The design of ScanSpec - a scanning imaging FTIR

The design of ScanSpec - a scanning imaging FTIR
FOA-R--99-01041-615--SE
February 1999
ISSN 1104-9154
Technical Report
Frans Lundberg
The design of ScanSpec –
a scanning imaging FTIR spectrometer
Division of Sensor Technology
SE-581 11 LINKÖPING
DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT
Division of Sensor Technology
P O Box 1165
SE-581 11 LINKÖPING, SWEDEN
FOA-R--99-01041-615SE
February 1999
ISSN 1104-9154
Frans Lundberg
The design of ScanSpec –
a scanning imaging FTIR spectrometer
Distribution: FMV: FlygES, FMV: FlygFP
FOA: 33, 74
Issuing organization
Document ref. No., ISRN
Defence Research Establishment
Division of Sensor Technology
P O Box 1165
SE-581 11 LINKÖPING, SWEDEN
FOA-R--99-01041-615--SE
Date of issue
Project No.
February 1999
E3016
Project name (abbrev. if necessary)
Optical Signatures
Author(s)
Frans Lundberg
([email protected])
Initiator or sponsoring organization
FM
Project manager
Lars Bohman
Scientifically and technically responsible
Claes Nelsson
Document title
The design of ScanSpec – a scanning imaging FTIR spectrometer
Abstract
This report describes the ScanSpec project at the Department of IR Systems at the Defense
Research Establishment (FOA) in Linköping, Sweden. The purpose of the project was to build
an imaging spectrometer. It has been done by connecting a narrow-angle telescope to a fast
FTIR spectrometer and by rotating a mirror in front of the telescope. This way, spectra of IRradiation from different directions are acquired. The mirror is used to scan a scene to acquire a
spectral image, that is, an image for which each pixel consists of a whole spectrum.
The report includes an overview of imaging spectrometers for the IR-region and of the military
use of spectral images. The development of the ScanSpec imaging spectrometer is described and
the first measurements are presented.
The report is written for anyone interested in spectral images and imaging spectrometers and specifically
the ScanSpec imaging spectrometer. The reader is assumed to have some university level knowledge
about physics in general.
Keywords
spectral images, imaging spectrometer, FTIR, ScanSpec
Further bibliographic information
Language English (American)
ISSN 1104-9154
ISBN
Pages 64 p.
Distributor (if not issuing organization)
2
Price acc. to price list
Dokumentets utgivare
Dokumentbeteckning, ISRN
Försvarets forskningsanstalt
Avdelningen för Sensorteknik
Box 1165
581 11 LINKÖPING
FOA-R--99 -01041-615--SE
Dokumentets datum
Uppdragsnummer
februari 1999
E3016
Projektnamn (ev förkortat)
Optiska signaturer
Upphovsman(män)
Uppdragsgivare
FM
Frans Lundberg
([email protected])
Projektansvarig
Lars Bohman
Fackansvarig
Claes Nelsson
Dokumentets titel i översättning
Konstruktionen av ScanSpec – en skannande bildalstrande FTIR-spektrometer
Sammanfattning
Denna rapport beskriver ScanSpec-projektet vid Institutionen för IR-system på Försvarets
forskningsanstalt i Linköping, Sverige. Syftet med projektet var att bygga en bildalstrande
spektrometer. Detta har gjorts genom att montera ett långt teleskop på en snabb FTIRspektrometer och genom att rotera en spegel framför teleskopet. På detta sätt samlas spektra från
olika riktningar in. Spegeln används till att skanna av en scen för att samla in en spektral bild,
det vill säga en bild där varje pixel består av ett helt spektrum.
Denna rapport innefattar en översikt av bildalstrande spektrometrar för IR-området och av den
militära användingen av spektrala bilder. Utvecklingen av den bildastrande spektrometern
ScanSpec beskrivs och de första mätningarna presenteras.
Rapporten är skriven för den som är intresserad av spektrala bilder, bildalstrande spektrometrar
och speciellt den bildalstrande spektrometern ScanSpec. Läsaren antas ha en del allmän
fysikkunskap på universitetsnivå.
Nyckelord
spektrala bilder, bildalstrande spektrometer, FTIR, ScanSpec
Övriga bibliografiska uppgifter
Språk Engelska (amerikansk)
ISSN 1104-9154
ISBN
Omfång 64 s.
Distributör (om annan än ovan)
Pris Enligt prislista
V.1.1
3
Contents
1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................6
PART I - SPECTRAL IMAGES
2
Spectral images and their military use .................................................................................8
2.1 What is a spectral image? ...................................................................................................8
2.2 The history of spectral images.............................................................................................9
2.3 The military use of infrared spectral images ...................................................................... 10
2.4 Spectral resolution and frequency range needed for target detection ................................... 10
2.5 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 11
3
Imaging spectrometers ....................................................................................................... 12
3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 Imaging spectrometers based on filtering........................................................................... 13
3.3 Imaging spectrometers based on dispersion ....................................................................... 13
3.4 Imaging spectrometers based on Fourier-transform methods .............................................. 15
PART II - BUILDING SCANSPEC
4
The goals of the project ...................................................................................................... 18
4.1 The goals ......................................................................................................................... 18
4.2 The resources ................................................................................................................... 18
5
The overall design of ScanSpec .......................................................................................... 19
5.1 The Bomem MR254 FTIR spectrometer ........................................................................... 19
5.2 Main design...................................................................................................................... 20
5.3 Definition of angles .......................................................................................................... 22
5.4 The scanning of the mirror................................................................................................ 23
6
The ScanSpec hardware ..................................................................................................... 26
6.1 The mirror........................................................................................................................ 26
6.2 The mirror mounting......................................................................................................... 28
6.3 The mirror-turning system ................................................................................................ 30
6.4 The support construction .................................................................................................. 33
6.5 Communication between ScanSpec parts........................................................................... 34
7
The ScanSpec software....................................................................................................... 36
7.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 36
7.2 Signal processing.............................................................................................................. 37
7.3 Testing, reliability, and the timing problem........................................................................ 40
4
PART III - WHAT SCANSPEC CAN SEE
8
The first measurements ...................................................................................................... 42
8.1 Measurements with the standard scan programs ................................................................ 42
8.2 MRTD measurements....................................................................................................... 42
8.3 Measurements of a Volvo 440........................................................................................... 43
8.4 Calibration ....................................................................................................................... 43
9
Results and possible improvements .................................................................................... 46
9.1 Distortion ......................................................................................................................... 46
9.2 Are the goals of the project met? ....................................................................................... 46
9.3 Possible improvements, changes and new applications....................................................... 47
10
11
Conclusions......................................................................................................................... 48
References........................................................................................................................... 49
Appendix 1 - Measurements of field of view, angular sensitivity and focusing range
Appendix 2 - Calculation of the mirror size
Appendix 3 - The standard scan programs
5
1 Introduction
Imaging spectrometry has developed rapidly the last years and has applications in many fields of
science. The military applications include measuring optical signatures, surveillance, and targeting.
The ScanSpec imaging spectrometer described in this text is designed to be able to measure optical
signatures of backgrounds and potential military targets.
This report will tell the reader about the ScanSpec project which was done at the Department of IR
systems at the Defense Research Establishment (FOA) in Linköping, Sweden. The goal of the project
was to build an imaging spectrometer based on a fast non-imaging spectrometer. This has been done
by connecting a narrow-angle telescope to the spectrometer and by turning a mirror in front of the
telescope. In this way the infrared radiation from different directions can be collected. By scanning
the mirror around two rotation axes a whole spectral image can be acquired. A spectral image is an
image in which each pixel consists of a spectrum. The imaging spectrometer is named ScanSpec and
the finished construction can be seen in Figure 1.
Figure 1- ScanSpec.
The system is based on a fast FTIR spectrometer (Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer) from
Bomem Inc. The spectrometer is capable of collecting 65 spectra/s at the highest speed and lowest
spectral resolution.
The report is divided into three parts plus this introduction and the conclusions chapter.
Part I - Spectral images, explains what a spectral image is, its history and how spectral images can
be acquired. Part II - Building ScanSpec, will tell the reader how ScanSpec was built and the last
part, part III - What ScanSpec can see, will present what ScanSpec can be used for and its
performance. That part also presents the initial measurements including the world’s probably first
hyper-spectral image of a Volvo 440!
6
This project is the last part of my masters degree at the University of Umeå, Sweden.
Before we will learn more about spectral images in the next chapter, I would like to take the
opportunity to thank all the very helpful people at FOA in Linköping, who have contributed to this
project, especially Pär Nilsson and Claes Nelsson.
7
2 Spectral images and their military use
2.1 What is a spectral image?
People view the world in color, and draw conclusions about objects due to the color of the object.
Human eyes or a normal color video camera produce spectral images (defined below) with very low
spectral resolution, only three frequency bands. It is easier to recognise objects on a color TV
compared to on a black and white TV, that is, objects are easier to detect if the light1 from many
frequency bands is recorded. Compared to a color video camera or human eyes with only three
frequency bands, an imaging spectrometer can increase the number of recorded frequency bands to
thousands or more. The human eye covers less than 10 per cent of the spectral region available to
imaging spectrometers [Breckinridge 1996]. Imaging spectrometers will provide us with further
information in many fields of research, ranging from studying outer space to looking at microscopic
objects.
The definition of what a spectral image is can vary slightly. My definition of a spectral image is
a three-dimensional data entity that describes the spectral radiance of a scene
as a function of two spatial variables and one spectral variable. The two spatial
variables should tell where the spectral radiance is measured and the spectral
variable should tell for what frequency/wavelength it is measured.
The spatial variables can be distances or angles. The spectral variable is either frequency or
wavelength. For ScanSpec, the spatial variables are angles and the spectral variable is frequency.
The spectral radiance Lspec is often defined as
Lspec,λ =
dL
dλ
(Equation 1)
where L is the radiance and λ is the wavelength [Physics p. 264, Pedrotti p. 265]. But, when the
frequency f is used as the spectral variable, the following definition can be used,
Lspec , f =
dL
.
df
(Equation 2)
There are several reasons why I have chosen to use frequency as the spectral variable when
acquiring the spectral images. The most important reason is that the spectrometer in the ScanSpec
system (Bomem MR254) records spectral radiance according to equation 2. It is also often easier to
work with frequency instead of wavelength, since the energy difference between two photons with a
fixed frequency difference is always the same. Also, unlike the wavelength, the frequency of the
electromagnetic radiation is independent of the medium the radiation is propagating in.
A spectral image can be seen as an image where each pixel is a radiance spectrum instead of just a
gray-scale value as it is in an ordinary black and white image.
1
Throughout this report, the word ”light” will be used for both the visible and the infrared electromagnetic
radiation.
8
y
f
x
Figure 2- This figure depicts how a spectral image can be seen as a collection
of several gray-scale images, one for each frequency for which the spectral
radiance has been recorded.
An alternative way of mentally visualizing the data of a spectral image is as a collection of many
ordinary gray-scale images, one for each frequency for which the spectral radiance was recorded.
This way of visualizing a spectral image is depicted in Figure 2 and has been the basis for the
presentation of the data collected by ScanSpec.
From now on we will concentrate on spectral images in the infrared part of the electromagnetic
spectrum which can be divided into the following bands.
NIR, near infraread
SWIR, short wavelength infrared
MWIR, mid-wavelength infrared
LWIR, long wavelength infrared
FIR, far infrared
0.7-1.1 µm
1.1-2.5 µm
2.5-7 µm
7-15 µm
>15 µm
The definition of these frequency bands differ in the literature. I have followed the definition by
[Holst]. ScanSpec covers the whole region from NIR to FIR, but it is less sensitive in the NIR and
the FIR region.
2.2 The history of spectral images
The astronomer George Ellery Hale is credited with being the first person to create a spectral image.
At the turn of this century he realized how important it was to study both the spectral and the spatial
variations of the light from the sun. He designed a spectrometer that would only let through light at a
specific wavelength. A solar telescope was placed so that the focal plane of the telescope coincided
with the entrance slit of the spectrometer. The light that passed through the spectrometer was
recorded on a photographic plate. By moving the slit with a constant velocity over the disc of the sun
and keeping the photographic plate at the same position, Hale was able to record the intensity of the
light for a specific wavelength in one spatial dimension. To record the intensity for another
wavelength, he had to adjust the spectrometer and make another scan. [Breckinridge]
9
The idea of recording both spatial and spectral variations of radiation has been around for a century
or so. However, it is only the last decade or two that complete systems that can record a spectral
image with two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension have been built.
Not until the last few years have imaging spectrometers been available commercially for the MWIR
and the LWIR regions, and the market seems to be limited to only a few products. I believe that the
development of new imaging spectrometers for the MWIR and the LWIR regions will be rapid the
coming few years, due to the increased size and performance of 2D-arrays of IR-detectors. See
[internet: Rockwell] and [internet: Sensors] for commercially available 2D-arrays of IR-detectors.
2.3 The military use of infrared spectral images
Infrared spectral images are important in military research to measure optical signatures of
backgrounds and potential targets. The measurements can be used to build models of the IRradiation from vehicles and other objects of military interest.
Apart from research, spectral images can be used for surveillance and targeting. Radar sensors
provide a wide area coverage, but ”for a given detection probability, they currently have
unacceptably high false alarm rates” [Eismann]. Therefore, the use of visible and infrared sensors
must be considered to decrease false alarm rates. Other disadvantages with radar compared to
passive optical sensors are that a radar transmitter is easier to detect than a passive optical detector,
and a radar can be jammed. During the day, the visible and the near infrared parts of the spectrum
are interesting, but when it gets dark MWIR and LWIR sensors become more important. Broad-band
infrared imaging sensors for MWIR or LWIR (IR-cameras) have been used successfully to detect
hot targets in cold backgrounds. For example, a person in a cold background is easy to detect.
Camouflaged targets in warm backgrounds are harder to detect with broadband IR-sensors. For such
targets, spectral as well as spatial information about the radiation is needed in order to distinguish
the target from the background. [Eismann], [Eismann and Schwartz]
2.4 Spectral resolution and frequency range
needed for target detection
Eismann, Schwartz, Cederquist, Hackwell and Huppi have investigated which wavelength bands that
are most effective in detecting targets. A number of target/background combinations of military
interest in forest and desert environments were investigated using data from a non-imaging spectral
database [Eismann3, Eismann4 and Schwartz2 in Eismann]. The result was that a small number of
spectral bands can provide good target detection performance if the bands are chosen appropriately.
Further, the optimal spectral bands tend to be in the region from 8.5 µm to 11 µm (or even 10.5 µm).
The database was also used to estimate the minimal spectral resolution needed for an imaging
spectrometer to detect military targets in the IR-region. The result was that a resolution of 250 nm is
acceptable, but 100 nm can be set as a goal for an imaging spectrometer in order to be sure that the
spectral resolution of the instrument will be adequate. Of course, the optimal frequency region for
target detection in Swedish environments could be somewhat different from the one mentioned above.
[Eismann]
When discussing the spectral resolution that is needed to detect targets, we will divide infrared
spectral sensors into three groups: multi-spectral, hyper-spectral and ultra-spectral sensors,
according to [Breckinridge].
10
Multi-spectral instruments able to record only a few spectral bands are called multi-spectral. For
example the human eye is a multi-spectral sensor. A spectral resolution of ∆λ/λ ≈ 0.1 can be used
for terrain classification.
Hyper-spectral instruments. A spectral resolution of ∆λ/λ ≈ 0.01 is used with hyper-spectral
sensors. At this resolution the radiation from solid and liquid surfaces reveals details of the chemical
composistion.
Ultra-spectral instruments that can record spectral information in a large (1000 to 10000) number of
spectral bands are called ultra-spectral. The spectrometer used with ScanSpec is ultra-spectral if the
highest spectral resolution is used. With such a high spectral resolution the chemical composition of
gases can be studied.
According to Breckinbridge’s computations [Breckinbridge] a resolution of 10 nm approches the
optimum when studying solid objects in the range 0.4 to 2.5 µm. For comparison, the Bomem
MR254 FTIR spectrometer used in the ScanSpec system has a maximum spectral resolution of
0.1 nm at 1 µm and 10 nm at 10 µm. Breckinridge also explains that ”lower resolution is needed for
solids than for gases because the atoms and their electronic transitions which form the lines are more
tightly bound in the solid lattice and thus give much broader spectral features than those spectral
features produced by gases”. [Hackwell] states that ”a resolving power (λ/∆λ) of 200 resolves any
spectral features seen in a solid or liquid surface”.
2.5 Conclusion
IR-cameras can detect hot targets in a cold thermal background, but in order to detect targets with a
temperature not much different from the background, imaging spectrometers are necessary. The best
wavelength bands for a high target/background contrast fall in the range 8.5 to 11 µm. A spectral
resolution of 100 nm in that region is enough to detect military targets. The Bomem MR254
spectrometer has a higher resolution than necessary for this application. It is therefore possible to use
it to investigate what the lowest spectral resolution needed is in order to detect military targets in
typically Swedish backgrounds. This is important to know if a spectral imager with higher speed and
higher spatial resolution will be bought or constructed at FOA in the future.
11
3 Imaging spectrometers
3.1 Introduction
The definition of an imaging spectrometer (or spectral imager) in this report is simply:
an instrument able to collect a spectral image.
There are other definitions, for example:
”... an instrument capable of simultaneously registering the spectrum components AND the
spatial location” [internet: Specim].
I believe there is no instrument today that can simultaineously register both the spectrum and the two
spatial dimensions of the radiation. In order to do that a three-dimensional array of radiation sensors
is needed (or a 2D-array of 1D-arrays or a 1D-array of 2D-arrays).
2D-arrays of sensors for IR-radiation is in a phase of rapid development. The advent of large 2Darrays of IR-sensors has led to the development of various types of imaging spectrometer designs.
Some of the possible designs will be discussed in this report.
The data recorded by an imaging spectrometer can be viewed as a data cube of numbers of the
spectral radiance in three dimensions: two spatial dimensions, x and y, and one spectral dimension f.
A 2D-array of IR-sensors can, obviously, record only two of these three dimensions at the same time.
The third dimension, the spectral or one of the spatial ones, must therefore be sampled temporally. If
a 1D-array of IR-sensors would be used, two of the three dimensions would have to be sampled
temporally. If only one sensor is used (as is the case with ScanSpec) all the three dimensions of the
data cube must be temporally sampled. Since the performance of 2D-arrays of IR-sensors have
recently been improved much and is being improved rapidly, I have no doubt that currently the best
way of constructing imaging spectrometers is with a construction based on a 2D-array of IR-sensors.
Therefore the following text will only treat imaging spectrometers based on such sensors.
There are basically three different ways of extracting spectral information from infrared radiation.
1. filtering
2. using dispersive instruments
3. using Fourier transform instruments
These three ways can all be used when designing an imaging spectrometer and will be exemplified. I
will not try to give a complete summary of what different types of imaging spectrometers there are
and their advantages and disadvantages. The following should be seen as examples of the
instruments that exist today and the fundamental principles of their construction. The development of
imaging spectrometers is very rapid at the moment and the situation in, say, five years will be
completely different. More imaging spectrometers will be on the market and they will have better
performance and probably cost much less than today.
One factor that limits the performance of the imaging spectrometers of today is the huge data rate
that would be produced by a fast imaging spectrometer with high spatial and spectral resolution. For
example, assume that we wish to produce spectral images with 500x500 pixels and 1000 spectral
12
bands. Further, assume that we want to record 25 spectral images per second and that each value of
the spectral radiance is recorded with 2 bytes. This would demand a data rate of
5002 pixels/spectral band ⋅ 1000 spectral bands/spectral image ⋅ 25 spectral images/s ⋅
2 bytes/pixel = 12.5 Gbyte/s!
I do not think there is any way of taking care of all that data with the current technology at least not
for a reasonable price, but if the speed of digital data storage units and processors increase as it has
been in the past, who knows? Real-time data compression could possibly be used to reduce the
enormous data flow.
3.2 Imaging spectrometers based on filtering
One easy way of constructing an imaging spectrometer is to use band-pass optical filters. For
exampel a filter-wheel or a tunable Fabry-Perot filter can be placed in front of an IR-camera.
Filtering is not a new technique, but it should not be underestimated compared to the various new
approaches, especially as new filters develop. Conceptually, the design is simple, the instrument can
be built small and light-weight and is not too expensive.
3.3 Imaging spectrometers based on dispersion
As we will see, there are several completely different ways of designing a spectral imager based on
dispersion. Gratings or prisms can be used to spread out the wavelengths in space. I will not try to
give a complete description of all different approaches that exist. I will merely give a few interesting
examples. The examples will include commercially available imaging spectrometers.
Simple imaging spectrometers based on dispersion
The simplest type of imaging spectrometer, based on a 2D-array of light detectors, uses lenses, an
entrance slit and a diffractive optical element. The diffractive element diffracts the light in one
direction. The other direction is left for spatial imaging. The array of light detectors can
simultaneously record the spectra in one direction and one spatial dimension in the other direction of
the array. The second spatial dimension has to be temporally scanned. This can be achieved by
turning a mirror in front of the spectrometer, by turning the whole spectrometer, or by moving it in
one direction, for example by using it from an airplane.
One of the first of these instruments to be built is the Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI), designed and
constructed in Canada in 1981. It uses a CCD-camera covering the visible and near infrared part of
the spectrum. The first entrance lens for the FLI forms an image on a slit. The second lens collimates
the light. Then the light passes through a transmission grating and the last lens before it is detected
by a 2D-array of light sensors. [Gower]
There are imaging spectrometers for the infrared region that are based on the same basic principles
as the FLI above, for example SEBASS. SEBASS works in the MWIR and the LWIR regions. More
information about SEBASS can be found in [Hackwell] and [Eismann].
13
An imaging spectrometer that disperses the light along the optical axis
Pacific Advanced Technology Inc. (California, USA) has used a new approach to dispersive imaging
spectrometry that has been patented1. A single optical element is used, see Figure 3. That element
performs both the imaging and the dispersion. An 2D-array of light sensors is moved as indicated in
the figure. Only one specific wavelength of light is focused on the sensor array at a time. The optics
is designed so that the depth of focus is very shallow, allowing for high spectral resolution.
the imaging and dispersive
optical element
sensor array
λ1-∆λ
λ 1+∆λ
λ1
incoming light
Figure 3 - The principle of the Pacific Advanced Technology imaging
spectrometer. Light of longer wavelength will be refracted more in the optical
element than that of shorter wavelengths. Only light with a specific wavelength
will be focused at the sensor array. As the sensor array moves as indicated a
spectral image can be recorded.
The collected spectral image needs advanced digital image processing to increase the spatial and the
spectral resolution. Non-linear deconvolution algorithms have been developed for this.
The advantage of this approach over a conventional dispersive spectrometer is that the whole
aperture can be used to collect light instead of only a narrow slit that has a low throughput. It also
has an advantage over a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The photon noise (shot noise) is lower,
since only light from a small frequency band is measured at a time, not the entire bandpass of the
instrument as is the case for a Fourier transform spectrometer. However, the spectral resolution of a
Fourier-transform spectrometer is generally higher.
Pacific Advanced Technology offers an MWIR instrument with the following parameters:
Spectral range
Nominal Spectral resolution
F-number
3.0 - 5.0 µm
∆λ/λ = 0.0025 (0.01 µm at 4 µm)
f/2.5 at 4 µm
A turn-key system including IR-camera and computer would cost around 95000 USD. This
instrument could be used with an existing IR-camera and a computer which would reduce the cost to
45000 USD. They also sell a new product covering the range 8 to 10 µm which is a bit more
expensive. [email: Hinnrichs]
1
US Patent 5,479,258 issued Dec. 26, 1995
14
Figure 4 - The imaging spectrometer from Pacific Advanced Technology.
Their instrument is shown in Figure 4. More information can be found at their web site [internet:
Patinc].
[Hinnrichs]
ImSpector N17
The Finnish company Specim, Spectral Imaging Ltd., sells a spectral line imager based on
dispersion. See [internet: Specim]. The N17 costs 4700 USD and 19000 USD together with a
suitable InGaAs IR-camera [email: Parameter].
3.4 Imaging spectrometers based on
Fourier-transform methods
Fourier-transform spectrometry (FTS)
For readers not familiar with Fourier-transform spectrometry I will briefly explain the main idea.
mirror
mirror
detector
Figure 5 - The basic principle of Fourier-transform spectrometry.
The basic principle of Fourier-transform spectrometry (FTS) is shown in Figure 5. The optical
layout can vary, but the principle is the same. Light enters from the left in the figure, a beam-splitter
15
reflects 50 per cent of the light towards the top mirror and the rest of the light hits the mirror to the
right. The light is reflected on the mirrors and the light from the two optical paths are reunited at the
beam-splitter. The light from the vertical and the horizontal optical paths interfere with each other
and hit the infrared detector (or a two-dimensional array of IR-detectors). By moving the right mirror
and simultaineously studying the interference pattern of the light at the detector an interferogram can
be acquired. There is a one-to-one correspondence between this interferogram and the spectrum of
the light. This relationship will not be derived here, but it involves a Fourier-transform, hence the
name of this method. I refer to [Pedrotti] for a more detailed discussion of the subject.
Infrared imaging spectrometers based on Bomem Spectrometers
Bomem Inc. has been involved in the development of imaging spectrometers based on the Bomem
MB-series of FTIR spectrometers. The imaging spectrometers DREV IISR 0, IISR I and IISR II
where developed for the Defense Research Establishment at Valcartier (DREV), Canada. These
imaging spectrometers are especially interesting for FOA since they are based on the same type of
spectrometer as the one used in the ScanSpec system. The principle of the design of those
spectrometers is rather simple. Instead of using only one detector to record one interferogram (see
Figure 5), a 2D-array of IR-detectors is used. Each detector will then record interferograms from
different spatial locations. The arrangement can be seen as many independent Fourier-transform
spectrometers that use the same optics.
The development of the first Infrared Imaging Spectral Radiometer (IISR) based on a Bomem FTIR
spectrometer started in 1988. It was based on the largest InSb detector array commercially available
at the time (4x8) and is called DREV IISR 0. It was a bench top proof of concept instrument and it
was followed by DREV IISR I that was able to acquire valuable data. The next version,
DREV IISR II, is an improved field instrument.
Eglin IISR is a newer (1996) instrument also based on a Bomem FTIR spectrometer. It is a compact
prototype for airborne use.
These are some of the specifications for the Eglin IISR:
Spectral range
Spectral resolution
Spatial resolution
Frame rate
Maximum recording time
3.5 - 5 µm (compatible to LWIR also)
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 cm-1 (computer selectable) 1
8x8 pixels
60 frames/s at 4 cm-1 resolution
15 s at 4 cm-1 resolution
My conclusions of the Eglin are that it is very fast and still has a high spectral resolution. The speed
and the spectral resolution combination of such an imaging spectrometer surpasses all other imaging
spectrometers I have read about, but the low spatial resolution of 8x8 is, of course, a drawback of
the instrument. The short maximum recording time is also a limitation of the instrument.
[Villemaire], [presentation: Villemaire]
1
The unit most widely used for frequency in spectrometry is the a kayser (k). The word ”kayser” is not
widely used, usually substituted with ”reciprocal centimeters”. 1 cm-1 equals 2.9979⋅1010 Hz ≈ 30 GHz.
[Beer].
16
Spatial Fourier-transform spectrometry
For the Eglin imaging spectrometer above, the interferograms are sampled in time, this way of
acquiring interferograms is called temporal FTS. There is another fundamentally different way of
acquiring the interferograms - spatial FTS. For spatial FTS, one axis on the 2D IR-detector array is
used to sample the interferogram while the other axis is used to acquire spatial information in one
dimension. The other spatial dimension has to be sampled in time. There are several different optical
designs for imaging spectrometers based on spatial FTS, see [Sellar]. One example of a possible
design will be described below.
A spectrometer using a grating to achieve path differences
This type of spectrometer is called a digital array scanned interferometer (DASI). It is based on a
Michelson interferometer using the principle shown in Figure 5, but it has no moving parts. A
grating is used, not to disperse light, but to achive the optical path difference necessary for the
interferogram to be recorded. This can be seen in Figure 6. The interferograms and one spatial
dimension can be recorded simultaneously by the 2D detector array. The other spatial dimension
necessary to form a spectral image has to be scanned with a mirror or by moving the whole
spectrometer.
mirror
light from
aperture and
collimator
grating
light to detector
array
Figure 6 - An interferomer where a grating is used to produce the optical path
difference necessary to produce the interferogram.The 2D detector array
records interferograms in one direction and a spatial dimension in the other
direction.
According to [Hammer], ”a DASI has the potential of achieving higher spectral resolution at a
specific signal-to-noise level than do equivalent aperture grating-based instruments”.
[Hammer]
17
4 The goals of the project
4.1 The goals
The goal of the ScanSpec project was to build an imaging spectrometer using an existing nonimaging spectrometer (Bomem MR254) with a narrow angle telescope. This was to be done by using
a large mirror in front of the telescope that can be turned around two rotation axes to acquire spectra
from different spatial locations. The spectrometer used is briefly described in chapter 5.1.
The main performance design goal of ScanSpec was that the existing Bomem spectrometer should,
when possible, limit the total performance of ScanSpec. By ”when possible” is meant when possible
within the given time and money resources of the project (see chapter 4.2 below).
The minimum performance requirement of ScanSpec was that it should be able to acquire a spectral
image with the spatial resolution of 10x10 pixels within one minute.
An extra desirable feature was the target-following feature. That feature is the possibility to
continuously measure the IR-radiation from a moving object by turning the mirror. In order to be
able to follow an airplane, the line of sight of ScanSpec must turn 20° per second or more. Also, it is
desirable to cover a large part of the sky by turning the mirror. The coverage of the sky of an
elevation angle of -4° to 50° and an azimuthal angle of ±90° would be sufficient for this targetfollowing feature.
ScanSpec should be documented so that it can be used with no further information than the User’s
manual. There should also be a report describing the project (this report).
Both the hardware and the software should be constructed to make it easy to modify for other new
applications.
4.2 The resources
The ScanSpec was to be built, tested and documented using 20 weeks of work for one person and
within a total time of 24 weeks.
The cost of the project could not exceed approximately 200 000 SEK not including my salary.
18
5 The overall design of ScanSpec
5.1 The Bomem MR254 FTIR spectrometer
To understand the design of ScanSpec, a few things need to be known about the Bomen MR254
spectrometer. Only the information needed to understand the rest of this report is provided here. For
further information, please refer to [Bomem1] and [Bomem2].
The Bomem MR254 is an FTIR spectrometer (Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer) with
changable spectral resolution. The spectral resolution of 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 cm-1 can be chosen. The
standard programs of ScanSpec use a resolution of 4 or 16 cm-1. The spectral range of the
spectrometer itself is from 0.7 to 20 µm, but the usable range depends on what detectors that are
used. The Bomem spectrometer used for ScanSpec is equipped with two IR-detectors, an InSb- and
an MCT-detector. The optical layout of the spectrometer makes it possible to use both the detectors
simultaneously. The spectrometer has a built-in cold black-body source used to optically subtract the
internal radiation of the optics in the MR254. Both of the detectors and the black-body source are
cooled with liquid nitrogen. The MCT-detector is called Detector A and the InSb-detector is
Detector B.
The spectrometer has three apertures: one between the telescope and the spectrometer, and one in
front of each of the two detectors. There are seven settings of the diameter of the apertures: 6.4, 4.5,
3.2, 2.2, 1.6, 1.1 and 0.8 mm. ScanSpec is currently designed to be used with all apertures set to
6.4 mm, but it can be used with other aperture settings.
The MR254 in the ScanSpec system uses a narrow angle telescope, also from Bomem. Bomem
specifies the field of view1 of the telescope to 0.27°, but measurements at a distance of 60 to 90 m
show that the field of view is closer to 0.20°, see appendix 1.
The spectrometer is controlled by a PC-computer (called the FTIR-computer) and a program
developed by Bomem called Acquire. While the spectrometer is collecting interferograms, the data is
sent from the spectrometer to an acquisition board in the FTIR-computer via an optical fiber. The
memory of the acquisition board is limited to 64 Mbyte which is the maximum amount of data that
can be collected by the spectrometer. Each point of each interferogram is stored with 2 bytes, so a
maximum of approximately 32 million interferogram points can be acquired. When the acquisition of
the interferograms is finished, the data is sent from the acquisition board to the RAM-memory of the
FTIR-computer. With Acquire the user can then produce calibrated spectra from the acquired data
and calibration files. The calibrated data is stored in a special file format that can be read by the
ScanSpec software.
Unfortunately, the Acquire program cannot be controlled from another program. The user has to
interact with Acquire to produce the calibrated spectra from the acquired data, so this process cannot
be automated.
If the resolution 16 cm-1 is chosen, a maximum of 65 spectra can be acquired per second. For the
resolution 4 cm-1 the spectrometer can acquire 31 spectra/second. The spectrometer can add many
interferograms to reduce noise before the data is sent to the acquisition board in the FTIR-computer.
1
The field of view of the telescope is the angle of the circular cone from which the telescope gathers light. It
is abbreviated FOV.
19
Each spectrum gets a time stamp when it is acquired, based on the system clock of the FTIRcomputer. It is not specified in the documentation from Bomem Inc. [Bomem1], [Bomem2] if the
time stamps mark the beginning, the middle or the end of the time period while the spectrum is being
acquired.
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
time [s] 0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
sample number
Figure 7 - The time between two consecutive spectra. 21 of the 400 times are
not what they should be. The resolution 8 cm- 1 was used, two interferograms
were added per measurement, oversampling was on and
both detectors were used.
Unfortunately, the times when the spectra are acquired cannot be controlled at all. When the
acquisition has started, the spectrometer cannot be controlled by any external events. Another timing
problem is that if the spectrometer is, for example, set at the resoluton 8 cm- 1 and set to add two
interferograms per measurement it should be able to acquire 25 spectra/s. Usually it does, but not
always! In most cases the time between two consecutive spectra is 1/25 s but sometimes that time is
1.5/25, 2/25 or even 3/25 s. Figure 7 shows what it can look like.
This irregularity and the fact that the spectrometer is independent of external events once it has
started has made the signal processing much more complex than what it could have been.
5.2 Main design
To build an equipment that complies with the target-following feature, explained in chapter 4.1, the
first type of construction considered was the one in Figure 8.
20
mirror A
up
telescope
φ = -90...90°
spectrometer
θ = -4...50°
mirror B
Figure 8 - Main construction Alternative 1. The mirror A is fixed at a 45° angle
with the optical axis of the telescope. The mirror B can be rotated ±90° around
the vertical axis as indicated and it can also be rotated around a horizontal
axis through the surface of the mirror.
The advantage of this construction is that the system would cover a large part of the sky, and that the
target-following feature would be provided for. The disadvantages are that two mirrors must be used
and that the supporting construction for the mirrors and the spectrometer would be more complicated
than for the alternatives below that use only one mirror.
The target-following feature could also be realised with only one mirror (Alternative 2) as shown in
Figure 9.
spectrometer
up
telescope
φ = -90...90°
θ = -4...50°
mirror
Figure 9 - Main construction Alternative 2. The elevation angle can be between
-4° and 50° and the azimuthal angle from -90° to +90° from straight forward.
Alternative 2 has the advantage that it only uses one mirror which increases the performance. On the
other hand, the standing arrangement is harder to stabilize to the ground since the center of gravity of
such a system would be much higher above the ground than for Alternative 1. There is also another
problem. The spectrometer itself works well in a vertical angle as in Figure 9, but the IR-detectors
are cooled with liquid nitrogen and the dewars for the nitrogen are not made for vertical use of the
21
spectrometer. It is possible, but costly to make new dewars designed specifically for the vertical use
of the spectrometer. Paul Coulson at Bomem Inc. guessed the cost for such dewars to be ”in the
order of 30 000 - 40 000 USD” [email: Coulson]. This cost would be way too high, but the existing
dewars could probably be modified to work vertically.
The construction that was finally chosen (Alternative 3) is depicted in Figure 10. It is capable of
collecting spectral images, but the ranges of θ and φ are not adequate for the target-following
feature, explained in chapter 4.1. The construction can be easily modified to Alternative 1 or 2.
When the chosen construction has been tested it could be further built to work vertically. If the
Alternative 1 construction would be prefered later, the rotating mirror must be replaced with a fixed
45°-mirror and the rotating mirror must be placed below the 45°-mirror.
θ = -4...50°
up
telescope
mirror
spectrometer
φ = -90...90°
Figure 10 - Main construction Alternative 3. The spectrometer and the support
for the mirror turning system are standing on two beams. This construction can
be modified to main construction Alternative 1 or 2.
To sum up, if the chosen construction would be modified in the future to the standing arrangement
(Alternative 2) no extra work has been done compared to choosing Alternative 2 from the beginning.
If the chosen construction would be modified to Alternative 1 in the future there is a little bit of extra
work compared to choosing Alternative 1 from the start. But, if the target-following feature will
never be used, chosing Alternative 1 from the start would have been a waste of time and money.
Also, it is doubtful if the construction according to Alternative 3 could be realized with the available
resources of the ScanSpec project (see chapter 4.2).
5.3 Definition of angles
The definition of the following angles will make it easier to explain the scan pattern of the mirror
treated in chapter 5.4.
φ and θ are defined in Figure 10.
φ2 and θ2 are defined as: φ2 = θ, θ2 = 90° - φ. When φ2 and θ2 are close to zero they approximate
the azimuthal and the elevation angle for the chosen construction. φ2 is zero when the line of sight
and the optical axis of the telescope are orthogonal. φ2 is posistive if these angles are acute. θ2 is the
elevation angle when φ2 = 0. The rotation axis of the mirror-turning system that changes the φ2-angle
will be called the φ2 rotation axis. The other rotation axis will similarly be called the θ2 rotation axis.
22
x and y are defined as: x = φ2 / 2 and y = θ2. These angles are the mechanical angles that the mirrorturning system must turn the mirror to accomplish a line of sight with the angles φ2 and θ2. The ”2”
in the expression above is because the mirror only has to turn the angle ∆φ2 / 2 around the φ2-axis to
change φ2 with the angle ∆φ2.
5.4 The scanning of the mirror
The specifications of the mirror-turning system depend on how the mirror is scanned to acquire a
spectral image. There are basically two different ways of doing this. One way is to let the mirror go
to the desired starting position and stop. Then the spectrometer gathers one spectrum and the mirror
moves to a position corresponding to the next pixel in the spectral image and stops. Then the
spectrometer would gather the next spectrum, and so on. This way of step-scanning would require
enormous accelerations of the mirror if the scanning should be so fast that the speed of the
spectrometer limits the time of acquiring a spectral image. Another problem with this type of
scanning is that the spectrometer cannot be synchronized with the step motion.
The other way of scanning the mirror, which was chosen in this project, is to continously scan the
mirror over one line of the image at a time. By scanning all the lines all the data for the spectral
image can be acquired. The drawback with continous scanning is the motion blur due to the fact that
the mirror is moving during the acquisition of the spectra. Note that a Fourier-transform
spectrometer gathers data for all the frequencies at the same time (the Fellgett or multiplex
advantage [Pedrotti]), so that all frequencies will be recorded from the same field of view. The
motion blur is not such a serious problem since the mirror will never move more than one pixel
distance during the acquisition of one spectrum. Also, since the angular speed of the mirror is
known, the motion blur could be compensated for in the signal processing of the data. However, this
has not been done since motion blur has shown to be a minor problem.
According to measurements (see Appendix 1), the field of view of the telescope is approximately
circular with a diameter of 0.20° when the largest apertures (diameter = 6.4 mm) are used. Assume
that we would like to scan the mirror so that one spectra will be recorded for every 0.20°. Since the
spectrometer acquires 65 spectra/s in the fastest mode the mirror has to turn with the speed of 13°/s
if the scanning is done by turning the mirror around the θ2 rotation axis. If the scanning is done
around the the φ2 rotation axis only half of that speed is needed, 6.5°/s. The minimum speed needed
for the target-following feature is 20°/s for the θ2 rotation axis and 10°/s for the φ2 rotation axis.
Those speeds determines how fast the tables should be.
The needed acceleration of the tables is another important issue. The goal that the spectrometer
should limit the performance of ScanSpec means, in this case, that the time when the spectrometer is
not acquiring useful information (the time while the mirror is not moving with a constant velocity to
scan a line in the spectral image) should be small compared to the total acquisition time.
One question that arises when deciding on the scan pattern is what the spatial sampling frequency
should be. The angular sensitivity of the InSb-detector and the MCT-detector together with the
narrow-angle telescope has been measured (see appendix 1). The field of view of the telescope sets
an upper limit of the spatial frequencies that can be measured with the scanning system. The
telescope works as a low-pass filter for the spatial frequencies. Appendix 1 contains figures showing
the magnitude of the Fourier-transform of the angular sensitivity1 functions (the MTF’s) for the two
detectors together with the narrow angle telescope. Note that these measurements were performed
1
The magnitude of the Fourier-transform of the angular sensitivity is commonly called the MTF, the
modulation transfer function. See [Holst] for a thorough discussion of MTF.
23
without the mirror that ScanSpec uses. The mirror also affects the angular sensitivity functions. The
figures of the Fourier-transforms in Appendix 1 show that spatial frequencies above 5 cycles/degree
will be almost totally destroyed by the low-pass filtering feature of the telescope. Thus, spatial
frequencies above 5 cycles/degree are not possible to acquire. According to the Nyquist criterion a
sampling frequency of 10 cycles/degree is enough to reproduce a signal that is limited to frequencies
below 5 cycles/degree. This sampling frequency is used with ScanSpec, that is a spectrum is
acquired every 0.1°.
One figure of merit when quantifying the amount of aliasing is to see how much of the total power of
the MTFs that falls within the frequency band that can be reconstructed (within 5 cycles/degree in
this case) [Watson]. Crude estimates show that that figure is above 88% for the InSb-detector and
above 82% for the MCT detector, so aliasing should not be a problem if the sampling frequency is
10 samples/degree.
The scan pattern first implemented was the one in Figure 11. The effective scan lines goes both in
the right and the left direction.
θ2
φ2
Figure 11 - Scan pattern. The effective scan movements are marked with thick
line. The background grid shows the locations of the pixels in
the spectral image.
That type of scan pattern showed to work poorly because of timing problems. Instead, the scan
pattern shown in Figure 12 was used with better results. Note that when the dotted parts of the path
in Figure 12 is traced, the mirror moves as quickly as possible. For most scan programs1, the
ineffective scan time is small compared to the effective scan time. The ineffective scan time is the
time when the line of sight traces the dotted part of the path, and the effective scan time is the time
when the line of sight is tracing the part of the path marked with thick arrows.
1
The user can choose a ”scan program” which consists of parameters that control the scanning of the
mirror such as image size and spectral resolution.
24
0.10°
θ2
0.10°
φ2
Figure 12 - The scan pattern used. The mirror is scanning towards the right
only. The background grid shows the locations of the pixels in the spectral
image. Thick arrows indicate the paths when the spectrometer is acquiring
useful information.
The scan pattern in Figure 12 is much more tolerant of timing errors then the scan pattern shown in
Figure 11.
The timing problems will be further discussed in the software chapter (chapter 7.3).
25
6 The ScanSpec hardware
6.1 The mirror
When choosing a mirror for IR applications there are some important parameters of the mirror to
consider: reflectance, flatness, protective coating, size and shape, weight, and price.
Reflectance
The reflectance of a mirror that will be used for IR-applications is important in two ways. Firstly a
high reflection is needed to keep most of the radiation that will be studied. Secondly and often more
important, a high reflection is needed to decrease the amount of thermal emission from the mirror.
This emission of IR-radiation from the mirror is especially harmful; it is hard to calibrate the
spectrometer so that this radiation will be compensated for, since it might not be possible to keep the
temperature of the mirror constant.
Gold-coated mirrors have best reflectance in the IR-region of the spectrum. Silver- and aluminumcoated mirrors also have good reflectance in this region and they have higher reflectance than gold in
the visible region.
Flatness
The flatness of the mirror is not very crucial in this case. The mirror will only collect light for one
pixel of the image at a time. The flatness is much more important for an imaging system that collects
a whole image at a time. One problem when buying a mirror is that different manufacturers define
flatness differently.
Protective coating
A surface coating is needed to protect the surface from scratches and oxidation. A bare aluminum or
gold surface must not be touched at all.
Size and shape
The mirror size depends on the range of the angles φ and θ. It also depends on how close the rotating
axes will be to the surface of the mirror. See Appendix 2 for the calculation of the required mirror
size. The size of the mirror chosen is 438 by 290 mm (rectangular). The weights and prices below
are based on approximately that size.
Weight
For the ScanSpec application the mirror has to be accelerated quickly it is important to keep the
weight low. In our case this means the same as not choosing a mirror that is unnecessary thick.
26
There are however (very expensive) mirrors where weight has been reduced by not making them
solid. The bending rigidity of such a mirror is much higher than that of a solid mirror with the same
weight.
Price
The price of mirrors varies a considerably, especially with the flatness parameter. The price can be
reduced a lot if an off-the-shelf mirror can be bought instead of one specially designed for just this
application. If the flatness does not have to be very high, float glass1 can be used, and then the price
of the glass substrate is low since float glass is not polished. For a specially designed mirror the two
main costs are the price of the glass substrate (if float glass is not used) and the cost of coating the
glass. The choice of surface coating material is less important for the price.
Alternatives
Three different alternatives for the mirror were thoroughly investigated.
1. A gold-coated mirror with a high surface flatness (0.75 µm). Spectrogon could deliver such a
mirror in 10 to 12 weeks for between 60 000 and 70 000 SEK [phone: Spectrogon 980618]. Also
Melles Griot could make such a mirror for around 65 000 SEK [phone: Melles Griot 980626].
Such a mirror would be between 30 and 40 mm thick and weigh 10 to 13 kg with the size
specified above.
2. A thinner mirror with a medium flatness. A flatness of around 9 µm can be obtained with normal
float glass about 15 mm thick. Spectrogon could deliver a 15 mm aluminum coated mirror for
28 600 SEK in about 6 weeks after order [fax: Spectrogon 980625]. Bernard Halle could sell an
aluminum coated mirror with the mentioned flatness and thickness for 2100 DEM [fax: Bernard
Halle 980710] which is a much better deal. The weight of a mirror with the given dimensions is
about 5 kg.
3. A thin off-the-shelf mirror. Edmund Scientific (New Jersey, USA) sells a 408 × 609 × 6 mm
aluminum coated float glass mirror for 200 USD. The flatness is 6 to 8 µm according to
[phone: Edmund Scientific 980624], but these figures are not guaranteed by Edmund Scientific.
The mirror is too large, but since it is so thin it can be cut with an ordinary glass cutter. The
weight after it is cut to the desired size is 1.9 kg. The delivery time is less than 2 weeks.
A 10 mm thick float glass mirror at the IR-department at FOA was tested in front of the telescope.
The CCD camera on the spectrometer showed an image that was not much blurred by the mirror.
Unfortunately, the mirror was not large enough for this application. But, the result shows that the
flatness of a float glass mirror can be sufficient for this application. A normal bathroom mirror
(about 4 mm thick) was also tested, but gave a very blurred image from the CCD camera. Not
surprisingly, such a mirror is not flat enough for this application.
Alternative 1 was discarded, since the flatness of a float glass mirror is sufficient. Also the price for
such a mirror is much higher than for the other alternatives. The weight would require much from the
mirror turning system, and the delivery time is unacceptably long.
1
Float glass is ”flat glass produced by solidifying molten glass on the surface of a bath of molten tin”
according to [internet: Webster].
27
It was decided to order a mirror from Edmunt Scientific according to Alternative 3. The stated
flatness is good enough, but there was a question of wether the thickness of 6 mm gives enough
bending rigidity to keep the mirror flat when forces act on the mirror due to angular acceleration and
the mass of the mirror. If the mirror, according to Alternative 3, would not be sufficient for the
application there is no big loss, since that mirror is inexpensive and the delivery time short. A mirror
according to Alternative 2 could then be bought. The mirror-turning system is designed for the
Alternative 3 mirror, but it also works for the Alternative 2 mirror even though it will then be a bit
slower.
The mirror from Edmund Scientific was tested with the telescope and the CCD camera on the
spectrometer. The results showed that the flatness of the mirror is good enough. The image recorded
by the CCD camera was not perfectly sharp (not as sharp as when the 10 mm float glass mirror was
tested), but not so blurred that it matters much for this application.
6.2 The mirror mounting
When choosing the way to mount the mirror I considered essentially five requirements:
1. The mirror mounting should not introduce unnecessary forces on the mirror which causing the
mirror to bend.
2. The mounting should be so stiff that the angles between the surface of the mirror and the mirrorturning system do not change more then 0.01° during the rotations.
3. The mounting should be made so that bending due to angular accelerations and the mass of the
mirror is minimized.
4. The strength of the mounting should be enough to carry the weight of the mirror and other forces.
5. Thermal expansion should be considered.
It is almost impossible to try to support the mirror with something flatter than the mirror itself. So
the mirror has to support its own weight and it must also handle the forces due to angular
acceleration without bending too much.
Requirement 1 can be obtained by mounting the mirror at only three points. Theoretically no
moments can then act on the mirror due to the mounting. In reality there are no ideal points, but the
the points should be made as small as possible. Also an elastic material (rubber) can be used to
minimize moments acting on the mirror through the mounting points. The construction of one of
these three mounting points can be seen in Figure 13. I chose to use adhesives to fasten the mirror.
Another way would have been to use clips around the edges. The adhesive method has the advantage
that the mirror can be fastened anywhere on the backside of the mirror, not only at the edges. The
drawback is that once glued, nothing can be changed.
28
glue surface
mirror
brass piece
(threaded for
the screw)
aluminum plate
(8mm)
rubber
washers
screw
Figure 13 - A drawing of one of the three mirror mounting points
Requirement 2 has been proved to be fulfilled with this construction and the scan pattern used.
Requirement 3. The three mounting points must be located to minimize the bending of the mirror
caused by forces. This is a problem that has not been treated in detail. An analythic calculation was
made on the one-dimensional case (bending of a beam), but it might not be valuable for this case.
The problem is well defined though and could be solved numerically with finite element methods
(FEM).
Requirement 4 is fulfilled. The strength of the three mounting points is good, in fact, many times
better than necessary.
Requirement 5. The mounting should not introduce forces on the mirror due to changes in
temperature. If the mirror mounting should be able to work between -25 °C and 35 °C the
temperature range ∆T is 60 K. The linear thermal expansion coefficient for aluminum is
23.2⋅10-6 K-1 (average between 0 and 100 °C) and for common glass it is 8⋅10-6 K-1 [Physics]. The
mounting points will not be more than 0.53 m (the diagonal of the mirror) apart. The difference in
thermal expansion between aluminum and glass on that distance and the given ∆T is
(23.2⋅10-6 K-1 - 8⋅10-6 K-1) ⋅ 60 K ⋅ 0.53 m = 0.00047 m ≈ 0.5 mm. The holes for the screws in the
aluminum plate should be made larger then the diameter of the screw to compensate for this.
The choice of adhesive
Two different adhesives were tested, Loctite 406 (cyano acrylate) and a two-component epoxy
adhesive called Araldit 2012. The Araldit has superior strength with the tested brass-glass
combination and it was used for the ScanSpec mirror. I will not describe in detail the tests that were
made, but I will state some conclusions. The cleaning of the surfaces is very important, as is the
roughness of the surfaces. The brass surface should be made rougher with a file. The strength of the
glue specified by the producer is very optimistic and their testing must have been done under very
optimum conditions. Those figures cannot be used, testing is necessary! The tests show that the used
mirror mounts holds at least 300 N each which is well enough for the application. This figure
corresponds to a stress of 4 MPa ( = 4 N/mm2). The producer of the Araldite 2012 stated a figure of
15 MPa.
29
6.3 The mirror-turning system
This section will serve as a brief description of why the chosen mirror-turning system was favored
and also serve as some advice for someone who intends to buy similar equipment. The most
important parameters for the mirror-turning system follows.
•
Speed. At least 10°/s for dx/dt and 20°/s for dy/dt provide for the target-following feature.
•
Acceleration. The faster the better. An acceleration of 100°/s2 is adequate for ScanSpec.
•
Angular precision. The field of view of one pixel in the spectral image is 0.10°. We want the
maximum error of the angles φ2 and θ2 to be 20% of a pixel (0.02°). Then the maximum error
of the angle x must be 0.02 / 2 = 0.01° and the maximum error of y must be 0.02°.
•
Control. It must be possible to easily control the mirror-turning system from a PC.
•
Torque. The torque must be high enough to turn the mirror so quickly that the turn-around time
for the mirror is low compared to the effective scan time.
•
Range. The system must cover the range of φ and θ as shown in Figure 8, page 21.
•
Delivery time. As soon as possible, but not longer than 8-10 weeks.
The first approach was to find a complete system to buy which would be as complete as possible
only leaving me with the mirror mounting to do. But, finally separate parts were bought, since there
was no complete mirror-turning system that met the requirements above and at the same time was
within the budget of the ScanSpec project. Many alternatives were considered more or less in detail.
Some of them are briefly described below. Generally, the companies are well represented on the
internet and references to the internet addresses are given.
Alternative Sagebrush
Sagebrush [internet: Sagebrush] offers a gimbal system (Model-20 Pan & Tilt Gimbal) that is
inexpensive (around 80 000 SEK), but unfortunately the torque is too low for the ScanSpec
application. Their gimbal with a camera mounted is shown in Figure 14. Sagebrush is working on a
new larger gimbal, but it was not available for sale in June 1998.
Figure 14 - The gimbal system from Sagebrush.
30
Sagebrush could also design a custom made gimbal for the performance needed, but they said they
could not possibly deliver such a system within the desired delivery time.
Alternative Daedal
Contacts were made with Östergrens elmotor, (a Swedish representative of Daedal Inc.) regarding
the making of a custom-designed gimbal system for our needs. They tried to design a system, but
failed to do so before the very last possible date for an order from FOA. Daedal does not have an
off-the-shelf product that matches our needs. One possible way would be to buy separate parts from
Daedal, but for the alternative with separate parts, Newport had better products to match our
specifications.
Other alternatives
Products from other companies have also been studied. Aerotech [internet: Aerotech] offers a
complete gimbal system shown in Figure 15. The weight of more than 100 kg was way too much and
the price is probably not even close of matching the budget.
Figure 15 - Gimbal system from Aerotech.
Other companies that have similar products as the ones above include Ball Aerospace &
Technologies Corp. [internet: Ball] and Anorad [internet:Anorad].
Alternative Newport (the chosen alternative)
Newport could offer a complete gimbal system for our needs, but it would have to be custom built
and the price would be closer to 200 000 DEM than the required maximum cost of 200 000 SEK.
However, Newport sells separate parts that suit our application. They sell both rotary tables and
cradles. Some of their products are shown in Figure 16.
31
Figure 16 - Rotary tables (left) and cradles (right) from Newport.
The rotary tables have better accuracy then the cradles. Therefore two rotary tables were bought.
One rotary table plus a cradle was also considered as an alternative.
The two rotary tables RV120PP and RV160PP were bought with stepper motors controlled by the
motion controller MM4005. From now on the motion controller MM4005 will be called MM.
power inhibit
switch
Figure 17 - A photo of the mirror-turning system of ScanSpec. One of the two
power inhibit switches is marked. The other parts of the mirror-turning system
are labeled in Figure 18.
How the two rotary tables are mounted can be seen in Figure 17 and Figure 18. The mirror-turning
system have two emergency motor power inhibit switches (one shown in Figure 17) that protect the
tables from rotating too far which would cause seriouse damage to the construction.
The use of AutoCAD
AutoCAD was used when making the construction of the mirror-turning system and the rest of the
ScanSpec hardware. The dimensions of the rotary tables from Newport were known in advance so
by using CAD (Computer Aided Design) everything could be constructed before the rotary tables
arrived. This was almost a prerequisite to be able to finish the project on time. Making this design
32
using only paper and pen instead of by modeling of solids would have been very much harder.
Another advantage with AutoCAD is the the program has built-in functions to compute the moments
of inertia which were needed in order to check the torque needed from the rotary tables for a certain
angular acceleration.
RV160PP
mirror mounting
point
mirror
RV120PP
mirror mounting
points
U-beams
Figure 18 - AutoCAD model of the mirror-turning system
The mirror-turning system of the AutoCAD model is shown in Figure 18. The placement of the three
mirror mounting points are also shown.
The complete AutoCAD drawings are available on the CD [CD: ScanSpec98:1].
6.4 The support construction
The support construction, that keeps the mirror-turning system and the spectrometer in place, is
based on aluminum U-beams with the dimensions 7 x 140 x 60 mm. The whole contruction can be
seen in Figure 19.
33
Figure 19 - AutoCAD drawing of the complete construction.
The distance between the beams is large enough to make it easy to modify the current construction to
the main construction Alternative 1 as depicted in Figure 8, page 21.
6.5 Communication between ScanSpec parts
The communication between the different parts of the ScanSpec system will be desribed in this
section. The information paths of the ScanSpec system are shown in Figure 20. The physical
information paths (the wires) between the MM (the motion controller MM4005) and the rotary
tables (RV120PP and RV160PP) and between the MM and the joystick were already supplied. The
only paths implemented by me are marked with thick arrows in the figure. The wiring for the
hardware switches is very simple. It is only a circuit that is closed as long as none of the hardware
switches is activated. If one of the switches is activated the motor power for both motors is
immediately turned off.
Files
FTIR-computer
Spectrometer
User
RV120PP
Joystick
MM
RV160PP
Hardware
switches
Figure 20 - The flow of information in the ScanSpec system. The two
(electrical) information paths marked with thick arrows were made by me.
34
The other thick arrow that goes between the MM and the FTIR-computer demands some
explanation. The wiring which is shown in
Figure 21. For a definition of the pins on the MM and the PIO12 se [MM] and [PIO].
FTIR-computer
Parallel port
serial port
COM2
PIO12
pin18
ground
pin15
pin37
PA0
green
pin21
ground
green
yellow
This part of the wiring
is placed in the
connector at the GPIOport of the MM
yellow
1.2 kΩ
1.2 kΩ
RS232
pin12
output 1
pin13
output 2
G
P
I
pin3
+5V
pin30
DGND
O - p o r t
MM
Figure 21 - The wiring between the FTIR-computer and the
MM motion controller.
The connection between the serial port of the FTIR-computer and RS232 port of the MM is used to
send commands or whole motion control programs to the MM from the FTIR-computer. The FTIRcomputer receives information about recorded positions from the MM over the same wire.
The wire from output 1 of the MM to the pin5 of the parallel port of the FTIR-computer is used to
send a trigger pulse from the MM to the FTIR-computer to synchronise the events between the
FTIR-computer and the MM. The parallel port of the FTIR-computer is read by a C++ program
written by me.
The wire from output 2 of the MM to pin37 of the PIO12 acquisition board of the FTIR-computer is
used to send a trigger signal from the MM to the FTIR-computer when the acquisition of spectra
should start. The PIO12 board is read by the Acquire software.
35
7 The ScanSpec software
7.1 General
The software for ScanSpec is based on the Matlab programming language because it is easy to
program. It has good tools for graphical presentation of data and the staff at the department of IR
systems at FOA know the language and will be able to make modifications in the code for the
ScanSpec software. However, the C and C++ programming languages have been used for
communicating with external hardware. Matlab does not currently have the ability to communicate
with a serial port of a computer, for example. C has also been used once when the corresponding
Matlab code executed much too slowly. A special motion control programming language from
Newport has been used to control the two rotary tables. A few parts of the Matlab code rely on the
Matlab Signal Processing and Image Processing toolboxes.
The details of the implementation will not be covered here. Please, refer to the comments in the code
and to the Software manual (filename: ”Software manual.txt”) provided with the ScanSpec software
for detailed information. The first release of the ScanSpec software (version 98:1) is available on a
CD, complete with documentation [CD: ScanSpec98:1]. There is also a FOA internal report
[manuals] which contains a print-out of the Software manual and the User’s manual for ScanSpec.
The software consists of three modules, briefly described below.
Module 1 - Acquiring data
This module lets the user choose a scan program and start angles. There are eleven standard scan
programs for different image sizes, spectral resolution, spatial oversampling (will be explained later)
and number of spectra added per measurement. The module writes a motion control program which
is sent to the MM and executed there. Together with Acquire, this module collects all the data
necessary to compute the spectral image. The spectral data is saved in files with the Acquire
program. The positions of the rotary tables are sampled by the MM with a constant time interval.
These positions are sent from the MM to the FTIR-computer, when the scanning of the mirror is
finished, and then they are saved in a file to be used by module 2.
Module 2 - Computing the sim
This module uses the collected data to create the spectral image. The spectral image is saved as the
file current.sim (sim stands for spectral image). The file format of a spectral image file is defined in
the Software manual [CD: ScanSpec98:1]. This module includes signal processing that will be
described in some detail below in chapter 7.2.
Module 3 - Looking at the sim
The purpose of this module is to present the spectral image to the user in an efficient way. The
User’s manual (filename: ”User’s manual.txt” in [CD: ScanSpec98:1]) describes the functions of this
module. The module is implemented using a Matlab GUI (Graphical User Interface) which is a
convenient way to produce user interfaces. In the chapter ”The first measurements” (chapter 8) there
are examples of what this GUI can look like.
There are eleven standard scan programs defined in ASCII-text files. The most important parameters
in those files and the ones needed to understand the signal processing are the following:
36
•
Image size. The spatial size of the spectral image can be chosen to be 8x8, 16x16, 32x32 or
64x64 pixels.
•
Number of interferograms that should be added for the acquisition of one spectrum. The more
interferograms added per spectrum the higher is the signal to noise ratio.
•
Spatial oversampling. If the spatial oversampling is N, N spectra are acquired per pixel field of
view (per 0.10°) when the mirror is turned around the φ2-axis.
•
Spectral resolution. The spectral resolution can be chosen to 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 cm-1. The standard
scan programs uses 4 and 16 cm-1. The lower resolution the more spectra per second can be
acquired.
7.2 Signal processing
The positions of the rotary tables, sampled by the MM with a certain frequency, are first saved in the
memory of the MM. After the acquisition is finished the data is transfered to the FTIR-computer via
a serial connection. The maximum number of samples is limited to 4000 by the MM. Also, it takes a
long time to read the positions recorded by the MM when the scanning of the mirror is finished. One
reason why it takes so long to send the data from the MM is that the positions can, for some strange
reason, only be sent to the FTIR-computer as ASCII-text which increases the amount of data many
times compared to sending it as binary data. The number of samples of the positions of the rotary
tables should not be too high. Approximately 6 positions of both the rotary tables are sampled per
scan line.
The spatial oversampling parameter mentioned in section 7.1 demands further explaination.
Generally, the errors of the measured spectra from a Fourier-transform spectrometer can be
significantly reduced by averaging several interferograms for each spectrum to reduce the random
noise. This is also the case for the Bomem MR254 spectrometer. This can be done by choosing to
average several interferograms in the Acquire program. But if only one spectrum is acquired per
pixel field of view, the image will be smeared out because the mirror is moving continouosly during
the acquisition of the spectrum causing motion blur. To handle this another way to reduce the noise
has been implemented. If the spatial oversampling parameter is set to N, N spectra are acquired per
pixel in the spectral image. How the noise will be reduced by this method will be described.
Module 1 creates the following data.
•
The sampled positions from the MM.
•
The file(s) current.raa and/or current.rab. Current.raa contains the acquired spectra from
detector A and current.rab the spectra from detector B. It also contains a time for each spectrum.
•
Some parameters that describe the size of the image, the spectral resolution, the start angles
et cetera.
The signal processing in module 2 can be divided into two separate parts. Part I computes the
positions of the rotary tables at each time a spectrum was recorded by the spectrometer. Part II
computes the spectrum for each pixel in the spectral image.
37
Part I - Computation of the positions of the measured spectra
The lower part of the scan pattern of a 8x8 spectral image in shown in Figure 22. The points for
which the MM might have recorded positions are marked.
Figure 22 - The lower part of the scan pattern for a 8x8 spectral image. The
circles mark the locations of the positions sampled by the MM. Only two scan
lines out of eight are shown.
The speed is constant when the thick arrows are traced by the line of sight, but not otherwise. Let us
consider time as a function of position. We can then extrapolate linearly (using the two samples
closest to the edge) to find the times at the beginning and the end of each of the eight scan lines (each
of the eight thick arrows). When we have found these times we can throw away the information from
the spectra not sampled on a scan line.
Figure 23 - The first part of the scan pattern for a 8x8 spectral image. The
crosses mark the positions of the tables each time a spectrum is acquired. Only
two scan lines out of eight are shown.
The next step is to estimate the positions of the tables when each of the spectra on the scan line was
acquired by the spectrometer. If the position is seen as a function of time, this can be done by linear
interpolation and extrapolation using the positions recorded by the MM. Linear interpolation and
extrapolation is well justified in this case, since the speed of the motion is constant while the line of
sight is on a scan line. An example of what the positions of the spectra can look like is seen in Figure
23. The positions of the spectra which were not acquired on a scan line are also marked even though
they are never estimated in the signal processing. A spatial oversampling of 2 has been used in the
example in Figure 23. Normally there are two samples per pixel, but not always due to the
irregularity of the times between the spectra as exemplified in Figure 7, page 20.
38
Part II - Computation of the spectra in the spectral image
From part I of the signal processing we have the positions of all the spectra acquired on a scan line.
These positions will generally not coincide with the positions of the center of the pixels in the
spectral image. We want to estimate the spectra in those points. Let us consider the spectral radiance
of one specific scan line and frequency. That spectral radiance will then be a function of only φ2 as
depicted with a stem plot in Figure 24 A. Note that at two places one spectral radiance value is
missing and at another place two radiance values are missing. This is because of the irregularity of
the times between the spectra. In Figure 24 the spatial oversampling is 4 and the size of the spectral
image is 8x8 pixels. Part A of the figure shows the spectral radiances recorded. The radiance, at the
positions on the φ2-axis that are marked with blue lines, will be estimated by linear interpolation and
extrapolation. Linear interpolation and extrapolation was chosen since this signal processing has to
be quite fast. Note that the procedure described here for only one scan line and frequency must be
repeated for all frequencies and scan lines.
Now, we have radiance values at all the positions marked with blue lines in Figure 24, but we only
need values at the positions marked with red lines which are the centers of the spectral image pixels.
We know that the telescope works as a low-pass filter on the spatial frequencies of the studied scene.
Very roughly the telescope destroys all the spatial frequencies above 5 cycles per degree (see
Appendix 1), therefore we know that all the frequencies in the measured radiance signal above
5 cycles per degree is due to noise. Let us remove those frequencies with a filter to reduce the noise.
spectral
radiance
φ2
b la c k
blue
red
red
blue
M e a s u r e d v a lu e s ( b l a c k )
b la c k
Interpolated values (blue)
P i x e l v a lu e s ( r e d )
blue
red
Figure 24 - The measured and interpolated spectral radiance values.
Figure 24 part B shows an enlarged section of part A. The black values are the measured values.
The blue values are the interpolated values and the red values are the final pixel values. The blue
function is filtered with a low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 5 cycles per degree. The filter
39
was implemented with the Matlab Signal Toolbax function fir1. The filter is a finite impulse
response filter made with the window method. The window is a Hamming window. The order of the
filter is two times the spatial oversampling.
This way of reducing the noise is better than just averaging four radiance values, in the sense that the
motion blur is reduced. It can be discussed, though, if the motion blur is so serious that this rather
complicated signal processing is necessary. Initial testing shows that the motion blur if no spatial
oversampling is used, is not as serious as anticipated.
7.3 Testing, reliability, and the timing problem
Testing
Since there are so many different combinations of input parameters for the ScanSpec software
system, there is no way of testing for bugs for all possible cases of input to the programs. Instead,
the eleven standard scan programs have been chosen and tested. All the standard programs work, but
the timing problems discussed below are worse for certain scan programs.
Reliability
There are four things that affect the reliability of the system:
1. Bugs in the software written by me. The software has been tested with the standard programs
with no bugs found.
2. The reliability of the software Acquire. Acquire has a tendency to crash when large amounts of
data are collected, especially when over about 32 Mbyte of data is stored at the Bomem
acquisistion board.
3. Problems with data transfer to the MM. On some occations, the data transfer from the FTIRcomputer over the serial cable to the MM has been malfunctioning. When the standard scan
programs were tested with the final software version 98:1, there was no problem with the data
transfer.
4. The timing problem. This problem is described in the next section.
The timing problem
The MM is synchronized with the FTIR-computer by a trigger signal sent from the MM to the
parallel port of the FTIR-computer. The parallel port is checked with a C++ program written by me.
There are of course certain delays when sending the trigger and reading it. However, intitial testing
shows that the timing error can be as large as ±0.05 s varying from time to time and this is probably
not only becasue of these delays. Since many programs must be run on the FTIR-computer at the
same time (at least Acquire, Matlab, the C++ program to check the parallel port, and the operating
system Windows 95) I believe the probable cause of the timing problem is that the Pentium
processor of the FTIR-computer is not necessarily running the C++ program at the moment when the
trigger signal is sent to the parallel port. It might take a few hundredths of a second before the
processor starts executing the C++ program again. Maybe the problem could be solved by using the
interrupts of the Pentium processor.
40
The scan pattern was chosen so that the system can tolerate some timing error. The slow standard
scan programs (Program 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, see Appendix 3) are not affected by this timing
problem. If the timing error is too large for the fast-scanning programs (Program 3, 4, 5, and 6) the
data for the spectral image can be recalculated with a time correction given by the user.
41
8 The first measurements
All the data from the measurements described below are available on the CD [CD: ScanSpec98:1]
in the directory ScanSpec\data.
8.1 Measurements with the standard scan programs
The very first measurements made with ScanSpec were performed on a collimator target. The
collimator at the Department of IR systems at FOA can be used to simulate a target at an infinite
distance and with a certain temperature and angular extent. All the eleven scan programs were tested
on the same target. One example of the result for a four-bar target is shown in Figure 25, page 44. It
is made with scan program 6 that acquires a 32x32 spectral image with a spectral resolution of 16
cm-1 in about 30 seconds. No spatial oversampling or averaging of interferograms was used. The
temperature difference between the target (the four bars) and the background was 10°C.
The left image in Figure 25 shows the spectral radiance of the test target averaged between
687 and 764 cm-1 and the right image is averaged between 1875 and 1975 cm-1. The radiance is
shown using a linear gray-scale. The unit of the spectral radiance is W/(cm2 sr cm-1) in the figure,
but SI-units (W/(m2 sr Hz)) can also be displayed.
To make it possible to study the repeatability four measurements were done on the same target with
the same scan program, see the directory ”ScanSpec\data\Repeatability test sims” in
[CD: ScanSpec98:1]. The repeatability of the ScanSpec has not been studied much, but the
repetability for the test case is much higher than anticipated.
8.2 MRTD measurements
The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD1) has been estimated. If many
interferograms are added per measured spectrum, the MRTD is around 0.2 °C. Figure 26 shows a
test measurement with a target/background temperature difference of 0.2 °C where I consider the
target to be resolved. 256 interferograms were added per spectrum and two times spatial
oversampling was used when scanning the image. Note that the radiance has been averaged in the
frequency intervals best in resolving the target.
If the standard scan programs are used, the MRTD is closer to 1 °C than 0.2 °C. The MRTD
depends on how many interferograms that are averaged, the spatial oversampling, and what
frequency band is considered. A thorough investigation of how the MRTD depends on these factors
has not been made.
1
The minimum resolvable temperature difference is the minimum temperature difference between a test
target and a background (both black bodies) for which the target is percieved [Holst, page 7].
42
8.3 Measurements of a Volvo 440
The first real object measured with ScanSpec was a Volvo 440. The distance between the car and
ScanSpec was 70 m. One spectral image of the car is shown in Figure 27. As an example of how
different features of the car are predominant in different frequency bands, a band where almost only
the headlights can be seen was chosen.
The car including the exhaust is seen in Figure 28. The exhaust emits a lot of IR radiation around the
frequency 4100 cm-1. The original 32x32 image has been interpolated using splines to create a
125x125 image.
If the calibration of the spectrometer is done carefully someone with knowledge about spectrometry
could get much of information from images like this. For example the gas contents of the exhaust
could be studied and probably some conclusions about the features of the headlights could be drawn
from the data.
8.4 Calibration
The calibration of the ScanSpec system is a bit tricky since the entrance optic is large. There is a
large area blackbody source at the Department of IR systems at FOA, that can be heated, but not
cooled. To study cold winter backgrounds a blackbody that can be cooled to at least -20 °C would be
desirable when calibrating the system. A black-body that keeps the same temperature as the
surrounding environment could also be adequate when measuring cold targets.
43
Figure 25 - The collimator test object acquired with standard scan program 6.
Figure 26 - Minimum resolvable temperture difference (MRTD) measurement.
The temperature difference between the target and the background was 0.2 °C.
256 interferograms were averaged per measured spectrum. Two times spatial
oversampling was used. The image to the right shows a similar measurement
when the temperature difference was 20 °C.
44
Figure 27 - The Volvo 440 seen in two different frequency bands. The car was
running and the fan was on. In the right window the headlights are the most
dominant feature.
Figure 28 -This figure shows the Volvo after the window was opened. In the
right image only the exhaust emissions can be seen.
45
9 Results and possible improvements
9.1 Distortion
The ScanSpec imaging system is not free from image distortion, but when the angle φ2 is kept close
to zero the distortion will be low. It is recommended to use φ2-angles less than 25°. If that
recommendation is followed there should be no problems with distortion unless very low distortion is
needed. The distortion is known exactly and depends only on the start θ2- and φ2-angles, therefore the
distortion could be corrected for.
Most of the distortion could be avoided with some changes in the software that governs the scan
pattern. This issue is briefly discussed in the Software manual section ”Improvements and changes”
[CD: ScanSpec 98:1].
9.2 Are the goals of the project met?
The main goal of the ScanSpec project was to make an imaging spectrometer from an existing nonimaging spectrometer and that the existing spectrometer would limit the performance of the total
system using the resources available.
The Bomem spectrometer is limiting the total performance in the most important parameters such as:
spectral resolution, spatial resolution, image size, time to post-process the data and time to acquire
the spectral image. The ScanSpec software (and maybe the MM) limits how low the image distortion
could be. The ScanSpec hardware limits the range of the sky that can be measured, but it is built to
be easily changed to cover a larger part of the sky. The reliability of the system is limited by both the
spectrometer (Acquire often crashes for large amounts of data) and the other parts of the system (the
timing problem and problems with data transfer to the MM, see chapter 7.3, page 40).
The minimum performance goal of being able to acquire a 10x10 spectral image within a minute at
the lowest resolution of the Bomem spectrometer is met and far surpassed. ScanSpec can acquire an
image with 10 times more pixels (32x32) in around 30 s.
Any software system can be improved. The software for ScanSpec has been written to be easy to use
and change. Possibility of re-using the code has not been considered since the application is very
specialized with only very few parts that could be used in other software systems. The error checking
is not at all complete, but is still a significant part of the code. The software limits the total
performance of the system to a number of fixed image sizes and a pixel field of view of 0.10°. It can
only look ”one way”, not both to the right and the left of the spectrometer. The software could have
been made more general, but not within the time goal of the ScanSpec project. That would also have
meant more code and code harder to maintain. More code is not desirable since the code already
consists of 4300 lines (127 000 characters).
The hardware and the software have been constructed with consideration to possible future changes.
46
The costs of the project except for my salary are
Two rotary tables with motion controller
The mirror
The support beams
Workshop cost
Other expenses
160 000 SEK
2 000 SEK
2 000 SEK
30 000 SEK
<3 000 SEK
Which sums up to around 200 000 SEK which was the approximate budget of this project, so the
economic goal was met.
The goal of finishing the project within 20 weeks of work for one person and within a total time of
24 weeks was not accomplished. It took 23 weeks of work within 28 weeks.
The reader can judge if the project has been well documented in this report and in
[CD: ScanSpec98:1].
9.3 Possible improvements, changes and new applications
ScanSpec is ready to be used in field measurements, but important improvements could be made.
Some of them are mentioned below. The possible improvements of the software have already been
discussed.
The system could be more prepared for transportation and field use to make it more practical to
make measurements.
The system can be modified for totally new applications. For example, the noise levels for different
frequencies and signal levels could be measured automatically with ScanSpec. This can be done by
moving the line of sight from a hot to a cold target and for each position several spectra can be
acquired. By computing the average and the variance of the measured radiance values the signal to
noise ratio for different frequencies and signal levels can be estimated.
The modulation transfer function (MTF) could also be measured automatically. This can be done by
measuring the spectral image of a point source. But the spatial sampling frequency should then be
higher then the two samples per 0.20° that is currently used with ScanSpec. The MTF of the system
for a certain frequency is the Fourier-transform of the radiance image for that frequency.
Another application would be background subtraction. For example, when flares from airplanes are
measured the flare could be followed with the mirror of ScanSpec using the joystick. The positions
of the line of sight would be recorded and when the flare has burned out the mirror could trace the
line of sight backwards to measure the radiation of the background without the flare. The
background radiation could then be subtracted from the measurements.
47
10 Conclusions
An imaging spectrometer, ScanSpec, has been developed from a non-imaging FTIR spectrometer
from Bomem Inc. The ScanSpec project has been successful in that ScanSpec widely increases the
capabilities of the FTIR spectrometer.
Other imaging spectrometers for the IR-region have been developed, but there is not much
commercially available on the market that covers the MWIR and the LWIR regions. The
performance of ScanSpec is good compared to other imaging spectrometers in the MWIR and LWIR
regions when it comes to spectral resolution and sensitivity, but it is slow and the image size is
limited. The advent of large 2D-array of IR-detectors has led and will lead to the development of
various new types of imaging spectrometer designs.
For the most important parameters such as acquisition time, spectral resolution, spatial resolution,
data post-processing time, and maximum image size, the spectrometer limits the total performance of
ScanSpec.
Improvements of ScanSpec can be made, but are probably best to do later after some measurements
have been done, to see what features that are most important to improve. The system has been made
to be easy to change. The mirror and the mirror-turning system can be used for other important
applications, not only to acquire spectral images.
ScanSpec is suitable to measure the infrared radiation from backgrounds or anything that does not
move. Together with IR-cameras with higher spatial resolution ScanSpec can be used for
measurements to build a data base of IR-signatures of backgrounds and potential military targets.
48
11 References
A note on the referencing system in this report
A reference within a sentence applies for that sentence only and a reference directly after the last
sentence of a paragraph applies for that whole paragraph. If the reference is placed on a separate line
it is for the whole text between the last headline and that reference. The name within brackets [ ] is a
keyword used to find the reference in this section. If the reference is not a reference to printed
material there is also a word before the keyword describing the type of the source.
Articles, books and other printed material
Beer, Reinhard Beer, Remote Sensing by Fourier Transform Spectrometry, John Wiley & Sons Inc,
1992.
Physics, Carl Nordling and Jonny Österman, Physics Handbook, 4th edition, Lund, Sweden,
Studentlitteratur, 1987.
Bomem1, ”FT-IR spectroradiometer catalog”, Bomem Inc., April 1994.
Bomem2, ”MR series FT-spectroradiometers: design overview and theory”, Part of the
documentation of the Bomem MR254 spectrometer, Bomem Inc., May 1995.
Breckinridge, James B. Breckinrigde, ”Evolution of imaging spectrometry: past, present and
future”, Proceeding of the SPIE, Vol. 2819, pp. 2-6, August 1996.
Eismann, M. T. Eismann, C. R. Schwartz, J. N. Cederquist, J. A. Hackwell, R. J. Huppi,
”Comparison of infrared imaging hyperspectral sensors for military target detection
applications”, Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 2819, pp.91-101, August 1996.
Eismann and Schwartz, M. T. Eismann and C. R. Schwartz, ”Focal plane array nonlinearity and
nonuniformity impacts to target detection with thermal infrared imaging spectrometers”,
Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 3063, pp. 164-173, 1997.
Eismann2, M. T. Eismann and C. R. Schwartz, ”Focal Plane Array Nonlinearity and Nonuniformity
Impacts to Target Detection With Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometers”, Proceedings of the
SPIE, Vol. 3063, pp. 164-173, 1997.
Eismann3, M. T. Eismann et al, ”Infrared Multispectral Target/Background Field Measurements”,
Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2235, Orlando, FL,
USA, 2235-09 (April 1994).
Eismann4, M. T. Eismann et al, ”Target Detection in Desert Backgrounds: Infrared Hyperspectral
Measurements and Analysis”, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Proceedings of the
SPIE, vol. 2561, San Diego, CA, USA (July 1995).
Gower, J. F. R. Gower, G. A. Borstad, C. D. Anger, H. R. Edel, ”CCD-based imaging spectroscopy
for remote sensing: the FLI and the CASI programs”, Canadian journal of remote sensing,
Volume 18, Number 4, October 1992.
Hackwell, John A. Hackwell et al, ”LWIR/MWIR Imaging Hyperspectral Sensors for Airborne and
Ground-Based Remote Sensing, SPIE vol. 2819, August 1996.
Hammer, Philip D. Hammer, Francisco P. J. Valero, David L Peterson, William Hayden Smith,
”Remote Sensing of Earth’s Atmosphere and Surface Using a Digital Array Scanned
49
Interferometer: A New Type of Imaging Spectrometer”, Journal of Imaging Science and
Technology, vol. 36, number 5, September/October 1992.
Hinnrichs, Michele Hinnrichs and Mark Massie, ”New approach to imaging spectroscopy using
diffractive optics”, SPIE, 1997.
Holst, Gerald C. Holst, Electro-optical Imaging System Performance, Winter Park, FL, USA: JCD
Publishing, 1995.
Manuals, Frans Lundberg, ”User’s manual and Software manual for ScanSpec”, internal FOA
report, FOA-D--98-00414-615--SE, December 1998.
MM, The User’s manual of the motion controller MM4005 from Newport Inc.
PIO, The documentation of the aquisition board PIO-12 from Keithley.
Pedrotti, Frank L. Pedrotti and Leno S. Pedrotti, Introduction to optics, 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall,
1993.
Physics, Carl Nordling and Jonny Österman, Physics Handbook, 4th edition, Lund, Sweden:
Studentlitteratur, 1987.
Schwartz2, C. R. Schwartz et al, ”Thermal Multispectral Detection of Military Vehicles in
Vegetated and Desert Environments”, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Proceedings
of the SPIE, vol. 2742, Orlando, FL, USA, 2742-30 (April 1996).
Sellar, R. Glenn Sellar and J. Fruce Rafert, ”Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer with a singel
toroidal optic”, Applied Optics, vol. 34, no. 16, June 1995.
Villemaire, A. Villemaire, S. Fortin, J. Giroux, T. Smithson, R. Oermann, ”An Imaging Fourier
Transform Spectrometer”, SPIE vol. 2480, 1995.
Watson, Edward A. Watson, Robert A. Muse and Fred P. Blommel, ”Aliasing and blurring in
microscanned imagery”, SPIE vol. 1689, 1992.
CD
ScanSpec98:1, The software of ScanSpec version 98:1 (First version) is available on a compact disc
from the FOA Department of IR systems, Linköping, Sweden. The CD includes all the programs
written for ScanSpec, the data from the first measurements discussed in this report, and the
complete documentation of the system, including User’s manual, Software manual, the FOA
report [manuals] and this report.
Email
Coulson, email sent from Paul Coulson ([email protected]), Bomem Inc. to Frans
Lundberg FOA, 17 June 1998.
Hinnrichs, email sent from Michele Hinnrichs ([email protected]), Pacific Advanced Technology
to Frans Lundberg, FOA, 12 August 1998.
Parameter, email sent from Ched Kent ([email protected]), Parameter AB to Frans Lundberg, FOA,
25 August 1998.
50
Fax
Bernard Halle 980710, fax from W. Vosskuhler, Bernard Halle (Berlin, Germany), to me 10 Juli
1998.
Spectrogon 980625, fax from Curt-Erik Lundquist, Spectrogon (Täby, Sweden), to me 25 June
1998.
Internet
Aerotech, home page of Aerotech Inc., www.aerotechinc.com, June 1998.
Anorad, home page of Anorad, www.anorad.com, June 1998.
Ball, internet address of Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., www.ball.com/aerospace/pt.html,
June 1998.
Daedal, internat address of Parker Hannifin Corporation, Daedal Division,
www.daedalpositioning.com, August 1998.
Patinc, internet address of the company Pacific Advanced Technology Inc. in California, USA:
www.patinc.com, August 1998.
Rockwell, internet address for infrared focal plane arrays from Rockwell and Boeing,
www.rsc.rockwell.com/mct_fpa/, December 1998.
Sagebrush, internet address of Sagebrush Technology Inc., www.sagebrushtech.com, August 1998.
Sensors, internet address of Sensors Unlimited Inc., www.sensorsinc.com, December 1998.
Specim, internet address of the company Specim, Spectral Imaging Ltd. in Finland: www.specim.fi,
August 1998.
Webster, electronic dictionary of the English language based on Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate(R)
Dictionary, Tenth Edition. Available at: www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/rbeard/diction.html, October
1998.
Phone
Melles Griot 980626, phone call from Urban Conradsson, Melles Griot in Sweden, to me 26 June
1998.
Spectrogon 980618, phone call from Kurt-Erik Lundquist, Spectrogon (Täby, Sweden), to me 18
June 1998.
Edmund Scientific 980624, phone call to Edmund Scientific (+1-609-573 6250), 24 June 1998.
Presentation
Villemaire, André Villemaire (Bomem Inc.), Jean Giroux (Bomem Inc.) and Ron J. Rapp (Air Force
Wright Laboratories), ”An Imaging Fourier-transform Spectrometer”, Third workshop on
Infrared Emission Measurents by FTIR, Quebec, Canada, February 1996.
51
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------Appendix 1 Measurements of field of view, angular
sensitivity and focusing range
-----------------------------------Introduction
This text desribes measurements performed in September 1998 with the Bomem MR254
spectrometer together with the narrow angle telescope (SMY02). The sensitivity of the InSb and the
MCT detectors has been studied for different angles off the optical axis of the telescope. The
focusing range of the telescope and the field of view of the telescope/detectors have also been
measured. Only the data from the measurements are presented, without conclusions.
How the measurements were done
The narrow angle telescope (Bomem SMY02) were mounted on the spectrometer. A blackbody
source was set at 1200°C at a distance ranging from about 40 to 90 m from the telescope. A grid
was drawn on a piece of cardboard with a hole. The grid was put up in front of the blackbody source
and the hole was aligned with the aperture. The spectrometer was standing on a tripod that could be
panned and tilted. The CCD camera of the spectrometer was connected to a monitor. A mark was
made on the screen of the monitor. The spectrometer could then be turned up, down, left, and right.
The grid in front of the blackbody source together with the screen could be used to measure the
angles the spectrometer was panned and tilted. The mark on the screen was made in the center of the
visual field of view through the CCD camera when Aperture AB (see next paragraph) was set at
1.1 mm.
The spectrometer has three apertures: one directly after the telescope (will be denoted Aperture AB),
and one for each of the two detectors. The aperture for the MCT detector will be denoted Aperture A
and the one for the InSb detector will be called Aperture B. There are several diameters of each
aperture: 6.4, 4.5, 3.2, 2.2, 1.6, 1.1, and 0.8 mm.
The temperature in the room was about 20 °C and the temperature around the edges of the aperture
of the blackbody source was not very much higher. The temperature of the blackbody did not change
more than 3 K during the same measurement. According to Wien's radiation law, the total radiation
emitted by a blackbody is proportional to T4. This means that a temperature change of 3 K will
change the measured values with approximately 3 ⋅ 4 / (1200+273) which is less than 1 per cent.
52
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
The spectrometer was set at alignment mode with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. This way the total
radiation could be measured. The gain for the detectors was never changed during a measurement.
Figure 1 shows the equipment that was used. The angle of interest ∆φ can be approximated with
arctan(h/(d-a)) to a very high accuracy since h<<d (h<0.20 m and d>35 m).
cardboard
grid
telescope
h
∆φ
spectrometer
blackbody
source
a
d
aperture of the black
body source
pan axis of the
tripod
Figure 1 - The equipment for the measurements seen from above.
The distance a is the distance from the pan axis of the tripod to the primary optics of the telescope
(not to the front end of the telescope). a was measured to be 0.55 m.
Measurement 1 - The focusing range
The CCD camera was used to measure the shortest distance an object can be focused at by the
telescope. The result was 37±1 m from the front end of the telescope. According to Bomem [1994]
this distance is supposed to be 30 m.
Measurement 2 - Angular sensitivity
These were the parameters for the measurements:
Aperture A: fully open
Aperture B: fully open
Aperture AB: 6.4 mm
aperture of the blackbody: 12.5 mm
blackbody temperature: 1212 °C
distance d - a (according to Figure 1): 59.1 m
The radiation was measured for different angles of ∆φ and ∆θ. The angle ∆φ is shown in Figure 1.
This angle is positive if the blackbody aperture is on the right hand side of the optical axis of the
telescope. ∆θ is the elevation angle. If the blackbody aperture is above the optical axis of the
telescope, ∆θ is positive.
The measurements were performed for both detectors at every crossing of a 20 x 20 mm grid on the
cardboard in front of the blackbody. This corresponds to measurements at every 0.019° for the
angles ∆φ and ∆θ. 13 x 13 values were acquired for both detectors. The background level was
subtracted from the result. The data were then normalized so the maximum value is 1.00. (The
53
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
absolut values are of no interest for these measurements.) The results for the MCT and the InSb
detector can be seen as contour plots in Figure 2 and 3.
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.5
0.
6
0.7
0.5
0.9
0
0.3
0.4
0
.
0
0.7 .6 5
0.8
0.5
∆θ
(deg)
0.6
0.1
0.05
0.5
0.1
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.15
0.9
0.8
-0.05
0.5
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
-0.05
0.4
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
∆θ (deg)
Figure 2 - The normalized sensitivity of the spectrometer within the field of view. The
narrow angle telescope and the MCT detector were used.
Figure 2 shows the sensitivity of the MCT detector which is used to detect longer wavelengths. The
region for which the spectrometer is sensitive is nearly circular, but the sensitivity within that circle
varies from 1.0 to 0.3 (arbitrary units).
The sensitivity within the field of view of the InSb detector, that is shown in figure 3, is much more
uniform. The sensitivity within the central part of the circular field of view varies between 1.0 and
0.75 (arbitrary units).
54
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.15
5
0.0
0.0
5
0.55
0.1
0.
85
0.05
8
0.
85
0.
5
0.8 0.8
0.9
0
0.3
∆θ
(deg)
0.4
0.75
0.
8
0.85
0.9
-0.05
0.95
0.8
5
0.45
-0.1
0.0
5
-0.1
-0.05
0
∆φ (deg)
0.05
0.1
0.15
Figure 3 - The normalized sensitivity of the spectrometer within the field of view. The
narrow angle telescope (Bomem SMY02) and the InSb detector were used.
Figure 4 and 6 show the magnitude of the Fourier-transforms of the angular sensitivity
functions in Figure 2 and 3. Figure 5 is the scale for those figures.
55
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
15
10
5
fθ
[cycles/deg]
0
-5
-10
-15
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
fφ [cycles/deg]
Figure 4 - The magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the
angular sensitivity (the MTF) for the MCT detector. The values are normalized
so that the maximum value equals 1.
0
0 .1
0 .2
0 .3
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
Figure 5 - Scale for figure 4 and 6.
56
0 .8
0 .9
1
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
15
10
5
fθ
[cycles/deg]
0
-5
-10
-15
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
fφ [cycles/deg]
Figure 6 - The magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the angular
sensitivity (the MTF) for the InSb detector. The values are normalized so that the
maximum value equals 1.
Errors
The statistical errors in the measurements were estimated by measuring the sensitivity for the same
part of the field of view three times. The part measured was ∆φ ranging from 0 to 0.16° for ∆θ = 0.
To incorporate most of the errors the telescope was defocused and focused again and the angle ∆θ
was changed and set back to 0° between each of the three measurements. Also, some time passed
between the measurements in order to incorporate the temperature fluctuations of the blackbody
source. The background radiation was subtracted from the result and the values were then
normalized to a range between 0 and 1 (arbitrary units) as with the previous measurements. Figure 7
and 8 show the results of these measurements.
57
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1
0.8
sensitivity
(arbitrary
units)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
∆φ
Figure 7 - Three measurements of the sensitivity of a part of the field of view for
the MCT detector.
The difference between the three measurements for the MCT detector is at up to 6% of the maximum
measured value.
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
sensitivity
(arbitrary
units)
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
∆φ
Figure 8 - Three measurements of the sensitivity of a part of the field of view for the
InSb detector.
The difference between the measurements of the sensitivity of the InSb detector is up to 1.4% of the
maximum value except at one point, for ∆φ = 0.117° the difference is 10%. This is due to the
uncertainty in the determination of ∆φ which affects the results when the sensitivity changes with ∆φ
rapidly. The error of ∆φ is estimated to ±0.005°.
58
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Measurement 3 - The field of view for different aperture
settings
The definition of field of view and how it was estimated
Let us assume that the contour of the 0.5 sensitivity as in figure 2 and 3 is almost circular. This
assumption is good for the InSb detector, but a poor one for the MCT detector.
Four angles were measured each time the field of view was to be determined. These angles a1, a2, a3,
a4 are depicted in Figure 9. Since the center of the field of view do not necessarily have to be exactly
the same as the center of the visual field of view of the CCD camera, the field of view was estimated
the following way. The position of the center of the field of view was estimated by
((a1+a2)/2, (a3+a4)/2) in the coordinate system in Figure 9. Then half of the field of view is estimated
as the average of the four distances from the center of the field of view to the end of the arrows.
a∆θ
a4
a1
a2
a3
a∆φ
Figure 9 - How the field of view was estimated.
The measurements
Measurement 1
Parameters
aperture A: fully open
aperture B: fully open
aperture AB: 6.4 mm
aperture of the blackbody: 12.5 mm
blackbody temperature: 1212° C
distance d-a: 59.1 m
Measurements
(To obtain the corresponding angles a1, a2, a3, a4 multiply by 9.70⋅10-4 °/mm)
MCT detector:
InSb detector:
a'1 = 85 mm,
a'1 = 92 mm,
a'2 = 125 mm,
a'2 = 125 mm,
a'3 = 125 mm,
a'3 = 120 mm,
a'4 = 90 mm
a'4 = 93 mm
Result
MCT detector with aperture fully open and distance d-a = 59.1 m:
InSb detector with aperture fully open and distance d-a = 59.1 m:
59
FOV = 0.209°
FOV = 0.210°
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Measurement 2
Parameters
Same as for measurement 1 except:
distance d-a: 88.2 m
Measurements
(To obtain the corresponding angles a1, a2, a3, a4 multiply by 6.50⋅10-4 °/mm)
InSb detector:
a'1 = 145 mm,
a'2 = 195 mm,
a'3 = 190 mm,
a'4 = 140 mm
Result
InSb detector with fully open aperture and distance d-a = 88.2 m:
FOV = 0.220°
Measurement 3
Parameters
Same as for measurement 1 except:
distance d-a: 40.1 m
aperture of the blackbody: 6.2 mm
Measurements
(To obtain the corresponding angles a1, a2, a3, a4 multiply by 1.429⋅10-3 °/mm)
InSb detector:
a'1 = 62 mm,
a'2 = 81 mm,
a'3 = 74 mm,
a'4 = 158 mm
Result
InSb detector with fully open aperture and distance d-a = 59.1 m:
FOV = 0.198°
Measurement 4
Parameters
aperture B: 3.2 mm
aperture AB: 6.4 mm
aperture of the blackbody: 12.5 mm
blackbody temperature: 1209 °C
distance d-a : 59.1 m
Measurements
(To obtain the corresponding angles a1, a2, a3, a4 multiply by 9.70⋅10-4 °/mm)
InSb detector:
a'1 = 71 mm,
a'2 = 63 mm,
a'3 = 60 mm,
a'4 = 73 mm
Result
InSb detector with aperture = 3.2 mm and distance d-a = 59.1 m:
Measurement 5
Parameters
aperture A: 3.2 mm
60
FOV = 0.130°
Appendix 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
aperture AB: 6.4 mm
aperture of the blackbody: 12.5 mm
blackbody temperature: 1209 °C
distance d-a : 59.1 m
Measurements
(To obtain the corresponding angles a1, a2, a3, a4 multiply by 9.70⋅10-4 °/mm)
MCT detector:
a'1 = 72 mm,
a'2 = 70 mm,
a'3 = 57 mm,
a'4 = 79 mm
Result
MCT detector with aperture = 3.2 mm and distance d-a = 59.1 m:
FOV = 0.136°
Measurement 6
Parameters
aperture B: 1.6 mm
aperture AB: 6.4 mm
aperture of the blackbody: 12.5 mm
blackbody temperature: 1209 °C
distance d-a : 59.1 m
Measurements
(To obtain the corresponding angles a1, a2, a3, a4 multiply by 9.70⋅10-4 °/mm)
InSb detector:
a'1 = 29 mm,
a'2 = 30 mm,
a'3 = 23 mm,
a'4 = 36 mm
Result
InSb detector with aperture = 1.6 mm and distance d-a = 59.1 m:
61
FOV = 0.058°
Appendix 2
---------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------Appendix 2 Calculation of the mirror size
-----------------------------------The diameter of the entrance optics of the narrow-angle telescope for the Bomem MR254
spectrometer is 250 mm. The field of view of the telescope is 0.28° according to Bomem. Assume
that the mirror will be used so that the length of the optical path from the telescope to the mirror is
less than 2 m. For ScanSpec 98:1 this distance will be much less then 2 m, but there might be later
modifications in the future that require a longer distance. The diameter of the infinite cone from
which the telescope collects light at 2 m from the telescope is
(250 + 2000 ⋅ tan 0.28°) mm ≈ 260 mm.
Since the angle of incidence i is not zero, the mirror has to be larger than 260 mm. Figure 1 shows
the situation. The angle of incidence i will vary between 20° and 47° which gives a range of the φ2
angle of between 50 and -4°.
towards scene
φ2
y
d
towards telescope
i
x
a = 260 mm
intersection of the
rotation axes
mirror
surface
i
Figure 1
62
Appendix 2
--------------------------------------------------Geometry gives that
y (i ) =
a
− d tan i
2 cos i
x( i ) =
a
+ d tan i .
2 cos i
and
We know the distance a. The distance d depends on the rotary table and how the mirror is mounted.
We assume that d will be between 80 and 100 mm (which it is in the realized construction). The
maximum values of y(i) and x(i) when i varies between 20° and 47° and d varies between 80 and
100 mm are
ymax = 110 mm, xmax = 298 mm.
15 mm have been added to these values so there will be a 15 mm border around the edges of the used
area to compensate for misaligment. The other dimension of the mirror only needs to be 260 + 2⋅15
mm = 290 mm. The dimensions of the mirror are shown in Figure 2.
290
313
125
438
Figure 2 - The dimensions of the mirror
63
Appendix 3
---------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------Appendix 3 The standard scan programs
-----------------------------------This is a list of the parameters of the eleven standard scan programs. The first two parameters are
spectral resolution and image size.
Standard scan program 1 - NORMAL 8
16cm-1, 8x8, 4x spatial oversampling, 1/2 scan per spectrum
Standard scan program 2 - NORMAL 16
16cm-1, 16x16, 4x spatial oversampling, 1/2 scan per spectrum
Standard scan program 3 - NORMAL 32
16cm-1, 32x32, no spatial oversampling, 2 scans per spectrum
Standard scan program 4 - FAST 8
16cm-1, 8x8, no spatial oversampling, 1/2 scan per spectrum
Standard scan program 5 - FAST 16
16cm-1, 16x16, no spatial oversampling, 1/2 scan per spectrum
Standard scan program 6 - FAST 32
16cm-1, 32x32, no spatial oversampling, 1/2 scan per spectrum
Standard scan program 7 - LOW NOISE 8
16cm-1, 16x16, 2x spatial oversampling, 16 scans per spectrum
Standard scan program 8 - LOW NOISE 16
16cm-1, 16x16, 2x spatial oversampling, 16 scans per spectrum
Standard scan program 9 - LOW NOISE 32
16cm-1, 32x32, no spatial oversampling, 16 scans per spectrum
Standard scan program 10 - HIGH RES. AND LOW NOISE
4cm-1, 8x8, 2x spatial oversampling, 16 scans per spectrum
Standard scan program 11 - HIGH RES. 16
4cm-1, 16x16, 4x spatial oversampling, 1/2 scan per spectrum
Furthermore, these settings are used with all standard scan programs: scan_mode=1,
use_A_detector=1, use_B_detector=1, oversampling_mode_A=0, oversampling_mode_B=0,
aperture=1, pixels_per_FOV=2, telescope=1. See a standard program-file in [CD: ScanSpec98:1]
for exact definitions of these parameters.
64
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