Science Safety Handbook for CA Public Schools (1999 Edition)

Science Safety Handbook for CA Public Schools (1999 Edition)
CIENCE
AFETY
HANDBOOK
for
California Public Schools
1999 EDITION
CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION • SACRAMENTO, 1999
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Publishing Information
The Science Safety Handbook for California Public Schools (1999 Edition)
was developed by the Science and Environmental Education Unit,
California Department of Education. The names of those involved in the
development of the document appear in the acknowledgments.
This publication was edited by Sheila Bruton, working in cooperation with
Bill Andrews and David Hammond of the Science and Environmental
Education Unit. It was designed and prepared for photo-offset production
by the staff of CDE Press, with the cover and interior design created and
prepared by Juan Sanchez. Typesetting was done by Jeannette Huff.
It was published by the Department of Education, 721 Capitol Mall,
Sacramento, California (mailing address: P.O. Box 944272, Sacramento,
CA 94244-2720). It was distributed under the provisions of the Library
Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096.
© 1999 by the California Department of Education
All rights reserved
ISBN 0-8011-1445-4
Ordering Information
Copies of this publication are available for $17.50 each, plus shipping and
handling charges. California residents are charged sales tax. Orders may be
sent to CDE Press, Sales Office, California Department of Education, P.O.
Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95812-0271; FAX (916) 323-0823. See page
179 for complete information on payment, including credit card purchases,
and an order blank. Prices on all publications are subject to change.
A partial list of other educational resources available from the Department
appears on page 178. In addition, the Educational Resources Catalog
describing publications, videos, and other instructional media available
from the Department can be obtained without charge by writing to the
address given above or by calling the Sales Office at (916) 445-1260.
Notice
The guidance in the Science Safety Handbook for California Public
Schools (1999 Edition) is not binding on local educational agencies or other
entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that are
referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and compliance with it is not
mandatory. (See Education Code Section 33308.5.)
ii
CONTENTS
Preface ......................................................................................................................................... vii
Acknowledgments ...................................................................................................................... viii
School District Emergency and Safety Procedures .................................................................. ix
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1
A. Responsibilities of Students and Parents ....................................................................... 2
B. Reasonable Laboratory Class Size ................................................................................. 2
C. Teacher’s Liability ......................................................................................................... 4
D. State and Federal Legislation Affecting Science Instruction ......................................... 5
2. First Aid ................................................................................................................................... 9
A. General Information ....................................................................................................... 9
B. Bites by Snakes, Spiders, Insects, and Mammals .......................................................... 9
C. Burns ............................................................................................................................ 11
D. Eye Injuries .................................................................................................................. 12 E. Exposure to Poisons ..................................................................................................... 13
F. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) ....................................................................... 14
G. Shock ........................................................................................................................... 15
3. General Laboratory Safety Precautions ................................................................................. 17
4. Safety in the Biology Laboratory .......................................................................................... 21
A. Human Blood Sampling .............................................................................................. 21
B. Epithelial Tissue Study ................................................................................................ 23
C. Use of Microscopes and Hand Lenses ......................................................................... 23
D. Experiments with Bacteria and Fungi .......................................................................... 23
E. Special Concerns in the Study of Fungi and Molds .................................................... 23
F. Operation of Pressure Cooker for Sterilization ........................................................... 24
G. Extraction of Chlorophyll, Using Flammable Solvents ............................................... 24
H. Risks in Use of Acrylamide ......................................................................................... 24
I. Risks in Use of Ethidium Bromide .............................................................................. 25
J. Risks in Use of Formaldehyde ..................................................................................... 25
K. Instruments and Specimens Used in Dissection .......................................................... 26
L. Alternatives to Dissection ............................................................................................ 27
M. Handling of Laboratory Animals ................................................................................. 27
N. Insect-Killing Jars ........................................................................................................ 27
iii
5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory ...................................................................................... 29
A. Laboratory Practices .................................................................................................... 29
B. Students’ Safety Precautions ........................................................................................ 30
C. Teachers’ General Safety Precautions .......................................................................... 30
D. Chemical Health Hazards ............................................................................................ 31
E. Steps for Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area .............................................. 32
F. Labeling of Chemical Reagents ................................................................................... 42
G. Potentially Hazardous Chemicals ................................................................................ 43
H. Substances Containing Asbestos .................................................................................. 74
I. Use and Disposal of Ethers .......................................................................................... 74
J. Standards in the Use of Lead ....................................................................................... 74
K. Handling and Cleanup of Mercury .............................................................................. 75
6. Safety in the Physics Laboratory ........................................................................................... 77
A. General Safety Practices .............................................................................................. 77
B. Electrical Devices and Connectors .............................................................................. 78
C. Model Rocket Launchings on School Sites ................................................................. 78
D. Use and Hazards of Lasers .......................................................................................... 79
7. Additional Safety Practices ................................................................................................... 83 A. Fire Prevention and Control ......................................................................................... 83
B. Use of Animals in the Classroom ................................................................................ 84
C. Eye Safety .................................................................................................................... 85 D. Eyewash Station ........................................................................................................... 88
E. Safety on Field Trips .................................................................................................... 88
F. Poisonous Plants .......................................................................................................... 89
G. Ionizing Radiation ....................................................................................................... 94
H. Earthquake Preparation ................................................................................................ 97
I. Waste Reduction ........................................................................................................ 102
J. Employees’ Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals ........................................................ 105
K. Employees’ Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens ....................................................... 106
Appendixes
A. Liability and the Science Teacher ........................................................................................ 109
Liability of Teachers for Laboratory Safety and Field Trips ............................................... 110
B. Legal Citations ...................................................................................................................... 111
C. Reimbursement for Removal and Disposal of Chemicals ................................................... 137
D. Science Classroom First-Aid and Safety Materials ............................................................. 140
Sample Accident Report ...................................................................................................... 141
iv
E. Regional Poison Centers ...................................................................................................... 142
F. Sample Safety Regulations for Science Students; Student Science Safety Contract .......... 143
G. Sample Science Laboratory Safety Test .............................................................................. 146
H. Sample Safety Checklist for Science Instruction, Preparation, and Storage Areas ............. 151
I. End-of-Year Safety and Energy-Savings Procedures .......................................................... 154
J. Sample Biological Science Laboratory Regulations ........................................................... 155
K. Toxic Substances Control Regional Offices ........................................................................ 158
L. Science Laboratory Safety/Liability Checklist .................................................................... 159
M. Sample Chemical Inventory ................................................................................................ 161
N. Department of Transportation Hazard Classes .................................................................... 162
O. Carcinogen “Report of Use” Form ...................................................................................... 164
P. Sample Physical Science Laboratory Regulations .............................................................. 167
Q. Safety Precautions for Rocket Launchings on School Sites ................................................ 170
R. Sample Permission Slip: Field Trip ..................................................................................... 172
S. Outbreaks of Coccidioidomycosis Associated with Field Work ......................................... 173
T. Disposal of Empty Containers ............................................................................................. 174
Selected References ................................................................................................................... 175
List of Tables
1. Explosive Chemicals ............................................................................................................. 33
2. Extremely Hazardous Chemicals for Prompt Disposal ......................................................... 39
3. Hazardous Chemicals Reference Table ................................................................................. 46
4. Recommended Supplies of Safety Devices for Eyes ............................................................ 86
5. Effects of Some Poisonous Plants ......................................................................................... 90
v
PREFACE
The Science Safety Handbook for California Public Schools has been prepared to help science
teachers, administrators, and other school staff members understand and avoid situations in which
accidents might occur in the science laboratories or on field trips and outdoor education experiences.
However, no publication can completely describe the procedures for ensuring safety under all condi­
tions and in all situations; therefore, the authors, editorial staff, and publisher cannot be responsible for
errors in publication or for any consequences arising from the use of the information published in this
handbook. The suggestions contained in this publication are generally agreed upon and are recom­
mended for consideration by all California science teachers. Because this publication has been pre­
pared for statewide distribution, not all of the recommended policies are appropriate for adoption in all
school districts. The ideas presented may be adapted to meet the needs of teachers and students in each
district.
This publication is designed for use by laboratory instructors and, therefore, provides minimal
information directed to students, parents, and administrators about the safety procedures necessary in
the science laboratory. Some materials, such as parental consent forms and sample student safety
contracts, have been included in the appendixes to help teachers communicate with other audiences.
SONIA HERNANDEZ
ROBERT A. CERVANTES
Deputy Superintendent
Curriculum and Instructional
Leadership Branch
Administrator
Academic Support Office
STUART GREENFELD
WILLIAM H. ANDREWS
Assistant Superintendent
High School Division
Consultant
Environmental Education Office
vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Although the California Department of Education assumed the role of coordinator in compiling this handbook,
the work was a collaborative effort. A number of individuals representing various state agencies and educational
and research institutions gave a great deal of their time in making this handbook possible. A special acknowledg­
ment is due to:
Doug Adams
Safety Office
San Diego City Schools
Sheila Mackenzie
Mathematics, Science, and Environmental Education Unit
California Department of Education
Donald B. Alger
Chemistry Department
California State University, Chico
Jack S. McGurk
Department of Health Services
Sacramento
John Baker
Safety Office
San Diego City Schools
Les Michaels
Health and Technical Services
California Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Frank Ciofalo
Deputy Chief of Health and Technical Services
California Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Walter Milne
Director of Health and Safety
California Institute of Technology
Patricia Coyle
Associate Toxicologist
Health Evaluation System and Information Services
California Health and Welfare Agency
Robert Nakamura
Special Studies Unit
California Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Willa D. Ramsay
Physics Teacher
Madison High School, San Diego
Dennis Fisher
Associate Director of Plant Operations
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Barbara Rohde
Office of Public and Government Liaison
Department of Toxic Substances Control
Judi Frantz
Department of Toxic Substances Control
California Environmental Protection Agency
Jon Rosenberg
Health Evaluation System and Information Services
California Health and Welfare Agency
Philip D. Gay (Retired)
Science Education Specialist
San Diego City Schools
Jim Stratton
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
California Department of Health
Jack Gerlovich
Assistant Professor of Science Education
Drake University
Fran Stricker
Director of Educational Services
Animal Protection Institute
Jack Grube
Administrator
Science Laboratory Specialist Project
Jim Tripod
Environmental Health and Safety Office
University of California, Irvine
David Hammond (Retired)
Manager, High School Curriculum Unit
California Department of Education
Susan Wainwright
Mathematics, Science, and Environmental Education Unit
California Department of Education
Barbara Hemmingsen
Professor of Microbiology
San Diego State University
J. Scott Hildum
Laser Safety Officer
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
__________
Note: The titles and locations of the persons included in this list
were current at the time this document was developed.
viii
SCHOOL DISTRICT EMERGENCY
AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
Note: Insert a copy of your school district’s emergency procedures and your school’s chemical hygiene
plan (California Code of Regulations, Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5191). Include
evacuation plans, hazardous materials spill procedures, and so forth. Enter your important local tele­
phone numbers here.
Important Telephone Numbers
Standard Emergency Number
911
Ambulance Source
________________
Animal Control (Pound)
________________
California Division of Industrial Relations
(Safety Concerns)
________________
City/County Health Department
________________
District/County Science Specialist _____________
________________
(Name)
District Safety Officer ______________________
________________
(Name)
Fire Department
________________
Hospital __________________________________
________________
(Name)
Regional Poison Center (see Appendix E)
________________
Police/Sheriff
________________
School Health Service
________________
Toxic Substances Control Office
________________
________________________________________
________________
(Contact for Chemical Disposal)
________________________________________
(Other)
ix
________________
1
INTRODUCTION
B. Reasonable Laboratory Class Size 2
C. Teacher’s Liability 4
D. State and Federal Legislation Affecting
Science Instruction 5
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
1. INTRODUCTION
A. Responsibilities of Students and Parents 2
1. INTRODUCTION
L
appreciate scientific methods. The National Science
Teachers Association (NSTA) promotes extensive use
of laboratory investigations and field trips in science
instruction and urges that “school districts and teachers
should share the responsibilities of establishing safety
standards and seeing that they are adhered to.”2
Science teachers must be advocates of safety and
have the information and attitudes necessary to inform
community and school groups and involve them in
support of activity-based science classes. School
administrators and district administrative staff must be
active supporters of hands-on science experiences.
Administrators must be kept informed of laboratory
activities and concomitant safety precautions and must
devote resources to make such experiences possible.
Parents, too, must be aware of and approve the labora­
tory experiences their students will have.
Science teachers are in a unique position
to orient school administrators to the attitudes,
skills, rational thinking processes, and knowl­
edge resulting from laboratory activities.
Many science laboratory exercises use readily
available materials and may be inexpensive to
conduct. This information should be conveyed
to administrators to increase their appreciation
of the number, variety, and cost effectiveness
of experiments. The main point is that admin­
istrators who observe student motivation
resulting from laboratory participation will be
more likely to increase their support for
activities requiring more resources. To ensure
that support, science teachers will need to
provide evidence that appropriate safety
precautions have been taken. This emphasis
on safety is reflected in the guidelines of the Interna­
tional Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF), which has
established rules that are “intended to ensure the safety
of students, to protect the subjects and environments
studied, and to limit the liability of the adults who
assist with the projects.”3
ABORATORY ACTIVITIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS
represent an essential part of effective science
teaching. Written materials and pictures can
convey an enormous amount of information, but
students more fully understand the concepts related to
science when they participate in or observe learning
activities involving laboratory experiments and
demonstrations. In addition, those activities allow
students to learn the processes and techniques of
science laboratory investigation. Students who go to
colleges and universities and take advanced science
courses are expected to know laboratory procedures.
The Science Framework for California Public Schools,
K–12, specifies that “of the total time spent learning
science, at least 40 percent should be involved in
activity-based lessons.”1 This concept applies in
kindergarten through grade twelve.
Although many science activities present potential
hazards, reasonable and prudent safety practices
greatly reduce the likelihood of accidents. When
students adhere strictly to standard safety precautions,
they are unlikely to encounter any risks greater than
those they might encounter in physical education,
vocational education, or home economics classes.
Knowing about possible hazards and taking precau­
tions are the basis for creating a safe learning environ­
ment. All students studying science benefit from
practicing safety procedures and from learning to
2
“Liability of Teachers for Laboratory Safety and Field Trips,” in NSTA
Handbook, 1994-95. Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Associa­
tion, 1994, p. 242. See a reprint of this position statement in Appendix A.
3
“ISEF Operational Guidelines for Scientific Review Committees and
Institutional Review Boards.” Included with the International Rules for
Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science Fairs, June 1995–
May 1996. Washington, D.C.: Science Service, Inc., 1995.
1
Science Framework for California Public Schools, K–12. Sacramento:
California Department of Education, 1990, p. 160.
1
2
A
Chapter 1. Introduction
Responsibilities of Students
and Parents
Through their own educational background and
training, most science teachers have learned to use safe
laboratory techniques as a matter of course. Because
many students have not had the opportunities at home
and in school to observe and practice safety proce­
dures, the science laboratory is a good place to begin
learning the fundamentals. Students have a responsi­
bility to themselves and their classmates to learn and
observe safety practices in all participatory science
activities. In addition, students should adopt positive
attitudes about the need for safety in a laboratory
setting. Students’ interest in science activities must be
channeled constructively so that capricious, careless
actions do not occur.
The following practices, skills, or areas of knowl­
edge are among the issues dealt with in this handbook
and should be taught in most laboratory classes (see
also Appendix B, Education Code Section 51202):
• Proper eye-care safety practices
• Proper handling of glassware and glass tubing
• Proper setup and handling of electrical equipment
• Safe use of chemicals in the laboratory
• Correct methods for storing, handling, and dispos­
ing of surplus, waste, and deteriorated chemical
substances
• Appropriate, safe use of heat sources in the labora­
tory
• First-aid procedures
• Prompt notification to appropriate individuals or
agencies of any dangerous or potentially dangerous
conditions
• Appropriate, safe, and humane treatment of ani­
mals
• Prohibition of the use or presence of any venomous
animals, poisonous plants, or plant pests
• Proper fire prevention and control techniques
• Correct methods for cleanup after experiments
• Proper behavior and courtesy in a laboratory
situation
• Earthquake-safe behavior and evacuation routes
Parents should be aware of the kinds of science
laboratory activities that will be conducted and be
encouraged to sign consent forms for their children’s
participation. The consent forms (see examples
included in appendixes F, J, and P) do not constitute a
legal release from joint and several liability but are a
way of informing parents that safety procedures exist
at school and are a part of the students’ safety training.
Consent forms should be considered contracts for
partnership, not abdication of control. Parents are
welcome in the science laboratories, just as they are in
other classes. (Of course, they will have to wear
protective goggles and follow other safety procedures
expected of the students.) Parents are encouraged to
support the school science program and to reinforce
the curricular objectives of the course through family
activities, such as museum visits, field trips, and so on.
Parents of students participating in science fairs should
expect to work with the teacher to ensure that safety
procedures are understood and adhered to by all.
B
Reasonable Laboratory Class Size
No current legal mandate prescribes special limits
on class size in science laboratories. The Uniform Fire
Code classifies science laboratory classes as academic
subjects and specifies 20 square feet per student as a
minimum standard, in contrast to a vocational educa­
tion class for which the requirement is 50 square feet
per student. In reality, more than 20 square feet per
B. Reasonable Laboratory Class Size
pupil are required for hands-on laboratory science
activities. That criterion is reflected in California Code
of Regulations, Title 2, Section 1811(g)(2), which
requires the state architect to design laboratory class­
rooms for occupancy by 26 students in grades seven
through twelve or 24 students in grades nine through
twelve. These design specifications are generally
understood by state and local agencies to be equivalent
to 1,300 square feet of floor space, including prepara­
tion and storage areas.
Therefore, teachers and administrators need to
take several considerations into account in establishing
reasonable limits on the number of students in a
laboratory setting to ensure maximum safety within
the science laboratory. These considerations include:
1. The space required for each student to perform
experiments safely
2. The safety features in the design of the facilities
or space
3. The level of maturity and safety knowledge that
students bring to the science laboratory
4. The number of students that one teacher can
supervise during a potentially dangerous activity
5. The nature and degree of increased hazard and
liability when the class size exceeds 24 students
One of the Science Framework guidelines apply­
ing to safe conditions for science instruction encour­
ages the practical attitude that “the number of students
in the laboratory classroom should be determined by
factors such as safety, number of stations, and total
classroom square footage, rather than school schedul­
ing needs.”4
Laboratory Capacity
Faculty cannot be expected to monitor an over­
crowded laboratory when potentially hazardous
experiments are being conducted. No one, whether
student, teacher, or administrator, wants the increased
risk of having too many students in a science labora­
tory class. But overcrowding still occurs. It is a
difficult risk-benefit decision for school administrators
to set limits on laboratory class size. However, if a
large number of students must be placed in an inad­
equately designed facility, there are ways to provide
supervisory assistance for the teacher. An obvious
alternative is to add an advanced high school student, a
college student, or a retired science specialist as an
aide (monitor) during the potentially hazardous
4
Science Framework, p. 178.
3
laboratory period; or other teachers may be willing to
help supervise the laboratory. Another alternative is to
schedule additional laboratory sections to reduce the
class size. Teachers should express their safety con­
cerns, in writing, to their department chairperson and
school-site administrator. Under no circumstances
should laboratory instruction proceed when the
number of participating students exceeds the design
capacity of the laboratory.
Students’ Safety Experience
In determining laboratory class size, the teacher,
department head, and principal should assess the
students’ backgrounds in relation to safety. Some
groups of students come to the science laboratory with
safety training; these groups include students from
previous science (laboratory) classes and from many
vocational education courses. Students who have been
instructed in safety and first-aid procedures are less at
risk than those who lack such training. In addition,
some groups of students demonstrate a more mature
capacity for greater responsibility and, therefore, allow
a greater sense of security in the laboratory. Section A
of this introduction addresses the students’ responsibil­
ity to learn safety practices; the materials in the
references and appendixes provide the teacher with
additional help in preparing students for safety.
Facilities
No amount of student screening can make up for
overcrowded or potentially unsafe laboratory settings.
A primary concern is the physical distance between
students and between work stations in the laboratory.
Many school laboratory stations that are designed for
two pairs of students add a fifth student in the aisle.
This practice crowds the students and blocks traffic
lanes, inviting accidents and preventing orderly
evacuation and administration of first-aid procedures.
Most laboratories were designed for a specific
number of students, and that number should not be
exceeded. For example, a chemistry classroom with a
single vented hood was not designed for volatile toxic
chemicals to be tested simultaneously by 30 or more
students. Therefore, prudent planning of the laboratory
program is necessary. Similarly, laboratories with
single or distant eyewash and first-aid stations cannot
accommodate multiple injury or emergency victims.
Alternative actions must be considered.
Teachers are encouraged to work with their
administrators to identify and alleviate potential
4
Chapter 1. Introduction
hazards due to overcrowding and limitations in
facilities. The objective should be to guarantee the
safest possible environment in which to conduct
experiments without reducing the number or quality of
activity-based science lessons.
C
Teacher’s Liability
Laws and regulations at the national, state, county,
city, and school district levels are explicit enough to
place direct responsibility on teachers, administrators,
school board members, and school district science
specialists for the safety of students in science class­
rooms. In the existing climate of accountability and
liability for the safe conduct of educational processes,
the science teacher comes under close scrutiny.
Although protected to a degree by a school district’s
legal resources, the teacher is vulnerable to profession­
ally and personally damaging lawsuits.
It is important to plan preventive steps that
will minimize accidents and reduce both indi­
vidual and district liabilities. Essentially, such
steps include effective safety instruction, careful
supervision of all activities, and proper mainte­
nance of laboratory and classroom equipment.
Because school districts and the classroom
instructors, on occasion, may become involved
when students are injured or negligence occurs,
staff should recognize that the court examines
the circumstances and conduct of the responsible
individuals to ascertain whether their conduct,
actions, judgment, and behavior were reasonable
and prudent under the given circumstances.
Through an analysis of the actions taken by the
school, the school district, and the individual, the court
determines the degree of responsibility that can be
attributed to the parties involved. The court also tests
individuals, using the “reasonable man” rule, to
determine whether the individual exercised the proper
degree of caution and judgment that an average person
of his or her training and background would have
exercised under similar circumstances. (See Appendix
A for [1] sample cases testing the liability of science
teachers; and [2] the NSTA’s position statement titled
“Liability of Teachers for Laboratory Safety and Field
Trips.”) Fortunately, many resources exist to help
teachers gain expertise in safe ways of conducting
demonstrations and laboratory activities.
Posting safety guidelines and procedures (sug­
gested or sample study sheets for safe use of chemi­
cals, lasers, heating, and so on) is a recommended
practice for science classrooms, but the courts have
declared posting to be insufficient, in and of itself, to
ensure students’ safety. The science teacher must
continually remind students of both general and
specific hazards before the performance of laboratory
activities in which any element of danger might exist.
If a textbook or laboratory manual specifies a danger­
ous procedure, which neither the students nor the
instructor can reasonably carry out, then the teacher
must ensure that the procedure is not followed but is
replaced with a safe one. Students should not be
allowed unsupervised access to potentially dangerous
materials or equipment and should be under continual
supervision in all laboratory situations (for the safety
of both student and equipment). Monitoring or super­
vising a laboratory setup during passing periods is an
essential consideration.
Specific safety instruction and testing are highly
recommended as an integral part of every science
classroom procedure. This handbook includes sug­
gested safety procedures and a student safety test that
may be adapted for use in the teaching of various
scientific disciplines (see Chapter 3 and Appendixes F,
G, J, and P). The checklist in Appendix H will be
helpful in assessing the safety features of classroom/
laboratories, preparation areas, and storerooms. And
the “Science Laboratory Safety/Liability Checklist” in
Appendix L is designed to assist department chairs and
administrative staff in evaluating the effectiveness of
facilities and established procedures regarding acci­
dent prevention and the potential liability of the school
or school district.
D. State and Federal Legislation Affecting Science Instruction
D
State and Federal Legislation
Affecting Science Instruction
Legislative enactments since 1982 have had a
significant impact on safety in science instruction and
on the duties of science teachers. The following are the
topics of those enactments:
1. Hazardous materials education (Education Code
Section 49340 et seq.)
2. Removal of chemicals (Education Code Section
49411)
3. Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in
laboratories; chemical hygiene plan (California
Code of Regulations, Title 8, General Industry
Safety Orders, Section 5191)
4. Bloodborne pathogens (California Code of
Regulations, Title 8, General Industry Safety
Orders, Section 5193)
5. Hazard communication; material safety data
sheets (California Code of Regulations, Title 8,
General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5194)
6. Repeal of requirement for obtaining an extremely
hazardous waste disposal permit (Health and
Safety Code Section 25153)
7. Hazardous materials release response plans and
inventory (Health and Safety Code, Chapter 6.95,
Section 25500 et seq.)
5
School districts are encouraged to take steps to
ensure that hazardous materials are properly used
and stored; the governing boards may request
consultation services from the California Occupa­
tional Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) Consulta­
tion Service.
2. Removal of chemicals (Education Code Section
49411)
The California Department of Education, in
cooperation with the Division of Occupational
Safety and Health, shall prepare a list of chemi­
cals used in school programs that includes the
potential hazards and estimated shelf life of each
chemical or chemical compound and develop
guidelines for school districts for the regular
removal and disposal of all chemicals whose
estimated shelf life has elapsed.
Significant excerpts of these (and other) laws are
cited in Appendix B. Summaries of the recent enact­
ments are provided below:
1. Hazardous materials education (Education Code
Section 49340 et seq.)
This legislation recognizes the potentially hazard­
ous nature of materials and procedures used in
school science laboratories and the need for
educators to increase the awareness of persons
dealing with the materials to minimize the dan­
gers. Each school is encouraged to designate a
trained member of its professional staff as the
building laboratory consultant responsible for
reviewing, updating, and carrying out the school’s
adopted procedures for laboratory safety.
The Legislature urges the California Department
of Education to assume the leadership necessary
to provide qualified individuals with the skills and
materials to assist schools and teachers in the
development of their laboratory safety policies
and procedures.
The county superintendent of schools may imple­
ment a system for disposing of chemicals from
schools within the county or may permit school
districts to arrange for the disposal of the chemi­
cals.
Note: School districts and county departments of
education can request reimbursement for the costs
of implementing and maintaining a program for
the regular removal and disposal of all chemicals
6
Chapter 1. Introduction
whose shelf life has elapsed, in accordance with
the guidelines, if they certified to the Superinten­
dent of Public Instruction by June 30, 1988, that
the district was in compliance with the guidelines.
See Appendix C for more information on reim­
bursable costs and details for filing claims for
reimbursement.
3. Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in
laboratories; chemical hygiene plan (California
Code of Regulations, Title 8, General Industry
Safety Orders, Section 5191)
This legislation requires all employers engaged in
the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals to take
specific action toward minimizing employee
exposure to such chemicals. Employers must
develop a chemical hygiene plan that includes:
• Safe operating procedures
• Protective equipment
• Maintenance of proper labeling on hazardous
substances
• Retention of all MSDSs received from
vendors; MSDSs to be made available to
employees
• Employee information and training
• Provisions for medical consultations and
examinations
• Designation of a chemical hygiene officer to
implement and maintain the plan
Employee information and training on the hazards
of chemicals present in the work area shall be
provided at the time of an employee’s initial
assignment to his or her work area and prior to
assignments involving new exposure situations.
Refresher information and training shall be
provided at intervals determined by the employer.
The chemical hygiene plan shall be readily
available to employees, employee representatives,
and, on request, the Chief of the Division of
Occupational Safety and Health.
4. Bloodborne pathogens (California Code of
Regulations, Title 8, General Industry Safety
Orders, Section 5193)
This regulation applies to all employers whose
employees are subject to reasonably anticipated
exposure of their skin, eyes, or mucous mem­
branes, or through parenteral contact, to blood or
other potentially infectious materials as a result of
the performance of the employees’ duties.
Employers are required to establish a written
exposure control plan (ECP) designed to eliminate
or minimize employee exposure. The ECP must
contain at least the following elements:
• Determination of employees who may be
exposed to bloodborne pathogens (school
nurses, physical education teachers, school
security personnel, science teachers)
• Methods of compliance (engineering and
work practice controls, personal protective
equipment, houskeeping procedures)
• Hepatitis B vaccination
• Postexposure evaluation and follow-up
• Hazard communication information (labels
and signs) and training
• Recordkeeping
Because science classes include a variety of
hands-on laboratory activities in which the use of
glassware and sharp instruments may result in
cuts and abrasions, science teachers should be an
integral part of and in compliance with their
school’s exposure control plan.
5. Hazard communication; material safety data
sheets (MSDS) (California Code of Regulations,
Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Section
5194)
According to Section 5194 of the General Indus­
try Safety Orders, laboratories not engaged in
either production of hazardous substances for
commercial purposes or provision of quality
control analysis for production processes are
partially exempt from the requirements of obtain­
D. State and Federal Legislation Affecting Science Instruction
ing a material safety data sheet (MSDS) from the
manufacturer, of complying with the written
hazard communication program, and of labeling
containers (except as required by other safety
orders regulating labels) when all the following
conditions are satisfied: (1) all exposed employees
(professional, technical, janitorial, and mainte­
nance) are under the direct supervision and
regular observation of an individual who has
knowledge of the physical and health hazards and
emergency procedures involved; and (2) the
supervisor conveys this knowledge to employees in
terms of safe work practices. Such exempted
laboratories must also ensure that labels of
incoming containers of hazardous substances are
not removed or defaced and must maintain any
MSDSs that are received with incoming ship­
ments of hazardous substances and ensure that
those MSDSs are readily available to laboratory
employees.
6. Repeal of requirement for obtaining an extremely
hazardous waste disposal permit (Health and
Safety Code Section 25153)
No special or additional permits are now required
for the storage, treatment, transportation, and
disposal of extremely hazardous waste. Such
waste is subject to the same requirements as
hazardous waste.
Producers and transporters of extremely hazard­
ous waste are required, on an annual basis, to
notify and to send a tax return to the Board of
Equalization. On receipt of a bill from the Board,
the business is to pay an annual fee.
7. Hazardous materials release response plans and
inventory (Health and Safety Code, Chapter 6.95,
Section 25500 et seq.)
7
The code requires every county to implement,
through a designated administering agency,
existing law providing for a governmental re­
sponse to a release or threatened release of
hazardous substances. (A city could assume that
responsibility within its boundary.)
Any business which handles a hazardous material
must establish a specified business plan, in
accordance with the standards of the Office of
Emergency Services, for emergency response to a
release or threatened release of the hazardous
material.
Any business which handles a hazardous material
must submit a specified inventory annually to the
administering agency.
Pursuant to the provisions of Section 25503.5,
businesses which have less than 500 pounds or
less than a total of 55 gallons or 200 cubic feet, at
standard temperature and pressure (for com­
pressed gas), of a hazardous material may be
exempt from establishing and implementing an
emergency response plan.
Note: A handbook entitled Guide to Hazardous
Substances Reporting Requirements was devel­
oped in 1991 by the California Environmental
Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) and the Chemical
Emergency Planning and Response Commission
to help organizations comply with this legislation.
Copies are available for $30 each from:
Cal/EPA Environmental Information
555 Capitol Mall, Suite 3525
Sacramento, CA 95814
Make checks payable to Environmental Informa­
tion.
2
FIRST AID
A. General Information 9
B. Bites by Snakes, Spiders, Insects, and Mammals 9
C. Burns 11
D. Eye Injuries
12
E. Exposure to Poisons 13
F. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) 14
G. Shock
15
2. FIRST AID
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
2. FIRST AID
U
Once assistance is given, it should be continued
until the problem is resolved or until the patient is
released to qualified medical help, the parent, or
another responsible person. Measures should be taken
to reduce any anxiety or fear that the injured student or
other students may experience. A written accident
report should be given to the school-site administrator
when any such incident occurs; see Appendix D for a
sample Accident Report.
NDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES THE SCHOOL
nurse will direct the activities necessary for
treatments of illness, injury, or other health
problems of students. However, at times the nurse may
not be available for first aid on the school premises
because his or her other responsibilities may include
making home calls, transporting students, and engag­
ing in health education duties. At those times the
teacher needs to take appropriate action. Each science
classroom should be equipped with appropriate firstaid and safety materials (see Appendix D).
Do’s in First Aid
1. Do be cool, calm, and collected. Most cases are
not serious.
2. Do obtain staff assistance, if necessary.
3. Do handle the person as little as possible. Do not
move the person until the evaluation is complete.
On completion of the emergency-handling phase:
4. Do check with the victim and with any witnesses
about what happened.
5. Do make a prompt, complete, and accurate report
of the incident to the department chairperson and
the administration.
6. Do be concerned with injuries that occurred on the
way to and from school as well as those that occur
at school.
Don’ts in First Aid
A
1. Don’t give liquids (or medicines) to an uncon­
scious person.
2. Don’t try to arouse an unconscious person.
3. Don’t cut the skin, break blisters, and so forth.
4. Don’t diagnose.
5. Don’t give medical advice.
6. Don’t reduce dislocations.
7. Don’t transport an injured student in a private car.
8. Don’t send a student home before consulting a
parent.
9. Don’t treat injuries that happened at home.
General Information
If a student becomes ill or is injured, the teacher is
expected to act in an informed and objective manner,
with a minimum of emotional expression. The teacher
needs to evaluate the problem, with special attention to
the following symptoms:
• Difficulties in breathing—Start artificial respiration
if breathing is absent; obtain a trained person to
give CPR, if needed.
• The presence of bleeding—If necessary, control the
bleeding in compliance with the school’s
bloodborne pathogens exposure control plan.
• The presence of shock—If necessary, initiate
treatment.
B
Bites by Snakes, Spiders,
Insects, and Mammals
Rattlesnakes are the most common naturally
occurring poisonous snakes in California. They are
common in canyons, mountains, deserts, and new
9
10
Chapter 1.
2. Introduction
First Aid
construction areas. Few adolescents or adults die from
rattlesnake bites, although such bites inflicted on small
children are considered especially serious. Bites by
insects seldom result in death, but the ensuing pain and
discomfort may be minimized by early intervention.
Dogs often come onto the school grounds and bite
students, and human bites occasionally occur in
schools. Such bites often become infected and should
be referred to a physician for treatment and continued
observation.
Poisonous Snake Bites
1. The victim should be kept at absolute rest. Trans­
port the victim to a source of medical attention as
soon as possible. Treat for shock.
2. Incision of the wound is dangerous and should be
undertaken only by medical professionals. An
incision is a surgical procedure that should be
performed by trained specialists. A sterile field
and sterile instruments must be used.
3. The major effort of the teacher should be to quiet
the victim and effect immediate transportation to
the nearest medical facility in which an expert
evaluation can be followed by the most appropri­
ate action. When any wound that is caused by a
poisonous snake occurs on school premises,
expert emergency-room help would be close
enough so that a teacher would not have to
perform an incision.
4. Poison information centers recommend the
following steps:
a. Keep the victim still. Transport to medical
care as soon as possible.
b. Place the injured extremity in a lowered
position to retard the flow of the toxins to
the victim’s heart.
c. Apply a constricting band 2 to 4 inches (5 to
10 cm) above the wound if the bite is on the
arm or leg. The band should be snug but
loose enough to allow blood to flow to the
limb.
d. Cool the extremity with cold compresses, if
possible, until the person arrives at the
hospital but do not pack the wound in ice.
e. Do not cut the wound area. A person injured
at school is usually within one hour of being
admitted to an emergency room and receiv­
ing expert care.
Spider Bites
1. Use a cold application and apply soothing lotions,
such as calamine lotion.
2. Refer a student with black-widow spider bites to
the nurse and the student’s parents for medical
attention. Generally, the bites are not considered
to be medically urgent unless the school nurse
alerts you that the student has had an allergic
reaction.
Bee Stings
1. Observe the person for an allergic reaction while
carrying out steps 2 through 6 described below.
Some of the signs to look for would be:
• Difficult breathing
• Dry, hacking cough
• Swelling and itching about the eyes
• Sense of constriction in the throat or chest
• Massive rash
• Sneezing and wheezing
• Sense of uneasiness
These symptoms usually occur within minutes,
and such victims should be seen by a physician
right away. Occasionally, the reactions are de­
layed.
2. Remove the stinger by scraping it with a finger­
nail or the blunt edge of a knife. To avoid releas­
ing more venom, do not squeeze the end of the
stinger by pulling it out with your fingers.
3. Wash the area of the sting well with soap and
water.
4. Cover the sting with moistened meat tenderizer
containing the enzyme papain. (Check ingredients
on the label for the word papain.)
5. Place an ice pack on the sting. Do not put ice
directly on the skin. Use an ice bag or wrap ice in
a cloth.
6. Seek medical evaluation if the swelling becomes
severe. Observe for infection, especially if stung
by a wasp or yellow jacket, both of which are
known to carry bacteria.
Mammal Bites
There is danger of infection and rabies from the
bites of all warm-blooded animals. Students should be
advised not to approach strange dogs and other ani­
mals, especially a familiar pet that is acting peculiarly.
Bats and skunks that are active in daytime must be
considered rabid.
C. Burns
First-aid treatment consists of washing and
flushing out the wounds thoroughly with strong warm
soap or detergent solution as quickly as possible.
Continue the washing for at least 10 minutes. The
value of this procedure is greatest when performed
during the first hour or two. Refer to parents for
medical follow-up. Catch the animal, if that is deemed
safe to do, and obtain information on the animal. Then
call the local animal control agency.
C
Burns
Because heat sources and corrosive chemicals are
used in many laboratory science activities, there is the
potential for burns to occur from either source. If
someone is burned, the following procedures are
appropriate:
Chemical Burns of the Skin (usually from strong
acids or alkalies)
This kind of burn needs to be washed with large
amounts of water. Use a shower or hose at low pres­
sure (a forceful stream of water may further injure the
burned skin) for at least 10 minutes. Remove clothing
from the affected area while the skin is being flushed.
Some chemical containers may suggest other helpful
first-aid measures on the label; those may be used for
that particular chemical. Do not attempt to neutralize
any chemical; by doing so you may cause further
chemical reaction and more damage. Apply a dressing
and obtain medical aid by following the serious injury
or illness routine.
Chemical Burns of the Eye
See section D, “Eye Injuries,” in this chapter.
Nonchemical Burns of the Skin
The degree or extent of burns and the percentage
of skin surface involved usually determine the first-aid
measures to be used. In general, adults who have
suffered burns over 10 percent of their body surface
(or a child with 2 percent to 10 percent burns) require
hospitalization. Burns on the face suggest possible
injury to the respiratory tract and may obstruct breath­
ing as facial swelling increases. Prompt medical
attention is imperative.
First-degree burns mean minor burns, such as
those resulting from overexposure to the sun or from
light contact with a hot object. The usual signs are
redness or discoloration together with mild swelling
11
and pain. First aid includes cool water applications or
submersion of the burned area in cool water for no
longer than 10 minutes to stop the burning process.
Follow with a dry dressing, if necessary.
Second-degree burns may result from a very deep
sunburn, contact with hot liquids, or flash burns from
flammable products. These burns are usually of greater
depth than first-degree burns and have a red appear­
ance. Blisters are usually present. First aid for seconddegree burns entails (1) immersing the burned part in
cool water (not in ice water) for a few minutes (water
at room temperature or less is appropriate); (2) apply­
ing dry, sterile gauze or a clean cloth as a protective
bandage; (3) taking precautions against breaking intact
blisters or removing tissue; (4) avoiding an antiseptic
preparation, ointment, spray, or home remedy if the
burn is severe or covers more than 10 percent of the
body; (5) keeping affected arms or legs elevated; and
(6) seeking medical evaluation.
Third-degree burns may be caused by a flame,
ignited clothing, immersion in hot water, grease scalds,
contact with hot objects, or electricity. The tempera­
ture and duration of contact are important in determin­
ing the extent of tissue destruction. These burns are
usually characterized by deep tissue destruction; white,
dark brown, mottled, or charred appearance (at first,
the burn may resemble a second-degree burn); and
complete destruction of all layers of the skin. First-aid
procedures for third-degree burns are as follows:
1. Extinguish any smoldering clothing by applying
water or by smothering with a fire blanket or any
available clothing.
• Do not attempt to remove clothing. Burnt
clothing may be stuck or melted to the
affected area.
• Do not apply ointments, commercial prepara­
tions, grease, or other home remedies; those
substances may cause further complications
and interfere with treatment by the physician.
2. Do not attempt to administer any liquids or
medicines orally to unconscious persons.
3. Cover the patient with a blanket.
4. If the hands are involved, keep them above the
level of the heart.
5. Keep burned feet or legs elevated. (The victim
should not be allowed to walk.)
6. Slightly elevate the head of a victim with facial
burns. Keep the person under continuous observa­
tion for breathing difficulty. If respiratory prob­
lems develop, an open airway must be maintained.
12
Chapter 2.
Aid
1. First
Introduction
7. Avoid immersing an extensively burned area or
applying ice water over it; the cold may intensify
the shock reaction. Cool water may be applied to
the burned area to relieve pain and stop any
further burning. Follow with the application of a
dry, clean dressing or sheet.
8. Obtain medical assistance immediately by follow­
ing the serious injury or illness routine provided
for in emergency procedures.
Use of a Fire Blanket
If a student’s clothing catches fire, the student
should not run. He or she should stop, drop, and roll
on the ground immediately while another student
brings the fire blanket. Then the burn victim should
roll up in the blanket to smother the flames. The
blanket should be held close at the neck to force the
flames away from the head and hair while the student
is rolling up in the blanket. Water, if available, may be
appropriately used with the fire blanket to extinguish
the flames.
Do not use a fire extinguisher on a person because
serious chemical reactions or frostbite (with the use of
a CO2 extinguisher) may result from such use.
D
Exposure of the Eye to Chemicals—
Acid Burns
Begin first aid for acid burns of the eye as quickly
as possible.
1. Thoroughly wash the face, eyelid, and eye with
tap water for at least 15 minutes, using the eye­
wash or eye/facewash station if possible (see
Chapter 7, section D, “Eyewash Station”). If the
victim is lying down, turn the head to the side;
gently hold the eyelid open and, using the drench
hose, apply water from the inner corner of the eye
outward. Make sure that the chemical does not
wash into the other eye.
2. Cover the eye with a dry, clean protective dressing
(do not use cotton) and gently bandage in place.
3. Caution the victim against rubbing the eye.
4. Have the victim transported to an ophthalmolo-
gist’s office or a hospital emergency room for
further evaluation and treatment.
Eye Injuries
Immediate first-aid treatment for eye injuries may
save the eyesight of an injured student. It is important
to identify the source of chemical injuries to the eye.
Chemical Burns of the Eye—Alkali Burns
Alkali burns of the eye are progressive injuries. An
eye that at first appears to have only slight surface
injuries may develop deep inflammation and tissue
destruction, and the patient may lose eyesight.
1. Flood the eye thoroughly with water for 15
minutes, using the eyewash or eyewash/facewash
station. If the victim is lying down, turn the head
to the side. Gently hold the eyelid open and, using
the drench hose, apply water from the inner corner
of the eye outward. Make sure the chemical does
not wash into the other eye.
E. Exposure to Poisons
2. Cover the eye with a dry, clean protective
dressing (do not use cotton) and gently bandage
in place.
3. Caution the victim against rubbing the eye.
4. Take the victim to an ophthalmologist’s office or
an emergency room for further evaluation and
treatment.
Other Chemicals in the Eye
1. Hold eyelids open; wash eyes immediately, using
the eyewash or eyewash/facewash station, and
continue to wash for at least 15 minutes. Make
sure that the chemical does not wash into an
unaffected eye.
2. Have someone call the poison control center to
ascertain the need for further medical treatment.
(See Appendix E for a list of poison control
centers.)
E
Exposure to Poisons
Proper storage and safety precautions, including
correct labeling of all containers (see Chapter 5,
section F), are effective in preventing poisoning;
instructors should follow those procedures. It is
important to identify not only the poison but also the
mode of entry. The danger of poisoning is present,
and the teacher must be ready to act immediately.
Poison control centers are available to assist in
evaluating the potential health risks from an exposure
and the need for first aid and further medical manage­
ment. (See Appendix E for a list of poison control
centers.)
The poison control center should be given the
following information:
• Age of the victim
• Name of the poison involved
• Amount or degree of exposure
• Time of ingestion or exposure
• Condition of the victim
• Any first aid that has been performed
The control center staff will provide detailed
instructions about additional steps to be taken.
If at any time the victim loses consciousness or
develops difficulty in breathing, dial 911 to summon
emergency medical personnel. Rescue breathing and
CPR should be performed, if needed.
13
Inhaled Poisons
1. Carry the victim immediately, if possible (do not
let him or her walk), to fresh air. Open all doors
and windows if the victim is too heavy to carry.
2. Loosen clothing.
3. Use appropriate mouth-to-nose or mouth-to-
mouth rescue breathing or cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) or both if the victim is not
breathing. Be sure not to inhale the patient’s
breath. Do not stop until the patient breathes or
help arrives.
4. Have someone else dial 911 on the telephone for
emergency medical assistance.
5. See treatment of shock under section G in this
chapter.
Ingested Poisons
1. Call the poison control center nearest you (see
Appendix E), give the staff the necessary informa­
tion, and follow the staff’s instructions.
2. Be prepared to administer syrup of ipecac to
induce vomiting, if required. However, the ipecac
should not be administered unless instructions are
provided by the poison control center or a physi­
cian. Never induce vomiting in a stuporous or
unconscious person.
3. Take the victim to a doctor or medical facility for
further evaluation and treatment if instructed to do
so. Take with you the package or container of the
ingested poison, with the intact label(s), as well as
any vomited material. Avoid self-contamination.
4. Note: If there is any delay in the above proce­
dures, the patient may be allowed to rinse out his
or her mouth with water. A small quantity of water
(2 to 4 ounces [60 to 120 ml]) may be swallowed
to relieve any localized irritation in the throat or
esophagus. It is no longer considered appropriate
to give 8 to 16 ounces (240 to 480 ml) to dilute
the poison in the stomach, unless a stomach tube
is in place and suction (aspiration) is proceeding.
Dilution of the poison will sweep the poison out
of the stomach (through the pylorus) and beyond
the reach of the emergency-room gastric pump.
5. Notify the parents or guardians and arrange for
them to meet the child at the hospital.
Poison (Chemicals) on Skin
1. Remove any clothing with chemicals or poison on
it and place the clothing in a plastic bag labeled
14
Chapter 1.
2. Introduction
First Aid
with the name of the injured person. Avoid selfcontamination.
2. Wash the skin with large quantities of cool
running water.
3. Call the poison control center to determine the
need for additional treatment (see Appendix E).
Poison Oak
Poison oak is common in wooded areas through­
out California. The skin rash some people develop
when they come in contact with poison oak sap is
called allergic contact dermatitis. The first exposure to
the sap may cause an allergic tendency; repeated
exposure may cause skin cells to become sensitized. It
is not necessary to touch the plant to develop a rash;
the sap can be carried by clothes, tools, pets, and even
by the smoke from the burning plant. However, not
everyone develops allergies from these plants, and
sensitivity varies among individuals.
Once the skin is sensitized, a rash develops
whenever another contact is made with the sap.
Initially, the rash is red and itches. Blistering may
occur later. If the rash spreads, some sap has remained
on the skin (or reexposure has occurred). The serum
from existing rashes does not spread the rash.
The treatment for exposure to poison oak is as
follows:
1. Wash all exposed surfaces with soap and water.
2. Wash all clothes, shoes, belts, bedding, and
animals exposed.
3. Do not use calamine lotion over the area.
4. Use wet soaks with tepid water for 20 to 30
minutes every two hours.
5. Use baking soda paste to reduce the itching.
6. See your family physician for diagnosis and
suggested management.
Note: For further information about poisonous
plants, see Chapter 7, section F, “Poisonous Plants.”
F Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
This procedure must be administered by someone
who has been trained according to the standards of the
American National Red Cross or the American Heart
Association.
Basic life support is an emergency first-aid
procedure that consists of the recognition of airway
obstruction, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest and
the proper application of cardiopulmonary resuscita­
tion (CPR).
The CPR procedure consists of:
1. Opening an airway and maintaining the open
airway
2. Providing artificial ventilation by means of rescue
breathing
3. Providing artificial circulation by means of
external heart compression
Each science teacher should be familiar with the
CPR procedure because experience has shown that a
stoppage of breathing is seldom isolated from a heart
stoppage. Even if normal breathing and heartbeat are
not restored, the injured person can be kept alive by
this procedure until expert medical assistance is
available.
Any condition requiring CPR is a serious medical
emergency. During the execution of CPR, another staff
member or responsible individual should be notifying
the parent and having the nurse send for an ambulance
and paramedics or the police or sheriff. (See the
telephone numbers on page ix in the first tabbed
divider section, “School District Emergency and
Safety Procedures.”) The ambulance/paramedics crew
is especially trained for such emergencies, carries
hospital emergency-room equipment, and often
communicates with hospital emergency staff, receiving
instructions as well as providing information so that
the emergency-room staff are better able to prepare for
the patient’s arrival.
G. Shock
G
Shock
Shock from injury is also called traumatic shock.
Body functions are depressed, and death may result,
even though injuries would not otherwise be fatal.
Look for the following symptoms:
1. Pale or bluish skin. In a dark-skinned victim,
examine mucous membranes inside the mouth or
under the eyelids.
2. Moist or clammy skin.
3. Rapid pulse, often too faint to be felt at the wrist.
4. Increased breathing rate; shallow breathing if
there is chest or abdominal pain.
5. Weakness. If the weakness is caused by hemor­
rhage, the victim may also be restless and anxious.
The patient will complain of deep thirst.
6. Retching or vomiting. Note the following:
15
• If the patient has vomited, save a sample.
• Do not give fluids; do not induce vomiting.
• If an unconscious victim is vomiting, logroll
the patient onto his or her side to prevent
aspiration. During logrolling it is important to
stabilize the head and trunk by manual in-line
immobilization, especially in patients with
trauma or suspected trauma to the head or
spinal cord.
7. Fainting or collapse.
Treatment of shock consists of these measures:
• Keep the victim lying down.
• Cover the victim to minimize further loss of
body heat.
• Use mouth-to-nose or mouth-to-mouth rescue
breathing or CPR or both if the victim stops
breathing.
3
GENERAL LABORATORY
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
3. GENERAL LABORATORY
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
3. GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
T
ties involving hazards to the eyes. All persons in
dangerous proximity to such laboratory activity
(that is, all persons within the laboratory) must
also wear approved eye-protective devices. (Read
carefully Chapter 7, section C, “Eye Safety,” and
Education Code sections 32030–32033 [found in
Appendix B].)
7. A plumbed-in eyewash station, supported by a
face-and-shower “drench hose,” must be available
in each laboratory/classroom in which chemical
splashes on eyes, skin, or clothing are possible.
HE LABORATORY SCIENCE INSTRUCTIONAL
program should be carefully planned and
conducted to ensure maximum safety condi­
tions for all personnel. Teachers who have particular
concerns about safety conditions related to facilities,
equipment, supplies, curriculum, classroom occupant
load, and so forth should notify their school-site
administrator in writing immediately for assistance in
relieving the condition.
The following list identifies safety practices and
regulations common to all school science laboratories.
Additional laboratory and safety practices for specific
subject areas and teaching situations are provided in
subsequent chapters.
1. Teachers must be fully acquainted with the firstaid procedures, treatment, and regulations pro­
vided in Chapter 2 of this publication.
2. Teachers must have a thorough understanding of
the potential hazards of all the materials, pro­
cesses, and equipment that will be used in their
school laboratory.
3. Teachers should know the risks involved in using
chemicals and should prepare the chemicals
before class begins. Neutralizing solutions should
be available for dangerous materials used by
students.
4. Teachers must report any student injury or acci­
dent immediately on their school district’s acci­
dent report form, available in the main office or
health office of each school. (See the sample
accident report form included in Appendix D.)
5. Safety in the laboratory should be taught and
reinforced throughout the year. The teacher should
make notations of each instructional act regarding
safety in the daily lesson plans and maintain a
record (log) for each class to document the
specific topics of safety instruction and the dates
on which they were taught. Thorough instruction
on necessary safety procedures, including appro­
priate disposal of excess or waste chemicals, must
precede each laboratory activity. (See Appendix F
for sample classroom safety regulations and a
sample student science safety contract; see
Appendix G for a sample science laboratory
safety test.)
6. The use of approved eye-protective devices is
required of all persons performing science activi­
Teachers and students should be familiar with the
location and function of the eyewash station. An
emergency shower must be provided in work
locations in which areas of the body may come in
contact with corrosive or severely irritating
substances. If the emergency eyewash facility and
shower are both needed, they must be usable
simultaneously by one person. No more than 10
seconds must be required for the injured person to
reach the eyewash and shower station when
needed. (See Chapter 7, section D, “Eyewash
Station,” and the California Code of Regulations,
Title 8, Section 5162 [found in Appendix B].)
8. Science teachers must be aware of the code
requirements and other information on eye safety
17
18
Chapter 3. General Laboratory Safety Precautions
discussed in items 6 and 7. Many of the hazardous
activities described below are of interest to
science teachers in junior high school and teachers
of general science courses in grades nine through
twelve. The following additional information on
eye protection is particularly important to those
teachers:
a. There is potential for injury to eyes when
working with hot liquids or solids or with
chemicals that are flammable, toxic, corro­
sive to living tissues, irritating, strongly
sensitizing, or radioactive or that generate
pressure through heat, decomposition, or
other means. Splash-proof goggles and face
shields must be worn.
b. Investigations in geology and earth science
frequently involve such activities as hammer­
ing, chipping, and grinding rocks, minerals,
and metals. When hammering or chipping is
being done, the use of eye-protective devices,
as well as a cloth cover over the rock or
mineral to reduce the hazards from flying
particles, is absolutely necessary. When
grinding rocks, use a face shield for protec­
tion.
c. Students must not look directly into the sun,
even during complete solar eclipses. The
danger of retinal burn comes from the
invisible infrared rays, which penetrate light
filters and instantaneously damage eyes. The
retina is not sensitive to pain; therefore, the
victim might not immediately be aware of
eye damage. Retinal burns are incurable and
destroy the field of fine vision. The victim’s
ability to read can be lost forever.
Note:
• No homemade eye protection has been
approved for use when the sun is being
viewed. Therefore, students may not
participate in this activity unless images of
the sun can be projected or can be viewed
through a commercial telescope with an
approved objective filter. Do not use the
viewfinder of any telescope during an
activity that involves viewing the sun
unless the viewfinder is especially de­
signed for that purpose. To avoid eye
injury that may result from accidentally
tripping the mechanism and engaging the
viewfinder, place tape on the bracket
supporting the mirror for the finder to hold
the bracket in a position to shade the
mirror. Teachers must closely supervise all
activities in which a telescope is used.
• Layers of photographic film or welders’
masks should not be used to look directly
into the sun, even during a complete solar
eclipse.
• The indirect pinhole method should be
used to view the eclipse. A projector for
observing the eclipse can be made with
two pieces of white cardboard. A pinhole
or pencil-point hole in the top piece serves
to project and focus the image of the
eclipse on the second piece. The size of the
image can be changed by altering the
distance between the two pieces of card­
board.
d. When using infrared and ultraviolet light
sources, observers must shield themselves
from a direct view of the light source.
9. Reagent and storage bottles containing chemicals
should be properly labeled (including date of
receipt or preparation) at all times.5 If the label is
lost and the contents are unknown, the substance
should be regarded as potentially hazardous and
must be chemically categorized by an experienced
waste specialist before possible treatment and
transport to a proper disposal site.
10. Poisons and dangerous reactants should be made
inaccessible to students except during actual
usage. Students should be instructed never to taste
or place any substance or object in the mouth
except as specifically directed by the teacher
under controlled conditions.
11. Suction devices or pumps should be used when
pipetting, never the mouth.
12. Chemicals should be stored according to their
compatibility group in a single safe and practical
storage pattern. Adopt and standardize a plan that
is agreeable to all staff members and use it
throughout the school. The storage compatibility
categories shown in Chapter 5, section E, step 7,
are suggested for use in all California secondary
schools. Use of more than one storage compatibil­
ity system at one site could be dangerous.
5
Minimum precautionary labeling standards for injurious substances
used in places of employment in California are established in California
Code of Regulations, Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Article 112:
Labeling of Injurious Substances (sections 5225–5228). The labeling
standards that are of special concern to high school science teachers are
included in Chapter 5, section F, of this handbook.
Chapter 3. General Laboratory Safety Precautions
13. Chemicals should not be stored directly on the
floor. This precaution will prevent the contact of
chemicals with water from flooding, mopping, or
condensation and the puddling of liquid contents
of defective or broken containers around adjacent
stored chemicals. Large containers should be
stored on the lowest shelves to minimize the
danger of breakage or spillage when containers
are being removed or replaced. (See Appendix B
for California Code of Regulations, Title 8,
sections 5163 and 5164.)
14. No explosive chemicals should be kept in the
school laboratory. See Chapter 5, Table 1, for
examples of common explosive chemicals, which
must be disposed of only by trained and qualified
officials. (Consult Chapter 5, section E, step 2, for
more information.)
15. Any known carcinogen must be removed from the
science area and disposed of appropriately. (See
Chapter 5, Table 2, “Extremely Hazardous Chemi­
cals for Prompt Disposal.”)
Note: Products made of asbestos, once used in the
manufacture of heating pads, wire gauze centers,
beaker tongs, gloves, and various other products,
must be replaced by ceramic-fiber or glass-fiber
products unless the asbestos fibers are perma­
nently bonded in a hard sheet, such as in the
commonly used building material.
16. Food for human consumption should not be stored
in refrigerators or cabinets or on shelves used for
storing chemicals or biological materials. Food
should not be eaten in science laboratories or
storage areas because of the danger of ingesting
toxic or corrosive substances.
17. In an experiment or demonstration involving any
flammable liquid (such as alcohol), care must be
taken that any flame in the room is at an abso­
lutely safe distance from the volatile liquid.
Vapors may flow along a table or countertop for
long distances to an unseen ignition source, then
blast back. Beware of gas water heaters in or near
science classrooms or stockrooms.
18. Teachers and students should be familiar with the
operation of all fire extinguishers in the labora­
tory. The labels on the extinguishers contain
directions for their use.
19. Teachers should be familiar with the location of
all master controls for utilities, especially the
master valve in each room for the gas outlets.
Mark or color-code all services clearly.
19
20. The instructional area should be kept free of
spills, broken glass, and unnecessary equipment
and materials. Good housekeeping is essential.
21. Stone crocks or plastic containers should be
provided for the disposal of dangerous waste
chemicals and solid materials. Three different
waste receptacles should be provided for
(1) broken glass; (2) spent matches; and (3)
wastepaper. Arrangements should be made for
further disposal of the waste chemicals, in accor­
dance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, at an
appropriate disposal site for hazardous materials.
(See Chapter 5, section E, step 6.)
22. Teachers should avoid unsafe practices by in­
structing and cautioning students about the correct
techniques for the following activities:
• Using a Bunsen burner and other related
flame-producing equipment
• Heating liquids in test tubes, beakers, and
crucibles
• Handling reagent bottles
• Using polyethylene squeeze bottles
• Obtaining and handling dry chemicals
• Filtering
• Cutting, bending, and fire-polishing glass
tubing and rods
• Using other laboratory materials, as appropri­
ate; for example, pipettes
23. When an electrical plug is to be removed from its
socket, the plug, not the electrical cord, should be
pulled.
24. Laboratories should always be locked when not in
use.
25. The custodial staff should be alerted to general
hazards they may encounter in science areas and
to special situations that arise.
26. Teachers should set an example for the students;
for example, wear goggles when students are
required to do so. Follow all safety regulations
and constantly be alert and remind students of
hazards. Students not adhering to your rules
should not be allowed to participate until you are
assured there will be no further infractions.
27. Periodic use should be made of the “Safety
Checklist for Science Instruction, Preparation, and
Storage Areas” to check classroom and prepara­
tion areas (see Appendix H). Safety and energysavings procedures should be carried out at the
end of each school year (see Appendix I).
4
SAFETY IN THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY
A. Human Blood Sampling 21
B. Epithelial Tissue Study
23
C. Use of Microscopes and Hand Lenses 23
D. Experiments with Bacteria and Fungi 23
E. Special Concerns in the Study of Fungi and Molds 23
F. Operation of Pressure Cooker for Sterilization 24
G. Extraction of Chlorophyll, Using Flammable Solvents 24
H. Risks in Use of Acrylamide
24
I.
Risks in Use of Ethidium Bromide 25
J.
Risks in Use of Formaldehyde 25
K. Instruments and Specimens Used in Dissection 26
L. Alternatives to Dissection 27
M. Handling of Laboratory Animals
N. Insect-Killing Jars
27
27
4. SAFETY IN THE
BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
4. SAFETY IN THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY
B
IOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY TEACHERS SHOULD BE
A
familiar with the following safety practices and
all other sections of the handbook pertinent to
their instructional program. Special attention is
directed to Appendix J, “Sample Biological Science
Laboratory Regulations.” General precautions are as
follows:
Human Blood Sampling
1. The California Code of Regulations, Title 8,
General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5193,
essentially requires each school district in the state
to prepare a written exposure control plan (ECP)
designed to eliminate or minimize the exposure of
all employees to the blood or certain body fluids
of any other person, thus eliminating or minimiz­
ing the likelihood of employees being infected by
bloodborne pathogens (see Chapter 7, section K;
and Appendix B). A similar responsibility to
protect students from such infection is implied.
• When experiments require special biological
substances, such as nicotine alkaloid, the materials
should be carefully supervised.
• The use of drugs and syringe needles must be
limited to those uses specifically called for in the
instructional program and to specific projects under
close supervision of the instructor. Keep all drugs
and syringe equipment in a safe, locked place.
• Radioactive materials used in biological research
should be properly marked and, when not in use,
appropriately secured.
Options to using fresh human blood, though less
desirable instructionally, are possible. It may be
possible to acquire, from a local blood bank,
blood (types A, B, O, and AB) that has been tested
and found free of the hepatitis B virus and the
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The blood
may be used either in a teacher demonstration
(using the overhead projector) of the common
blood types or in a student laboratory activity.
Such use should be performed with all the precau­
tions of the school district’s ECP because testing
for the pathogens noted above is imperfect.
If blood typing or other microscopic analysis of
fresh human blood is permitted by the school
district and is to be conducted in the classroom,
the blood sampling must be done pursuant to the
district’s ECP. In the absence of more specific
procedures, the blood sampling should be accom­
plished as follows:
• On a voluntary basis
• Only by those student volunteers who bring a
permission note signed by a parent
• Performed by the volunteer, from herself or
himself
• In a manner consistent with the school’s
exposure control plan
BIOHAZARD
• Volatile solvents, such as acetone used in paper
chromatography experiments, should be used only
in an area that is well ventilated or, if available, in
a fume hood.
• All laws and regulations regarding the use of
animals in science instruction should be adhered to.
2. Several days before providing the opportunity for
voluntary blood sampling by students, discuss
with the students the techniques they will learn.
Emphasize that for most students this is a per­
fectly safe procedure (except for possible infec­
21
22
Chapter 4. Safety in the Biology Laboratory
tion from someone else’s blood); discuss the risks
for hemophiliacs and others. Emphasize also that
the results of the tests are not to be considered
valid for diagnostic purposes.
Explain to the class that students must not partici­
pate in the blood sampling if they have any known
medical problem, especially any of the following
conditions:
• Diabetes.
• Excessive bleeding (characteristic of hemo­
philiacs and users of prescribed drugs that
lengthen clotting time, such as Coumadin, or
drugs prescribed for a heart condition).
• Hepatitis (during the preceding year). If
hepatitis B or C is involved, a student may
still be a carrier and could infect other
students from contact with blood on table
tops, broken lancets, and so forth.
• Chronic pyoderma (skin pus areas, recurring
boils). Students with this condition would
likely have skin contaminated with staphylo­
coccus and streptococcus bacteria. Punctur­
ing of such contaminated skin could produce
a new infection site. If the lancet were
accidentally reused, it could transmit the
bacteria to other students.
• Infection with HIV. The blood can transmit
the virus from an infected person to another
person if the virus gains entrance into the
blood of that other person.
Students with any such medical problems do not
need to tell the teacher or their classmates; they
simply would not bring to school a note of
permission from their parents. Thus they need not
be embarrassed about or reveal their medical
problem.
The majority of students who carry hepatitis B or
C or HIV are not aware that they are infected. For
this reason teachers and students should follow
the universal safety precautions outlined by the
school district’s ECP (see Appendix B, California
Code of Regulations, Title 8, General Industry
Safety Orders, Section 5193, Bloodborne Patho­
gens).
3. The danger of spreading infectious diseases, such
as hepatitis or HIV, makes it necessary to employ
only sterile techniques, including the use of
goggles and gloves, if feasible.
4. Blood should be drawn only by use of a new,
individually packaged sterile lancet. Lancets are
to be used one time only, then discarded promptly
in a container designated for that purpose by the
school district’s ECP.
5. The use of disposable lancets meets the require­
ments for this activity. Each lancet should be used
only once, by and for one person. The unbroken
lancet should be discarded in the container
designated for that purpose.
6. If several students in one class period wish
voluntarily to draw blood samples for use by
themselves, each student drawing a sample must
have a separate sterile lancet, which is to be used
to make only one puncture.
7. The surface of the finger from which the blood is
to be drawn must be rubbed with sterile absorbent
cotton dipped in alcohol before puncturing the
skin. Use a fresh piece of sterile cotton after
removing blood to stop the bleeding.
8. After examining the samples, standard steriliza­
tion and disinfection procedures must be used.
Glassware, devices, or instruments that require
sterilization or disinfection should first be im­
mersed in a solution at least (no weaker than) one
part bleach to 10 parts water (1:10), then thor­
oughly cleaned before being exposed to a germi­
cide; the manufacturer’s instruction for use of the
germicide should be followed.
9. The cotton swabs should be processed as regu­
lated waste for either (a) vendor pickup, by
placing the waste in individual red bags prepared
according to the vendor’s instructions; or (b)
disposal, if an outside vendor is not used, by
placing the waste in containers that are:
• Closable
• Constructed to contain all contents and
prevent leakage of fluids during handling,
storage, transport, or shipping
• Appropriately labeled and color-coded
• Closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or
protrusion of contents during handling,
storage, transport, or shipping
10. The entire activity area should be wiped down
with a 1:10 bleach solution following the experi­
ment.
11. As usual, washing hands with soap and water after
the laboratory activity is mandatory.
E. Special Concerns in the Study of Fungi and Molds
B
more than one loop so that as one is being used,
others are cooling. When a contaminated loop is
inserted into a flame for sterilization, an aerosol
may be generated by the boiling and volatilization
of the material before the flame can kill all
pathogenic microorganisms. Whenever inoculat­
ing loops are being used, avoid any sudden
actions that might result in the generation of an
aerosol.
Epithelial Tissue Study
1. Students should exercise great care in obtaining
epithelial cells from the inside of the cheek for
study under the microscope. Only a cotton-tipped
swab or the blunt edge of a toothpick should be
used. Never use pointed instruments or any part of
a scalpel for this purpose.
2. Only student volunteers who bring a permission
note signed by a parent would conduct this
experiment.
3. Precautions and cleanup procedures similar to
those used in blood sampling should be followed.
C
D
These precautions are intended for laboratory
activities involving any bacteria or fungi. Even
nonpathogenic microorganisms can cause disease
if they enter the body accidentally. This danger is
especially true if the human system is immuno­
suppressed because of HIV, intake of drugs, and
so forth.
Use of Microscopes and Hand Lenses
When students have eye infections, they should
not be permitted to use school microscopes or hand
lenses.
5. To sterilize plates before cleaning or disposal,
follow these steps:
a. Autoclave the unopened plates in the usual
manner. Usually, steaming under pressure of
15 pounds per square inch for 15 to 20
minutes kills the majority of microbes.
However, if you are trying to sterilize soil
samples or large volumes of culture, continue
with the procedure described below.
b. Wait one day for any resistant spores to leave
the resting stage and begin to grow.
c. Sterilize a second time.
d. Wait one day.
e. Sterilize a third time.
f. Note: All resistant spores should by now be
killed. The plate may be safely opened for
cleaning or discarded in the regular trash.
Experiments with Bacteria and Fungi
1. All bacteria and fungi should be handled as
though they were pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria
should not be cultured. Pure cultures of nonpatho­
genic microorganisms should be used in experi­
ments. When soil or water is used as a source of
bacteria (or fungi), it is important to collect
samples unlikely to be contaminated by human
pathogens. For example, water should be collected
from lakes, estuaries, or beaches free of sewage or
animal-waste pollution. (See section E for special
concerns in studying air and soil cultures of fungi
and molds.)
2. Petri dishes passed around the classroom for
inspection of cultures should be bound together
with transparent tape. Any petri dish that contains
fungus should be taped shut.
3. Wire loops used for transferring bacteria cultures
should be flamed until the entire wire is red hot
before and after each transfer is made.
4. Inoculating loops must be used with care. The
film held by a loop may break and cause substan­
tial atmospheric contamination. A hot loop
inserted into a liquid may cause spattering. Loops
should be allowed to cool before insertion into
liquids. The procedure may require the use of
23
E
Special Concerns in the Study
of Fungi and Molds
Whenever agar plates are inoculated with soil or
plant material or exposed to the air inside or outside a
building, there is the strong possibility that fungi
(molds) will grow on the surface of the plates and
form aerial hyphae. At the tips of these hyphae, chains
of conidia (spores) will form; the conidia are often
colored. These conidia are easily dislodged by air
currents and can be rapidly spread through a room
when the lid of the petri dish is removed. People with
normal immune systems are usually not infected when
24
Chapter 4. Safety in the Biology Laboratory
they breathe in these spores. However, people with
weakened or suppressed immune systems are at risk of
developing a fungal infection should they inhale the
spores. Immune systems can be damaged by immuno­
suppressant drugs, HIV infections, or other causes.
Therefore, it is good practice, once the petri dishes are
inoculated, to tape the lids on with two pieces of tape
opposite each other and allow manipulations of the
fungal growth only in a fume hood in which a current
of air draws the spores out of the room.
Fungi are microorganisms that are widespread in
soil, dust, and air. Of particular concern is the fungus
Coccidioides immitis, which is present in some soils of
the southwestern United States. Most people, on
inhalation of the spores, develop a mild flu-like
respiratory illness called valley fever, which quickly
passes. Usually, people acquire a lifelong immunity to
reinfection. Some unfortunate people become very ill
and may die, even with medical care. Therefore, it is
essential for students working with soil, or the fungi in
soil, to be aware of this hazard and not expose them­
selves to large amounts of the dust or spores. In areas
endemic to valley fever, you should restrict the collec­
tion of soil to sites within five miles of the Pacific
Ocean (in the United States) to minimize exposure to
spores of the fungus that causes that disease. Soil
contaminated with old chicken, pigeon, or bat drop­
pings may contain the spores of the fungus that causes
histoplasmosis. Soil from archeological sites, the land
around old buildings, and animal burrows should be
avoided, regardless of the location.
F
Operation of Pressure Cooker
for Sterilization
1. Before using the pressure cooker, the teacher
should be familiar with the proper directions for
its operation.
2. The safety valve should be examined to make sure
it is in working order.
3. The gauge pressure should be kept at or below a
maximum of 20 pounds per square inch.
4. The pressure should be returned to zero before the
cover can be safely removed.
5. The test stopcock should be opened before the
clamp can be safely released.
6. An eye-protective device should be used when
working with a cooker under pressure.
G
Extraction of Chlorophyll,
Using Flammable Solvents
1. An electric heater of the immersion type or a
water bath heated by an electric hot plate should
be used.
2. An open-flame-heated water bath for heating the
alcohol or other solvents should never be used.
3. Flames should be kept away from solvents or
vapors. If a solvent ignites in the beaker, cover the
beaker with a glass plate to extinguish the fire. If
burning solvent is spilled on the table, use either
the carbon dioxide (or 2A-10BC dry powder) fog
extinguisher or the fire blanket. These devices
should be kept readily available.
H
Risks in Use of Acrylamide
In recent years polyacrylamide gels have been
prepared in some school laboratories to achieve the
isolation of specific molecules by electrophoretic
techniques. Schools are cautioned to cease this prac­
tice because acrylamide poses a potentially serious
health hazard as a neurotoxin. This substance has been
classified as 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) by
the International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC) and is included in the California Health and
Welfare Agency’s list titled “Chemicals Known to the
State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity”
(California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Section
12000).
Because there is a serious risk of inhalation
exposure during the weighing of acrylamide powder
for the preparation of gels, schools should purchase
only prepoured polyacrylamide gels from laboratory
supply houses. The prepoured gel presents less health
risk because the acrylamide has chemically reacted to
form a solid gel (letter from the California Department
of Health Services, July 10, 1992). Once the gel has
solidified and been rinsed, very little of the raw
acrylamide remains. Gloves should be worn at all
times to prevent dermal exposure to any residual
acrylamide found on the gels. To avoid the hazard
altogether, schools can purchase prepoured gels made
with acrylamide substitutes.
Questions about the proper disposal of polyacryla­
mide gels should be directed to your regional office of
the Department of Toxic Substances Control (see
Appendix K).
J. Risks in Use of Formaldehyde
I
Risks in Use of Ethidium Bromide
Used as a staining agent for gel plates in recombi­
nant DNA protocols, ethidium bromide has been tested
extensively and has been shown to be a potent mu­
tagen. Although ethidium bromide has not yet been
tested for carcinogenicity, scientists believe that
chemicals that can cause mutations (by altering DNA)
should be treated as though they have carcinogenic
potential as well. Therefore, great care must be used
when handling ethidium bromide.
The highest potential for either respiratory or
dermal exposure is during the weighing and prepara­
tion of stock solutions. In addition, splashing in the
eye or on the skin can occur during the dyeing of gels.
Because ethidium bromide presents high risks for
anyone, its use should be limited to instructors only.
Note that industrial hygienists at the California Depart­
ment of Health Services recommend that ethidium
bromide not be used in the high school laboratory.
However, when its use cannot be avoided, the Depart­
ment of Health Services recommends the following
handling practices:
1. Ethidium bromide powder and stock solutions
should be kept in a locked cabinet.
2. Ethidium bromide powder and ethidium bromide
solutions should be handled only by the instructor.
Preparation of stock solutions and the dyeing and
rinsing of gels should be done only by the instruc­
tor. The instructor should use the least concen­
trated dye solution which still stains effectively.
3. Ethidium bromide powder should be dispensed
only in a laboratory that is not subject to drafts
created by doors, windows, and laboratory cross
traffic. Transfer of the powder should be done
within a fume hood over a disposable working
surface or over a tray that can be decontaminated
if spillage occurs. To minimize contact with
ethidium bromide, the instructor should weigh
portions in advance, when possible, and store
them for future use.
4. To prevent skin contamination and subsequent
dermal absorption or hand-to-mouth exposure, the
instructor should wear tight-fitting, disposable,
impermeable gloves. Common surgical latex
gloves may offer some protection. A laboratory
jacket or apron should also be worn.
5. Students should not handle dyed gels until the
gels have been rinsed thoroughly. Once the dye is
25
fixed and the excess rinsed off, there will be little
free ethidium bromide. However, students should
still wear latex gloves and handle the gels with
care. Goggles should be worn whenever exposure
is likely to occur.
6. Ethidium bromide powder and solutions, dyed
gels, and disposable materials contaminated with
ethidium bromide should be disposed of according
to applicable hazardous waste disposal regula­
tions.
The most effective way to control exposure to
ethidium bromide is to replace it with a less hazardous
substance. However, all substitutes must be carefully
researched to ensure that they are truly less hazardous.
Two substances, propidium diiodide and acridine
orange, have been suggested as replacements for
ethidium bromide but have also been found to be
mutagens; therefore, they are likely to be just as
dangerous. Bromophenol blue and methylene blue are
less hazardous substitutes to consider for use in
staining. But because stains are specific to particular
molecules, these substances may not be adequate to
stain all types of samples.
J
Risks in Use of Formaldehyde
Because of growing evidence on the carcinogenic­
ity of formaldehyde, schools are urged to cease their
use of formaldehyde and formalin (3 percent to 10
percent solutions of formaldehyde) and to arrange for
the immediate proper removal and disposal of all
formaldehyde cylinders and formalin solutions. The
National Toxicology Program (NTP) has rated formal­
dehyde as an anticipated carcinogen, which means that
there is either “limited evidence” of its carcinogenicity
in humans or “sufficient evidence” of its carcinogenic­
ity in experimental animals. In addition, the IARC has
categorized formaldehyde in group 2A, which means
that this agent is “probably carcinogenic to humans”
because “there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity
in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity
in experimental animals.” In a list entitled “Chemicals
Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive
Toxicity,” the California Health and Welfare Agency
identifies formaldehyde as a substance known to cause
cancer (California Code of Regulations, Title 22,
Section 12000). If formaldehyde is used at the work
site, the employer is mandated by the California Labor
26 Chapter 4. Safety in the Biology Laboratory
Code (Section 9020) and the California Code of
Regulations, Title 8, to submit a “Carcinogen ‘Report
of Use’ Form” (see Appendix O) and to post a copy of
the report form in a conspicuous place in the area in
which formaldehyde is used.
Many dissection specimens are originally (com­
mercially) preserved in formalin, then washed and
transferred to a less hazardous medium; however, this
practice has markedly diminished in recent years. All
such specimens should be soaked in water for 24 hours
prior to use and, occasionally, during use, when
residual formalin is released from the specimen. The
contaminated rinse water may not be poured down the
sink unless you have obtained permission from your
local sewage district authority.
Schools are advised to use a properly licensed
waste transporter to dispose of all preserved display
specimens immersed in formalin. In the rare case that
the specimen is irreplaceable, it should be properly
transferred to a less hazardous solution (e.g., propy­
lene glycol, ethylene glycol, or ethanol). For dissec­
tions of organisms preserved in this manner, adequate
ventilation is still necessary. All transfers of specimens
from formalin should take place within an operating
fume hood and proper personal protective equipment
should be worn to avoid respiratory and dermal
exposure. The remaining formalin may not be poured
down the sink unless written permission has been
obtained from the local sewage district or administra­
tive agency.
If there is a formaldehyde spill, all personnel
should be promptly evacuated from the immediate area
and the room should be thoroughly ventilated. Cleanup
should be attempted only by properly equipped and
trained spill-control specialists.
Regulations in the General Industry Safety Orders
(California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 5217)
establish specific requirements for the monitoring and
safety training of employees exposed to airborne
formaldehyde at or above each of the following levels:
1. The action level of 0.5 parts formaldehyde per
million parts air (ppm), an eight-hour timeweighted average concentration. Action level is
determined by measuring the concentration of a
chemical substance, calculated as an eight-hour
time-weighted average.
2. The permissible exposure level (PEL) of 0.75 ppm
formaldehyde, an eight-hour time-weighted
average concentration. PEL is defined as “the
maximum permitted eight-hour time-weighted
average concentration of an airborne contami­
nant” that an employee can be exposed to in one
day.
3. The short-term exposure level (STEL) of 2.0 ppm
formaldehyde, which is expressed as a 15-minute
time-weighted average concentration. The STEL
is not to be exceeded at any time during a work­
day.
K
Instruments and Specimens Used
in Dissection
1. The use of preserved animal specimens in instruc­
tion should be carefully planned to provide
learning that cannot otherwise be achieved.
Dissection activities should enable students to
develop a greater respect for life. All such activi­
ties, particularly those involving the use of
vertebrates (especially mammals), should be
undertaken by students only when they are
prepared and have the maturity to appreciate fully
the significance of the instructional activity.
2. Students should be instructed in the safe use of
dissection instruments. Special care should be
taken to avoid cuts or scratches when cleaning
scalpels and needles.
3. Specimens should be obtained which, if originally
preserved in formalin, have been shipped in
alternative, low-toxicity preservatives (see section
J, “Risks in Use of Formaldehyde”).
4. Preserved specimens should be thoroughly
washed (including the abdominal cavities of large
specimens) before being handled by the students.
When specimens are being removed from the
preservative solution, rubber gloves should be
worn or forceps or tongs should be used, depend­
ing on the size of the specimen. Use eye-protective devices to protect against splashes and fumes.
5. Preservative fumes may be irritating to the eyes,
nose, and throat. Adequate ventilation should be
provided whenever preservative fumes are
present.
6. Approved goggles must be worn during dissec­
tions.
7. Preferably, dissection would be carried out only
by those students who have obtained a permission
note signed by a parent.
N. Insect-Killing Jars
Teachers will find the following publications
helpful in planning and conducting their dissection
activities:
Planning and Managing Dissection Laboratories.
Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Asso­
ciation, 1994.
The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Class­
rooms, Including Alternatives to Dissection.
Reston, Va.: National Association of Biology
Teachers, 1990.
L
Alternatives to Dissection
Students in kindergarten through grade twelve
have the right to refrain from participating in activities
that they feel would constitute “harmful and destruc­
tive use of animals,” pursuant to Education Code
Section 32255 et seq. When courses require the use of
live or dead animals or parts of animals, students must
be notified of their rights. A student’s objections must
be substantiated by a note from his or her parent or
guardian. The teacher may develop an alternative
educational project of “comparable time and effort” or
excuse the student from the project.
The pre- and postdissection activities may consti­
tute appropriate assignments, which could be pursued
in greater depth as alternative activities for all stu­
dents. Alternative activities should be well planned
(not punitive) and may include (1) studies of anatomy,
using illustrated dissection manuals, study sheets,
transparencies, videos, slides, films, or filmstrips; (2)
computer simulations; (3) observations of live organ­
isms; (4) library research; and (5) art activities, with
models or charts.
Both of the publications recommended in section
K suggest alternatives to dissections; the one available
from the National Association of Biology Teachers
contains a comprehensive list of resources and litera­
ture on the topic. The Animal Protection Institute of
Sacramento (1-800-348-7387) and the Humane
Education Network of Menlo Park (415-854-8921) are
included among the organizations promoting alterna­
tives to animal experimentation in schools. Copies or
lists of alternative materials (including costs, as
appropriate) may be obtained by calling the telephone
numbers noted above.
M
27
Handling of Laboratory Animals
See Appendix B, Health and Safety Code Section
1650 et seq., “Humane Care of Animals.” In addition,
the following precautions should be observed:
1. Heavy rubber or leather gloves should be worn
when handling live animals. (Be sure the gloves
are readily available.)
2. Students and visitors should be cautioned about
the dangers of inserting fingers into an occupied
animal cage.
3. Warning signs, such as Keep hands away, should
be posted conspicuously on cages housing animals
that may bite.
4. Students should be trained to handle rats, mice,
guinea pigs, and other animals gently and not to
excite the animals; for example, poking pencils at
animals encourages biting behaviors. Hamsters
are not recommended for classroom use because
they are nocturnal and are more likely to bite
during daylight hours.
5. Poisonous animals should not be brought to or
kept at school.
N
Insect-Killing Jars
Students need to be familiar with the best ways in
which to collect and preserve insects for science
projects or for study in the classroom. A safe killing jar
can be made by using any clean, large jar with a
screw-type lid (mayonnaise jars are acceptable). Place
a facial tissue in the bottom of the jar to absorb the
killing liquid. Several liquids can be used to provide
the lethal fumes, including ethyl acetate or ethyl
alcohol. (Under no conditions should carbon tetrachlo­
ride or potassium cyanide be used in insect-killing
jars.) Add the killing liquid to the tissue in the bottom
of the jar—about six drops are generally satisfactory.
Place a clean tissue on top of the tissue containing the
liquid to keep the insects dry. The jar must be labeled
properly and include the following information:
DANGER. FLAMMABLE. POISONOUS
FUMES. DO NOT BREATHE.
To recharge the jar with lethal fumes, simply
remove the top tissue and add a few more drops of the
28
Chapter 4. Safety in the Biology Laboratory
killing liquid. Add a clean tissue, and the jar is again
ready for use.
An alternate method of preparing insect-killing
jars is as follows:
1. Place 1 inch (2 to 3 cm) of freshly prepared
plaster of paris in the bottom of a glass jar (the
smallest size necessary).
2. Pour in enough ethyl acetate to cover the plaster
of paris at least 12 hours before use.
3. Let stand for 20 minutes; then pour off the excess.
Enough ethyl acetate will be absorbed by the
plaster of paris to last a week if covers are kept in
place.
4. Use a facial tissue to cover the plaster of paris
during use.
5. Label the jar with the information noted above.
5. SAFETY IN THE
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
5
SAFETY IN THE CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
A. Laboratory Practices 29
B. Students’ Safety Precautions 30
C. Teachers’ General Safety Precautions
D. Chemical Health Hazards
30
31
E. Steps for Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area 32
F. Labeling of Chemical Reagents 42
G. Potentially Hazardous Chemicals
H. Substances Containing Asbestos
I.
Use and Disposal of Ethers 74
J.
Standards in the Use of Lead
43
74
75
K. Handling and Cleanup of Mercury 75
Table 1. Explosive Chemicals
33
Table 2. Extremely Hazardous Chemicals for Prompt Disposal 39
Table 3. Hazardous Chemicals Reference Table
46
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
5. SAFETY IN THE CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
S
“Science Laboratory Safety/Liability Checklist.”
Additional useful information can be found in the
California Department of Education publication titled
Science Facilities Design for California Public
Schools (especially pages 23–27 and 42–46; Chapter
VIII; and appendixes B and C).
EVERAL RECENT LEGISLATIVE ACTS ADDRESS THE
use and storage of hazardous chemicals. The
California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section
5191, addresses a broad range of requirements for
employers engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous
chemicals (see Appendix B). This regulation requires
employers to develop and implement a written chemi­
cal hygiene plan (CHP) that sets forth specific proce­
dures for minimizing employees’ exposure to hazard­
ous chemicals. For assistance in preparing a CHP,
contact your county Environmental Health Department
or obtain a copy of the Model Chemical Hygiene Plan
for Kentucky School Districts (see ordering informa­
tion in Chapter 7, section J).
Under the regulation school districts are required
to designate a qualified chemical hygiene officer to
provide technical guidance in the development and
implementation of a CHP that ensures that employees’
exposure to hazardous chemicals does not exceed Cal/
OSHA standards. The CHP must include the following
elements: (1) safe operating procedures to be followed
when the laboratory work involves hazardous chemi­
cals; (2) criteria for determining and implementing
control measures, including engineering controls, the
use of personal protective equipment, and hygiene
practices; (3) maintenance of proper labels on hazard­
ous substances and of MSDSs received from the
vendor; (4) assurance that fume hoods comply with
regulations and that all protective equipment functions
properly; (5) provisions for employee information and
training; (6) provisions for medical consultations and
examinations; and (7) recordkeeping.
Related requirements are included in Education
Code Section 49340 et seq. and the California Code of
Regulations, Title 8, Section 5194 (see Appendix B).
However, a school in full compliance with Section
5191, which is outlined above, will also be in compli­
ance with these code sections if a safe and practical
chemicals storage plan is implemented, such as the
plan suggested in section E of this chapter.
Chemistry teachers should be familiar with the
safety practices described in this chapter and with all
other sections of this handbook pertinent to their
instructional program. Special attention is directed to
Chapter 3, “General Laboratory Safety Precautions”;
Appendix H, “Safety Checklist for Science Instruction,
Preparation, and Storage Areas”; and Appendix L,
A
Laboratory Practices
1. Care must be taken to give proper instructions and
to caution students on the use of polyethylene
squeeze bottles and the risk of dropping bottles,
especially if the bottles contain flammable liquids.
In those cases bottles should not be used near open
flames.
2. On inserting glass tubing into a rubber stopper or
tubing, observe the following precautions:
• Never attempt to insert glass tubing that has a
jagged edge. Fire-polish the edge, if possible.
Otherwise, bevel the edge with a file, wire
gauze, or emery cloth.
• Always aim the glass tubing away from the
palm of the hand that holds the stopper or
rubber tubing.
• Use water, soap solution, glycerin, or petro­
leum jelly as a lubricant and gently press the
tube into the hole with a twisting motion.
• Expand the rubber stopper by using an
appropriate size cork borer prior to insertion.
Lubrication is still necessary.
• Always hold glass tubing as close as possible
to the part that is entering the rubber stopper.
• Lessen the chance of injury from broken
tubing by wrapping a cloth around the hand
or around the tubing at the point of contact
with the hand.
• Do not grasp a thistle tube by the bowl when
inserting the thistle tube into a rubber stop­
per. Grasp only by the tubing, as close as
possible to where the glass tubing enters the
stopper.
3. Exercise care so that any hose connections be­
tween burners and gas outlets are protected from
pinching or from being pulled away from the
outlet.
29
30
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
4. Use the stationary or portable fume hood when
potentially hazardous vapors or gaseous sub­
stances are used or produced in science laboratory
activities. Whether permanent or portable, fume
hoods must:
• Have an average face velocity of 100 linear
feet (30 m) of air per minute, with a mini­
mum of 70 linear feet (21 m) per minute at
any velometer position.
• Be placed so that air currents do not draw
fumes from hoods into the room.
• Be provided with a means (such as a light
plastic or paper streamer) for continuously
indicating that air is flowing into the exhaust
system during the operation of the fume
hood.
• Be provided with a standpipe that extends
seven feet (2.1 m) above the roof and is
located so that fumes will not be drawn into
windows or air intakes.
• Have standpipes constructed of corrosionresistant materials. Local fire codes must be
checked for standpipe specifications.
Fume hoods are never to be used for storage of
books, supplies, or chemicals; they are items of
safety equipment. Air velocity should be checked
with a velometer or a single piece of tissue paper,
which should remain horizontal when held in the
opening while the hood is operating. (See Appen­
dix B, California Code of Regulations, Title 8,
Section 5154.1.)
5. Use the stationary or portable fume hood when­
ever noxious or poisonous fumes are produced.
6. Preserve dry ice for short periods of time by
wrapping the ice in several layers of newspaper to
insulate it and reduce the rate of sublimation. The
use of vermiculite, Styrofoam beads, or other
particulate insulating material and a Styrofoam
chest will further extend the preservation of dry
ice. Dry ice should be handled with great care to
avoid contact with the skin and eyes.
7. Handle glass wool and steel wool carefully to
avoid getting splinters in the skin or eyes.
B
Students’ Safety Precautions
1. Students in the proximity of the experiment should
wear goggles. Evacuate students from seats near
the demonstration table, even if the possibility of
injury is remote. Injury might occur from the
spattering of chemicals, inhalation of fumes, and
so forth.
2. Familiarize the students with the potential hazards
of the chemical substances included in Table 3,
“Hazardous Chemicals Reference Table.”
3. Instruct the students to smell the contents of a test
tube or other container by waving some of the
escaping vapors toward themselves. The container
should never be brought close to the nose.
4. Never cap a bottle or use a solid stopper in a bottle
containing dry ice or cryogenic liquids. Always
plug loosely with cotton or use a stopper with a
hole.
5. Remind students that chemicals should never be
tasted, smelled, or touched unless such action is
approved by the instructor and conducted in the
proper manner.
C
Teachers’ General Safety Precautions
1. Demonstrations involving potentially toxic or
explosive substances must be arranged to protect
both students and teachers from danger. The
teacher and students should use goggles, face
D. Chemical Health Hazards
shields, and safety shields for protection. The size
of apparatus and quantities of reagents used in
demonstrations should be consistent with safety;
for example, whenever potentially hazardous
products, such as H2, C12, Br2, I2, P4O10, and CO,
may be generated.
2. Water should never be added to concentrated
acids. To dilute acids, add the concentrated acid in
small quantities to the water, stirring constantly.
Use heat-resistant glassware for this procedure.
3. Table tops should be protected from extreme heat
by using insulation under burners or heated
objects. Do not use asbestos insulation unless
fibers are bonded in a hard material, such as in the
frequently used building boards. Broken or
chipped boards should be discarded.
4. Only small quantities of red amorphous phospho­
rus should be made available for students’ use.
When phosphorus burns, it produces toxic phos­
phorus pentoxide. Red phosphorus fires are very
difficult to extinguish. Red phosphorus resublimes
as white phosphorus. White phosphorus may ignite
on contact with air at 30°C and should be disposed
of by following the guidelines in section E, step 2.
5. After receiving approval from your local air
quality regulatory agency, completely burn resi­
dues of (red) phosphorus in the fume hood before
depositing them in the waste jar.
6. Each science teacher should be prepared to act
deliberately and intelligently in the event of a
classroom fire.
7. Approved eye-protective devices should be used
by all persons performing science activities
involving hazards to the eyes. All persons in
dangerous proximity must be similarly equipped.
Laboratory aprons and rubber or plastic gloves
should be available and should be worn whenever
hazards exist that could damage clothing, injure
someone, or irritate skin.
8. The safety of students while they are participating
in field experiences should be considered an
integral part of the instructional planning activi­
ties.
9. Science teachers must be familiar with state, local,
and school district regulations on the use of
equipment and materials that produce X rays,
microwaves, and alpha, beta, and gamma radia­
tion.
D
31
Chemical Health Hazards
Chemical substances can enter the body and,
consequently, the bloodstream in three ways—through
ingestion, absorption, or inhalation.
The following list gives examples of some classes
of chemical substances and their effects on the body:
Acids: Acetic, chromic, hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric,
and carbolic (phenolic) acids cause severe burns
and tissue damage.
Alcohols: These irritate mucous membranes. Methanol
induces blindness through ingestion or prolonged
inhalation.
Aldehydes and ketones: Inhalation, absorption, or
ingestion of these substances irritates tissues and
produces narcotic effects.
Alkalies: Sodium and potassium hydroxides and
ammonium hydroxide cause severe tissue burns
(especially destructive to eye tissue) and bronchial
spasms.
Asphyxiants: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
cyanide, and cyanogen compounds reduce the
oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood; stop
oxidation in tissues through destruction of en­
zymes; and displace atmospheric oxygen.
Carbon monoxide: Prolonged exposure renders the
hemoglobin of red blood cells ineffective for the
transport of oxygen. Results are toxic and may
prove deadly.
Compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen: These
substances corrode the skin and destroy respiratory
tissues.
Cyanides: Absorption, inhalation, or ingestion of
cyanides produces toxic effects.
Esters: Exposure causes tissue poisoning and irrita­
tion.
Ethers: Inhalation produces a powerful narcotic
effect. See section I, “Use and Disposal of Ethers,”
in this chapter.
Halogens: Halogens are corrosive; highly irritating to
tissues.
Hydrocarbons: Inhalation causes irritation and tissue
destruction. Prolonged exposure is very danger­
ous. Chlorinated varieties form toxic phosgene gas
when burned.
Irritants: Ammonia, phosphoric halides, hydrogen
chloride, chlorine, bromine, and hydrogen sulfide
damage respiratory tissues.
32
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
Mercury: The handling of mercury or inhalation of its
vapors causes tissue poisoning. Toxic effects are
compounded with prolonged exposure.
Metal fumes: The fumes of mercury and zinc poison
tissues, causing nausea and fever, even death.
Always use a fume hood.
E
Steps for Establishing a Safer
Chemicals Storage Area
The issues of safe storage and use of chemicals
and the supervision of laboratory safety are addressed
in several sections of the Education Code and the
California Code of Regulations, Title 8 (see excerpts in
Appendix B). The following is a summary of some of
the relevant stipulations in those codes:
• Each school offering laboratory work is urged to
designate a trained member of the professional
staff as the person “responsible for the review,
updating, and carrying out of the school’s adopted
procedures for laboratory safety” (Education Code
Section 49341[b]).
• School districts are encouraged “to take steps to
ensure hazardous materials are properly used and
stored” (Education Code Section 49401.5 [a]).
• School districts shall have guidelines “for the
regular removal and disposal of all chemicals
whose estimated shelf life has elapsed” (Education
Code Section 49411[b]).
• Employers are required to have a written hazard
communication program for employees working in
laboratories in which the employees may be
exposed to hazardous substances except for those
laboratories “under the direct supervision and
regular observation of an individual who has
knowledge of the physical hazards, health hazards,
and emergency procedures associated with the use
of the particular hazardous substances involved
and who conveys this knowledge to employees in
terms of safe work practices.” Such excluded
laboratories must also maintain labels and material
safety data sheets of “incoming shipments of
hazardous substances and ensure that they are
readily available to laboratory employees” (Cali­
fornia Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 5194
[b]).
Note: Preparation of a written hazard communica­
tion program may not be necessary if the school can
show that the required elements of Section 5194 are
contained in the school’s chemical hygiene plan,
prepared pursuant to the California Code of Regula­
tions, Title 8, Section 5191. (See the introductory
paragraphs of this chapter and the relevant code
sections reprinted in Appendix B.) School districts or
school sites should determine the necessity for writing
and implementing a written hazard communication
program by examining the extensive excerpts from the
California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 5194,
cited in Appendix B.
The requirements noted above point to the neces­
sity of establishing a chemicals storage area that is as
safe as possible and developing a plan that will ensure
the continued maintenance of the area in a safe man­
ner.
Start as soon as possible. Carefully plan each step.
The present condition may have existed for some time
and is not likely to deteriorate significantly while you
assess your situation and examine your options. Your
planning and implementation should result in a
chemicals storage area that has the following charac­
teristics:
❑ The area is clean and orderly.
❑ A telephone is readily available.
❑ A current list of emergency telephone numbers is
posted.
❑ Emergency procedures are up-to-date and posted.
❑ An appropriate first-aid kit is available.
❑ An appropriate spill kit is available.
❑ Safety equipment and supplies (goggles, aprons,
face shield, fire blanket, fire extinguisher, eye­
wash, spill pillow, and, if appropriate, deluge
shower, safety shields, and fume hood) are avail­
able and functional.
❑ There are no chemicals in storage that have been
designated unsafe for school laboratory use (see
Tables 1 and 2).
❑ Only chemicals that are used are stored (chemicals
not needed have been disposed of).
❑ Chemicals on hand will be consumed essentially
within the next year (except for unlimited-shelf-
life items, such as iron filings).
❑ Chemicals are arranged for storage in compatible
groups.
❑ Chemicals are properly labeled and stored in
appropriate containers.
❑ A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is on file for
each chemical that is received in the normal course
E. Steps for Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area
of the school year and is made accessible to
teachers and students for review.
❑ There is a continual up-to-date inventory of all
chemicals, including quantity, location, date of
purchase, shelf life, and projected disposal date.
❑ No chemicals are stored above eye level.
❑ No chemicals are stored on the floor.
❑ Shelves or cabinets are secured firmly to the walls.
❑ Earthquake lips or barriers are in place on storage
shelves.
❑ Storage cabinets for corrosive chemicals (separate
cabinets for acids and for bases) are on site and are
appropriately used.
33
❑ A storage cabinet for flammables is on site and is
appropriately used.
❑ Poisons are secured.
❑ The storage area temperature never exceeds 25°C
(75°F).
❑ The storeroom door is self-closing and is locked.
❑ There is adequate ventilation (including a fume
hood, if needed), and the area is isolated from the
rest of the building. Room air is changed at least
four times per hour.
❑ Compressed gas cylinders are secured upright to
the wall, with caps in place. Flammable gases are
TABLE 1
Explosive Chemicals
(for Immediate Disposal Only by Explosive Technicians)
Substance
Special Note
Benzoyl Peroxide
Benzoyl peroxide may be exploded by heat, shock, or friction.
Carbon Disulfide
The flashpoint (-30°C) is well below room temperature, and small amounts of the
vapor in air can be explosive.
Diisopropyl Ether
(if stored longer than
12 months)
This chemical becomes dangerous on aging. If its age is unknown or if it has been in
storage for more than 12 months, you should assume that explosive peroxides have
formed. If stored for less than 12 months, it can be disposed of by placing it in the
fume hood, removing the cap, and allowing the liquid to evaporate.
Ethyl Ether/Diethyl Ether
(if stored longer than
12 months)
See the notes for diisopropyl ether.
Nitrogen Triiodide
When it is dry, it will explode on being touched, vibrated, or heated slightly; even a
puff of air will cause an explosion. May be stored in wet ether.
Perchloric Acid
Although the 70 percent perchloric acid/water mixture is not explosive by itself, the
use of perchloric acid often leads to the formation of perchlorates, which are very
explosive. Perchloric acid may be set aside in a safe storage area until commercial
disposal is arranged.
Phosphorous
(white/yellow)
Phosphorous is packed under water and will ignite spontaneously on contact
with air at 30°C.
Picric Acid
Picric acid should always contain 10 to 20 percent water, and bottles should be
disposed of after two years. Dry picric acid is explosive and can be detonated by shock
or heat. Bouin’s solution contains picric acid.
Potassium Metal
Potassium metal becomes dangerous with age. It forms explosive peroxides if not
stored under kerosene.
Sodium Azide
Sodium azide is very unstable and explosive. Keep it away from heavy metals.
34
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
separated from oxidizing gases by a one-hour fire
wall or at least 25 feet (7.5 m).
❑ There are one or more nonreactive waste recep­
tacles made of plastic or crockery.
The following seven-step procedure is based on
the assumption that you have not inventoried your
chemicals storage area and purged it of dangerous and
unnecessary chemicals in recent years or that you are
starting with a chemicals storage area that is unfamil­
iar to you. However, you already may have accom­
plished much of this suggested procedure.
Step 1: Assignment of Responsibility for
Laboratory Safety
Several legal citations indicate that persons
knowledgeable about the safe use and storage of
hazardous chemicals should be assigned responsibility
for laboratory safety at the school district and schoolsite levels (California Code of Regulations, Title 8,
sections 5191 and 5194; Education Code sections
49341 and 49411; and Health and Safety Code Section
25500 et seq.). Logically, the school-site administrator
would have the responsibility for assigning such a
person at the school-site level. The school-site admin­
istrator should carefully seek out and assign the staff
person who has the greatest knowledge of and exper­
tise in laboratory safety, giving special consideration
to a person with knowledge of chemical processes and
hazardous materials management.
Step 2: Inventory and Removal of Explosives
It is prudent to identify and dispose of any explo­
sives that may be present to eliminate the most acutely
dangerous materials. Then it is possible to proceed
with subsequent steps in relative safety.
Note: During your initial inventory, if any of the
chemicals listed in Table 1 are found in the area, the
containers should not be touched or moved by anyone
other than a trained county sheriff or police bomb
squad or other qualified official. If any explosive
chemicals are present, call the appropriate district staff
person or the local fire or sheriff’s department.
Caution: The list in Table 1 is not a comprehen­
sive list of all possible explosive chemicals. It is a list
of chemicals that have, in the past, been recommended
for use by various laboratory manuals and curriculum
guides and, therefore, are most likely to be present in
the school laboratory. Be alert for other explosives as
you search for the ones noted in Table 1. For methods
of disposal, consult Code of Federal Regulations, Title
49, for the specific hazard class for each explosive
found.
Once the explosives have been removed, it is
appropriate to make preparation for the storage and
transportation of hazardous materials. Some of the
following steps can and should be done simulta­
neously.
Step 3: Chemicals Inventory
1. Purpose of the inventory. The inventory will
enable you to:
a. Meet the requirements of Health and Safety
Code, Chapter 6.95, which requires that an
annual inventory be submitted to an adminis­
tering agency (probably the county depart­
ment of health services). In many instances
the local fire department or designated city or
county agency also requests such an inven­
tory.
b. Learn of any extremely hazardous chemicals
(acutely toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, etc.)
that should be disposed of immediately. See
step 6 for instructions for disposal of ex­
tremely hazardous (waste) chemicals. (See
relevant legal citations in Appendix B.)
c. Assess which chemicals are not used and
should be disposed of.
d. Provide a cursory check of whether the
chemicals have deteriorated and are no
longer usable. (Most chemicals are affected
very little by age; however, some oxidize,
others either collect or lose moisture, and still
others become more hazardous.) Loose or
rusted caps may provide a basis for a closer
look.
e. Relabel items when labels become obscure.
Identify any chemicals whose labels are
missing. All hazardous chemical waste must
be identified before disposal.
Although all the preceding purposes are important
and must be dealt with, it is best to complete the
inventory first and then carry out the steps for the
collection, storage, and disposal of waste. Finish by
reshelving the chemicals in compatible groups.
2. Preparation for the inventory. Follow the precau­
tions described below:
a. Use at least two persons (no students), for
safety purposes, to perform the inventory.
E. Steps for Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area
b. Allow sufficient uninterrupted time to
complete the task.
c. Be sure a telephone or other reliable means
of communication is available.
d. Wear proper protection (including goggles,
apron, and gloves) for the task.
e. Have safety items (e.g., fire extinguisher,
eyewash, spill kit, fume hood, fire blanket,
and half-mask respirator) available.
f. Have a flashlight and ladder available, if
necessary.
g. Be sure the room is properly ventilated.
h. Have a plastic broom, plastic dustpan, and
plastic receptacle available for cleanup.
i. Be prepared to encounter unknown sub­
stances.
j. Have alternate containers (bottles, cans,
resealable plastic bags) available in case you
discover a broken container.
k. Have replacement caps available.
l. Use a method of recording the inventory that
will allow you perpetually to maintain the
inventory.
m. Notify school and fire authorities and mainte­
nance personnel of the inventory undertak­
ing.
n. Plan how you will record the chemicals on a
substance-by-substance basis.
3. Methods of recording inventory. Some suggestions
are as follows:
a. Use a small pocket tape recorder and read
into it the chemical name, the concentration
or purity, the type of container, the size of the
container, and the approximate amount of
chemical in the container (e.g., “Ferric oxide,
practical, in a 500-gram plastic container,
about one-third full”). If you expect a clerk
or someone not familiar with chemicals to
transcribe the list, you might want to spell
the name of each substance.
b. Use a computer software chemical inventory
system that contains such features as print­
outs for all chemicals used in the laboratory,
with their related hazard class; the location of
the chemical in the laboratory; the minimum
desirable amount to be maintained; and the
amount available at the site.
c. Start alphabetically. Write the name, type of
container, and quantity of each chemical in
35
storage; leave spaces to add hazard class,
future storage, disposal information, and so
forth. (See Appendix M for a sample chemi­
cal inventory.)
Step 4: Collection of Laboratory Residues
and Waste
1. Solids. Use the following procedures:
• Solid residues should be collected in stone
crocks or plastic containers, not in a waste­
basket.
• A separate container (with a hazardous waste
label) should be provided for any flammable
solid waste substance.
• Solid residues should not be put in sinks or
toilets. Plumbing problems can be avoided
by providing a screen or strainer for the drain
in each sink.
2. Liquids. Observe the following precautions:
• Pour flammable liquids into a safety can
labeled hazardous waste.
• Never flush flammable liquids into the
plumbing system. Dangerous explosions
might result from an accumulation of vapors.
Step 5: Temporary Storage and Eventual
Transportation of Hazardous Waste
One can assume that any secondary school has
chemicals that are included in the Cal/OSHA director’s
“Hazardous Substances List” (California Code of
Regulations, Title 8, Section 339, and California Code
of Regulations, Title 22, Section 66261.126). These
chemicals are found not only in the science department
but also in the art department, industrial arts depart­
ment, and custodial office. Your site generates hazard­
ous waste, and school officials must be prepared to
store and dispose of the waste appropriately.
Hazardous waste treatment and disposal practices.
Hazardous waste may not be disposed of in the regular
trash or on the surface of the ground. In addition, it
may not be dumped into the sewer system (sink or
toilet) unless you have an industrial waste discharge
permit from your sewer agency.
If you wish to dispose of, treat, or recycle your
hazardous waste to render it less hazardous or nonhaz­
ardous at your business location, you must obtain a
Hazardous Waste Facility permit from your regional
office of the Department of Toxic Substances Control
36
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
(see Appendix K and Health and Safety Code Section
25143.2).
To determine the kind and quantity of nonhazard­
ous chemicals (waste) that may legally be flushed
down sink drains, school officials should consult with
their county health department and regional water
quality control board and obtain approval from the
local publicly owned treatment facility. If the school
site is serviced by on-site sewage disposal fields, there
may be severe limitations on what may be flushed
down the drain. Check with the local department of
health services for advice.
In any case it will probably be necessary to store
some hazardous waste on site temporarily and have a
commercial hazardous waste transporter dispose of it.
These storage and disposal processes are likely to be
coordinated and enforced by your county department
of health services, which you should contact for
assistance, advice, and specific procedures.
Storage of hazardous waste. Waste storage prac­
tices are designed to minimize the seriousness of a
hazardous waste accident, should one occur. Although
most science departments do not generate more than
100 kilograms (220 pounds) of hazardous waste or 1
kilogram (2.2 pounds) of extremely hazardous waste
during any calendar month, a school campus might
collectively generate those amounts, considering the
waste generated by industrial arts, auto shop, and other
on-campus maintenance activities. Therefore, schools
should be aware that there is a 90-day storage limita­
tion for hazardous waste when a site has accumulated
the quantities noted above (Health and Safety Code
Section 25123.3b and California Code of Regulations,
Title 22, Section 66262.34).
Storage practices must include the following:
• Store hazardous waste in sturdy, nonleaking
containers (storage drums) with close-fitting lids,
which must be kept closed when waste is not being
added or removed. (Contact the appropriate school
district official or consult the yellow pages of the
telephone directory for sources of proper contain­
ers.)
• Handle the waste in containers and in a way that
minimizes the possibility of spills and escape of
waste into the environment. For example, waste
chemicals should remain in their shelf container
when placed in storage drums; the chemicals
themselves should be segregated for separate
handling and disposal.
• Label the containers accurately with waterproof
labels. Labels must specify the words Hazardous
Waste, the composition and physical state of the
waste, the hazardous properties of the waste
(e.g., flammable, reactive), and the name and
address of the generator.
• Include on each container the date on which the
period of accumulation began.
• Inspect the storage area weekly for deteriorating or
leaking containers (California Code of Regulations,
Title 22, sections 66265.170–66265.174).
• Store the drums no less than 15 meters (50 feet)
from property lines if the waste is ignitable or
reactive (California Code of Regulations, Title 22,
Section 66265.176).
Transportation of hazardous materials or waste.
The Health and Safety Code Section 25163(c) (see
Appendix B) states that a person hauling hazardous
waste to a permitted hazardous waste facility in
quantities not exceeding five gallons or 50 pounds
does not need to be registered with the California
Department of Toxic Substances Control as a hazard­
ous waste transporter if the person meets all the
following conditions:
(1) The hazardous wastes are transported in closed
containers and packed in a manner that prevents the
containers from tipping, spilling, or breaking during the
transporting.
(2) Different hazardous waste materials are not mixed
within a container during the transporting.
(3) If the hazardous waste is extremely hazardous waste
or acutely hazardous waste, the extremely hazardous
waste . . . was not generated in the course of any
business and is not more than 2.2 pounds.
(4) The person transporting the hazardous waste is the
producer of that hazardous waste, and the person
produces not more than 100 kilograms of hazardous
waste in any month.
(5) The person transporting the hazardous waste does
not accumulate more than a total of 1,000 kilograms of
hazardous waste on site at any one time.
Although passenger vehicles generally are exempt
from the requirements of posting placards and labeling
containers, trucks are not exempt and must comply
with the Department of Transportation’s regulations.
Anyone transporting hazardous materials should place
the materials as far away from themselves as possible.
Care should be taken to separate the chemicals accord­
ing to their compatibility. Absorbent packing materials
E. Steps for Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area
add an extra dimension of safety in case of accidental
spills.
Other avenues for disposing of hazardous waste
are as follows:
1. “Milkrun operations” for transporting hazardous
waste. Schools generating hazardous waste can
greatly reduce their pickup and disposal costs by
participating in “milkrun operations” (California
Code of Regulations, Title 22, Section 66263.42;
see Appendix B). This regulation allows registered
transporters to commingle waste “from any
number of generators.” Since much of the waste
handled in a milkrun operation is recyclable, the
cradle-to-grave liability will be minimized.
Schools should be aware of the following:
• In a milkrun operation the transporter com­
pletes both the generator’s and transporter’s
sections of the “Uniform Hazardous Waste
Manifest.”
• The generator is responsible for obtaining
(from the transporter) a receipt or shipping
paper, which must contain the information
listed in California Code of Regulations, Title
22, Section 66263.42(d)(3)(A–I) (see Appen­
dix B). The papers must be kept for three
years.
• The operator of the treatment, storage, or
disposal facility (TSDF) that receives and
processes the generated waste will send a
copy of the “Uniform Hazardous Waste
Manifest” to both the Department of Toxic
Substances Control and the transporter but
not to the generator.
• The generator must have an Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) identification
number. This number is needed to remove
hazardous waste legally from the site and to
process the “Uniform Hazardous Waste
Manifest.” You can apply for a number by
calling the Department of Toxic Substances
Control at (916) 324-1781; allow several
weeks for the issuance of your number.6
Some school districts have one number for
the whole district; in other districts each high
school has a number.
6
On applying for an EPA identification number, you will receive a
package from the Department of Toxic Substances Control called
“Notification of Hazardous Waste Activity.” If you need assistance in
completing the package, call (916) 324-1781. Most likely, your school
(unless new) already has an EPA number.
37
Some waste cannot be transported in milkrun
operations. If you have questions about whether
specific substances can be picked up in a milkrun,
see California Code of Regulations, Title 22,
Section 66263.42(a)(1–8) in Appendix B or
contact your regional office of the Department of
Toxic Substances Control (see Appendix K for
your nearest regional office). For laboratory
chemicals that are not transportable on milkruns,
the generator is required to use the “Uniform
Hazardous Waste Manifest” (California Code of
Regulations, Title 22, Section 66262.10 et seq.). A
sample “Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest” and
ordering information are included in Appendix B.
2. Use of a registered transporter of hazardous
waste. Hazardous waste exceeding 50 pounds
(22.5 kilograms) or 5 gallons (19 liters) must be
transported only by registered hazardous waste
transporters to a state-permitted treatment, storage,
or disposal facility. These transporters are regis­
tered by the Department of Toxic Substances
Control. Hazardous waste must be packed and
labeled for transport in accordance with applicable
Department of Transportation regulations (see
Appendix N).
Biennial reports. On March 1 of each evennumbered year, you will be required to submit a report
to the Department of Toxic Substances Control on
waste generated at your site during the previous oddnumbered year. Careful recordkeeping of all the
school-site manifests and receipts will be helpful in
completing the appropriate forms. For the past two
reporting years, generators of less than 1,000 kilo­
grams per month (1,200 kg/year) of waste have been
exempt from this process. Contact your regional office
of toxic substances control for more information. If
you have an EPA number, you will receive a report
request.
Once the equipment and details are in place for
waste storage and transportation, a complete chemicals
inventory should be made (see step 3).
Step 6: Disposal of Waste
Note the similarities of these procedures to those
for conducting a chemicals inventory (see step 3).
Therefore, it is often efficient to do both at the same
time.
In preparing waste for disposal, you should follow
these procedures:
38
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
1. Use at least two persons (no students) to perform
the procedures and thereby ensure safety.
2. Allow sufficient uninterrupted time to complete
the task.
3. Be clothed properly (including goggles, apron, and
gloves) for the task.
4. Have safety items (e.g., fire extinguisher, fire
blanket, eyewash, spill kit, and fume hood)
available.
5. Have a flashlight and ladder available, if neces­
sary.
6. Be sure that the room is properly ventilated.
7. Have a plastic broom, plastic dustpan, and plastic
receptacle available for cleanup.
8. Be prepared to handle unknown substances if they
are encountered.
9. Have alternate containers (bottles, cans, resealable
plastic bags) available in case you discover a
broken container.
10. Have replacement caps available.
11. Notify school authorities and maintenance person­
nel of the reshelving to be undertaken.
12. Adapt plastic water bottles for solid residue
disposal by cutting off the top of the bottle and
punching small drain holes in the bottom. Place
the container in the sink for the disposal of solids.
Only small amounts of nonregulated, nonflam­
mable, water-miscible liquids may go down the
drain. Check with your local public works depart­
ment or sanitation district (Water Quality Control
Division) for specified limitations on disposable
items.
13. Dispose of small quantities of nonregulated,
nonflammable, water-miscible liquid residues by
pouring them down the sink drain and using large
amounts of water to dilute and flush the material
through the plumbing system. Do not pour acids
into a porcelain-lined sink. If corrosive, caustic,
poisonous, or other controlled liquids need to be
discarded, consult with the appropriate school
district staff member.
14. Discard nonflammable solid waste and broken
glassware in a container separate from the trash
container. Either of those kinds of waste sub­
stances can present a serious hazard to custodial
employees during collection and disposal. Broken
glassware should be wrapped in heavy paper,
taped, and properly labeled DANGER. BROKEN
GLASS.
15. Arrange for emergency communications should a
serious problem occur, such as a spill or a fire.
16. Have space available in which to place the materi­
als temporarily.
17. Do as much preliminary housekeeping as possible
to avoid physical obstacles that could lead to
accidents.
18. Eliminate all sources of ignition.
19. Identify and label shelves or cabinet spaces for
each category if reshelving.
20. Have the right information and labels to do the job
if you plan to label each item by its hazard class.
21. Plan how you will accommodate (or dispose of)
the many bottles of solutions prepared and stored
during recent years.
Disposal of extremely hazardous chemicals. The
most serious potential explosives should have been
disposed of in step 2. However, there are additional
chemicals whose potential hazards outweigh any
benefit they may provide to the instructional program.
None of the chemicals shown in the list in Table 2
should be stored in schools; if any are present, they
should be properly disposed of (the hazard class is
included in the list for disposal purposes). In addition,
all schools that use, handle, or store carcinogenic
chemicals (whether stored from the past or used at
present) should be registered with Cal/OSHA (see
Appendix O for a “Report of Use” form).
Special permits are no longer required for the
storage, treatment, transportation, or disposal of
extremely hazardous waste. Such waste is subject to
the same requirements as those for hazardous waste.
However, producers and transporters of extremely
hazardous waste are required to notify and to send a
tax return to the state Board of Equalization each year.
An annual fee is to be paid on receipt of a billing from
the board (see Appendix B, Health and Safety Code
sections 25153 and 25205.7[o]). To acquire a reporting
form and tax return, write or call the Environmental
Fees Division, P.O. Box 942879, MIC: 57, Sacra­
mento, CA 94279-0001; telephone (916) 322-9534.
Disposal of excess and deteriorated chemicals.
Once the extremely hazardous chemicals have been
disposed of, an assessment must be made about the
remaining inventory to determine which portion will
be used during the next year (or at most, two years).
The remainder should be appropriately disposed of.
The process of determining which chemicals to keep
should involve all staff members who draw from the
39
TABLE 2
Extremely Hazardous Chemicals for Prompt Disposal
Chemical Name
2-Acetylaminofluorine
Acrylamide (neuro toxin)
4-Aminodiphenyl
Aniline
Arsenic Powder
Arsenic Trioxide
Asbestos
Benzene
Benzidene
Beryllium
Beryllium Compounds
Cadmium Powder
Cadmium Salts
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chloroform
Chromium (VI) Oxide and
all hexavalent chromium
compounds
Cobalt
Cobalt II Oxide
p-Dichlorobenzene
3,3-Dichlorobenzidine
and salts
4 Dimethylaminoazobenzene
Ethylene Dichloride
(1,2 Dichloroethane)
Formaldehyde
Hydrazine (anhydrous)
Hydrofluoric Acid
Lead Acetate
Lead Arsenate
Methylchloromethyl Ether
4-4' Methylene Bis
(2-Chloroaniline)
Methylene Chloride
(Dichloromethane)
Alpha Naphthylamine
Beta Naphthylamine
Nickel Powder
Nickel Compounds
4-Nitrobiphenyl
Beta Propiolactone
Sodium Arsenate
Sodium Arsenite
Vinyl Chloride
NTP
Anticipated
Anticipated
Known
IARC
California
H and W
Hazard
Class (DOT)
CAS
Number
Known
Known
Known
Known
Known
Anticipated
Anticipated
Anticipated
Anticipated
Anticipated
Anticipated
Known
2A
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2B
2B
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Not listed
Keep away from food/Poison 6.1
Keep away from food/Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Misc. hazard 9
Flammable liquid 3
Poison 6.1
53-96-3
79-06-1
92-67-1
62-53-3
7440-38-2
1327-53-3
1332-21-4
71-43-2
53 1851, 53 1862
7440-41-7
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Oxidizer corrosive 5.1
7440-43-9
56-23-5
67-66-3
1333-82-0
Anticipated
Anticipated
2B
2B
2B
2B
X
X
X
X
Keep away from food/Poison 6.1
Not listed
7440-48-4
1307-96-6
106-46-7
91-94-1
Anticipated
2B
X
Not listed
60-11-7
Anticipated
2B
X
Flammable liquid/Poison 3
107-06-2
Anticipated
Anticipated
2A
2B
X
X
50-00-0
302-01-2
Anticipated
Known
Known
Anticipated
2B
1
1
2A
X
X
X
X
Misc. hazard 9
Flammable liquid/corrosive/
Poison 3
Corrosive material/Poison 8
Keep away from food/Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Not listed
Poison 6.1
Anticipated
2B
X
Keep away from food/Poison 6.1
75-09-2
3
1
2B
1
3
2B
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Metal
Metals
Not listed
Not listed
Poison 6.1
Poison 6.1
Flammable gas 2.1
134-32-7
91-59-8
7440-02-0
Known
Anticipated
Anticipated
Anticipated
Known
Known
Known
7664-39-3
301-04-2
7784-40-9
107-30-2
101-14-4
92-93-3
57-57-8
7631-89-2
7784-46-5
75-01-4
Continued on next page
39
40
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
TABLE 2 (Continued)
Notes on Classification of Carcinogens
The carcinogenicity findings depicted in Table 2 were
derived by three agencies, each using somewhat different
criteria with which to classify chemicals. The agencies
and classifications unique to each agency are identified
below:
National Toxicology Program (NTP)
“Known” carcinogen: substance for which there is
evidence (from human studies) indicating a causal
relationship between exposure to the substance and
human cancer
“Anticipated” carcinogen: substance for which there is
limited evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans or
sufficient evidence of its carcinogenicity in experi­
mental animals
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC)
Group 1: agent that is carcinogenic to humans; used only
when there is sufficient evidence of its carcinogenic­
ity in humans
Group 2A: agent that is probably carcinogenic to humans;
used when there is limited evidence of its carcinoge­
nicity in humans and sufficient evidence of its
carcinogenicity in experimental animals
Group 2B: agent that is possibly carcinogenic to humans;
used either when there is limited evidence of its
carcinogenicity in humans but an absence of suffi­
cient evidence of such in experimental animals or
when there is inadequate or nonexistent evidence of
storage area for the instructional program. When the
decision is made about what to keep, the remainder
can be disposed of by a commercial disposal service
(see step 5).
Step 7: Storage Patterns
A number of safe storage patterns for hazardous
chemicals have been developed and used in schools,
colleges, and universities. The chemicals are some­
times arranged alphabetically and often by compatibil­
ity (or incompatibility) of the chemicals. Although
some patterns are better than others, none seems to be
completely acceptable without making special provi­
sions for certain chemicals that must be isolated for
safety. The common alphabetical shelving pattern must
be abandoned in favor of one, for example, that
separates the oxidizers from metals and separates the
flammables, the corrosives, and the poisons.
the agent’s carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient
evidence of such in experimental animals
Group 3: agent that is not classifiable about its carcinoge­
nicity in humans (Agents are placed in this group
when they do not fall into any other group.)
Group 4: agent that is probably not carcinogenic to
humans; used when the evidence suggests its lack of
carcinogenicity in both humans and experimental
animals
California Health and Welfare Agency (California H
and W)
An X marked in this column denotes a substance
whose characteristics match one or more of the following
criteria: (1) the substance has been shown through
scientifically valid testing to cause cancer or reproductive
toxicity; (2) an authoritative body, such as the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Food and Drug
Administration, IARC, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), or NTP, has identified the
substance as causing cancer or reproductive toxicity; or
(3) a state or federal agency has required the substance to
be identified as causing cancer or reproductive toxicity.
(See California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Section
12000, Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act
of 1986, Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer
or Reproductive Toxicity).
If any of the chemicals in Table 2 are found in your
school laboratory, they should be removed from the
premises promptly by following the procedures specified in
this handbook.
A single safe and practical storage compatibility
system must be agreed on and used by all site staff. A
mix of systems on one site could prove very danger­
ous. A system suggested for use in all California
secondary schools is described below, with the ten
recommended storage compatibility groups noted in
the accompanying box. In the recommendations that
follow, special consideration has been given to sepa­
rating and isolating chemicals and preventing their
commingling should a serious disaster occur, such as a
major earthquake or fire. This system also considers
the hazard classes established in the Code of Federal
Regulations, Title 49 (Transportation).
All storage shelves and cupboards should be fixed
rigidly to the walls and be equipped with restraining
lips, wires, or other barriers. Storage of chemicals
within or near the main chemicals storage area should
be selected on the basis of described needs (see
E. Steps for Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area
diagram on page 44). The storage locations may be
lockable cupboards, under-the-counter cabinets, or
especially constructed (or purchased) cabinets, such as
the cabinets for acids, bases, and flammables. Each
cabinet chosen should be clearly and permanently (or
at least semipermanently) marked for its designated
storage purpose. As much as possible, keep the chemi­
cals in any special storage containers used by the
supplier in storing and shipping.
Chemicals should be stored only in approved,
locked cabinets within designated science storage
rooms. Such storage rooms must be well ventilated
and dry and must have adequate protection from direct
sunlight. Lighting should be adequate. All cabinets
should be locked when not in use, and the storage
room should be kept locked. The instructor should be
the only person with free access to the storage room.
No student should be permitted in the storage room
unless accompanied and supervised by the instructor.
Recommendations for the safe storage of chemi­
cals are as follows:
1. Chemical substances must be stored in an orderly
manner. All substances must be properly labeled,
and an efficient retrieval scheme must be available
to locate the chemicals. Alphabetical order is not
appropriate except within compatible groups.
Instead, refer to the recommended storage compat­
ibility categories in the box on page 42.
2. Properly labeled safety containers must be used to
store liquids that are highly volatile, potentially
explosive, or flammable. Local fire departments
should be consulted about minimum quantities for
which safety containers are required. If possible,
41
highly corrosive chemicals, such as inorganic
acids and bases, should be stored in separate
corrosives storage cabinets, which are:
• Constructed of dense one-inch plywood and
contain no uncoated metal hinges or locks
(Hinges and locks fabricated from wood or an
appropriate plastic material are preferred.)
• Fabricated to ensure that shelf supports will
not corrode and allow shelves to collapse
• Provided with a recess or pan on the floor
that will collect corrosives and not suffer
damage
• Constructed in compliance with local safety
requirements
• Equipped with self-closing doors, with locks,
and painted with an intumescent fire-resistant
paint
• Marked in large, contrasting letters CORRO­
SIVES, ACID, or other appropriate inscrip­
tion
3. Flammable liquids should never be stored in open
or ordinary metal cabinets. Ordinary metal cabi­
nets provide no insulation from heat and will
produce more shrapnel if an explosion occurs.
Cabinets approved for flammable liquids should
be constructed of dense one-inch plywood with a
recess or pan on the floor to collect spills. The
cabinets should be painted with intumescent- or
fire-resistant paint; have a self-closing door, a
positive latch, and locks; and be clearly marked in
large contrasting letters FLAMMABLE. KEEP
FIRE AWAY! Verify that cabinets are in compli­
ance with local safety requirements.
4. Spacing between containers must be adequate to
ensure proper air circulation and the safe retrieval
of chemicals. Therefore, do not overorder.
5. Extremely hazardous, unlabeled, or unidentifiable
chemicals must not be kept in schools. Follow
recommended procedures for the disposal of
dangerous, unwanted, or outdated chemicals.
6. Periodic on-site inspections of chemical storage
cabinets must be conducted. (See Appendix H,
“Safety Checklist for Science Instruction, Prepara­
tion, and Storage Areas.”)
7. An updated inventory list must be maintained for
all chemical substances.
8. Bottles containing acids or volatile organic liquids
should be kept away from heating pipes or direct
sunlight to avoid pressure buildup within the
storage vessel.
42
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
Chemical Storage Compatibility Categories
1. Metals. All metals except mercury (see item 8).
Phosphorus (red only; white or yellow phospho­
rus not recommended for school usage) should
also be stored here. Flammable solids should be
stored in the flammables cabinet. Location: Keep
separate from oxidizers (including ammonium
nitrate), halogens, organic compounds, and
moisture.
2. Oxidizers. All except ammonium nitrate.
Includes nitrates, nitrites, permanganates, chlor­
ates, perchlorates, peroxides, and hydrogen
peroxide 30 percent or greater. Location: Keep
separate from metals, acids, organic materials,
and ammonium nitrate. Preferably, isolate
oxidizers from the flammable liquids storage
cabinet by a minimum of eight meters (25 feet)
or by a one-hour fire wall.
3. Ammonium nitrate. Store in isolation from all
other chemicals, especially acids, powdered
metals, flammable liquids, chlorates, nitrites,
sulfur, and finely divided organic combustible
materials.
4. Bases. Strong bases—sodium hydroxide, potas­
sium hydroxide, and other regulated bases—and
ammonium hydroxide. Store in a dedicated
corrosive chemicals storage cabinet that has an
interior constructed entirely of corrosion-resistant
materials.
5. Acids. Inorganic (except nitric acid) and regu­
lated organic acids. Store in a dedicated corrosive
chemicals storage cabinet that has an interior
9. Bottled gas cylinders should be secured to a wall
or counter to prevent upsetting the cylinders. The
rupture or unintentional opening of the release
valve may cause serious personal injury and
destruction of laboratory facilities, especially if the
cylinder is not secured and becomes a projectile.
10. Larger gas cylinders must be kept in the cart
provided for their transport. Valves should be in
perfect working order. When not in use, each
cylinder must be secured against movement; that
is, each must be held by a sturdy chain or strap
connected to ring bolts that will not pull free. The
cylinders must be located within an approved
storage area. Move large gas cylinders only when
constructed entirely of corrosion-resistant
materials.
6. Nitric acid. Must be stored separately from
acetic acid. Store either in an isolated compart­
ment in the acids cabinet or in special Styrofoam
containers available for that purpose from
vendors of chemicals. Fuming nitric acid should
never be used.
7. Flammables. Store in a dedicated flammables
storage cabinet painted with heat/flame-resistant
paint. Preferably, isolate flammables from all
oxidizers by a minimum of eight meters (25 feet)
or by a one-hour fire wall.
8. Poisons. Cyanides (no longer recommended for
school programs), mercury and mercury com­
pounds, nicotine, and other poisons. Location:
Use a lockable drawer remote from the acids
storage cabinet.
9. Compressed gases. Cylinders must be chained
or strapped to the wall, with caps on tight.
Location: (a) Keep oxidizing gases remote from
flammable liquids, metals, and flammable gases;
(b) keep flammable gases remote from oxidizers
and oxidizing gases by a distance of eight meters
(25 feet) or by a one-hour fire wall.
10. Low-hazard chemicals. Many of the salts not
otherwise specified (of course, not the nitrates),
weak bases, oxides, carbonates, sulfides, dyes,
indicators, stains, noncorrosive organic acids,
amino acids, sugars, and so forth. Store on open
shelves that have earthquake barriers.
regulator valves have been removed and safety
covers have been installed.
A relatively safe and practical pattern for storage
of chemicals is one that has separate storage provi­
sions for different categories of chemicals (see dia­
gram on page 44).
F
Labeling of Chemical Reagents
Whenever feasible, store chemicals in the contain­
ers in which they were received and retain the vendors’
labels. Labels on prepared chemical reagent bottles or
G. Potentially Hazardous Chemicals
containers should display the following information
(see also Table 3):
1. Generic name of the chemical and its chemical
formula
2. Degree of hazard, as designated by the appropriate
signal word:
• DANGER
• WARNING
• CAUTION
3. Type of hazard(s), such as the following:
• Poison
• Causes burns
• Flammable
• Harmful vapors
• Explosive
• Toxic
• Corrosive
4. Date of receipt or preparation
5. Precautionary measures, such as the following
instructions on how to avoid injury:
• Keep away from heat, sparks, or open flame.
• Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing.
• Use only with adequate ventilation.
6. Instructions in the event of ingestion, contact, or
exposure
43
Table 3. Chemicals of dubious value because of
associated hazards are marked with a single asterisk.
Chemicals marked with a triangle are known by the
state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. District
staff are advised to make their own decisions about the
acquisition and use of laboratory chemicals. If an
especially hazardous chemical is deemed essential to
the program, school staff must assume the correspond­
ing responsibility to ensure safe storage and use of the
chemical. When in doubt, school staff should contact
district staff or other appropriate agencies.
In Table 3 the National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) symbols are provided under the chemical
name where applicable. The diamond-shaped diagram
(see example below) gives, at a glance, the inherent
hazards of the chemical and the order of severity of
those hazards under emergency conditions, such as
spills, leaks, or fires. The information can be espe­
cially useful to firefighters and safety personnel in
emergency situations. The diagram is not intended to
identify the nonemergency health hazards of chemi­
cals.
Flammability
Red
Blue
Yellow
Health
Reactivity
The example shown here addresses each of the
labeling requirements. Proper labels can be obtained
from most chemical or safety supply houses.
IN CASE OF CONTACT WITH EYES, FLUSH
WITH WATER CONTINUOUSLY FOR 15
MINUTES AND GET MEDICAL ATTENTION
IMMEDIATELY.
HCl, Hydrochloric Acid
WARNING:
• Causes burns.
• Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid
breathing vapor.
• In case of contact, immediately flush skin or
eyes with large amounts of water for at least
15 minutes. For eyes, get immediate medical
attention.
G
Potentially Hazardous Chemicals
Many potentially hazardous chemicals found in
school science laboratories are included in the list in
1
0
2
W
Magnesium
The diagram identifies the health, flammability,
and reactivity hazards of a chemical (reactivity here
refers to the instability and water reactivity of a
chemical that is likely to explode or burn, not to the
corrosive or reactive nature of a chemical) and indi­
cates the order of severity of each hazard by using one
of five numeral gradings, ranging from four (severe
hazard or extreme danger) to zero (no special hazard).
In the diamond-shaped diagram the health hazard is
identified on the left, flammability at the top, and
reactivity on the right.
44
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
Preparation/Storage Area Diagram
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9A.
9B.
10.
11.
11A.
11B.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21–24.
25.
The bottom space is used primarily to identify
unusual reactivity with water. A W with a line through
its center, W, indicates a possible hazard in the use of
water. Oxidizing chemicals are identified by OXY or
OX, and a radiation hazard by this symbol:
Colored backgrounds or colored numbers usually
supplement the spatial arrangement to identify the
hazard categories: blue denotes health; red, flammabil­
ity; and yellow, reactivity. (Because of fiscal limita­
tions, the color code is not used in this handbook.)
Metals storage
Oxidizers storage
Ammonium nitrate storage
Bases cabinet
Acids cabinet
Isolated nitric acid storage
Flammables cabinet
Poisons drawer
Compressed gases—nonflammable/
oxidizing; chained/strapped to a wall
Compressed gases—flammable; chained/
strapped to a wall
Low-hazard chemicals storage with earth­
quake lips; secured to walls
Sink/counter with hot/cold water, gas,
electricity, exhaust hood, cabinet underneath
Refrigerator
Emergency shower and eyewash station
First-aid kit
ABC fire extinguisher
Fire blanket
Plastic waste receptacles
Chemical spill kit
Chemical inventory system, including
MSDS
Conference/prep area
Emergency evacuation procedure
Apparatus/glassware storage cabinets with
earthquake lips; secured to walls
Adjacent classroom laboratories
Hall or outside exit; all doors self-closing
and lockable
The following is a brief summary of the meanings
of the numbers in each hazard category and the
precautions necessary in a hazardous situation:
Health (blue)
4—A few whiffs of the gas or vapor could cause death.
Usually, the wearing of special protective clothing
and equipment is required. Examples in this
category are hydrogen cyanide and bromine.
3—Materials are extremely hazardous to health. In a
hazardous situation persons must wear full protec­
tive clothing and breathing apparatus before
entering areas holding these materials. Examples
in this category are hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide.
2—Materials are hazardous to health, but areas may be
entered freely by persons using self-contained
G. Potentially Hazardous Chemicals
breathing apparatus. An example in this category
is ethyl ether.
1—Materials are only slightly hazardous to health.
Self-contained breathing apparatus may be desir­
able. An example in this category is acetone.
0—No health hazard is present, beyond that of ordi­
nary combustible material.
Flammability (red)
4—This number is used for extremely flammable
gases; volatile flammable liquids; and materials
that, in the form of dusts or mists, readily form
explosive mixtures when dispersed in air. An
example is propane.
3—This category indicates liquids that can be ignited
under almost all normal temperature conditions;
solids that form coarse dusts; solids in shredded or
fibrous form that create flash fires; solids that burn
rapidly, usually because they contain their own
oxygen; and any material that ignites spontane­
ously at normal temperatures in air. Examples are
acetone and methanol.
2—Liquids must be moderately heated before ignition
will occur; solids readily give off flammable
vapors. An example is kerosene.
1—Materials must be preheated before ignition can
occur. Most combustible solids have a flammabil­
ity rating of 1. Examples are sulfur and magne­
sium ribbon.
0—Materials will not burn.
Reactivity (yellow)
4—Materials are readily capable of detonation or
explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at
normal temperatures and pressures or are sensitive
to mechanical or localized thermal shock. An
example is picric acid (dry).
3—Materials are capable of detonation or explosive
decomposition or explosive reaction but require a
strong initiating source or must be heated under
confinement before initiation. Materials are
sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at
elevated temperatures and pressures or react
explosively with water. An example is ammonium
nitrate.
2—Materials are normally unstable and readily
undergo violent chemical change but do not
detonate. Materials can undergo chemical change
45
with rapid release of energy at normal tempera­
tures and pressures and undergo violent chemical
change at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Materials react violently with water or may form
potentially explosive mixtures with water. Ex­
amples are sodium peroxide and sodium metal.
1—Materials are normally stable but may become
unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures or
may react with water to release some energy,
although not violently. Examples are zinc metal
and red phosphorous.
0—Materials are normally stable, even under fireexposure conditions, and are not reactive with
water.
Table 3 also provides (1) specific labeling infor­
mation from OSHA, if necessary, for each chemical on
the list (when possible, retain vendor’s labels); (2) a
four-part storage-related code; (3) the potential hazards
of the chemical; and (4) advice on first aid. The key to
the four-part storage-related code is as follows, using
the code for acetone (7/2S/2/FLAMMABLE) as an
example:
7a/2Sb/2c/FLAMMABLEd
a
Chemical storage compatibility category (See chart
on page 42.)
b
Suggested type of container (When possible,
maintain the original container and packaging from
the vendor for storage):
1. Glass or polyethylene bottle. W=store under
water, surrounded by sand, in a large con­
tainer; KM=store under kerosene or mineral
oil, surrounded by sand, in a larger container
2. Metal can. S=safety can for larger quantities
3. Wax (or plastic) bottle in a container of
kaolin or other absorbent material
c
Shelf life
1. Poor—less than one year with special storage
2. Fair to good—up to three years, varies with
temperature, humidity, and so forth
3. Excellent/indefinite—essentially indefinite in
time and invariant in terms of conditions
d
Hazard class from Code of Federal Regulations,
Title 49 (Transportation). Provides Department of
Transportation (DOT) class/compatibility for
commercial disposal. See Appendix N for an
explanation of the terms used.
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Acetic Acid (glacial)
2
2
1
Acetone
3
0
1
TABLE 3
Hazardous
Chemicals Reference
Table
Label
Hazard
Label
Hazard
First Aid
First Aid
DANGER! Corrosive. Causes
severe burns.
Do not get liquid or vapor in
eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
Keep away from heat and
flame.
In case of contact, immediately
flush skin or eyes with plenty
of water for at least 15
minutes; for eyes get medical
attention.
Glacial acetic acid freezes at
62°F (17°C). Store at
temperatures above 62°F
(17°C).
If frozen, thaw by carefully
moving carboy to warm area.
5/1/3/CORROSIVE 8
Corrosive.
Organic acid causes painful
wounds when it comes in
contact with skin.
Toxic by ingestion.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes. Wash
skin with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Give water to dilute.
Do not give emetic.
DANGER! Extremely
flammable.
Keep away from heat, sparks,
and open flame.
Keep container closed.
Use adequate ventilation.
Avoid prolonged or repeated
contact with skin.
Highly flammable liquid. An
irritant to skin, throat, and
lungs. Toxic by ingestion.
External—Remove victim to
fresh air. Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with soap
and water.
Internal—Maintain respiration. Seek immediate medical attention.
Reacts violently with water to
generate heat and hydrogen
chloride gas fumes and
hydrochloric acid, which
are irritating and toxic.
Causes burns to skin and
eyes. Dust inhalation will
irritate or burn membranes.
Ingestion can cause severe
burns. Dispose of as
extremely hazardous waste.
External—Irrigate eyes and
skin with water for 15
minutes.
Internal—Do not give emetic.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Emits toxic fumes
when heated to
decomposition.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Internal—Soluble forms may
be corrosive; do not give
emetic. Seek immediate
medical attention.
7/2S/2/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Aluminum Chloride
(anhydrous)
3
0
Corrosive. Store in a dry, cool
area.
2
W
5/1/1/CORROSIVE 8
Aluminum Chloride
(crystal)
10/1/3/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
46
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Aluminum Metal
0
1
Label
Hazard
Dangerous when wet.
Easily ignited. May
explode. Can have
hazardous reactions with
metal oxides.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
No reaction with water.
Readily hydrolyzes to
form sulfuric acid. Dust/
vapor may be harmful if
inhaled. Ingestion in large
doses causes gastric
irritation, nausea,
vomiting. May corrode
metals in presence of
moisture.
External—Irrigate exposed
eyes and skin thoroughly
for 15 minutes.
Internal—Do not give
emetic. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Evolves irritating fumes
when heated.
External—Irrigate exposed
eyes with water for 15
minutes. Seek medical
attention.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. Seek medical
attention.
Internal—Do not give
emetic. Seek medical
attention.
Moderately toxic by
ingestion. Fire may
produce irritating or
poisonous gas. Reacts
violently with water. May
spontaneously decompose.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Corrosive.
Caustic inorganic base;
gas and vapor toxic;
strong eye, lung, and
skin irritant. Edema of
mucous membranes and
lungs results from
inhalation of high
concentrations of gas.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water for 15
minutes. Wash skin with
soap and water. In the
event of spillage,
neutralize with vinegar
or dilute acetic acid.
Internal—Do not use
emetics. Give water to
dilute. Remove to fresh
air. Seek immediate
medical attention.
1
1/2/3/FLAMMABLE
(powder) 4.3
Aluminum Sulfate
10/1/3/Not regulated
Ammonium Carbonate
10/1/3/Not regulated
Ammonium Chloride
1
0
0
2
0
0
10/1/1/Not regulated
Nonfire
First Aid
Fire
Ammonium Hydroxide
WARNING! Corrosive.
Liquid causes burns.
Vapor extremely irritating.
Avoid breathing vapor.
Avoid contact with skin,
eyes, and clothing. In case
of contact, immediately
flush skin or eyes with
plenty of water for at least
15 minutes; for eyes, get
medical attention.
4/1/3/CORROSIVE 8
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
47
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Ammonium Nitrate
0
0
2
3
Label
Hazard
Oxidizer.
Will decompose above
160°C (320°F).
It produces explosive gas­
eous substances, espe­
cially when confined in a
closed container. Oxidizer.
Toxic by ingestion, inhala­
tion, and skin contact. Eye
and respiratory irritant.
If exposed to products of
combustion, seek immedi­
ate medical attention.
External—Irrigate eyes and
skin for 15 minutes; for
eyes, contact doctor.
Internal—If conscious,
induce vomiting; seek
immediate medical
attention.
Strong oxidizer.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
DANGER! Hazardous
liquid and vapor.
Rapidly absorbed through
skin.
Do not get in eyes, on skin,
or on clothing.
Use only with adequate
ventilation.
Dispose of immediately.
(See Table 2.)
Dispose of /1/1/POISON 6.1
Suspected teratogen.
Dangerous when inhaled,
swallowed, or absorbed
through skin contact.
Flammable. May give off
explosive vapors when
heated.
External—Wash off skin
promptly. Flush eyes with
water for 20 minutes. In
case of spill, promptly
discard materials used to
wipe up spills.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
DANGER! Causes severe
burns.
Vapor hazardous.
Do not get in eyes, on skin,
or on clothing.
Do not breathe dust, mist,
fumes, or vapor.
Keep container closed.
In case of contact, immedi­
ately remove all contami­
nated clothing and flush
skin or eyes with plenty of
water for at least 15 min­
utes; for eyes, get medical
attention. Wash clothing
before reuse.
Highly toxic; a poison if
swallowed, inhaled, or
absorbed through the
skin. Dust is eye
irritant.
Animal lung carcinogen.
Incompatible with
aluminum and acidicreducing agents.
External—Wash eyes with
water. Wash skin with soap
and water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Maintain respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
0
3
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
3/1/2/OXIDIZER 5.1
Ammonium Persulfate
Oxidizer.
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
▲Aniline
3
*Antimony
2
0
First Aid
1/1/3/KEEP AWAY FROM
FOOD
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
48
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Barium
(soluble compounds)
Label
Hazard
WARNING! May be fatal if
swallowed.
Avoid inhalation of dust.
Avoid contact.
POISON. Keep away from
food.
Extremely poisonous when
inhaled, swallowed, or
absorbed through skin
contact.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Extremely toxic; ingestion
can be fatal at
concentrations of less than
0.8 mg.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Toxic by ingestion.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Toxic by ingestion.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Flammable in powder form.
Wear goggles to avoid
injury to eyes.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes. Wash
skin with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek immediate
medical attention.
2/1/3/POISON 6.1
Barium Chloride
WARNING! May be fatal if
swallowed. Avoid
inhalation of dust.
POISON. Keep away from
food.
10/1/3/POISON 6.1
Barium Hydroxide
WARNING! May be fatal if
swallowed. Avoid
inhalation of dust.
POISON. Keep away from
food.
10/1/1/POISON 6.1
Barium Nitrate
0
0
0
1
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
0
WARNING! Oxidizer.
Contact with combustible
material may cause fire.
POISON.
May be fatal if swallowed.
Keep container closed and
away from combustible
material and heat.
Avoid contact with skin and
eyes.
Keep away from feed or
food products.
Sweep up and carefully
remove spilled material.
First Aid
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1/
POISON 6.1
Bismuth and alloys
1/1/3/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
49
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
Hazard
Boric Acid
Ingestion by young
children can cause severe
vomiting, diarrhea, shock,
and death.
Inhalation is toxic. Skin
irritant.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Poisonous. Liquid causes
severe skin burns.
Exposure to high vapor
concentrations could be
deadly.
Very strong oxidizer; reacts
violently with many
organic compounds; very
hazardous even in small
ampule.
Dispose of as extremely
hazardous waste.
External—Ventilate area.
Sodium thiosulfate
solution can be used as a
neutralizer. Irrigate eyes
with water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Flammable liquid.
Prolonged inhalation can
be toxic. Eye irritant.
Absorbed by skin.
Capable of forming
explosive hydroperoxides.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
5/1/3/Not regulated
*Bromine (ampule)
4
0
OXY
0
DANGER! POISON.
Corrosive. Causes severe
burns. Vapor hazardous.
Do not get in eyes, on skin,
or on clothing.
Do not breathe vapor.
Wear goggles, neoprene
rubber gloves, and rubber
protective clothing when
handling.
In case of contact,
immediately remove all
contaminated clothing,
including shoes, and flush
skin with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes.
Flush eyes for at least 30
minutes. Get medical
attention in all cases.
Wash clothing before reuse.
If inhaled, remove patient
to fresh air, keep warm
and quiet until physician
arrives.
First Aid
8(ampule) or 2/1/3/
CORROSIVE 8/POISON
6.1
Best stored as an ampule.
Butyl Alcohols:
n-Butyl
CAUTION! Flammable
liquid. Keep away from
heat and open flame.
Avoid prolonged breathing
of vapor.
Use with adequate
ventilation.
Avoid prolonged or
repeated contact with skin.
7/1 or 2S/1/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
50
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
tert-Butyl Alcohol
Label
Hazard
WARNING! Flammable
liquid. Keep away from
heat and open flame.
Keep container closed.
Use with adequate
ventilation. Avoid
prolonged breathing of
vapor.
Avoid prolonged or repeated
contact with skin.
First Aid
Flammable liquid; “tert” is
a flammable solid when in
crystalline state.
Prolonged inhalation can be
toxic. Eye irritant.
Absorbed by skin.
Capable of forming
explosive hydroperoxides.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Flammable liquid.
Prolonged inhalation can
be toxic. Eye irritant.
Absorbed by skin.
Capable of forming
explosive hydroperoxides.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Exposure to moisture
produces explosive
acetylene gas and
corrosive solid. Dispose
of as extremely
hazardous waste.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Acute ingestion may result
in intestinal irritation and
hemorrhage.
External—Wash with water.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Irritant. Mucous membrane
damage might occur.
External—Eyes should be
flushed with water for
15 minutes.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
7/1 or 2S/1/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
sec-Butyl Alcohol
CAUTION! Flammable
liquid. Keep away from
heat and open flame.
Avoid prolonged breathing
of vapor.
Use with adequate
ventilation.
Avoid prolonged or repeated
contact with skin.
7/1 or 2S/1/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
*Calcium Carbide
1
4
(Tightly sealed)
Dangerous when wet.
2
W
7/1 or 2/2/FLAMMABLE
SOLID 4.3
Calcium Chloride
(anhydrous)
10/1/1/Not regulated
Calcium Chloride
(dihydrate)
10/1/1/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
51
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
Hazard
Avoid inhalation and skin
contact. Use eye
protection.
Calcium Hydroxide
Inorganic base (caustic).
Skin irritant.
Avoid dust inhalation.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. If calcium
hydroxide comes into
contact with eyes, seek
immediate medical
attention. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Poisonous. Corrosive pow­
der. Harmful to eyes,
lungs, and skin.
Toxic by ingestion, inhala­
tion, and skin contact.
Oxidizer.
Fire risk in contact with
organic substances.
Emits chlorine gas under
certain conditions.
Dispose of as extremely
hazardous waste.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Contact with water, acids,
alkali, hydroxides, or
carbonates may cause
detonation. Burns in air.
Dust and fumes are
highly toxic. Dispose of
as extremely hazardous
waste.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water for 15
minutes. If calcium
contacts eyes, seek
immediate medical
attention. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Strong oxidizer; potential
fire risk with organic
material. May explode if
shocked or heated.
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
10/1/1/Not regulated
Oxidizer.
Calcium Hypochlorite
2/1/1/OXIDIZER 5.1
Avoid contact with water.
Store in tightly closed
container.
Avoid contact with
oxidizers.
Dangerous when wet.
Calcium Metal
1
1
2
W
7/1KM/2(in airtight
conditions)/
DANGEROUS WHEN
WET
Oxidizer.
Calcium Nitrate
0
0
0
1
2/1/1/OXIDIZER 5.1
0
First Aid
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
52
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Calcium Oxide (lime)
1
0
Label
Hazard
Corrosive.
Keep dry.
1
10/1 (polyethylene) keep
dry/1/CORROSIVE 8
Camphor
Flammable solid.
7/1/3/FLAMMABLE
SOLID 4.1
▲Cobalt Metal (powder)
Strongly caustic.
Dangerous when in contact
with organic materials.
May cause severe irritation
of skin and mucous
membrane.
Exposure to water or
moisture evolves heat.
Wear eye protection.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Poisonous on ingestion.
If heated, flammable and
explosive vapors evolve.
Moderately toxic.
Absorbed through skin.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Moderately toxic by
ingestion. Inhalation of
dust may cause pulmonary
damage. Ingestion of
soluble salts produces
nausea and vomiting by
local irritation. Powder
may cause dermatitis.
Powdered cobalt ignites
spontaneously in air;
flammable when exposed
to heat or flames.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for at least 15 min­
utes. Flush skin with
water. Remove contami­
nated clothing and shoes.
Internal—If inhaled, move
victim to fresh air. If
breathing has stopped,
begin artificial respiration.
If ingested, give large
amounts of water and
induce vomiting. If victim
is unconscious or having
convulsions, keep warm.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Moderately toxic by inges­
tion; causes pain, vomiting, diarrhea. Causes
blood damage. Contact
causes eye irritation and
may cause skin rash.
When heated to decomposition, emits toxic fumes of
chloride.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for at least 15 min­
utes. Flush skin with
water. Remove contami­
nated clothing and shoes.
Internal—If inhaled, move
victim to fresh air. If
breathing has stopped,
begin artificial respiration.
If ingested, give large
amounts of water and
induce vomiting. If victim
is unconscious or having
convulsions, keep warm.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
1/1/3/Not regulated.
Cobalt Chloride
(hexahydrate)
Hygroscopic; keep tightly
closed.
10/1/2/Not regulated
First Aid
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
53
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
Hazard
Cobalt Sulfate
Poisonous by intravenous
and intraperitoneal
routes. Moderately toxic
by ingestion—causes
nausea and vomiting.
Eye, skin, and
respiratory irritant.
Fine dust is flammable.
When heated to
decomposition, it emits
toxic fumes of sulfur
dioxide.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration; if breathing is
difficult, give oxygen.
Remove contaminated
clothing and shoes.
Internal—If swallowed and
victim is conscious, give
water and induce
vomiting. If victim is
unconscious or having
convulsions, do nothing
but keep victim warm.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Oxidizer. Fire risk in contact
with organic materials.
Poisonous by ingestion
and by intramuscular and
subcutaneous routes. An
experimental tumorigen.
Experimental reproductive
effects.
When heated to
decomposition, it emits
toxic fumes of nitric
oxide.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for at least 15 minutes. Flush skin with water.
Remove contaminated
clothing and shoes.
Internal—If inhaled and
breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. If swallowed
and victim is conscious,
give water and induce
vomiting. If victim is
unconscious or having
convulsions, do nothing
except keep victim warm.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Toxic by ingestion and
inhalation
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Maintain respiration.
Oxidizing material.
Dangerous in contact with
organic materials.
Moderately toxic.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with soap
and water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Maintain respiration.
10/1/3/Not regulated
Oxidizer.
Cobalt Nitrate
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
Cupric Chloride
Corrosive
10/1 or 2/1/CORROSIVE 8
Cupric Nitrate
0
0
0
Oxidizer.
1
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
2/1 or 2/1/OXIDIZER 5.1
First Aid
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
54
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
Hazard
Cupric Oxide
Toxic by ingestion.
Irritant to skin, eyes, and
mucous membrane.
Copper material may cause
allergic reaction.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Seek
immediate medical
attention. Maintain
respiration.
Toxic by ingestion.
Irritant to skin, eyes, and
mucous membrane.
Copper material may cause
allergic reaction.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Maintain respiration.
Flammable; vapor and
liquid harmful to eyes,
lungs, and skin.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Do not
induce vomiting. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
10/1 or 2/3/Not regulated
Cupric Sulfate
10/1 or 2/2/Not regulated
Cyclohexane
DANGER! Extremely
flammable liquid.
Keep away from heat,
sparks, and open flame.
Keep container closed.
Use with adequate
ventilation.
Avoid prolonged breathing
of vapor.
First Aid
7/1 or 2S/3/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
*Ethidium Bromide
Potent mutagen. Do not
breathe.
Solution is sensitive to light.
(See special use/handling
practices on page 25.)
Keep in original container in
locked cabinet.
May be harmful by inhala­
tion, ingestion, or skin
absorption.
Irritating to mucous
membranes, skin, and
upper respiratory tract.
Potent mutagen—will
damage human genetic
material.
Do not breathe dust.
Do not get in eyes, on skin
or clothing. Wash
contaminated clothing
before reuse. Use in a
chemical fume hood.
Toxic fumes under fire
conditions.
(See page 25.)
8/2/2/Not regulated
External—Immediately
flush eyes with copious
amounts of water for at
least 15 minutes. Wash
skin with soap and copious
amounts of water. Remove
contaminated clothing/
shoes immediately.
Internal—If inhaled, remove
to fresh air. Maintain
respiration; if breathing
difficult, give oxygen.
Keep person warm and at
rest. Seek immediate
medical attention.
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
55
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Ethyl Acetate
Label
Hazard
WARNING! Flammable.
Keep away from heat and
open flame. Keep
container closed.
Use with adequate
ventilation. Avoid
prolonged breathing of
vapor. Avoid prolonged or
repeated contact with skin.
First Aid
Fire hazard and explosion
risk.
Irritating to skin and eyes.
External—Remove victim
to fresh air. Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Poison. Vapor toxic.
Fire hazard.
Denatured alcohol may
cause blindness or death
if taken internally.
Reproductive toxin when
taken in alcoholic
beverages.
External—Wash affected
parts with copious
quantities of water.
Internal—Wash mouth. See
a physician.
Flammable, light-sensitive.
During storage most ethers
are subject to the
formation of ether
peroxides, which make
ether highly explosive. If
stored more than 12
months, dispose of by
calling bomb squad.
External—Ventilate area.
Irrigate eyes with water.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Skin and tissue irritant;
corrosive.
External—Irrigate eyes and
skin with water for 15
minutes. Seek medical
attention.
Internal—Give emetic, seek
medical attention.
7/1/2/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Ethyl Alcohol
Flammable liquid.
7/2 or 2S/3/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Ethyl Ether/Diethyl Ether
2
4
1
DANGER! Extremely
flammable liquid.
Highly volatile.
(See Table 1.)
Tends to form explosive
peroxides, especially when
anhydrous.
Keep away from heat, sparks,
and open flame.
Keep container tightly closed.
Do not allow to evaporate to
near dryness. Addition of
water or appropriate
reducing agents will lessen
peroxide formation.
Dispose of before 12 months
old.
7/2S or PVC-coated bottles/1/
FLAMMABLE LIQUID 3
Ferric Chloride
Corrosive.
10/1/1/CORROSIVE 8
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
56
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
0
Hazard
Oxidizer.
Ferric Nitrate
0
Label
1
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
0
2/1/1/OXIDIZER 5.1
Ferrous Sulfate
Strong oxidizer.
Contact with organic
material may cause fire.
Skin and tissue irritant.
Wash thoroughly after
handling.
Toxic by ingestion.
Internal—Give emetic
unless solution is very
acid. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Toxic compound.
Concentrated form is
unstable and subject to
explosion. Painful wounds
on contact with skin.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Flammable. May be
irritating to respiratory
tract and narcotic in high
concentrations.
Repeated overexposure to
n-hexane can cause
peripheral nerve damage.
External—Ventilate area.
Irrigate eyes with water
for 15 minutes. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
This chemical is dangerous
when inhaled, swallowed,
or absorbed through skin
contact. Corrosive
solution and fumes.
Warning—causes burns.
Dispose of as extremely
hazardous waste.
External—In case of
contact, immediately flush
skin or eyes with large
amounts of water for at
least 15 minutes; for eyes,
get medical attention
immediately.
Internal—If ingested, seek
immediate medical
attention.
Avoid contact with eyes.
Do not heat this substance.
External—Rinse with water
soon after contact.
10/1/1/Not regulated
Formic Acid
3
2
0
WARNING! Corrosive.
Causes burns.
Avoid contact with skin and
eyes.
Avoid breathing vapor.
In case of contact,
immediately flush skin or
eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes; for
eyes, get medical
attention.
First Aid
5/1/1/CORROSIVE 8
Hexane
Flammable liquid.
7/1 or 2S/3/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Hydrochloric Acid
3
0
0
WARNING! Causes burns.
Avoid contact with skin and
eyes.
Avoid breathing vapor.
In case of contact,
immediately flush skin or
eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes; for
eyes, get medical
attention.
5/1/2/CORROSIVE 8
Hydrogen Peroxide (3%)
10/1/1/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
57
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
*Hydrogen Peroxide
(35%)
Label
Hazard
CAUTION! Oxidizer.
Corrosive. Strong oxidant.
Avoid contact with skin and
eyes. Wear rubber gloves
and goggles.
Avoid contact with
combustible materials.
Drying of this concentrated
product on clothes or
other combustible
materials may cause fire.
In case of contact,
immediately flush with
plenty of water for at least
15 minutes; for eyes, get
medical attention.
Remove and wash
clothing at once.
Avoid contamination from
any source, including
metals, dust, etc. Such
contamination may cause
rapid decomposition,
generation of large
quantities of oxygen gas,
and high pressures.
Store in original, closed
container. Be sure that the
container vent is working
satisfactorily.
Do not add any other
product to this container.
When empty, rinse
thoroughly with clean
water.
First Aid
Strong oxidant; avoid
contact with combustible
materials. High
concentrations can cause
burns to the eyes, lungs,
and skin. Do not heat this
substance. Store in
original container.
External—Flush with water.
Use burn ointment. Seek
medical attention. Remove
and wash contaminated
clothing promptly and
thoroughly.
Inhalation of vapors or
ingestion may be fatal.
Vapor corrosive to eyes
and respiratory tract.
Solid stains the eyes and
skin. Stain is poisonous.
Reacts violently with
reducing materials, sulfur,
iron, alkali metals, metal
powders, and
phosphorous.
External—Remove iodine
stains by washing first
with a sodium thiosulfate
solution and then with
water. Flush eyes with
large amounts of water.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
2/1 vented cap or accordion
bottle/1/OXIDIZER 5.1/
CORROSIVE 8
Iodine
2/1/2/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
58
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Isobutyl Alcohol
Label
Hazard
Flammable liquid.
Flammable. Mildly irritating
to skin, eyes, and mucous
membranes.
Mildly toxic.
External—Rinse eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Flammable. Toxic by
ingestion and inhalation.
External—Eye irritant.
Irrigate eyes with water.
Internal—Seek medical
attention.
Flammable. Irritating to
skin. Can cause infection.
High concentrations of
vapors are toxic.
External—Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Do not give
emetics. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Toxic; poison is cumulative.
Dust very harmful to
kidneys, blood, and
nervous system.
Harms male and female
reproductive systems and
the developing fetus.
Known carcinogen.
External—Wash skin with
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Toxic by inhalation and
ingestion. Skin, eye, and
respiratory irritant.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin/eyes
with water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Toxic by inhalation and
ingestion.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek immedi­
ate medical attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin/eyes
with water. Seek immedi­
ate medical attention.
7/1 or 2S/3/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Isopropyl Alcohol
Flammable liquid.
7/1 or 2S/1/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Kerosene
Flammable liquid.
0
2
0
▲ Lead
7/1 or 2S/3/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Avoid breathing dust.
1/2/3/POISON/Not regulated
▲ Lead Carbonate
Avoid breathing dust.
10/1/3/Not regulated
▲ Lead Chloride
Avoid breathing dust.
10/1/3/Not regulated
First Aid
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
59
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
▲ Lead Nitrate
0
0
0
Label
Hazard
Oxidizer.
POISON.
1
0
Toxic by inhalation and
ingestion. Serious fire risk
in contact with organic
material.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin and
eyes with water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Toxic by ingestion and
inhalation.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin and
eyes with water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Toxic by inhalation and
ingestion. Dangerous fire
risk in contact with
organic material.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin and
eyes with water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Toxic; serious skin irritant.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek immedi­
ate medical attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin and
eyes with water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1/
POISON
▲ Lead Oxide
WARNING! Harmful dust.
Avoid breathing dust. Wear
dust mask approved by
U.S. Bureau of Mines for
this purpose. Wash
thoroughly before eating
or smoking.
Keep away from food or
food products.
10/1/3/Not regulated
▲ Lead Peroxide (dioxide)
Oxidizer. Avoid breathing
dust.
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
▲ Lead Sulfate
Corrosive.
Avoid breathing dust.
10/1/3/CORROSIVE 8
First Aid
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
60
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
▲ Lead Sulfide
Label
Hazard
Avoid breathing dust.
Toxic by ingestion and
inhalation.
Known carcinogen.
Reproductive toxin.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. If breathing has
stopped, give artificial
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
External—Irrigate skin and
eyes with water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Causes severe burns on
contact with skin, eyes, or
lungs. Ignites
spontaneously in moist air;
highly flammable.
Compounds toxic if
swallowed; avoid
inhalation of dust and skin
contact. Dispose of as
extremely hazardous
waste.
External—Flush with water.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Risk of explosion when
shocked or heated. Strong
oxidant.
Internal—Induce vomiting
unless patient is comatose
or convulsing or has lost
gag reflex.
Moderately toxic by
ingestion. Dusts may be
irritating. Overexposure
causes nausea and
vomiting.
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
Dangerous in powder form
because of fire potential.
Magnesium burns are
often severe and may be
slow to heal. Dispose of as
extremely hazardous
waste.
External—In case of burns,
seek immediate medical
attention.
10/1/3/Not regulated
Lithium
1
1
Dangerous water reactive;
explosion risk.
Use a class D fire
extinguisher.
Dangerous when wet.
2
W
1/1KM/3/FLAMMABLE
4.3
Lithium Nitrate
0
0
Oxidizer.
0
1
0
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
Magnesium Chloride
10/1/1/Not regulated
Magnesium Metal
(powder/ribbon)
0
1
W
First Aid
Flammable solid.
2
1/2/3/FLAMMABLE 4.1
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
61
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
0
0
1
Hazard
Oxidizer
Magnesium Nitrate
0
Label
0
0
2/1/1/OXIDIZER 5.1
First Aid
Strong oxidant. Fire and
explosion risk in contact
with organic material.
Skin, eye, and respiratory
tract irritant.
External, Internal,
Inhalation—Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Dust toxic by inhalation.
External, Internal,
Inhalation—Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Irritates eyes and respiratory
tract.
External—Flush eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air; seek medical attention.
Strong oxidizer, moderately
toxic. Avoid contact with
organic material
External—Wash skin with
soap and water.
Tissue irritant.
External—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
Same as mercury
compounds. Also is a fire
hazard with organic
compounds.
External—See treatment
under mercury metal.
Internal—Do not give
emetic if solution is acidic.
All are considered
poisonous and harmful by
swallowing, inhaling, or
absorbing through the
skin. Vapor, dust,
solutions, and solids are
all to be handled with
caution. Can cause
damage to kidneys and
nervous system.
Suspected teratogen.
Fire hazard with organic
materials. Dispose of as
extremely hazardous
waste.
External—See treatment
under mercury metal.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Fire
Nonfire
Magnesium Oxide
10/1/1/Not regulated
Magnesium Sulfate
(Epsom salts)
10/1/1/Not regulated
Manganese Dioxide
2/1/3/Not regulated
Manganous Sulfate
10/1/1/Not regulated
▲ Mercurous/Mercuric Nitrate
0
0
0
1
POISON.
0
0
W
W
Nonfire
Fire
▲ Mercury Compounds
2/1/1/POISON 6.1
DANGER! Highly toxic.
May be fatal if swallowed.
Do not breathe dust. Keep
away from feed or food
products. Wash thoroughly
after handling.
POISON
8/1/2/POISON 6.1
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
62
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
▲ Mercury Metal
Hazard
WARNING! Vapor harmful.
Avoid breathing vapor.
Corrosive.
(Keep only small quantities
in locked cabinet.)
Both vapor and liquid are
poisonous. Contact with
skin should be avoided
because absorption and
continuous exposure to
vapor can be harmful.
Suspected teratogen. Can
cause damage to kidneys
and nervous system.
Dispose of as extremely
hazardous waste.
External—No specific
treatment for mercury
poisoning except the
administering of chelating
agents to speed the
elimination of mercury
from the body. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Internal—Induce vomiting
unless person is comatose,
convulsing, or has lost gag
reflex.
Flammable; poisoning may
occur from ingestion,
inhalation, or absorption
through the skin. Can be
lethal. Can cause
blindness, metabolic
acidosis.
External—Ventilate area.
Irrigate eyes with water.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Internal—If swallowed, give
a teaspoon of salt in a glass
of warm water; repeat until
vomit fluid is clear. Give
two teaspoons of baking
soda in a glass of water.
Have patient lie down and
keep warm. Cover eyes to
exclude light. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Flammable. Dangerous
fire risk. Narcotic by
inhalation.
External—Wash with soap
and water and seek
medical attention.
Internal—Seek immediate
medical attention.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Known carcinogen.
Toxic as dust or fumes.
Dangerous fire risk.
External—Flush with water.
Irrigate eyes with water
for 15 minutes. Seek
medical attention.
Internal—Wash mouth.
Seek medical attention.
8/1/2/CORROSIVE 8
Methanol
1
3
DANGER! Flammable liquid.
POISON. Vapor harmful.
May be fatal if swallowed.
Cannot be made nonpoisonous.
0
7/1 (glass only) or 2S/2/
FLAMMABLE LIQUID 3
Methyl Cellulose
7/1/3(in solution)/Not regulated
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
WARNING! Flammable liquid.
Keep away from heat and open
flame.
Keep container closed; use with
adequate ventilation.
Avoid prolonged breathing of
vapor.
Avoid prolonged or repeated
contact with skin.
First Aid
7/1 or 2/2/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
▲ Nickel Nitrate
0
0
0
1
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
Oxidizer.
POISON.
Avoid body contact.
Avoid inhaling dust.
Avoid contact with organic
materials.
(See Table 2.)
Dispose of/1/1/OXIDIZER 5.1
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
63
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
▲ Nickel Powder
2
4
Label
Hazard
Keep away from skin, eyes,
and mucous membranes.
Keep away from acids and
oxidizing agents.
(See Table 2.)
0
Known carcinogen.
Toxic as dust or fumes.
Flammable as dust or
fumes.
External—Flush with water.
Irrigate eyes with water
for 15 minutes. Seek
medical attention.
Internal—Wash mouth.
Seek medical attention.
Toxic in contact with skin.
If swallowed, can be fatal.
Teratogen.
Handle only in salt form
when extracting from
tobacco.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Severe skin burns.
Tissue damage if
swallowed. Dental
erosion; nasal and lung
irritant.
External—Flush with water
for 15 minutes.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Dangerous when inhaled,
swallowed, or absorbed
through skin contact.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Dispose of/1/3/Not regulated
▲ Nicotine
POISON.
8/1/1/POISON 6.1
Nitric Acid
0
3
DANGER! Causes severe
burns. Do not breathe vapor.
Vapor extremely hazardous;
may cause nitrous gas
poisoning.
Avoid contact with skin, eyes,
and clothing.
In case of contact, immedi­
ately flush skin or eyes with
plenty of water for at least
15 minutes; for eyes, get
medical attention.
Spillage may cause fire or
liberate dangerous gas.
Dilute: <50% corrosive.
Concentrated: >50% corro­
sive, oxidizer.
0
OXY
First Aid
6/1/2/CORROSIVE 8/
OXIDIZER
Oxalic Acid
1
1
1
0
Nonfire
2
0
Fire
WARNING! Harmful if
swallowed. Causes skin
irritation.
Avoid breathing dust.
Avoid contact with skin and
eyes.
Do not take internally.
Keep away from feed or food
products.
In case of contact,
immediately flush skin or
eyes with plenty of water for
at least 15 minutes; for eyes,
get medical attention.
10/1/3/POISON 6.1
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
64
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Oxygen Gas
Hazard
Store away from any source
of heat or flame.
Nonflammable gas.
Oxidizer.
0
3
Label
Supports combustion.
0
OXY
(Liquid)
9a/cylinder/3/
NONFLAMMABLE GAS
2.2, OXIDIZER
Paraffin Wax
Flammable. Toxic.
Internal—For inhalation of
fumes, remove to fresh
air. Maintain respiration.
Seek medical attention.
Flammable. Toxic.
Narcotic in high
concentrations.
External—Ventilate area.
Irrigate eyes with water.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Flammable.
External—Ventilate area.
Irrigate eyes with water.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Severe burn and tissue
damage; toxic by
ingestion, inhalation, and
skin absorption. Phenol in
contact with more than
100 square inches of skin
(10"x10") is absorbed so
quickly through the skin
that it is fatal in 90
seconds—unless quickly
washed off with copious
amounts of water.
External—Wash with water;
then neutralize with
sodium bicarbonate.
Irrigate eyes with water.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
10/original container/3/
Not regulated
Pentane
Flammable liquid.
7/1(glass only) or 2S/3/
FLAMMABLE LIQUID 3
Flammable liquid.
Petroleum Ether
7/1(glass only) or 2S/3/
FLAMMABLE LIQUID 3
*Phenol (carbolic acid)
3
First Aid
2
0
DANGER! POISON.
Rapidly absorbed through
skin. Causes severe burns.
Do not get in eyes, on skin,
or on clothing.
Avoid breathing vapor.
Do not take internally.
In case of contact,
immediately remove all
contaminated clothing,
including shoes, and flush
skin or eyes with plenty of
water for at least 15
minutes; for eyes, get
medical attention.
Wash clothing before reuse.
8/1/1POISON 6.1
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
65
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
* Phosphorus (red)
0
Label
Hazard
Flammable solid.
1
Yields very toxic fumes on
burning. Avoid contact
with oxidizers. Explosions
have been known to
result. Dangerous fire risk;
skin contact may cause
burns.
External—Flush with water
for 15 minutes. Treat
splattered phosphorus
with 2% solution of
copper sulfate and keep
area wet until medical
attention is obtained. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Force vomiting
immediately. Seek
immediate medical
attention. Do not
administer alcohol,
digestible fats, oil, or
mineral oil as they
enhance absorption.
Toxic by ingestion and
inhalation.
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air.
Explodes easily (with shock
or heat).
Poisonous dust is irritant to
lungs; harmful to skin and
eyes. Reacts explosively
with hydrocarbons, such
as kerosene.
Detonates if ground with
mortar and pestle. Use
large rubber stopper to
grind. Do not grind with
other substances.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
1
1/2/1/FLAMMABLE
SOLID 4.1
Potassium Bromide
10/1/2/Not regulated
*Potassium Chlorate
0
0
0
2
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
WARNING! Oxidizer.
Contact with combustible
material may cause fire.
Will explode with shock or
heat if only slightly
contaminated.
All clothing contaminated
with chlorates is
dangerously flammable.
Remove and wash
thoroughly with water.
Do not get on floor. Spillage
may cause fires with
combustible material.
Sweep and remove
immediately. When not in
use, keep tightly closed in
original metal container.
Keep away from fire.
Store separately from
flammable material.
First Aid
2/1 or 2/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
Potassium Chloride
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
8/1/1/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
66
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
WARNING! Corrosive.
Causes severe burns to
skin and eyes.
Avoid contact with skin,
eyes, and clothing.
Do not take internally.
When handling, wear
goggles or face shield.
When making solutions, add
potassium hydroxide
slowly to surface of
solution to avoid violent
splattering.
In case of contact,
immediately flush skin
with plenty of water and
wash with vinegar; for
eyes, flush with plenty of
water for at least 15
minutes and get medical
attention.
Potassium Hydroxide
0
3
Hazard
1
First Aid
Caustic.
Corrosive as a solid and in
solution.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water; neutralize with
vinegar. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Low toxicity.
Decomposition releases
toxic fumes.
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
Dangerous fire hazard and
explosion risk when
shocked or heated in
contact with organic
materials.
Skin irritant.
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
Strong skin irritant.
Explosion may occur if
brought in contact with
organic or other readily
oxidizable substances or if
heated suddenly.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain respira­
tion. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Flammable. Narcotic in high
concentrations.
External—Ventilate area.
4/1/3/CORROSIVE 8
Potassium Iodide
10/1/1/Not regulated
Oxidizer.
Potassium Nitrate
0
0
1
0
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
Potassium Permanganate
1
0
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
Propane
4
Wear face protection.
Oxidizer.
0
OXY
1
2/1/2/OXIDIZER 5.1
Flammable gas.
9b/cylinder/3/
FLAMMABLE GAS 2.1
0
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
67
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Resorcinol
Label
Hazard
Keep away from food.
Irritating to skin, eyes, and
mucous membranes.
Toxic.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with soap
and water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Silver nitrate causes caustic,
poisonous burns. Skin
irritant. Keep away from
eyes.
External—Wash skin with
water. Immediate
treatment with sodium
thiosulfate will prevent
black stains from forming.
Internal—Give emetics,
such as salt water. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Keep away from organic
matter or other oxidizable
substances. May explode
if heated with organic
matter.
Toxic.
External—Irrigate eyes
with water. Wash skin
with soap and water.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
10/1/3/POISON 6.1
Silver Nitrate
0
0
0
0
0
1
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
Sodium Chlorate
0
0
2
1
0
2
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
WARNING! Oxidizer. May
cause burns. Avoid contact
with skin and eyes. In case
of contact with eyes, flush
with water for at least 15
minutes and get medical
attention.
2/1 amber glass/3/
OXIDIZER 5.1
WARNING! Oxidizer.
Contact with combustible
materials may cause fire.
All clothing contaminated
with chlorates is
dangerously flammable.
Remove and wash
thoroughly with water.
Do not get on floor. Spillage
may cause fires with
combustible material.
Sweep up and remove
immediately.
When not in use, keep
tightly closed in original
metal container. Keep
away from fire.
Store away from flammable
material.
First Aid
2/2/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
68
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Sodium Hydroxide
0
1
3
Label
Hazard
WARNING! Corrosive.
Causes severe burns to skin
and eyes.
Avoid contact with skin, eyes,
and clothing.
Do not take internally.
When handling, wear goggles
or face shield.
When making solutions, add
sodium hydroxide slowly to
surface of solution to avoid
violent splattering.
In case of contact,
immediately flush skin with
plenty of water and wash
with vinegar; for eyes, flush
with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes and get
medical attention.
First Aid
Caustic, hazardous liquid.
Eye and skin irritant.
Inorganic bases can form
explosive peroxides.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water; neutralize with
vinegar.
Internal—If ingested, DO
NOT induce vomiting.
Seek immediate medical
attention.
Caustic, poisonous,
irritating to the skin and
readily gives up chlorine.
Inhalation may produce
severe bronchial irritation.
Evolves chlorine gas when
reacted with acid or
heated. Avoid contact with
organic material. Dispose
of as extremely hazardous
waste.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention. DO NOT induce
vomiting.
Flammable, corrosive solid.
Reacts violently with
water, causing fires and
explosions and producing
hydrogen gas and
corrosive sodium
hydroxide. Dispose of as
extremely hazardous
waste.
Skin—Remove sodium and
flush affected area with
water.
Eyes—Immediately flush
eyes with plenty of water
for 15 minutes. Get
medical attention.
4/1/2/CORROSIVE 8
Sodium Hypochlorite
(less than 7% chlorine)
Corrosive.
2/1/2/Corrosive/Not
regulated
Sodium Metal
1
2
3
W
DANGER! Reacts violently
with water, liberating and
igniting hydrogen.
May cause burns.
Keep from any possible
contact with water; store
under oil.
Keep container tightly closed.
Do not get in eyes or on skin.
Wear goggles and dry gloves
when handling.
In case of fire, smother with
dry soda ash—never use
water or chemical fire
extinguishers.
Dangerous when wet.
1/1KM/2/FLAMMABLE 4.3/
WATER REACTIVE
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
69
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Sodium Nitrate
0
0
1
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
Sodium Peroxide
0
W
OXY
Hazard
Oxidizer.
0
3
Label
2
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
WARNING! Strong
oxidant.
Causes severe burns to skin
and eyes. Wear goggles or
face shield when handling.
Avoid spillage.
Avoid any contact with skin
or clothing.
Sweep up spilled material
with dry sand and flood
with water in the open.
Keep container tightly
closed at all times. Store
in a cool, dry location
away from acids or
combustible materials.
Dissolve carefully; always
add the sodium peroxide
to the liquid.
Avoid contact with any
combustible matter.
In case of fire, smother with
dry sand. Use a dry
powder fire extinguisher
(for class D fires). Never
use a chemical fire
extinguisher (i.e., those
used for A, B, or C class
fires). Do not use water
unless fire continues; then
flood with large quantities
from a hose.
First Aid
Can be explosive if heated
to 1000°F (537°C); can be
detonated by shock or
friction. Toxic by
ingestion.
Internal—Induce vomiting
and seek immediate
medical attention.
Absorbs water from the air.
Ignition and explosion
may take place on contact
with organic matter,
water, alcohol, acids,
metallic or nonmetallic
dust. Irritant and
corrosive. Dispose of as
extremely hazardous
waste.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Internal—Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
Irritating; caustic to skin and
mucous membranes.
External—Wash with water
for 15 minutes.
Internal—Give water and
induce vomiting. Seek
medical attention.
2/2/2/OXIDIZER 5.1
Sodium Silicate
10/2/3/Not regulated
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
70
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
Hazard
Sodium Thiosulfate
Moderately toxic. Saturated
solution breaks containers
when crystalizing. May
cause container to
explode.
External—Wash skin and
eyes with water for 15
minutes.
Internal—Give water and
induce vomiting. Seek
medical attention.
Flammable. Irritating to
eyes, nose, throat, and
lungs. Extreme overexposure results in
pulmonary edema.
Frequent or prolonged
skin contact can cause
irritation and dermatitis.
Can temporarily impair
nervous system. Causes
liver and kidney damage
in animals. Known to
cause damage to human
genetic material.
External—Flush eyes with
water for 15 minutes.
Wash skin with soap and
water.
Inhalation—Remove to
fresh air. Avoid prolonged
breathing. Seek medical
attention. Maintain
respiration.
Internal—DO NOT induce
vomiting. Seek medical
attention.
Combustible; may be
irritating to skin and
mucous membranes; when
burned, produces sulfur
dioxide, a toxic gas which
causes choking, coughing,
chest pain, irritation to
eyes and throat and can
cause death at exposure
levels of 500 ppm or
greater.
External—Flush eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water. Remove
persons who show allergic
reactions.
Dangerously corrosive
chemical; hazardous
liquid; eye, skin, and
respiratory tract irritant.
Absorbs water with violent
reaction and emits heat.
External—Flush eyes with
water. Wash skin with soap
and water.
Internal—DO NOT induce
vomiting. Maintain
respiration. Seek
immediate medical
attention.
10/1/1/Not regulated
CAUTION! Vapor harmful.
Flammable liquid. Keep
away from heat and open
flame.
Use only with adequate
ventilation.
Avoid prolonged breathing
of vapor.
Avoid prolonged or
repeated contact with skin.
Styrene
2
3
2
7/2S/1/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Sulfur
1
1
2
0
1
0
Fire
Nonfire
10/2/3/CLASS 9
Sulfuric Acid
0
2
3
W
DANGER! Causes severe
burns.
Do not get in eyes, on skin,
or on clothing.
In case of contact,
immediately flush skin or
eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes; for
eyes, get medical attention.
Do not add water to contents
while in a container
because of violent reaction.
First Aid
5/1/2 under dry
conditions/
CORROSIVE 8
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
71
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
▲ Toluene
2
3
0
Label
Hazard
WARNING! Flammable.
Vapor harmful.
Keep away from heat and
open flame.
Keep container closed.
Use only with adequate
ventilation.
Avoid prolonged breathing
of vapor.
Avoid prolonged or repeated
contact with skin.
First Aid
Poisonous and flammable
liquid. Central nervous
system depressant. Skin,
eyes, nose, throat irritant.
Exposure at high levels can
irritate lungs.
Inhalation during pregnancy
may cause birth defects.
External—An exposed
person should be removed
immediately to fresh air
and kept warm and quiet.
Seek medical attention.
Flush eyes with water.
High concentration can lead
to asphyxiation.
May be body tissue irritant.
Is a central nervous system
depressant.
External—Irrigate skin and
eyes with water.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air. Seek immediate
medical help.
Flammable liquid.
Mild cause of allergy; toxic.
Irritating to skin and
mucous membranes.
External—Ventilate area.
Internal—DO NOT induce
vomiting. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Flammable liquid.
May impair nervous
system. Irritating to eyes,
nose, throat, skin, and
lungs. Will penetrate most
types of clothing. Extreme
overexposure can cause
pulmonary edema.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Seek medical
attention.
Dust is combustible.
Irritating to skin and
mucous membranes.
External—Irrigate eyes with
water. Wash skin with
soap and water.
Internal—Seek medical
attention.
7/1 or 2S/2/FLAMMABLE 3
1,1,2-Trichloro1,2,2-trifluorethane
(TTE)
(Being phased out)
10/1/3/Not regulated
Flammable liquid.
Turpentine
7/2S/3/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Xylene
2
3
0
WARNING! Flammable.
Keep away from heat and
open flame.
Keep container closed.
Use with adequate ventilation.
Avoid prolonged breathing of
vapor.
Avoid prolonged or repeated
contact with skin.
7/2S/2/FLAMMABLE
LIQUID 3
Zinc, Metal Powder
0
1
KEEP DRY!
Dangerous when wet.
Spontaneously combustible.
1
1/1/3 if kept dry/
FLAMMABLE SOLID 4.3
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
72
TABLE 3 (Continued)
Name and NFPA
Symbol
Label
Zinc Nitrate
0
0
0
Hazard
Moderately toxic.
Strong oxidant; fire risk.
Delayed eye irritant.
Oxidizer.
1
0
0
OXY
OXY
Nonfire
Fire
2/1/3/OXIDIZER 5.1
First Aid
External—Irrigate eyes for
15 minutes and seek
medical attention.
Internal—Do not induce
vomiting.
Inhalation—Move to fresh
air and seek immediate
medical attention.
* Hazard risks outweigh the educational value. Districts are advised to make their own decisions. Consult MSDS for additional information.
▲ On the California Health and Welfare Agency list “Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.” Districts are advised to
weigh risks to employees.
73
74
H
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
Substances Containing Asbestos
Asbestos-covered wire-gauze heating pads are no
longer available commercially and should not be used
in schools. Newer materials, such as ceramic, silicabase, or synthetic fibers, are now used to coat wire
gauze and other laboratory heat-resistant equipment.
The newer materials generally have better heatresistant qualities than those of asbestos and are less
subject to chemical damage. After use, the new materi­
als often look like asbestos. Therefore, permanent
marking, such as wires or staples on the edge, is
recommended to identify the material.
Asbestos gloves or other soft or crumbly materials
should be removed for disposal. Asbestos is a recog­
nized carcinogen. Asbestos fibers enter the body by
inhalation. Avoid any use of asbestos.
I
Use and Disposal of Ethers
The use of ethers for instructional purposes can
present a danger to students and school staff members.
The most common types of ethers used in high schools
are petroleum ether and diethyl ether (anesthetic
ether). Petroleum ether is not a true ether (and does not
produce peroxides during storage) but is a volatile
fraction of petroleum made up of pentanes and hex­
anes. Petroleum ether may also be known as ligroin or
benzine.
Anesthetic ether that has been stored for several
years can form crystalline solids, called ether perox­
ides, on the inside lid of the container. Once peroxides
have formed, this diethyl ether is dangerously explo­
sive.
The following procedures should be closely
followed in any use of anesthetic ethers:
Ordering Parameters
1. Order only as much diethyl ether as you will use
during the school year because exposure to air
causes the formation of peroxides that are explo­
sive and sensitive to heat. Small, “single use”
bottles (25 ml and 50 ml) are available. After use,
allow the remainder to evaporate, if appropriate.
2. Order diethyl ether only. Other types of ethers are
not to be used in schools. (Petroleum ether is not
herewith restricted because it is not a true ether.)
Storage and Inventory
1. Date each container when received.
2. Use oldest cans first.
3. Use the entire can of ether as soon as possible
after the seal is broken.
4. Never store ether in a glass container.
5. Never store diethyl ether for more than 12
months.
6. Store ether in a cool, dark location.
7. Never store ether in a refrigerator, unless the
refrigerator is certified explosion proof.
8. Never open a container of ether if the age or
condition is uncertain. Any shock or vigorous
motion might cause an explosion. Do not open the
cap or stopper because the motion might be
sufficient to cause an explosion.
Use of Ether in the Classroom
1. Use only when no alternative solvent is available.
2. Never have an open flame or spark source in a
room in which ether is being used.
3. Keep the work area well ventilated.
4. Use minimal quantities.
5. Remember that ether vapor is heavier than air.
The hazardous area is made greater because
vapors spread along the floor.
Ether Spills
Ventilate and evacuate the area.
Disposal of Ether
1. To dispose of any old, rusty, swollen, or suspect
container of diethyl ether, immediately call the
appropriate school district staff member or your
local fire or county sheriff’s department (noted on
the inside front cover of this handbook).
2. To dispose of diethyl ether less than 12 months
old, place the opened container under a fume hood
or outdoors and allow to evaporate.
J
Standards in the Use of Lead
The California Department of Health Services has
recommended that lead and lead compounds not be
used in the high school laboratory. Overexposure to
lead can cause damage to the reproductive systems of
both men and women. Effects of the damage include
stillbirth, miscarriage, and learning disorders in
K. Handling and Cleanup of Mercury
children whose mothers were exposed to lead during
pregnancy. Lead also damages the nervous system,
kidneys, blood-forming system, and digestive system.
(See also Table 3.)
If lead must be used in the laboratory, the Cal/
OSHA lead standard must be followed (see California
Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 5216). Some of
the main points of the lead standard are as follows:
1. When lead is used, the amount of lead in the air in
the work area must be measured at least once.
2. If the levels of lead in the air exceed the action
level (an average of 30 micrograms of lead per
cubic meter of air throughout an eight-hour
workday), the employer must:
a. Measure the level of lead in the air every six
months.
b. Tell employees, in writing, the amount of
lead to which they are exposed.
c. Establish an exposure reduction program if
employees are exposed to more than the
action level for more than 30 days each year.
3. Employee exposure must not exceed the permis­
sible exposure limit (PEL) on any day. If em­
ployee exposure to lead on a given day is over the
PEL (an average of 50 micrograms of lead per
cubic meter of air throughout an eight-hour
workday), the employer must:
a. Measure the level of lead in the air every
three months.
b. Tell employees, in writing, the results of air
monitoring and what will be done to reduce
exposures.
c. Provide employees with proper respirators
until the exposure has been lowered by other
controls.
d. Prohibit eating, drinking, smoking, or
applying makeup in areas in which lead
levels are above the PEL.
e. Be sure that employees wash hands before
eating, drinking, smoking, or applying
makeup.
f. Provide a changing room, lunchroom, and
shower facility at no extra cost to employ­
ees.
4. If employees are exposed to lead at or above the
action level, the employer must offer medical
evaluations at no cost to the employees.
75
The Department of Health Services strongly
recommends that instructors replace lead and lead
compounds with less hazardous substances. If lead is
going to be used, the Department of Health Services
recommends the following procedures:
• Only instructors should be allowed to handle
powdered lead and lead compounds.
• When handling solid lead compounds (other than
lead weights) or solutions containing lead, students
must wear laboratory coats, gloves, and goggles.
• The instructor must inform students of the need for
strict personal hygiene and adherence to safety
guidelines when using lead.
• The instructor is responsible for cleaning up any
spills.
K
Handling and Cleanup of Mercury
Teachers should use the smallest possible quantity
of metallic mercury to perform the experiment and
keep the mercury away from heat at all times. When
mercury is handled, it should be done closely over a
glass or plastic tray to facilitate any cleanup that may
be necessary. (Drops of mercury that fall some dis­
tance to a counter or floor will spatter and spread in
finely divided particles.) Take care that mercury is not
put into a sink. All spills should be properly noted, in
writing, and carefully cleaned up.
Mercury spills must be cleaned up as thoroughly
as possible to reduce the long-term presence of mer­
cury vapors in the classroom or preparation area.
However, note the following precautions:
• Do not sweep the spill with a broom. (The broom
becomes contaminated, and free mercury vapor is
produced.)
• Do not use a standard vacuum cleaner. (The
vacuum cleaner becomes contaminated, and free
mercury vapor is produced.)
Suggestions for cleaning up mercury spills are as
follows:
1. Assess the extent of the spillage. If the spill is
minor (e.g., a broken mercury thermometer) and
confined to a small area, clear the area and restrict
access; provide maximum ventilation; and pro­
ceed with the cleanup. If the spill is more exten­
sive, clear the room of students; ensure that
76
Chapter 5. Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
ventilation is sufficient before cleaning up.
Placing plastic bags over your shoes may be
advisable to avoid extending the mercury con­
tamination beyond its original area.
2. Use index cards to push drops of mercury together
into pools. Droplets may scatter a considerable
distance and adhere to vertical surfaces as well.
3. Use a medicine dropper with a fine point to pick
up the mercury and place it in a plastic bottle.
Continue gathering and confining the mercury
until all visible droplets have been found.
4. Use zinc metal powder or commercially available
mercury “sponges” to continue to clean up tiny
and hidden droplets. (Caution: Keep zinc metal
powder dry because it is spontaneously combus­
tible when wet and may even explode if confined.
See zinc entry in Table 3.) Zinc metal reacts with
mercury to form a safe amalgam, which is easier
to collect and dispose of than the mercury itself.
Mercury indicators (detectors) and mercury
cleanup kits, which would be effective for small or
modest spills, are available at relatively low cost
through chemical and safety supply companies.
Special attention should be given to larger spills,
possibly including the rental of a mercury vacuum
cleaner.
6
SAFETY IN THE PHYSICS LABORATORY
77
B. Electrical Devices and Connectors 78
C. Model Rocket Launchings on School Sites 78
D. Use and Hazards of Lasers 79
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
6. SAFETY IN THE
PHYSICS LABORATORY
A. General Safety Practices
6. SAFETY IN THE PHYSICS LABORATORY
P
7. Teachers and students should be cautious when
handling a lead/acid or similar storage battery. It
is a source of danger in spite of its low voltage
because of the acid it contains and because of the
high current that may be drawn from it on a short
circuit. Storage batteries should be charged only
in a well-ventilated space. Battery sparks have
enough energy to ignite flammable vapors.
Hydrogen gas, which is potentially explosive, is
produced during charging.
8. Induction coils of any type should be clearly
marked for low-voltage and high-voltage connec­
tions to avoid the possibility of shocks.
9. Instructors and students should be shielded at all
times from ultraviolet apparatus and during the
use or production of X rays, microwaves, and
lasers.
10. When handling electronic equipment, teachers and
students should observe the following precau­
tions:
HYSICS TEACHERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH
the following safety practices and all other
sections of the handbook pertinent to their
instructional program. Special attention should be
directed to Chapter 3, “General Laboratory Safety
Precautions”; Appendix H, “Safety Checklist for
Science Instruction, Preparation, and Storage Areas”;
and Appendix P, “Sample Physical Science Laboratory
Regulations.”
A
General Safety Practices
1. In wiring an electric circuit, make the live plug-in,
or turn-on switch connection, the last act in
assembling and the first act in disassembling the
circuit. This practice is applicable to all portable
electrical apparatus. All alternating current (AC)
circuits above 12 volts should be shielded to avoid
direct contact.
2. When using an electric current, avoid bringing
both hands in contact with live sections of the
circuit. If possible, use only one hand at a time in
all manipulations involving an electric circuit.
3. Electrical cords and extension cords used in the
classroom should be inspected regularly for
defects in insulation or connections. All extension
cords should be the heavy-duty, three-wire,
grounded type. Extension cords should never be
used to connect electrical equipment permanently
to the circuit.
4. If electric current is constantly used near any
metal object, the object should be permanently
protected with an insulating cover to avoid
possible contact. Take care that live wires do not
contact grounded metallic objects.
5. Multiple plugs shall not be used in electrical wall
outlets. Semipermanent electrical connections
shall not be made to wall outlets. Under no
circumstances shall a motor requiring a starting
current of more than 20 amps be connected to a
wall outlet.
6. During the charging of a student-made wet
storage cell, keep students away from the fine
spray that develops. It is harmful when inhaled or
allowed to get on the skin or in the eyes.
• Make certain that the current is off before
putting hands into a radio or any electronic
equipment.
• Be sure that there is a bleeder (high resis­
tance) across the output of a power supply;
otherwise, a severe shock from a charged
condenser may result.
• Exercise extreme caution in demonstrating,
adjusting, or using image tubes of television
receivers or cathode-ray oscilloscopes when
the tubes are removed from their protective
housing. Such tubes should be removed only
when necessary to the experiment.
11. When evacuating a bulb during the density of air
experiments, wrap the bulb in a towel to avoid
flying glass should the bulb be crushed. Use
round-bottom flasks for the experiment; they are
stronger than flat-bottom flasks.
12. When using a pressure cooker to demonstrate the
variation of boiling points under pressure, be sure
to examine the safety valve on the cooker before
use to make sure it is in working order. Do not
allow the pressure to exceed 20 pounds per square
inch (137.8 kPa).
13. Observe caution in the use of all rotating appara­
tus, such as the whirling table, Savart’s Wheel,
77
78
Chapter 6. Safety in the Physics Laboratory
siren disk, and centrifugal hoops. Make certain the
safety nut is securely fastened at all times. The
apparatus should revolve at moderate speeds only.
14. Care should be taken to prevent injuries from the
sharp edges on mirrors, prisms, and glass plates.
Inspect the items before handing them to students
and remove sharp edges by grinding them with
emery cloth or Carborundum stone or painting
them with quick-drying enamel. Instruct students
to report at once any sharp-edged apparatus.
15. The practice of removing thermometers, glass
tubing, and so on from rubber stoppers as soon as
possible after use will reduce the likelihood of the
rubber adhering to the glass. The best ways in
which to remove a thermometer, rod, or glass
tubing that is stuck in a rubber stopper are as
follows:
• Use a wet cork-borer, just large enough to
slip over the tubing, and slowly work the
cork-borer through the stopper, thus boring
the stuck tube out of the stopper.
• Use a single-edge razor blade or razor knife
to slit open the rubber stopper surrounding an
immobilized thermometer.
B
Electrical Devices and Connectors
The use of electricity can present a serious hazard
in the classroom or laboratory. Electrical devices used
in the laboratory or classroom should be only those
listed by Underwriters Laboratory (UL), or equivalent,
for 110-volt outlet application or those listed for use
with 6-volt or 12-volt direct current furnished by
batteries.
Electrical devices should never be used or placed
near any source of water or in an area subject to
wetting from any source. Exercise special care in the
placement and use of aquariums, particularly when
using a 110-volt light source.
Instructors should caution students that any
projects they submit must meet the specifications
noted above or will not be accepted.
Some guidelines for safety in the use of electrical
equipment are as follows:
1. Use only those 110-volt devices included in the
list by Underwriters Laboratory or equivalent.
2. Use 6-volt or 12-volt direct current for all possible
applications.
3. Operate electrical devices with dry hands and in a
dry location.
4. Be sure the floor is dry. Never stand on metal or
any other conducting surface when using electri­
cal devices. Ground fault circuit interrupters
(GFCIs) should be on electrical outlets near sinks.
5. Never allow yourself to become part of an electri­
cal circuit, intentionally or unintentionally.
6. Ensure that power equipment or devices are
double-insulated. Or have them safely grounded
(three-prong plug) by a competent electrician.
7. Use extreme care with aquariums when they have
an electrically operated pump or electrical light
source.
8. Use extension cords with extreme caution and
never allow them to lie across areas of foot traffic.
9. Be sure multiple-outlet bars have fuse protection
or some other circuit breaker.
In compliance with California Code of Regula­
tions, Title 8, Electrical Safety Orders, Section
2395.44, exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of
cord- and plug-connected equipment that are likely to
become energized shall be grounded. This equipment
includes motor-driven equipment and hand tools, time
clocks, fans, lamps, vacuum cleaners, and similar
equipment as well as heating devices that have ex­
posed heating elements. Heating appliances that have a
metal frame must be grounded. Heating appliances
with Cal-rod types of fully enclosed elements do not
require grounding.
All nonportable electrical devices must be plugged
directly into permanent electrical outlets, not into
extension cords.
C
Model Rocket Launchings
on School Sites
California state fire laws permit the launching of
model rockets on school sites provided the following
safety precautions are followed (see Appendix Q for
further guidelines):
1. The teacher should use prudent judgment and
limit the number of launchings when students are
present in the audience.
2. Only authorized classes or clubs should engage in
this kind of activity on school sites.
3. Application for a special permit may be required
by local fire protection agencies. If a permit is
D. Use and Hazards of Lasers
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
issued in the name of the school administrator, it
is incumbent also on the instructor to comply with
all safety standards. The school administrator
should determine compliance.
The length of the rocket must not measure less
than 10 inches (25 cm) or more than 15 inches (38
cm).
Only commercially produced class A or smaller
engines are recommended.
The minimum size of the launch site for class A or
smaller engines should extend to a radius of 100
feet (30 m) from the firing position.
No fire hazard may be posed by the launch. That
means no dry vegetation or forest areas may be
within the launch radius.
No buildings, other structures, roads, or highvoltage electrical lines may be within the launch
radius.
The firing area should be at the center of the
launch radius. In no case should the firing area be
closer than 25 feet (8 m) from the boundary of the
launch site.
Teachers should caution their students about the
dangers of experimenting with rockets and
missiles, especially the dangers in the preparation
and use of noncommercial rockets and propel­
lants. Teachers must refrain from the following:
• Providing chemicals for rockets or missiles or
helping students to obtain them
• Using, or permitting to be used, liquid or
solid fuels in the classroom (Such use essen­
tially constitutes a controlled explosion.)
• Permitting the construction of rockets,
missiles, or component parts in the classroom
or shop
• Allowing students too close to the firing area
• Launching anything other than commercially
produced rocket engines of known size and
predictable range
D
Use and Hazards of Lasers
Lasers are valuable sources of light to use in
exciting demonstrations and laboratory experiments in
school. Most school lasers are relatively low powered,
with a light emission of less than a thousandth of a
watt. These lasers should not be confused with the
powerful lasers intended for burning, cutting, and
drilling. However, science teachers should still be
79
aware of the inherent dangers to personnel in the
operation of lasers. Before using lasers in demonstra­
tions or in research, orient all involved personnel to
the potential hazards. In general, school demonstration
lasers emit visible light; therefore, students and
teachers face hazards typical of visible and nearinfrared light.
Eye Hazards
Possibly the greatest danger in the use of lasers is
the accidental penetration of the laser beam into the
eye. Relatively low-power beams may burn the retinal
area, producing a blind spot. If the retinal area irradi­
ated is the macula, its fovea (area of extremely fine
vision), or the optic nerve, severe permanent visual
damage may result.
Skin Hazards
The effects on the skin are basically those of
burns. Lighter skin with little melanin pigment is
affected to a lesser degree, but skin with high melanin
content (overall or in spots, such as moles) may be
burned severely. Conversely, lighter skin does not
protect deeper-lying tissue from visible and nearinfrared irradiation damage as well as darker skin
does.
Exposure to ultraviolet irradiation may result in
“sunburn” and possibly in skin cancer in susceptible
individuals.
CDRH Regulations
The Center for Devices and Radiological Health
(CDRH) of the United States Food and Drug Adminis­
tration requires the manufacturers of lasers to classify
their lasers according to a federally mandated system
and specifies appropriate safety features for each level.
Lasers are classified on the basis of emitted beam
power. These regulations are detailed in the Federal
Laser Product Performance Standard (Code of Federal
Regulations, Title 21, Part 1040), and all commercially
available lasers built after the implementation of the
regulations (August, 1976) must comply with the
standard as it existed on the date of manufacture.
Lasers that fall into class I require no warning
labels because the CDRH believes that no injury can
result, even from continuous long-term direct exposure
to the beams.
A class II laser should be identified by a yellow
Caution label that contains the warning Do not stare
into beam. A class IIIa laser should be identified by a
80
Chapter 6. Safety in the Physics Laboratory
red Danger label that contains the warning Avoid
direct eye exposure.
In addition to the CDRH label, each laser that is
class II or higher should have the following label
placed near the beam exit: Avoid exposure. Laser light
is emitted from this aperture. The CDRH also requires
the manufacturers to provide users with the following
information: Caution—Use of controls or adjustments
or performance of procedures other than those speci­
fied herein may result in hazardous light exposure.
Laser Precautions
Most lasers in use in secondary schools are
continuous-wave (cw) helium-neon lasers that emit a
beam of red light. Invisible, exotic, or other harmful
radiation is not emitted. These lasers are typically class
II or class IIIa lasers. It is important for the teacher to
be aware of the classification of the laser being used.
Class II (cw) lasers have a maximum power of 1
mW, a power judged to be eye safe because the natural
blink reflex prevents excessive power absorption in the
eye. However, deliberate, direct staring into the beam
for periods longer than one-quarter second may result
in injury. Safety features include warning labels, a
pilot lamp that glows when the electrical power is on,
and a mechanical beam stop that may be used to block
the beam when the power is on.
Class IIIa (cw) lasers that emit visible light have a
maximum power of 5 mW, a power that may be too
high for the blink reflex to provide protection against
injury. Class IIIa lasers that emit outside the visible
spectrum may be limited to lower power output. Safety
features of the class IIIa laser include the safety
requirements for the class II laser, a key switch, and a
connector for optional remote control operation.
For lasers purchased before August, 1976, the
claimed optical power is not a reliable index of the
output. Tests have shown that such lasers rated at 1
mW radiated in the range of 0.19 to 3 mW.
Lasers with cw outputs greater than 5 mW, pulsed
lasers, and lasers emitting radiation at wavelengths
outside the visible and near-infrared light present
additional hazards. Schools using such lasers should
have a copy of the American National Standard for the
Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1992, published by
Laser Institute of America, 12424 Research Parkway,
Suite 130, Orlando, Florida 32826.
Even though the power of a laser may be low, the
beam should be treated with caution and common
sense. Many laser hazards may be avoided by imple­
menting the following measures:
1. Avoid direct viewing of the beam. Instruct students
not to look directly into the laser beam or its
bright reflections, just as they should not look
directly at the sun or at arc lamps. As a general
practice do not place any portion of the body in
the path of the beam. These practices become
increasingly important as the power of the laser
device’s output increases. Good work practices,
developed early, will assist the individual later in
working safely with more hazardous lasers.
2. Know the location of the beam’s path and keep it
clear of extraneous objects. All optical compo­
nents should be fixed in position in relation to the
laser before the beam is propagated to ensure that
the beam’s path does not change in an uncon­
trolled manner. Objects with mirrorlike finishes
(e.g., plumbing fixtures, personal jewelry, and
tools) reflect laser beams in unexpected direc­
tions. If possible, such surfaces should be re­
moved from the vicinity of the beam’s path.
Demonstration equipment, such as support rods,
bench surfaces, and adjustment tools, should be
painted or treated to produce a dull, nonreflective
surface.
3. Block the beam when it is not needed. The me­
chanical beam stop should be opened to allow
beam emission only when necessary for measure­
ments or observations. It should always be closed
when an optical element is being inserted into the
beam’s path or is being relocated.
4. Terminate laser beams. Block off the beam at a
point beyond the farthest point of interest. All
laser beams should be terminated in a
nonreflective, light-absorbing material. For higher
power lasers (>0.5 W) the material should also be
nonflammable.
5. Prepare and test demonstrations when no one else
is present. Demonstrations should be prepared and
tested by the instructor when no one else is
present. All unwanted reflections should always
be tracked down and eliminated or blocked.
6. Deflect the beam in a vertical plane in complex
demonstrations. In normal experimental situations
the laser beam’s path should be kept in a horizon­
tal plane at a level below or above the eye level of
the instructor and observers. Complex demonstra­
tions involving reflection or refraction should be
D. Use and Hazards of Lasers
conducted with the beam’s deflection angles
contained in a vertical plane to reduce the possi­
bility of directing a stray reflection into the
audience. The laser display system should be
contained in a box that is open on the side(s) but
closed on the ends, top, and bottom. If the beam
must travel a long distance, keep it close to the
ground or overhead so that it does not cross
walkways at eye level.
7. Affix expanding lenses rigidly to the laser. When
the laser is used to illuminate large surfaces, such
as in the viewing of holograms, beam-expanding
(diverging) lenses should be fixed rigidly to the
laser.
8. Equip the laser with a key switch. The laser
should be equipped with a key switch in the
primary power circuit, rather than with the more
commonly used kind of toggle switch. Key
switches are available from electronic supply
stores for a relatively small charge. An additional
switch that requires constant pressure is also
desirable.
Although installing a key switch is desirable, a
retrofit may void the manufacturer’s warranty. It
is advisable to have an electrical technician
perform this operation.
9. Do not leave an operable laser accessible and
unattended. The key should be removed and
placed in a secure location to prevent unautho­
rized use of the laser and possible injurious
exposures. For the same reason, when experi­
ments or demonstrations take place in areas that
might permit access to the beam by individuals
not under the control of the teacher, a responsible
person should be assigned to stop the beam’s
emission if such access to the beam appears
imminent.
10. Reduce the optical power of the laser. The optical
power used should be reduced to the minimum
necessary to accomplish the objective of the
experiment or demonstration. Neutral density
filters or colored plastic can be used effectively to
reduce radiated optical power.
11. Keep the area well lighted at all times. Good
lighting tends to keep the pupil of the eye rela­
81
tively contracted and reduces the amount of light
that might impinge on the retina accidentally
when the laser system is in use.
12. Provide and use adequate eye-protective devices.
Protecting the eyes with shatter-resistant goggles
is essential when using some types of laser
systems, but no one kind of goggle offers protec­
tion from all wavelengths. Make sure that proper
goggles are available and used (see Chapter 7,
section C, “Eye Safety”).
13. Shield the pump source. Flashlamps or arc lamps
are used to transmit energy into the laser material
in solid-state lasers. The high-intensity light
generated by those lamps should not be viewed
directly. The broadband white light of the lamps is
not completely blocked by laser-protection
eyewear. Enclosure of the lamp in an opaque
housing is essential.
Electrical Safety with Lasers
Helium-neon lasers employ high voltages similar
to those employed inside a small television receiver.
Capacitors within the power supply retain the poten­
tially harmful voltage for some time after the input of
power has ceased. Flashlamp power supplies typically
involve higher stored energies and higher voltages
than those involved in the helium-neon lasers. Mainte­
nance of these systems, such as changing the lamps,
requires direct personal contact with the high-voltage
conductors.
School personnel must avoid the possibility of
electrical shocks from both high-voltage and lowvoltage equipment, including storage capacitors and
power supplies, by disconnecting the equipment from
the primary power source and using proper techniques
for the removal of stored energy before performing
maintenance or service activities.
Each laser should be equipped with a UL-listed
line cord and a three-prong grounded plug. Always
plug the laser into a grounded outlet.
Conductive optical tables must be effectively
grounded.
7
ADDITIONAL SAFETY PRACTICES
A. Fire Prevention and Control 83
B. Use of Animals in the Classroom
C. Eye Safety
84
85
D. Eyewash Station 88
E. Safety on Field Trips 88
F. Poisonous Plants
89
G. Ionizing Radiation 94
I.
Waste Reduction
J.
Employees’ Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals 105
7. ADDITIONAL
SAFETY PRACTICES
H. Earthquake Preparation 97
102
K. Employees’ Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens
106
Table 4. Recommended Supplies of Safety Devices for Eyes
Table 5. Effects of Some Poisonous Plants
90
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
86
7. ADDITIONAL SAFETY PRACTICES
T
A
2. Class B fires involve gasoline, oil, paint, alcohol,
or other volatile flammable liquids. Smother the
fire by using carbon dioxide (CO2), dry-chemical,
or foam extinguishers. Aim at the base of the
flame with the CO2 extinguisher and do not hold
the nozzle (horn) because of the danger of frost­
bite. Foam should be floated over the fire. Expel
the entire contents of the extinguisher.
3. Class C fires are fires in live electrical devices.
Use a nonconductive substance to prevent your­
self from becoming a part of the electrical circuit.
Use a CO2 or dry-chemical extinguisher. Shut off
the electrical power if it is possible to do so
without sustaining a burn.
4. Class D fires occur with combustibles, such as
magnesium, titanium, potassium, sodium, zirco­
nium, or other reactive metals. You need a special
extinguishing powder for those fires. Do not use
regular dry-chemical extinguishers. Dry sand is
effective on small class D fires. Call the fire
department and inform them that it is a class D
fire. Never use water or sand that is damp.
HIS CHAPTER DEALS WITH GENERAL SAFETY
practices that apply to various areas of science
instruction.
Fire Prevention and Control
If a serious classroom fire occurs, the teacher
should conduct a fast, orderly evacuation of the room.
The fire should be reported immediately, and control
measures may be taken if the fire is localized and does
not present imminent danger. Both teacher and stu­
dents should know the location of the nearest fire
alarm, fire blanket, and fire extinguisher. The teacher
should know how to use those fire-control devices.
When an open flame is used in the classroom,
caution students to stay well away from the flame.
Never reach across the flame area. If hair or clothing
becomes ignited, douse with water. A fire blanket can
be used to smother the flaming area if water is not
immediately available in sufficient quantity. (See the
end of this section for use of a fire blanket.) Do not use
a fire extinguisher on a person because it can cause
serious chemical burns or frostbite (in the case of a
CO2 extinguisher).
In an electrical fire, pull the plug if that can be
done without sustaining a burn (the cord might be hot)
or becoming a part of the circuit. Do not use water
because water is a conductor of electrical current.
Many substances and types of chemical reactions
involved in science programs present potential fire
hazards. The teacher must anticipate the possible
causes of fire and be ready to act swiftly if a fire
occurs despite the preventive measures taken.
The most common causes of fire in the science
laboratory are (1) failure to understand the nature of
the supplies or equipment being used; and (2) careless
handling of supplies or equipment.
The following extinguishing procedures are
recommended for different kinds of fire, as indicated:
Multipurpose (2A-10BC) fire extinguishers are
mandatory (California Code of Regulations, Title 19,
Section 568 et seq.). The State Fire Marshal requires
that one extinguisher be provided for every 6,000
square feet (540 sq m) of laboratory space and that one
be located not more than 75 feet (22.5 m) from any
point in the laboratory on the same story or floor.
The following items of equipment are recom­
mended for use in classroom fires:
• General-purpose (ABC) dry-chemical fire extin­
guisher. Not for use with class D fires.
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) fire extinguisher. Not for use
with class A or class D fires.
• Fire blanket for fires involving clothing on persons.
The victim should stop, drop, and roll immediately
on the floor to minimize inhalation of smoke or hot
gases. Someone should assist the victim in rolling
up in the fire blanket, starting with the upper
portion of the body to force flames away from the
head but making sure that the head is free.
1. Class A fires are fires in wood, paper, fabrics, and
other common combustibles. Cool the fire with
water or use a general-purpose dry-chemical
extinguisher (for use with all class A, class B, and
class C fires).
83
84
B
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
Use of Animals in the Classroom
A science teacher or other adult supervisor should
assume primary responsibility for the environmental
conditions under which any study involving live
animals is conducted. If the school faculty does not
include persons with training in the proper care of
laboratory animals, the services of such a person on a
consulting basis should be sought. A local veterinarian
may offer this kind of help.
All animals used in the classroom must be law­
fully acquired in accordance with state and local laws.
All mammals used in a classroom should be inoculated
for rabies, unless they were purchased from a reliable
scientific company. All live-animal studies must
comply with Education Code Section 51540 (see page
85 and Appendix B).
The following animals should never be brought
into the classroom: wild birds and mammals, snapping
turtles, poisonous snakes, and insects that may be
carriers of disease. Students should not bring their pets
to the classroom unless the activity is carefully
planned by the teacher and approved by the adminis­
trator. Dead animals found by the side of the road
should never be brought into the classroom because
they may carry hazardous bacteria or parasites.
Before a suitable small animal is allowed in the
classroom for observation, plans should be made for
the animal’s proper habitat and food. The living
quarters of animals in the classroom must be kept
clean, free from contamination, and secure enough to
confine the animals. Plans must be made for the care
of classroom animals during weekends and vacation
periods.
Animals should be handled properly, according to
the particular animal, and only when necessary.
Special handling is required if the animal is excited or
when it is feeding, pregnant, or with its young. (See
also Chapter 4, section M, “Handling of Laboratory
Animals.”)
Students should wash their hands after handling
turtles, snakes, fish, frogs, toads, and so forth. Make
sure that the water from the habitat is disposed of
carefully. Turtles should be purchased only from
sources that certify that the turtles are free of salmo­
nella.
Teachers should caution students never to tease the
animals or to insert their fingers or objects through
wire mesh cages. Any student who is bitten or
scratched by an animal should be sent immediately to
the school nurse for appropriate treatment.
After a period of animal observation is completed,
animals should be returned to their natural environ­
ment. (See Caution in the following section.)
Humane Care and Treatment of Animals
Keeping animals in the classroom can be condu­
cive to the development of many learning situations.
The humane care and handling of animals is para­
mount during such lessons. (See also Chapter 4,
section M, “Handling of Laboratory Animals.”) A
respect for living things should be first in the minds of
both teacher and student. Respect for life shall be
accorded to all animals that are kept for educational
purposes.
In biological procedures involving living organ­
isms, teachers are encouraged to select such species as
plants, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, worms, snails,
arthropods, or insects, whenever possible. These
species are especially suitable for student work
because of their wide variety and ready availability in
large numbers and because of the simplicity of their
maintenance and of the return of native species to their
natural environment, or their subsequent disposal, as
appropriate.
Caution: Release of nonnative and exotic organ­
isms may be detrimental to the local environment as
well as illegal. Observations of animals in their natural
habitat, including the community surrounding the
school, should be encouraged. In mammalian studies
nonhazardous human experiments are often education­
ally preferable to those using such species as rats,
guinea pigs, or mice.
No procedure shall be performed on a vertebrate
animal that might cause it pain, suffering, or discom­
fort or otherwise interfere with its normal health.
Therefore, no surgery shall be performed on any living
vertebrate animal (mammal, bird, fish, reptile, or
amphibian). No lesson or experiment shall subject a
vertebrate animal to any of the following:
• Microorganisms that can cause disease in humans
or animals
• Ionizing radiation
• Cancer-producing agents
• Chemicals at toxic levels
• Drugs that produce pain or deformity
• Extremes of temperatures
• Stressful electric or other shock
C. Eye Safety
•
•
•
•
•
51540. In the public elementary and high schools
or in public elementary and high school schoolsponsored activities and classes held elsewhere than on
school premises, live vertebrate animals shall not, as
part of a scientific experiment or any purpose whatever:
(a) Be experimentally medicated or drugged in a
manner to cause painful reactions or induce
painful or lethal pathological conditions.
(b) Be injured through any other treatments, includ­
ing, but not limited to, anesthetization or electric
shock.
Live animals on the premises of a public elemen­
tary or high school shall be housed and cared for in a
humane and safe manner.
The provisions of this section are not intended to
prohibit or constrain vocational instruction in the
normal practices of animal husbandry.
Excessive noise
Noxious fumes
Exhausting exercise
Overcrowding
Other distressing stimuli
Animal observations must be directly supervised
by a competent science teacher, who shall approve the
plan before the student starts work. Students must have
the necessary comprehension and qualifications for the
work contemplated. The supervisor shall oversee all
experimental procedures, shall be responsible for their
nonhazardous nature, and shall personally and continu­
ally inspect experimental animals during the course of
the study to ensure that their health and comfort are
fully sustained.
Vertebrate animal studies shall be conducted only
in locations in which proper supervision is available,
either a school or an institution of research or higher
education. No vertebrate animal studies shall be
conducted at a home (other than observations of
normal behavior of pet animals, such as dogs or cats).
In vertebrate animal studies, animals shall be
provided palatable food in sufficient quantity to
maintain normal growth. Diets deficient in essential
foods are prohibited. Food shall not be withheld for
periods longer than 12 hours. Clean drinking water
shall be available at all times (and shall not be re­
placed by alcohol or drugs).
Chicken eggs subjected to experimental manipula­
tions that may produce abnormalities shall not be
allowed to hatch. Such embryos shall be killed hu­
manely no later than the 18th day of incubation. If
normal egg embryos are to be hatched, satisfactory
arrangements must be made for the appropriate care or
humane relocation of chicks.
Projects involving vertebrate animals will nor­
mally be restricted to measuring and studying normal
physiological functions (such as normal growth,
activity cycles, metabolism, blood circulation, learning
processes, normal behavior, reproduction, and commu­
nication) or isolated tissue techniques. None of these
studies requires infliction of pain.
Regulations
State and local laws regulate the care and use of
animals in both elementary and secondary science
instruction. The treatment of animals in California
public school instruction is regulated by Education
Code Section 51540 as follows:
85
Regulations about the use of animals in the
classroom for educational purposes are also included
in the Health and Safety Code of the state of Califor­
nia. These regulations state that animals used for
experimental, educational purposes must be humanely
treated, supplied with adequate food and water, and
kept in satisfactory shelter and sanitary conditions.
(See Appendix B for the applicable section of the
Health and Safety Code.)
C
Eye Safety
The sections of the Education Code (32030–
32033) that regulate the duties and responsibilities of
schools and school districts to protect the eyes of
students, staff, and visitors during hazardous activities
conducted in the classroom are cited in Appendix B.
Those legal requirements are summarized in this
section, followed by information on eye-protective
devices and other eye-safety practices.
Legal Requirements
School district governing boards have the duty to
equip schools with eye-protective devices for the use
of all students, teachers, and visitors participating in
hazardous activities, such as those outlined below.
Principals or teachers supervising any of those activi­
ties must require that the eye-protective devices be
worn by participating students, teachers, and visitors.
Handbooks, guides, and other instructional materi­
als designed for use by persons involved in direct
supervision of hazardous situations must carry addi­
86
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
tional, detailed guidelines covering particular subject
areas and concerns.
Circumstances requiring eye-protective devices.
Courses in which the eye-protective devices shall be
worn include, but are not limited to, vocational or
industrial arts shops or laboratories and chemistry,
physics, or combined chemistry-physics laboratories at
any time the individual is engaged in an activity or is
observing the use of hazardous substances likely to
cause injury to the eyes. Such activity includes, but is
not limited to, the following:
• Working with hot metal
• Working with hot liquids or solids or with chemi­
cals that are flammable, toxic, corrosive to living
tissues, irritating, strongly sensitizing, or radioac­
tive or that generate pressure through heat, decom­
position, or other means
• Working with materials or equipment under stress,
pressure, or force that might cause fragmentation,
including the use of hand or power tools with such
hard materials as stone or metal
Standards for devices. The eye-protective devices
used shall be industrial-quality devices that meet the
standards of the American National Standards Institute
(ANSI).
Sale of devices. If students and teachers wish to
purchase their own eye-protective devices, the devices
may be sold at a price that shall not exceed the cost of
the devices to the school district.
Eye-Protective Devices
Eye-protective devices vary in form and effective­
ness. Three basic types of eye and face protection are
as follows:
• Goggles—primarily intended for eye protection
against impact and splash. Goggles also serve to
reduce the dust and fumes reaching the eye.
• Face shield—for partial personal face protection
against splash or impact. Face shields should
ordinarily be used in conjunction with goggles.
• Safety shield—for group protection from splash
and impact. The safety shield should be used with
goggles and, if appropriate, with a face shield.
Specifications for eye-protective devices include
the following: (1) lenses must have a minimum
thickness of 3 mm and be impact-resistant; (2) frames
must be a lens-retaining type made of nonflammable
material; and (3) goggles must be splash-proof. See
Table 4 for further information about recommended
supplies of eye-safety devices.
TABLE 4
Recommended Supplies of Safety Devices for Eyes
Device
Recommended Allowance
1. Goggles—plastic, splash-proof, vented
(standard Z87.1)
One class set of 35 for each school science laboratory
(This number allows for visitors, breakage, and loss.)
2. Goggles—plastic, splash-proof, nonvented
Five for each science laboratory
3. Face shield—quickly adjustable
One for each teaching station, preparation room, and
project room
4. Cabinet—germicidal, ultraviolet, capacity 35 goggles
One for each class set of goggles
5. Safety shield—flat
One for two classrooms
6. Safety shield—curved
One for two classrooms
Note: These eye-protective devices should not be considered 100 percent effective against all potential eye hazards.
Appropriate combinations of devices may be used for optimum protection.
C. Eye Safety
To establish an effective eye-safety program, the
teacher must comply with the following practices:
1. Orient the students to the need for and use of eyeprotective devices.
2. Warn students that contact lenses may not be worn
in an atmosphere that may contain hazardous
gases, vapors, or liquids or when there is any
danger of chemicals entering the eye (see accom­
panying box, “Use of Contact Lenses”).
3. Consider eye safety when planning each science
activity. Refer to Chapter 2, section D, “Eye
Injuries,” and the following subsection in this
chapter, “Potential Eye Hazards.” Ensure that all
persons performing science laboratory activities
involving hazards to the eyes wear approved eyeprotective devices. All persons in dangerous
proximity to such activities must be similarly
equipped.
Use of Contact Lenses
The use of contact lenses in science laboratory
instruction is strongly discouraged because the
capillary action of solutions causes rapid spreading
of the solution under contact lenses and possibly
delays the removal of the lenses. Quick removal of
contact lenses is very difficult under adverse
conditions. When laboratory activities are antici­
pated, prescription glasses should be worn unless a
student cannot see without contact lenses. Contact
lenses are also not to be worn when a dust or vapor
hazard exists unless vapor-resistant goggles are
available. It is essential to provide approved
nonvented protective goggles promptly to students,
teachers, and visitors wearing contact lenses and to
ensure that the goggles are worn regularly. If
adequate eye protection cannot be provided, the
student should be excused from the activity and
assigned to another supervised room or area.
4. Establish routine procedures for the distribution of
the individual eye-protective devices, when
needed, and for their subsequent return to the
storage case.
5. Establish a definite, readily accessible location in
the designated areas for each type of eye-protective device. An accessible germicidal ultraviolet
storage cabinet is an appropriate location for
goggles because it serves the dual purpose of
storing and sterilizing the goggles.
87
6. Maintain reasonable standards of cleanliness
because eye-protective devices will usually be
shared by several persons. Use of germicidal
cabinets or dips is highly recommended along
with frequent, thorough washing. Although these
procedures do not sterilize, they do sanitize,
which is safer than no cleaning at all. Students
with unhealthy, possibly contagious skin or eye
conditions should be encouraged to purchase
personal safety goggles; or specific goggles
should be reserved for the students’ exclusive use.
7. Consider the special requirements of the store­
room, preparation room, and project room activi­
ties. Because of the greater probability and
severity of many eye hazards in storerooms,
preparation rooms, and project rooms, all persons
performing or observing hazardous activities in
those areas must be equipped with the splashproof plastic goggles and other approved eyesafety devices specified for those areas.
Potential Eye Hazards
Eye-protective devices must be provided for
participants and observers in activities involving, but
not limited to, the following conditions:
1. Impact hazards
• Conducting pneumatic pressure or evacuation
operations, including use of the pressure
cooker
• Operating power tools
• Operating centrifugal (centripetal) devices
• Conducting projectile and collision demon­
strations
• Handling elastic materials under stress; for
example, springs, wires, rubber, glass
• Working with or igniting explosive or implo­
sive devices or substances
• Working with hot molten metals
• Hammering, chipping, or grinding rocks,
minerals, and metals
• Cutting or breaking glass
2. Hazardous substances
• Pouring, pumping, or dispensing corrosive
substances
• Generating toxic or potentially explosive
gases
• Mixing chemicals that react violently
• Preserving and staining biological specimens
88
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
• Cleaning and sterilizing with corrosive
substances, including ammonia, detergents, or
solvents
3. Hazardous radiation
• Direct viewing of the sun (Note: No approved
eye protection is provided. Do not allow this
activity.)
• Use of infrared and ultraviolet light sources
(Note: No approved eye protection is pro­
vided. These sources must be shielded from
direct view.)
• Use of lasers (Note: No approved eye protec­
tion is provided. These sources must be
shielded from direct view. See Chapter 6,
section D, “Use and Hazards of Lasers.”)
An effective eye-protection program must include
adequate instruction and demonstration on the hazards
of laboratory work and the methods with which to
avert accidental injury. This instruction must be
repetitious and should become routine procedure. The
eye-protective devices must be readily available
whenever needed, and high standards of cleanliness
must be maintained to prevent any spread of infection
from contagious eye or skin conditions. Students must
be cautioned never to rub their eyes or touch their
faces during any activity using reagents or substances
that could be transferred through their hands. Students
should scrub their hands thoroughly after any such
laboratory exercise.
D
Eyewash Station
An eyewash station should be provided in any
classroom or stockroom in which a chemical splash
into eyes is a possibility (California Code of Regula­
tions, Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Section
5162; see Appendix B). Several types of stations are
possible, including:
• A completely plumbed-in or self-contained eye­
wash or eyewash/facewash station
• A faucet-mount eyewash or eyewash/facewash unit
that attaches directly to an existing faucet and also
allows for normal faucet usage
A face-and-shower-head drench hose, operated by
a squeeze handle, may support plumbed or selfcontained units but may not be used in lieu of them
(unless specially designed with separate flushing
sprays for each eye). The shower head should be on a
hose that pulls out of the counter and is installed next
to an existing sink, over which the face can be held as
the eyes are washed.
E
Safety on Field Trips
Field trips afford unique learning opportunities
and often include hazards not encountered in the
classroom/laboratory. They should be carefully
planned and should include provisions for transporta­
tion, protection against on-site hazards, and supervi­
sion (see NSTA position statement in Appendix A).
The teacher should visit the site beforehand to assess
the hazards so that they can be considered in the
pretrip orientation and in communications with parents
or guardians.
Permission slips should be completed and signed
by parents or guardians (see sample form in Appendix
R). The document should include details of the trip and
provide an opportunity for parents or guardians to
indicate any reason (medical, psychological, or
religious) for their children to be exempted from the
activity or be given special consideration during the
activity because of conditions resulting from medica­
tion, allergies, and so forth.
F. Poisonous Plants
The nature of the field trip activity and the envi­
ronment will dictate supervision needs. Ordinarily,
there should be a minimum of one adult per ten
students unless district policy indicates otherwise.
A first-aid kit (see Appendix D) is required
whenever a group takes a trip away from school. If the
field trip is conducted in an area known to be infested
by poisonous snakes, be aware of the precautions
about poisonous snakebites described in Chapter 2 of
this handbook. After a first-aid kit is used, the contents
should be replenished if necessary.
Students should be informed about the most
appropriate kinds of clothing to wear on particular
field trips. Students should be instructed to wash their
hands and faces with a strong soap immediately after
any exposure to hazards, such as poisonous plants, in
the environment (see the following section of this
chapter).
Special precautions should be taken when trips are
conducted on or near deep water. Special precautions
should also be taken when trips are conducted in areas
in which participants are likely to come into contact
with animals or organisms that spread diseases, such
as the Hanta virus, Lyme disease (spirochete), and
valley fever (coccidioidomycosis).
The Hanta virus is spread by rodents in the natural
regions and is found especially around and in primi­
tive, abandoned, or seasonally used buildings in
California and other states. The virus is often inhaled
with the dust in which saliva, urine, or feces from
rodents have intermingled. Special decontamination
measures should be taken when participants come into
contact with owl pellets because of the possible
consumption by the owls of infected rodents. Consult
your county environmental health department for
decontamination procedures.
Lyme disease is more prevalent along the north
coastal region of California. The spirochete that
causes the infection is injected during the bite of
certain ticks and may also be transmitted to other
mammals (including pets) and birds. Arthritis, heart
problems, and nervous disorders may result from the
disease, which is characterized in its early stages as a
skin rash that is hard at its center. Students should take
special precautions, such as wearing protective cloth­
ing and checking the clothes and body frequently for
ticks. Students should shower as soon as they return
home and carefully check for ticks again at that time.
89
Valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis, is discussed
in detail in Chapter 4, section E, and in Appendix S.
F
Poisonous Plants
Biology and general science teachers should be
prepared to warn students about the dangers of poison­
ous plants that grow in California. Special attention
should be given to poisonous plants or plants with
poisonous parts that are (1) included in the school
landscaping; (2) brought to school for plant studies; or
(3) likely to grow in areas in which field trips are
planned. Teachers are encouraged to become ac­
quainted with and teach about poisonous plants
growing around homes, parks, streets, and recreational
areas in the school district.
Because not all plants have been thoroughly
researched for their toxicity, a commonsense rule
would be never to do any of the following:
• Never place any plant part in the mouth.
• Never rub any sap or fruit juice into the skin or an
open wound.
• Never inhale or expose the skin or eyes to the
smoke of any burning plant or plant parts.
• Never pick strange wildflowers or cultivated plants
that are unknown.
• Never eat food after handling plants without first
scrubbing the hands.
The reason for these never precautions is that any
part of a plant can be relatively toxic, even fatal,
depending on the weight of the person and the amount
of the plant ingested. See Table 5 for further informa­
tion about some poisonous plants.
Students frequently place seeds in their mouths
unconsciously. The danger in this habit lies in the
possibility not only of swallowing a poisonous species
but also of falling prey to the practice of commercial
distributors who coat their garden and crop seeds with
hormones, fungicides, and insecticides. Some of those
items cause allergic skin responses. The remainder are
usually deadly when inhaled to any degree or acciden­
tally ingested. Teachers purchasing seeds for experi­
ments from dealers should investigate the presence of
any such coating or sprays and ask the dealer whether
the seeds have been chemically coated.
TABLE 5
Effects of Some Poisonous Plants
Toxic Part
Effects of Ingestion
Flower garden plants
Autumn crocus
Colchicum autumnale
All parts,
especially corm
Vomiting and nervous excitement
*Castor bean
Ricinus communis
Seeds
Fatal; one or two castor bean seeds are near the lethal dose
for adults
Daffodil, Narcissus
Narcissus pseudonarcissus
Bulb
Nausea, vomiting, dermatitis
Dieffenbachia, (dumb cane)
Dieffenbachia (various)
All parts
Intense burning and irritation of the mouth and tongue; death
can occur if the base of the tongue swells enough to block
the air passage
Elephant’s ear
Colocasia esculenta
Some philodendrons
All parts
Painful irritation of the lips, mouth, tongue and throat;
dermatitis
*Foxglove
Digitalis purpurea
Leaves
One of the sources of the drug digitalis, used to stimulate
the heart; in large amounts the active principals cause
dangerously irregular heartbeat and pulse, digestive upset
(usually), and mental confusion; may be fatal
Hyacinth
Hyacinthus orientalis
All parts,
especially bulb
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Iris
Iris (various)
Underground
stems, leaves
Severe, but not usually serious, digestive upset; dermatitis
Larkspur
Delphinium (various)
Young plants
and seeds
Digestive upset, nervous excitement, depression; may be fatal
Lily-of-the-Valley
Convallaria majalis
Leaves, flowers
Irregular heartbeat and pulse, usually accompanied by digestive
upset and mental confusion
Monkshood
Aconitum (various)
All parts
Digestive upset and nervous excitement
*Oleander
Nerium oleander
Leaves, branches
Extremely poisonous;
affects the heart,
produces severe
digestive upset, and
has caused death
Nerium oleander
Poinsettia
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Leaves, flowers
Can be irritating to mouth and stomach; sometimes causes
vomiting and nausea but usually produces no ill effects
Star-of-Bethlehem
Ornithogalum umbellatum
Bulbs, flowers
Nausea, vomiting, intestinal disturbances
* Included in Poisonous Plants of California by Thomas C. Fuller and Elizabeth McClintock. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. The authors cite these 12 plants
as frequently occurring seed plants that all Californians should learn to recognize.
90
TABLE 5 (Continued)
Toxic Part
Effects of Ingestion
Ornamental plants
*Angel’s trumpet (red, white)
Brugmansia sanguinea
All parts,
especially seeds
Thirst, dryness of mouth and skin, flushing of face, visual
disturbances, nausea, rapid pulse, fever, delirium,
incoherence, stupor (depends on amount); effects may be
immediate or delayed several hours
Azalea, western rhododendron
Rhododendron (various)
All parts
Fatal; produces nausea and vomiting, depression, difficult
breathing, prostration, and coma
Rhododendron
Cherries, wild and cultivated
Apricots
Prunus (various)
Kernel inside
hard pit
Fatal; contains a compound that releases cyanide when eaten;
gasping, excitement, and prostration are common symptoms,
often appearing within minutes
Daphne
Daphne (various)
All parts,
especially berries
Fatal; a few berries can kill a child
Golden chain
Laburnum anagyroides
All parts
Severe poisoning; excitement, staggering, convulsions, and
coma; may be fatal
Jessamine
Gelsemium sempervirens
All parts
Fatal; digestive disturbance, nervous symptoms, impaired
respiration, convulsions
Laurel, black/sierra
Leucothoe (various)
All parts
Fatal; cardiovascular disturbances
Moonseed
Cocculus laurifolius
Bark
Muscle relaxant, respiratory depression or arrest
Red sage
Lantana camara
Green berries
Fatal; affects lungs,
kidneys, heart, and
nervous system
Lantana camara
* Included in Poisonous Plants of California by Thomas C. Fuller and Elizabeth McClintock.
91
TABLE 5 (Continued)
Toxic Part
Effects of Ingestion
Ornamental plants
*Rosary pea
Abrus precatorius
Seeds
Fatal; a single rosary pea has caused death; not grown
in California but used in seed ornaments
Wisteria
Wisteria (various)
All parts, especially
seeds and pods
Mild to severe digestive upset; many children are poisoned by
this plant
Wisteria floribunda
*Yew (English yew)
Taxus baccata
Berries, foliage
Fatal; foliage more toxic than berries; death is usually sudden,
without warning symptoms
Buttercup
Ranunculus (various)
All parts
Irritant juices may severely injure the digestive system
*Jimsonweed (thorn apple)
Datura stramonium
All parts
Abnormal thirst, distorted sight, delirium, incoherence, and
coma; common cause of poisoning; has proved fatal
*Meadow death camas
Zigadenus venenosus
All parts
Thirst, dizziness, headache, vomiting, slow heart action,
low blood pressure, convulsions
Nightshade
Solanum (various)
All parts, especially
unripe berry
Fatal; intensive digestive disturbances and nervous symptoms
*Poison hemlock
Conium maculatum
All parts
Fatal; resembles a large wild carrot; used in ancient Greece
to kill condemned prisoners
Plants in fields
Conium maculatum
* Included in Poisonous Plants of California by Thomas C. Fuller and Elizabeth McClintock.
92
TABLE 5 (Continued)
Toxic Part
Effects of Ingestion
Plants in fields
*Pokeweed
Phytolacca americana
All parts
Thirst, coughing, vomiting, diarrhea, severe dehydration,
shock; rarely fatal
*Tree tobacco
Nicotiana glauca
All parts
Fatal; nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea,
respiratory paralysis
Nicotiana glauca
Plants in swamp
or moist areas
*Western water hemlock
(central and northern
California)
Cicuta douglasii
All parts
Fatal; violent and painful convulsions; a number of people
have died from hemlock
Black locust
Robinia pseudoacacia
Bark, sprouts,
foliage, seeds
Causes nausea, weakness, and depression in children after
they chew the bark and seeds
Elderberry
Sambucus (various)
Shoots, leaves
Children are poisoned by using pieces of the pithy stems for
blowguns; nausea and digestive upset
Mistletoe
Phoradendron (various)
All parts, especially
berries
Fatal; children and adults have died from eating the berries
Oak
Quercus (various)
Foliage, acorns
Affects kidneys gradually; symptoms appear only after several
days or weeks; takes large amount for poisoning; do not
allow children to chew on acorns
Poison oak, Pacific poison oak
Western poison oak
Toxicodendron diversilobum
[Rhus diversiloba]
Leaves, stems,
berries, roots
Skin contact
with oily fluid
secreted in all
parts of plant
causes painful,
often longlasting skin
eruptions and a
burning, itching
sensation
Plants in wooded areas
Toxicodendron diversilobum
[Rhus diversiloba]
Vegetable garden plants
Rhubarb
Rheum rha barbarum
Leaf blade
Fatal; large amounts of raw or cooked leaves can cause
convulsions and coma, followed rapidly by death
* Included in Poisonous Plants of California by Thomas C. Fuller and Elizabeth McClintock.
93
94
G
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
Ionizing Radiation
Before considering the acquisition of radiationproducing machines or radioactive materials, school
administrators and science department faculty should
obtain a copy of the California Radiation Control
Regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 17).
The manual is available from the California Depart­
ment of Health Services, Radiologic Health Branch,
P.O. Box 1525, Sacramento, CA 95807. It provides
regulatory, licensing, and safety requirements for the
use of radiation-producing machines and radioactive
materials.
When planning to use radiation-producing ma­
chines or radioactive materials in the classroom,
teaching and administrative staff should be fully aware
of the recommendations of the National Committee on
Radiation Protection and Measurements and of the
requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title
17, Section 30265, that limit radiation exposure of
persons under eighteen years of age to no more than
0.5 rem per year. Although the risk of reaching or
exceeding that limit is exceedingly small, all uses
should be planned and conducted accordingly.
Schools should not accept gifts of X-ray machines
or radioactive materials until (1) the machines have
been checked by a qualified health physicist or radio­
logical physicist to determine that the equipment can
be operated safely and without excessive radiation
leakage; and (2) the radioactive materials have been
determined not to exceed permissible quantity limits
specified by California Code of Regulations, Title 17,
Section 30180(c), and have been found to be free of
removable contamination in excess of 0.005 microcu­
rie.
Radiation Machines
A radiation machine is any device capable of
producing ionizing radiation when the associated
control devices are operated. Examples of radiationproducing machines are medical and dental machines
used in the healing arts, electron microscopes, cabinet
X-ray machines, and fluoroscopes.
Registration. Every person who acquires a radiation-producing machine shall register it with the
Department of Health Services (DOHS) within 30
days. Registration forms can be obtained from DOHS,
Radiologic Health Branch, P.O. Box 1525, Sacra­
mento, CA 95807; telephone (916) 445-6256.
Exemptions. Electrical equipment is exempt from
registration if it produces radiation incidental to its
operation but does not produce radiation in any
accessible area to such a degree that an individual
will be likely to receive a radiation dose to the whole
body or to the head, trunk, gonads, lens of the eye,
or active blood-forming organs in excess of 0.5 rem
in a year. Examples of potentially hazardous equip­
ment are flyback transformers, shunt regulator tubes,
and cathode-ray tubes operating at voltages in excess
of 20,000 volts.
Cold Cathode-Ray Tubes
Cold cathode-ray tubes of the types commonly
used in the classroom have been identified as
potential sources of hazardous X rays coincidental to
the intended use of the tubes. The information in this
section on cold cathode-ray tubes was provided by
the California Department of Public Health in
Berkeley as a guide for science teachers.
Cold cathode-ray tubes are used for the study of
electrons and electronic phenomena. The tubes come
in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and forms. Three
kinds of cold cathode-ray tubes that can produce
potentially hazardous X rays coincidental to their
intended use are heat-effect tubes, magnetic-effect
tubes, and shadow- or fluorescence-effect tubes.
These cathode-ray tubes can produce X rays when
all the following conditions are met:
• An electron source or cathode is present.
• There is a target or anode that the electrons can
strike.
• A high potential difference exists between anode
and cathode. (In voltage of 10KV or under, the
electrons do not acquire sufficient energy to
produce significant X rays.)
• Low gas pressure prevails between cathode and
anode; that is, a moderately good vacuum exists
in the tube.
The heat-effect tube is used to demonstrate that
cathode rays consist of rapidly moving electrons
whose kinetic energy is converted to heat on colli­
sion with an object. The tube consists of an evacu­
ated glass bulb with a thin foil target positioned
between opposed electrodes. The cathode has a
concave surface to focus electrons on a small spot of
the foil. The focal spot on the foil can easily be
heated to a dramatically visible white heat.
The magnetic- or deflection-effect tube demon­
strates that cathode rays carry an electric charge and
can be deflected by a magnetic field. This tube
consists of an evacuated glass cylinder with an
G. Ionizing Radiation
95
electrode at each end. An aluminum strip coated with a
fluorescent material is positioned between the elec­
trodes, and a collimating slit is at the cathode end. In a
magnetic field the luminous line caused by electron
bombardment of the fluorescent strip moves up or
down according to the polarity of the magnet.
The shadow- or fluorescence-effect tube demon­
strates that cathode-ray energy may be converted into
visible radiation by fluorescence of the glass walls of
the tube, resulting from electron bombardment. A
metallic object, such as a Maltese cross, is placed in a
Crookes tube so that its shadow can be cast on the
glass wall of the tube. By observing this shadow, one
can see that the cathode rays producing this pattern
travel in straight lines.
The following conclusions may be drawn about Xray production from the cathode-ray tubes:
The properties of radioactive materials have
numerous applications in scientific research, medicine,
and industry. These applications are anticipated not
only to continue but also to increase dramatically in
number and in kind. School district science programs
should provide students with an opportunity to investi­
gate radiological theory and the uses of radioactive
materials to develop techniques and skills in handling
such materials safely.
Licenses. California Code of Regulations, Title 17,
states the conditions under which persons and institu­
tions may possess and use radioactive materials: either
a school must have and use only small (exempt)
quantities and concentrations of radioactive materials
or the school must have a specific license to possess
and use radioactive materials. The terms are described
below:
1. X-ray output is sporadic. Under identical condi­
tions of operation, output may vary from one tube
to another or from the same tube from day to day.
2. Gas pressure within the tube is one of the control­
ling factors in X-ray production. If there is
sufficient gas present, the accelerated electrons
will collide with gas atoms and, therefore, never
gain enough energy to produce X rays.
3. Tube composition plays an important part in
producing X rays. X-ray production is a function
of the target materials that the electrons strike.
4. The tube wall, if thick enough and of proper
composition, can act as a shield for X rays.
5. The output of the tube is strongly dependent on
the voltage and current capabilities of the power
source.
The Department of Health recommends the
following procedures in the use of cold cathode-ray
tubes:
• Possession or use of exempt quantities and concen­
trations of materials, as defined in California Code
of Regulations, Title 17, Section 30180, does not
require the issuance of a specific license. Exempt
materials include (a) any naturally occurring
radioactive material (except uranium and thorium);
(b) unprocessed ore which, in its natural form,
contains uranium and thorium; (c) radioactive
materials in concentrations that do not exceed those
noted in Schedule C of Title 17; and (d) radioactive
materials, provided that the quantity of each
material does not exceed the applicable quantity
noted in Schedule A of Title 17 and provided that
not more than ten such quantities are possessed at
any one time.
• Specific licenses, as defined in California Code of
Regulations, Title 17, sections 30194 and 30195,
are required if an individual or an institution
intends to possess or use quantities or concentra­
tions of radioactive materials in excess of the
amounts specified in schedules A and C. Informa­
tion relating to specific licenses can be obtained
from the Department of Health Services, Radio­
logic Health Branch, 714 P Street, Sacramento, CA
95814. Applications for specific licenses must be
signed by an appropriate school district staff
member, who has the responsibility for ensuring
that the radioactive material is used and stored
safely. The direct responsibility for safe use and
storage rests with an appropriately trained radiation
safety officer at the site of use. Both persons must
be designated on the license application.
• Tubes should be used only for demonstrations
conducted by the instructor.
• Tubes should always be operated at the lowest
possible current and voltage, and the time of
operation should be kept to a minimum.
• No student should stand closer than 10 feet (3 m)
from a tube when the tube is in operation.
Radioactive Materials
This section applies to situations in which indi­
viduals or groups actively participate in investigations
or projects involving the use of radioactive materials.
It does not refer to class demonstrations of the use of
radiation detectors or cloud chambers.
96
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
Strict compliance with the conditions attached to
specific licenses is required for approval of the
licenses. An amendment request must be submitted
for any change in the personnel using radioactive
materials, the radiation safety officer, or the site of
use. A copy of the license must be maintained in
the school district staff offices as well as at the site
of use. All persons at the site of use must be aware
that they have access to the license and its condi­
tions as well as to laws and regulations set forth in
the California Penal Code and the Health and
Safety Code.
Procurement and storage of radioisotopes. Before
the first procurement of radioactive materials, the
school should make certain that a radiation survey
meter is available. The recommended type of radiation
detection instrument is an end window Geiger-Mueller
(G-M) detector with a detection window of approxi­
mately 2 mg/cm2. When used properly, this instrument
will detect alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. G-M
detectors are available at relatively low cost; assistance
in choosing the correct instrument can be provided by
DOHS or a competent health physicist.
Orders for procurement of radioisotopes, whether
in exempt amounts or as allowed by specific license,
must be approved by the appropriate school-site
administrator and school district staff member. On
receipt of the material, the teacher or designated
radiation safety officer (RSO) must take the following
steps:
• Carefully inspect the package for damage before
opening it.
• If there is no damage, open the package, inspect the
contents, and compare the contents with the
packing slip.
• If there are any indications of external damage or
contamination of the packing material or if the
contents do not match the packing slip, notify the
vendor immediately and request disposal instruc­
tions. In the interim place the package and contents
in a plastic bag, seal and store the bag, and monitor
the storage area for contamination.
All schools in which radioactive materials are used
must provide a secure storage location. The location
must be kept locked when not in use, and access must
be limited to designated persons only. The room must
be properly posted and accurate records maintained of
each isotope or source. Records must include the type
and quantity of isotope, date of assay, date of receipt,
and usage information. No more than ten scheduled
quantities of isotopes may be stored in any one school,
as specified in the California Radiation Control
Regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 17).
Use of radioisotopes. The use of radioactive
materials in classroom activities can provide valuable
experience in preparation for subsequent vocational or
university application. However, the use should be
closely supervised. The standard radiation symbol with
the words Caution—Radioactive Material should be
displayed both at the storage room and in the class­
room when the isotopes are in use. Normally, the use
of film badges or other types of radiation dosimeters is
not required when using exempt quantities of radioiso­
topes. However, an operable radiation survey meter
should always be available and should be used follow­
ing the classroom exercise to verify that there is no
contamination on the hands or body or on surfaces that
have come into direct contact with the isotopes.
Observance of the following rules will ensure that
radioisotopes are used safely:
• Never handle radioactive sources with unprotected
fingertips. The use of forceps or tongs will mini­
mize exposure to the hands and fingers.
• Alpha emitters can be shielded easily by a sheet of
paper; beta emitters should be shielded by onequarter-inch lucite or glass. However, teachers
should remember that both of these sources are
often accompanied by the emission of gamma rays,
which may require lead shielding. Exempt gammaemitting sources can usually be shielded easily by
one-quarter-inch lead.
• No experiments should be performed that might
cause the release of gaseous radioactive products,
nor should radioactive materials be disposed of in
sinks and drains or unmarked waste or trash
containers.
Disposal of unneeded radioactive materials. When
teachers and administrators become aware of the
presence of radioactive sources and materials that are
the remains of old classroom activities, they should
never dispose of those materials as ordinary trash.
Usually, the materials are partially or completely
decayed. The only acceptable methods of removal are
by disposal as radioactive waste or by transfer to a
person or institution holding a specific license autho­
rizing receipt of the material.
Disposal as radioactive waste presents unique but
not unsolvable problems. Radioactive sources and
trash must be kept separate from liquid materials,
H. Earthquake Preparation
which must be absorbed against diatomaceous earth or
a similar agent. Both must be packaged in steel drums,
manifests must be prepared, and the material must be
transferred to an authorized disposal company. Before
that is done, the school must have an EPA number (see
Chapter 5, section E, step 5; and the regulations in
Appendix B, dealing with “milkrun operations” for
transporting hazardous waste) and a permit from one
of the three states that maintain low-level waste
disposal sites. (The same EPA number can be used for
disposal of chemicals and other hazardous materials.)
The DOHS maintains a list of licensed waste-disposal
companies; those companies will offer assistance with
obtaining the necessary permits and licenses.
An acceptable and less costly method of disposal
of unwanted radioisotopes is by transfer to a specific
licensee. Inquire of nearby universities, colleges, and
research organizations whether any has a license for
the particular type and quantity of material that you
wish to dispose of. Disposal can usually be done for a
minimal cost. The designated school district staff
member or radiation safety officer is responsible for
first obtaining a copy of the receiver’s license to verify
that it includes the material in question. Then the
designated person is responsible for packaging the
material for shipment or transfer, complying with other
reasonable requirements of the receiver, and obtaining
a receipt for the material.
The disposal process or transfer to a licensee must
be coordinated with the appropriate school or school
district staff. If the material to be disposed of or
transferred is material for which the school holds a
license and the intent is to abandon the license, the
DOHS must be notified of such intent. A final inspec­
tion will be conducted by that agency.
H
Earthquake Preparation
Earthquake! A strong shake measuring 6.5 on the
Richter scale smashes all the glass containers in the
chemical storage area, allowing the chemicals to
intermix and releasing toxic fumes and a corrosive
slurry strong enough to eat through the flooring and
cement.
That scenario may sound unreasonable, but it
happened at Coalinga High School in 1983. Consultant
E. Robert Bulman concludes in his report, “The
Coalinga Earthquake: A Report on Schools,” that
although California’s school buildings can structurally
97
withstand an earthquake of magnitude 6.5, the shaking
will cause a tremendous amount of glass breakage. He
recommends the following preventive measures: (a)
toxic chemicals must be stored on low shelves and in
chemical-proof pans; (b) the floor must be acid-proof;
(c) the school must keep an inventory of what is in the
storeroom; (d) the name of the nearest chemical burn
center should be posted in the chemistry laboratory;
and (e) disaster drills must be conducted more fre­
quently. (See also Chapter 5, section E, “Steps for
Establishing a Safer Chemicals Storage Area.”)
The experiences of Jack Grube, who was adminis­
tering school science programs in the earthquakedamaged areas during both the magnitude 6.9 earth­
quake in the San Francisco Bay Area on October 17,
1989, and the 6.8 earthquake in Northridge, California,
on January 17, 1994, demonstrate the importance of
preparedness. He found that science preparation areas
that are properly managed and have good storage
practices can ride out strong earthquakes. There was
no damage to the contents of shelving that was secured
to the wall and had retaining lips on the front edge.
However, doors on storage cabinets did not protect the
contents as well as the secured shelves did because
lateral motion was able to throw doors open unless
they were securely (purposefully) latched. He con­
cludes that (a) earthquake procedures and drills should
specifically address the dangers of science storage
areas; (b) science teachers (and facilities) should be
prepared for emergencies and should be called on to
supervise cleanup after an earthquake, rather than
custodial and other inadequately trained personnel;
and (c) battery-operated emergency lights should
clearly illuminate chemical storage areas.
The following sobering statement was made by the
Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project
(BAREPP) in 1985:
Approximately 80 percent of California’s
population is located within the Uniform Building
Code’s highest seismic risk zone out of the five
zones in the United States. The remainder of the
state is located in the next highest zone. This
translates to virtually a 100 percent chance of
experiencing light shaking or worse during (the
next) 25 years.
As urban areas in the vicinity of hazardous earth­
quake regions become increasingly populated, the
amount of death and destruction from earthquakes can
be expected to rise. Therefore, California’s science
98
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
teachers need to prepare now. Instructors should read
this entire section on seismic safety, then act. The
earthquake safety measures outlined in this section are
intended to augment the school’s general emergency/
disaster plans.
The central components of any earthquakeresponse plan for seismic safety in science classes
should include, but not be limited to, the following
phases:
1. Surveying the classroom and stockroom for
nonstructural hazards
2. Performing hazard-reduction projects
3. Creating an earthquake-response plan
4. Procuring emergency equipment and supplies
Completion of these four phases will help the
school come into compliance with the requirements of
the law to establish earthquake emergency procedures
(Education Code sections 35295 through 35297 and
40041.5; see Appendix B).
Phase 1: Nonstructural Hazard Identification
The following checklist is intended to help identify common nonstructural earthquake hazards that can be
reduced or eliminated at little or no cost. For questions checked No, refer to Phase 2, step three, of this section,
which contains suggestions for rectifying nonstructural hazards.
Yes
No
❑
❑
c. Do tall industrial storage racks have adequate bracing?
❑
❑
❑
❑
d. Are racks that are significantly taller than they are wide connected to the concrete
slab by large anchor bolts?
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
h. Have heavy objects stored above head level been restrained or relocated?
❑
❑
❑
❑
*i. Are refrigerators, water heaters, or ranges restrained by attachment to the floor
or wall, not just by kitchen cabinetry?
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
1. Equipment/furnishings/fixtures
a. Are freestanding cabinets, lockers, bookcases, cupboards, storage racks, and wall
shelves secured to a structural support?
*b. Are the ceilings, overhead lights, movie screens, and air ducts secured to a
structural support?
e. Is the television monitor securely fastened either to a securely fastened platform
or to a cart with a low center of gravity and lockable wheels?
f. Do desktop computers have secured monitors?
g. Are heavy or sharp wall decorations securely mounted (with closed eye hooks,
for example)?
j. Is specialized heavy laboratory equipment (e.g., an autoclave) on a countertop
secured to protect it against sliding off and falling?
k. Are fire extinguishers securely mounted?
l. Are cabinets equipped with heavy-duty latches? (Magnetic catches can pop open
too easily.)
m. Are display cases or aquariums protected against overturning or sliding off tables?
n. Are emergency battery-operated lights protected from falling off shelf supports?
*o. Are the fire-sprinkler risers secured to the wall with a vee brace, and are
large-diameter sprinkler pipes secured with diagonal braces to the structure
above (see NFPA Standard Number 13)?
*Additional help from the janitor or maintenance person may be needed.
H. Earthquake Preparation
99
*p. Do sound-system speakers in elevated locations have positive anchorages?
❑
❑
*q. Are suspended space heaters, especially gas-fired heaters, braced and/or
equipped with flexible gas connections?
❑
❑
❑
❑
*s. Are air-distribution grills or diffusers screwed to adequately supported sheet metal
ducts or to the ceiling or wall?
❑
❑
*t. Are large metal air-distribution ducts, especially those that are suspended a few feet,
fastened with diagonal bracing?
❑
❑
*u. Is the suspended ceiling equipped with bracing wires? (See Uniform Building Code
[UBC], Table 23-3, and UBC Standard 47-18.)
❑
❑
*v. Are the lay-in fluorescent light fixtures independently supported by at least two
hanger wires per light fixture?
❑
❑
a. Have inventories been made of hazardous chemicals so that someone can check
the chemicals after an earthquake?
❑
❑
b. Are compressed gas cylinders tightly secured with a nylon strap or strong chain
near the top and near the bottom or stored on a rack designed to restrain cylinders?
❑
❑
c. Are laboratory chemicals on shelves restrained by a wire, lip, or other barrier?
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
*f. Does gas piping allow for movement at connections to equipment that could slide,
swing, or tip or at points where the piping crosses expansion joints structurally
separating the wings of a building?
❑
❑
*g. Are automatic gas shut-off devices that are sensitive to excess flow designed to be
actuated by leak detectors or triggered by earthquakes?
❑
❑
❑
❑
r. Are hanging plants, movie screens, or displays fastened with closed eye hooks
and positioned so that they would not hit a window if they were to swing?
2. Hazardous/toxic materials
d. Have chemicals been stored by compatible groups to reduce the likelihood of
their mixing and causing reactions?
e. Have chemicals been stored in plastic or other unbreakable storage containers?
3. *Windows. Have the windows in the classroom/laboratory or stockroom been equipped
with safety glass or covered with protective film?
*Additional help from the janitor or maintenance person may be needed.
100
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
Phase 2: Hazard Reduction Projects
After identifying the nonstructural hazards in your
classroom, laboratory, stockroom, and preparation
room, you need to determine the most effective
method to mitigate those risks.
Step one. Establish an earthquake awareness
program.
Central to earthquake preparedness is the earth­
quake drill to teach students (and staff) how to respond
immediately with life-protecting action. The proce­
dures for earthquake drills in science instructional
areas need to be individualized for each room at each
site; however, the following elements would be similar
for all:
• Duck, cover, and hold. (Students duck under their
desks or tables, cover their neck and head, and hold
on to a table leg.)
• Guard against potential hazards:
— Extinguish flames.
— Unplug electric cords.
— Secure apparatus. (Perhaps, set them in sinks
or on the floor.)
— Shut off water, gas, and electricity master
controls.
— Have fire extinguishers at ready.
• Evacuate to an open area when necessary or safe to
do so (instructor’s decision).
• Comply with administrative instructions.
The activities in this list are not necessarily in a set
order. In an emergency the severity of the earthquake
will help dictate the order. If any of the actions to
guard against hazards can be accomplished in the
process of “duck, cover, and hold,” the situation would
become much safer.
Advance preparation for the drill and for a sizable
earthquake emergency will facilitate each step. Teach­
ers should lead students in each class through a
simulated drill early in the course and repeat the drill
occasionally during the year. This practice should
carry over to staff preparation and response at home
and wherever else one may be during a real emer­
gency.
A simulated drill is also the time in which to
correct deficiencies in the preparedness of the facility.
Identify objects, structures, and furnishings that should
be avoided and those that might be used for protection.
Objects, glassware, instruments, or books that are on
shelves without earthquake lips (even those on shelves
with closed doors) are likely to dislodge and fall or
become missiles. Objects (including containers of
chemicals and solutions) standing on counters will
likely fall to the floor. Anything that can be used as a
cover (tables, chairs, books) to provide protection from
falling ceiling tiles or other objects will decrease the
likelihood of injury.
Each drill should be followed by an evaluation,
including the assessment of any hazardous condition
that should have been corrected. The follow-up
discussion should not only reinforce the idea of where
to seek shelter and how to protect oneself but also
provide a forum in which students can voice their
concerns, thus minimizing the possibility of panic if an
earthquake does occur.
In addition, science staff should take the time to
evaluate the preparedness of the entire department and
go through each room to estimate the consequences of
a severe earthquake at any given moment. This action
should lead to continual improvement in the prepared­
ness of basic structures as well as improved house­
keeping procedures.
Step two. Obtain or draw a map of the school and
school grounds. Use the map to note potential hazards
and to mark the location of utilities, emergency
equipment, and supplies. Be sure to mark the locations
of the following items:
• Main shut-off valves for water and gas
• Electrical-power master switch
• Stoves and heating/air-conditioning equipment
• Chemical storage areas and gas lines in laboratories
• Fire extinguishers
• First-aid equipment
H. Earthquake Preparation
The map can also be used as the basis for (a)
tracing an evacuation route; (b) locating a safe
assembly area; and (c) creating an earthquakeresponse plan (e.g., planning first-aid and searchand-rescue strategies).
Step three. Mitigate the nonstructural hazards.
The following methods are suggested to rectify the
hazards that were identified in Phase 1 (a checklist of
the more common nonstructural hazards found in
secondary science classrooms). Each suggestion is
cross-referenced to items in Phase 1.
1. Equipment/furnishings/fixtures
a. Anchor all file cabinets, shelving, and
bookcases to wall studs. (Phase 1: 1.a, 1.c,
and 1.d)
b. Check cupboards and cabinets for secure
latches that would stay locked during an
earthquake. (1.1)
c. Anchor all desktop computers and their
components, televisions, aquariums, plants,
sound systems, lamps, and other heavy
items. (1.e, 1.f, 1.i, and 1.m)
d. Remove or secure any boxes or equipment
stored on top of high cabinets. (1.h)
*e. Check the secure attachment of any over­
head fixtures, decorations, lighting, grills in
walls, ceiling panels, or latticework. (1.b,
1.g, and 1.n through 1.v)
*f. Securely affix fire extinguishers in acces­
sible areas. (1.k)
g. Put chocks under wheels of objects or
wheels that lack built-in brakes. (1.e and 1.i)
*h. Restrain heavy equipment (e.g., refrigera­
tors, ranges). (1.i and 1.j)
i. Post safety signs, symbols, and labels to
reinforce safety precautions.
2. Hazardous/toxic materials
a. Secure compressed gas cylinders or large
tanks with strong nylon straps or heavy-duty
chains. (2.b)
b. Use wires or other barriers to restrain objects
from falling from open shelving. (1.l and
2.c)
c. Store chemicals in unbreakable containers
and in accordance with the compatibility
system prescribed in this handbook (see
Chapter 5, section E, step 7), or a similar
*Additional help from the janitor or maintenance person may be needed.
101
system, to reduce the possible occurrence of
incompatible mixtures. (2.d and 2.e)
3. Windows
If the windows are not made of safety glass, a
protective, transparent film may be applied to
reduce the danger of flying glass and provide an
additional security measure against break-ins. (3)
Phase 3: Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
In response to the Statutes of 1984, Chapter 1659
(see relevant Education Code sections in Appendix B),
most schools have already developed an earthquake
emergency procedure system that includes, but is not
limited to, the following:
• A school-building disaster plan
• A “duck, cover, and hold” drill (students duck
under their desks, cover their neck and head, and
hold onto a leg of the desk)
• Protective measures to be taken before, during, and
after an earthquake
• A training program for students and staff on the
earthquake emergency procedure system
See Phase 2, step one, for more details on proce­
dures specific to earthquake awareness in science
instructional areas.
Schools should also have in their possession the
excellent guide entitled Guidebook for Developing a
School Earthquake Program, furnished a few years
ago by the Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA).
Phase 4: Emergency Equipment and Supplies
The threat of an earthquake-related emergency
varies considerably from one region of the state to
another. However, the basic equipment and supplies
that science laboratory/classroom personnel need to
have on hand in the event of a severe earthquake are
quite similar to those needed in other natural emergen­
cies, such as fire, flood, or tornado, or in disasters
resulting from air, railroad, or highway accidents.
Furthermore, Education Code Section 40041.5 speci­
fies that the school buildings, grounds, and equipment
must be made available to the public agencies, includ­
ing the American Red Cross, for mass care and welfare
shelters during disasters or other emergencies (see
Appendix B). It is advisable and prudent to consider
such possibilities in the overall emergency planning.
The most obvious needs would include the following:
102
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
• A source of lighting, such as a flashlight, with fresh
batteries as well as spare batteries and bulbs
• A battery-powered radio for receiving information
and instructions
• A well-stocked first-aid kit
• A generous supply of water
Science rooms already have available a number of
safety features, including fire extinguishers, fire
blanket, chemical spill-control kits, and eyewash
stations. Because the science laboratory/classroom has
the potential for the occurrence of unique injuries from
flammable, toxic, and corrosive substances, consider­
ation should be given to the possibility of tap water
being unavailable. Additions to the list of emergency
supplies might include these items:
• Sterile squeeze bottles and spray bottles, useful for
applying water to burns or spills of toxic or corro­
sive substances on the skin or in the eye
• Extra water
• Extra fire blanket(s), both for the primary purpose
of smothering fires and for maintaining body
warmth during first-aid measures
A plan must be established for replacing compo­
nents regularly to ensure that all items are fully
available and functional at all times. During an emer­
gency evacuation of the facility, the emergency
supplies, as appropriate, should be a part of the orderly
departure.
I
Waste Reduction
The growing costs of the disposal of toxic waste
and concern about the effects of toxic waste on hu­
mans and the environment make the reduction of
waste generated by schools an increasingly important
issue. By employing innovative strategies that effec­
tively reduce the volume and toxicity of laboratory
waste, schools and school districts will reap the
benefits of (1) lower overall costs for waste disposal;
(2) increased organization and safety in laboratory and
storage areas; and (3) decreased amounts of chemical
waste. Such efforts will also contribute to the efforts of
each city and county to divert 25 percent of their solid
waste from landfills by 1995 and 50 percent by 2000
through source reduction, recycling, and composting,
as mandated by the Public Resources Code (Division
30, Section 41780).
A campuswide waste-management program that
involves all departments, including those of art and
photography, auto shop, agriculture, and maintenance
operations, provides the district with even greater cost
savings in waste reduction. Pointing out to students,
faculty, administrators, and maintenance staff the
benefits of reducing their personal exposure to poten­
tially hazardous chemicals is essential in obtaining
campuswide commitment to the program. Vital
information about worker safety can be solicited from
industrial hygienists who work in local industries. And
community businesses can provide professionals who
will explain the advantages of source reduction. Once
campuswide support for safety and reduction goals is
established, the personal, fiscal, and ecological ben­
efits will be evident almost immediately.
Assessment of Current Waste Policy
Before designing a waste-reduction plan, school
authorities should perform an assessment of the
school’s current waste-generation sources and wastemanagement practices. Such an audit will provide
insight into more effective waste-reduction methods
and assist in planning and allocating resources toward
the reduction of waste. Moreover, the audit will
furnish data to use as a baseline in monitoring the
progress of a waste-reduction plan. The assessment
should be executed by knowledgeable staff members
or specially trained consultants. Appraisal objectives
should include the following:
• Identification of the types and amounts of hazard­
ous materials used and the waste generated in each
department
• Identification of significant losses of materials and
the factors that cause the losses; for example,
inaccurately measured amounts of substances used
in experiments
• Suggested strategies for decreasing waste and
stemming losses of materials
• Itemization of current waste-management costs and
an estimate of the costs of proposed waste-reduction practices
When the assessment is complete, a flexible
waste-reduction strategy can be generated.
Development of a Campuswide Plan
A campuswide waste-reduction plan should reflect
changes in management practices as well as changes in
I. Waste Reduction
everyday laboratory practices and the usage of chemi­
cals.
Waste reduction through prudent management
practices. The following management practices will
help create a thorough and effective waste-reduction
plan:
1. Appoint a waste-management coordinator. Select
a trained faculty member who has been accredited
through a college program or workshop on waste
management to implement an integrated wastereduction program approved by the school board.
A prime responsibility of the waste-management
coordinator would be to ensure that the school is
in compliance with current local, state, and federal
waste-management regulations.
2. Provide employees with information about waste
reduction. To enhance schoolwide awareness and
participation, inform employees of the necessity
of waste reduction and the ways in which it can be
achieved. Hands-on experiences provide the most
effective learning forum for faculty and staff.
Arrange follow-up meetings within each depart­
ment to give all employees the opportunity to
discuss and critique the effectiveness of their
reduction efforts.
3. Centralize purchasing. Schools should consider
developing a system for buying chemicals through
a centralized district or consortium purchasing
agent. The purchaser would monitor all requests
received from the entire district or consortium and
place money-saving bulk orders for chemicals,
then distribute the chemicals to the schools.
4. Prevent overstocking. Within each school, teach­
ers can prevent overstocking and ensure the
availability of fully potent chemicals by sharing
chemicals among common users and buying
chemicals only as needed. A practice that is
initially slightly more expensive (but will save
money in the long run) is the purchase of a
chemical in several small bottles. This system
helps to stem the loss of large amounts of a
chemical reagent through accidental contamina­
tion and makes it easier to manage unused
amounts. Another successful cost-cutting strategy
is to estimate the amount of a chemical reagent
the school (all departments) will use in one year
and order only that amount at the beginning of the
year. Bulk ordering for multiple years of predicted
use is discouraged. Although a school may seem
to take advantage of unit cost savings by ordering
103
large quantities, there is often no net savings for
the school because of the ever-increasing cost of
disposal of outdated, unused chemicals.
5. Choose a responsible vendor. Schools can encour­
age better customer service from chemical suppli­
ers by ordering supplies from those who provide
quick delivery, accept the return of unopened
stock, and offer off-site waste-management outlets
or cooperatives for laboratory waste. These
customer service benefits should be solicited from
company representatives before orders are placed
and should be considered as the basis for future
orders.
6. Establish an inventory control program. An
inventory control program should be established
to trace the volume of waste generated. The
inventory would enable more accurate tracking of
all incoming chemicals from the time they arrive
until they are disposed of as hazardous waste.
Improved access to accurate inventory lists by all
authorized district and school personnel will
enable the sharing of chemicals between common
users, provide data on all courses in which poten­
tially hazardous chemicals are utilized, allow
instructors to track the consumption of the chemi­
cals they use and locate unused reagents, and
allow the monitoring of the shelf life of chemi­
cals. The program could be implemented on either
the district or individual school level by means of
a computer database and specialized software or a
standard filing system.
Waste reduction through everyday laboratory
practices, proper equipment, and experimental design.
Although waste audits and up-to-date waste-management practices are essential to a campuswide wastereduction program, the full cooperation and under­
standing of laboratory instructors are necessary if the
program is to achieve success. According to the Waste
Audit Study of Research and Educational Institutions,
prepared for the California Department of Health
Services’ Toxic Substances Control Division (now the
Department of Toxic Substances Control), schools can
markedly minimize waste generation by taking the
following actions in the laboratory:
Before the laboratory experiment
1. Perform regular inspections. By regularly inspect­
ing all containers, the instructor can quickly
replace those that are cracked or broken and so
prevent spills and leaks.
104
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
2. Preweigh materials. After students master the skill
of using the balance to weigh substances, it may
be practical to preweigh materials for them.
Students’ laboratory productivity can be increased
by reducing the time spent waiting for each
student to weigh his or her materials. Preweighing
chemicals also helps to prevent the contamination
of substances, a problem that becomes more likely
when many people are obtaining samples from the
same bottle. Trained and properly supervised
laboratory assistants who have reviewed the
pertinent MSDS for each hazardous substance to
be handled may perform the preweighing tasks.
3. Use less-hazardous chemicals. Substituting lesshazardous chemicals for chemicals that present
health and environmental risks can reduce the use
of more harmful chemicals. A reference on this
strategy is New Chemicals for Old, Preserving the
Student Lab Experiment, by R. Benedict (Minne­
sota Department of Education, 1987).
4. Reduce metal-bearing waste. Experiments that
generate metal-bearing waste can be expensive
because of the high cost of the processing treat­
ments for heavy metals. Any commingling of lesshazardous waste with heavy metals causes the
entire mixture to be classified as a heavy-metal
waste and greatly increases the cost of disposal.
Many heavy metals, such as hexavalent chro­
mium, have recently been placed on the list titled
“Extremely Hazardous Chemicals for Prompt
Disposal” because of their carcinogenic or toxic
nature (see Chapter 5, Table 2, of this handbook).
Therefore, experiments that call for their use
should be either modified or removed from the
laboratory curriculum. Experiments that generate
heavy metals should be carefully monitored so
that waste streams are not mixed. If nonmetallic
reagents are substituted for those containing
metals, the district will probably encounter lower
disposal costs.
During the laboratory experiment
1. Use efficient dispensers. Using containers that
dispense their contents through pumps and spigots
will reduce the likelihood of spills and measure­
ment errors.
2. Reduce wet chemistry. In some circumstances the
use of instrument methods instead of wet-chemistry procedures will help in reducing waste because
instrument analysis requires much smaller quanti­
ties of chemicals.
3. Avoid generating waste. Sometimes chemicals can
be rendered “sewerable” in the final steps of an
experiment. In that case the process will not only
reduce the need for off-site disposal but also
increase students’ awareness of proper waste
management and waste reduction. A thorough
reference on this strategy is Prudent Practices
for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories
(Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press,
1983), Chapters 5 and 6.
4. Scale-down experiments. The volume of chemi­
cals used in experiments can be reduced by
practicing microscale chemistry (described in the
following subsection).
After the laboratory experiment
1. Recycle experimental products. Recycling chemi­
cals by using the product of one experiment in the
student’s next experiment is an effective way
greatly to diminish the amounts of fresh chemicals
used in the laboratory. An entire college-level
laboratory curriculum that focuses on using cyclic
experiments is presented in The No Waste Lab
Manual: A Procedure That Eliminates Toxic Waste
Production from Introductory Chemistry Labora­
tory Courses (California Department of Health
Services, 1989).
2. Clean containers according to state regulations.
Costly disposal fees may be reduced by thor­
oughly emptying all used chemical containers.
California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Section
66261.7, addresses the handling of contaminated
containers and encourages recycling and other
options for disposal of “empty” containers.
Containers once filled with hazardous waste can
be disposed of as nonhazardous waste provided
certain stipulations are met. See Appendix T for
definitions of empty containers and disposal
options.
3. Reuse solvents. Use spent solvents for the initial
cleaning of glassware; use fresh solvent only for
the final rinsing.
Waste reduction through microscale chemistry.
One of the most effective ways in which to achieve
waste reduction is by using smaller volumes of chemi­
cals to perform microscale laboratory experiments. In
most microscale experiments the chemical quantities
can be reduced to between one-tenth and onethousandth of the usual scale. The main advantages
of this approach include the following: (1) less money
J. Employees’ Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals
is spent on chemicals; (2) less waste is produced;
(3) exposure to hazardous chemicals is reduced;
(4) reduction in the volume of reagents for ecological
and safety reasons can be modeled to students; and
(5) the results of the experiment can often be deter­
mined more quickly.
The transformation of a laboratory from
macroscale to microscale is easily accomplished.
Some new materials must be purchased but these are
relatively inexpensive. One cost-effective way of
converting is to purchase reuseable plastic or polysty­
rene tissue-culture plates and plastic pipettes. Because
water is the solvent used most often in high school
experiments, the chemical stability of the plastic is not
usually a problem. If plastic is unsuitable for organic
chemistry, microscale glassware can be substituted,
although it is slightly more expensive. Nearly all
chemical suppliers now carry the equipment necessary
for microscale experiments.
Several publications are available on experiments
using microscale chemistry. Most focus on organic
chemistry because minimization efforts are most costeffective with those kinds of chemicals. Some refer­
ence books on the chemistry laboratory are as follows:
Mayo, D. W.; R. Pike; and S. S. Butcher. Microscale
Organic Laboratory (Second edition). New York: John
Wiley and Sons, 1989.
Microscale Experiments for the High School Chemistry
Class. (Public domain experiments developed under an
NSF- and Dreyfus-sponsored program.) Available from
Woodrow Wilson Foundation, P.O. Box 642, Princeton,
NJ 08542; telephone (609) 924-4666.
Mills, J. L., and M. D. Hampton. Microscale Experiments
for General Chemistry (Second edition). New York:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991.
Thompson, S. Chemtrek: Small-Scale Experiments for
General Chemistry. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice
Hall, 1990.
J
Employees’ Exposure to
Hazardous Chemicals
Safety in school laboratories is a high priority to
Cal/OSHA, as evidenced by the addition of laboratory
standards issued in the California Code of Regula­
tions, Title 8, Section 5191 (see Appendix B). That
section of the law requires employers (e.g., school
districts) to take specific action toward minimizing
employees’ exposure to hazardous chemicals. The
following is a summary of the major changes in the
105
standards (all sections cited here are from California
Code of Regulations, Title 8):
Exposure Limits
The employer must ensure that an employee’s
exposure to substances regulated by Cal/OSHA does
not exceed the exposure limits specified under “Gen­
eral Industry Safety Orders” (GISO), Section 5139.
Determination of Employees’ Exposure
The employer must measure an employee’s
exposure to regulated substances if there is reason to
believe that exposure levels for those substances
exceed the action levels or permissible exposure limits
(Section 5191 [c] and [d]). Monitoring must be done
by a person competent in industrial hygiene practice
and must occur periodically if the employee’s expo­
sure level proves to be over the action level or permis­
sible exposure limit. The results of the monitoring
must be made available to the employee in writing
within 15 working days.
Chemical Hygiene Plan
If the workplace contains hazardous chemicals,
employers should have developed and implemented a
written chemical hygiene plan (CHP) by October 31,
1991. The purpose of the CHP is to protect employees
from exposure to harmful levels of hazardous sub­
stances (Section 5191[e]). The plan must be made
available to employees, employee representatives, and,
on request, the Chief of the Division of Occupational
Safety and Health and must provide for the following
actions by the employer:
1. Provide standard laboratory operating procedures
that are relevant to the safety and health of
employees using hazardous chemicals.
2. Explain control measures that reduce employees’
exposure to hazardous chemicals; for example,
engineering controls, protective equipment, and
hygiene practices.
3. Provide properly functioning fume hoods and
biological safety cabinets that comply with
sections 5154.1 and 5154.2 (see Appendix B) and
check them regularly to ensure proper and ad­
equate performance.
4. Provide each employee with information and
training about the CHP and all hazardous chemi­
cals in the workplace at the time of an employee’s
initial assignment and each time a new hazardous
substance is used. The frequency of the presenta­
106
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Chapter 7. Additional Safety Practices
tion of refresher information and training must be
decided by the employer (Section 5191[f]). The
employer must inform all employees of the new
regulations contained in Section 5191, the con­
tents of the employer’s CHP, the Cal/OSHA
exposure limits for regulated substances, the
recommended exposure limits for hazardous
substances not regulated by Cal/OSHA, medical
information on symptoms associated with expo­
sure, and the location of references (e.g., MSDS)
that provide information about the hazardous
chemicals with which employees work. The
employer must also provide training on methods
used to detect the presence or release of hazardous
chemicals, the hazards of each chemical used, and
measures that can be taken to avoid exposure.
Define the circumstances under which particular
laboratory operations require prior approval from
the employer.
Provide free medical consultation and examina­
tions on suspicion of exposure to hazardous
substances (Section 5191[g]). The employer must
obtain the written opinion of the physician about
conditions of the employee relating only to the
exposure.
Designate personnel responsible for the imple­
mentation of the CHP, including a chemical
hygiene officer. The officer must be qualified by
training or experience to provide guidance in
developing and implementing the CHP.
Provide additional employee protection when
particularly hazardous substances will be handled.
Note: Substances on the list titled “Extremely
Hazardous Chemicals for Prompt Disposal”
(Table 2) should already have been removed from
school laboratories.
Review and analyze the effectiveness of the CHP
annually and update it as necessary.
A useful reference for developing a CHP for your
school or school district is the Model Chemical
Hygiene Plan for Kentucky School Districts, produced
by Kentucky Science and Technology Council, Inc.,
the Kentucky Department of Education, and the
Fayette County Public School District. Copies may be
obtained for $10 each, plus shipping costs, from
Kentucky Science and Technology Council, Inc., P.O.
Box 1049, Lexington, KY 40588; telephone (606)
233-3502. The text is also available on disk for use
with Macintosh or IBM-compatible computers.
Recordkeeping
The employer must establish and maintain accu­
rate records and monitor employee exposures and
examinations.
K
Employees’ Exposure
to Bloodborne Pathogens
The California Code of Regulations, Title 22,
Section 5193 (see excerpts in Appendix B), requires
that each employer whose employees, in the course of
their occupation, may be exposed to bloodborne
pathogens must establish a written exposure control
plan designed to eliminate or minimize such exposure.
Selected school district employees may have such
occupational exposure. The following material sum­
marizes the regulation:
Background
Certain pathogenic organisms can be found in the
blood of infected individuals and may be transmitted
to other individuals by blood or certain body fluids.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the
hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the two most significant
bloodborne pathogens. Individuals whose occupational
duties may expose them to blood or other potentially
infectious materials are at risk of being infected with
these bloodborne pathogens and developing disease,
infecting others, and, in some cases, dying.
Exposure Control Plan
The written exposure control plan (ECP) must
contain the following elements:
1. Exposure Determination. The employer shall
maintain a list of all job classifications in which
employees have or may have occupational expo­
sure and a list of the tasks and procedures that
place them at risk.
2. Methods of Compliance. Universal precautions
shall be observed, as follows, to prevent contact
with blood or other potentially infectious materi­
als. If differentiation between types of body fluids
is difficult, all shall be considered potentially
infectious.
• Engineering controls (for example, provid­
ing sharps-disposal containers with which to
isolate or remove the hazard from the work­
place) and work practice controls (dealing
with handwashing; handling of sharps; eating,
K. Employees’ Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens
drinking, smoking, and so forth in the work
area; control of splashes and droplets; prohi­
bition of mouth pipetting; leakproof contain­
ers; and labeling practices). These controls
shall be established to eliminate or minimize
employee exposure.
• Personal protective equipment, when occu­
pational exposure exists. Personal protective
equipment may include, but is not limited to,
gloves, gowns, laboratory coats, face shields
or masks, eye-protective devices, mouth­
pieces, resuscitation bags, pocket masks, and
other ventilation devices.
• Housekeeping. The work site shall be
maintained in a clean and sanitary condition;
equipment and environmental and working
surfaces shall be cleaned and decontaminated
after exposure; and regulated waste shall be
appropriately stored and disposed of. Warning
labels in fluorescent orange or orange-red
shall either be securely affixed to containers
of regulated waste or be an integral part of
the container. The label shall include the
following symbol and legend:
107
blood or other potentially infectious material, whether
or not a specific exposure incident occurred, shall be
offered vaccination against the hepatitis B virus.
Incident reports shall be maintained about each such
occurrence, and arrangements shall be made for a
confidential medical evaluation, counseling, and
appropriate postexposure prophylaxis.
Hazard Communication (Training)
All designated employees are to be trained at the
time of their initial assignments and at least annually
thereafter. The training is to include information on
and an explanation of the following:
• The contents of the regulatory text and its accessi­
bility to employees
• Bloodborne diseases and their modes of transmis­
sion
• The exposure control plan
• Recognition of tasks that may involve exposure
• Ways in which to prevent or reduce exposure
• Use and handling of protective equipment
• Appropriate action to be taken and procedures to be
followed if an exposure incident occurs
• The availability, free of charge, of the hepatitis B
vaccine
• Postexposure evaluation and follow-up
An opportunity for interactive questions and
answers is also required.
Recordkeeping
BIOHAZARD
or, in the case of regulated waste, the legend:
BIOHAZARDOUS WASTE
Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination
After appropriate training and within 10 days of
their initial working assignment, designated employees
shall be offered, at no cost to themselves, vaccination
against the hepatitis B virus. A record shall be kept of
designated employees’ acceptance or declination of the
vaccine.
Postexposure Evaluation and Follow-up
All unvaccinated employees who have rendered
assistance in any situation involving the presence of
The medical record of each designated employee
shall include (1) the employee’s hepatitis B vaccina­
tion status; (2) the results of related examinations,
medical testing, and follow-up procedures; (3) copies
of any health-care professional’s written opinion or
other information; (4) an incidents log of all first-aid
incidents; and (5) the employee’s training records.
The employee’s medical records shall be kept
confidential and maintained for at least the duration of
employment plus 30 years. Training records shall be
maintained for three years from the date on which the
training occurred.
All required records shall be made available to the
Chief of Cal/OSHA and the National Institute of
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for exami­
nation and copying.
APPENDIXES
A. Liability and the Science Teacher 109
Liability of Teachers for Laboratory Safety and Field Trips 110
B. Legal Citations 111
C. Reimbursement for Removal and Disposal of Chemicals 137
D. Science Classroom First-Aid and Safety Materials 140
Sample Accident Report 141
E. Regional Poison Centers
142
F. Sample Safety Regulations for Science Students 143
Student Science Safety Contract 145
G. Sample Science Laboratory Safety Test 146
H. Sample Safety Checklist for Science Instruction, Preparation,
and Storage Areas 151
I. End-of-Year Safety and Energy-Savings Procedures
154
J. Sample Biological Science Laboratory Regulations 155
Student Safety Contract—Biological Science 157
K. Toxic Substances Control Regional Offices
158
L. Science Laboratory Safety/Liability Checklist 159
M. Sample Chemical Inventory 161
APPENDIXES
N. Department of Transportation Hazard Classes 162
O. Carcinogen “Report of Use” Form 164
P. Sample Physical Science Laboratory Regulations 167
Student Safety Contract—Physical Science 169
Q. Safety Precautions for Rocket Launchings on School Sites 170
R. Sample Permission Slip: Field Trip 172
S. Outbreaks of Coccidioidomycosis Associated with Field Work
T. Disposal of Empty Containers 174
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
173
APPENDIX A
LIABILITY AND THE SCIENCE TEACHER
A Self-Examination
5. A teacher asked two students to clean a chemical
stockroom, warning them of an unlabeled jar of acid on
a high shelf. A scuffle caused the acid to fall, and the
students were seriously burned.
During the past few years, teacher liability has been
discussed in faculty lounges, staff meetings, and profes­
sional journals. By now, most teachers are aware of the
factors that contribute to gross negligence and thus to
liability for accidents that occur in the classroom or the
field.
In each of the cases described below, a science teacher
was being sued for liability. As a member of the jury, would
you judge these teachers guilty or not? Assume that the
relevant facts have been given. Place a check in front of
each case in which you would vote for a guilty verdict. The
answers will be given below.
6. A student was sent to the drugstore in his own car to
purchase some hydrogen peroxide. While returning, he
hit another car when he ran a red light. He had no
insurance, and the accident victim sued the teacher.
7. A student was asked to water the plants in the green­
house lab adjoining the botany classroom. The student
carried a glass full of water, tried to climb a chair, and
was seriously injured when the chair collapsed. The
chair was in good repair.
1. A biology teacher requested a student to bring a glass
beaker from the back of the room to his demonstration
table. The student slipped and fell and received serious
wounds from the broken beaker.
8. Three students in a chemistry class were making up a
lab exercise on the preparation and properties of
oxygen. The teacher told them to gather the materials
necessary to the experiment and to follow the safety
directions in the write-up. Contrary to the directions in
the write-up, the students mixed potassium chlorate
with red phosphorus and ferric oxide and heated them
with a Bunsen burner. An explosion resulted, and
several students were injured.
2. A student in a chemistry laboratory injured himself
while inserting a piece of glass tubing into a rubber
stopper. The teacher had previously demonstrated and
properly instructed all the students concerning the
method and danger involved. The student attempted to
force the glass tubing into the stopper and was injured
when the tubing snapped and went through the palm of
his hand.
3. During a physics lab a teacher stepped out of the
classroom for a few minutes to obtain a reference book
from the library. In his absence, a serious accident
occurred.
Answers: The jury voted guilty in numbers three; four;
six; and eight. Did you?
4. On a field trip a science teacher led his students across
a precarious-looking footbridge. The bridge collapsed,
causing serious injury to several students.
Reprinted with the permission of the Connecticut Journal of Science
Education.
109
110
Appendix A
LIABILITY OF TEACHERS FOR LABORATORY SAFETY AND FIELD TRIPS
A National Science Teachers Association
Position Statement
Laboratory investigations and field trips are essential to
effective science instruction. Teachers should be encouraged
to use these instructional techniques as physical on-site
activity is important to the development of knowledge,
concept, processes, skills, and scientific attitudes. Inherent
in such physical activities is the potential for injury and
possible resulting litigation. All such liability must be
shared by both school districts and teachers, utilizing clearly
defined safety procedures and a prudent insurance plan. The
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends
that school districts and teachers adhere to the following
guidelines:
I.
II.
III.
School districts should develop and implement
safety procedures for laboratory investigations
and field trips.
School districts should be responsible for the
actions of their teachers and be supportive of the
use of laboratory activities and field trips as
teaching techniques.
School districts should look to NSTA for help in
informing teachers about safety procedures and
encouraging them to act responsibly in matters of
safety and related liability.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
School districts should provide liability and tort
insurance for the teachers.
Teachers, acting as agents of the school districts,
should utilize laboratory investigations and field
trips as instructional techniques.
Teachers should learn safe procedures for
laboratory activities and field trips and follow
them as a matter of policy.
Teachers should exercise reasonable judgment
and supervision during laboratory activities and
field trips.
Teachers should expect to be held liable if they
fail to follow district policy and litigation ensues.
School districts and teachers should share the
responsibilities of establishing safety standards
and seeing that they are adhered to.
—Adopted by the NSTA Board of
Directors in July, 1985.
From the NSTA Handbook, 1994-95. Arlington, Va.: National Science
Teachers Association, 1994, p. 242. Used with permission.
111
APPENDIX B
LEGAL CITATIONS
Education Code
Excerpts from the Education Code, the California Code
of Regulations, and the Health and Safety Code on topics
that are of special significance to science educators are cited
in this appendix, as indicated in the following list:
School Eye Safety
32030. Duties regarding eye protective devices
It shall be the duty of the governing board of every
school district, and of every county superintendent of
schools, and of every person, firm, or organization maintain­
ing any private school, in this state, to equip schools with
eye protective devices as defined in Section 32032, for the
use of all students, teachers, and visitors when participating
in the courses which are included in Section 32031. It shall
be the duty of the superintendents, principals, teachers or
instructors charged with the supervision of any class in
which any such course is conducted, to require such eye
protective devices to be worn by students, teachers, or
instructors and visitors under the circumstances prescribed
in Section 32031.
Education Code
School Eye Safety: Sections 32030, 32031, 32032, 32033
Alternatives to Dissection: Sections 32255.1, 32255.3,
32255.4, 32255.5
Earthquake Emergency Procedures: Sections 35295, 35296,
35297, 40041.5
Hazardous Materials Education: Sections 49340, 49341,
49401.5, 49411
Instruction in Personal and Public Health and Safety:
Section 51202
Use of Animals in Public Instruction: Section 51540
California Code of Regulations, Title 8, General
Industry Safety Orders
32031. Courses in which devices are to be used; substances
and activities dangerous to eyes
Ventilation Requirements for Laboratory-Type Hood
Operations: Section 5154.1
Ventilation Requirements for Biological Safety Cabinets:
Section 5154.2
Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment: Section 5162
Spill and Overflow Control: Section 5163
Storage of Hazardous Substances: Section 5164
Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Labora­
tories (Chemical Hygiene Plan): Section 5191
Bloodborne Pathogens: Section 5193
Hazard Communication; Material Safety Data Sheets:
Section 5194
The eye protective devices shall be worn in courses
including, but not limited to, vocational or industrial arts
shops or laboratories, and chemistry, physics or combined
chemistry-physics laboratories, at any time at which the
individual is engaged in, or observing, an activity or the use
of hazardous substances likely to cause injury to the eyes.
Hazardous substances likely to cause physical injury to
the eyes include materials which are flammable, toxic,
corrosive to living tissues, irritating, strongly sensitizing,
radioactive, or which generate pressure through heat,
decomposition or other means as defined in the California
Hazardous Substances Labeling Act.1
California Code of Regulations, Title 22
Activity or the use of hazardous substances likely to
cause injury to the eyes includes, but is not necessarily
limited to, the following:
Specific Requirements for Milkrun Operations: Section
66263.42
Health and Safety Code
1. Working with hot molten metal.
Humane Care of Animals: Sections 1650, 1651, 1660, 1662
Repeal of Requirement for Obtaining an Extremely Hazard­
ous Waste Disposal Permit: Sections 25153, 25205.7(o)
Transporting Hazardous Waste: Sections 25163, 25163.1
Hazardous Materials Release Response Plans and Inven­
tory: [Summary of] Section 25500 et seq.
2. Milling, sawing, turning, shaping, cutting, grinding,
and stamping of any solid materials.
3. Heat treating, tempering, or kiln firing of any metal or
other materials.
4. Gas or electric arc welding.
1
111
Health and Safety Code Section 28740 et seq.
112
Appendix B
5. Repairing or servicing of any vehicles, or other
machinery or equipment.
6. Working with hot liquids or solids or with chemicals
which are flammable, toxic, corrosive to living tissues,
irritating, strongly sensitizing, radioactive, or which
generate pressure through heat, decomposition, or other
means.
32032. Standards for devices
For purposes of this article the eye protective devices
utilized shall be industrial quality eye protective devices
which meet the standards of the American National Stan­
dards Institute for “Practice for Occupational and Educa­
tional Eye and Face Protection” (Z87.1–1968), and subse­
quent standards that are adopted by the American National
Standards Institute for “Practice for Occupational and
Educational Eye and Face Protection.”
32033. Sale of devices at cost to pupils and teachers
The eye protective devices may be sold to the pupils
and teachers or instructors at a price which shall not exceed
the actual cost of the eye protective devices to the school or
governing board.
Alternatives to Dissection
32255.1. Notice to teacher of objection; development of
alternate education project; prohibition of discrimination
against pupil; note from parent or guardian
(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 32255.6,
any pupil with a moral objection to dissecting or otherwise
harming or destroying animals, or any parts thereof, shall
notify his or her teacher regarding this objection, upon
notification by the school of his or her rights pursuant to
Section 32255.4.
(b) If the pupil chooses to refrain from participation in
an education project involving the harmful or destructive
use of animals, and if the teacher believes that an adequate
alternative education project is possible, then the teacher
may work with the pupil to develop and agree upon an
alternate education project for the purpose of providing the
pupil an alternate avenue for obtaining the knowledge,
information, or experience required by the course of study
in question.
(c) The alternative education project shall require a
comparable time and effort investment by the pupil. It shall
not, as a means of penalizing the pupil, be more arduous
than the original education project.
(d) The pupil shall not be discriminated against based
upon his or her decision to exercise his or her rights
pursuant to this chapter.
(e) Pupils choosing an alternative educational project
shall pass all examinations of the respective course of study
in order to receive credit for that course of study. However,
if tests require the harmful or destructive use of animals, a
pupil may, similarly, seek alternative tests pursuant to this
chapter.
(f) A pupil’s objection to participating in an educational
project pursuant to this section shall be substantiated by a
note from his or her parent or guardian.
32255.3. Teacher’s determination whether pupil may pursue
alternative educational project; pursuit of grievance proce­
dures
(a) A teacher’s decision in determining if a pupil may
pursue an alternative educational project or be excused from
the project shall not be arbitrary or capricious.
(b) Nothing in this chapter shall prevent any pupil from
pursuing the grievance procedures in existing law.
32255.4. Duty to inform pupils of rights
Each teacher teaching a course that utilizes live or dead
animals or animal parts shall also inform the pupils [and
their parents] of their rights pursuant to this chapter.
32255.5. Application of chapter to all levels of instruction
Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary,
this chapter applies to all levels of instruction in all public
schools operating programs from kindergarten through
grades 1 to 12, inclusive.
Earthquake Emergency Procedures
35295. Legislative findings and declarations
The Legislature finds and declares the following:
(a) Because of the generally acknowledged fact that
California will experience moderate to severe earthquakes in
the foreseeable future, increased efforts to reduce earth­
quake hazards should be encouraged and supported.
(b) In order to minimize loss of life and disruption, it is
necessary for all public or private elementary schools and
high schools to develop school disaster plans and specifi­
cally an earthquake emergency procedure system so that
students and staff will act instinctively and correctly when
an earthquake disaster strikes.
(c) It is therefore the intent of the Legislature in
enacting this article to authorize the establishment of
earthquake emergency procedure systems in kindergarten
and grades 1 through 12 in all the public or private schools
in California.
35296. Establishment of systems
The governing board of each school district and the
county superintendent of schools of each county shall
establish an earthquake emergency procedure system in
every public school building under its jurisdiction having
occupant capacity of 50 or more pupils or more than one
Appendix B
classroom. The governing board of each private school shall
establish an earthquake emergency procedure system in
every private school building under its jurisdiction having
an occupant capacity of 50 or more pupils or more than one
classroom. Governing boards and county superintendents
may work with the Office of Emergency Services and the
Seismic Safety Commission to develop and establish the
earthquake emergency procedure systems.
35297. Components of system
The earthquake emergency procedure system shall
include, but not be limited to, all of the following:
(a) A school building disaster plan, ready for implemen­
tation at any time, for maintaining the safety and care of
students and staffs.
(b) A drop procedure. As used in this article, “drop
procedure” means an activity whereby each student and
staff member takes cover under a table or desk, dropping to
his or her knees, with the head protected by the arms, and
the back to the windows. A drop procedure practice shall be
held at least once each school quarter in elementary schools
and at least once a semester in secondary schools.
(c) Protective measures to be taken before, during, and
following an earthquake.
(d) A program to ensure that the students and that both
the certificated and classified staff are aware of, and
properly trained in, the earthquake emergency procedure
system.
40041.5. Mass care and welfare shelters
Notwithstanding Section 40043, the governing board of
any school district shall grant the use of school buildings,
grounds, and equipment to public agencies, including the
American Red Cross, for mass care and welfare shelters
during disasters or other emergencies affecting the public
health and welfare. The governing board shall cooperate
with these agencies in furnishing and maintaining such
services as the governing board may deem necessary to
meet the needs of the community.
Hazardous Materials Education
49340. This article shall be known and may be cited as the
California Hazardous Materials Education Act of 1982.
Section 3 of Stats. 1982, c. 785, p. 3046, provides:
“This act shall not be construed to impose any change in the
duty of care required of school districts.”
49341. The Legislature hereby finds and declares as
follows:
(a) Because school science laboratories pose a potentially serious threat to the health and safety of school pupils
and school personnel due to the use and storage of hazard­
113
ous materials in these laboratories, educational efforts are
needed to increase the awareness of persons dealing with
these materials in these settings so that possible losses of
life, injuries, loss of property, and social disruption which
could result from the improper and unsafe use of hazardous
materials will be minimized.
(b) Effective safety in school laboratories requires
informed judgment, decision making, and operating
procedures by those responsible for laboratory and related
instruction. It is desirable that each high school and junior
high, middle, or elementary school offering laboratory work
have a trained member of the professional staff who is
designated as the building laboratory consultant and who is
responsible for the review, updating, and carrying out of the
school’s adopted procedures for laboratory safety. [empha­
sis added]
(c) Efforts by state and local agencies to implement
training programs designed to provide qualified individuals
with the necessary information, organizational skills, and
materials to assist schools and teachers in the development
of their laboratory safety policies and procedures are
nonexistent or inadequate, and it is necessary that this
situation be remedied. The state should assume leadership
through the policy and guidance of the State Department of
Education in the development, support, and implementation
of a statewide training program.
(d) The Legislature requests that the Department of
Education consider making this program a part of the
department’s energy and environmental education program
which is conducted pursuant to Chapter 4 (commencing
with Section 8700) of Part 6.
49401.5. Use and storage of hazardous materials; consulta­
tion services
(a) It is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this
section to express its concern for the health and safety of
school pupils and school personnel at schools where
hazardous materials are stored on the school premises, and
to encourage school districts to take steps to ensure hazard­
ous materials are properly used and stored.
(b) The governing board of any school district may
request consultation services from the California Occupa­
tional Safety and Health Consultation Service to ensure
hazardous materials are being used and stored safely in
school laboratories.
49411. Listing of chemical compounds used in school
programs; guidelines for removal
(a) The State Department of Education, in cooperation
with the Division of Occupational Safety and Health within
the Department of Industrial Relations, shall formulate a
listing of chemical compounds used in school programs that
includes the potential hazards and estimated shelf life of
each compound. [emphasis added]
114
Appendix B
(b) The Superintendent of Public Instruction, in
cooperation with the Division of Occupational Safety and
Health within the Department of Industrial Relations, shall
develop guidelines for school districts for the regular
removal and disposal of all chemicals whose estimated shelf
life has elapsed.
(c) The county superintendent of schools may imple­
ment a system for disposing of chemicals from schools
within the county or may permit school districts to arrange
for the disposal of the chemicals.
[See Appendix C for reimbursable costs of implement­
ing Education Code Section 49411. Ed.]
Instruction in Personal and Public Health and Safety
51202. Personal and public safety and accident prevention
The adopted course of study shall provide instruction at
the appropriate elementary and secondary grade levels and
subject areas in personal and public safety and accident
prevention, including emergency first aid instruction,
instruction in hemorrhage control, treatment for poisoning,
resuscitation techniques, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation
when appropriate equipment is available; fire prevention;
the protection and conservation of resources, including the
necessity for the protection of our environment; and health,
including venereal disease and the effects of alcohol,
narcotics, drugs, and tobacco upon the human body. The
health instruction may include prenatal care for pregnant
women and violence as a public health issue.
Use of Animals in Public Instruction
51540. Treatment of Animals
In the public elementary and high schools or in public
elementary and high school school-sponsored activities and
classes held elsewhere than on school premises, live
vertebrate animals shall not, as part of a scientific experi­
ment or any purpose whatever:
(a) Be experimentally medicated or drugged in a
manner to cause painful reactions or induce painful or lethal
pathological conditions.
(b) Be injured through any other treatments, including,
but not limited to, anesthetization or electric shock.
Live animals on the premises of a public elementary or
high school shall be housed and cared for in a humane and
safe manner.
The provisions of this section are not intended to
prohibit or constrain vocational instruction in the normal
practices of animal husbandry.
California Code of Regulations, Title 8
General Industry Safety Orders
Ventilation Requirements for Laboratory-Type
Hood Operations
5154.1.
. . . Laboratory-Type Hood. A device enclosed except
for necessary exhaust purposes on three sides and top and
bottom, designed to draw air inward by means of mechani­
cal ventilation, operated with insertion of only the hands and
arms of the user, and in which hazardous substances are
used. These devices are also known as laboratory fume
hoods.
(c) Ventilation Rates. Laboratory-type hood face
velocities shall be sufficient to maintain an inward flow of
air at all openings into the hood under operating conditions.
The hood shall provide confinement of the possible hazards
and protection of the employees for the work which is
performed. The exhaust system shall provide an average
face velocity of at least 100 linear feet per minute (lfm) with
a minimum of 70 lfm at any point, except where more
stringent special requirements are prescribed in other
sections of the General Industry Safety Orders, such as
Section 5209. The minimum velocity requirement excludes
those measurements made within 1 inch of the perimeter of
the work opening.
(d) Operation. Mechanical ventilation shall remain in
operation at all times when hoods are in use and for a
sufficient time thereafter to clear hoods of airborne hazard­
ous substances. When mechanical ventilation is not in
operation, hazardous substances in the hood shall be
covered or capped off.
(e) Special Requirements.
(1) The face velocity required by subsection (c) should
be obtainable with the movable sashes fully opened. Where
the required velocity can be obtained by partly closing the
sash, the sash and/or jamb shall be marked to show the
maximum opening at which the hood face velocity will meet
the requirements of subsection (c). Any hood failing to meet
requirements of subsection (c) and this paragraph shall be
considered deficient in airflow and shall be posted with
placards, plainly visible, which prohibit use of hazardous
substances within the hood.
(2) When flammable gases or liquids are used, or when
combustible liquids are heated above their flashpoints,
hoods that are not bypassed shall have permanent stops
installed which will restrict closure of the sash so that
sufficient airflow is maintained to prevent explosions.
Concentrations in the duct shall not exceed 20% of the
lower explosive limits.
Appendix B
(3) In addition to requirements in Section 5143(a)(5), a
means shall be provided at the hood to continuously indicate
that air is flowing into the exhaust system during operation.
The ability of the hood to maintain an inward flow as
required by (c) above shall be demonstrated using smoke
tubes or other suitable qualitative methods upon initial
installation; repairs or renovations of the facility, hood or
ventilation system; or the addition of large equipment into
the hood.
(4) Exhaust stacks shall be located in such a manner
with respect to air intakes as to preclude the recirculation of
laboratory-type hood emissions within a building. . . .
Ventilation Requirements for Biological
Safety Cabinets
5154.2.
. . . (4) Biological safety cabinet. A ventilated cabinet
which serves as a primary containment device for operations
involving biohazard agents or biohazardous materials. Three
classes of biological safety cabinets are described below:
Class I. The Class I biological safety cabinet is an
open-fronted, negative pressure, ventilated cabinet. Exhaust
air from the cabinet is filtered by a high-efficiency particu­
late air (HEPA) filter and discharged without internal
recirculation. This cabinet may be used in three operational
modes: with a full width open front, with an installed front
closure panel not equipped with gloves, and with an
installed front closure panel equipped with arm-length
protective gloves.
Class II. The Class II vertical laminar flow biological
safety cabinet is an open-fronted, ventilated cabinet.
Exhaust air is filtered with a high-efficiency particulate air
filter (HEPA). This cabinet provides HEPA-filtered down­
ward air flow within the work space. . . .
115
by reference, may support plumbed or self-contained units
but shall not be used in lieu of them.
(b) An emergency shower which meets the require­
ments of sections 4 or 9 of ANSI Z358.1-1981, incorporated
herein by reference, shall be provided at all work areas
where, during routine operations or foreseeable emergen­
cies, areas of the body may come into contact with a
substance which is corrosive or severely irritating to the skin
or which is toxic by skin absorption.
(c) Location. Emergency eyewash facilities and deluge
showers shall be in accessible locations that require no more
than 10 seconds for the injured person to reach. If both an
eyewash and shower are needed, they shall be located so
that both can be used at the same time by one person. The
area of the eyewash and shower equipment shall be main­
tained free of items which obstruct their use.
(d) Performance. Plumbed and self-contained eyewash
and shower equipment shall supply potable water at the flow
rate and time duration specified in ANSI Z358.1-1981. The
control valve shall be designed so that the water flow
remains on without requiring the use of the operator’s
hands, and so that the valve remains activated until inten­
tionally shut off for all but hand-held drench hoses. Personal
eyewash units shall deliver potable water or other eyeflushing solution approved by the consulting physician.
(e) Maintenance. Plumbed eyewash and shower
equipment shall be activated at least monthly to flush the
line and to verify proper operation. Other units shall be
maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc­
tions.
Spill and Overflow Control
5163.
Class III. The Class III biological safety cabinet is a
totally enclosed, negative pressure, ventilated cabinet of
gas-tight construction. . . .
(a) Where a corrosive substance is handled in an open
container or drawn from a reservoir or pipe line, safe means
shall be taken to neutralize or dispose of spills and over­
flows promptly. . . .
Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment
5162.
Storage of Hazardous Substances
5164.
(a) Plumbed or self-contained eyewash or eye/facewash
equipment which meets the requirements of sections 5, 7, or
9 of ANSI Z358.1-1981, Emergency Eyewash and Shower
Equipment, incorporated herein by this reference, shall be
provided at all work areas where, during routine operations
or foreseeable emergencies, the eyes of an employee may
come into contact with a substance which can cause
corrosion, severe irritation, or permanent tissue damage or
which is toxic by absorption. Water hoses, sink faucets, or
showers are not acceptable eyewash facilities. Personal
eyewash units or drench hoses which meet the requirements
of sections 6 or 8 of ANSI Z358.1-1981, incorporated herein
(a) Substances which, when mixed, react violently, or
evolve toxic vapors or gases, or which in combination
become hazardous by reason of toxicity, oxidizing power,
flammability, explosibility, or other properties, shall be
separated from each other in storage by distance, by
partitions, or otherwise, so as to preclude accidental contact
between them. . . .
(b) Hazardous substances shall be stored in containers
which are chemically inert to and appropriate for the type
and quantity of the hazardous substance.
(c) Containers of hazardous substances shall not be
stored in such locations or manner as to result in damage to
116
Appendix B
the container. Containers shall not be stored where they are
exposed to heat sufficient to rupture the containers or to
cause leakage.
(1) Are capable of protecting employees from the health
hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that
particular work place and
(d) Containers used to package a substance which
gives off toxic, asphyxiant, suffocant, or anesthetic fumes in
hazardous amounts (e.g., fuming sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric
acid, compressed or liquefied toxic gases) shall not be
stored in locations where it could be reasonably anticipated
that employees would be exposed. . . .
(2) Meet the requirements of subsection 5191(e). . . .
Designated area. An area which may be used for work
with “select carcinogens,” reproductive toxins or substances
which have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated
area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory or
a device such as a laboratory hood. . . .
Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in
Laboratories (Chemical Hygiene Plan)
5191.
Laboratory use of hazardous chemicals. Handling or
use of such chemicals in which all of the following condi­
tions are met:
(a) Scope and Application.
(1) This section shall apply to all employers engaged in
the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals as defined below.
(2) Where this section applies, it shall supersede, for
laboratories, the requirements of Title 8 of the California
Code of Regulations Section 5190 and Article 110, Regu­
lated Carcinogens of the General Industry Safety Orders,
except as follows:
(A) The requirement to limit employee exposure to the
specific exposure limit.
(B) When that particular regulation states otherwise, as
in the case of Section 5209(c)(6).
(C) Prohibition or prevention of eye and skin contact
where specified by any health regulation shall be observed.
(D) Where the action level (or in the absence of an
action level, the exposure limit) is exceeded for a regulated
substance with exposure monitoring and medical surveil­
lance requirements.
(E) The “report of use” requirements of Article 110
(Section 5200 et seq.), Regulated Carcinogens regulations.
(F) Section 5217 shall apply to anatomy, histology and
pathology laboratories. . . .
(b) Definitions.
Action level. A concentration designated in Title 8,
California Code of Regulations, for a specific substance,
calculated as an eight (8)-hour time weighted average,
which initiates certain required activities such as exposure
monitoring and medical surveillance. . . .
Chemical Hygiene Officer. An employee who is
designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training
or experience, to provide technical guidance in the develop­
ment and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical
Hygiene Plan. . . .
Chemical Hygiene Plan. A written program developed
and implemented by the employer which sets forth proce­
dures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work
practices that
(1) Chemical manipulations are carried out on a
“laboratory scale”;
(2) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are
used;
(3) The procedures involved are not part of a production
process, nor in any way simulate a production process; and
(4) “Protective laboratory practices and equipment” are
available and in common use industry-wide to minimize the
potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals. . . .
Physical hazard. A chemical for which there is scientifi­
cally valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a
compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide,
an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or waterreactive. . . .
Reproductive toxins. Chemicals which affect the
reproductive capabilities, including chromosomal damage
(mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).
Select carcinogen. Any substance which meets one of
the following criteria:
(1) It is regulated by Cal/OSHA as a carcinogen; or
(2) It is listed under the category “known to be carcinogens” in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the
National Toxicology Program (NTP) . . . ; or
(3) It is listed under Group 1 (“carcinogenic to humans”) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer
Monographs (IARC) . . . ; or
(4) It is listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or
under the category “reasonably anticipated to be carcino­
gens” by NTP, and causes statistically significant tumor
incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of
the following criteria:
(A) After inhalation exposure of 6–7 hours per day, 5
days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to
dosages of less than 10 mg/m3;
(B) After repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/
kg of body weight per week; or
Appendix B
(C) After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body
weight per day. . . .
(c) Exposure limits. For laboratory uses of Cal/OSHA
regulated substances, the employer shall ensure that
laboratory employees’ exposures to such substances do not
exceed the exposure limits specified in Title 8, California
Code of Regulations, Group 16, Section 5139 et seq., of the
General Industry Safety Orders.
(d) Employee exposure determination.
(1) Initial monitoring. The employer shall measure the
employee’s exposure to any substance regulated by a
standard which requires monitoring if there is reason to
believe that exposure levels for that substance exceed the
action level (or in the absence of an action level, the
exposure limit). . . .
117
hazardous chemicals, including engineering controls, the
use of personal protective equipment and hygiene practices;
particular attention shall be given to the selection of control
measures for chemicals that are known to be extremely
hazardous;
(C) A requirement that fume hoods comply with Section
5154.1, that all protective equipment shall function properly
and that specific measures shall be taken to ensure proper
and adequate performance of such equipment;
(D) Provisions for employee information and training
as prescribed in subsection 5191(f);
(E) The circumstances under which a particular
laboratory operation, procedure or activity shall require
prior approval from the employer or the employer’s desig­
nee before implementation;
(2) Periodic monitoring. If the initial monitoring
prescribed by subsection 5191(d)(1) discloses employee
exposure over the action level (or in the absence of an action
level, the exposure limit), the employer shall immediately
comply with the exposure monitoring provisions of the
relevant regulation.
(F) Provisions for medical consultation and medical
examinations in accordance with subsection 5191(g);
(3) Termination of monitoring. Monitoring may be
terminated in accordance with the relevant regulation.
(H) Provisions for additional employee protection for
work with particularly hazardous substances. These include
“select carcinogens,” reproductive toxins and substances
which have a high degree of acute toxicity. Specific consid­
eration shall be given to the following provisions which
shall be included where appropriate:
(4) Employee notification of monitoring results. The
employer shall, within 15 working days after the receipt of
any monitoring results, notify the employee of these results
in writing either individually or by posting results in an
appropriate location that is accessible to employees.
(e) Chemical hygiene plan.
(1) Where hazardous chemicals as defined by this
regulation are used in the workplace, the employer shall
develop and carry out the provisions of a written Chemical
Hygiene Plan which is:
(A) Capable of protecting employees from health
hazards associated with hazardous chemicals in that
laboratory and
(B) Capable of keeping exposures below the limits
specified in subsection 5191(c).
(2) The Chemical Hygiene Plan shall be readily
available to employees, employee representatives and, upon
request, to the Chief.
(3) The Chemical Hygiene Plan shall include each of
the following elements and shall indicate specific measures
that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee
protection:
(A) Standard operating procedures relevant to safety
and health considerations to be followed when laboratory
work involves the use of hazardous chemicals;
(B) Criteria that the employer will use to determine and
implement control measures to reduce employee exposure to
(G) Designation of personnel responsible for implementation of the Chemical Hygiene Plan, including the assign­
ment of a Chemical Hygiene Officer and, if appropriate,
establishment of a Chemical Hygiene Committee; and
1. Establishment of a designated area;
2. Use of containment devices such as fume hoods or
glove boxes;
3. Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste;
and
4. Decontamination procedures.
(4) The employer shall review and evaluate the effec­
tiveness of the Chemical Hygiene Plan at least annually and
update it as necessary.
(f) Employee information and training.
(1) The employer shall provide employees with
information and training to ensure that they are apprised of
the hazards of chemicals present in their work area. Infor­
mation and training may relate to an entire class of hazard­
ous substances to the extent appropriate.
(2) Such information shall be provided at the time of an
employee’s initial assignment to a work area where hazard­
ous chemicals are present and prior to assignments involv­
ing new exposure situations. . . .
(3) Information. Employees shall be informed of:
(A) The contents of this regulation and its appendices
which shall be available to employees;
118
Appendix B
(B) The location and availability of the employer’s
Chemical Hygiene Plan;
(C) The exposure limits for Cal/OSHA regulated
substances or recommended exposure limits for other
hazardous chemicals where there is no applicable Cal/
OSHA regulation;
(D) Signs and symptoms associated with exposure to
hazardous chemicals used in the laboratory; and
(E) The location and availability of known reference
material on the hazards, safe handling, storage and disposal
of hazardous chemicals found in the laboratory, including,
but not limited to, Material Safety Data Sheets received
from the chemical supplier.
(4) Training.
(A) Employee training shall include:
1. Methods and observations that may be used to detect
the presence or release of a hazardous chemical . . . ;
2. The physical and health hazards of chemicals in the
work area; and
3. The measures employees can take to protect them­
selves from these hazards, including specific proce­
dures the employer has implemented to protect
employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals. . . .
(B) The employee shall be trained on the applicable
details of the employer’s written Chemical Hygiene Plan.
(g) Medical consultation and medical examinations.
(1) The employer shall provide all employees who work
with hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive medical
attention, including any follow-up examinations which the
examining physician determines to be necessary . . . ;
(2) All medical examinations and consultations shall be
performed by or under the direct supervision of a licensed
physician and shall be provided without cost to the em­
ployee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and
place;
(3) . . . The employer shall provide the following
information to the physician:
(A) The identity of the hazardous chemical(s) to which
the employee may have been exposed;
(B) A description of the conditions under which the
exposure occurred, including quantitative exposure data, if
available; and
(C) A description of the signs and symptoms of expo­
sure that the employee is experiencing, if any.
(4) Physician’s written opinion.
(A) . . . The employer shall obtain a written opinion
from the examining physician, which shall include the
following:
1. Any recommendation for further medical follow-up;
2. The results of the medical examination and any
associated tests; . . .
3. Any medical condition . . . which may place the
employee at increased risk . . .; and
4. A statement that the employee has been informed by
the physician of the results of the consultation or
medical examination and any medical condition that
may require further examination or treatment.
(B) The written opinion shall not reveal specific
findings of diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.
(h) Hazard identification.
(1) With respect to labels and material safety data
sheets:
(A) Employers shall ensure that labels on incoming
containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or
defaced.
(B) Employers shall maintain in the workplace any
material safety data sheets that are received . . . and ensure
that they are readily accessible to laboratory employees. . . .
(i) Use of respirators.
Where the use of respirators is necessary to maintain
exposure below permissible exposure limits, the employer
shall provide, at no cost to the employee, the proper
respiratory equipment. . . .
(j) Recordkeeping.
(1) The employer shall establish and maintain for each
employee an accurate record of any measurements taken to
monitor employee exposures and any medical consultation
and examinations, including tests or written opinions
required by this regulation.
(2) The employer shall ensure that such records are
kept, transferred, and made available in accordance with
Section 3204.
(k) Dates.
(1) Employers shall have developed and implemented a
written Chemical Hygiene Plan no later than October 31,
1991. . . .
Bloodborne Pathogens
5193.
(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to
blood or other potentially infectious materials as defined by
subsection (b) of this section.
(b) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the
following shall apply: . . .
“Blood” means human blood, human blood compo­
nents, and products made from human blood.
Appendix B
“Bloodborne Pathogens” means pathogenic microor­
ganisms that are present in human blood and can cause
disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not
limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodefi­
ciency virus (HIV). . . .
“Contaminated” means the presence or the reasonably
anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious
materials on a surface or in or on an item.
“Contaminated Sharps” means any contaminated object
that can penetrate the skin, including, but not limited to,
needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, and
exposed ends of dental wires. . . .
“Decontamination” means the use of physical or
chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy
bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point
where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious
particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for
handling, use, or disposal. Decontamination includes
procedures regulated by Health and Safety Code Section
25090.
“Engineering Controls” means controls (e.g., sharps
disposal containers, self-sheathing needles) that isolate or
remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the work­
place.
“Exposure Incident” means a specific eye, mouth, other
mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact
with blood or other potentially infectious materials that
results from the performance of an employee’s duties.
“Handwashing Facilities” means a facility providing an
adequate supply of running potable water, soap and singleuse towels or hot-air drying machines.
“HBV” means hepatitis B virus.
“HIV” means human immunodeficiency virus. . . .
“Occupational Exposure” means reasonably anticipated
skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with
blood or other potentially infectious materials that may
result from the performance of an employee’s duties. . . .
“One-Hand Technique” means a procedure wherein the
needle of a reusable syringe is capped in a sterile manner
during use. The technique employed shall require the use of
only the hand holding the syringe so that the free hand is not
exposed to the uncapped needle.
“Other Potentially Infectious Materials” means:
(1) The following human body fluids: semen, vaginal
secretions, cerespinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid,
pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in
dental procedures, any other body fluid that is visibly
contaminated with blood, such as saliva or vomitus, and all
body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to
differentiate between body fluids, such as emergency
response;
119
(2) Any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin)
from a human (living or dead); and
(3) HIV-containing cell or tissue cultures, organ
cultures, and HIV or HBV-containing culture medium or
other solutions; and blood, organs, or other tissues from
experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV. . . .
“Parenteral” means piercing mucous membranes or the
skin barrier through such events as needlesticks, human
bites, cuts, and abrasions. . . .
“Personal Protective Equipment” is specialized clothing
or equipment worn or used by an employee for protection
against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g., uniforms,
pants, shirts or blouses) not intended to function as protec­
tion against a hazard are not considered to be personal
protective equipment. . . .
“Regulated Waste” means liquid or semi-liquid blood or
other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi­
liquid state if compressed; items that are caked with dried
blood or other potentially infectious materials and are
capable of releasing these materials during handling;
contaminated sharps; and pathological and microbiological
wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious
materials. Regulated Waste includes “medical waste”
regulated by Health and Safety Code Chapter 6.1. . . .
“Source Individual” means any individual, living or
dead, whose blood or other potentially infectious materials
may be a source of occupational exposure to the employee.
Examples include, but are not limited to, . . . trauma
victims. . . .
“Sterilize” means the use of a physical or chemical
procedure to destroy all microbial life, including highly
resistant bacterial endospores. Sterilization includes
procedures regulated by Health and Safety Code Section
25090.
“Universal Precautions” is an approach to infection
control. According to the concept of Universal Precautions,
all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated
as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other
bloodborne pathogens.
“Work Practice Controls” means controls that reduce
the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a
task is performed (e.g., prohibiting recapping of needles by
a two-handed technique).
(c) Exposure Control.
(1) Exposure Control Plan.
(A) Each employer having an employee(s) with
occupational exposure as defined by subsection (b) of this
section shall establish a written Exposure Control Plan
which is designed to eliminate or minimize employee
exposure . . . and which is also consistent with Section 3203.
120
Appendix B
(B) The Exposure Control Plan shall contain at least the
following elements:
occupational exposure remains after institution of these
controls, personal protective equipment shall also be used.
1. The exposure determination required by subsection
(c)(2);
(B) Engineering controls shall be examined and
maintained or replaced on a regular schedule to ensure their
effectiveness.
2. The schedule and method of implementation for each
of the applicable subsections: (d) Methods of Compliance,
(e) HIV and HBV Research Laboratories and Production
Facilities, (f) Hepatitis B Vaccination and Post-exposure
Evaluation and Follow-up, (g) Communication of Hazards
to Employees, and (h) Recordkeeping, of this standard; and
3. The procedure for the evaluation of circumstances
surrounding exposure incidents as required by subsection
(f)(3)(A).
(C) Each employer shall ensure that a copy of the
Exposure Control Plan is accessible to employees . . . in
accordance with Section 3204(e).
(D) The Exposure Control Plan shall be reviewed and
updated at least annually and whenever necessary to reflect
new or modified tasks and procedures which affect occupa­
tional exposure, to reflect new or revised employee posi­
tions with occupational exposure, and to review the expo­
sure incidents which occurred since the previous update.
(E) The Exposure Control Plan shall be made available
to the Chief or NIOSH or their respective designee upon
request for examination and copying.
(2) Exposure Determination.
(A) Each employer who has an employee(s) with
occupational exposure shall prepare an exposure determina­
tion. This exposure determination shall contain the follow­
ing:
(C) Employers shall provide handwashing facilities
which are readily accessible to employees. . . .
(E) Employers shall ensure that employees wash their
hands immediately or as soon as feasible after removal of
gloves or other personal protective equipment.
(F) Employers shall ensure that employees wash hands
and any other skin with soap and water, or flush mucous
membranes with water immediately or as soon as feasible
following contact of such body areas with blood or other
potentially infectious materials.
(G) Contaminated needles and other contaminated
sharps shall not be bent, recapped, or removed . . . except as
noted in subsections (d)(2)(G)1 and (d)(2)(G)2 below.
Shearing or breaking of contaminated needles is
prohibited. . . .
(I) Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics or lip
balm, and handling contact lenses are prohibited in work
areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of occupational
exposure.
(J) Food and drink shall not be kept in refrigerators,
freezers, shelves, cabinets, or on countertops or benchtops
where blood or other potentially infectious materials are
present.
1. A list of all job classifications in which all employees
in those job classifications have occupational exposure;
(K) All procedures involving blood or other potentially
infectious materials shall be performed in such a manner as
to minimize splashing, spraying, spattering, and generation
of droplets of these substances.
2. A list of job classifications in which some employees
have occupational exposure; and
(L) Mouth pipetting/suctioning of blood or other
potentially infectious materials is prohibited.
3. A list of all tasks and procedures . . . in which
occupational exposure occurs and that are performed by
employees in job classifications listed in accordance with
the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(A)2 of this standard.
(M) Specimens of blood or other potentially infectious
materials shall be placed in a container which prevents
leakage during collection, handling, processing, storage,
transport, or shipping.
(B) This exposure determination shall be made without
regard to the use of personal protective equipment.
(1) The container for storage, transport, or shipping
shall be labeled or color-coded according to subsection
(g)(1)(A). . . .
(d) Methods of Compliance.
(1) General. Universal precautions shall be observed to
prevent contact with blood or other potentially infectious
materials. Under circumstances in which differentiation
between body fluid types is difficult or impossible, all body
fluids shall be considered potentially infectious materials.
(2) Engineering and Work Practice Controls.
(A) Engineering and work practice controls shall be
used to eliminate or minimize employee exposure. Where
(3) Personal Protective Equipment.
(A) Provision. When there is occupational exposure, the
employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, appro­
priate personal protective equipment such as, but not limited
to, gloves, gowns, laboratory coats, face shields or masks
and eye protection, and mouthpieces, resuscitation bags,
pocket masks, or other ventilation devices. Personal
protective equipment will be considered “appropriate”
only if it does not permit blood or other potentially infec­
Appendix B
121
tious materials to pass through to or reach the employee’s
work clothes, street clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes,
mouth, or other mucous membranes under normal condi­
tions of use and for the duration of time which the protective
equipment will be used. . . .
l. Disposable (single use) gloves, such as surgical or
examination gloves, shall be replaced as soon as practical
when contaminated or as soon as feasible if they are torn,
punctured, or when their ability to function as a barrier is
compromised.
(B) Use. The employer shall ensure that the employee
uses appropriate personal protective equipment unless the
employer shows that the employee temporarily and briefly
declined to use personal protective equipment when, under
rare and extraordinary circumstances, it was the employee’s
professional judgment that in the specific instance its use
would have prevented the delivery of health care or public
safety services or would have posed an increased hazard to
the safety of the worker or coworker. When the employee
makes this judgment, the circumstances shall be investi­
gated and documented in order to determine whether
changes can be instituted to prevent such occurrences in the
future. The employer shall encourage employees to report
all such instances without fear of reprisal in accordance with
Section 3203.
2. Disposable (single use) gloves, shall not be washed
or decontaminated for re-use.
(C) Accessibility. The employer shall ensure that
appropriate personal protective equipment in the appropriate
sizes is readily accessible at the worksite or is issued to
employees. Hypoallergenic gloves, glove liners, powderless
gloves, or other similar alternatives shall be readily acces­
sible to those employees who are allergic to the gloves
normally provided.
(D) Cleaning, Laundering and Disposal. The employer
shall clean, launder, and dispose of personal protective
equipment required by subsections (d) and (e) of this
standard, at no cost to the employee.
(E) Repair and Replacement. The employer shall repair
or replace personal protective equipment as needed to
maintain its effectiveness, at no cost to the employee.
(F) If a garment(s) is penetrated by blood or other
potentially infectious materials, the garment(s) shall be
removed immediately or as soon as feasible.
(G) All personal protective equipment shall be removed
prior to leaving the work area.
(H) When personal protective equipment is removed it
shall be placed in an appropriately designated area or
container for storage, washing, decontamination, or dis­
posal.
(I) Gloves shall be worn when it can be reasonably
anticipated that the employee may have hand contact with
blood, other potentially infectious materials, mucous
membranes, and non-intact skin; when performing vascular
access procedures except as specified in subsection
(d)(3)(I)4; and when handling or touching contaminated
items or surfaces. . . . These requirements are in addition to
the provisions of Section 3384.
3. Utility gloves may be decontaminated for re-use if
the integrity of the glove is not compromised. However,
they must be discarded if they are cracked, peeling, torn,
punctured, or exhibit other signs of deterioration or when
their ability to function as a barrier is compromised. . . .
(J) Masks, Eye Protection, and Face Shields. Masks in
combination with eye protection devices, such as goggles or
glasses with solid side shields, or chin-length face shields,
shall be worn whenever splashes, spray, spatter, or droplets
of blood or other potentially infectious materials may be
generated and eye, nose, or mouth contamination can be
reasonably anticipated. These requirements are in addition
to the provisions of Section 3382. Where respiratory
protection is used, the provisions of Section 5144 apply.
(K) Gowns, Aprons, and Other Protective Body
Clothing. Appropriate protective clothing, such as, but not
limited to, gowns, aprons, lab coats, clinic jackets, or similar
outer garments, shall be worn in occupational exposure
situations. The type and characteristics will depend upon the
task and degree of exposure anticipated. These requirements
are in addition to the provisions of Section 3383. . . .
(4) Housekeeping.
(A) General. Employers shall ensure that the worksite is
maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. . . . The
employer shall determine and implement an appropriate
written schedule for cleaning and method of decontamina­
tion based upon the location within the facility, type of
surface to be cleaned, type of soil present, and tasks or
procedures being performed in the area.
(B) All equipment and environmental and working
surfaces shall be cleaned and decontaminated after contact
with blood or other potentially infectious materials. . . .
1. Contaminated work surfaces shall be decontaminated
with an appropriate disinfectant after completion of proce­
dures; immediately or as soon as feasible when surfaces are
overtly contaminated or after any spill of blood or other
potentially infectious materials; and at the end of the work
shift if the surface may have become contaminated since the
last cleaning.
2. Protective coverings, such as plastic wrap, aluminum
foil, or imperviously-backed absorbent paper used to cover
equipment and environmental surfaces, shall be removed
and replaced as soon as feasible when they become overtly
contaminated or at the end of the workshift if they may have
become contaminated during the shift.
122
Appendix B
3. All bins, pails, cans, and similar receptacles intended
for reuse which have a reasonable likelihood for becoming
contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious
materials shall be inspected and decontaminated on a
regularly scheduled basis and cleaned and decontaminated
immediately or as soon as feasible upon visible contamina­
tion.
4. Broken glassware which may be contaminated shall
not be picked up directly with the hands. It shall be cleaned
up using mechanical means, such as a brush and dust pan,
tongs, or forceps.
5. Reusable sharps that are contaminated with blood or
other potentially infectious materials shall not be stored or
processed in a manner that requires employees to reach by
hand into the containers where these sharps have been
placed.
(C) Regulated Waste.
1. Contaminated Sharps Discarding and Containment.
a. Contaminated sharps shall be discarded immediately or
as soon as feasible in containers that are:
i. Closable;
ii. Puncture resistant;
iii. Leakproof on sides and bottom; and
iv. Labeled in accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A)
of this section.
b. During use, containers for contaminated sharps shall
be:
i. Easily accessible to personnel and located as
close as is feasible to the immediate area where
sharps are used or can be reasonably anticipated
to be found;
ii. Maintained upright throughout use; and
iii. Replaced routinely and not be allowed to
overfill. . . .
c. When moving containers of contaminated sharps from
the area of use, the containers shall be:
i. Closed immediately prior to removal or replace­
ment to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents
during handling, storage, transport, or shipping;
ii. Placed in a secondary container if leakage is
possible. The second container shall be:
A. Closable;
B. Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage
during handling, storage, transport, or shipping; and
C. Labeled according to subsection (g)(1)(A) of this
section.
d. Reusable containers shall not be opened, emptied, or
cleaned manually or in any other manner which would
expose employees to the risk of percutaneous injury.
2. Other Regulated Waste Containment.
a. Regulated waste shall be placed in containers which
are:
i. Closable;
ii. Constructed to contain all contents and prevent
leakage during handling, storage, transport, or
shipping;
iii. Labeled and color-coded in accordance with
subsection (g)(1)(A) of this section; and
iv. Closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or
protrusion of contents during handling, storage,
transport, or shipping.
b. If outside contamination of the regulated waste
container occurs, it shall be placed in a second con­
tainer. The second container shall be:
i. Closable;
ii. Constructed to contain all contents and prevent
leakage during handling, storage, transport, or
shipping;
iii. Labeled and color-coded in accordance with
subsection (g)(1)(A) of this section; and
iv. Closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or
protrusion of contents during handling, storage,
transport, or shipping.
3. Handling, storage, treatment and disposal of all
regulated waste shall be in accordance with Health and
Safety Code Chapter 6.1 and other applicable regulations of
the United States, the State, and political subdivisions of the
state. . . .
(D) Laundry.
1. Contaminated laundry shall be handled as little as
possible with a minimum of agitation.
a. Contaminated laundry shall be bagged or container­
ized at the location where it was used and shall not be sorted
or rinsed in the location of use.
b. Contaminated laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers labeled or color-coded in
accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A) of this standard. When
a facility utilizes Universal Precautions in the handling of all
soiled laundry, alternative labeling or color-coding is
sufficient if it permits all employees to recognize the
containers as requiring compliance with Universal Precau­
tions.
c. Whenever contaminated laundry is wet and repre­
sents a reasonble likelihood of soak-through of or leakage
Appendix B
from the bag or container, the laundry shall be placed and
transported in bags or containers which prevent soakthrough and/or leakage of fluids to the exterior.
2. The employer shall ensure that employees who have
contact with contaminated laundry wear protective gloves
and other appropriate personal protective equipment.
3. When a facility ships contaminated laundry off-site
to a second facility which does not utilize Universal
Precautions in the handling of all laundry, the facility
generating the contaminated laundry must place such
laundry in bags or containers which are labeled or colorcoded in accordance with subsection (g)(1)(A). . . .
(f) Hepatitis B Vaccination and Post-exposure Evalua­
tion and Follow-up.
(1) General
(A) The employer shall make available the hepatitis B
vaccine and vaccination series to all employees who have
occupational exposure, and post-exposure evaluation and
follow-up to all employees who have had an exposure
incident. . . .
Exception: Designated first aid providers who have occupa­
tional exposure are not required to be offered pre-exposure
hepatitis B vaccine if the following conditions exist:
1. The primary job assignment of such designated first
aid providers is not the rendering of first aid.
a. Any first aid rendered by such persons is rendered
only as a collateral duty responding solely to injuries
resulting from workplace incidents, generally at the location
where the incident occurred. . . .
1.b.2. The employer’s Exposure Control Plan, subsec­
tion (c)(1), shall specifically address the provision of
hepatitis B vaccine to all unvaccinated first aid providers
who have rendered assistance in any situation involving the
presence of blood or other potentially infectious material
(regardless of whether an actual exposure incident, as
defined by subsection (b), occurred) and the provision of
appropriate post-exposure evaluation, prophylaxis and
follow-ups for those employees who experience an exposure
incident as defined in subsection (b), . . . including:
a. Provisions for a reporting procedure that ensures that
all first aid incidents involving the presence of blood or
other potentially infectious material shall be reported to the
employer before the end of the work shift during which the
first aid incident occurred.
i. The report must include the names of all first aid
providers who rendered assistance, regardless of
whether personal protective equipment was used and
must describe the first aid incident, including time and
date.
A. The description must include a determination of
whether or not, in addition to the presence of
123
blood or other potentially infectious material, an
exposure incident, as defined in subsection (b)
occurred.
B. This determination is necessary in order to
ensure that the proper post-exposure evaluation,
prophylaxis and follow-up procedures required
by subsection (f)(3) are made available immedi­
ately if there has been an exposure incident, as
defined in subsection (b).
ii. The report shall be recorded on a list of such first aid
incidents. It shall be readily available to all employees
and shall be provided to the Chief upon request.
b. Provision for the bloodborne pathogens training
program, required by subsection (g)(2), for designated first
aiders to include the specifics of the reporting requirements
of subsection (f)(3) and of this exception.
c. Provision for the full hepatitis B vaccination series to
be made available as soon as possible, but in no event later
than 24 hours, to all unvaccinated first aid providers who
have rendered assistance in any situation involving the
presence of blood or other potentially infectious material
regardless of whether or not a specific exposure incident, as
defined by subsection (b), has occurred.
3. The employer must implement a procedure to ensure
that all of the provisions of subsection 2 of this exception
are complied with if pre-exposure hepatitis B vaccine is not
to be offered to employees meeting the conditions of
subsection 1 of this exception.
(B) The employer shall ensure that all medical evalua­
tions and procedures including the hepatitis B vaccine and
vaccination series and post-exposure evaluation and followup, including prophylaxis, are:
1. Made available at no cost to the employee;
2. Made available to the employee at a reasonable time
and place;
3. Performed by or under the supervision of a licensed
physician or by or under the supervision of another licensed
healthcare professional; and
4. Provided according to recommendations of the U.S.
Public Health Service current at the time these evluations
and procedures take place, except as specified by this
subsection (f).
(C) The employer shall ensure that all laboratory tests
are conducted by an accredited laboratory at no cost to the
employee.
(2) Hepatitis B Vaccination.
(A) Hepatitis B vaccination shall be made available
after the employee has received the training required in
subsection (g)(2)(G)9 and within 10 working days of initial
assignment to all employees who have occupational
exposure unless the employee has previously received the
124
Appendix B
complete hepatitis B vaccination series, antibody testing has
revealed that the employee is immune, or the vaccine is
contraindicated for medical reasons.
(B) The employer shall not make participation in a
prescreening program a prerequisite for receiving hepatitis
B vaccination.
(C) If the employee initially declines hepatitis B
vaccination but at a later date while still covered under the
standard decides to accept the vaccination, the employer
shall make available hepatitis B vaccination at that time.
(D) The employer shall assure that employees who
decline to accept hepatitis B vaccination offered by the
employer sign the statement in Appendix A.
(E) If a routine booster dose(s) of hepatitis B vaccine is
recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service at a future
date, such booster dose(s) shall be made available in
accordance with section (f)(1)(B).
(3) Post-exposure Evaluation and Follow-up.
Following a report of an exposure incident, the em­
ployer shall make immediately available to the exposed
employee a confidential medical evaluation and follow-up,
including at least the following elements:
(A) Documentation of the route(s) of exposure, and the
circumstances under which the exposure incident occurred;
(B) Identification and documentation of the source
individual, unless the employer can establish that identifica­
tion is infeasible or prohibited by state or local law;
1. The source individual’s blood shall be tested as soon
as feasible and after consent is obtained in order to deter­
mine HBV and HIV infectivity. If consent is not obtained,
the employer shall establish that legally required consent
cannot be obtained. When the source individual’s consent is
not required by law, the source individual’s blood, if
available, shall be tested and the results documented.
2. When the source individual is already known to be
infected with HBV or HIV, testing for the source
individual’s known HBV or HIV status need not be re­
peated.
3. Results of the source individual’s testing shall be
made available to the exposed employee, and the employee
shall be informed of applicable laws and regulations
concerning disclosure of the identity and infectious status of
the source individual.
(C) Collection and testing of blood for HBV and HIV
serological status;
1. The exposed employee’s blood shall be collected as
soon as feasible and tested after consent is obtained.
2. If the employee consents to baseline blood collection,
but does not give consent at that time for HIV serologic
testing, the sample shall be preserved for at least 90 days. If,
within 90 days of the exposure incident, the employee elects
to have the baseline sample tested, such testing shall be
done as soon as feasible.
3. Additional collection and testing shall be made
available as recommended by the U.S. Public Health
Service
(D) Post-exposure prophylaxis, when medically
indicated, as recommended by the U.S. Public Health
Service;
(E) Counseling; and
(F) Evaluation of reported illnesses.
(4) Information Provided to the Healthcare Professional.
(A) The employer shall ensure that the healthcare
professional responsible for the employee’s hepatitis B
vaccination is provided a copy of this regulation.
(B) The employer shall ensure that the healthcare
professional evaluating an employee after an exposure
incident is provided the following information:
1. A copy of this regulation;
2. A description of the exposed employee’s duties as
they relate to the exposure incident;
3. Documentation of the route(s) of exposure and
circumstances under which exposure occurred, as required
by subsection (f)(3)(A);
4. Results of the source individual’s blood testing, if
available; and
5. All medical records relevant to the appropriate
treatment of the employee, including vaccination status,
which are the employer’s responsibility to maintain, as
required by subsection (h)(1)(B)2.
(5) Healthcare Professional’s Written Opinion.
The employer shall obtain and provide the employee
with a copy of the evaluating healthcare professional’s
written opinion within 15 days of the completion of the
evaluation.
(A) The healthcare professional’s written opinion for
hepatitis B vaccination shall be limited to whether hepatitis
B vaccination is indicated for the employee, and if the
employee has received such vaccination.
(B) The healthcare professional’s written opinion for
post-exposure evaluation and follow-up shall be limited to
the following information:
1. That the employee has been informed of the results
of the evaluation; and
2. That the employee has been told about any medical
conditions resulting from exposure to blood or other
potentially infectious materials which require further
evaluation or treatment.
Appendix B
(C) All other findings or diagnoses shall remain
confidential and shall not be included in the written report.
(6) Medical Recordkeeping.
Medical records required by this standard shall be
maintained in accordance with subsection (h)(1) of this
section.
(g) Communication of Hazards to Employees.
(1) Labels and Signs.
(A) Labels.
7. Individual containers of blood or other potentially
infectious materials that are placed in a labeled container
during storage, transport, shipment, or disposal are ex­
empted from the labeling requirement.
8. Labels required for contaminated equipment shall be
in accordance with this subsection and shall also state which
portions of the equipment remain contaminated.
9. Regulated waste that has been decontaminated need
not be labeled or color-coded. . . .
(2) Information and Training.
1. Warning labels shall be affixed to containers of
regulated waste; refrigerators and freezers containing blood
or other potentially infectious material; and other containers
used to store, transport, or ship blood or other potentially
infectious materials, except as provided in subsection
(g)(1)(A)5, 6, and 7. . . .
(A) Employers shall ensure that all employees with
occupational exposure participate in a training program
which must be provided at no cost to the employee and
during working hours.
Note: Other labeling provisions such as Health and Safety
Code Sections 25080–25082 may be applicable.
1. At the time of initial assignment to tasks where
occupational exposure may take place;
2. Labels required by this section shall include either
the following legend as required by Section 6004:
125
(B) Training shall be provided as follows:
2. At least annually thereafter. . . .
(C) For employees who have received training on
bloodborne pathogens in the year preceding the effective
date of the standard, only training with respect to the
provisions of the standard which were not included need be
provided.
(D) Annual training for all employees shall be provided
within one year of their previous training.
BIOHAZARD
or, in the case of regulated waste, the legend:
BIOHAZARDOUS WASTE
as described in Health and Safety Code Sections
25080–25082.
3. These labels shall be fluorescent orange or orangered or predominantly so with lettering and symbols in a
contrasting color.
4. Labels required by subsection (g)(1)(A) shall either
be an integral part of the container or shall be affixed as
close as feasible to the container by string, wire, adhesive,
or other method that prevents their loss or unintentional
removal.
5. Red bags or red containers may be substituted for
labels except for sharp containers or regulated waste red
bags. . . . Bags used to contain regulated waste shall be
color-coded red and shall be labeled in accordance with
subsection (g)(1)(A)2. Labels on red bags or red containers
do not need to be color-coded in accordance with subsection
(g)(1)(A)3.
6. Containers of blood, blood components, or blood
products that are labeled as to their contents and have been
released for transfusion or other clinical use are exempted
from the labeling requirements of subsection (g).
(E) Employers shall provide additional training when
changes such as modification of tasks or procedures or
institution of new tasks or procedures affect the employee’s
occupational exposure. The additional training may be
limited to addressing the new exposures created.
(F) Material appropriate in content and vocabulary to
educational level, literacy, and language of employees shall
be used.
(G) The training program shall contain at a minimum
the following elements:
1. An accessible copy of the regulatory text of this
standard and an explanation of its contents;
2. A general explanation of the epidemiology and
symptoms of bloodborne diseases;
3. An explanation of the modes of transmission of
bloodborne pathogens;
4. An explanation of the exposure control plan and the
means by which the employee can obtain a copy of the
written plan;
5. An explanation of the appropriate methods for
recognizing tasks and other activities that may involve
exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials;
6. An explanation of the use and limitations of methods
that will prevent or reduce exposure including appropriate
126
Appendix B
engineering controls, work practices, and personal protec­
tive equipment;
7. Information on the types, proper use, location,
removal, handling decontamination and disposal of personal
protective equipment;
8. An explanation of the basis for selection of personal
protective equipment;
9. Information on the hepatitis B vaccine, including
information on its efficacy, safety, method of administration,
the benefits of being vaccinated, and that the vaccine and
vaccination will be offered free of charge;
10. Information on appropriate actions to take and
persons to contact in an emergency involving blood or other
potentially infectious materials;
11. An explanation of the procedure to follow if an
exposure incident occurs, including the method of reporting
the incident and the medical follow-up that will be made
available;
1. Kept confidential; and
2. Not disclosed or reported without the employee’s
express written consent to any person within or outside the
workplace except as required by this section or as may be
required by law.
(D) The employer shall maintain the records required
by subsection (h)(1) for at least the duration of employment
plus 30 years in accordance with Section 3204.
(2) Training Records.
(A) Training records shall include the following
information:
1. The dates of the training sessions;
2. The contents or a summary of the training sessions;
3. The names and qualifications of persons conducting
the training; and
4. The names and job titles of all persons attending the
training sessions.
12. Information on the post-exposure evaluation and
follow-up that the employer is required to provide for the
employee following an exposure incident;
(B) Training records shall be maintained for 3 years
from the date on which the training occurred.
13. An explanation of the signs and labels and/or color
coding required by subsection (g)(1); and
14. An opportunity for interactive questions and
answers with the person conducting the training session. . . .
(A) The employer shall ensure that all records required
to be maintained by this section shall be made available
upon request to the Chief and NIOSH for examination and
copying.
(H) The person conducting the training shall be
knowledgeable in the subject matter covered by the ele­
ments contained in the training program as it relates to the
workplace that the training will address.
(B) Employee training records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request for examination and
copying to employees to employee representatives, to the
Chief, and to NIOSH.
(h) Recordkeeping.
(1) Medical Records.
(A) The employer shall establish and maintain an
accurate record for each employee with occupational
exposure, in accordance with Section 3204. . . .
(B) This record shall include:
1. The name and social security number of the em­
ployee;
2. A copy of the employee’s hepatitis B vaccination
status, including the dates of all the hepatitis B vaccinations
and any medical records relative to the employee’s ability to
receive vaccination as required by subsection (f)(2);
3. A copy of all results of examinations, medical testing,
and follow-up procedures as required by subsection (f)(3);
4. The employer’s copy of the healthcare professional’s
written opinion as required by subsection (f)(5); and
5. A copy of the information provided to the healthcare
professional as required by subsections (f)(4)(B)2, 3, and 4.
(C) Confidentiality. The employer shall ensure that
employee medical records required by subsection (h)(1) are:
(3) Availability.
(C) Employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request for examination and
copying to the subject employee, to anyone having written
consent of the subject employee, to the Chief, and to
NIOSH in accordance with Section 3204.
(4) Transfer of Records.
(A) The employer shall comply with the requirements
involving transfer of records set forth in Section 3204.
(B) If the employer ceases to do business and there is
no successor employer to receive and retain the records for
the prescribed period, the employer shall notify NIOSH at
least three months prior to their disposal and transmit them
to the NIOSH, if required by the NIOSH to do so, within
that three-month period.
(i) Dates.
(1) The Exposure Control Plan required by subsection
(c)(1) of this section shall be completed within 60 days of
the effective date of this standard.
(2) Subsection (g)(2) Information and Training and (h)
Recordkeeping shall take effect within 90 days of the
effective date of this standard.
Appendix B
(3) Subsections (d)(2) Engineering and Work Practice
Controls, (d)(3) Personal Protective Equipment, (d)(4)
Housekeeping, (e) HIV and HBV Research Laboratories and
Production Facilities, (f) Hepatitis B Vaccination and PostExposure Evaluation and Follow-up, and (g)(1) Labels and
Signs shall take effect 120 days after the effective date of
this standard.
(j) Appendix.
Appendix A to this section is incorporated as a part of
this section and the provision is mandatory.
Appendix A - Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination
(MANDATORY)
The employer shall assure that employees who decline
to accept hepatitis B vaccination offered by the employer
sign the following statement as required by subsection
(f)(2)(D):
I understand that due to my occupational exposure to
blood or other potentially infectious materials I may be at
risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. I have
been given the opportunity to be vaccinated with hepatitis B
vaccine, at no charge to myself. However, I decline hepatitis
B vaccination at this time. I understand that by declining
this vaccine, I continue to be at risk of acquiring hepatitis B,
a serious disease. If in the future I continue to have occupa­
tional exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials and I want to be vaccinated with hepatitis B
vaccine, I can receive the vaccination series at no charge to
me. . . .
Hazard Communication; Material Safety Data Sheets
5194.
[See Chapter 5, Section E, for information about
meeting the requirements of this section. Ed.]
(b) Scope and Application
(l) This section requires . . . all employers to provide
information to their employees about the hazardous sub­
stances to which they may be exposed, by means of a hazard
communication program, labels and other forms of warning,
material safety data sheets, and information and training. . . .
(2) This section applies to any hazardous substance
which is known to be present in the workplace in such a
manner that employees may be exposed under normal
conditions of use or in a reasonably foreseeable emergency
resulting from workplace operations.
(3) This section applies to laboratories that primarily
provide quality control analyses for manufacturing pro­
cesses or that produce hazardous substances for commercial
purposes, and to all other laboratories except those under the
direct supervision and regular observation of an individual
who has knowledge of the physical hazards, health hazards,
127
and emergency procedures associated with the use of the
particular hazardous substances involved, and who conveys
this knowledge to employees in terms of safe work practices.
[emphasis added] Such excepted laboratories must also
ensure that labels of incoming containers of hazardous
substances are not removed or defaced . . . and must
maintain any material safety data sheets that are received
with incoming shipments of hazardous substances and
ensure that they are readily available to laboratory
employees. . . .
(d) Hazard Determination.
(1) Manufacturers and importers shall evaluate
substances produced in their workplaces or imported by
them to determine if they are hazardous. Employers are not
required to evaluate substances unless they choose not to
rely on the evaluation performed by the manufacturer or
importer for the substance to satisfy this requirement. . . .
[emphasis added]
(e) Written Hazard Communication Program.
(1) Employers shall develop, implement, and maintain
at the workplace a written hazard communication program
for their employees which at least describes how the criteria
specified in sections 5194 (f), (g), and (h) for labels and
other forms of warning, material safety data sheets, and
employee information and training will be met, and which
also includes the following:
(A) A list of the hazardous substances known to be
present using an identity that is referenced on the appropri­
ate material safety data sheet (the list may be compiled for
the workplace as a whole or for individual work areas);
(B) The methods the employer will use to inform
employees of the hazards of nonroutine tasks (for example,
the cleaning of reactor vessels) and the hazards associated
with substances contained in unlabeled pipes in their work
areas.
(2) . . . the written hazard communication program
shall include the methods employers will use
to inform any employers sharing the same work area of the
hazardous substances to which their employees may be
exposed while performing their work, and any suggestions
for appropriate protective measures. . . .
(3) The employer shall make the written hazard
communication program available, upon request, to employ­
ees, their designated representatives, the Chief, and NIOSH,
in accordance with the requirements of Section 3204(e).
(f) Labels and Other Forms of Warning.
Note to (f): The requirements at sections 5225–5230 for
labeling of all containers containing highly toxic, corrosive,
flammable, oxidizing or pyrophoric substances apply to all
employers, and apply regardless of any exception or
allowance in Section 5194(f).
128
Appendix B
(1) The manufacturer, importer, or distributor shall
ensure that each container of hazardous substances leaving
the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked with the
following information:
(A) Identity of the hazardous substance(s);
(B) Appropriate hazard warnings; and
tion in their language to the material presented, as long as
the information is presented in English as well.
(9) The manufacturer, importer, distributor, or em­
ployer need not affix new labels to comply with this section
if existing labels already convey the required information.
(g) Material Safety Data Sheets.
(C) Name and address of the manufacturer, importer, or
other responsible party. . . .
(1) . . . Employers shall have a material safety data
sheet for each hazardous substance which they use.
(2) Manufacturers, importers, or distributors shall
ensure that each container of hazardous substances leaving
the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked in accordance
with this section in a manner which does not conflict with
the requirements of the Hazardous Materials Transportation
Act (18 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) and regulations issued under
that Act by the Department of Transportation.
Note to (g)(1): Employers should also refer to Section 3204
concerning information to be retained after a particular
substance is no longer in use.
(3) If the hazardous substance is regulated by these
orders in a substance-specific health standard, the manufac­
turer, importer, distributor, or employer shall ensure that the
labels or other forms of warning used are in accordance with
the requirements of that standard.
(4) Except as provided in sections 5194(f)(5) and (f)(6)
the employer shall ensure that each container of hazardous
substances in the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked
with the following information:
(A) Identity of the hazardous substance(s) contained
therein; and
(B) Appropriate hazard warnings.
(5) The employer may use signs, placards, process
sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures, or other such
written materials in lieu of affixing labels to individual
stationary process containers, as long as the alternative
method identifies the containers to which it is applicable and
conveys the information required by Section 5194(f)(4) to
be on a label. The written materials shall be readily
accessible to the employees in their work area throughout
each work shift. . . .
(6) The employer is not required to label portable
containers into which hazardous substances are transferred
from labeled containers, and which are intended only for
the immediate use of the employee who performs the
transfer. . . .
(2) Each material safety data sheet shall be in English
and shall contain at least the following information:
(A) The identity used on the label, and, except as
provided for in Section 5194(i) on trade secrets:
1. If the hazardous substance is a single substance, its
chemical and common name(s) and CAS number(s);
2. If the hazardous substance is a mixture which has
been tested as a whole to determine its hazards, the chemi­
cal, common name(s), and CAS number(s) of the ingredi­
ents which contribute to these known hazards, and the
common name(s) of the mixture itself; or,
3. If the hazardous substance is a mixture which has
not been tested as a whole:
a. The chemical and common name(s), and CAS
number(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to
be health hazards, and which comprise 1% or greater of the
composition, except that substances identified as carcino­
gens under subsection 5194(d)(4) shall be listed if the
concentrations are 0.1% or greater;
b. The chemical and common name(s), and CAS
number(s) of all ingredients which comprise less than 1%
(0.1% for carcinogens) of the mixture, if there is evidence
that the ingredient(s) could be released from the mixture in
concentrations which would exceed an established OSHA
permissible exposure limit or ACGIH Threshold Limit
Value, or could present a health hazard to employees; and,
c. The chemical, common name(s) and CAS number(s)
of all ingredients which have been determined to present a
physical hazard when present in the mixture;
(7) The employer shall not remove or intentionally
deface existing labels on incoming containers of hazardous
substances, unless the container is immediately marked with
the required information.
(B) Physical and chemical properties of the hazardous
substance (such as vapor pressure, flashpoint);
(8) The employer shall ensure that labels or other
forms of warning are legible, in English, and prominently
displayed on the container, or readily available in the work
area throughout each work shift. Employers having
employees who speak other languages may add the informa­
(D) The health hazards of the hazardous substance,
including signs and symptoms of exposure, and any medical
conditions which are generally recognized as being aggra­
vated by exposure to the substance;
(C) The physical hazards of the hazardous substance,
including the potential for fire, explosion, and reactivity;
(E) The potential route(s) of entry;
Appendix B
(F) The OSHA permissible exposure limit, ACGIH
Threshold Limit Value, and any other exposure limit used or
recommended by the manufacturer, importer, or employer
preparing the material safety data sheet, where available;
(G) Whether the hazardous substance is listed in the
National Toxicology Program (NTP) Sixth Annual Report
on Carcinogens or has been found to be a potential carcino­
gen in the International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC) Monographs, Vols. 1–53 and Supplements 1–8, or
by OSHA;
(H) Any generally applicable precautions for safe
handling and use which are known to the manufacturer,
importer, or employer preparing the material safety data
sheet, including the appropriate hygienic practices, protec­
tive measures during repair and maintenance of contami­
nated equipment, and procedures for cleanup of spills and
leaks;
(I) Any generally applicable control measures which
are known to the manufacturer, importer, or employer
preparing the material safety data sheet, such as appropriate
engineering controls, work practices, or personal protective
equipment;
(J) Emergency and first-aid procedures;
(K) The date of preparation of the material safety data
sheet or the last change to it;
(L) The name, address and telephone number of the
manufacturer, importer, employer, or other responsible party
preparing or distributing the material safety data sheet, who
can provide additional information on the hazardous
substance and appropriate emergency procedures, if
necessary; and,
(M) A description in lay terms, if not otherwise
provided, on either a separate sheet or with the body of the
information specified in this section, of the specific potential
health risks posed by the hazardous substance intended to
alert any person reading the information. . . .
(8) The employer shall maintain copies of the required
material safety data sheets for each hazardous substance in
the workplace, and shall ensure that they are readily
accessible during each work shift to employees when they
are in their work area(s). . . .
(10) Material safety data sheets may be kept in any
form, including operating procedures, and may be designed
to cover groups of hazardous substances in a work area
where it may be more appropriate to address the hazards of
a process rather than individual hazardous substances. . . .
(11) Material safety data sheets shall also be made
readily available, upon request, to designated representa­
tives, and to the Chief, in accordance with the requirements
of Section 3204(e). NIOSH and the employee’s physician
shall also be given access to material safety data sheets in
the same manner.
129
(12) If the material safety data sheet, or any item of
information required by Section 5194(g)(2), is not provided
by the manufacturer or importer, the employer shall:
(A) Within 7 working days of noting this missing
information, either from a request or in attempting to
comply with Section 5194(1), make written inquiry to the
manufacturer or importer of a hazardous substance respon­
sible for the material safety data sheet, asking that the
complete material safety data sheet be sent to the employer.
If the employer has made written inquiry in the preceding
12 months as to whether the substance or product is subject
to the requirements of the Act or the employer has made
written inquiry within the last 6 months requesting new,
revised or later information on the material safety data sheet
for the hazardous substance, the employer need not make
additional written inquiry.
(B) Notify the requestor in writing of the date that the
inquiry was made, to whom it was made, and the response,
if any, received. Providing the requestor with a copy of the
inquiry sent to the manufacturer, producer or seller and a
copy of the response will satisfy this requirement.
(C) Notify the requestor of the availability of the
material safety data sheet within 15 days of the receipt of
the material safety data sheet from the manufacturer,
producer or seller or provide a copy of the material safety
data sheet to the requestor within 15 days of the receipt of
the material safety data sheet from the manufacturer,
producer or seller.
(D) Send the Director [of Industrial Relations] a copy
of the written inquiry if a response has not been received
within 25 working days.
(13) The preparer of a material safety data sheet shall
provide the Director with a copy of the material safety data
sheet. Where a trade secret claim is made, the preparer shall
submit the information specified in Section 5194(i)(15).
(h) Employee Information and Training.
(1) Employers shall provide employees with informa­
tion and training on hazardous substances in their work area
at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new
hazard is introduced into their work area. Information and
training may relate to general classes of hazardous sub­
stances to the extent appropriate and related to reasonably
foreseeable exposures of the job.
(2) Information and training shall consist of at least the
following topics:
(A) Employees shall be informed of the requirements
of this section.
(B) Employees shall be informed of any operations in
their work area where hazardous substances are present.
(C) Employees shall be informed of the location
and availability of the written hazard communication
program. . . .
130
Appendix B
(D) Employees shall be trained in the methods and
observations that may be used to detect the presence or
release of a hazardous substance in the work area (such as
monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitor­
ing devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous
substances when being released, etc.).
(E) Employees shall be trained in the physical and
health hazards of the substances in the work area, and the
measures they can take to protect themselves from these
hazards, including specific procedures the employer has
implemented to protect employees from exposure to
hazardous substances, such as appropriate work practices,
emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment
to be used.
(F) Employees shall be trained in the details of the
hazard communication program developed by the employer,
including an explanation of the labeling system and the
material safety data sheet, and how employees can obtain
and use the appropriate hazard information.
(G) Employers shall inform employees of the right:
1. To personally receive information regarding hazard­
ous substances to which they may be exposed, according to
the provisions of this section;
2. For their physician or collective bargaining agent to
receive information regarding hazardous substances to
which the employee may be exposed according to provi­
sions of this section;
3. Against discharge or other discrimination due to the
employee’s exercise of the rights afforded pursuant to the
provisions of the Hazardous Substances Information and
Training Act.
(3) Whenever the employer receives a new or revised
material safety data sheet, such information shall be
provided to employees on a timely basis not to exceed 30
days after receipt, if the new information indicates signifi­
cantly increased risks to, or measures necessary to protect,
employee health as compared to those stated on a material
safety data sheet previously provided.
(i) Trade Secrets.
[Note: The text is not included here. This section
provides for the withholding of the specific chemical
identity of trade secrets on material safety data sheets as
long as information concerning the properties and effects of
the hazardous substance is disclosed. If a physician or nurse
determines that a medical emergency exists and the chemi­
cal identity of the substance is necessary for treatment, the
chemical identity must be disclosed immediately. A confi­
dentiality agreement may be a provision of the disclosure.
Ed.]
Appendixes A through D to Section 5194 are not
reprinted here. The titles of those appendixes are as follows:
Appendix A : Health Hazard Definitions (Mandatory)
Appendix B: Hazard Determination (Mandatory)
[outlines the principles and procedures of hazard assess­
ment]
Appendix C: Information Sources (Advisory) [gives a
list of data sources that may be consulted to evaluate the
hazards of substances]
Appendix D: Definition of “Trade Secret” (Mandatory)
California Code of Regulations, Title 22
Specific Requirements for Milkrun Operations
66263.42.
(a) The following may be transported in accordance
with the requirements of this section:
(1) Spent photographic solutions;
(2) Ethylene glycol automotive antifreeze;
(3) Sludge containing sodium hydroxide and heavy
metals;
(4) Dry cleaning solvents (including perchloroethylene);
(5) Asbestos;
(6) Inks from the printing industry;
(7) Chemicals and laboratory packs collected from
school districts;
(8) Automotive parts cleaning solvents.
(b) This section applies only to hazardous wastes that
are either:
(1) Subject to reclamation agreements with generators
of greater than 100 kilograms per month but less than 1,000
kilograms per month pursuant to the requirements of Title
40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, sections 262.20(e)
and 263.20(h), as of July 1, 1988; or
(2) Collected from generators who meet the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations,
sections 261.5(a) and 251.5(9), as of July 1, 1988; or
(3) Collected from generators of non-RCRA hazardous
wastes totaling less than 100 kilograms per calendar month.
(c) A transporter operating in accordance with this
section may transport from any number of generators.
(d) A Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (Form DHS
8022A [now DTSC 8022A]) completed pursuant to the
following instructions prior to the first collection shall be in
the driver’s possession when transporting the abovementioned hazardous waste. A new manifest shall be
completed whenever the driver changes, transport vehicle
changes, a new day begins, or upon the last delivery of the
hazardous waste to the designated facility. The modified
manifesting procedures are as follows:
(1) The transporter shall be responsible for completing
both the generator and transporter section of the manifest.
Appendix B
(2) The transporter’s name and EPA Identification
Number shall be entered in both the generator information
and transporter information spaces of the manifest.
(3) The transporter shall attach to the front of the
manifest legible copies of the receipts or shipping papers for
the waste collected. The receipts or shipping papers shall be
used to determine the total quantity of waste in the vehicle.
After the waste is delivered, the receipts or shipping papers
shall be affixed to the transporter’s copy of the manifest.
The manifest and receipts or shipping papers shall be kept
for three years. The receipts or shipping papers shall contain
the following information:
131
(5) The transporter shall sign and date both generator
and transporter sections of the manifest and shall submit the
generator copy of the manifest to the Department within 30
days of the acceptance of the waste by the transporter.
(6) All copies of the manifest shall be submitted to the
treatment, storage or disposal facility (TSDF) operator upon
delivery of the waste.
(A) Each generator’s name, address and EPA Identifica­
tion Number;
(7) After completion of the TSDF portion, the original
manifest shall be submitted to the Department of Toxic
Substances Control within 30 days. The copy of the mani­
fest (Labeled: “Yellow: TSDF SENDS THIS COPY TO GENERATOR
WITHIN 30 DAYS”) which is otherwise returned to the genera­
tor by the TSDF operator shall instead be returned to the
transporter.
(B) The name of each generator’s contact person,
telephone number and signature of the generator’s represen­
tative;
(e) The transporter shall leave a receipt or shipping
paper with the generator for the waste collected. Generators
shall keep these receipts or shipping papers for three years.
(C) The transporter’s name, address and EPA Identifica­
tion Number;
(f) The period of retention referred to in this section is
extended automatically during the course of any unresolved
enforcement action regarding the regulated activity or as
requested by the Department.
(D) The proper shipping name, hazard class and United
Nations/North America (UN/NA) identification number, as
applicable;
(E) The quantity of waste collected from each genera­
tor;
(F) The date the waste was accepted by the transporter;
(G) The name, address and EPA Identification Number,
if applicable, of the authorized facility to which the hazard­
ous waste will be transported;
(H) In the case of school chemical collections, the drum
number which contains the accepted waste;
(I) The manifest document number.
(4) At the completion of each day, the transporter shall
enter the total volume or weight of the waste on the mani­
fest. The total volume or weight shall be the cumulative
amount of waste collected from the generators listed on the
attached receipts or shipping papers.
(g) The hazardous waste shall be delivered to a permit­
ted hazardous waste facility or to a facility which has been
granted interim status, or to a facility which has been
otherwise authorized to receive hazardous wastes pursuant
to Chapter 6.5 of Division 20 of the Health and Safety Code
and implementing regulations.
(h) Handling practices and storage time of the hazardous wastes shall be allowed the same exemptions described
in Section 66263.18 of this chapter, when applied to
handling and storage at transfer facilities.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 208, 25143, 25150, and
25161, Health and Safety Code. Reference: Sections
25117.9, 25143, 25160, 25168, 25169, and 25169.1, Health
and Safety Code.
Ordering Information
(for manifests)
Note: Manifests are not necessary when (1) a noncommercial waste producer transports small quantities of waste
(Health and Safety Code Section 25163[c]); and (2) the waste is disposed of by “milkrun,” in which case the trans­
porter provides the manifest (California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Section 66263.42).
When necessary, order a packet of Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifests from:
Department of General Services—Publications
P.O. Box 1015
North Highlands, CA 95660
Send a check in the amount of $15 and include a street address for United Parcel Service (UPS) delivery.
133
134
134
Appendix B
Health and Safety Code
Humane Care of Animals
1650.
The public health and welfare depend on the humane
use of animals for scientific advancement in the diagnosis
and treatment of human and animal diseases, for education,
for research in the advancement of veterinary, dental,
medical and biologic sciences, for research in animal and
human nutrition, and improvement and standardization of
laboratory procedures of biologic products, pharmaceuticals
and drugs.
135
Retrograde Material
25121.5.
“Retrograde material” means any hazardous material
which is not to be used, sold, or distributed for use in an
originally intended or prescribed manner or for an originally
intended or prescribed purpose and which meets any one or
more of the following criteria:
(a) Has undergone chemical, biochemical, physical, or
other changes due to the passage of time or the environmen­
tal conditions under which it was stored.
(b) Has exceeded a specified or recommended shelf life.
(c) Is banned by law, regulation, ordinance, or decree.
1651.
The State Department of Health Services shall adminis­
ter the provisions of this chapter.
(d) Cannot be used for reasons of economics, health or
safety, or environmental hazard.
Every provision of this chapter shall be liberally
construed to protect the interests of all persons and animals
affected.
Repeal of Requirement for Obtaining an Extremely
Hazardous Waste Disposal Permit
25153.
As used in this chapter, “person” includes: laboratory,
firm, association, corporation, copartnership, and educa­
tional institution.
The offsite storage, treatment, transportation, and
disposal of extremely hazardous waste is subject to the same
requirements specified in this chapter that are applicable to
hazardous waste and the department shall not require any
special or additional permits for the offsite handling of
extremely hazardous waste.
As used in this chapter, “board” or “department” means
the State Department of Health Services.
1660.
The department shall make and promulgate, and may
thereafter modify, amend or rescind, reasonable rules and
regulations to carry out the purposes of this chapter,
including the control of the humane use of animals for the
diagnosis and treatment of human and animal diseases, for
research in the advancement of veterinary, dental, medical
and biologic sciences, for research in animal and human
nutrition, and for the testing and diagnosis, improvement
and standardization of laboratory specimens, biologic
products, pharmaceuticals and drugs. Such rules and
regulations shall include requirements for satisfactory
shelter, food, sanitation, record keeping, and for the humane
treatment of animals by persons authorized by the board to
raise, keep or to use animals under the provision of this
chapter. The department shall not make or promulgate any
rule compelling the delivery of animals for the purpose of
research, demonstration, diagnosis, or experimentation.
1662.
The department is hereby authorized to inspect any
premises or property on or in which animals are kept for
experimental or diagnostic purposes, for the purpose of
investigation of compliance with the rules and regulations
adopted hereunder. Such inspection or other method of
control shall be enforced only by employees of the depart­
ment and such power and authority may not be delegated to
any other persons or agency.
25205.7(o).
Any person producing or transporting extremely
hazardous waste shall pay a fee of two hundred dollars
($200) per calendar year, in addition to any other fee
imposed by this section. The fee shall be collected annually.
Transporting Hazardous Waste
25163.
(c) Persons transporting hazardous wastes to a permitted
hazardous waste facility for transfer, treatment, recycling, or
disposal, which wastes do not exceed a total volume of five
gallons or do not exceed a total weight of 50 pounds, are
exempt from the requirements . . . concerning possession of a
manifest while transporting hazardous waste, upon meeting
all of the following conditions:
(1) The hazardous wastes are transported in closed
containers and packed in a manner that prevents containers
from tipping, spilling, or breaking during the transporting.
(2) Different hazardous waste materials are not mixed
within a container during the transporting.
(3) If the hazardous waste is extremely hazardous waste
or acutely hazardous waste, the extremely hazardous waste
or acutely hazardous waste was not generated in the course
of any business and is not more than 2.2 pounds.
(4) The person transporting the hazardous waste is the
producer of that hazardous waste, and the person produces
136
Appendix B
not more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste in any
month.
(5) The person transporting the hazardous waste does
not accumulate more than a total of 1,000 kilograms of
hazardous waste onsite at any one time. . . .
(e) It is unlawful for any person to transport hazardous
waste in any truck, trailer . . . not inspected by the Depart­
ment of the California Highway Patrol. . . .
25163.1.
The Department shall not adopt any regulations
requiring a person hauling hazardous wastes who is not in
the business of hauling hazardous wastes or who is not
hauling these wastes as part of, or incidental to, any busi­
ness to obtain the registration specified if that person meets
the conditions specified in subsection (c) of Section 25163.
Hazardous Materials Release Response Plans and
Inventory
pressure for compressed gas, shall establish and implement
a business plan for emergency response to a release or
threatened release of a hazardous material.
25504.
Business plans shall include a chemical inventory as
required by Section 25509, emergency response plans in the
event of a reportable release or threatened release of
hazardous material, and training for all new employees and
annual training regarding release or threatened release of
hazardous materials.
25505.
Each handler shall submit its business plan to the
administering agency.
25507.
[The following is a summary of the relevant sections of
Chapter 6.95. Ed.]
Handlers shall immediately report any release or
threatened release to the administering agency and provide
fire, health, safety, and/or rescue personnel access to the
facilities.
25500.
25509.
In order to protect public health and safety and the
environment, it is necessary to establish business and area
plans relating to the handling and release of hazardous
materials. Basic information on location, type, quantity, and
the health risks of hazardous materials handled, used, stored,
or disposed of is necessary to prevent or mitigate the
damage to the health and safety of persons and the environ­
ment from the release or threatened release of hazardous
materials into the workplace and environment.
(a) The annual inventory form shall include, but shall
not be limited to, information on all of the following which
are handled in quantities equal to or greater than the
quantities specified in Section 25503.5:
25502.
Every county is required, through a designated adminis­
tering agency, to implement the establishment of business
and area plans as to the handling of hazardous materials and
assure availability and access of information to emergency
rescue personnel and other appropriate entities. A city may
assume that responsibility within its boundaries, coordinat­
ing its activities with the county in which it is located.
25503.3
(1) A listing of the chemical name and common names
of every hazardous substance or chemical product handled
by the business.
(2) The category of waste, including the general
chemical and mineral composition of the waste listed by
probable maximum and minimum concentrations, of every
hazardous waste handled by the business.
(3) A listing of the chemical name and common names
of every other hazardous material or mixture containing a
hazardous material handled by the business which is not
otherwise listed, pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2).
(4) The maximum amount of each hazardous material
or mixture containing a hazardous material disclosed in
paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) which is handled at any one time
by the business over the course of the year.
25503.5
(5) Sufficient information on how and where the
hazardous materials disclosed in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)
are handled by the business to allow fire, safety, health, and
other appropriate personnel to prepare adequate emergency
responses to potential releases of the hazardous materials.
Any business which handles a quantity of hazardous
material which at any time during the year is equal to or
greater than a total weight of 500 lbs or a total volume of 55
gallons, or 200 cubic feet at standard temperature and
(6) The name and phone number of the person repre­
senting the business and able to assist emergency personnel
in the event of an emergency involving the business during
nonbusiness hours.
Businesses handling hazardous materials shall annually
complete a hazardous materials reporting form and submit it
to the administering agency.
APPENDIX C
REIMBURSEMENT FOR REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL OF CHEMICALS
the most current Department of Education guidelines.
The costs of regular removal and disposal may include,
but are not limited to, the following:
On July 28, 1988, the Commission of State Mandates
determined that the following costs incurred by school
districts to implement Education Code Section 49411 are
reimbursable: (1) the cost of complying with guidelines for
the regular removal and disposal of all chemicals whose
shelf life has elapsed; and (2) the cost of certifying to the
Superintendent of Public Instruction whether the district is
in compliance with the guidelines.
For each eligible claimant (which certified its compli­
ance with the guidelines by June 30, 1988), reimbursable
costs are all costs for the regular removal and disposal of
chemicals that have not yet reached a “retrograde” condition
(Health and Safety Code Section 25121.5; see the list under
section G of this appendix) but still pose a significant threat
to the health and safety of teachers, staff, and students, as
established by the most current Department of Education
guidelines.
The actual costs for one fiscal year shall be included in
each claim. The estimated costs for the subsequent year may
be included in the same claim, if applicable. All claims for
the reimbursement of costs shall be submitted within 120
days of notification by the State Controller of the enactment
of the claims bill.
If the total costs for a given fiscal year do not exceed
$200, no reimbursement shall be allowed, except as other­
wise allowed by Government Code Section 17564.
a. Consultant fees for supervision of lab-packing,
loading, and so forth.
b. Contractor fees and charges for the packing of
laboratory chemicals and transportation of waste
and the charges associated with the final disposi­
tion of the waste material, including treatment,
recycling, incineration, and landfill disposal.
c. All costs incurred by the school district for
packing the chemicals in-house, using district
personnel. These costs may include disposable
body suits; protective gloves; shipping containers
(drums, liners, etc.) approved by the Department
of Transportation (DOT); absorbent materials for
spill containment and lab-packing; DOTapproved shipping labels for DOT containers;
publications used for reference by and training of
district personnel, including this document,
Science Safety Handbook for California Public
Schools.
d. Other miscellaneous costs incurred by the district
that are imposed by local, state, and federal
governmental agencies. These costs are normally
charged by the particular agency as taxes or
surcharges, such as excise tax fees, generator
fees, and superfund taxes. These costs are
reimbursable only to the extent that they are
incurred for the disposal of chemicals that have
not yet reached a “retrograde” condition, as
specified above.
A. Reimbursable Costs
Reimbursement is available for elementary, secondary,
and unified school districts. The costs of ongoing removal
and disposal may include, but are not limited to, the
following:
1. Salaries and benefits of personnel at school sites,
district offices, and county offices of education, both
certificated and classified, who perform any duties
related to compliance with this mandate; salaries and
benefits of substitute employees who provided cover­
age for employees performing duties related to said
mandates.
B. Nonreimbursable Activities
All costs incurred after June 30, 1988, associated with
the removal of chemicals that meet the definition of
“retrograde materials,” as defined in Health and Safety Code
Section 25121.5, are nonreimbursable.
2. Consultant fees for preparation of initial chemical
inventories, preparation of chemical profile inventories
for chemical disposal purposes, supervision (monitor­
ing) of contractor during on-site related activities.
C. Claim Preparation
Each claim for reimbursement pursuant to this mandate
must be filed in time and must set forth a list of each item
for which reimbursement is claimed under this mandate.
The claim must contain the following information:
3. All contractor fees/charges for review and computer
entry of inventories.
4. All costs for the regular removal and disposal of
chemicals that have not yet reached a “retrograde”
condition (Health and Safety Code Section 25121.5)
but still pose a significant threat to the health and
safety of teachers, staff, and students, as established by
1. Description of activity
2. Supporting documentation
Claimed costs should be supported by the following
information:
137
138
Appendix C
a. Employee salaries and benefits. Identify the
employee(s) and show the classification of the
employee(s) involved; describe the mandated
functions performed; and specify the number of
hours devoted to each function, the productive
hourly rate, and the related benefits.
b. Services and supplies. Only those expenditures that
can be identified as a direct cost of the mandate
may be claimed. Make a list of the cost of materials
that have been consumed or expended specifically
for the purpose of this mandate.
c. Allowable overhead cost. School districts may use
the “J-380” nonrestrictive indirect cost rate. County
offices of education may use the “J-580” rate.
D. Supporting Data
For auditing purposes, all costs claimed must be
traceable to source documents or work sheets that show
evidence of the validity of such costs. These documents must
be kept on file by the agency submitting the claim for a
period of not less than three years from the date of the final
payment of the claim, pursuant to this mandate, and made
available on the request of the State Controller or his or her
agent.
E. Offsetting Savings and Other Reimbursements
Any offsetting savings the claimant experiences as a
direct result of this statute must be deducted from the costs
claimed. In addition, reimbursement for this mandate
received from any source (e.g., federal, state, or local
agencies) shall be identified and deducted from this claim.
Reimbursement for taxes paid for the removal and disposal
of chemicals to comply with the certification requirement of
Chapter 1107, Statutes of 1984, which taxes were waived by
the Department of Health Services, must be sought pursuant
to Government Code Section 16302.1.
F. Required Certification
The following certification must accompany the claim:
I DO HEREBY CERTIFY under penalty of perjury:
THAT the foregoing is true and correct;
THAT Sections 1090 through 1096, inclusive, of the
Government Code and other applicable provisions of the law
have been complied with; and
THAT I am the person authorized by the local agency to
file claims for funds with the State of California.
Signature of Authorized Representative
Date
Title
Telephone
G. Chemicals to Be Removed from School Science
Laboratories
The following list identifies three groups of chemicals:
1. Those chemicals included on lists of hazardous
chemicals that were recommended for removal and
disposal in the 1987 edition of this handbook and
which, at this time, are considered “retrograde materi­
als” are identified with an asterisk (*). (See definition
of retrograde materials in Appendix B, Health and
Safety Code Section 25125.5.) The costs for disposal of
these “retrograde materials” are not considered
reimbursable.
2. Chemicals that have been added to the previous lists of
hazardous chemicals recommended for immediate or
prompt removal and disposal (see tables 1, 2, and 3)
are identified with two asterisks (**). The costs for
disposal of these chemicals are considered reimburs­
able.
3. Chemicals that are subject to regular removal and
disposal, on approaching their estimated shelf life,
because they pose a significant threat to the health and
safety of teachers, staff, and students but have not yet
reached a “retrograde” condition have no asterisk. The
costs for disposal of these materials are reimbursable.
Acetic Acid (glacial)
*2-Acetylaminofluorine
*4-Aminodiphenyl
Acetone
**Acrylamide
Aluminum (powder)
Aluminum Chloride
Aluminum Sulfate
Ammonium Carbonate
Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonium Nitrate
Ammonium Persulfate
*Aniline
**Antimony
*Arsenic compound (any)
*Arsenic powder
*Arsenic Trioxide
*Asbestos
Barium (soluble compounds)
Barium Chloride
Barium Hydroxide
Barium Nitrate
Bismuth and alloys (powder)
*Benzene
*Benzidine (and salts)
Appendix C
*Benzoyl Peroxide
**Beryllium
**Beryllium Compounds
Boric Acid
**Bromine
Butyl Alcohols
*Cadmium powder
*Cadmium salts
**Calcium Carbide
Calcium Chloride
Calcium Hydroxide
Calcium Hypochlorite
Calcium metal
Calcium Nitrate
Calcium Oxide
Camphor
*Carbon Disulfide
*Carbon Tetrachloride
*Chloroform
*Chromium (VI) Oxide
**All hexavalent chromium
compounds
**Cobalt
Cobalt Chloride
**Cobalt II Oxide
Cobalt Nitrate
Cobalt Sulfate
Cupric Chloride
Cupric Nirate
Cupric Oxide
Cupric Sulfate
Cyclohexane
**p-Dichlorobenzene
*3,3-Dichlorobenzidene (and
salts)
*Diisopropyl Ether (if stored
more than 1 year)
*Dimethyl Amine
*4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
**Ethidium Bromide
Ethyl Acetate
Ethyl Alcohol
*Ethyl Ether/Diethyl Ether (if
stored more than 1 year)
*Ethylene Dichloride
*Ethylene Oxide
*Ethyleneimine
Ferric Chloride
Ferric Nitrate
Ferrous Sulfate
**Formaldehyde
Formic Acid
Hexane
*Hydrazine (anhydrous)
Hydrochloric Acid
*Hydrofluoric Acid
**Hydrogen Peroxide (35%)
Iodine
Isobutyl Alcohol
Isopropyl Alcohol
Kerosene
**Lead (powder)
**Lead Acetate
*Lead Arsenate
**Lead Carbonate
**Lead Chloride
**Lead Nitrate
**Lead Oxide
**Lead Peroxide (dioxide)
**Lead Sulfate
**Lead Sulfide
Lithium Nitrate
Magnesium Chloride
Magnesium Metal (powder/
ribbon)
Magnesium Nitrate
Magnesium Oxide
Manganese Dioxide
Manganous Sulfate
**Mercurous/Mercuric Nitrate
**Mercury metal
**Mercury compounds
Methanol
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Methyl Cellulose
*Methylchloromethyl Ether
*4-4-Methylene bis (2­
chloroanaline)
*Methylene Chloride
*Alpha-Naphthylamine
*Beta-Naphthylamine
**Nickel compounds
*Nickel powder
*4-Nitrobiphenyl
**Nicotine
Nitric Acid
*Nitrogen Triiodide
Oxalic Acid
Pentane
139
*Perchloric Acid
**Phenol (carbolic acid)
**Phosphorous (red)
*Phosphorous (yellow/white)
*Picric Acid
Potassium Bromide
**Potassium Chlorate
Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium Iodide
*Potassium metal
Potassium Nitrate
Potassium Permanganate
Resorcinol
*Beta-Propiolactone
*Sodium Arsenate
*Sodium Arsenite
*Sodium Azide
Sodium Chlorate
Sodium Chromate
Sodium Hypochlorite
Sodium metal
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Peroxide
Sodium Thiosulfate
Styrene
Sulfur
Sulfuric Acid
**Toluene
Turpentine
*Vinyl Chloride
Xylene
Zinc, metal powder
Zinc Nitrate
140
APPENDIX D
SCIENCE CLASSROOM FIRST-AID AND SAFETY MATERIALS
Neutralizing agents:
Acetic acid (30% [5 M] solution)—for neutralizing
spilled bases
Adhesive bandages
Antiseptic
Sodium bicarbonate (saturated solution)—for neutraliz­
ing spilled acids
Antiseptic applicators
Aprons
Rubber and nitrile gloves
Bucket of sand or commercial absorbent—to smother alkali
fires, dam around spills, reduce slippery conditions, and
so on
Safety equipment:
Eyewash/shower unit
Face shields
Fire blanket
Fire extinguisher(s), multipurpose (2A-10B, C)
Safety shield
Cotton
Earthenware crock—for disposal of solid chemicals (If
needed, have several crocks labeled to prevent mixing
of incompatible chemicals.)
Splash-proof goggles—for every student, instructor, and
visitor
Fume hoods, where appropriate
This list is purposely conservative because the school health office (or
school nurse) should have more extensive supplies.
*See Chapter 5, section K, “Use of Mercury.”
Mercury clean-up chemicals (e.g., zinc dust, mercury
“sponges”*)
140
Appendix D
Sample
Accident Report
School: ______________________________
Staff completing report:
Room:
Date and time of incident:
Location of the incident:
Person(s) involved in the incident:
Staff
Student
Description of the incident:
Immediate action in responding to the emergency:
Action taken (or required) to prevent such incidents in the future:
Witnesses to the incident:
Date/time of report
Signature
141
APPENDIX E
REGIONAL POISON CENTERS
1. Chevron Emergency Information Center
100 Chevron Way
Richmond, CA 94802-0627
(Business) (510) 242-2689 (Facilities Operation)
(Emergency) (800) 231-0623
(510) 231-2473
(510) 231-0623
(510) 242-3333
2. Central California Regional Poison Control Center
Valley Children’s Hospital
3151 N. Millbrook
Fresno, CA 93703
(Business) (209) 241-6040
(Emergency) (800) 346-5922 (central California only)
(209) 445-1222
(FAX) (209) 241-6050
3. Los Angeles Regional Drug and Poison Information Center
LAC-USC Medical Center
1200 N. State St., Rm. GH 1107
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(Business) (213) 226-2246
(Emergency) (213) 222-8086 (Physicians)
(213) 222-3212 (Consumers)
(800) 825-2722 (Professionals outside 213 area code)
(800) 777-6476 (Consumers outside 213 area code)
(FAX) (213) 226-4191
Special note: Serves only the following counties: Los Angeles, Ventura,
Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Inyo
4. San Diego Regional Poison Center
UCSD Medical Center
200 W. Arbor Dr.
San Diego, CA 92103-8925
(Business) (619) 543-3666
(Emergency) (619) 543-6000
(800) 876-4766 (California only)
(FAX) (619) 692-1867
5. San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center
San Francisco General Hospital
1001 Potrero Ave.
Bldg. 80, Rm. 230
San Francisco, CA 94110
(Business) (415) 206-5524
(Emergency) (800) 523-2222 (Northern California)
(FAX) (415) 821-8513
142
APPENDIX F
SAMPLE
SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR SCIENCE STUDENTS
13. Never taste anything or touch chemicals with the
hands, unless specifically instructed to do so.
14. Test for odor of chemicals only by waving your hand
above the container and sniffing cautiously from a
distance.
15. Eating or drinking in the laboratory or from laboratory
equipment is not permitted.
16. Use a mechanical pipette filler (never the mouth) when
measuring or transferring small quantities of liquid
with a pipette.
17. When heating material in a test tube, do not look into
the tube or point it in the direction of any person during
the process.
18. Never pour reagents back into bottles, exchange
stoppers of bottles, or lay stoppers on the table.
19. When diluting acids, always pour acids into water,
never the reverse. Combine the liquids slowly while
stirring to distribute heat buildup throughout the
mixture.
20. Keep hands away from face, eyes, and clothes while
using solutions, specimens, equipment, or materials in
the laboratory. Wash hands as necessary and wash
thoroughly at the conclusion of the laboratory period.
21. To treat a burn from an acid or alkali, wash the affected
area immediately with plenty of running water. If the
eye is involved, irrigate it at the eyewash station
without interruption for 15 minutes. Report the incident
to your instructor immediately.
22. Know the location of the emergency shower, eyewash
and facewash station, fire blanket, fire extinguisher,
fire alarm box, and exits.
23. Know the proper fire- and earthquake-drill procedures.
24. Roll long sleeves above the wrist. Long, hanging
necklaces, bulky jewelry, and excessive and bulky
clothing should not be worn in the laboratory.
25. Confine long hair during a laboratory activity.
26. Wear shoes that cover the toes, rather than sandals, in
the laboratory.
27. Keep work areas clean. Floors and aisles should be
kept clear of equipment and materials.
28. Light gas burners only as instructed by the teacher. Be
sure no volatile materials (such as alcohol or acetone)
are being used nearby.
29. Use a burner with extreme caution. Keep your head
and clothing away from the flame and turn it off when
not in use.
30. Use a fire blanket (stop, drop, and roll) to extinguish
any flame on a person.
While working in the science laboratory, you will have
certain important responsibilities that do not apply to other
classrooms. You will be working with materials and
apparatus which, if handled carelessly or improperly, have
the potential to cause injury or discomfort to someone else
as well as yourself.
A science laboratory can be a safe place in which to
work if you, the student, are foresighted, alert, and cautious.
The following practices will be followed:
1. Report any accident to the teacher immediately, no
matter how minor, including reporting any burn,
scratch, cut, or corrosive liquid on skin or clothing.
2. Prepare for each laboratory activity by reading all
instructions before coming to class. Follow all direc­
tions implicitly and intelligently. Make note of any
modification in procedure given by the instructor.
3. Any science project or individually planned experiment
must be approved by the teacher.
4. Use only those materials and equipment authorized by
the instructor.
5. Inform the teacher immediately of any equipment not
working properly.
6. Clean up any nonhazardous spill on the floor or work
space immediately.
7. Wear appropriate eye protection, as directed by the
instructor, whenever you are working in the laboratory.
Safety goggles must be worn during hazardous
activities involving caustic/corrosive chemicals,
heating of liquids, and other activities that may injure
the eyes.
8. Splashes and fumes from hazardous chemicals present
a special danger to wearers of contact lenses. There­
fore, students should preferably wear regular glasses
(inside splash-proof goggles, when appropriate) during
all class activities or purchase personal splash-proof
goggles and wear them whenever exposure to chemi­
cals or chemical fumes is possible.
9. Students with open skin wounds on hands must wear
gloves or be excused from the laboratory activity.
10. Never carry hot equipment or dangerous chemicals
through a group of students.
11. Check labels and equipment instructions carefully. Be
sure correct items are used in the proper manner.
12. Be aware if the chemicals being used are hazardous.
Know where the material safety data sheet (MSDS) is
and what it indicates for each of the hazardous chemi­
cals you are using.
143
144
Appendix F
31. Dispose of laboratory waste as instructed by the
teacher. Use separate, designated containers (not the
wastebasket) for the following:
• Matches, litmus paper, wooden splints, tooth­
picks, and so on
• Broken and waste glass
• Rags, paper towels, or other absorbent materials
used in the cleanup of flammable solids or
liquids
• Hazardous/toxic liquids and solids
32. Place books, purses, and such items in the designated
storage area. Take only laboratory manuals and
notebooks into the working area.
33. Students are not permitted in laboratory storage rooms
or teachers’ workrooms without the approval of the
teacher.
34. To cut small-diameter glass tubing, use a file or tubing
cutter to make a deep scratch. Wrap the tubing in a
paper towel before breaking the glass away from you
with your thumbs. Fire polish all ends.
35. When bending glass, allow time for the glass to cool
before further handling. Hot and cold glass have the
same visual appearance. Determine whether an object
is hot by bringing the back of your hand close to the
object.
36. Match hole sizes and tubing when inserting glass
tubing into a stopper. If necessary, expand the hole first
by using an appropriate size cork borer. Lubricate the
stopper hole and glass tubing with water or glycerin to
ease insertion, using towels to protect the hand.
Carefully twist (never push) glass tubing into stopper
holes.
37. Remove all broken glass from the work area or floor as
soon as possible. Never handle broken glass with bare
hands; use a counter brush and dustpan.
38. Report broken glassware, including thermometers, to
the instructor immediately.
39. Operate electrical equipment only in a dry area and
with dry hands.
40. When removing an electrical plug from its socket, pull
the plug, not the electrical cord.
41. Treat all animals in the science laboratory humanely;
that is, with respect and consideration for their care.
42. Always approach laboratory experiences in a serious
and courteous manner.
43. Always clean the laboratory area before leaving.
44. Students and teacher wash hands with soap and water
before leaving the laboratory area.
Note: Persistent or willful violation of the regulations
will result in the loss of laboratory privileges and possible
dismissal from the class.
Please see the “Student Science Safety Contract” on
the following page.
Appendix F
145
Student Science Safety Contract
School: ____________________________
Teacher: ___________________
Date: ____________
Student’s name: ______________________________________________________________________
The student has received specific instruction regarding the use, function, and location of the following:
Aprons, gloves
Chemical-spill kit
Eye-protective devices (goggles, face shield, safety shield)
Eyewash fountain, drench spray, and drench shower
Fire extinguisher
Fire blanket
First-aid kit
Heat sources (burners, hot plate, microwave) and techniques in their use
Material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
Waste-disposal containers for glass, chemicals, matches, paper, wood
❑
❑
❑
❑
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The student will abide by the “Safety Regulations for Science Students” to prevent accidents and injury to herself or
himself and others and will:
• Follow all additional instructions given by the teacher.
• Conduct herself or himself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory.
List below any special allergies or sensitivities (e.g., to plants, animals, pollen, foods, chemicals, bee stings) that may
affect the student’s safety in the laboratory or on field trips:
__________________________________________________________________________________
Check this box if the student wears contact lenses: ❑
Student’s Statement
I have in my possession and have read the “Safety Regulations for Science Students” (pages 143–44) and agree to abide
by them at all times while in the laboratory. I have received specific safety instruction as indicated above.
_______________________________________________
Signature of student
_______________________
Date
Parent’s or Guardian’s Statement
I have read the “Safety Regulations for Science Students” (pages 143–44) and give my consent for the student who has
signed the preceding statement to engage in laboratory activities using a variety of science equipment and materials, includ­
ing those described. I pledge my cooperation in urging that she or he observe the safety regulations prescribed.
_______________________________________________
Signature of parent or guardian
_______________________
Date
Return the completed and signed form to _______________________________ by _______________ .
146
APPENDIX G
SAMPLE
SCIENCE LABORATORY SAFETY TEST
The following questions were developed to provide teachers with suggested questions from which they might prepare
tests for specific courses. The list of questions is not intended to be comprehensive; each teacher is expected to supplement
the sample items. Note that although there are only 40 questions in the sample test, the answer sheet that follows the ques­
tions has spaces for 100 items. Thus the answer sheet may be used for a variety of teacher-developed safety tests.
1. If you see something in the classroom or laboratory that is dangerous, tell the teacher—
a. When you have time
c. After class
b. At once
d. After school
2. Rags or paper towels with flammable liquids or solids on or in them must be put in—
a. A cardboard box
c. A wastebasket
b. A metal or crockery container with a lid
d. A trash can
3. Any spill on the floor can cause an accident. Always clean it up—
a. At once
c. When you have time
b. During clean-up time
d. At the end of the period
4. Alcohol, acetone, and other volatile materials that can burn easily should never be used near—
a. Another person
c. A laboratory counter
b. An open flame
d. A work table
5. When you work with laboratory chemicals and Bunsen burners, long hair must be—
a. Cut off
c. Kept out of the way by wearing a band, hat, or hairnet
b. Held with both hands
d. Combed nicely
6. When you work with laboratory chemicals, equipment, or burners, you must wear—
a. Loose clothes
c. Contact lenses
b. Goggles
d. Loose jewelry
7. If you are hurt (cut, burned, and so on) tell the—
a. Nurse at once
b. Teacher at once
c. Class at once
d. Doctor after school
8. Whenever you are in the classroom or laboratory, you should wear—
a. Sandals
c. Open-toed shoes
b. Closed shoes
d. No shoes
9. If you think there is something wrong with a piece of equipment you are using, stop, turn it off, and tell—
a. The class leader
c. Another student
b. The teacher
d. The custodian
10. If you break a piece of glassware or other equipment, tell the teacher—
a. The next period
c. At once
b. At clean-up time
d. Never
11. All floors, aisles, and passageways should be kept clear of—
a. Teacher and students
c. Laboratory equipment only
b. Laboratory equipment and chemicals
d. Chemicals only
12. If you see a fire in an apparatus assembly or a burning liquid, such as alcohol, it is best to put it out with—
a. The fire blanket
c. Your coat
b. Water from the sink
d. The ABC fire extinguisher
146
Appendix G
13. To put out a fire in a person’s clothing, use—
a. The fire blanket
b. A handy chemical
c. The wind from running
d. The CO2 fire extinguisher
14. The correct way to move about the classroom or laboratory is to—
a. Run
c. Hurry
b. Walk
d. Skip
15. Helping to clean up the classroom or laboratory is the job of—
a. New students
c. Each student
b. Old students
d. The teacher
16. When you use laboratory equipment or chemicals, you should give the procedure all of your—
a. Interest
c. Effort
b. Attention
d. All of these (a, b, and c)
17. Chemicals, small parts, glassware, and stirring rods are not to be —
a. Used in the laboratory
c. Put on the bench
b. Put in your mouth
d. Taken from boxes
18. To prevent accidents during laboratory activities with chemicals and equipment, you should—
a. Use shortcuts
c. Hurry ahead of teachers
b. Follow your teacher’s directions
d. Ask someone else to do the work
19. Playing (as opposed to working) in the laboratory or bothering another person is—
a. Always against the rules
c. Not dangerous
b. All right
d. All right (if you are working)
20. To be able to put out a fire quickly and safely, you should know—
a. How to use extinguishers
c. Which extinguisher is used for each class of fire
b. Where the extinguishers are located
d. All of the above
21. If flammable liquids, such as alcohol, are spilled, you should first—
a. Let them dry up
c. Tell the teacher
b. Use a fire extinguisher
d. Pour water on them
22. Before you touch an electrical switch, plug, or outlet—
a. Your hands must be dry
c. Your hands must be clean
b. Ask the custodian
d. Ask the nurse
23. Eyeglasses do not provide as much protection as—
a. A face shield
b. Safety glasses
c. Splash-proof goggles
d. Any of these (a, b, or c)
24. Laboratory aprons, when provided, are for—
a. The protection of you and your clothes
b. Wiping your hands on
c. Others to hang up
d. When you are wearing your best clothes
25. Cabinet drawers and doors that are left open cause a hazard and should be—
a. Walked around
c. Left alone
b. Closed by you
d. Closed by the teacher only
26. If there is a fire in the laboratory, notify the teacher at once; then prepare to—
a. Evacuate the building or laboratory
c. Open the windows
b. Remove flammable materials
d. Rapidly clean the laboratory
27. All chemicals should be stored in—
a. Tin cans
b. Dark brown bottles
c. Clear glass bottles
d. Properly labeled containers
147
148
Appendix G
28. When preparing dilute solutions of an acid, carefully pour—
a. The acid into water
c. Water into the acid
b. The acid into the container
d. Both liquids at once
29. If acid gets on your skin or clothes, wash at once with—
a. Sulfuric acid
c. Water
b. Soap
d. Oil
30. Small quantities of spilled acids can be made safe with—
a. Gasoline
c. Water
b. Alcohol
d. Sodium bicarbonate solution
31. Small amounts of spilled bases can be neutralized and made safe with—
a. Gasoline
c. Water
b. Alcohol
d. Dilute acetic acid solution (vinegar)
32. You must wear approved eye protection while working in the laboratory—
a. To improve your vision
c. To avoid myopia
b. Sometimes
d. Whenever the laboratory instructions tell you to
33. Disturbing other students while they are working in the laboratory is—
a. Helpful
c. Dangerous
b. Poor manners
d. The quickest way to do a job
34. You should prepare for each laboratory activity by reading all instructions—
a. After school
c. Before you start to work
b. While you are working
d. Next week
35. When measuring small amounts of liquids with a pipette, draw the liquid into the tube by using—
a. Your mouth
c. A mechanical pipette filler
b. Your thumb
d. The palm of your hand
36. When heating substances in a test tube, be sure the open end of the tube points toward—
a. Yourself
c. Your partner
b. No one
d. A classmate
37. After heating glass tubing to bend it, the soonest you may safely handle the tubing is—
a. Within 30 seconds
c. After school
b. After you are sure it is cool
d. The next day
38. To insert glass tubing into a rubber stopper, you should (after fire polishing and cooling)—
a. Lubricate with water or glycerin
c. Twist carefully
b. Use a towel for protection
d. All of these (a, b, and c)
39. To remove an electrical plug from its socket, you should—
a. Pull the plug itself
c. Pull on the appliance
b. Pull on the cord
d. None of these (a, b, or c)
40. On the back of your answer sheet, draw a diagram of your science laboratory or classroom and label the location of the
following:
Fire blanket
Fire extinguisher
Exits
Safety goggles storage (or dispensing area)
Eyewash station
Safety shower
Closest fire alarm
Waste-disposal containers (label the type of waste for which each container is suitable)
Appendix G
149
Student’s Answer Sheet for Science Laboratory Safety Test
Name
Period
Directions:
Example:
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Test No.
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Read question 1. The correct answer is “b. at once.” Note that the “b” box beside number 1 (see
example below) is darkened. Continue marking all the answers in this manner.
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150
Appendix G
Complete Answer Sheet for Science Laboratory Safety Test
Name
Period
Directions:
Example:
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Test No.
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the one correct answer and fill in the box that represents the answer.
Read question 1. The correct answer is “b. at once.” Note that the “b” box beside number 1 (see
example below) is darkened. Continue marking all the answers in this manner.
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151
APPENDIX H
SAMPLE
SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR SCIENCE INSTRUCTION,
PREPARATION, AND STORAGE AREAS
School: ___________________________________________
Date: ________________________________
Teacher(s): ________________________________________
Room or area: _________________________
Science teachers should check their instructional areas periodically to determine whether unsafe conditions exist.
Teachers who have concerns about safety conditions related to facilities, equipment, supplies, curriculum, classroom occu­
pant load, and so on should notify their department chairpersons and school-site administrators immediately in writing for
assistance in alleviating the condition.
The following checklist may be used to determine whether or not a safe environment exists and to indicate possible areas
of concern and danger (see also appendixes B and C in Science Facilities Design for California Public Schools, published by
the California Department of Education in 1993):
1. Good general housekeeping prevails, and aisles are clear of materials and apparatus.
❑
2. Signs of the locations of first-aid and safety equipment are visible throughout the room
(e.g., fire extinguishers, fire blanket, eyewash station).
❑
3. Adequate storage space is provided for chemicals, materials, and apparatus.
❑
4. The classroom/laboratory has no blind spots; that is, areas in which students cannot be supervised
by the teacher from anywhere in the room.
❑
5. There is adequate classroom/laboratory space for the various learning activities planned.
❑
6. The following equipment or conditions are adequate:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Counter and work space for all students to do laboratory activities at one time
Electrical outlets
Gas outlets
Sinks and water faucets
Space between laboratory stations
Ventilation for the laboratory activities planned (or a manually controlled purge
system for the rapid exchange of room air)
❑
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7. There are ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) on electrical outlets near sinks.
❑
8. Cabinets and open shelves are equipped with lips or restraining wires to prevent spilling of
chemicals or broken glassware during an explosion or earthquake.
❑
9. The room has at least two exits.
❑
10. The light level is adequate (about 75 to 100 foot-candles at work surfaces).
❑
11. Separate designated waste containers are provided for:
•
•
•
•
Broken glass
Spent matches, wood splints, toothpicks, and so on
Flammable waste chemicals
Nonflammable waste chemicals
151
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❑
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152
Appendix H
12. Quantities of hazardous chemicals kept on hand are limited to the amounts needed during
one school year.
❑
13. Proper labels and signs are kept in place on all chemicals and on the storage area.
❑
14. A chemical-spill kit is available for emergency use.
❑
15. Chemical containers are inspected periodically for leakage or deterioration (such as sediments
and discoloration), and approved disposal procedures are followed as necessary.
❑
16. Any cylinder gas is stored according to the required safety code (for example, chained or strapped
in a cart or to the wall).
❑
17. Splash-proof safety goggles, face shields, aprons, safety shields, and so on are available to protect
the teacher and students when hazardous conditions exist.
❑
18. Goggles and face-shield sterilization facilities are available.
❑
19. Eyewash fountains, hand-held drench hoses, and safety showers (as necessary)
are easily accessible and are flushed weekly to remove scale and rust.
❑
20. Fume hoods are clean, are uncluttered, and have a streamer easily visible throughout the room
when in operation; the hoods are tested periodically to ensure adequate air flow.
❑
21. All equipment is properly maintained.
❑
22. All electrical equipment is three-wire grounded except for double-insulated tools and equipment.
❑
23. Electrical outlets and extension cords are kept in safe working condition.
❑
24. Electrical equipment, such as the refrigerator and aquarium aerator, is connected directly to a
wall outlet and is not serviced through an extension cord.
❑
25. Gas outlets and burners are maintained in safe working condition.
❑
26. A fire extinguisher capable of extinguishing class A, B, and C fires is kept in working condition
at all times and in a conspicuous and accessible place.
❑
27. Dry sand or other appropriate means is available to extinguish class D fires.
❑
28. An approved fire blanket (preferably fire-retardant-treated 100 percent wool) is kept in a conspicuous
and accessible place.
❑
29. Flammable liquids are held in the classroom in fireproof containers (not glass) and in quantities
sufficient only for one day’s supply.
❑
30. Approved fire-retardant storage cabinets (with a bottom pan to contain spills temporarily), separate
from the classroom, are used for storing larger quantities of flammable, corrosive, and other
dangerous chemicals.
❑
31. The larger storage containers of acids and bases are stored on the lower cabinet shelves.
❑
32. Flammable liquids are not kept in refrigerators, unless the refrigerator is certified as explosion-proof.
❑
33. Food is not kept in refrigerators used for storing science materials.
❑
Appendix H
34. Ether on hand was purchased less than one year ago.
❑
35. Ethers are periodically disposed of before they exceed their one-year shelf life. (See “Use and
Disposal of Ethers” in Chapter 5 of this handbook.)
❑
36. Sodium is stored under kerosene or oil.
❑
37. Incompatible chemicals are not stored adjacent to one another. (See page 42 for a list of
chemical storage compatibility categories for chemicals found in high school laboratories.)
❑
38. All chemical containers are dated on receipt, and a current inventory is maintained.
❑
39. The material safety data sheet (MSDS) is readily available for any chemical being
handled or used in school.
❑
40. The locations of the master electrical and gas shut-off controls are labeled and
readily accessible.
❑
41. Plumbing fixtures are in correct operating condition. Faucets are equipped with
air gaps to prevent backflow.
❑
42. Animals are cared for in an appropriate, safe, and humane environment.
❑
43. Hazardous chemical waste is properly stored, handled, and disposed of.
❑
44. Fire-drill and earthquake-drill procedures are posted and familiar to all teachers and students.
❑
45. The school district’s emergency procedures are prominently posted.
❑
46. An adequate first-aid kit, including the Red Cross Standard First Aid and Personal Safety Manual
or appropriate alternate information, is provided. (See Chapter 2, “First Aid,” in this handbook.)
❑
47. The teacher is familiar with first-aid and safety measures related to science instruction as presented
in this publication.
❑
48. The Science Safety Handbook for California Public Schools is readily accessible.
❑
Write a summary of the survey and note actions taken to remedy inadequate conditions.
Signature(s) ______________________________________________
Date _____________________
______________________________________________
Date _____________________
______________________________________________
Date _____________________
153
APPENDIX I
END-OF-YEAR SAFETY AND ENERGY-SAVINGS PROCEDURES
3. Be certain all gas cylinders in high school laboratories
are capped and properly secured for the summer.
1. Inventory all chemicals. Remove all outdated, deterio­
rated, potentially dangerous, and not-likely-to-be-used
substances. Pack them in separate boxes by compatibil­
ity category and clearly mark the boxes Chemicals for
disposal. Attach a list of contents to each box. Call the
appropriate school district office or waste disposal
agency to pick up the materials; identify the exact
location of the items to be picked up.
4. Clean out, defrost, and leave unplugged all refrigera­
tors during the summer break. Block the doors open to
allow air circulation and prevent growth of mildew.
This recommendation is for both safety and energy
conservation.
5. Arrange for shutoff of any water heaters in the science
department.
2. Dispose of diethyl ether older than one year and ethers
in containers that are partially used; follow the proce­
dure outlined in Chapter 5, section I. (Any ether may
form peroxides, as described in the section just cited.)
Only recently received, unopened containers of ethers
that were dated on receipt and can be verified as less
than one year old by the time of their use in fall
laboratory activities may be retained and should be
locked in the school district’s standard flammableliquids cabinet during the summer break. Refer to the
safety checklist in Appendix H, items 15, 34, and 35.
6. Unplug all electrical items, such as isolated wall
clocks, timers, personal table clocks/radios, hotplates,
aquarium pumps, computers, terminals, microscope
lights, oscilloscopes, and any other electrically pow­
ered science instructional item.
7. Arrange for adequate temperature control and ventila­
tion of sensitive equipment and chemicals to ensure
their safe storage.
Recommendation: Order only those supplies of ether
necessary for the current school year.
154
APPENDIX J
SAMPLE
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE LABORATORY REGULATIONS
_______________________ School District
11. Place books, purses, and other such items in the
designated storage area. Take only laboratory manuals
and notebooks into the working area.
12. Report any accident to the teacher immediately, no
matter how minor. Included are reports on any burn,
scratch, cut, or corrosive liquid on skin or clothing.
13. Students with open skin wounds on hands must wear
gloves or be excused from the laboratory activity.
14. Eating or drinking in the laboratory or from laboratory
equipment is not permitted.
15. Students are not permitted in laboratory storage rooms
or teachers’ workrooms without the approval of the
teacher.
The following regulations have been compiled for the
safety of students performing laboratory work in biological
science classes. Strict observance of the regulations is
mandatory. All students in the school district are to follow
these regulations, rather than any conflicting instructions in
textbooks or laboratory manuals.
Students and parents are to read the regulations, sign
the form, and return the form to the instructor. This proce­
dure must be completed before a student can begin any
laboratory activity. The student should keep a copy of the
regulations in his or her notebook for future reference.
General
1. An instructor must be present during the performance
of all laboratory work.
2. Prepare for each laboratory activity by reading all
instructions before coming to class. Follow all direc­
tions implicitly and intelligently. Make a note of any
modification in procedure given by the instructor.
3. Always approach laboratory experiences in a serious
and courteous manner.
4. Use only those materials and equipment authorized by
the instructor. Any science project or individually
planned experiment must be approved by the teacher.
5. Know the proper fire- and earthquake-drill procedures.
6. Roll long sleeves above the wrist. Long, hanging
necklaces, bulky jewelry, and excessive and bulky
clothing should not be worn in the laboratory.
7. Confine long hair during a laboratory activity.
8. Wear shoes that cover the toes, rather than sandals, in
the laboratory.
9. Wear appropriate eye protection, as directed by the
instructor, whenever you are working in the laboratory.
Safety goggles must be worn during hazardous
activities involving caustic/corrosive chemicals,
heating of liquids, and other activities that may injure
the eyes.
10. Splashes and fumes from hazardous chemicals present
a special danger to wearers of contact lenses. There­
fore, students should preferably wear regular glasses
(inside splash-proof goggles, when appropriate) during
all class activities or purchase personal splash-proof
goggles and wear them whenever exposure to chemi­
cals or chemical fumes is possible.
Handling Equipment
16. Inform the teacher immediately of any equipment not
working properly.
17. Report broken glassware, including thermometers, to
the instructor immediately.
18. Operate electrical equipment only in a dry area and
with dry hands.
19. When removing an electrical plug from its socket, pull
the plug, not the electrical cord.
20. When heating material in a test tube, do not look into
the mouth of the tube or point it in the direction of any
person during the process.
21. When heating volatile or flammable materials, use a
water bath; that is, heat the materials in or over heated
water, using a hot plate to heat the water. Extinguish all
open flames.
22. Know the location and operation of the emergency
shower, eyewash and facewash fountain, fire blanket,
fire extinguisher, fire alarm box, and exits.
23. Light gas burners only as instructed by the teacher. Be
sure no volatile materials (such as alcohol or acetone)
are being used nearby.
24. Use a burner with extreme caution. Keep your head
and clothing away from the flame and turn it off when
not in use.
25. Use a fire blanket to extinguish any flame on a person
(see “stop, drop, and roll” procedure in Chapter 2,
section C).
26. Use the fume hood whenever noxious, corrosive, or
toxic fumes are produced or released.
155
156
Appendix J
27. Exercise caution in using scissors, scalpels, dissecting
needles, and other sharp-edged instruments. Pass them
with handles extended when handing them to other
persons.
28. Wash all sharp-edged and pointed instruments sepa­
rately from other equipment.
29. Match hole size and tubing when inserting glass tubing
into a stopper. If necessary, expand the hole first by
using an appropriate size cork borer. Lubricate the
stopper hole and glass tubing with water or glycerin to
ease insertion, using towels to protect the hand.
Carefully twist (never push) glass tubing into stopper
holes.
Handling Chemicals
30. Check labels and equipment instructions carefully. Be
sure correct items are used in the proper manner.
31. Be aware if the chemicals being used are hazardous.
Know where the material safety data sheet (MSDS) is
and what it indicates for each of the hazardous chemi­
cals you are using.
32. Never pour reagents back into bottles, exchange
stoppers of bottles, or lay stoppers on the table.
33. Use great care when working with ether or other
volatile liquids. Windows and doors should be opened
for greatest possible ventilation. Be sure that caps or
lids of containers used for chemicals are securely
closed.
34. Keep hands away from face, eyes, and clothes while
using solutions, specimens, equipment, or materials in
the laboratory.
35. To treat a burn from an acid or alkali, wash the affected
area immediately with plenty of running water. If the
eye is involved, irrigate it at the eyewash station
without interruption for 15 minutes. Report the incident
to your instructor immediately.
36. Never carry hot equipment or dangerous chemicals
through a group of students.
37. Use a mechanical pipette filler (never the mouth) when
measuring or transferring small quantities of liquid
with a pipette.
38. Never taste anything or touch chemicals with the hands
unless specifically instructed to do so.
Plants and Animals
39. Rinse dissection specimens occasionally or whenever
fumes or chemicals are released in the dissection
process.
40. Never handle animals in the laboratory unless directed
to do so by the instructor.
41. Never insert your fingers or objects through the wire
mesh of animal cages to pet or tease the animals.
42. Notify the instructor at once if an animal bites you.
43. Never bring animals or poisonous plants to school.
Bacteria and Fungi
44. Never open petri dishes containing bacterial or fungal
growth unless directed to do so by the instructor.
45. Dispose of all discarded bacterial and fungal cultures
by sterilization as directed by the instructor.
Cleanup and Disposal
46. Be sure all glassware is clean before use. Clean
glassware thoroughly after use. Residue may cause
errors in new experiments or cause a violent reaction or
explosion.
47. Keep work areas clean. Floors and aisles should be
kept clear of equipment and materials.
48. Clean up any spill on the floor or work space immedi­
ately.
49. Dispose of laboratory waste as instructed by the
teacher. Use separate designated containers (not the
wastebasket) for the following:
• Matches, litmus paper, wooden splints, tooth­
picks, and so on
• Broken and waste glass
• Rags, paper towels, or other absorbent materials
used in the cleanup of flammable solids or
liquids
• Hazardous/toxic liquids and solids
50. Remove all broken glass from the work area or floor as
soon as possible. Never handle broken glass with bare
hands; use a counter brush and dustpan.
51. Always clean the laboratory area before leaving.
52. Students and teacher wash hands with soap and water
before leaving the laboratory area.
Note: Persistent or willful violation of the regulations
will result in the loss of laboratory privileges and possible
dismissal from the class.
Please see the “Student Safety Contract—Biological
Science” on the following page.
Appendix J
157
Student Safety Contract—Biological Science
School: ____________________________
Teacher: _____________________________________
Date: ___________
Student’s name: ________________________________________________
The student has received specific instruction regarding the use, function, and location of the following:
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Aprons, gloves
Chemical-spill kit
Eye-protective devices (goggles, face shield, safety shield)
Eyewash fountain, drench spray, and drench shower
Fire extinguisher
Fire blanket
First-aid kit
Heat sources (burners, hot plate, microwave) and techniques in their use
Material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
Waste-disposal containers for glass, chemicals, matches, paper, wood
The student will abide by the “Biological Science Laboratory Regulations” to prevent accidents and injury to herself or
himself and others and will:
• Follow all additional instructions given by the teacher.
• Conduct herself or himself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory.
List below any special allergies or sensitivities (e.g., to plants, animals, pollen, foods, chemicals, bee stings) that may
affect the student’s safety in the laboratory or on field trips:
Check this box if the student wears contact lenses: ❑
Student’s Statement
I have in my possession and have read the “Biological Science Laboratory Regulations” (pages 155–56) and agree to
abide by them at all times while in the laboratory. I have received specific safety instruction as indicated above.
Signature of student
Date
Parent’s or Guardian’s Statement
I have read the “Biological Science Laboratory Regulations” (pages 155–56) and give my consent for the student who
has signed the preceding statement to engage in laboratory activities using a variety of science equipment and materials,
including those described. I pledge my cooperation in urging that she or he observe the safety regulations prescribed.
Signature of parent or guardian
Return the completed and signed form to
Date
by
.
APPENDIX K
TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL REGIONAL OFFICES
REGION 1
10151 Croydon Way, Suite 3
Sacramento, CA 95827-2106
(9160 855-7700
REGION 2
700 Heinz Avenue
Second Floor, Suite 200
Berkeley, CA 94710
(510) 540-3753
REGION 3
1405 N. San Fernando Blvd.
Suite 300
Burbank, CA 91504
(818) 567-3000
REGION 4
245 West Broadway
Suite 350
Long Beach, CA 90802
(310) 590-4868
158
APPENDIX L
SCIENCE LABORATORY SAFETY/LIABILITY CHECKLIST
The safety program in the school and school district should be dedicated to preventing and minimizing injury to person­
nel, limiting the liability of schools and school districts and their personnel, and protecting and preserving the facilities and
the environment.
The following checklist represents some of the main considerations that schools, school districts, and individuals should
address in planning and implementing their science laboratory safety program.
1. The school or the school district must have a written plan (if the plan is for the school district, it should be written to
include the schools involved) for, or exemption from, each of the following:
• Chemical hygiene plan (CHP), California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 5191 (required of all
employers in workplaces in which there is laboratory use of hazardous chemicals; the CHP is to include
safe operating procedures, use of protective equipment, employee information and training, provisions
for medical consultations and examinations, and designation of a chemical hygiene officer)
• Bloodborne pathogens exposure control plan, California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 5193
(required of all employers with employees reasonably anticipated to have exposure to blood or other
potentially infectious materials in the performance of their duties)
• Hazard communication; material safety data sheet (MSDS), California Code of Regulations, Title 8,
Section 5194 (may be included in chemical hygiene plan noted above [see also Chapter 5, section E];
required of all employers in workplaces in which hazardous chemicals are used unless all exposed
employees are under the direct supervision and regular observation of an individual with knowledge of
physical and health hazards and emergency procedures and who conveys this knowledge to employees in
terms of safe work practices. Labels and MSDSs received must be maintained and available to employees)
❑
❑
❑
2. The school or school district has implemented a plan for the safe storage, use, and disposal of hazardous
chemicals (Education Code Section 49411).
❑
3. The implementation of the overall safety plan makes provisions at all levels for instruction and training,
responsible supervision, and adequate and well-maintained facilities and equipment.
❑
4. Safety equipment includes each of the following, as appropriate:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fire extinguisher for classes A, B, and C fires
Dry sand or other provision for class D fires
Fire blanket
Splash-proof goggles and sterilizer
Eyewash or eyewash and facewash fountain; drench hose
Deluge shower
Chemical-spill kit
Fume hood
First-aid kit
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
5. Teachers are prepared to safely handle, use, and store science supplies and equipment as well as safety
equipment. Documentation of staff training should be maintained on both school and school district sites.
❑
6. A safety assessment is regularly made of the science classrooms/laboratories and auxiliary rooms (e.g., by
using the “Safety Checklist for Science Instruction, Preparation, and Storage Areas,” found in Appendix H)
❑
7. Each science teacher consciously includes safety as a component in planning and conducting each lesson,
demonstration, and activity.
❑
8. Classrooms are inspected daily for irregularities or dangerous conditions, including, but not limited to,
faulty equipment, improper ventilation, and missing or nonfunctional safety supplies.
❑
9. Potential dangers (safety hazards, defective equipment, or unsafe conditions) that cannot be readily corrected
within the department are reported immediately to the site administrator for necessary action.
❑
159
160
Appendix L
10. Each class is provided with proper initial instruction in safety procedures, specific to the subject, which
are reviewed regularly. The review includes the following:
• Use of safety equipment, devices, and materials
❑
• Proper laboratory preparation, attire, and attitude
❑
• Proper use of material and equipment
❑
• Disposal and clean-up procedures
❑
11. Documentation files are maintained on the types of instruction given and the dates on which safety-related
topics were demonstrated, conducted, or tested.
❑
12. Student safety consent/contract forms, which attest to initial safety instruction and a knowledge of laboratory
regulations and potential dangers, are signed by the student and a parent or guardian and retained by the teacher.
❑
13. The school and school district fire and earthquake drills and emergency procedures include special provisions
relating to science equipment, facilities, and materials. Procedures are included for contacting community
resources (fire department, ambulance, paramedics, hospital, doctor).
14. A report is made of any injury, illness, or incident, including appropriate procedures for remediation.
15. Safety guidelines adopted by the school and school district are reviewed and updated on a regular basis.
❑
❑
❑
By following the suggestions noted above, instructors, schools, school districts, and students can improve their ability to
conduct laboratory activities safely and effectively. Failure to implement the procedures increases the relative degree of
liability of school districts and individuals.
Chemical
name
Acetic acid
Acetone
Date
acquired
8-94
2-94
Inventory prepared by
School
99.5%
1.0
Metal can
Glass
Concentration Type of
/Purity
container
400 ml
1 liter
Quantity
Hazard
class
Room
Storage
Storage
location compatibility
Date
Sample Chemical Inventory
APPENDIX M
Shelf
life
MSDS
available
Notes
161
161
162
APPENDIX N
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARD CLASSES
division is comprised of articles which contain only ex­
tremely insensitive detonating substances and which
demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation
or propagation. . . .
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has
completed a list of materials that are designated as hazard­
ous for the purpose of transportation of those materials in
commerce. The list, labeled “Hazardous Materials Table” in
the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Transportation,
specifies for each listed material a hazard class (or division
within the class) that affects the required packaging,
mailing, and labeling of the material. The hazard class
specification is important to anyone who will be shipping
those materials either for initial use or for disposal.
In this publication the hazard class/division for each
chemical listed in Table 3, “Hazardous Chemicals Reference
Table,” is noted in the column titled Label. The hazard
groups include explosives, combustible liquids, compressed
gases, corrosives, flammable gases, flammable liquids,
flammable solids, and poisons. Excerpts from the Code of
Federal Regulations, Title 49, Chapter 1 (October 1, 1993,
edition), defining those groups are as follows:
173.115. Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3—Definitions
(a) Division 2.1 (Flammable Gas) . . . means any
material which is a gas at 20°C (68°F) or less and 101.3 kPa
(14.7 psi) of pressure (a material which has a boiling point
of 20°C [68°F] or less at 101.3 kPa [14.7 psi]) which:
(1) Is ignitable at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) when in a
mixture of 13 percent by volume with air; or
(2) Has a flammable range at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) with
air of at least 12 percent regardless of the lower limit. . . .
(b) Division 2.2 (Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous
Compressed Gas—including compressed gas, liquefied gas,
pressurized cryogenic gas, and compressed gas in solution)
. . . means any material (or mixture) which—
(1) Exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 280
kPa (41 psi) at 20°C (68°F), and
(2) Does not meet the definition of Division 2.1 or 2.3.
(c) Division 2.3 (Gas poisonous by inhalation) . . .
173.50. Class 1—Definitions
(a) Explosive. . . . An explosive means any substance or
article, including a device, which is designed to function by
explosion (i.e., an extremely rapid release of gas and heat)
or which, by chemical reaction within itself, is able to
function in a similar manner even if not designed to function
by explosion. . . .
(b) Explosives in Class 1 are divided into six divisions
as follows:
(1) Division 1.1 consists of explosives that have a mass
explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects
almost the entire load instantaneously.
(2) Division 1.2 consists of explosives that have a
projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
(3) Division 1.3 consists of explosives that have a fire
hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection
hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
(4) Division 1.4 consists of explosives that present a
minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely
confined to the package and no projection of fragments of
appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire
must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost
the entire contents of the package.
(5) Division 1.5 consists of very insensitive explosives.
This division is comprised of substances which have a mass
explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very
little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to
detonation under normal conditions of transport.
(6) Division 1.6 consists of extremely insensitive
articles which do not have a mass explosive hazard. This
173.120. Class 3—Definitions
(a) Flammable liquid . . . means a liquid having a flash
point of not more than 60.5°C (141°F), or any material in a
liquid phase with a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F).
(b)(1). . . a combustible liquid means any liquid that
does not meet the definition of any other hazard class
specified in this subchapter and has a flash point above
60.5°C (141°F) but below 93°C (200°F). . . .
(2) A flammable liquid with a flash point at or above
38°C (100°F) that does not meet the definition of any other
hazard class . . .
(c) Flash point. (1) Flash point means the minimum
temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test
vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable
mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. . . .
173.124. Class 4, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3—Definitions
(a) Division 4.1 (Flammable Solid) . . . means any of
the following three types of materials:
(1) Wetted explosives that—
(i) When dry are explosives of Class l other than those
of compatibility group A which are wetted with sufficient
water, alcohol, or plasticizer to suppress explosive proper­
ties; and
162
Appendix N
163
(ii) Are specifically authorized by name either in the
section 172.101 table or have been assigned a shipping
name and hazard class by the Associate Administrator for
Hazardous Materials Safety under the provisions of—
(A) An exemption issued under subchapter A of this
chapter; or
(B) An approval issued under section 173.56(i) of this
part.
(2) Self-reactive materials are liable to undergo, at
normal or elevated temperatures, a strongly exothermal
decomposition caused by excessively high transport
temperatures or by contamination; and
(3) Readily combustible solids are materials that—
(i) Are solids which may cause a fire through friction,
such as matches;
(ii) Show a burning rate faster than 2.2 mm (0.087
inches) per second when tested in accordance with para­
graph 2.c.(2) of appendix E to this part; or
(iii) Are metal powders that can be ignited and react
over the whole length of a sample in 10 minutes or less,
when tested in accordance with paragraph 2.c.(2) of
appendix E to this part.
(b) Division 4.2 (Spontaneously combustible
material) . . .
(c) Division 4.3 (Dangerous when wet material) . . .
means a material that, by contact with water, is liable to
become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable
or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 liter per kilogram of the
material per hour . . .
laboratory animals (whenever possible, animal test data that
has been reported in the chemical literature should be used):
(i) Oral Toxicity. A liquid with an LD50 for acute oral
toxicity of not more than 500 mg/kg or a solid with an LD50
for acute oral toxicity of not more than 200 mg/kg.
(ii) Dermal Toxicity. A material with an LD50 for acute
dermal toxicity of not more than 1000 mg/kg.
(iii) Inhalation Toxicity. (A) A dust or mist with an
LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of not more than 10
mg/L; or (B) a material with a saturated vapor concentration
in air at 20°C (68°F) of more than one-fifth of the LC50 for
acute toxicity on inhalation of vapors of not more than 5000
ml/m3; or
(2) Is an irritating material, with properties similar to
tear gas, which causes extreme irritation, especially in
confined spaces. . . .
Division 6.2 . . . infectious substance . . . means a
viable microorganism, or its toxin, which causes or may
cause disease in humans or animals. . . .
173.127. Class 5, Division 5.1 and 5.2—Definitions
. . . miscellaneous hazardous material (Class 9) means
a material which presents a hazard during transportation but
which does not meet the definition of any other hazard
class. . . .
. . . Oxidizer (Division 5.1) means a material that may,
generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combus­
tion of other materials. . . .
Division 5.2 . . . Organic peroxide . . .
173.132. Class 6, Division 6.1—Definitions
. . . poisonous material . . . means a material, other than
a gas, which is known to be so toxic to humans as to afford
a hazard to health during transportation, or which, in the
absence of adequate data on human toxicity:
(1) Is presumed to be toxic to humans because it falls
within any one of the following categories when tested on
173.401–173.48. Class 7 Radioactive
173.136. Class 8
. . . corrosive material (Class 8) means a liquid or solid
that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in
human skin tissue at the site of contact, or a liquid that has a
severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum. . . .
173.140. Class 9
173.144.
. . . “ORM-D material” means a material, such as a
consumer commodity, which, although otherwise subject to
the regulations of this subchapter, presents a limited hazard
during transportation due to its form, quantity, and packag­
ing. . . .
APPENDIX O
CARCINOGEN “REPORT OF USE” FORM
regulations for which a “Report of Use” is required. Other
means of providing the information required in the indi­
vidual regulation that requires report of use is acceptable.
A copy of each report required should also be posted in
a conspicuous place in the area in which the carcinogen(s) is
used.
The form on the following page (along with the
accompanying questionnaire) should be completed by any
school that uses or has in storage any carcinogen included in
the list shown on the form. Butadiene, 5201, is added to the
form effective August 27, 1997.
This is a nonmandatory form developed by Cal/OSHA
to assist the regulated public in complying with the several
164
Print hardcopy of the
report of Carcinogen.
Page 165 does not have
a folio number.
1. Provide the name(s) of each carcinogen and a brief description of the way in which the regulated carcinogen(s)
or carcinogen-containing product(s) is/are manufactured, processed, handled, used, stored, repackaged or
transported.
2. The name and address of each workplace; in-plant location, in which the carcinogen(s) is/are present in accor­
dance with that carcinogen’s subsection.
3. A brief description of each process or operation which may result in employee(s) exposure to the carcinogen(s).
a. Include, the number of employees engaged in each process or operation.
b. Estimate the frequency and level of exposure to the employee(s) during each process or operation.
4. The name and address of any collective bargaining representative(s), or other representatives of the affected
employees.
5. For carcinogen(s) listed under the sections that you are reporting as used, please refer to the regulations
regarding the quantity of the carcinogen used and the frequency of employee exposure.
6. Nature of Business: Indicate the industry and principal product(s). Examples: agriculture pesticides; construc­
tion, manufacturing, mining, transportation, services, etc., as assigned in the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual
If you have questions regarding the sections cited, please call the Occupational Carcinogen Control Unit at
(415) 972-8577.
-2-
Cal/OSHA 183A
February 1996
APPENDIX P
SAMPLE
PHYSICAL SCIENCE LABORATORY REGULATIONS
_________________ School District
goggles and wear them whenever exposure to chemi­
cals or chemical fumes is possible.
The following regulations have been compiled for the
safety of students performing experimental work in physical
science classes. Strict observance of the regulations is
mandatory. All students in the school district are to follow
these regulations, rather than any conflicting instructions in
textbooks or laboratory manuals.
Students and parents are to read the regulations, sign
the form, and return the form to the instructor. This proce­
dure must be completed before a student can begin any
laboratory activity. The student should keep a copy of the
regulations in his or her notebook for future reference.
11. Place books, purses, and such items in the designated
storage area. Take only laboratory manuals and
notebooks into the working area.
12. Report any accident to the teacher immediately, no
matter how minor, including reporting any burn,
scratch, cut, or corrosive liquid on skin or clothing.
13. Students with open skin wounds on hands must wear
gloves or be excused from the laboratory activity.
14. Eating or drinking in the laboratory or from laboratory
equipment is not permitted.
General
1. An instructor must be present during the performance
of all laboratory work.
15. Students are not permitted in laboratory storage rooms
or teachers’ workrooms without the approval of the
teacher.
2. Prepare for each laboratory activity by reading all
instructions before coming to class. Follow all direc­
tions implicitly and intelligently. Make a note of any
modification in procedure given by the instructor.
Handling Equipment
16. Inform the teacher immediately of any equipment not
working properly.
3. Always approach laboratory experiences in a serious
and courteous manner.
17. Report broken glassware, including thermometers, to
the instructor immediately.
4. Use only those materials and equipment authorized by
the instructor. Any science project or individually
planned experiment must be approved by the teacher.
18. Operate electrical equipment only in a dry area and
with dry hands.
5. Know the proper fire- and earthquake-drill procedures.
19. When removing an electrical plug from its socket, pull
the plug, not the electrical cord.
6. Roll long sleeves above the wrist. Long, hanging
necklaces, bulky jewelry, and excessive and bulky
clothing should not be worn in the laboratory.
20. When heating material in a test tube, do not look into
the mouth of the tube or point it in the direction of any
person during the process.
7. Confine long hair during a laboratory activity.
8. Wear shoes that cover the toes, rather than sandals, in
the laboratory.
21. When working with lasers or apparatus that produce X
rays, microwaves, or ultraviolet rays, make certain that
proper shielding and other precautions are used.
9. Wear appropriate eye protection, as directed by the
instructor, whenever you are working in the laboratory.
Safety goggles must be worn during hazardous
activities involving caustic/corrosive chemicals,
heating of liquids, and other activities that may injure
the eyes.
22. Know the location and operation of the emergency
shower, eyewash and facewash fountain, fire blanket,
fire extinguisher, fire alarm box, and exits.
23. Light gas burners only as instructed by the teacher. Be
sure no volatile materials (such as alcohol or acetone)
are being used nearby.
10. Splashes and fumes from hazardous chemicals present
a special danger to wearers of contact lenses. There­
fore, students should preferably wear regular glasses
(inside splash-proof goggles, when appropriate) during
all class activities or purchase personal splash-proof
24. Use a burner with extreme caution. Keep your head
and clothing away from the flame and turn it off when
not in use.
167
168
Appendix P
25. Use a fire blanket to extinguish any flame on a person
(see “stop, drop, and roll” procedure in Chapter 2,
section C).
26. Use the fume hood whenever noxious, corrosive, or
toxic fumes are produced or released.
27. To cut small-diameter glass tubing, use a file or tubing
cutter to make a deep scratch. Wrap the tubing in a
paper towel before breaking the glass away from you
with your thumbs. Fire polish all ends.
36. Never carry hot equipment or dangerous chemicals
through a group of students.
37. Use a mechanical pipette filler (never the mouth) when
measuring or transferring small quantities of liquid
with a pipette.
38. Never taste anything or touch chemicals with the hands
unless specifically instructed to do so.
39. Test for odor of chemicals only by waving your hand
above the container and sniffing cautiously from a
distance.
28. When bending glass, allow time for the glass to cool
before further handling. Hot and cold glass have the
same visual appearance. Determine whether an object
is hot by bringing the back of your hand close to the
object.
Cleanup and Disposal
29. Match hole size and tubing when inserting glass tubing
into a stopper. If necessary, expand the hole first by
using an appropriate size cork borer. Lubricate the
stopper hole and glass tubing with water or glycerin to
ease insertion, using towels to protect the hand.
Carefully twist (never push) glass tubing into stopper
holes.
41. Keep work areas clean. Floors and aisles should be
kept clear of equipment and materials.
Handling Chemicals
30. Check labels and equipment instructions carefully. Be
sure correct items are used in the proper manner.
31. Be aware if the chemicals being used are hazardous.
Know where the material safety data sheet (MSDS) is
and what it indicates for each of the hazardous chemi­
cals you are using.
32. Never pour reagents back into bottles, exchange
stoppers of bottles, or lay stoppers on the table.
40. Be sure all glassware is clean before use. Clean
glassware thoroughly after use. Residue may cause
errors in new experiments or cause a violent reaction or
explosion.
42. Clean up any spill on the floor or work space immedi­
ately.
43. Dispose of laboratory waste as instructed by the
teacher. Use separate, designated containers (not the
wastebasket) for the following:
• Matches, litmus paper, wooden splints, tooth­
picks, and so on
• Broken and waste glass
• Rags, paper towels, or other absorbent materials
used in the cleanup of flammable solids or
liquids
• Hazardous/toxic liquids and solids
33. When diluting acids, always pour acids into water,
never the reverse. Combine the liquids slowly while
stirring to distribute heat buildup throughout the
mixture.
44. Remove all broken glass from the work area or floor as
soon as possible. Never handle broken glass with bare
hands; use a counter brush and dustpan.
34. Keep hands away from face, eyes, and clothes while
using solutions, specimens, equipment, or materials in
the laboratory.
46. Students and teacher wash hands with soap and water
before leaving the laboratory area.
35. To treat a burn from an acid or alkali, wash the affected
area immediately with plenty of running water. If the
eye is involved, irrigate it at the eyewash station
without interruption for 15 minutes. Report the incident
to your instructor immediately.
45. Always clean the laboratory area before leaving.
Note: Persistent or willful violation of the regulations
will result in the loss of laboratory privileges and possible
dismissal from the class.
Please see the “Student Safety Contract—Physical
Science” on the following page.
Appendix C
169
Student Safety Contract—Physical Science
School: ____________________________
Teacher: ___________________
Date: ____________
Student’s name: ______________________________________________________________________
The student has received specific instruction regarding the use, function, and location of the following:
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Aprons, gloves
Chemical-spill kit
Eye-protective devices (goggles, face shield, safety shield)
Eyewash fountain, drench spray, and drench shower
Fire extinguisher
Fire blanket
First-aid kit
Heat sources (burners, hot plate, microwave) and techniques in their use
Material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
Waste-disposal containers for glass, chemicals, matches, paper, wood
The student will abide by the “Physical Science Laboratory Regulations” to prevent accidents and injury to herself or
himself and others and will:
• Follow all additional instructions given by the teacher.
• Conduct herself or himself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory.
List below any special allergies or sensitivities (e.g., to plants, animals, pollen, foods, chemicals, bee stings) that may
affect the student’s safety in the laboratory or on field trips:
Check this box if the student wears contact lenses: ❑
Student’s Statement
I have in my possession and have read the “Physical Science Laboratory Regulations” (pages 167–68) and agree to abide
by them at all times while in the laboratory. I have received specific safety instruction as indicated above.
Signature of student
Date
Parent’s or Guardian’s Statement
I have read the “Physical Science Laboratory Regulations” (pages 167–68) and give my consent for the student who has
signed the preceding statement to engage in laboratory activities using a variety of science equipment and materials, includ­
ing those described. I pledge my cooperation in urging that she or he observe the safety regulations prescribed.
Signature of parent or guardian
Return the completed and signed form to
Date
by
.
170
APPENDIX Q
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ROCKET LAUNCHINGS ON SCHOOL SITES
State fire laws now allow model rockets to be launched
on school sites provided that the conditions outlined in this
appendix are observed.
Activities involving the firing of rockets must be well
planned. It is recommended that launchings be limited to no
more than ten rockets if an audience will be present. Only
authorized classes and clubs may engage in this kind of
activity.
Guidelines for the firing of model rockets on school
sites are as follows:
c. The launch site shall not be located in a grain
field, in an area of dry grass or bush, or in a
forested area.
d. The launch site shall not contain or be located
near any high-voltage line, major highway, or
any other obstacle deemed hazardous by the fire
department.
e. The launch site shall not include any buildings or
other structures, unless approved by an official
from the fire department.
1. Purpose. These regulations have been prepared for the
purpose of establishing reasonable safety standards for
the testing and flying of model rockets. Model rockets
are classified as nonprofessional rockets that are
propelled by approved, commercially manufactured
solid propellant engines.
f. The firing area shall not be closer than 25 feet
(8 m) from the boundary of the launch site.
5. Launching facilities. Model rockets shall be launched
only from platforms that meet the following conditions:
a. A launch guide (tube, wire, or other suitable
device) shall be used to restrict the horizontal
motion of the rocket until sufficient flight
velocity is achieved to maintain stability during
flight. Ignition of the model rocket engine shall
be by remote electrical means and shall be under
the control only of the person launching the
rocket. The launch shall be properly supervised
by the instructor in charge.
2. Special permit. At least four weeks before the date
selected for the firing of model rockets, the school shall
submit a firing request to the responsible district office.
A special permit shall be obtained from the fire
department for a given period. (Usually, the fire
department’s policy is to issue such a permit to cover a
brief time.) The permit is issued in the name of the
school administrator. The instructor shall comply with
all safety standards and conduct the launching in a
manner that is also acceptable to the school administra­
tor.
b. The launching angle shall not be less than 75
degrees from the horizontal plane.
c. The surface wind at the launch site shall not
exceed 18 miles per hour (30 km per hour), and
vertical visibility from the firing area shall be at
least 715 yards (650 m).
3. Size of rockets. Rockets with a class A or smaller
engine are strongly recommended. Configuration of the
rockets is not limited except for weight (four ounces
[112 gm] with engine) and length (not less than ten
inches [25 cm] or greater than 15 inches [38 cm]). The
rocket shall contain no metal parts.
d. The recovery device material (parachute or other)
ejected from the rocket during the flight se­
quence shall be of flame-resistant material.
4. Launch site standards. The following stipulations
apply:
e. The model rocket shall be launched only during
daylight hours (except when specifically ap­
proved otherwise by the fire department).
a. The launch site shall consist of a firing area and a
recovery area. The firing area shall be considered
that area contained within a radius of 25 feet
(8 m) from the location of the launching plat­
form. The recovery area shall include the firing
area and shall be determined to be the minimum
area necessary in which to retrieve the launched
rocket.
f. All personnel conducting or observing the firing
shall maintain a clear distance of not less than 25
feet (8 m) from the launch platform during the
countdown and firing. The firing site shall be
clearly blocked off by rope or some other
temporary measure.
g. Only one source of power shall be used for each
launch site. No vehicles shall be within the firing
area.
b. The minimum size of the launch site shall extend
to a radius of at least 100 feet (30 m) from the
firing position.
170
Appendix Q
171
h. The person launching the rocket shall make all
electrical connections at both the firing platform
and the source of power.
unfired or defective rocket engines. A second adult
shall be responsible for the safety of spectators and all
other persons who may be present.
i. All spectators shall be positioned upwind of the
firing areas and at a distance of at least 25 feet
(8 m) from the firing site.
7. Misfires. After any misfire the rocket shall be allowed
to remain in the launch position for at least one full
minute before the rocket is approached. All disarming
shall be performed under the supervision of the
instructor in charge. The person checking the misfire
shall wear a face shield.
6. Supervision. The instructor in charge of the firing site
shall supervise the arming of the rocket with the rocket
engine, the firing of the rocket, and the disposing of all
APPENDIX R
SAMPLE
PERMISSION SLIP: FIELD TRIP
School: ________________________________
Teacher: ______________________
Student’s name: ____________________________________
Date: _________________
Subject: _____________________________________
A field trip has been scheduled for the class, which includes the student named above, on (date)________________.
Transportation is by (bus, etc.) ____________________ , which will leave the school at __________ (a.m./p.m.) and
return at approximately ___________ (a.m./p.m.). The field activities will take place at (location)
_________________________________________________.
The purposes of the trip are as follows:
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Each student will be expected to:
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Dress requirements/options are as follows:
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Possible hazards and necessary precautions are as follows:
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
List below any special allergies or sensitivities (e.g., to plants, animals, pollen, foods, chemicals, bee stings) or
other concerns you may have that might affect the student’s safety on the field trip:
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Parent’s or Guardian’s Statement
I have read the description of the proposed field activity noted above and give my consent for this
student to engage in the field trip.
I pledge my cooperation in making her/him aware of the precautions, as necessary, and in urging that
she/he observe the precautions and any other instructions during the trip.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Signature of parent or guardian
Date
Telephone number
Return the completed and signed form to ____________________________ by ____________.
172
APPENDIX S
OUTBREAKS OF COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH FIELD WORK
Recommendations for Prevention from the California Department of Public Health
immunity to, the soil fungus. However, when groups of
persons from noncontaminated areas enter contaminated
areas to engage in field activities which include excavation,
particularly archaeological digging, a high infection and
illness rate can result from a relatively brief exposure.
Therefore, we recommend the following to all school
programs engaged in any field work involving exposure to
dusty soil in areas in which coccidioidomycosis is endemic:
There has been increasing public health concern about
outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) among
archaeology students in California. The purpose of this
statement is to place the problem in its proper perspective
and to list precautions which we feel should be taken to help
prevent future outbreaks.
On November 24, 1970, the Bureau of Communicable
Disease Control, State Department of Public Health, wrote
anthropology departments of California colleges that
susceptible students and faculty were at risk of acquiring
coccidioidomycosis on archaeologic expeditions and
suggested that this risk be made known to all who might
participate in field work in areas in which the disease is
endemic.
Additional outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis have
occurred in California among archaeology students since
then. Illness rates have exceeded 50 percent in several
student groups, and serious disseminated diseases (which
required protracted hospitalization and treatment) occurred
in a few instances. Outbreaks have continued to occur year
after year at sites known to be contaminated with the fungal
agent causing coccidioidomycosis.
Coccidioidomycosis can be contracted by minimal
exposure to dusty soil in contaminated areas. Almost all of
the millions of people who are lifetime residents in these
areas eventually develop infection from, and a lifetime
1. No educational institution should require students or
faculty to participate in field work in areas in which
coccidioidomycosis is endemic. Alternative course
work should be considered to satisfy course require­
ments.
2. Information on coccidioidomycosis should be made
available to all prospective students and faculty.
Recommended references should include at least the
following publications:
a. Loofbourow, J. C., and D. Pappagianis. Coccidioidomycosis—An Occupational Hazard for
Archaeologists. Society for California Archaeol­
ogy, Special Report No. 2, December, 1971.
b. Coccidioidomycosis (or Valley Fever). Sacra­
mento: California State Department of Public
Health, 1969.
173
APPENDIX T
DISPOSAL OF EMPTY CONTAINERS
The California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Section 66261.7, addresses the issue of contaminated containers and
encourages recycling and other options for disposal of “empty” containers. Containers once filled with hazardous waste can
be disposed of as nonhazardous waste provided certain stipulations are met.
Definition of empty container:
1. If the container was used to store a hazardous liquid, the container must be completely drained so that no liquid drips
from the container when it is tilted or held upside down.
2. If the container was used to store a solid or nonpourable hazardous material (powders, sludges, grease, thick resins), the
material must be completely scraped out, leaving no remaining buildup inside the container.
3. Aerosol containers are empty if the contents and pressure are completely dispensed; the spray mechanism is in place and
is not defective; and the container is not a reactive waste (i.e., may explode).
Please note: Containers that held a listed extremely hazardous material must be managed as hazardous waste or you
must obtain authorization from the Department of Toxic Substances Control to triple rinse or treat the container.
Disposal/Recycle Options for “Empty” Container
Container Type and Size
Disposal options for
empty containers
Empty container Empty container
greater than
5 gallons or less
5 gallons in size
in size
Empty
aerosol can
Absorptive
Empty
container (wood,
compressed gas
paper bag, etc.)
cylinder (at
which has not
atmospheric
absorbed any
pressure)
hazardous material
To the original supplier for refilling
OK
OK
—
OK
OK
To a drum reconditioner
OK
OK
—
—
—
To a scrap metal/plastic or other
legitimate authorized recycling
facility
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
(Remove valve
stem.)
To a solid-waste facility* (top of
container must be removed and
appointment may be needed for
bulk amounts)
OK
No
No container
greater than 5
gallons will be
accepted at
local landfills.
OK
Spray nozzle
must be in place.
OK
OK
(Remove valve
stem.)
Required if
container is not
“empty”
OK
Required if spray
nozzle is broken
or the can is not
empty
Required if
hazardous material
is absorbed into
container
Required if
cylinder is not
empty
To a hazardous waste disposal
facility (TSDF)
*Recycling options should be considered first. Use a solid-waste facility (landfill) only as a last resort.
Transportation and packaging of the empty containers must be in accordance with applicable State of California,
Department of Transportation (DOT) and Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) regulations.
The following additional requirements must be met for “empty” containers greater than five gallons in capacity:
1. The container shall be marked with the date on which it was emptied.
2. The container shall be managed within one year of being emptied.
3. The generator shall provide the name, street address, mailing address, and telephone number of the facility to which the
“empty” container has been shipped. The generator shall maintain this information on site for three years.
174
SELECTED REFERENCES
SELECTED REFERENCES
Note: Procedures discussed in this handbook involve potential dangers
to persons, animals, and other living things and, therefore, should be
performed only by persons who are technically trained and qualified.
SELECTED REFERENCES
ensure a safe science teaching and learning environ­
ment.
Accrocco, J. O., and R. A. Roy. Right-to-Know Pocket
Guide for School and University Employees.
Schenectady, N.Y.: Genium Publishing Corp., 1990.
Guide to Hazardous Substances Reporting Requirements.
Sacramento: California Environmental Protection
Agency, 1991.
Excellent, quick reference for addressing right-to-know
guidelines and requirements.
Benedict, R. New Chemicals for Old: Preserving the Student
Laboratory Experiment. St. Paul: Minnesota Depart­
ment of Education, 1987.
Guidelines for Self-Assessment of High School Science
Programs (Revised edition). Arlington, Va.: National
Science Teachers Association, 1989.
Provides science teachers with a tool for assessing
working conditions.
Byrnes, J. K. “Eyewear: Contact Lenses Are Dangerous in
the Laboratory,” Campus Safety Newsletter (Fall,
1988).
Guidelines for Self-Assessment of Middle-Junior High
School Science Programs (Revised edition). Arlington,
Va.: National Science Teachers Association, 1989.
Discusses some of the hazards of wearing contact
lenses in science settings and some considerations in
their use.
Provides science teachers with a tool for assessing
working conditions.
Byrnes, J. K. “Eyewear Meets the Challenge,” Safety and
Health, Vol. 134, No. 3 (March, 1989), 64, 67–69.
Hall, S. K. Chemical Safety in the Laboratory. Boca Raton,
Fla.: CRC Press, 1993.
Answers many of the questions concerning safety
goggles, face shields. and other science laboratory
eyewear.
Excellent, comprehensive reference addressing OSHA
laboratory standards, chemical hygiene plan, general
safety practices, protective equipment, hazardous
chemical identification, chemical storage, laboratory
ventilation, chemical monitoring, chemical emergen­
cies, chemical waste management, employee training,
and recordkeeping.
Cronin-Jones, L. “Is Your School a Dumping Ground?” The
Science Teacher, Vol. 59 (October, 1992), 26–31.
Excellent article discussing the problems associated
with storage of chemicals in schools and options for
disposal.
Handbook of Chemical and Environmental Safety in Schools
and Colleges. The Forum for Scientific Excellence.
Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1991.
DiBerardinis, L. J., and others. Guidelines for Laboratory
Design: Health and Safety Considerations (Second
edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992.
Addresses the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard,
chemical handling, employee safety, hazardous chemi­
cal classes, chemical interactions, chemical storage, and
legal liabilities.
Comprehensive reference addressing laboratory design;
laboratory support services; administrative procedures;
and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems.
Fiske, J. R. “The Chemical Hygiene Officer: Piecing
Together the Liability Puzzle,” Chemical Health and
Safety, Vol. 1 (June/July, 1994), 12–16.
Horn, Toby M. Working with DNA and Bacteria in
Precollege Science Classrooms. Reston, Va.: National
Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), 1993.
Addresses many of the most common liability questions
of chemical hygiene officers.
Excellent as a guide for using bacteria and performing
DNA experiments safely in high school laboratories.
Fuller, T. C., and E. McClintock. Poisonous Plants of
California. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1987.
Improving Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Practical
Guide (Second edition). Edited by J. A. Young. New
York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.
Excellent publication covering laboratory organization,
MSDSs, safety inspections, federal regulations for
laboratories, air sampling of laboratories, and disposal
of chemicals.
Gerlovich, J., and T. Gerard. “Don’t Let Your Hands-on
Science Program Blow Up in Your Face,” American
School Board Journal, Vol. 176 (May, 1989), 40–41.
Excellent article outlining the necessity for cooperative
efforts between the administration and teachers to
175
176
Selected References
Mayo, D. W., and others. Microscale Organic Laboratory
with Selected Macroscale Experiments (Third edition).
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Drugs, Chemicals,
and Biologicals (Twelfth edition). Edited by
S. Budavari and others. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co.,
Inc., 1996.
An essential reference for all educators who work with
chemicals, drugs, biological stains, and so forth.
Includes information about the chemical abstract name,
alternate names, molecular formula/weight/percent
composition, references, structure, physical data,
derivatives, use, therapeutic categories, indices.
Microscale Experiments for the High School Chemistry
Class. (Public domain experiments developed under an
NSF- and Dreyfus-sponsored program.) Available from
Woodrow Wilson Foundation, P.O. Box 642, Princeton,
NJ 08542; telephone (609) 924-4666.
Mills, J. L., and M. D. Hampton. Microscale Experiments
for General Chemistry (Second edition). New York:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991.
Model Chemical Hygiene Plan for Kentucky School
Districts. Lexington: Kentucky Science and Technology
Council, Inc., 1991.
Motz, L. L., and G. M. Madrazo, Jr. Sourcebook for Science
Supervisors (Fourth edition). Arlington, Va.: National
Science Teachers Association, 1993.
Excellent reference for science supervisors; encom­
passes trends for the 1990s, science supervision, the
supervisor’s role, safety in laboratory settings, evalua­
tion programs, and applied research.
The No Waste Lab Manual—A Procedure That Eliminates
Toxic Waste Production from Introductory Chemistry
Laboratory Courses. Sacramento: California Depart­
ment of Health Services, 1989.
NSTA Handbook, 1994-95. Arlington, Va.: National Science
Teachers Association, 1994.
OSHA CD-ROM (OSHA A93-4). Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, 1993. Compact disc.
Excellent reference of ongoing OSHA guidelines and
requirements.
Phillips, L., and J. Gerlovich. 50 Safe Physical Science
Activities for Teachers. Skokie, Ill.: Sargent-Welch
Scientific Co., 1988.
Excellent teacher’s reference of activities in all classes
of the physical sciences. All activities are based on
integral science safety procedures.
Planning and Managing Dissection Laboratories. Arling­
ton, Va.: National Science Teachers Association, 1994.
Encourages careful planning to ensure optimum
learning in dissection lessons. Includes alternatives to
dissection.
Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Dis­
posal of Chemicals. Washington, D.C.: National
Academy Press, 1995.
The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms,
Including Alternatives to Dissection. Reston, Va.:
National Association of Biology Teachers, 1990.
Includes lessons showing responsible use of animals in
instruction and reflects the policy of encouraging the
use of alternatives to dissection, whenever possible.
Safe Laboratories: Principle, Practices, Design, Remodel­
ing. Edited by P. C. Ashbrook and M. M. Renfrew.
Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers, 1991.
Deals with design of laboratories from the user’s,
architect’s, and safety professional’s perspectives.
Includes such topics as ventilation plumbing, chemical
waste, fume hoods, and general laboratory renovations.
Safe Storage of Laboratory Chemicals (Second edition).
Edited by D. A. Pipitone. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1991.
Excellent resource addressing federal regulations on
storage of laboratory chemicals, labeling, emergency
responses, inspections of academic storage facilities,
and disposal of chemicals.
Saunders, G. T. Laboratory Fume Hoods: A User’s Manual.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
Explains room air patterns, hood design, face velocities,
system design, and discipline in the use of the hood.
Science Facilities Design for California Public Schools.
Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1992.
Assists school personnel and architects in the design of
new facilities to allow for the expansion of activitybased lessons and additional science courses as recom­
mended in the Department’s Science Framework.
Selected References
Science Framework for California Public Schools, K–12.
Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1990.
Science Safety—No Game of Chance: A School Science
Safety Manual. Tallahassee: Florida Department of
Education, 1992.
Excellent, general science safety tool.
Steel, M.; P. Conroy; and J. Kaufman. “How to Say ‘No’ to
Overcrowded, Unsafe Science Labs,” NSTA Reports
(April, 1993).
Excellent publication for addressing one of the most
often-asked safety questions of science teachers.
177
Thompson, S. Chemtrek: Small-Scale Experiments for
General Chemistry. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice
Hall, 1990.
Working Conditions for Secondary Science Teachers.
Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Associa­
tion, 1986.
Provides an excellent synopsis of general conditions for
safe science teaching.
Publications Available from the Department of Education
This publication is one of over 600 that are available from the California Department of Education. Some of the
more recent publications or those most widely used are the following:
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Title (Date of publication)
Price
Arts Work: A Call for Arts Education for All California Students: The Report of the Superintendent’s Task Force
on the Visual and Performing Arts (1997) ............................................................................................................................ $11.25
California Department of Education Early Start Program Guide (1998) ..................................................................................... 10.00
California Safe Schools Assessment: 1998-99 Results (2000) ..................................................................................................... 20.00
Caught in the Middle: Educational Reform for Young Adolescents in California Public Schools (1987) .................................... 9.25
Challenge Standards for Student Success: Health Education (1998) ........................................................................................... 10.00
Challenge Standards for Student Success: Language Arts Student Work Addendum (1998) ..................................................... 12.75
Challenge Standards for Student Success: Physical Education (1998) .......................................................................................... 8.50
Challenge Standards for Student Success: Visual and Performing Arts (1998) ........................................................................... 12.50
Challenge Toolkit: Family-School Compacts (1997) ..................................................................................................................... 9.75 *
Children Teaching Children (CD-ROM) (1997) .......................................................................................................................... 12.00
Children Teaching Children II (CD-ROM) (1999) ....................................................................................................................... 12.00
Collaborative Partners: California’s Experience with the 1997 Head Start Expansion Grants (2000) ........................................ 12.50
Commodity Administrative Manual (1998) ................................................................................................................................. 19.50
Continuity for Young Children (1997) ........................................................................................................................................... 7.50
Coordinated Compliance Review Training Guide, 2000-2001 (1999) ......................................................................................... 22.00
Ear-Resistible: Hearing Test Procedures for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers, Birth Through Five Years of Age (1998) .... 10.00
Educational Specifications: Linking Design of School Facilities to Educational Program (1997) .............................................. 18.50
Educating English Learners for the Twenty-First Century: The Report of the Proposition 227 Task Force (1999) ................... 10.50
English–Language Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1998) ........... 9.25
Enrolling Students Living in Homeless Situations (1999) ............................................................................................................. 8.50
Every Child a Reader: The Report of the California Reading Task Force (1995) ......................................................................... 5.25
Family Connections: Helping Caregivers Develop Nutrition Partnerships with Parents (1997) ................................................... 9.00
First Class: A Guide for Early Primary Education (1999) ............................................................................................................ 12.50
First Look: Vision Evaluation and Assessment for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers, Birth Through Five Years
of Age (1998) .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10.00
Foreign Language Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1989) ............................... 7.25
The Form of Reform: School Facility Design Implications for California Educational Reform (1997) ..................................... 18.50
Fostering the Development of a First and a Second Language in Early Childhood: Resource Guide (1998) ............................. 10.75
Getting Results, Part I: California Action Guide to Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities (1998) ................ 15.25
Getting Results, Part II: California Action Guide to Tobacco Use Prevention Education (2000) ............................................... 13.50
Getting Results, Update 1, Positive Youth Development: Research, Commentary, and Action (1999) ...................................... 12.00
Guide and Criteria for Program Quality Review: Elementary Grades (1998) ............................................................................. 13.50
Guidelines for Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy in California Public Schools (1996) ............................................. 12.50
Handbook on Administration of Early Childhood Special Education Programs (2000) .............................................................. 13.50
Handbook on Assessment and Evaluation in Early Childhood Special Education Programs (2000) .......................................... 13.50
Handbook on Family Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education Programs (1999) ...................................................... 11.25
Health Careers Education 2000: A Program Guide (1998) .......................................................................................................... 20.00
Health Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1994) ............................................... 10.00
Helping Your Students with Homework (1999) ............................................................................................................................. 9.25
Here They Come: Ready or Not—Report of the School Readiness Task Force (summary report) (1988) ................................... 5.00
History–Social Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (2000) ........... 9.00
History–Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, 1997 Updated Edition (1997) ............................................. 12.50
Improving Mathematics Achievement for All California Students: The Report of the California Mathematics
Task Force (1995) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5.25
Independent Study Operations Manual (2000 Edition) ................................................................................................................ 30.00
Industrial and Technology Education: Career Path Guide and Model Curriculum Standards (1996) ......................................... 17.00
Joining Hands: Preparing Teachers to Make Meaningful Home-School Connections (1998) ..................................................... 13.25
Literature for Science and Mathematics, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1993) .............................................................. 11.00
Mathematics Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1999) ............................ 8.50
Mathematics Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1999) ..................................... 17.50
Physical Education Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1994) ............................. 7.75
Program Guidelines for Students Who Are Visually Impaired, 1997 Revised Edition ............................................................... 10.00
Programs for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: Guidelines for Quality Standards (2000) ..................................................... 12.00
* Other titles in the Challenge Toolkit series are Outline for Assessment and Accountability Plans (item no. 1300), Safe and Healthy Schools (item no. 1299),
School Facilities (item no. 1294), Site-Based Decision Making (item no. 1295), Service-Learning (item no. 1291), Student Activities (item no. 1292), and
Student Learning Plans (item no. 1296). Call 1-800-995-4099 for prices and shipping charges.
Prices are subject to change. Please call 1-800-995-4099 for current prices and shipping charges.
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Title (Date of publication)
Price
Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1999) .................. $17.50
Ready to Learn—Quality Preschools for California in the 21st Century: The Report of the Superintendent’s Universal
Preschool Task Force (1998) ..................................................................................................................................................... 8.00
Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (2000) .................................... 9.00
Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1990) ............................................... 9.50
Science Safety Handbook for California Public Schools (1999 Edition) ..................................................................................... 17.50
Service-Learning: Linking Classrooms and Communities: The Report of the Superintendent’s Service Learning
Task Force (1999) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7.00
Steering by Results—A High-Stakes Rewards and Interventions Program for California Schools and Students:
The Report of the Rewards and Interventions Advisory Committee (1998) ............................................................................. 8.00
Strategic Teaching and Learning: Standards-Based Instruction to Promote Content Literacy in Grades Four
Through Twelve (2000) ........................................................................................................................................................... 12.50
Talking with Preschoolers: Strategies for Promoting First and Second Language Development (video) (1998) ........................ 12.00
Taking Charge: A Disaster Preparedness Guide for Child Care and Development Centers (1996) ............................................ 10.25
Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1996) .............. 15.00
Work-Based Learning Guide (1998) ............................................................................................................................................ 12.50
Work Permit Handbook for California Schools (1998) ................................................................................................................ 13.00
Workforce Career Development Model (1998) .............................................................................................................................. 9.50
Order Form
To: California Department of Education
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