we will
continue the example from section 1.3.2, “Creating the Boundaries.” Perform the following
steps:
1.
Click on the Boundary menu, then select Create Polyline. This will call up the Polyline dialog.
2.
On the dialog, enter the coordinates 5 for X and 0 for Y, then click Insert Before.
3.
Use the Tecplot Selector tool to select boundary b2 near the end point. Only the Polyline
dialog, click Select Endpt., then click Insert After. At this point there should be two points
in the Control Point list: (5, 0) and (5, 1).
4.
Click Node Distribution, which calls up the Node Distribution dialog. On the dialog, set
Distribution to Even Spacing, and Number Of Nodes to 20. Accept all other default values
and click OK.
5.
Use the Line Label text field to name this polyline “b6,” then click Create.
6.
Create an additional polyline with a start point coincident with the starting node of b6 at 5,
0, and its end point at 10, 0. Click Node Distribution and set Distribution to Even Spacing
and Number Of Nodes to 30. Accept all other default values and click OK.
7.
Use the Line Label text field to name this polyline “b7,” then click Create.
27
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
8.
Create a new polyline “b8,” with its start point coincident with the end point of b7 at 10, 0
and 10, 6, with 49 evenly spaced nodes.
9.
Create one more polyline with its start point coincident with the end point of b4 at 5, 6, and
the end point of b8 at 10, 6. Set Distribution to Even Spacing and Number Of Nodes to 30.
Use the Line Label text field to name this polyline “b9.”
The new boundaries are shown in Figure 2-5.
9
8
b9
7
6
b5
5
Y
4
b4
3
b8
2
1
b1
0
b6
b2
b7
b3
-1
-2
-3
-5
0
5
10
X
Figure 2-5. The
modified blunt body.
Since we want a different outer boundary on the front end of our blunt body, we will need to
modify two of the existing boundary lines and replace them. One way to do this is to simply
delete the zone.
28
1.
If the mesh named laplace is present, use the Tecplot Selector tool to select it, then select
the Delete Selected Mesh option from the Mesh menu. Then, using the Tecplot Selector
tool, select polyline b3 in the current Tecplot frame, then click on the Boundary menu,
selecting the Delete Selected Line option.
2.
Now repeat step 9 to delete boundary b5.
2.4. Importing Boundary Files
3.
To create a replacement for b3, click on the Boundary menu and select Create Polyline. On
the Polyline dialog, enter the coordinates 0 for X and 0 for Y and click Insert Before. Now
enter the coordinates -2 for X and 0 for Y and click Insert After.
4.
Now click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Even
Spacing and Number Of Nodes to 30. Accept all other default settings and click OK.
5.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “b3” and click
Create.
6.
To replace boundary b5 we want to create a conic arc shaped like an ellipse.
7.
Use the Tecplot Selector tool select a node on b3 near its end point. Now click on the
Boundary menu and select Create Conic Arc. This will call up the Conic Arc dialog. On the
dialog, click Select Endpt., across from the Start text fields. Use the Tecplot Selector tool to
click on a node near the end of b4. On the Conic Arc dialog, click Select Endpt. across from
the End text fields. Now enter the coordinates -2, 6 for Vertex, then set the Length Ratio to
0.4.
8.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Even Spacing
and Number Of Nodes to 30. Click OK.
9.
On the Conic Arc dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “b5,” then
click Create.
10.
Now change the Distribution for b1 and b2 to Even Spacing, and set Number Of Nodes
equal to 30.
The resulting boundaries are shown in Figure 2-6.
2.4. Importing Boundary Files
For situations where the boundary definition exists as a file containing X- and Y-coordinates,
or an IGES-NURB definition created by CAD software, you can import data to create boundaries within Mesh Generator.
2.4.1. Loading Tecplot Data Files
If the boundary is defined by pairs of X- and Y-coordinates in a file that can be read by Tecplot,
you can load the file using Load Data File(s). This is found under the File menu on Tecplot’s
menu bar. The data can be lines (I-ordered zones) or meshes (IJ-ordered zones). These exist as
Tecplot zones and may be used to create boundaries for new meshes, which will be discussed
in later sections. The imported files can also be used directly as boundaries, provided their
node distributions are sufficient.
29
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
7
b9
6
5
b5
4
Y
b4
b8
3
2
1
b6
b2
b1
0
b7
b3
-1
-2
-3
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
X
Figure 2-6. Modified
blunt body with elliptic outer boundary.
2.4.2. Importing NURB Files
This utility allows you to read a curve from a NASA-IGES NURB-ONLY file.
To call up the Read IGES File dialog, click File on the Mesh Generator menu, then select
Import NURB File from the list. The Read IGES File dialog will appear, as shown in Figure 27. This is a standard file input dialog. After you select your file, a one-dimensional I-ordered
Tecplot zone will be created by distributing a default number of evenly-spaced nodes along
each NURB curve in the file.
The distribution of mesh points along the NURB curves may be changed by editing the line
with the Edit Selected Line option on the Boundary menu.
2.5. Creating New Boundaries from Existing Boundaries
Mesh Generator allows you to create new boundaries from previously created boundaries, or
other I-ordered zones that may have been imported. For example, this may be necessary when
a new, denser mesh is desired for an existing boundary configuration.
30
2.5. Creating New Boundaries from Existing Boundaries
Figure 2-7. The
Read IGES dialog.
2.5.1. Creating Boundary Lines from Existing Lines
This option is activated by first selecting a line in your current Tecplot frame. Next, click on the
Boundary menu, then select Create From Selected Line.
The dialog which appears will depend on what type of boundary you selected. Options include:
• Polyline: The Polyline dialog appears and the nodes from the polyline are inserted into the
Control Points list. You can then perform whatever actions are needed to define your new
boundary.
• Circular Arc: The Circular Arc dialog appears and the text fields displaying the same
information used to create the line you selected. You can now perform whatever actions are
needed to define your new boundary.
• Conic Arc: The Conic Arc dialog appears and the text fields displaying the same information used to create the line you selected. You can now perform whatever actions are needed
to define your new boundary.
31
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
• Extracted Line: The Extract Selected Line dialog appears and the text fields displaying the
same information used to create the line you selected. You can now perform whatever
actions are needed to define your new boundary.
• Extracted Mesh: The Extract Selected Mesh dialog appears and the text fields displaying
the same information used to create the line you selected. You can now perform whatever
actions are needed to define your new boundary.
• Imported NURB line: The Node Distribution dialog appears. You can now change the
node distribution for your new boundary.
• All other lines: The Polyline dialog appears and the points from the selected line are displayed in the Control Points list. You can now perform whatever actions are needed to
define your new boundary.
2.5.2. Labeling the Boundary
A name can be assigned to each boundary you create. This simplifies boundary selection when
choosing from a list to create your mesh. You may enter any characters you wish in the Line
Label text field.
2.5.3. Creating the Boundary
The new boundary will be created and displayed in the current Tecplot frame after you click
Create. It will be a Tecplot I-ordered zone.
To demonstrate this feature we will continue building on the blunt body example we last
changed in Section 2.3, “Conic Arcs.” Now we will create a new boundary line from b5, which
will have a parabolic shape and more nodes. To do this, perform the following steps:
32
1.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, select b5 in the current Tecplot frame. Now click on the
Boundary menu and select Create From Selected Line. This will call up the Conic Arc dialog.
2.
We want to change the shape to a parabola, so set Length Ratio to 0.5.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Number Of Nodes to 59.
Accept all other default values and click OK.
4.
On the Conic Arc dialog use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “b10,” then
click Create. Close the dialog.
5.
Use the Tecplot Selector tool to select b5 in the current Tecplot frame, then click on the
Boundary menu. Select the Delete Selected Line option on the menu. This will remove
boundary b5.
2.6. Extracting New Boundaries
The new boundary is shown in Figure 2-8.
9
8
7
b9
6
b10
5
4
Y
b4
b8
3
2
1
b6
b2
b1
0
b7
b3
-1
-2
-3
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
X
Figure 2-8. Modified blunt body with parabolic outer boundary.
2.6. Extracting New Boundaries
Mesh Generator allows you to extract a new boundary from an existing line (I-ordered zone) or
mesh (IJ-ordered zone). These may be previously created boundaries or meshes, or they may
be zones which were loaded into Tecplot. How you extract a new boundary will depend upon
whether you have selected a line or a mesh.
2.6.1. Extracting from a Selected Line
This option is activated by selecting a line in your current Tecplot frame. This will then be used
for extracting the new boundary. Under the Boundary menu, select Extract From Selected
Line. This will call up the Extract Selected Line dialog, as shown in Figure 2-9.
33
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
Figure 2-9. The
Extract Selected Line dialog.
In the Line Definition area of the dialog you must specify the starting and ending indices of the
selected line which are to be extracted to create your new boundary. These indices are entered
into the Start and End text fields. No node distribution changes are allowed when extracting.
Therefore, the only editing permitted on an extracted line is modification of the starting and
ending indices. Valid values for both starting and ending indices are from 1 to maximum
number of nodes on the selected line.
Note: You are allowed to reverse line direction. You may do this by entering a Start index value
greater than that of the End index value. This in effect reverses the line direction for your
newly extracted boundary line. The extracted nodes will be the same, but the index order will
proceed in the opposite direction along the line.
34
2.6. Extracting New Boundaries
2.6.2. Labeling the Boundary
A name can be assigned to each boundary you create. This simplifies boundary selection when
choosing from a list to create your mesh. You may enter any characters you wish in the Line
Label text field.
2.6.3. Creating the Boundary
The new boundary will be created and displayed in the current Tecplot frame after you click
Create. It will be a Tecplot I-ordered zone.
2.6.4. Extracting from a Selected Mesh
This option is activated by selecting a mesh (IJ-ordered zone) to be used for extracting the new
boundary. On the Boundary menu, select Extract From Selected Mesh. This will call up the
Extract Selected Mesh dialog, shown in Figure 2-10.
Figure 2-10. The
Extract Selected Mesh dialog.
35
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
In the Line Definition area of the dialog you must enter the starting and ending indices, and the
specific boundary of the mesh from which you want to extract the new boundary. The indices
are entered into the Start and End text fields.
Boundary Line options are:
• IMin line: The new boundary is extracted along the I=1 line. Input indices are indices for J
points.
• IMax line: The new boundary is extracted along the I=IMax line. Input indices are indices
for J points.
• JMin line: The new boundary is extracted along the J=1 line. Input indices are indices for
I points.
• JMax line: The new boundary is extracted along the J=JMax line. Input indices are indices
for I points.
No node distribution changes are allowed when extracting. The only editing permitted on an
extracted line is the modification of the starting and ending indices and the Boundary Line
option. Valid values for both starting and ending indices are from 1 to the maximum number of
nodes (designated by Mx, or the actual J-index) in either the I- or J-direction of the selected
mesh. For further information about values for the indices, see Section 2.1.1.3, “Using a Subset
of the Specified Control Points.”
2.6.5. Labeling the Boundary
A name can be assigned to each boundary you create. This simplifies boundary selection when
choosing from a list to create your mesh. You may enter any characters you wish in the Line
Label text field.
2.6.6. Creating the Boundary
The new boundary will be created and displayed in the current Tecplot frame after you click
Create. It will be a Tecplot I-ordered zone. The Extract Selected Mesh dialog will be removed
after you click OK or Cancel.
To demonstrate this feature we will continue the blunt body example we last changed in
Section 2.5.3, “Creating the Boundary.” We will divide the boundary line into two parts. To do
this, perform the following steps:
36
2.7. Distributing Nodes Along the Boundaries
1.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, select boundary line b10 in the current Tecplot frame. Now
click on the Boundary menu and select Extract From Selected Line. This will call up the
Extract Selected Line dialog.
2.
On the Extract Selected Line dialog, set Start to 1 and End to 30. Use the Line Label text
field to name this boundary “b11,” then click OK. A new boundary will appear on top of
the first half of b10.
3.
Now select b10 using the Tecplot Selector tool again, and click on the Boundary menu to
select Extract From Selected Line. This will call up the Extract Selected Line dialog again.
4.
On the Extract Selected Line dialog, set Start to 30 and End to 59. Use the Line Label text
field to name this boundary “b12,” then click OK. A new boundary will appear on top of
the first half of b10.
2.7. Distributing Nodes Along the Boundaries
Mesh Generator provides several options for specifying how nodes are to be distributed along
your boundary lines. The distribution options allow you to concentrate the nodes near the ends
of boundary lines, and near specific locations along the boundaries. To call up the Node Distribution dialog, click Node Distribution on either the Polyline, Circular Arc, or the Conic Arc
dialogs. These may be accessed from the Boundary menu.
2.7.1. Node Distribution
The Distribution option on the Node Distribution dialog makes other areas on the dialog active
or inactive, depending upon the selection. Available Distribution options are:
• As Is: Do nothing and copy the current node distribution.
• Even Spacing: Nodes are distributed evenly with constant spacing.
• Exponential (One- or Two-Sided): Nodes are distributed in terms of an exponential function. The default value is Two-Sided, where the Initial and Final Spacing are set to 0.001.
- When One-Sided (Initial) is selected, the Initial Spacing is required and clustering will
occur near the starting point of the line.
- When One-Sided (Final) is selected, the Final Spacing is required and clustering will
occur near the ending point of the line.
• Tanh: Nodes are distributed with a hyperbolic tangent where clustering will be done at
both ends of the line. Tanh is similar to the exponential distribution, but, the stretching is
more gradual near the end points. Both Initial and Final Spacing is required.
37
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
• Multiple Tanh: Nodes are distributed in a series of hyperbolic tangent functions. The result
is a series of segments with the mesh stretched toward the end of each segment.
Selecting Multiple Tanh distribution will activate the Multiple Tanh area, located immediately below the Distribution dropdown. In it, you must specify at least one clustering control point, the spacing near this point, and the number of nodes before this point. The
clustering point control is similar to the Polyline dialog, where the list is for the selection of
clustering information. The text fields in the Multiple Tanh area are to enter or modify the
values, and Replace, Add, and Delete are the available action buttons. Both the Initial and
Final Spacing, as well as at least one clustering spacing is required. When only one clustering control point is entered, the resulting line will have two segments where the clustering
will be at both ends, as well as at the clustering point.
• Polynomial (One- or Two-Sided): Nodes are distributed with a cubic polynomial for the
Two-Sided option, or a polynomial function in the X-coordinate for the One-Sided option.
The default value for Two-Sided is Initial and Final Spacing set to 0.001.
- When One-Sided (Initial) is selected, the Initial Spacing is required and the clustering
will occur near the starting point of the line.
- When One-Sided (Final) is selected, the Final Spacing is required and the clustering will
occur near the ending point of the line.
2.7.2. Number of Nodes
The number of nodes to be distributed along the created boundary must be specified. This
value is entered in the Number Of Nodes text field. The number of nodes includes the first and
last nodes. Valid numbers are any integer number. If the Node Distribution option is set to As
Is, the only valid entry for Number Of Nodes is that equal to the number of Control Points
listed Line Definition.
2.7.2.1. Line Direction/Reverse Line Direction. The Reverse Line Direction check box
enables you to switch the direction of the node index order along a boundary when it is created.
It has no effect on the node distribution.
The default direction of the node index order is from starting to ending point of a line according to the order of the Control Points in the Line Definition area of the Polyline dialog. Reversing the line direction does not affect how the nodes are distributed, as it is based upon the line
direction defined by your control points. Instead, reversing the line direction occurs after the
nodes have been distributed along the created boundary.
38
2.7. Distributing Nodes Along the Boundaries
2.7.3. Node Spacing
For the Exponential, Tanh, Multiple Tanh, and Polynomial Distribution options, you are
required to enter values for the Initial and Final Spacing. For the One-Sided options only the
Initial or Final Spacing is required.
Spacing is the distance between two adjacent nodes. Initial Spacing is the spacing at the first
node (index=1), and Final Spacing is the spacing next to the last node. The spacing between
the nodes depends upon your distribution option. The values you enter in the Initial and Final
Spacing text fields on the Node Distribution dialog must be entered in units consistent with the
physical coordinates. The default values are set to 0.001.
2.7.3.1. Multiple Tanh. The Multiple Tanh area of the Node Distribution dialog is active
only when Distribution is set to Multiple Tanh. This area contains a list of cluster control
points, text fields for entering these points, and buttons for controlling the points. The clustering control point list is used to control the clustering information. Initially, this list will be
empty. In addition to the Initial and Final Spacing values, you must specify at least one additional clustering control point by entering the values in the four Multiple Tanh text fields; X, Y,
Spacing, and # Nodes. The clustering points may be entered in any order, and are sorted by distance along the line starting from the first control point.
Figure 2-11 illustrates a line defined by five control points and Interpolation set to Cubic. This
demonstrates how the cluster points divide the line into sections.
The sorting places the cluster points on the line in the order 1, 3, 2, to create four line sections,
though the order in which the points would appear in the list is 1, 2, 3. For the purpose of defining the sections, the starting and ending points on the line are considered to be clustering
points.
The values for X and Y are the approximate coordinates along the boundary line at which the
clustering is to be focused. The actual coordinates will be calculated by determining the point
on the line closest to the values you enter. Spacing at this clustering point is enforced on both
sides of the point. The # Nodes is the number of the nodes to be placed on the line section
between two physically adjacent clustering points, including the clustering points.
In Figure 2-11 the # Nodes in section 1 is four, since the section contains four mesh nodes,
including the nodes that are automatically placed at the clustering points at the ends of the section. The # Nodes for the last section, which is section 4 in this case, cannot be specified by the
user. This section is self-defined by the last cluster point and the last point on the line. The
number of nodes placed in this section is calculated in such a way that the total number of
39
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
0.8
on
Secti
Section
3
2
0.6
Se
ct i
3
1
2
4
on
1
Se
ct i
Y
on
0.4
Line Control Points
0.2
Node Points
Clustering Points
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
X
Figure 2-11. Cluster
points dividing a line into sections.
nodes on the line will be equal to Number Of Nodes. The text fields are used to modify the
values.
Replace, Add, and Delete are the available option buttons. The Add button will add your
entered values to the list below the selected point. If the list is empty, it will list your values. If
the list is empty and you have not selected a point, clicking Add will call up a warning message, indicating that you must select a point. The Replace button will replace a selected point
with the entered values. The Delete button will remove a selected point from the list.
2.7.4. Interpolation
The Interpolation area of the Node Distribution dialog lets you select the type of interpolation
which will be used to control the polyline boundary shape while distributing nodes along it.
The interpolation is based on the specified control points.
There are two Interpolation options available:
40
2.8. Editing a Selected Line
• Cubic (the default).
• Linear.
No interpolation will be performed for NURB lines, circular or conic arcs, as they are treated
analytically.
The following example creates a boundary with a multiple hyperbolic tangent node distribution, similar to that shown in Figure 2-11. To create the boundary, perform the following steps:
1.
Using the Tecplot polyline geometry tool, draw a polyline with four segments. (This will
require five clicks on your mouse, which will create five control points.)
2.
Now use the Tecplot Selector tool to select the polyline, then click on the Boundary menu,
and select Create Polyline. This will call up the Polyline dialog.
3.
On the dialog, click Convert Polyline Geometry Insert After. This will enter the values of
your polyline into the Control Points list.
4.
Now click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Multiple
Tanh, Number Of Nodes to 31, and Initial and Final Spacing to 0.01. Now create three cluster points by setting X- and Y-values that approximate positions along the new line, set
Spacing to 0.01, and set # Nodes to 4 for the first segment, 7 for the second segment, and 6
for the third segment. Click Add after entering the values for each cluster point. Set Interpolation to Cubic. Click OK.
5.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “b13,” and click
Create. The new boundary line will appear in the current Tecplot frame.
Note: If your new boundary line does not look like that in Figure 2-11, you may wish to click
on the Scatter plot layer button on the Tecplot sidebar.
2.8. Editing a Selected Line
To edit a line, select it using the Tecplot Selector tool, then choose Edit Selected Line from the
Boundary menu.
The option is activated only when you select a line in the current Tecplot frame. The dialog
which results will depend upon the type of line you have selected. Available options are:
• Created polyline: Polyline dialog is called up.
• Created circular arc: Circular Arc dialog is called up.
• Created conic arc: Conic Arc dialog is called up.
41
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
•
•
•
•
Created by extraction from a line: Extract From Selected Line dialog is called up.
Created by extraction from a mesh: Extract From Selected Mesh dialog is called up.
NURB line: NURB curve dialog is called up.
All other lines: Polyline dialog is called up.
Any of the input values in these dialogs can now be edited. A new boundary will replaced the
selection, and will be displayed in the current Tecplot frame after you click Replace. The
dialog will then be reset with its default values.
2.9. Deleting a Selected Line
To delete a line you have selected, click Delete Selected Line from the Boundary menu. The
selected line will only be deleted if it is not used in other zones, otherwise, an error message
will be displayed.
2.10. Displaying Selected Line Information
Clicking Selected Line Info, accessed from the Boundary menu, will call up the Line Info
dialog. This is shown in Figure 2-12.
Selected information about a boundary you have selected in the current Tecplot frame is displayed here. The Line Info dialog lists zone number, the user or system defined label, and type
of boundary, such as polyline or circular arc. It also lists the number of control points, the starting and ending node indices, the number of the currently selected node, total number of nodes,
and IMin and IMax spacing. IMin spacing reports the distance between the boundary’s first and
second node. IMax spacing reports the distance between the last and second to last nodes of the
boundary.
42
2.10. Displaying Selected Line Information
Figure 2-12. The
Selected Line Info dialog.
43
Chapter 2. Creating Boundaries
44
CHAPTER 3
Creating Structured
Meshes
Mesh Generator features three methods of generating structured meshes: Algebraic, Elliptic,
and Hyperbolic.
Algebraic methods used in Mesh Generator are based on transfinite interpolation (TFI). These
are very fast and usually generate meshes directly acceptable for calculations.
Elliptic methods used in Mesh Generator are based on iterative solution of Poisson’s equation.
They are often used to improve on the quality, the orthogonality, and to smooth minor irregularities of algebraic meshes.
The Hyperbolic method used in Mesh Generator is based on the advancing front method, followed by an elliptic smoothing. This method sequentially marches along a set of mesh lines.
Elliptic smoothing is only used to smooth and relax any irregularity on each step. This is a very
fast and robust method for generating external meshes.
As a special output option, the resulting structured meshes may be converted into a single
quadrilateral or triangular unstructured mesh. You may choose to use different mesh generation
methods in different zones
3.1. Creating Algebraic or Elliptic Meshes
Algebraic and elliptic meshes are defined by selecting the boundary lines that form the four
boundaries (IMin, IMax, JMin, and JMax) of a mesh zone (block). A hyperbolic mesh is
defined by selecting boundary lines which form the JMin boundary.
45
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
3.1.1. Specifying Boundaries
Algebraic and elliptic structured mesh generation requires that all four boundaries (IMin,
IMax, JMin, and JMax) surrounding the mesh be specified. Each boundary consists of one or
more boundary lines.
If a boundary is composed of more than one boundary line, all lines for this boundary are concatenated to form a single line. The direction of increasing node index is determined by the
first line selected in the boundary. Line sections defining a boundary must be added in the
order in which they form the boundary. For example, the second line selected will be connected
to the first line, the fifth line selected will be connected to the first, second, third, and fourth
lines. Mesh Generator requires that each sequential line used in the formation of a mesh
boundary share a common node with the previous line.
The number of nodes in both the I- and J-directions is determined by the number of nodes in
the corresponding boundaries. The number of nodes for the IMin boundary must equal the
number in the IMax boundary; likewise for the JMin and JMax boundaries. The nodes must be
coincident at the four corner points formed by the boundaries. The direction of increasing node
index must be the same in IMin and IMax boundaries. Similarly, the JMin and JMax boundaries must share the same direction of increasing node index.
Algebraic and Elliptic meshes are created with the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog. This is
called up by selecting Create Algebraic/Elliptic Structured from the Mesh menu. The Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog is shown in Figure 3-1.
The lines selected to define boundaries are shown by zone numbers in the text fields labeled
IMin, IMax, JMin, and JMax corresponding to the four boundaries of the mesh. Lines may be
selected in one of three ways:
• If a line is selected using the Tecplot Selector tool, the button next to the IMin, IMax, JMin,
and JMax text fields reads Add Selected. Clicking the appropriate button will add this line
segment’s zone number to the corresponding text field.
• If no line is selected, the button next to the IMin, IMax, JMin, and JMax text fields reads
Add From List. Clicking this button invokes the Add From List dialog with a multi-selection list of line segment zone numbers and names. One or more of these items are selected
in the usual way (click, Ctrl-click, or shift-click). Clicking OK adds the zone numbers of
the selected line segments to the appropriate text field.
• The zone numbers of the lines may be manually entered directly into the IMin, IMax, JMin,
or JMax text fields.
46
3.1. Creating Algebraic or Elliptic Meshes
Figure 3-1. The
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog.
Once you have defined the boundaries for a mesh, you may select any of the three algebraic
methods to generate a structured mesh.
3.1.2. Algebraic Mesh Control
There are six mesh control methods in the Mesh Control section of the Algebraic/Elliptic
Structured dialog. These are Algebraic-Arclength, Algebraic-Linear, Algebraic-Edge.Ortho,
Elliptic-Laplace, Elliptic-Thomas, and Elliptic-Orthogonal. The first three mesh control
methods are algebraic meshes. These are:
• Algebraic-Arclength: Mesh nodes are interpolated using arc-length distances from the
boundary nodes. This generally yields a better mesh than the other two options, particularly
when the boundaries have curvature. Therefore, it is used as the default.
47
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
• Algebraic-Linear: This uses standard linear interpolants for transfinite interpolation,
which usually results in satisfactory meshes.(However, mesh lines may cross when using
this method on highly curved boundaries.
• Algebraic-Edge.Ortho: This uses a blending function similar to Algebraic-Arclengh, with
additional constraints added to make the mesh orthogonal at the boundaries.
When an algebraic mesh control option is selected, all other mesh control parameters are inactive.
3.1.3. Labeling an Algebraic Structured Mesh
A name can be assigned to each mesh you create. The Mesh Label text field is located at the
bottom of the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
3.1.4. Creating an Algebraic Structured Mesh
Clicking on the Create button will generate the new algebraic structured mesh. The Working
dialog will appear while the new mesh is generated. When done, the new mesh will be displayed in the current Tecplot frame and added to its data set as an IJ-ordered zone.
Note: During the recording of a macro or project file, a Cancel request is not recorded.
For an example of Algebraic Structured mesh creation, see Section 1.3.3, “Creating the Mesh.”
3.1.5. Elliptic Mesh Control
The last three methods listed in the Method dropdown in the Mesh Control area of the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog are fore Elliptic meshes. These are:
• Elliptic-Laplace: Solves the Laplace equation. This method is useful for generating evenly
spaced meshes. When this method is used for stretched meshes, it will try to even the mesh
spacing, which may be undesirable. Selecting this method requires two other mesh control
parameters: Maximum Iterations and Elliptic Relaxation.
• Elliptic-Thomas: Solves Poisson’s equation with source terms added to retain the stretching near the walls. This option is useful for generating stretched meshes. Selecting this
method also requires the Maximum Iterations and Elliptic Relaxation parameters.
48
3.1. Creating Algebraic or Elliptic Meshes
• Elliptic-Orthogonal: Solves Poisson’s equation with source terms added to force the mesh
to be nearly orthogonal near the walls. Selecting this method requires the Maximum Iterations, Elliptic Relaxation, and Orthogonality Relaxation parameters.
When any of the three elliptic control options are selected, the initial mesh will be created
using the Algebraic-Arclength option.
The parameters in the Mesh Control area of the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog are:
• Maximum Iterations: Specifies the maximum number of elliptic iterations to perform for
mesh generation.
• Elliptic Relaxation: Specifies the relaxation factor for the successive-over-relaxation
(SOR) method of solving Poisson’s equation. Increasing this parameter will improve the
rate at which the iterative SOR converges. However, it may also make it less stable.
Decreasing this parameter makes the relaxation more stable, but reduces the convergence
rate. When the elliptic iteration is unstable, it is common to reduce this parameter.
• Orthogonality Relaxation: A normalized distance (I divided by IMax and J divided by
JMax) where the orthogonality condition is relaxed to ten percent of its value at the boundary. This condition is applied to both the I and J directions. The lower the value is, the larger
the region of equi-spacing in the middle of the mesh. If this value is too small (for example,
0.01), the elliptic solver may be less stable due to large gradients in the control function
near the boundaries.
3.1.6. Labeling an Elliptic Structured Mesh
A name can be assigned to each mesh you create. The Mesh Label text field is located at the
bottom of the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
3.1.7. Creating an Elliptic Structured Mesh
As a comparison, we will now mesh our blunt body shape with an Elliptic-Orthogonal mesh.
You can see Section 1.4.2, “Modifying Meshes,” for more information on Mesh Generator’s
mesh modification options. To create a Elliptic-Orthogonal mesh, perform the following steps:
1.
Click on the existing mesh labeled laplace, then go to the Mesh menu. From the list, click
Delete Selected Mesh.
49
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
2.
Now we must change the node distribution on the JMin boundaries, b1 and b2. Click on a
node on b1 with the Tecplot Selector tool. Now choose Edit Selected Line from the Boundary menu. The Circular Arc dialog will be called up. Click Node Distribution. Set Distribution to Even Spacing, then click OK. On the Circular Arc dialog click Replace. Close the
dialog.
3.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool click on a node on b2. Choose Edit Selected Line from the
Boundary menu. The Polyline dialog will be called up. Click Node Distribution. Set Distribution to Even Spacing, then click OK. On the Polyline dialog click Replace. Close the dialog.
4.
From the Mesh menu, choose Create Algebraic/Elliptic Structured. Add boundaries as indicated: b3 for IMin, b4 for IMax, b1 and b2 for JMin, b5 for JMax. In the Mesh Control area
of the dialog, set Method to Elliptic-Orthogonal, and accept its default values. Use the
Mesh Label text field to name the new mesh “orthogonal” and click Create. The Working
dialog will appear while the new mesh is generated. When done, the new mesh will be displayed in the current Tecplot frame and added to its data set as an IJ-ordered zone.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 3-2.
7
6
5
4
Y
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-5
0
5
X
Figure 3-2. The
50
Elliptic-Orthogonal mesh.
3.2. Creating Hyperbolic Meshes
The working dialog features a Cancel button. Clicking Cancel stops the mesh generation at the
last iteration but does not delete the new mesh zone.
Note: During the recording of a macro or project file, a Cancel request is not recorded.
3.2. Creating Hyperbolic Meshes
Hyperbolic meshes are created by marching a single JMin boundary in a direction normal to
itself, to add a specified number of additional mesh lines. The end points of the boundary can
be unconstrained, constrained to a line of constant X or Y, or connected to each other (periodic). The JMin boundary may consist of one or more other boundary lines, which will be concatenated to form a single boundary when the mesh is created. The direction of increasing Iindex on the JMin boundary is determined by the first boundary line selected. Boundary lines
defining a hyperbolic boundary must be added in the order that they form the boundary. Mesh
Generator requires that each sequential line section used in the formation of a boundary to
share a common node with the previous line section.
3.2.1. Specifying Boundaries
The boundary lines selected to define the JMin edge are shown by zone numbers in the text
fields labeled JMin. Line segments may be selected in one of three ways:
• If a line is selected using the Tecplot Selector tool, the button next to the JMin text field
reads Add Selected. Clicking the appropriate button will add this line’s zone number to the
corresponding text field.
• If no line is selected, the button next to the JMin text field reads Add From List. Clicking
this button invokes the Add From List dialog with a multi-selection list of line segment
zone numbers and names. One or more of these items are selected in the usual way (click,
Ctrl-click, or shift-click), and clicking OK adds the zone numbers of the selected line segments to the appropriate text field. (Zone numbers are added in the increasing order in the
text field.)
• The zone numbers of the line segments may be manually entered directly into the JMin text
field.
Hyperbolic meshes are created with the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, shown in Figure 3-3.
The dialog is called up by choosing Create Hyperbolic Structured from the Mesh menu.
51
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
Figure 3-3. The
Hyperbolic Structured dialog.
3.2.2. Hyperbolic Mesh Control
The # Layers (JMax) text field on the Hyperbolic Structured dialog indicates the total number
of mesh lines in the J-direction (the marching direction), including the JMin boundary. The
Initial Spacing text field indicates the spacing between the JMin boundary and the first generated mesh line. Total Distance is the approximate normal distance between the JMin boundary
and the last added mesh line (JMax boundary). Both of these must be positive numbers, and the
value for Total Distance must be greater than that in Initial Spacing.
At the IMin and IMax limits of the hyperbolic zone, you may impose one of the following
boundary constraints:
• None: These boundaries evolve as the mesh is marched.
52
3.2. Creating Hyperbolic Meshes
• X=Constant: The boundary is constrained to a line of constant X value, using the X at that
end of the JMin boundary.
• Y=Constant: The boundary is constrained to a line of constant Y value, using the Y at that
end of the JMin boundary.
• Periodic: The end points of the boundary (I=1 and I=IMax) are checked to insure that they
are coincident.
Max. Smoothing Passes is a parameter related to an elliptic relaxation performed on each new
mesh line. Each new line is created by a hyperbolic marching scheme, then a second “ghost”
layer is added by reflecting the previous line across the new line. The node positions in the new
line are then relaxed according to an elliptic equation, using the previous layer and the ghost
layer as boundaries. Max. Smoothing Passes indicates the maximum number of relaxation iterations the generator will use in the relaxation. Enter 0 for a purely hyperbolic scheme, or a positive number to allow relaxation to occur. Default value for this parameter is set to be 100.
Generally, the more convoluted the geometry, the larger the number of smoothing passes. The
node positions in the new line are then relaxed according to an elliptic equation, using the previous layer and the ghost layer as boundaries.
The Reverse Marching Direction check box is used to reverse the direction normal of the
marching. The default direction proceeds to the left of the JMin boundary. Selection this option
will cause the marching to proceed to the right of the JMin boundary.
The Replace and Remove 1 Layer buttons are only active when Edit Selected Mesh is chosen.
The Remove 1 Layer option allows you to remove the last layer of mesh.
3.2.3. Labeling a Hyperbolic Structured Mesh
A name can be assigned to each mesh you create. The Mesh Label text field is located at the
bottom of the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
3.2.4. Creating a Hyperbolic Structured Mesh
To create a Hyperbolic Structured mesh from your existing blunt body shape, perform the following steps:
1.
Choose Create Hyperbolic Structured from the Mesh menu.
2.
Use either Add From List or Add Selected next to the Enter Mesh Boundary Zone Numbers
text field to enter your JMin boundary. In this case we will use the JMax boundary. Select
b5, to be our new JMin boundary.
53
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
3.
In the Mesh Control area of the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, set the following values. For
# Layers (JMax) enter 50. For Total Distance enter 2. In Constraints, use the IMin dropdown to set Y=Constant. Finally, use the Mesh Label text field to name the new mesh
“hyperbolicy.” Click Create. The Working dialog will appear while the new mesh is generated. When done, the new mesh will be displayed in the current Tecplot frame and added to
its data set as an IJ-ordered zone.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 3-4.
9
8
7
6
5
Y
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-5
0
5
X
Figure 3-4. The
Hyperbolic Structured mesh.
The working dialog features a Cancel button. Clicking Cancel stops the mesh generation at the
last iteration but does not delete the new mesh zone.
Note: During the recording of a macro or project file, a Cancel request is not recorded. If a
project file is saved at this point, however, only the number of layers actually generated will be
saved in the file.
54
3.3. Editing and Deleting Structured Meshes
3.3. Editing and Deleting Structured Meshes
To edit a mesh, you may select it in the current Tecplot frame, and then choose Edit Selected
Mesh from the Mesh menu. Depending upon the type of mesh you have selected, either the
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured or Hyperbolic Structured dialog will be called up. Edit Selected
Mesh is only active when the mesh you have selected was created by Mesh Generator.
To edit the Hyperbolic Structured mesh you have created, perform the following steps:
1.
Select the hyperbolicy mesh in your current Tecplot frame with the Selector tool, then
choose Edit Selected Mesh from the Mesh menu.
2.
In the Mesh Control area of the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, set Total Distance to 3, and
use the IMin drop-down to set the value as X=Constant. Set Max. Smoothing Passes to 0.
3.
Finally, use the Mesh Label text field to name the new mesh “hyperbolicx.” Click Replace.
The Working dialog will appear while the mesh is regenerated. When done, the new mesh
will be displayed in the current Tecplot frame and added to its data set as an IJ-ordered
zone.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 3-5.
When either the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured or Hyperbolic Structured dialog is called up to
edit a two-dimensional mesh, the Replace button will be active. Clicking on the Replace button
will not generate the new IJ-ordered zone, it will only replace the current zone.
The Delete Selected Mesh option on the Mesh menu is only active when you select a twodimensional mesh in the current Tecplot frame. It will delete the mesh you have selected only
if it is not used in any of existing zones. Otherwise, an error message will appear.
3.4. Mesh Connectivity
Multi-block flow solvers analyzing multiple zones must be instructed on how mesh zones are
connected to one another in order to come up with the correct solution. When two meshes are
not contiguous you cannot instruct a flow solver to treat the two mesh zones as a single region.
There are two ways to automatically create mesh connectivity in the Mesh Generator, such that
the mesh points on the connecting boundary will be exactly coincident. The first is to use the
same boundary line for the two meshes you wish to connect, which will be discussed shortly.
The second method is to extract a boundary line from an existing mesh, which is covered under
Section 2.6, “Extracting New Boundaries.”
55
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
9
8
7
6
5
4
Y
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-5
0
5
X
Figure 3-5. The modified Hyperbolic Structured mesh.
Note: You can only use Tecplot mesh files to specify various types of mesh connectivity when
outputting the mesh. The restricted format of PLOT3D files cannot store this information. For
a discussion of how connectivity is written into Tecplot mesh files, see Chapter 5, “Exporting
Meshes.”
To create a simple connected mesh from our existing example, perform the following steps:
1.
56
In the Polyline dialog, enter the values 5, 0, for X and Y in the X and Y text fields. Click
Insert Before. Now enter 5 for X and 1 for Y. Click Insert After. Click Node Distribution
and set Distribution to Even Spacing and Number Of Nodes equal to 5 on the Node Distribution dialog. On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary
“b6.” Click Create. The new boundary will be drawn in your current Tecplot frame. Close
the Polyline dialog.
3.4. Mesh Connectivity
2.
Under Mesh on the Mesh Generator menu, choose Create Hyperbolic Structured from the
menu. You may either use Add From List to specify the JMin boundary of the mesh, or you
may select boundaries with the Selector tool, which will change the button to read Add
Selected. Use either method to add b6 and b4 as the JMin boundary. Note that because the
b6 boundary has the lower I-index values, you must list it before b4.
3.
Click in the Reverse Marching Direction check box so that the new mesh will not overlay
the existing mesh.
4.
Accept the other default values, then use the Mesh Label text field to name the new mesh
“connected,” then click Create. The Working dialog will appear while the new mesh is generated.
5.
From the Tecplot menu bar, select the View menu, then select the Data Fit option to display
all of the newly created boundary line.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 3-6.
9
8
7
6
5
Y
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-5
0
5
X
Figure 3-6. The connected Hyperbolic Structured mesh.
57
Chapter 3. Creating Structured Meshes
58
CHAPTER 4
Creating
Unstructured Meshes
In Mesh Generator, an unstructured mesh is formed by filling a boundary-enclosed area with
triangular mesh cells. One outer boundary must be specified to enclose the mesh, while an
arbitrary number of inner boundaries may be specified to “cut out” portions of the mesh. Inner
boundaries generally represent geometries, such as an airfoil in a flow field.
4.1. Selecting Closed-Loop Boundaries
Unstructured meshes are created by clicking on the Mesh menu, then selecting Create Unstructured. The Unstructured dialog is called up, as shown in Figure 4-1.
Each closed-loop boundary may consist of more than one boundary line. The outer boundary,
along with any inner boundaries, are specified in the Closed-Loop Boundaries area on the
Unstructured dialog. Each text line in the Select Mesh Boundary Zone Numbers list represents
one boundary. To add a boundary to the list, click New Boundary. This will generate a highlighted empty line shown as (Incomplete) in the field. You may select and use more than one
boundary line to make up this boundary. Lines may be chosen in one of two ways:
• If no boundary line is selected, the button below New Boundary will read Add From List.
Clicking on this button calls up the Add From List dialog. This lists all the boundary lines
available for use in the closed-loop boundary. You may select one or more boundary lines
to be added to the list. Clicking OK will add their zone numbers to the list.
• If a boundary line is selected using the Tecplot Selector tool, Add From List will change to
read Add Selected. Clicking Add Selected will add the selected line’s zone number to the
list.
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Chapter 4. Creating Unstructured Meshes
Figure 4-1. The
Unstructured dialog.
All boundary lines for a boundary are concatenated to form a single line. The direction of
increasing index for the boundary is determined by the first line selected. Boundary lines defining this boundary must be added in the order that they form the boundary.
Mesh Generator requires each sequential boundary line used in the formation of a boundary to
share a common node with a previous line. Each boundary must form a closed-loop. Once the
last node of a particular boundary coincides with the first node of the same boundary, this
boundary is a complete closed-loop. Boundary lines may no longer be added.
The direction of the closed-loop boundary is important. The outer boundary must proceed
counter-clockwise around the mesh, while inner boundaries must be clockwise. Mesh Generator will determine whether a boundary is external or internal once it is a closed-loop. An external boundary (counter-clockwise) will have a (Ext-Boundary) label in the list, while an internal
boundary will have a (Int-Boundary) label.
60
4.2. Unstructured Mesh Control
Once it is determined whether a boundary is external or internal, the direction of the boundary
may be reversed by clicking in the Reverse Direction checkbox. An external boundary will
become internal, and vice versa. The boundary’s label will be changed accordingly.
To create a mesh with more than one closed-loop boundary, you may click on the New Boundary button as many times as desired. Boundaries may be added in any order.
To remove a boundary from the list, select it, then click Delete. To edit a boundary you must
first remove it, then create a new boundary.
4.2. Unstructured Mesh Control
The Maximum # Cells text field indicates the maximum number of triangular cells which will
be used to fill an enclosed region. This number must be greater than the total number of boundary nodes (external and internal boundaries), or an error will be displayed.
It is recommended you not set this number too large, or it may result in the unnecessary usage
of memory. The mesh density created by Mesh Generator depends solely on the node distribution along the boundaries. The denser the boundary, the denser the resulting mesh will be.
The Mesh Smoothing check box gives you the ability to use a Laplacian-type smoothing operator to smooth small irregularities.
A name can be assigned to any mesh you create. The Mesh Label text field is located at the
bottom of the dialog, you may enter any characters you wish.
Clicking Create will create a new unstructured zone and add it to the data set of the current
frame. The initial boundary triangulation will be shown in the current frame, then refreshed
after each100 points have been inserted. You may interrupt mesh creation by clicking Cancel
on the Working dialog.
4.3. Editing and Deleting Unstructured Meshes
Select the desired unstructured mesh to edit, then click Edit Selected Mesh from the Mesh
menu. The Unstructured dialog will be called up. This option is only active when the selected
unstructured mesh was created using Mesh Generator.
Clicking Replace will replace the selected unstructured mesh zone with a newly created mesh.
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Chapter 4. Creating Unstructured Meshes
Clicking Create will generate the new unstructured zone and add it to the data set of the current
frame.
The Delete Selected Mesh option is active only when you select a two-dimensional unstructured mesh in the current Tecplot frame. Clicking on it will remove the unstructured mesh you
have selected.
4.3.1. Unstructured Mesh Creation
To create a simple unstructured mesh, we will use our existing blunt body. Before starting, use
the Delete Selected Mesh and Delete Selected Line options from the Mesh and Boundary
menus to remove the meshes we have created so far, and boundary line b6, created in Section
3.4, “Mesh Connectivity.” Once you have the original blunt body configuration, perform the
following steps:
1.
Using the Tecplot circle geometry tool, create a circle around the blunt body. To do this, put
the circle geometry crosshair in the center of the blunt body, then click and drag to form a
circle which encompasses the blunt body.
2.
Select the circle with the Tecplot Selector tool, then select Create Circular Arc from the
Boundary menu.
3.
On the Circular Arc dialog, click Convert Circle Geometry. This will enter the coordinates
of the circle you have just drawn into the text fields on the Circular Arc dialog. Accept all
other default values, then use the Line Label text field to name this “circle1.” Click Create.
4.
From the Mesh menu, select Create Unstructured. On the Unstructured dialog, click New
Boundary, then Add From List. Add the boundary lines in the following order: b1, b2, b4,
b5, and b3. Click Reverse Direction.
5.
Click New Boundary again, followed by Add From List. Add circle1 to your second boundary. Click Reverse Direction again. We have now specified that the boundaries of our blunt
body will be the interior boundary for this mesh, and our circle will be the exterior boundary.
6.
Use the Mesh Label text field to name this “unstructured,” then click Create.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 4-2.
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4.3. Editing and Deleting Unstructured Meshes
12
10
8
6
Y
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-10
-5
0
5
10
X
Figure 4-2. The
Unstructured mesh.
63
Chapter 4. Creating Unstructured Meshes
64
CHAPTER 5
Exporting Meshes
Mesh Generator allows you to save mesh zones you create in PLOT3D format or in an augmented Tecplot format which contains boundary and inter-zone connection information. You
may specify ASCII or binary. You also have the option of combining mesh zones into a single
unstructured zone (triangular or quadrilateral) for use with software which requires purely
unstructured meshes.
5.1. Selecting the Format
All mesh output options are available in the Mesh Output dialog, shown in Figure 5-1. This
dialog is called up when you select Write Mesh File from the File menu.
The Format drop-down on the Mesh Output dialog allows you to select between Tecplot and
PLOT3D (FAST) file formats. Two option buttons just below this menu allow you to specify
ASCII or binary. ASCII is recommended for PLOT3D files, if you wish to move between different architectures (Windows and UNIX, or different UNIX platforms). ASCII is also recommended for the Tecplot file format, since software reading the mesh may not be able to read
binary Tecplot files.
65
Chapter 5. Exporting Meshes
Figure 5-1. The
Mesh Output dialog.
5.1.1. The Tecplot Format
The Tecplot mesh file format is a standard Tecplot data file augmented with boundary information (including inter-mesh connections). As such, it may be read directly into Tecplot for viewing. Refer to the Tecplot User’s Manual for details on this file format. Binary Tecplot mesh
files are written in double precision.
Boundary information is contained in USERREC fields, described below. These fields are used
to describe boundary regions on both structured and unstructured meshes. Connections
between meshes are identified by associating two of these regions.
Each boundary line used to create a zone becomes a boundary region in the mesh file. For
example, if two such lines form the JMin boundary for a hyperbolic mesh, then two boundary
regions will be output for the JMin face of that mesh, one corresponding to each boundary line.
Each boundary region is assigned the same label as the corresponding boundary (which is also
the Tecplot zone name for that boundary).
66
5.1. Selecting the Format
If a particular boundary line was used in the boundaries of two meshes, or if a boundary line
was extracted from one mesh and used in the boundary of another, then those two meshes are
considered connected together. This information is also placed in the mesh file; see Section
5.1.1.4, “IZPLABEL” for further details.
5.1.1.1. The Tecplot USERREC. Tecplot allows arbitrary character information to be
embedded in data files. In ASCII data files, this information is enclosed in quotation marks,
and identified with the USERREC keyword:
USERREC=”This is arbitrary information”
These USERREC fields are used to hold all boundary information in Tecplot ASCII and binary
mesh files.
5.1.1.2. SBPATCH. The SBPATCH USERREC field describes a boundary patch on a structured mesh. It includes the zone number, a label, the zone face (IMin, IMax, and so on), and the
first and last nodes of the patch. In an ASCII Tecplot file, it would look like:
USERREC=”SBPATCH 3 Wall 2 1 6”
The first word within the character string, SBPATCH, indicates that this is a boundary patch on
a structured mesh. The integer which follows this, 3, indicates that this patch is on the third
mesh within the file (that is, the third mesh of those you chose to output). The next word, Wall,
is a label by which the patch is identified. This is the label of the corresponding boundary, and
commonly represents a boundary condition which the analysis software will apply to this
boundary region.
Following the patch label are three additional integers. The first, 2, indicates that this region
resides on the J=1 face of the mesh. The second, 1, indicates that this region begins at the first
node of this face, and the final integer, 6, indicates that the sixth node of the face is the final
node of the region.
Note: The number 1 indicates the I=1 face, 2 indicates J=1, 4 indicates I=IMax, and 5 indicates J=JMax. In three-dimensional meshes generated by other programs, 3 and 6 would be
used for the K=1 and K=KMax faces of the mesh.
5.1.1.3. DBPATCH. The DBPATCH USERREC is used to identify a region on the boundary
of an unstructured mesh. Like the SBPATCH, It contains the zone number of the mesh and a
label. Following these, it contains the number of cell edges which make up the region, and
pairs of node numbers which form each cell edge. Since many node numbers may be required,
follow-on USERRECs may be used to contain them. This is illustrated below:
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Chapter 5. Exporting Meshes
USERREC=”DBPATCH 3 Wall 5”
USERREC=”1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6”
The first USERREC above identifies that this is a DBPATCH on zone 3. It also uses Wall as its
label, and specifies that this boundary region contains five cell edges.
The second USERREC contains ten node numbers -- five pairs. The first cell edge is formed by
nodes 1 and 2, the second by nodes 2 and 3, and so on. These node pairs may be contained in
many consecutive USERRECs within the file.
5.1.1.4. IZPLABEL. The IZPLABEL USERREC is used to identify by label two boundary
patches which the analysis software should treat as an inter-mesh zone connection. For example, The following USERREC would indicate that the SBPATCH and the DBPATCH defined
in the two previous sections are connected:
USERREC=”IZPLABEL Wall”
Since inter-mesh zone connectivity is indicated only by label, it is important to use unique
labels for each boundary which will represent a connection (if your analysis software will be
using this information).
5.1.2. The PLOT3D Format
PLOT3D and its successor, FAST, support several similar mesh file formats. For structured
meshes there are two-dimensional and three-dimensional, single- and multi-mesh formats. For
unstructured meshes, there are single- and multi-zone formats. Any of these may be ASCII or
binary. Binary files are written in single precision.
Mesh Generator supports two-dimensional and unstructured, single- and multi-zone formats. If
more than one mesh is being output, the multi-zone format is used. For single zone output, you
will be prompted to choose single- or multi-zone format. Unlike the Tecplot format, the
PLOT3D format does not support structured and unstructured meshes in the same mesh file.
Attempting to write such a hybrid mesh file will result in an error.
Binary PLOT3D files are written using FORTRAN records (FORM=UNFORMATTED), so that
they are readable by FORTRAN flow solvers. The contents of each record is noted in the following sections.
68
5.2. Mesh Conversion
5.1.2.1. The 2D Single-Zone Format. PLOT3D’s two-dimensional mesh file format consists of the I-and J-zone dimensions of the mesh, followed by all of the X-coordinates, then all
of the Y-coordinates, with the I-index moving fastest.
Binary files contain two records. The first record contains the I- and J-zone dimensions, and
the second record contains all coordinate data.
5.1.2.2. The Unstructured Format. PLOT3D’s unstructured mesh files contain:
• Three integers: The number of nodes, the number of triangles, and the number of tetrahedra.
•
•
•
•
•
•
All X-coordinates.
All Y-coordinates.
All Z-coordinates.
The connectivity list for the triangles.
An integer flag for each triangle.
The connectivity list for the tetrahedra.
Since Mesh Generator only outputs two-dimensional (triangular) unstructured meshes, the Zcoordinates will all be zero, and the connectivity list for the tetrahedra will be empty. The
integer flags for the triangles indicate to FAST what type of boundary each triangle represents.
This is extraneous in a two-dimensional mesh, so all of these flags are set to 2 (surface).
Binary files contain two records. The first record contains the number of nodes, the number of
triangles, and the number of tetrahedra, and the second record contains all of the remaining
data.
5.1.2.3. Multi-Zone Formats. PLOT3D’s multi-zone formats are the same as the singlezone formats above, except that one additional integer is added at the beginning of the file
which specifies the number of zones contained in the file. In binary files, this integer is contained in a separate record.
5.2. Mesh Conversion
Mesh Generator allows you to convert all output mesh zones to a single unstructured zone,
either triangular or quadrilateral. These options are available in the Mesh Conversion area of
the Mesh Output dialog. With either of these options, all output mesh zones are converted to
69
Chapter 5. Exporting Meshes
the desired type and combined into a single zone, and redundant nodes and cell edges are eliminated. This process is illustrated in Figure 5-2.
Redundant nodes and cell edges are identified using the same logic as is used for identifying
inter-mesh zone connections. Each boundary line identified as an inter-mesh connection will
result in only a single set of nodes and cell edges, instead of two sets (one for each mesh zone).
Figure 5-2. A
converted mesh.
Note: The PLOT3D mesh file format does not support quadrilateral unstructured meshes.
5.2.1. Conversion to a Single Quadrilateral Zone
Specifying conversion to a single quadrilateral mesh will result in a mesh whose cells are identical in appearance to the cells of each individual mesh being converted. In other words, cells
of triangular unstructured meshes will be output as quadrilaterals with one collapsed face, and
cells of structured meshes will be output as equivalent quadrilateral cells.
Using this conversion option, it is possible to generate meshes for analysis software which
requires quadrilateral unstructured meshes. Quadrilateral cells may be created as an arbitrary
number of structured meshes, and then output using this option.
As noted above, all internal boundaries which represent connections between the original
meshes are eliminated in the converted mesh. If the mesh is output to a Tecplot mesh file, the
boundary regions corresponding to the remaining boundaries are included in the mesh file to
enable analysis software to identify cell edges which lie on the boundaries of the mesh.
70
5.2. Mesh Conversion
5.2.2. Conversion to a Single Triangular Zone
Specifying conversion to a single triangular mesh will result in each mesh cell of the original
meshes being output as one or two triangular cells. To triangulate structured meshes, the cells
are divided by the shorter of the two cell diagonals.
This conversion option is useful for boundary layer flow solutions, or other singular perturbation problems where high aspect ratio cells are required. A good triangular boundary layer
mesh can be generated by producing a structured mesh in the boundary layer region, and then
converting the mesh to triangular upon output.
As with the quadrilateral conversion option, internal boundaries between converted meshes are
eliminated, and lines lying on the boundary of the resulting triangular mesh are included as
boundary regions in Tecplot mesh files.
71
Chapter 5. Exporting Meshes
72
The ADDONCOMMAND Tecplot Macro
CHAPTER 6
Extended Macros
Macro files allow you to automate Tecplot. Mesh Generator augments Tecplot’s macro command language to allow you to access all of its features from within Tecplot macro files. This
chapter introduces these macro additions, and presents some examples. Please refer to the
Tecplot User’s Manual and Reference Manual for a complete description of Tecplot’s macro
language.
To create a macro, you may have Tecplot record your keystrokes, or use a text editor to
create a text file containing the macro commands. After you have created the macro, you
may play it using the Play option, listed under Macro on Tecplot’s File menu, or you may
invoke it from the command line when you launch Tecplot using the -p option.
6.1. The ADDONCOMMAND Tecplot Macro
All of Mesh Generator’s macro commands are embedded within Tecplot’s ADDONCOMMAND
macro. The syntax of this macro is shown below:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = <string>
COMMAND = <string>
[RAWDATA
<string>
73
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
<string>
.
.
. ]
The first <string> is a text string identifying the Tecplot add-on which should receive the
command. For Mesh Generator this should be set to “Mesh Generator.” The second string is
sent to the add-on, and contains all information the add-on needs to process the command.
The square brackets around RAWDATA indicate that a RAWDATA section may be included
with ADDONCOMMANDS. Some of Mesh Generator’s macros make use of this feature.
6.2. Macro Command Summary
Mesh Generator has 16 macro commands which may be embedded in the ADDONCOMMAND
macro as noted above. These are:
• CREATEPOLYLINE: Creates a new boundary line from a set of points.
• CREATECIRCULARARC: Creates a new boundary line along a circular arc.
• CREATECONICARC: Creates a new boundary line along a conic arc.
• EXTRACTLINE: Copies points from an existing boundary line or mesh zone to form a
new line.
• CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE: Reads an IGES file and creates boundary lines from
any NURB curves it finds in the file.
• EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE: Allows the node distribution options to be set for a
NURB curve.
• READNURBFILE: Used in mesh project files to restore NURB curve-based lines.
• CREATEDEFAULTLINEFROMNURB: Used in mesh project files to restore NURB
curve-based lines.
• CREATEELLIPTICSURFACE: Creates a mesh zone using an algebraic or elliptic
method, where all four boundaries of the zone must be specified.
• CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE: Creates a mesh zone using a hyperbolic method
where only the J=1 boundary must be specified.
• CREATEUNSTRUCTUREDSURFACE: Fills a region with triangular cells.
• REMOVELAYER: Removes the J=JMax mesh line from a hyperbolic mesh zone, reducing the J-dimension by one.
74
Macro Commands
• DELETEZONE: Deletes an existing boundary line or mesh zone if your other zones are
not dependent on it.
• READPROJECTFILE: Restores the mesh generation project.
• WRITEPROJECTFILE: Saves the current mesh generation project.
• WRITEGRIDFILE: Creates a mesh file containing the specified mesh zones.
6.3. Macro Commands
The syntax and parameters for each of Mesh Generator’s macro commands are listed below.
Items within single angle brackets (< >’s) are defined in 6.4., “Parameter Assignment Values” on page 94.
Note: The COMMAND strings below must be contained on a single line in your macro
command file, although they appear on multiple lines below.
CREATEPOLYLINE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATEPOLYLINE
[optional parameters]’
RAWDATA
<polylinerawdata>
Description: Create a new mesh line based on a set of control points (a polyline). The
control points define the path along which mesh nodes are distributed.
These control points must be specified in the RAWDATA section. See 6.5.,
“Raw Data” on page 95 for a description of <polylinerawdata>.
Optional Parameters:
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated line. If 0, a
new line is created.
LABEL = <string>
““
The zone title to apply to the created line.
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Chapter 6. Extended Macros
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
INDEXSTART = <integer>
1
The control point index at which to begin distributing mesh nodes.
INDEXEND = <integer>
0
The control point index at which to cease distributing mesh nodes; 0 indicates the final control
point.
DISTRIBUTION
= <distributionoption>
ASIS
The method used to distribute points along the
path defined by the control points. ASIS uses the
control points themselves. If MULTIPLETANH,
then the RAWDATA section must contain clustering data.
NUMBEROFNODES = <integer>
(number of
control
points)
The number of mesh nodes to distribute along the
path defined by the control points.
REVERSELINEDIRECTION
= <boolean>
FALSE
If set to TRUE, the mesh nodes are distributed in
the opposite direction of the control points.
TWOSIDED = <boolean>
TRUE
Not used for ASIS and EVENSPACING distribution options. If FALSE, only the initial or final
node spacing is used; set the other to zero. If
TRUE, both initial and final spacing are set.
INITIALSPACING
= <double>
.001
The initial node spacing.
FINALSPACING = <double>
.001
The final node spacing. Used only if TWOSIDED
is set to TRUE.
INTERPOLATION
= <interpolationoption>
CUBIC
The method of interpolating between control
points for node placement. If CUBIC, then a free
cubic spline is used.
Example 1: Add a five-node polyline with default distribution (control points):
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATEPOLYLINE’
RAWDATA
1
5
0.0 0.0
1.0 1.0
2.0 4.0
3.0 9.0
4.0 16.0
Example 2:
76
Add a 25-node polyline with five control points, and
Macro Commands
multiple-tanh distribution with two clustering
points. Note that the number of nodes between the
final clustering point and the end of the line is
calculated from NUMBEROFNODES.
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATEPOLYLINE
DISTRIBUTION = MULTIPLETANH
NUMBEROFNODES = 25’
RAWDATA
3
5 # Control points
0.0 0.0
1.0 1.0
2.0 4.0
3.0 9.0
4.0 16.0
2 # Clustering locations
1.0 1.0
2.5 6.3
2 # Spacing and # of segment nodes
.0005 5
.0005 10
CREATECIRCULARARC
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATECIRCULARARC
[optional parameters]’
[RAWDATA
<clusteringrawdata>]
Description: Create a new mesh line whose nodes are distributed along a circular arc.
If MULTIPLETANH distribution is used, the clustering data must be
specified in the RAWDATA section. See 6.5., “Raw Data” on page 95 for a
description of <clusteringrawdata>.
77
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
Optional Parameters:
78
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated line. If
0, a new line is created.
LABEL = <string>
““
The zone title to apply to the created line.
HOWSPECIFIED
= <circlespec>
SPECIFYORIGIN
Indicates how the circular arc will be
defined. If SPECIFYORIGIN, set the origin and starting locations and the arc angle.
If SPECIFYRADIUS, set the starting and
ending locations and the radius.
COUNTERCLOCKWISE
= <boolean>
FALSE
If TRUE, indicates that the arc proceeds in
the counter-clockwise direction.
XORIGIN = <double>
0.0
X location of the arc’s origin. Used only if
HOWSPECIFIED is set to SPECIFYORIGIN.
YORIGIN = <double>
0.0
Y location of the arc’s origin. Used only if
HOWSPECIFIED is set to SPECIFYORIGIN.
XSTART = <double>
1.0
X location of the beginning of the arc.
YSTART = <double>
0.0
Y location of the beginning of the arc.
XEND = <double>
0.0
X location of the end of the arc. Used only
if HOWSPECIFIED is set to SPECIFYRADIUS.
YEND = <double>
1.0
Y location of the end of the arc. Used only
if HOWSPECIFIED is set to SPECIFYRADIUS.
ARCANGLE = <double>
90.0
The angle of the arc. Used only if HOWSPECIFIED is set to SPECIFYORIGIN.
RADIUS = <double>
1.0
The radius of the arc. Used only if HOWSPECIFIED is set to SPECIFYRADIUS.
DISTRIBUTION
= <distributionoption>
EVENSPACING
The method used to distribute points along
the path defined by the circular arc. If
MULTIPLETANH, then the RAWDATA section must contain clustering data.
NUMBEROFNODES = <integer>
30
The number of mesh nodes to distribute
along the circular arc.
REVERSELINEDIRECTION
= <boolean>
FALSE
If set to TRUE, the mesh nodes are distributed in the opposite direction of the arc.
Macro Commands
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
TWOSIDED = <boolean>
TRUE
Not used for ASIS and EVENSPACING
distribution options. If FALSE, only the initial or final node spacing is used; set the
other to zero. If TRUE, both initial and final
spacing are set.
INITIALSPACING
= <double>
.001
The initial node spacing.
FINALSPACING = <double>
.001
The final node spacing. Used only if TWOSIDED is set to TRUE.
Example 1: Add a 25-node circular arc with default (even spacing) distribution:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATECIRCULARARC
XORIGIN = 1.0
YORIGIN = 3.0
XSTART = 5.0
YSTART = 3.0
ARCANGLE = 45.0
NUMBEROFNODES = 25’
Example 2: Add a 50-node counter-clockwise circular arc with multiple hyperbolic
tangent distribution (three clustering points), specifying the starting and
ending points and the radius:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATECIRCULARARC
SPECIFYORIGIN = FALSE
COUNTERCLOCKWISE = TRUE
XSTART = 5.0
YSTART = 3.0
XEND = 3.0
YEND = 5.0
RADIUS = 5.5
DISTRIBUTION = MULTIPLETANH
NUMBEROFNODES = 50
INITIALSPACING = .01
FINALSPACING = .01’
RAWDATA
2
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Chapter 6. Extended Macros
3
4.5 3.6
4.0 4.25
3.5 4.7
3
.001 16
.1 11
.001 11
CREATECONICARC
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATECONICARC
[optional parameters]’
[RAWDATA
<clusteringrawdata>]
Description: Create a new mesh line whose nodes are distributed along a conic arc. If
MULTIPLETANH distribution is used, the clustering data must be
specified in the RAWDATA section. See 6.5., “Raw Data” on page 95 for a
description of <clusteringrawdata>.
Optional Parameters:
80
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated line. If
0, a new line is created.
LABEL = <string>
““
The zone title to apply to the created line.
XSTART = <double>
1.0
X location of the beginning of the arc.
YSTART = <double>
0.0
Y location of the beginning of the arc.
XEND = <double>
0.0
X location of the end of the arc.
YEND = <double>
1.0
Y location of the end of the arc.
XVERTEX = <double>
1.0
X location of the vertex of the arc.
YVERTEX = <double>
1.0
Y location of the vertex of the arc.
LENGTHRATIO = <double>
0.5
The ratio of the height of the arc to the
height of the vertex above the baseline.
Macro Commands
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
DISTRIBUTION
= <distributionoption>
EVENSPACING
The method used to distribute points along
the path defined by the circular arc. If
MULTIPLETANH, then the RAWDATA section must contain clustering data.
NUMBEROFNODES = <integer>
30
The number of mesh nodes to distribute
along the circular arc.
REVERSELINEDIRECTION
= <boolean>
FALSE
If set to TRUE, the mesh nodes are distributed in the opposite direction of the arc.
TWOSIDED = <boolean>
TRUE
Not used for ASIS and EVENSPACING
distribution options. If FALSE, only the initial or final node spacing is used; set the
other to zero. If TRUE, both initial and final
spacing are set.
INITIALSPACING
= <double>
.001
The initial node spacing.
FINALSPACING = <double>
.001
The final node spacing. Used only if TWOSIDED is set to TRUE.
Example 1: Add a 25-node parabolic arc (LENGTHRATIO=0.5) with default (even
spacing) distribution:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATECONICARC
XSTART = 0.0
YSTART = 0.0
XEND = 1.0
YEND = 0.0
XVERTEX = 0.5
YVERTEX = 1.0
LENGTHRATIO = 0.5
NUMBEROFNODES = 25’
Example 2: Add a 50-node hyperbolic (LENGTHRATIO>0.5) arc with multiple
hyperbolic tangent distribution (one clustering point):
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATECONICARC
XSTART = 5.0
YSTART = 3.0
XEND = 3.0
81
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
YEND = 5.0
XVERTEX = 4.0
YVERTEX = 7.0
LENGTHRATIO = 0.75
DISTRIBUTION = MULTIPLETANH
NUMBEROFNODES = 50
INITIALSPACING = .01
FINALSPACING = .01’
RAWDATA
2
1
4.0 7.0
1
.001 26
EXTRACTLINE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’EXTRACTLINE
[optional parameters]’
Description: Create a new mesh line whose nodes are a subset of an existing line or
surface.
Optional Parameters:
82
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the extracted line. If 0,
a new line is created.
LABEL = <string>
““
The zone title to apply to the created line.
SOURCEZONE = <integer>
1
The zone number of the source zone.
BOUNDARYLINE
= <zoneboundary>
IMIN
Ignored if the source zone is a line. If the
source zone is a surface (an IJ-ordered
zone), this parameter indicates from which
zone boundary the line is to be extracted.
Macro Commands
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
INDEXSTART = <integer>
1
The source zone index at which to begin the
extraction.
INDEXEND = <integer>
0
The source zone node index at which to terminate the extraction; 0 indicates the maximum index value, and negative numbers
indicate values less than the maximum
index (e.g. -1 gives IMAX-1).
Example 1: Extract nodes 2 to IMAX-1 from zone 1 (a line):
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘EXTRACTLINE
INDEXSTART = 2
INDEXEND = -1’
Example 2: Extract all nodes from the JMAX boundary of zone 5 (a surface):
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘EXTRACTLINE
SOURCEZONE = 5
BOUNDARYLINE = JMAX’
CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE <string>’
Description: Create mesh lines from IGES-NURB curves in a file. The string must
contain one file name, which should be a valid IGES-ASCII file.
Example:
Create mesh lines from file airfoil.igs:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE airfoil.igs’
83
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
[optional parameters]’
[RAWDATA
<clusteringrawdata>]
Description: Edit an existing mesh line whose nodes are distributed along a NURB
curve. If MULTIPLETANH distribution is used, the clustering data must
be specified in the RAWDATA section. See 6.5., “Raw Data” on page 95
for a description of <clusteringrawdata>.
Required Parameter:
Parameter Syntax
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
Zone to replace with the generated line.
Optional Parameters:
84
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
LABEL = <string>
""
The zone title to apply to the line.
DISTRIBUTION
= <distributionoption>
EVENSPACING
The method used to distribute points along
the path defined by the NURB curve. If
MULTIPLETANH, then the RAWDATA section must contain clustering data. The
ASIS option is not available
NUMBEROFNODES = <integer>
30
The number of mesh nodes to distribute
along the curve.
REVERSELINEDIRECTION
= <boolean>
FALSE
If set to TRUE, the mesh nodes are distributed in the opposite direction of the curve.
TWOSIDED = <boolean>
TRUE
Not used for ASIS and EVENSPACING
distribution options. If FALSE, only the initial or final node spacing is used; set the
other to zero. If TRUE, both initial and final
spacing are set.
Macro Commands
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
INITIALSPACING
= <double>
.001
The initial node spacing.
FINALSPACING = <double>
.001
The final node spacing. Used only if TWOSIDED is set to TRUE.
Example 1: Edit a line to give it 25 nodes with default (even spacing) distribution:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE
REPLACEZONE = 2
NUMBEROFNODES = 25’
Example 2: Edit a line to give it 50 nodes with multiple hyperbolic tangent
distribution (three clustering points). Reverse the line direction:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE
REPLACEZONE = 3
DISTRIBUTION = MULTIPLETANH
NUMBEROFNODES = 50
REVERSELINEDIRECTION = TRUE
INITIALSPACING = .01
FINALSPACING = .01’
RAWDATA
2
3
4.5 3.6
4.0 4.25
3.5 4.7
3
.001 16
.1 11
.001 11
85
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE <string>’
Description: Create mesh lines from IGES-NURB curves in a file. The string must
contain one file name, which should be a valid IGES-ASCII file.
Example:
Create mesh lines from file airfoil.igs:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE airfoil.igs’
READNURBFILE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’READNURBFILE <string>’
Description: Read an IGES file containing NURB curves. This macro is intended only
for use by Mesh Generator to write project files. You should not use this
macro in your macro files.
CREATEDEFAULTLINEFROMNURB
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATEDEFAULTLINEFROMNURB
ENTITYNUMBER = <integer>
[REPLACEZONE = <integer>]’
Description: Read an IGES file containing NURB curves. This macro is intended only
for use by Mesh Generator to write project files. You should not use this
macro in your macro files.
86
Macro Commands
Required Parameter:
Parameter Syntax
Notes
ENTITYNUMBER = <integer>
NURB entity number, assigned internally (not the IGES ID number).
Optional Parameter:
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated line.
CREATEELLIPTICSURFACE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATEELLIPTICSURFACE
[optional parameters]’
Description: Create a new elliptic surface. Where <optional parameters> is composed
of name-value pairs documented in the below list. The variable name is
followed by its type in parentheses. If it is an Option parameter (usually
corresponding to an option menu), the list of acceptable options is on the
next line. On the final line is its default value. All of the string values
must be enclosed by escaped apostrophes (\’...\’) within the Command
string.
Optional Parameters:
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated surface.
If 0, a new surface is created.
LABEL = <string>
""
The zone title to apply to the created surface.
IMINBOUNDARY = <list>
" 1"
The numbers of zones that form the I=1
boundary.
IMAXBOUNDARY = <list>
" 1"
The numbers of zones that form the I=IMax
boundary.
87
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
JMINBOUNDARY = <list>
" 1"
The numbers of zones that form the J=1
boundary.
JMAXBOUNDARY = <list>
" 1"
The numbers of zones that form the
J=JMax boundary.
ORTHORELAXATION
= <double>
0.1
For the elliptic-orthogonal method only, the
normalized distance (as a percentage of Ior J-index) at which the orthogonality constraint is relaxed to ten percent of its maximum.
MAXITERATIONS = <integer>
100
For elliptic methods only, the maximum
number of relaxation iterations to perform.
RELAXATION
= <double>
1
For elliptic methods only, the relaxation
factor for the rexation method.
Example 1: Create an elliptic surface using the Laplace method with no more than 20
iterations:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATEELLIPTICSURFACE LABEL="Surface 1"
IMinBoundary="3"
IMaxBoundary="4"
JMinBoundary="1"
JMaxBoundary="2"
Method=EllipticLaplace
MaxIterations=20’
CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE
[optional parameters]’
Description: Create a new hyperbolic surface.
88
Macro Commands
Optional Parameters:
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated surface.
If 0, a new surface is created.
LABEL = <string>
““
The zone title to apply to the created surface.
BOUNDARY = <list>
“1”
The numbers of the zones which form the
J=1 boundary.
NUMBEROFLAYERS = <integer> 25
The number of layers of the mesh, including the initial boundary (JMax of the generated surface).
INITIALSPACING = <double> .0001
The normal distance between the initial
boundary and second layer.
TOTALDISTANCE = <double>
1.0
The approximate normal distance of the
final layer from the initial boundary.
IMINCONSTRAINT
= <constraint>
NONE
The constraint of the I=1 boundary.
IMAXCONSTRAINT
= <constraint>
NONE
The constraint of the I=IMax boundary.
MAXLOCALITERS = <integer>
1000
The maximum number of iterations performed to smooth each layer.
COLLISIONDETECTION
= <boolean>
FALSE
If TRUE, searches for collisions with other
surfaces during generation.
REVERSEDIRECTION
= <boolean>
FALSE
If TRUE, reverses the marching direction.
Example 1: Create a hyperbolic surface with periodic constraints (making an “Omesh”):
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE
BOUNDARY = “1,2,3”
TOTALDISTANCE = 5.0
IMINCONSTRAINT = PERIODIC
IMAXCONSTRAINT = PERIODIC’
Example 2: Create a hyperbolic surface with X=constant constraints (making a “Cmesh”):
$!ADDONCOMMAND
89
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE
BOUNDARY = “1,2”
TOTALDISTANCE = 5.0
IMINCONSTRAINT = XCONSTANT
IMAXCONSTRAINT = XCONSTANT
CREATEUNSTRUCTUREDSURFACE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’CREATEUNSTRUCTUREDSURFACE
[optional parameters]’
RAWDATA
<boundaryrawdata>
Description: Create a new algebraic or elliptic surface. The RAWDATA section must
contain lists of zone numbers which define one external (counterclockwise) boundary, and zero or more internal (clockwise) boundaries.
See 6.5., “Raw Data” on page 95 for a description of the format of this
data.
Optional Parameters:
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
REPLACEZONE = <integer>
0
Zone to replace with the generated surface.
If 0, a new surface is created.
LABEL = <string>
““
The zone title to apply to the created surface.
MAXCELLS = <integer>
100000
The maximum number of cells to be used to
create the surface. Must be greater than the
number of segments of all boundaries combined.
SMOOTHING = <boolean>
FALSE
If TRUE, smooths the final mesh.
Example:
Create an unstructured surface with two boundaries, reversing the
direction of the second boundary:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
90
Macro Commands
COMMAND = ‘CREATEUNSTRUCTUREDSURFACE
MAXCELLS = 10000’
RAWDATA
2
1 2
3 4 5 R
REMOVELAYER
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’REMOVELAYER <integer>’
[no parameters]
Description: Remove the J=JMax line from the indicated zone.
Example:
Remove the J=JMax line from zone 3:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘REMOVELAYER 3’
DELETEZONE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’DELETEZONE <integer>’
[no parameters]
Description: Delete the indicated Tecplot zone, unless another zone is dependent on it.
Example:
Delete zone 3:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘DELETEZONE 3’
91
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
READPROJECTFILE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’READPROJECTFILE <string>’
[no parameters]
Description: Clear the existing mesh generation project, and read the project file
indicated by <string>.
Example:
Read project file airfoil.lay:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘READPROJECTFILE airfoil.lay’
WRITEPROJECTFILE
Syntax:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’WRITEPROJECTFILE <string>’
[no parameters]
Description: Save the existing mesh generation project to the file indicated by
<string>.
Example:
Write project file airfoil.lay:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ‘WRITEPROJECTFILE airfoil.lay’
WRITEGRIDFILE
Syntax:
92
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND=’WRITEGRIDFILE <string>
[optional parameters]’
Macro Commands
Description: Write mesh zones to the file specified by <string>.
Optional Parameters:
Parameter Syntax
Default
Notes
FORMAT = <gridformatoption>
TECPLOT
Format in which to write the mesh file.
TYPE = <gridtypeoption>
ASCII
ASCII or BINARY
CONVERSION
= <conversionoption>
NONE
Options to convert all output mesh zones to
a single triangular or quadrilateral mesh
zone.
MULTIZONE = <boolean>
FALSE
Only used when writing a single mesh zone
to a PLOT3D file. Indicates whether multizone format should be used. If FALSE, the
single-zone format will be used.
ZONELIST = <set>
All zones
The Tecplot zones to write to the file.
Example 1: Write mesh file airfoil.dat in Tecplot ASCII format containing
zones 1, 3, 4, and 5:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ’WRITEGRIDFILE airfoil.dat
ZONELIST = [1,3-5]’
Example 2: Write mesh file airfoil.g in PLOT3D binary format combining zones
1, 3, 4, and 5 into a single triangular zone:
$!ADDONCOMMAND
ADDONID = ’Mesh Generator’
COMMAND = ’WRITEGRIDFILE airfoil.g
FORMAT = PLOT3D
TYPE = BINARY
CONVERSION = TRIANGULAR
ZONELIST = [1,3-5]’
93
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
6.4. Parameter Assignment Values
Parameter assignments referenced in the previous section using angle brackets (< >’s), and
not defined in the Tecplot Reference Manual, are defined here. Note that case is not important.
94
Value Identifier
Allowable Values
<distributionoption>
ASIS, EVENSPACING, EXPONENTIAL, TANH,
MULTIPLETANH, POLYNOMIAL
<interpolationoption>
CUBIC, LINEAR
<circlespec>
SPECIFYORIGIN, SPECIFYRADIUS
<zoneboundary>
IMIN, IMAX, JMIN, JMAX
<ellipticmethod>
ALGEBRAICARCLENTH, ALGEBRAICLINEAR,
ALGEBRAICEDGEORTHO, ELLIPTICLAPLACE,
ELLIPTICTHOMAS, ELLIPTICORTHOGONAL
<list>
“<integer>,<integer>...”
<constraint>
NONE, XCONSTANT, YCONSTANT, PERIODIC
<gridformatoption>
TECPLOT, PLOT3D
<gridtypeoption>
ASCII, BINARY
<conversionoption>
NONE, TRIANGULAR, QUADRILATERAL
Raw Data
6.5. Raw Data
Some macro commands contain a “raw data” section. A raw data section is defined by using
the keyword RAWDATA followed by the raw data values unique to the macro command.
Most raw data sections start with a single count value which represents the number of blocks
of raw data followed by the blocks of raw data themselves. The following table lists the raw
data sections found in Mesh Generator macros.
Value Type(s)
Raw Data Name per Block
Notes
<polylinerawdata>
<xyrawdata>
The first block contains the locations of the control
points. If MULTIPLETANH distribution is used, two
more blocks must follow the first. The second block
contains the clustering points. The X-values of the
final block contain the spacing for each point, and
the Y-values contain the number of nodes to be
placed in the preceding segment (an integer value).
<clusteringrawdata>
<xyrawdata>
This must consist of two blocks. The first block contains the clustering points. The X-values of the final
block contain the spacing for each point, and the Yvalues contain the number of nodes to be placed in
the preceding segment (an integer value).
<boundaryrawdata>
<integer>
<integer>
...
[R]
This is a list of integers (zone numbers) followed by
an optional R. The direction of the boundary is taken
from the first zone in the list. The R, if present, indicates that this node order is to be reversed.
95
Chapter 6. Extended Macros
96
CHAPTER 7
Examples
This chapter details four more advanced examples of meshes you can create in Mesh Generator. The first is a two-dimensional flat plate with flow over a circular leading edge, which
explores geometry and structured mesh creation, mesh control methods such as AlgebraicArclength and Elliptic-Thomas, mesh smoothing, the use of two polylines as a boundary, and
Mesh Generator’s various node distributions methods such as tanh, even and exponential spacing.
The remaining three examples are based on a three-element airfoil. The first three-element
airfoil example demonstrates how to use Hyperbolic Structured mesh generation. The last
three-element airfoil examples use hybrid meshes. They use hyperbolic meshes to resolve the
boundary layer and mixing regions. Then the computational domains are linked together with
an unstructured mesh.
7.1. Two-Dimensional Flat Plate Example with a
Structured Mesh
An overview of the flat plate example is shown in Figure 7-1. To create your flat plate, perform
the following steps.
7.1.1. Creating the Boundary
First, we will create the circular leading edge, which will be the first section of the IMin
boundary.
1.
Select Create Circular Arc from the Boundary menu. On the Circular Arc dialog set Specify to Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle.
2.
Enter the following values into the Center, Start and Arc Angle text fields. For Center, use 0
for X and 0 for Y. For Start use -5.0e-5 for X and 0 for Y. For Arc Angle use 90.
97
Chapter 7. Examples
0.0002
imax2
0.000175
0.00015
0.000125
jmax1
Y
0.0001
7.5E-05
imax1
5E-05
imin2
2.5E-05
imin1
0
jmin1
-2.5E-05
-0.0001
-5E-05
0
5E-05
0.0001
0.00015
X
Figure 7-1. An
overview of the flat plate example.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Exponential,
Number of Nodes to 9, and select One-Sided (Initial). Set Initial Spacing to 8e-6, and Interpolation to Cubic. Click OK.
4.
On the Circular Arc dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “imin1,”
then click Create. Close the dialog.
We will now create the upper surface of the flat plate, the second section of the IMin boundary.
On the Tecplot sidebar, verify that the scatter plot layer option is active. If it is not already
active, click on the check box, then click Redraw.
98
1.
With the Tecplot Selector tool, click on the end node, or a node near the end, of imin1, the
circular leading edge boundary. From the Boundary menu, select Create Polyline, this will
call up the Polyline dialog.
2.
On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt.; this will enter the values of the imin1 end point
into the X- and Y-fields. Now click Insert Before, which will enter the values into the Control Points list. Now manually enter the X- and Y-coordinates for the end points of the
upper surface boundary, using 9.5e-5 for X and 5e-5 for Y. Click Insert After.
7.1. Two-Dimensional Flat Plate Example with a Structured Mesh
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Tanh, Number of Nodes to 8, Initial Spacing to 1.13e-5, Final Spacing to 1.6e-5. Click OK.
4.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “imin2,” then
click Create.
We will now create the downstream, or JMax boundary.
1.
First, click on the end node, or a node near the end of imin2, the upper surface boundary,
with the Tecplot Selector tool.
2.
On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt. to enter the X- and Y-values into the text fields,
then click Insert Before to add the values to the Control Points list. Now manually enter the
X- and Y-coordinates for the end points of the downstream boundary, using 9.5e-5 for X
and 2.0225e-4 for Y. Click Insert After.
3.
Click Node Distribution on the Polyline dialog. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Exponential, Number of Nodes to 23, Spacing to Two-Sided, Initial Spacing to
1e-7, Final Spacing to 1e-5. Click OK.
4.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “jmax1,” then
click Create. Close the dialog.
We will now create the first section of the farfield, or IMax boundary.
1.
From the Boundary menu, select Create Circular Arc. On the Circular Arc dialog, set Specify to Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle, Center to 1.1e-4 for X and 1.6e-6 for Y, Start to 7.5e-5 for X and 0 for Y, and Arc Angle to 51.
2.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Exponential,
Number of Nodes to 11, Spacing to Two-Sided, Initial Spacing to 1.3e-5, Final Spacing to
2.0e-5. Click OK.
3.
On the Circular Arc dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “imax1,”
then click Create.
Now we will create the second section of the farfield, or IMax boundary.
1.
First, click on the end node, or a node near the end of imax1 with the Tecplot Selector tool.
2.
On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt. to enter the X- and Y-values into the text fields,
then click Insert Before to add the values to the Control Points list. Still using your Tecplot
Selector tool, click on a node at or near the start point of the downstream boundary, jmax1.
On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt., then click Insert After.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Even Spacing, Number of Nodes to 6. Click OK.
4.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “imax2,” then
click Create.
99
Chapter 7. Examples
We will now create the symmetry plane, the JMin boundary.
1.
First, click on the start node, or a node near the start of imin1, the circular leading edge
boundary, with the Tecplot Selector tool.
2.
On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt. to enter the X- and Y-values into the text fields,
then click Insert Before to add the values to the Control Points list. Still using your Tecplot
Selector tool, click on a node at or near the start point of imax1, the first segment of the
farfield boundary. On the Polyline dialog, click Select Endpt., then click Insert After.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Exponential,
Number of Nodes to 23, Spacing to Two-Sided, Initial Spacing to 1e-7, Final Spacing to 1e6. Click OK.
4.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “jmin1,” then
click Create. Close the dialog.
7.1.2. Creating an Algebraic Mesh
With our boundary properly defined, we will now create a structured mesh for our flat plate
example. To create this mesh, perform the following steps:
1.
From the Mesh menu, select Create Algebraic/Elliptic Structured. This will call up the
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog.
2.
In the Boundaries area of the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog you must enter the
boundary line into the Enter Mesh Boundary Zone Numbers text fields. You may do this by
entering the values manually, clicking Add From List buttons, or using the Tecplot Selector
tool in conjunction with Add Selected buttons. (The Add From List buttons will read Add
Selected when using the Selector tool.) You should define IMin as imin1 and imin2, IMax
as imax1 and imax2, JMin as jmin1, and JMax as jmax1.
3.
Accept all other default values. When you do not specify a label, Mesh Generator will
assign a name based on the type of mesh being used and its zone number, for example,
“Structured surface 7.” Click Create, then close the dialog.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 7-2.
After a mesh is created, it should be closely examined, paying special attention to regions
bounding surfaces, and other areas of interest. For the flat plate example, it is desirable that the
radial lines of the mesh extend very close to perpendicular from the surface. Close examination
of the Algebraic-Arclength mesh reveals that this has not been achieved. Thus, we can now
delete the surface, or edit it.
100
7.1. Two-Dimensional Flat Plate Example with a Structured Mesh
0.0002
0.00015
Y
0.0001
5E-05
0
-0.0001
0
0.0001
X
Figure 7-2. The
Algebraic-Arclength mesh.
7.1.3. Editing to Create an Elliptic Mesh
Editing is very time efficient if the boundaries being used are not modified. We will now edit
the mesh in our flat plate example. To do this, perform the following steps:
1.
First, select the mesh using the Tecplot Selector tool by clicking on a node on the mesh.
Now choose Edit Selected Mesh from the Mesh menu. This will call up the Algebraic/
Elliptic Structured dialog.
2.
On the Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog, set Mesh Control Method to Elliptic-Thomas,
and Maximum Iterations to 200. Accept all other default values and click Replace. The
Working dialog will appear while the mesh is regenerated.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 7-3.
The mesh should be carefully examined again. At the surface, you will see that the radial lines
now extend nearly perpendicular, and the overall mesh looks smooth without obvious distortions.
101
Chapter 7. Examples
0.0002
0.00015
Y
0.0001
5E-05
0
-0.0001
0
0.0001
X
Figure 7-3. The
Elliptic-Thomas mesh.
7.2. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hyperbolic
Structured Mesh
For this example, we will use an existing Tecplot file. Load the data file
$TEC90HOME\examples\meshgen\airfoil.plt. After the file has loaded, switch
the Tecplot frame mode to 2D, and click on the Scatter on the plot layer buttons. We are now
ready to begin.
7.2.1. Creating Branch Connectors
The airfoil.plt file is made up of 13 zones, and is shown in Figure 7-4.
Zones one through four define the slat, and zones five through ten define the wing. Zones 11
through 13 are the flap. Hyperbolic mesh generation requires that all zones defining the boundary be connected. In addition, when periodic constraints are specified, there is an additional
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7.2. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hyperbolic Structured Mesh
e3_3
e3_2
e1_1
e1_4
e3_1
e1_2
e1_3
Slat
Flap
e2_6
e2_2
e2_5
e2_1
e2_4
e2_3
Wing
Figure 7-4. An
overview of airfoil.plt.
requirement that the zones form a closed-loop. For our airfoil example, the slat and flap are
connected to the wing with lines called branch connectors.
Now we will add the branch connector from the end point of zone 4 to the starting point of
zone 10. To do this, perform the following steps:
1.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, select a node near the trailing edge of zone 4. (To make visibility clearer and selection easier, first use the Tecplot zoom tool to zoom in on the area of
interest.) Now select Create Polyline from the Boundary menu; this will call up the Polyline
dialog.
2.
On the Polyline Dialog, click Select Endpt. This will enter the value for the ending node of
the zone 4 boundary to the X- and Y-text fields. Click Insert Before. This will add the values to the Control Points list. Using the Selector tool again, click on a node on the leading
edge of zone 10. Go back to the Polyline dialog and click Select Endpt., then Insert Before.
The values will move to the top of the list.
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Chapter 7. Examples
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Exponential,
Number of Nodes to 15, Spacing to Two-Sided, Initial and Final Spacing to 5.0e-4, and
accept all other default values. Click OK.
4.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “bc1,” then
click Create. Close the dialog.
Now we will add the branch connector from zone 10 to zone 13. Perform the following steps:
1.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, select a node near the trailing edge of zone 10. Now select
Create Polyline from the Boundary menu; this will call up the Polyline dialog.
2.
On the Polyline Dialog, click Select Endpt. This will enter the value for the ending node of
the zone 10 boundary to the X- and Y-text fields. Click Insert Before. This will add the values to the Control Points list. Using the Selector tool again, click on a node on the leading
edge of zone 13. Go back to the Polyline dialog and click Select Endpt., then Insert Before.
The values will move to the top of the list.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Exponential,
Number of Nodes to 13, Spacing to Two-Sided, Initial and Final Spacing to 5.0e-4, and
accept all other default values. Click OK.
4.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “bc2,” then
click Create. Close the dialog.
7.2.2. Creating a Hyperbolic Mesh
We will now create the mesh for our example. To do this, perform the following steps:
1.
From the Mesh Generator menu select Create Hyperbolic Structured. This will call up the
Hyperbolic Structured dialog.
2.
We will be using the zone numbers of the slat, wing, and flap, as well as the two newly created branch connectors, as our JMin boundary. You may enter these values either by typing
them in manually, clicking the Add From List buttons, or using the Tecplot Selector tool in
conjunction with the Add Selected buttons. (Add From List will read Add Selected when
using the Selector tool.) You should enter the values in clockwise order, starting at the
lower edge of the flap, the beginning of zone 11. The order of all the zones, as entered
clockwise, is 11, 12, 15, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 1, 2, 3, 4, 14, 10, 15, and 13. See Figure 7-5 for
details.
The sharp corners where bc1 connects to the slat, and bc2 connects to the wing, are indicators that the maximum number of smoothing steps need to be increased. To reduce the computational time, an initial, simpler mesh can be generated and repeatedly edited until an
acceptable smoothing factor is determined.
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7.2. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hyperbolic Structured Mesh
10
14
15
4
9
1
3
8
6
7
5
15
12
13
11
2
14
Figure 7-5. Clockwise
entry of zone numbers beginning at
the lower edge of the flap.
3.
In the Mesh Control area of the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, set # Layers (JMax) to 10,
Total Distance to 0.1, Constraints to Periodic (setting the IMin or IMax drop-down to Periodic will automatically set the other to Periodic), and Max. Smoothing Passes to 1000.
Accept all other default values, then use the Line Label text field to name this boundary
“mesh1.” Click Create. The Working dialog will appear while the mesh is generated.
7.2.3. Editing the Hyperbolic Mesh
After a mesh is created, it should be closely examined. Each mesh cell should be distinct, and
no mesh folding or overlapping should be present. Close inspection of the outermost row of
cells in the region below bc1 reveals that these cells are overlapping. In this case the mesh
should be modified before proceeding.
To edit the mesh, perform the following steps:
1.
First, select the mesh using the Tecplot Selector tool by clicking on a node on the mesh.
Now choose Edit Selected Mesh from the Mesh menu. This will call up the Hyperbolic
Structured dialog.
2.
On the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, set # Layers (JMax) to 50, Total Distance to 1, and
Max. Smoothing Passes to 10000. Accept all other default values and click Replace. The
Working dialog will appear while the mesh is regenerated.
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Chapter 7. Examples
The resulting changes are shown in Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6. The
modified Hyperbolic Structured mesh.
Note: The time required to regenerate will vary greatly depending upon the speed of the computer.
7.3. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hybrid Mesh
For this example, load the data file $TEC90HOME/examples/meshgen/airfoil.plt.
After the file has loaded, switch the Tecplot frame mode to 2D, and click Scatter on the plot
layer buttons. We are now ready to begin.
7.3.1. Creating Element Extensions
Element extensions are lines which are added to the trailing edge of each element, in this case,
our slat, wing, and flap. They allow your meshes to be extended aft of the surface, with the
intent of resolving the mixing regions at the trailing edge of the elements. They must be created
in the anticipated direction of the streamlines in this region. To create them, perform the following steps:
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7.3. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hybrid Mesh
1.
From the Tecplot sidebar, click on the polyline geometry tool. Use it to draw a horizontal
polyline, about 0.06 units long, anywhere in your current Tecplot frame.
2.
Use the Tecplot Selector tool to move the starting point of your new polyline to a point near
the trailing edge of the slat.
3.
Use the adjustor tool to select the down stream end point of your polyline. While trying to
maintain the polyline’s length, rotate the down stream end to approximate the angle of the
trailing edge.
4.
Now call up the Polyline dialog by selecting Create Polylines from the Boundary menu.
5.
Use Tecplot’s Selector tool to select your polyline, then click Convert Polyline Geometry
Insert After on the Polyline dialog. This will add the values of your polyline to the Control
Points list on the Polyline dialog.
6.
Now click on the starting point values shown for your polyline in the Control Points list.
Once highlighted, click Delete.
7.
In the current Tecplot frame, click on a node at or near the end of the trailing edge of the
slat. Once selected, go back to the Polyline dialog and click Select Endpt. The values for
the node at the end of the trailing edge of the slat will be entered into the X- and Y-text
fields on the Polyline dialog. Click Insert After. The values will be added to the Control
Points list and will be labeled Control Point 2.
8.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Tanh, Number Of Nodes to 21, Initial Spacing to 0.008 and Final Spacing to 0.0005. Accept all other
default values and click OK.
9.
On the Polyline dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this “line1,” then click Create.
Repeat the process described above to create an element extension from the trailing edge of the
wing, and from the trailing edge of the flap, using the same settings on the Node Distribution
dialog and labeling them “line2,” and “line3” respectively.
7.3.2. Creating the Hyperbolic Meshes
We will now create the hyperbolic mesh for our example. To do this, perform the following
steps:
1.
From the Mesh Generator menu, select Create Hyperbolic Structured on the Mesh menu.
This will call up the Hyperbolic Structured dialog.
2.
We will be using the zone numbers of the slat, as well as its newly created extension, as our
JMin boundary. You may enter these values either by typing them in manually, clicking the
Add From List buttons, or using the Tecplot Selector tool in conjunction with the Add
Selected buttons. (Add From List will read Add Selected when using the Selector tool.)
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Chapter 7. Examples
You should enter the zones in clockwise order, starting at the trailing edge of the flap, the
beginning of zone 14. The order of all the zones, as entered clockwise, is 14, 1, 2, 3, 4, and
14.
3.
In the Mesh Control area of the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, set Total Distance to 0.006.
Accept all other default values, then use the Mesh Label text field to name this boundary
“m1.” Click Create. The Working dialog will appear while the mesh is generated.
Repeat the process described above to create meshes for the wing and flap. Create “m2” for
the wing by entering zones 15, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 15 for your JMin boundary, in that order.
Create “m3” for the flap using zones 16, 11, 12, 13, and 16 for your JMin boundary, in that
order.
7.3.3. Extracting to Create Internal Boundaries
The outermost boundary (JMax) of each of the hyperbolic meshes you have created will be
used as the internal boundaries for the unstructured portion of our hybrid mesh. These outer
boundaries need to be explicitly defined. This is done by creating boundaries from each of the
hyperbolic meshes. To create these boundaries, perform the following steps:
1.
With the Tecplot Selector tool, select mesh1. Now select Extract From Selected Mesh from
the Boundary menu. This calls up the Extract Selected Mesh dialog.
2.
Accept the default boundary line, IMin. In the Line Definition area of the Extract Selected
Mesh dialog the Start and End text fields refer to the J-range. Set Start to 1 and End to mx
to specify the complete boundary. Use the Line Label text field to name this boundary
“sb1,” then click OK.
3.
With the Tecplot Selector tool, select mesh1 again. Now select Extract From Selected Mesh
from the Boundary menu to call up the Extract Selected Mesh dialog again.
4.
In the Line Definition area of the Extract Selected Mesh set Boundary Line to JMax. The
Start and End text fields now refer to the I-range. Set Start to 1 and End to mx. Use the Line
Label text field to name this boundary “sb2,” then click OK.
5.
With the Tecplot Selector tool, select mesh1 a third time. Now select Extract From Selected
Mesh from the Boundary menu to call up the Extract Selected Mesh dialog again.
6.
Set Boundary Line to IMax, and set Start and End to 1 and mx. Use the Line Label text
field to name this boundary “sb3,” and click OK.
Repeat this process for mesh2 of the wing (wb1, and so forth) and mesh3 of the flap (fb1, and
so on).
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7.3. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Hybrid Mesh
7.3.4. Creating a Circular Outer Boundary
The ideal outer boundary varies depending on flight conditions. A circular boundary that
extends approximately six chord lengths outward is useful for illustrating how to link the structured mesh components into one computational domain. To do this, perform the following
steps:
1.
Select Create Circular Arc from the Boundary menu. This will call up the Circular Arc dialog.
2.
On the Circular Arc dialog set Specify to Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle. Set Center to
0.7 for X and 0 for Y. Set Start to 0.7 for X and 6 for Y. Set Arc Angle to 360.
3.
Click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog set Distribution to Even Spacing,
Number Of Nodes to 100, and Interpolation to Cubic. Click OK.
4.
On the Circular Arc dialog use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “arc1.”
Click Create.
You may want to click on Data Fit from the View menu on the Tecplot menu bar. This will
resize the elements in the current Tecplot frame so you can see the new boundary in relation to
the slat, wing and flap.
7.3.5. Creating the Unstructured Mesh
Now we are ready to create the unstructured mesh. To create this mesh, perform the following
steps:
1.
Select Create Unstructured from the Mesh menu. Unstructured mesh boundaries must be
entered as closed-loops. For this example there will be a total of four closed-loop boundaries. This means there will be four entries in the Closed Loop Boundary list.
2.
On the Unstructured dialog, click New Boundary. This will enter (Incomplete) into the
Closed Loop Boundary list. Now click Add From List. In the list presented highlight sb1,
sb2, and sb3, the boundaries on the slat, then click OK. In the Closed-Loop Boundaries list,
(Incomplete) will have changed to (Int-Boundary) followed by the three zone numbers of
the boundaries.
3.
Click New Boundary, and repeat the process, adding wb1, wb2, and wb3, the outer boundaries on the wing, to your new boundary. Repeat the process once more for the outer boundaries on the flap; fb1, fb2, and fb3.
4.
Click New Boundary, and this time, use Add From List to add zone 29, arc1. Once it has
been added, highlight this in the Closed-Loop Boundaries list, and click Reverse Direction
-- notice that (Int-Boundary) changes to (Ext-Boundary).
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Chapter 7. Examples
5.
Accept all other defaults, if desired, add an appropriate label, then click Create. The Working dialog will appear while the mesh is generated.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 7-7.
Figure 7-7. The
Unstructured mesh, showing the area
around the airfoils.
7.3.6. Editing the Unstructured Mesh
Unstructured mesh creation in Mesh Generator uses an internal mesh optimization scheme. If
the optimal mesh is reached before the value you have set for Maximum # Cells is reached, you
will get a message stating that the optimal unstructured mesh has been created; it will list the
number of cells used. If the mesh has not met the internal optimization requirement within the
specified number of cells, you will get a message stating the optimal structured mesh requires
more than the Maximum # Cells specified. You can either accept the mesh as generated, or edit
it.
To edit it, perform the following steps:
1.
110
Select the mesh by clicking on a node using the Tecplot Selector tool. Then choose Edit
Selected Mesh from the Mesh menu.
7.4. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Modified C-Mesh
2.
For our example the optimization factor is met with a Maximum # Cells value of 40000. On
the Unstructured dialog, set Maximum # Cells to 40000, then click Replace. The Working
dialog will appear while the mesh is regenerated.
Note: On some slower systems this mesh may take up to 30 minutes to generate the optimal
mesh. Increasing Maximum # Cells to 15000 is sufficient to demonstrate how the edit and
replace features work.
7.4. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Modified CMesh
In the previous example the optimal mesh resulted in thousands of very small triangular cells
clustered around the downstream ends of the extensions to the slat, wing and flap. These cells
are the result of the mesh stretching, which is necessary in the initial mixing layer, but not as
the flow mixes out downstream. Ideally, we want the mesh on the extensions to be less
stretched as we move downstream. This will result in fewer triangular cells in a region where
they are unnecessary. We will accomplish this by using the hyperbolic method in a unique way.
To start the process we need to switch the frame mode to 2D. Then load the airfoil.plt
file again, using Tecplot’s Load Data File(s) option.
7.4.1. Creating the Hyperbolic Meshes
We will create a hyperbolic mesh around each element, in this case, the slat, wing, and flap. We
will then extract the JMin and JMax boundaries from each mesh we have created.
1.
Select Create Hyperbolic Structured from the Mesh menu.
2.
We will be using the zone numbers of the slat as our JMin boundary. You may enter these
values either by typing them in manually, clicking the Add From List buttons, or using the
Tecplot Selector tool in conjunction with the Add Selected buttons. (Add From List will
read Add Selected when using the Selector tool.) You should enter the values in clockwise,
starting at the lower edge of the flap, the beginning of zone 1. The order of all the zones, as
entered clockwise, is 1, 2, 3, and 4.
3.
In the Mesh Control area of the Hyperbolic Structured dialog, set Total Distance to 0.006.
Accept all other default values, then use the Mesh Label text field to name this boundary
“s1.” Click Create. The Working dialog will appear while the mesh is generated.
4.
Now use the Enter Mesh Boundary Zone Numbers text field to enter the zones of the wing
as the JMin boundary. Entered clockwise, these should be 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10.
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Chapter 7. Examples
5.
In Mesh Control set Total Distance to 0.006. Accept all other default values, then use the
Mesh Label text field to name this boundary “w1.” Click Create. The Working dialog will
appear while your second mesh is generated.
6.
Now enter the zones of the flap as your JMin boundary. Entered clockwise, these should be
11, 12 and 13.
7.
In the Mesh Control area set Total Distance to 0.006. Accept all other default values, then
use the Mesh Label text field to name this boundary “f1.” Click Create. The Working dialog
will appear while your third mesh is generated. Close the Hyperbolic Structured dialog.
7.4.2. Extracting the Downstream Boundaries
The downstream edges of each of the hyperbolic meshes you have created will be used to form
the JMin boundaries for the hyperbolic mesh extensions to each airfoil element. For reference,
see Figure 7-8, which gives an overview of the hyperbolic meshes and their extracted boundary
lines.
s2›jmax; sb
s2›imin; sa
s2›imax; sc
f1›jmax; fd
s1›jmax; sd
f2›imin; fa
f2 jmax; fb
f2›imax; fc
Flap
Slat
w2›imin; wa
w2 jmax; wb
w2›imax; wc
w1›jmax; wd
Wing
Figure 7-8. An overview of the hyperbolic meshes and their
extracted boundary lines.
These outer boundaries need to be explicitly defined. This is done by creating two sub-zones
from each of the hyperbolic meshes. To create these sub-zones, perform the following steps:
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7.4. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Modified C-Mesh
1.
With the Tecplot Selector tool, select s1. Now select Extract From Selected Mesh from the
Boundary menu. This calls up the Extract Selected Mesh dialog.
2.
In the Line Definition area of the Extract Selected Mesh dialog set Boundary Line to IMax
Line. Set Start to mx and End to 1. By starting at Mx and ending at 1 we are in effect reversing the line direction. Use the Line Label text field to name this boundary “smax,” then
click OK. The Warning dialog will appear; click OK.
3.
With the Tecplot Selector tool, select s1 again. Now select Extract From Selected Mesh
from the Boundary menu. This will call up the Extract Selected Mesh dialog again.
4.
On the Extract Selected Mesh dialog accept all default values, and use the Line Label text
field to name this boundary “smin.” Click OK.
Repeat the process creating “wmax” and “wmin” for w1 of the wing and “fmax” and
“fmin” for f1 of the flap.
7.4.3. Creating the Mixing Region Meshes
We will now use our extractions to form the JMin boundary of three additional hyperbolic
meshes used to capture the mixing regions of the airfoil elements. To create these meshes, perform the following steps:
1.
On the Mesh Generator main dialog, click on the Hide 2D Mesh check box, then Redraw.
With the Selector tool, choose zone 1, e1_1. (You may want to refer to Figure 7-4, “An
overview of airfoil.plt,” to see how the boundaries of the airfoil are named.) From
the Boundary menu, choose Selected Line Info. Note the IMin spacing is 0.0005. This is
the distance between the first and second node of e1_1. This will be used as the initial cell
spacing requirement when the trailing edge hyperbolic mesh is created. Check and note the
IMin spacings of e2_1 and e3_1. Now click Hide 2D Mesh again to deactivate it, then
redraw. Your hyperbolic surfaces should be visible.
2.
Use Add From List on the Hyperbolic Structured dialog to enter smax and smin as the JMin
boundary.
Create “w2” for the wing by repeating these steps, then perform the following steps to create “f2” for the flap.
3.
Use Add From List on the Hyperbolic Structured dialog to enter fmax and fmin as the JMin
boundary for the flap.
4.
In the Mesh Control area, set # Layers (JMax) to 15, Initial Spacing to 0.00054, Total Distance to 0.02, and Max. Smoothing Passes to 25.
5.
On the Hyperbolic Structured dialog accept all other default values, and use the Mesh Label
text field to name this mesh “f2.” Click OK. After it has been created, close the Hyperbolic
Structured dialog.
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Chapter 7. Examples
7.4.4. Extractng to Create Internal Boundaries
The IMin, IMax, and JMax lines of our mixing area boundaries (s2, w2, and f2) will now be
extracted and combined with the JMax lines of the hyperbolic meshes around each element (f1,
w1, and f1 on the slat, wing, and flap) to form internal boundaries for the unstructured mesh.
To create these boundaries, perform the following steps:
1.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, select s2 in your current Tecplot frame. Under the Boundary menu, choose Extract From Selected Mesh. This will call up the Extract Selected Mesh
dialog. On the Extract Selected Mesh dialog accept all default values and use the Line
Label text field to name this “sa.” Click OK.
2.
Using the Tecplot Selector tool, select s2 again. On the Extract Selected Mesh dialog, set
Boundary Line to JMax Line. Accept all other default values, then use the Line Label text
field to name this “sb.” Click OK.
3.
Select s2 again. On the Extract Selected Mesh dialog, set Boundary Line to IMax Line.
Accept all other default values, then use the Line Label text field to name this “sc.” Click
OK.
4.
Select s1. On the Extract Selected Mesh dialog, set Boundary Line to JMax Line. Accept
all other default values, then use the Line Label text field to name this “sd.” Click OK.
These four exterior lines will form one closed-loop interior boundary when you created
your unstructured mesh. Repeat this process for the w1 and w2 on the wing. Repeat it a
third time for f1 and f2 on the flap.
7.4.5. Creating the Circular Outer Boundary
We will now create the outer boundary for the unstructured mesh. To do this, perform the following steps:
114
1.
Select the Tecplot circle tool and click Tool Details on the Tecplot sidebar. In the Geometry
dialog, set the Origin X and Y value to 0. Also set the Circle Radius to 6. Click Place and
close the dialog.
2.
To view the circle geometry, select Fit to Full Size under the View menu on the Tecplot
menu bar.
3.
On the Boundary menu select Create Circular Arc. This will call up the Circular Arc dialog.
4.
With the Selector tool click on the circle geometry. On the Circular Arc dialog, click Convert Circle Geometry. This will enter the values of your circle into the text fields in the Arc
area of the dialog.
5.
Now click Node Distribution. On the Node Distribution dialog, set Distribution to Even
Spacing and Number Of Node to 40. Accept all other default values, then click OK.
7.4. Three-Element Airfoil Example with a Modified C-Mesh
6.
On the Circular Arc dialog, use the Line Label text field to name this “circle,” then click
Create. Close the dialog.
7.4.6. Creating the Unstructured Mesh
We are now ready to create the unstructured mesh. To create this mesh, perform the following
steps:
1.
Select Create Unstructured from the Mesh menu. Unstructured mesh boundaries must be
entered as closed-loops. For this example there will be a total of four closed-loop boundaries. This means there will be four entries in the Closed Loop Boundary list.
2.
On the Unstructured dialog, click New Boundary. This will enter (Incomplete) into the
Closed Loop Boundary list. Now click Add From List. In the list presented, highlight sa, sb,
sc, and sd, the outer boundaries on the slat, then click OK. In the Closed-Loop Boundaries
list, (Incomplete) will have changed to (Int-Boundary) followed by the four zone numbers
of the boundary.
3.
Click New Boundary, and repeat the process, adding wa, wb, wc, and wd, the outer boundaries on the wing, to your new boundary. Repeat the process once more for the outer boundaries on the flap: fa, fb, fc, and fd.
4.
Click New Boundary, and this time, use Add From List to add circle. Click Reverse Direction. Notice that (Int-Boundary) changes to (Ext-Boundary).
5.
Accept all other defaults, and add the appropriate mesh label. Click Create. The Working
dialog will appear while the mesh is generated.
The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 7-9.
Compare this mesh to the one created in the proceeding Section 9.3, “Three Element Airfoil
Example with a Hybrid Mesh.” You should notice that there are significantly fewer small triangular cells downstream of the mixing regions. Like the last example, this unstructured mesh
can be edited to meet the internal optimization criteria. This is achieved by setting the
Maximum # Cells equal to 40000.
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Chapter 7. Examples
Figure 7-9. A
116
close-up of the Hybrid mesh.
CHAPTER 8
Index
Symbols
# Layers (JMax) 52
# Nodes 39
A
ADDONCOMMAND macro 73
Algebraic mesh definition 45
Algebraic meshes 45
boundaries 46
control 47
creation 45
Algebraic/Elliptic Structrued dialog
Maximum Iterations 49
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured
creating 10
creation 100
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog 46
Algebraic-Arclength 47
Algebraic-Edge.Ortho 48
Algebraic-Linear 48
Create button 48, 50
Elliptic mesh control 48
Elliptic Relaxation 49
Elliptic-Laplace 48
Elliptic-Orthogonal 49
Elliptic-Thomas 48
mesh control 47
mesh control parameters 48, 49
Mesh Label 48, 49
Orthogonality Relaxation 49
Algebraic-Arclength mesh control 47
Algebraic-Edge.Ortho mesh control 48
Algebraic-Linear mesh control 48
Amtec Technical Support 17
Arc area 24
As Is distribution 37
B
Boundaries
adding lines on Unstructured dialog 59
closed-loops in Unstructured meshes 59
coincident mesh points 4
constraints in Hyperbolic Structured
meshes 52
Converting polyline geometries 21
creating 97
creating from existing boundaries 30
creation 30
Delete Selected Line 3
deleting 42
direction of closed-loops 60
Editing 41
editing permitted on extracted boundaries 36
examples 97
117
Index
External 60
Extracting from a selected mesh 35
Extracting from an existing line 33
extracting from Hyperbolic Structured 112
extracting in Hyperbolic Structured 114
extracting new boundaries 33
extraction 108
for structured meshes 46
IMax line option on Extract Selected Mesh
dialog 36
IMax orientation 7
IMin line option on Extract Selected Mesh
dialog 36
IMin orientation 6
importing boundary files 29
in bounding edges 4
in Hyperbolic Structured meshes 51
in Unstructured meshes 60
information 42
Internal 60
introduction 19
JMax line option on Extract Selected Mesh
dialog 36
JMax orientation 8
JMin 5
JMin line option on Extract Selected Mesh
dialog 36
modifying 11, 12
Node distribution 37
patches 67
polylines 19
shape defined by control points 19
used in structured meshes 46
USERREC fields 66
Boundary menu 2, 19
C
Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle 24
Circular Arc
Arc Angle 24
Circular Arc dialog 5, 23
Arc area 24
Center, Starting Point, Arc Angle 24
Convert Circle Geometry button 24
Create button 25
End 24
Line Definition area 24
Line Label 25
Node Distribution button 25
118
Radius 24
Specify 24
Start 24
Starting, Ending Point, Radius 24
Circular Arcs 23
default direction 24
default node distribution 25
editing 41
information 42
Node distribution 37
Closed-loop boundaries
direction 60
Closed-Loop Boundaries area
on Unstructured dialog 59
Clustering control points in Multiple Tanh
distribution 38
C-Meshes 111
Conic Arc dialog 25
Create button 27
End 25
Length Ratio 26
Line Definition area 25
Line Label 27
Node Distribution button 27
Start 25
Vertex 25
Conic Arcs 25
default node distribution 27
editing 41
information 42
Node distribution 37
Connectivity 55
Control points
polylines 19
to define boundary shape 19
Control Points list 5
entering data into 5
Convert Circle Geometry button 24
Convert Polyline Geometry Insert After
button 21
Converting
meshes 14
Converting circle geometries 24
Counter Clockwise option 24
Create button
on Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog 48, 50
on Circular Arc dialog 25
on Conic Arc dialog 27
on Extract From Selected Line dialog 35
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
on Hyperbolic Structured dialog 54
on Unstructured dialog 61
Create Circular Arc 5
Create Conic Arc 25
Create From Selected Line 31
Create Hyperbolic Structured 51
Create Hyperbolic Structured option 51
Create Polyline 5
Create Unstructured 59
CREATECIRCULARARC macro command 77
CREATECONICARC macro command 80
CREATEDEFAULTLINEFROMNURB macro
command 86
CREATEELLIPTICSURFACE macro
command 87
CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE macro
command 88
CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE macro
command 83, 86
CREATEPOLYLINE macro command 75
CREATEUNSTRUCTUREDSURFACE macro
command 90
Creating boundaries from existing boundaries 30
D
DBPATCH 67
Delete button 21
on Unstructured dialog 61
Delete Selected Line 3
Delete Selected Lines 42
Delete Selected Mesh 3, 55, 62
DELETEZONE macro command 91
Deleting
meshes 55, 62
Tecplot Delete Zone option 3
Dialogs
Algebraic/Elliptic Structured 46
Circular Arc 5, 23
Conic Arc 25
Control Points area on Polyline 20
Extract From Selected Line 33
Extract Selected Mesh 35
Help button 17
Hyperbolic Structured 51
Line Defintion area on Polyline 20
Line Info 42
main 2
Mesh Output 14, 65
Node Distribution 6, 37
Polyline 5, 19
Read IGES File 30
Unstructured meshes 59
Direction of closed-loop boundaries 60
E
Edit Selected Mesh 55
Editing
Boundaries 41
circular arcs 41
conic arcs 41
Hyperbolic Structured meshes 105
lines 41
meshes 55, 61, 101
NURB lines 41
polylines 41
structured meshes 101
EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE macro
command 84
Element extensions 106
Elliptic mesh definition 45
Elliptic meshes 45
boundaries 46
control 47, 48
creation 45
Elliptic Relaxation 49
Elliptic-Laplace 48
mesh control 48
Elliptic-Orthogonal mesh control 49
Elliptic-Thomas mesh control 48
End text field 22
on Conic Arc dialog 25
on Extract From Selected Line dialog 34
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
End text field on Circular Arc dialog 24
Even Spacing distribution 37
Examples 97
Exponential distribution 37
Exporting
meshes 65
Extract From Selected Line dialog 33
Create button 35
End text field 34
Line Definition area 34
Line Label 35
reversing line direction 34
Start text field 34
Extract From Selected Line option 33
119
Index
Extract From Selected Mesh 35
Extract Selected Mesh dialog 35
Create button 36
End text field 36
IMax line option 36
IMin line option 36
JMax line option 36
JMin line option 36
Line Definition area 36
Line Label 36
Start text field 36
Extracted lines
editing 36, 41
Extracting boundaries 108
Extracting new boundaries 33
EXTRACTLINE macro command 82
F
File
Import NURB File 16
Open Project 16
Save Project 16
Write Mesh File 16, 65
File menu 2
Files
saving 15
Final Spacing 39
H
Help 17
Hide 2D Mesh 2
Hybrid meshes 1
extracting boundaries 108
Hyperbolic Structured 107
Hyperbolic mesh definition 45
Hyperbolic meshes 45, 51
boundaries 51
boundary constraints 52
control 52
creating 51
creation 45
Hyperbolic Structured
boundary extraction 114
creating 111, 113
creation 102
editing 105
extracting boundaries 108, 112
in hybrids 107
Hyperbolic Structured dialog 51
120
# Layers (JMax) 52
boundary constraints 52
Create button 54
Initial Spacing 52
Max. Smoothing Passes 53
mesh control 52
Mesh Label 53
Replace And Remove 1 Layer 53
Reverse Marching Direction 53
Total Distance 52
I
IMax boundary orientation 7
IMax line
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
IMin boundary orientation 6
IMin line
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
Importing
boundary files 29
NURB files 30
Tecplot data 29
Tecplot files 29
Importing NURB File 16
Importing NURB Files 30
Information 42
Initial Spacing 39
on Hyperbolic Structured dialog 52
Insert After button 21
Insert Before button 21
Interpolation area
on Node Distribution dialog 40
IZPLABEL 68
J
JMax boundary orientation 8
JMax line
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
JMin boundary orientation 5
JMin line
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
L
Laplace equation 48
Length Ratio
acceptable values 26
for ellipse 26
for hyperbola 26
for parabola 26
on Conic Arc dialog 26
Line Definition
on Circular Arc dialog 24
Line Definition area
on Conic Arc dialog 25
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
Line Defintion 20
Specify on Circular Arc dialog 24
Start and End text fields 22
Line Defintion area
on Extract From Selected Line dialog 34
Line direction 38
Line Info dialog 42
Line Label
on Circular Arc dialog 25
on Conic Arc dialog 27
on Extract From Selected Line dialog 35
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
on Polyline dialog 22
Lines
deleting 42
Information 42
M
Macro commands
CREATECIRCULARARC 77
CREATECONICARC 80
CREATEDEFAULTLINEFROMNURB 86
CREATEELLIPTICSURFACE 87
CREATEHYPERBOLICSURFACE 88
CREATELINESFROMNURBFILE 83, 86
CREATEPOLYLINE 75
CREATEUNSTRUCTUREDSURFACE 90
DELETEZONE 91
EDITLINEFROMNURBCURVE 84
EXTRACTLINE 82
READNURBFILE 86
READPROJECTFILE 92
REMOVELAYER 91
WRITEGRIDFILE 92
WRITEPROJECTFILE 92
Macro Files 17
Max. Smoothing Passes 53
Maximum # Cells 61, 110
Maximum Iterations 49
Mesh
editing 55
Mesh Boundary Zone Numbers list 59
Mesh connectivity 55
Mesh conversion 69
Mesh Output dialog 69
to single quadrilateral 70
to single triangular 71
Mesh generation
Algebraic-Elliptic 4
Hyperbolic 4
introduction 3
methods 4
Unstructured 4
Mesh Generator
Boundary menu 2
Circular Arc dialog 23
Circular Arcs 23
closing 2
closing in Unix 2
Conic arcs 25
creating boundaries from existing
boundaries 30
Creating conic arcs 25
examples 97
exporting meshes 65
Extracting new boundaries 33
File menu 2
loading 1
loading Unix 1
main dialog 2
mesh conversion 14, 69
Mesh creation 45
Mesh menu 2
Meshes 45
modifying boundaries 11
modifying meshes 11
Node Distribution 37
Polyline dialog 19
Polylines 19
saving meshes 65
saving work 15
starting in Windows 2
structured mesh creation 45
Technical Support 17
Unstructured meshes 59
zone deletion 3
Mesh Label
on Algebraic/Elliptic Structured dialog 48, 49
on Hyperbolic Structured dialog 53
on Unstructured dialog 61
Mesh menu 2
Mesh Output dialog 14, 65
121
Index
Formats 65
Mesh Smoothing 61
Meshes
Algebraic mesh control 47
Algebraic meshes 45
Algebraic-Arclength mesh control 47
Algebraic-Edge.Ortho mesh control 48
Algebraic-Elliptic 4
Algebraic-Linear mesh control 48
boundaries for structured 46
boundary constraints in Hyperbolic Structured
meshes 52
boundary extraction in Hyperbolic
Structured 114
bounding edges in Algebraic-Elliptic 4
closed-loop boundaries in Unstructured
meshes 59
C-Mesh 111
coincident mesh points 4
connection 102
Connectivity 55
control 52, 101
conversion 14, 69
converting to single quadrilateral 70
converting to single triangular 71
creating 51
creating Algebraic/Elliptic Structured 10
creating hybrid meshes 106
creating Hyperbolic Structured 51, 102, 111,
113
creating structured 45
creating Unstructured 115
creating Unstructured meshes 62
creation 45, 100
defining types 45
Delete Selected Mesh 3
deleting 3, 55, 62
editing 61, 101, 105
editing Unstructured 61, 110
element extensions 106
Elliptic mesh control 47, 48
Elliptic mesh creation 45
Elliptic Relaxation 49
Elliptic-Laplace 48
Elliptic-Orthogonal mesh control 49
Elliptic-Thomas mesh control 48
examples 97
exporting 65
extracting boundaries 108
122
Extracting from a selected mesh 35
file format 66
Hybrid 1
hybrid 106
Hyperbolic 4, 45, 51
Hyperbolic Structured 102
Hyperbolic Structured in hybrids 107
Max. Smoothing Passes 53
maximum iterations 49
mesh control paramaters 48
methods of creating 45
Modfied 111
modifying 11, 13
Orthogonality Relaxation 49
patches on structured meshes 67
Reverse Direction on Unstructured meshes 61
Reverse Marching Direction 53
saving 65
smoothing 61
Unstructured 4, 59
Unstructured mesh control 61
with PLOT3D files 68
Modified C-Meshes 111
Multiple Tanh 39
Multiple Tanh distribution 38
N
New Boundary button 59
Node distrbution
Exponential 37
Node Distribution 6
As Is 37
defaults 22
Node distribution 37
# Nodes 39
clustering control points in Multiple Tanh 38
Cubic 39
default circular arc distribution 25
default for conic arcs 27
Even Spacing 37
Final Spacing 39
Inital Spacing 39
interpolation options 40
Multiple Tanh 38, 39
Polynomial 38
spacing 39
Tanh 37
Node Distribution dialog 6, 37
# Nodes 39
Cubic Interpolation 39
Even Spacing 37
Exponential 37
Final Spacing 39
Inital Spacing 39
Interpolation area 40
interpolation options 40
Multiple Tanh 38, 39
node direction 38
node index order 38
node spacing 39
Number Of Nodes 38
Polynomial 38
Replace, Add and Delete buttons 40
Reverse Line Direction 38
Tanh 37
Node Distritbution dialog
As Is 37
Node index order 38
Node index order default direction 38
Node spacing 39
Number Of Nodes option 38
NURB line
editing 41
O
On-Line Help 17
Open Project 16
Options
# Nodes 39
Counter Clockwise 24
Create Circular Arc 5
Create Conic Arc 25
Create From Selected Line 31
Create Hyperbolic Structured 51
Create Polyline 5
Create Unstructured 59
Delete Selected Line 42
Delete Selected Mesh 55
Edit Selected Mesh 55
Extract From Selected Line 33
Extract From Selected Mesh 35
Hide 2D Mesh 2
Interpolation for nodes 40
Max. Smoothing Passes 53
Mesh Smoothing 61
Node Distribution 6, 37
Number Of Nodes 38
Replace And Remove 1 Layer 53
Reverse Direction 61
Reverse Line Direction 38
Reverse Marching Direction 53
Selected Line Info 42
Write Mesh File 65
Orthogonality Relaxation 49
P
Parameters
for Hygrid macro commands 75
PLOT3D
files 68
multi-zone format 69
two-dimensional format 69
unstructured format 69
uses with meshes 68
Poisson’s equation
solving with Elliptic-Orthogonal mesh
control 49
solving with Elliptic-Thomas mesh control 48
Polyline dialog 5, 19
Control Points area 20
Convert Polyline Geometry Insert After
button 21
Create button 23
Delete button 21
entering Control Points 20
Insert After button 21
Insert Before button 21
line definition 20
Line Label 22
Node Distribution button 22
Replace button 21
Select Endpt. button 20
Start and End text field 22
Polylines 19
control points 19
converting geometries 21
Delete Selected Line 3
deleting 42
editing 41
editing permitted 36
information 42
Node distribution 37
Polynomial distribution 38
R
Read IGES File dialog 30
READNURBFILE macro command 86
123
Index
READPROJECTFILE macro command 92
Recording Macro files 17
REMOVELAYER macro command 91
Replace And Remove 1 Layer 53
Replace button 21
Reverse Direction 61
Reverse Line Direction option 38
Reverse Marching Direction 53
Reversing line direction 38
on Extract From Selected Line dialog 34
S
Save Project 16
Saving
files 15
meshes 65
SBPATCH
boundary patches 67
Select Endpt. button 20
Selected Line Info option 42
Single quadrilateral mesh 70
Single triangular mesh 71
Specify on Circular Arc dialog 24
Start text field 22
on Conic Arc dialog 25
on Extract From Selected Line dialog 34
on Extract Selected Mesh dialog 36
Start text field on Circular Arc dialog 24
Starting, Ending Point, Radius 24
Structure meshes
editing 105
Structured meshes
Algebraic 45
control 101
creating Hyperbolic Structured 102
creation 100
editing 101
Elliptic 45
Hyperbolic 45, 51
patches 67
Syntax
for Hygrid macro commands 75
T
Tanh distribution 37
Technical Support 17
Tecplot data 29
Tecplot data file 66
Tecplot File menu 29
124
Macro Files 17
Tecplot Load DataFile(s) option 29
Tecplot mesh file format 66
Tecplot Tools menu 1, 2
Total Distance
on Hyperbolic Structured dialog 52
U
Unix
closing Mesh Generator 2
loading Mesh Generator 1
Unstructured
creating 115
editing 110
Unstructured dialog 59
adding boundary lines 59
Closed-Loop Boundaries area 59
Create button 61
Delete button 61
external boundaries 60
internal boundaries 60
Maximum # Cells 61
Mesh Boundary Zone Numbers list 59
mesh control 61
Mesh Label 61
Mesh Smoothing 61
New Boundary button 59
Reverse Direction 61
Unstructured mesh control 61
Unstructured meshes 59
boundaries 60
closed-loop boundaries 59
creating 62
editing 61
external boundaries 60
internal boundaries 60
mesh control 61
Reverse Direction 61
smoothing 61
USERREC 67
and Tecplot ASCII files 67
and Tecplot binary files 67
boudary information 66
DBPATCH 67
IZPLABEL 68
SBPATCH 67
V
Vertex 25
W
Windows
closing Mesh Generator 2
loading Mesh Generator 2
Write Mesh File 16, 65
WRITEGRIDFILE macro command 92
WRITEPROJECTFILE macro command 92
125
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