IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor

IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
USER MANUAL
IR100/IR120
Infra-red Remote
Temperature Sensor
Issued: 25.2.15
Copyright © 2007-2015 Campbell Scientific Ltd.
CSL 708
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Campbell Scientific Ltd,
80 Hathern Road,
Shepshed, Loughborough, LE12 9GX, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1509 601141
Fax: +44 (0) 1509 601091
Email: [email protected]
www.campbellsci.co.uk
PLEASE READ FIRST
About this manual
Please note that this manual was originally produced by Campbell Scientific Inc. primarily for the
North American market. Some spellings, weights and measures may reflect this origin.
Some useful conversion factors:
Area: 1 in2 (square inch) = 645 mm2
Length:
1 in. (inch) = 25.4 mm
1 ft (foot) = 304.8 mm
1 yard = 0.914 m
1 mile = 1.609 km
Mass:
1 oz. (ounce) = 28.35 g
1 lb (pound weight) = 0.454 kg
Pressure:
1 psi (lb/in2) = 68.95 mb
Volume:
1 UK pint = 568.3 ml
1 UK gallon = 4.546 litres
1 US gallon = 3.785 litres
In addition, while most of the information in the manual is correct for all countries, certain information
is specific to the North American market and so may not be applicable to European users.
Differences include the U.S standard external power supply details where some information (for
example the AC transformer input voltage) will not be applicable for British/European use. Please
note, however, that when a power supply adapter is ordered it will be suitable for use in your country.
Reference to some radio transmitters, digital cell phones and aerials may also not be applicable
according to your locality.
Some brackets, shields and enclosure options, including wiring, are not sold as standard items in the
European market; in some cases alternatives are offered. Details of the alternatives will be covered in
separate manuals.
Part numbers prefixed with a “#” symbol are special order parts for use with non-EU variants or for
special installations. Please quote the full part number with the # when ordering.
Recycling information
At the end of this product’s life it should not be put in commercial or domestic refuse
but sent for recycling. Any batteries contained within the product or used during the
products life should be removed from the product and also be sent to an appropriate
recycling facility.
Campbell Scientific Ltd can advise on the recycling of the equipment and in some cases
arrange collection and the correct disposal of it, although charges may apply for some
items or territories.
For further advice or support, please contact Campbell Scientific Ltd, or your local agent.
Campbell Scientific Ltd, Campbell Park, 80 Hathern Road, Shepshed, Loughborough, LE12 9GX, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1509 601141 Fax: +44 (0) 1509 601091
Email: [email protected]
www.campbellsci.co.uk
Contents
PDF viewers note: These page numbers refer to the printed version of this document. Use
the Adobe Acrobat® bookmarks tab for links to specific sections.
1. Introduction.................................................................. 1
2. Specifications .............................................................. 1
2.1 General Specifications .............................................................................. 1
3. Wiring ........................................................................... 2
3.1 Spectral response ...................................................................................... 2
4. Installation.................................................................... 4
5. Principles of Measurement ......................................... 8
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Thermopile Detector ................................................................................. 8
Thermistor ................................................................................................ 8
The Stefan Boltzmann Law ...................................................................... 8
Correction for Non-Blackbody Surfaces .................................................. 9
Getting the best measurements ............................................................... 10
6. Program Examples & Explanation
of Terms .................................................................... 11
6.1 IR100 Blackbody Infrared Temperature Measurement .......................... 11
6.1.1 Thermistor Measurement – Sensor Body Temperature ............... 11
6.1.2 Thermopile Detector – Infrared Radiation Measurement ............ 11
6.2 Correcting for an enclosure window....................................................... 13
6.3 Non-Blackbody Infrared Temperature Measurement ............................. 13
6.4 CRBasic CR1000 Program Examples .................................................... 14
6.4.1 CRBasic example with Emissivity correction ............................. 14
6.4.2 CRBasic example with Emissivity and Window film
correction .................................................................................. 15
6.5 Edlog CR10X Program Example............................................................ 16
7. Maintenance ............................................................... 20
i
Appendices
A Correction for Non-Blackbody used in Campbell
Scientific’s Road Temperature Monitoring
Equipment ..................................................................... A-1
B IR100 Thermistor resistance ................................... B-1
Table
1. IR100 Datalogger Wiring Details ............................................................... 2
Figures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A picture of the IR-SS with IR120 fitted .................................................... 4
A cross-sectional diagram of the sensor fitted inside the IR-SS shield ...... 5
The shield fitted onto the IR1X0 mounting arm ......................................... 6
An IR-SS fitted to a pole with an optional band clamp fitting ................... 6
The arrangement of the nut and washers on the band clamp fitting ........... 7
ii
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote
Temperature Sensor
1. Introduction
The IR100/IR120 is an infrared temperature sensor. It offers a non-contact
means of measuring the surface temperature of an object by sensing the
infrared radiation given off. It can be used in the measurement of leaf, canopy
and average surface temperature.
Non-contact measurement is often simpler to install, does not influence the
target temperature and is an effective means of getting a spatial average
temperature.
Two variants of the sensor are available, the IR100 has an ultra-narrow field of
view whilst the IR120 has a narrow field of view (see specifications below).
Throughout the remainder of this manual IR100 is used to represent both
versions.
2. Specifications
2.1 General Specifications
Field of View (half angle):
IR100 4-5°
IR120 20°
Dimensions:
92 mm long by 28 mm diameter
Mounting holes:
2 x 6 mm thread, 5 mm deep (min)
Response Time:
<1 second to changes in target temperature
Target Output Signal:
IR100 5 mV per °C
IR120 20 mV per °C
(difference from sensor body)
1
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
Signal Offset:
Removed by calibration (supplied)
Typical Noise Level as measured by a CS datalogger:
IR100 0.2°C RMS
IR120 0.05°C RMS
Calibrated Range:
-25°C below body temperature to +25°C above body temperature
Operating Range:
-25°C to +60°C
Accuracy over Calibrated Range:
±0.2°C (against a blackbody source over a 50°C temperature
span under laboratory conditions)
Current Consumption:
0.4 mA (when excitation applied), 0 mA quiescent
Sensor output impedance:
320 Ohms
Thermopile Excitation Voltage:
+2 to +3.5V
Thermistor Excitation Voltage:
-2.5V
3. Wiring
The IR100 can be used with all Campbell Scientific dataloggers (except CR200)
and most other dataloggers that support negative voltage excitations. Wiring
colours and connections between the sensor and datalogger are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. IR100 Datalogger Wiring Details
Colour
Description
Wiring (SE)
Wiring (Diff)
Brown
Thermistor
SE Channel
SE Channel
Green
IR Temperature
SE Channel
Diff (x) High
White
Ground / IR Temperature
AG
Diff (x) Low
Red
Excitation
EX
EX
Black
Ground
AG
AG
Clear
Shield
The IR100 can be wired either single ended or differentially as detailed in Table 1.
3.1 Spectral response
Wavelength Range:
See graphs below.
2
IR100: effective bandwidth 7-14 µm (some sensitivity from 2-6 µm)
IR120: 8 to 14 µm
User Manual
Thermistor
30K @25°C
Excitation
Thermistor
Red
30[email protected]
77020R
Brown
Ground
White
Ground
Black
IR Temp
Green
Shield
Clear
Amplifier
A
m
p
l
i
f
Thermopile i
e
r
3
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
4. Installation
The IR100 sensor should not be allowed to fill with water. Do not point
skywards.
The IR100 can be secured by means of one or two 6 mm screws to fix the
sensor to a flat surface - such as a metal mounting bracket (screws not
provided). Older units had a ¼-20 UNC thread.
For best precision the body should not be exposed to rapid changes of
temperature – ideally shielded from direct exposure to wind, rain, sun and
handling. Optional housings are available for these sensors which both protect
the sensor from the weather and act to dampen rapid temperature changes,
which can improve measurement accuracy.
The IR-SS Solar Shield is the simple shield recommended for most outdoor
installations. It protects the sensor from direct solar radiation and other
weather which might otherwise lead to rapid changes of body temperature
which can lead to transient measurement errors. The sensor can be mounted to
any suitable structure using the 6 mm threaded hole in the side of the shield for
example on Part 009905 the IR1x0 mounting arm, that is designed to attach to
Campbell Scientific Instrument tripods and towers. Figure 1 shows an IR120
mounted inside the shield on the end of a 009905 arm.
Figure 1. A picture of the IR-SS with IR120 fitted
To install the sensor inside the IR-SS shield, two nylon mounting pillars plus
6 mm screws are provided (plus spares). Refer to Figure 2 below. This shows
the sensor in place with the mounting holes pointing downwards, which is the
normal orientation when installed in the field.
To fit the sensor in the shield, lay the main tube of the shield on a desk with
the mounting holes facing up. Rotate the sensor so the flat side of the sensor
faces up too. Take one of the nylon mounting pillars and place it on the flat of
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User Manual
the sensor above the hole in the sensor nearest the cable (position A) so you
can see the mounting hole through the centre of the pillar. Carefully lift the
sensor and insert it inside the shield balancing the pillar on sensor as you do
so. Move it into alignment with the holes in the shield so you can see the hole
in the pillar through the matching hole in the shield (the hole nearest to the
metal threaded insert). Drop one of the 20 mm nylon screws through the hole
in the shield and through the hole in the pillar. Turn it gently to pick up the
thread in the sensor body. Check the pillar is still in place and turn the screw
clockwise until it is hand tight. With the sensor held by this screw, pick up the
shield and look into the target end. Take the other mounting pillar and slide it
down the flat side of the sensor until it is centred on the empty hole in the
shield (position B). Insert the other screw through the shield and pillar and on
into the sensor. Screw it into the thread in the sensor. Then use a screwdriver
to tighten both screws without using excessive force.
SENSOR BODY
TARGET
B
MOUNTING
PILLARS
CABLE
A
EXTERNAL
MOUNTING
HOLE
EXTERNAL SCREW
HEADS
Figure 2. A cross-sectional diagram of the sensor fitted inside the IR-SS
shield
With the sensor inside the shield, the shield can be mounted on a mounting
arm or other rigid structure. If possible, mount the shield so the sun does not
shine directly into the open ends of the shield, hitting the sensor inside. Do not
block the top end of the shield which would restrict natural ventilation. Figure
3 shows the shield fitted onto the IR1X0 mounting arm. Note that the cable ties
should be used to restrict movement of the cable. The mounting arm is
supplied with a long bolt which should be used with the spring washer and
locking nut, as shown. After screwing the bolt into the shield, use the locking
nut to lock the shield in place at the desired angle. When inserting a mounting
bolt, do not screw it too far such that it hits the sensor body which could lead
to damage.
5
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
Figure 3. The shield fitted onto the IR1X0 mounting arm
Optional band-clamp, pole mounts are available to allow the IR-SS to be
mounted on the side of lamp posts and similar structures. The band-clamps are
specified to match a specific range of size of pole.
Figure 4. An IR-SS fitted to a pole with an optional band clamp fitting
For this type of bracket the shield must first be attached to the band-clamp
bracket. This is most easily done before mounting the bracket on the pole. To
do this first put the nut, then the two washers onto the bolt of the bracket,
screwing the nut loosely up to the bracket and leaving the thread of the bolt
6
User Manual
free at the end. Then screw that bolt into the side of the shield, so the bolt is
fully screwed into the metal insert in the shield, but not so far that the end is
not touching the body of the sensor. Now mount the bracket on the pole using
the band, rotating the band so the sensor points in the right direction. Next
rotate the sensor on the bolt to point at the target and use the lock nut on the
bolt to fix the shield at the correct angle. Tighten the bolt so the spring washer
is compressed. Do not overtighten as you risk turning the fitting in the plastic
shield. The arrangement of the nut and washer are shown below in Figure 5.
Figure 5. The arrangement of the nut and washers on the
band clamp fitting
After mounting the sensor, tie the cable to the pole to stop it flexing in the
wind.
When installing the sensor, consideration must be taken of the field of view,
distance to the target and angle of the sensor relative to the main surfaces of
the target. All of these can affect the accuracy of the measurement.
The field of view can be calculated thus: with a half angle of n degrees (see
specifications) the sensor will observe radiation from a circular area whose
radius will be = tan(n) * the target distance from sensor.
If possible, the distance to the target should be minimised as visible (mist) and
invisible water vapour or dust in the air between the sensor and target can lead
to measurement errors. The shorter the distance the smaller this effect.
It is also desirable for the sensor to point at the surface being measured directly
(at 90 degrees relative to the surface) rather than being at an acute angle. This
is because many surfaces will have increased reflectivity at low angles of view.
At acute angles the sensor reading may end up being biased towards the
temperature of the reflections rather than the target itself. (This is similar to
trying to look into a pond where you cannot see the bottom of the pond, only a
reflection at low angles of view.)
7
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
Both variants of these sensors limit sensitivity to just the long wave, infra-red
spectrum as required for infra-red thermometry. The IR100, has some residual
sensitivity to radiation below 7 µm so care should be taken with that model in
particular to make sure shorter wavelength radiation, such as that from the sun,
does not reflect off surfaces with high albedo into the sensor. The IR100 will
also be more sensitive to moisture in the atmosphere compared to the IR120 so
the distance to the target should be minimised.
Beware that other housings which have a front window do reduce the sensor
output and accuracy a little as a result of corrections and assumptions that need
to be made to correct the readings of the sensor due to it looking through a
window (see Appendix A and Section 6.2).
5. Principles of Measurement
5.1 Thermopile Detector
The IR100 sensor contains a thermopile which detects the presence of thermal
radiation. This consists of a number of thermocouples connected in series, one
set being exposed to the source radiation, whilst the other is shielded from it. A
highly polished metal cone concentrates the radiation onto the exposed
junctions, which are coated with lamp-black to enhance the efficiency with
which the radiation is absorbed. The thermopile detector outputs a voltage
proportional to the thermal energy balance between itself and the surface it is
detecting.
A separate thermistor, embedded in the sensor body directly behind the
thermopile measures the reference body temperature. Both results are
combined and processed in the logger to output the measured surface
temperature.
5.2 Thermistor
The measured resistance of the thermistor varies with temperature using a third
order Steinhart-Hart thermistor equation.
1
 A  B(ln(R))  C(ln(R)) 3
T
where A, B and C are calibrated constants for individual thermistors.
The sensor element used in the IR100 is individually calibrated and so the
Steinhart-Hart must be applied in the program using the sensor calibration
coefficients supplied.
5.3 The Stefan Boltzmann Law
Using the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, we can determine the temperature of a
particular surface based on the amount of thermal energy it radiates.
Stefan-Boltzmann states that the total energy radiated per unit time per unit
surface area of a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature
of the body expressed in Kelvin’s, i.e.
E = σT4
8
User Manual
where σ is a constant of proportionality known as Stefan’s constant, whose value
is 5.67E-8 W m-2 K-4.
The rate at which a unit surface area of this blackbody receives radiation from
surrounding objects at temperature T is σT4, and the rate at which the blackbody at
temperature T0 emits radiation in σT04, thus the net rate of loss of energy by the
blackbody is therefore given by Enet, where
Enet = σ(T4 – T04)
Thus:
E 
4
T 4   net   T0
 σ 
where T4 is the surface temperature observed by the detector and T04 the
temperature of the detector measured by an internal thermistor. Enet is determined
by the amplified thermocouple voltage inserted into a polynomial equation, whose
constants were obtained during calibration from a 2nd order polynomial fit of
sensor voltage and irradiance obtained during calibration.
The specifications of the thermopile sensor state that the sensitivity decreases by
0.04% per deg C. To compensate for this we need to increase the multiplication
factor by 0.04% for every degree C above the calibration temperature.
The following equation takes care of this compensation:
Temperature_Compensated_x = x * 1.0004  (IRcan_Temp -25)
5.4 Correction for Non-Blackbody Surfaces
The IR100 sensor is calibrated against a blackbody target. The proportion of
energy it emits to that which it reflects is known as its Emissivity (ε). A black
body is said to have an emissivity of 1.
In the real environment most surfaces will reflect some radiation from the
surroundings and this component should be removed to get an accurate reading.
Since:
E  T 4
And:
Emeasured  Esurface  (1   ) Ereflected
Tmeasured  (1   )Treflected
4
Thus:
4
surface
T

4

Where ε is the emissivity of the surface whose value depends on the nature of the
surface and always lies between 0 and 1 and Treflected is the temperature of the
surrounding surfaces whose energy is, in part, being reflected by the measured
surface.
For most applications it is commonly assumed that reflected radiation comes from
surfaces at the sensor body temperature. However, in outdoor applications it may
be better to use a more appropriate temperature e.g. air temperature.
The algorithms used within Campbell Scientific’s road temperature monitoring
equipment take account of reflected radiation from the sky, building and trees in
the surrounding area and radiation emitting from the environmental film that
9
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
protects the sensor. All the algorithms consist of converting the temperatures,
assumed or measured, into their fourth power in Kelvin, and subtracting portions
one from the other to arrive at the actual surface temperature.
Please refer to Section 6.2 and Appendix A for a more detailed explanation.
5.5 Getting the best measurements
Taking good infra-red temperature measurements does require some
understanding of the measurement principle and careful use of the sensor,
especially for field measurements. Here are some points you need to take into
consideration:
10

The accuracy of the temperature measurement is dependent on knowing
the emissivity of the surface being measured. The further the emissivity
is from one the more critical it is to measure and compensate for the
emissivity.

Try to take measurements with the sensor pointed directly at the target
rather than at acute angles. This is because reflection can lead to
significant errors and reflection increases the more acute the angle.
Those reflections can be long wave IR and/or from reflected sunlight (the
IR100 is more prone to this as it has a little sensitivity at lower
wavelengths).

Try to install the sensor relatively close to the surface being measured
(within a few metres) as mist and even high humidity (especially in the
case of the IR100) will cause the sensor to be influenced by the
temperature of the air between it and the target. On the other hand do not
install the sensor so close that it interferes with the IR exchange with the
target and its environment.

Try to ensure the sensor body is insulated from rapid changes in
temperature, as small gradients of temperature around the sensor aperture
can lead to large transient measurement errors. To do this, if the sensor is
installed outside, the sensor should be shielded from direct exposure to
the sun, which could be in the form of a shield or added insulation (a tube
of foam pipe insulation is suitable). Alternatively, it can be installed in
an optional camera style housing with an IR transmissive window.

If your readings seem to be always close to the body, i.e. not sensing the
target temperature as expected, check the sensing aperture of the sensor
is not blocked (by spiders etc) and if using an enclosure that the IR
transmissive film is not dirty or wet.
User Manual
6. Program Examples & Explanation of Terms
6.1 IR100 Blackbody Infrared Temperature Measurement
6.1.1 Thermistor Measurement - Sensor Body Temperature
The following CR1000 example shows the code required to obtain the sensor body
temperature measurement from the thermistor in the IR100 sensor. A 20 ms delay
is used to allow adequate settling time for long cable runs.
BRHalf(IRSensor_can,1,mV2500,3,Vx1,1, -2500,false,20000,_50Hz,1,0)
IRSensor_resis=77020*(IRSensor_can/(1-IRSensor_can))
IRSensorcan_temp=1/(IRSensor_a + IRSensor_b*LN(IRSensor_resis) +
IRSensor_c *(LN(IRSensor_resis))^3) - 273.15
A half-bridge measurement is taken to obtain the ratio of the measured voltage
divided by the excitation voltage, from which the resistance is then calculated.
This resistance is then entered into the Steinhart-Hart equation together with the
calibration constants (IRSensor_a, IRSensor_b and IRSensor_c) obtained during
the body temperature calibration and supplied with the sensor. Each sensor is
individually calibrated to return a value in degrees KELVIN.
Note the use of a negative excitation voltage. This is used because the same wire
is used to power the Thermopile amplifier (see next section) by applying a
positive voltage.
6.1.2 Thermopile Detector - Infrared Radiation Measurement
The following CR1000 program example shows the code required to obtain a raw
infrared radiation measurement from the IR-100 sensor. To minimise the effect of
noise on the signal the IR100 has an internal amplifier that requires a positive
2500 mV excitation and at least a75 mS settling time before taking the
measurement.
You need to choose whether to make the measurement differentially or singleended. A differential measurement will give the most accurate reading, especially
for long cable runs, but needs a differential channel – equivalent to two singleended inputs. Therefore the single-ended technique is only usually used if there is
a shortage of inputs on the datalogger and cables are short (<10 m). Refer to
Table 1, above, for the difference in wiring. The program structure is:
'Single ended measurement - note the positive 2500mV
'excitation which is turned on first to force a 75mS delay
ExciteV(Vx1,2500,0)
Delay(0,75,mSec)
BrHalf(IRSensor_Volt,1,mV250,1,Vx1,1,2500,False,0,_50Hz,2500,0)
Or:
'Differential measurement - note the positive 2500mV
'excitation which is turned on first to force a 75mS delay
ExciteV(Vx1,2500,0)
Delay(0,75,mSec)
BrFull(IRSensor_Volt,1,mV250,1,Vx1,1,2500,False,False,0,_50Hz,2.5,0)
11
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
Then:
'Apply temperature compensation for the IR Sensor
IRSensor_Volt_TC = IRSensor_Volt * 1.0004 ^(IRSensorCan_Temp - 25)
‘Apply calibration factors
IRSensor_E=IRSensor_x*IRSensor_Volt_TC^2+IRSensor_y*IRSensor_Volt_TC+IRSensor_z
NOTE
The range codes will need to be amended if using a CR3000
datalogger. The bridge instructions have multipliers in them to
scale the values back to mV.
IRSensor_E is the resultant measured thermal radiation proportional to the net
rate of energy exchange with the target surface. and must be combined using
Stefan Boltzmann with the radiant energy from the sensor to obtain the
measured remote temperature.
IRSensor_T4=(IRSensor_E/5.67E8)+(IRSensorcan_temp+273.15)^4
IRSensor_T=IRSensor_T4^0.25-273.15
If the target surface were a blackbody, then this would suffice and the
temperature value obtained would be an accurate representation of actual
surface temperature. However, since nothing in the real environment acts like a
blackbody, we have to correct this temperature value to account for the
emissivity of the target surface. Additionally if the sensor is looking through a
window from inside an enclosure an additional correction is needed.
6.2 Correcting for an enclosure window
The following example shows the additional lines of code required to obtain an
infrared temperature measurement from the IR100 sensor, when installed inside
an enclosure that has protective window. This correction is not needed for the
sensor fitted in an IR-SS shield. Campbell Scientific uses a thin plastic film that
has high IR transmission. The signal the sensor sees is mainly from the target but
partly (about 20%) from the window material. To correct for this the window
temperature has to be known and the IR transmission of the window material. A
similar equation is used as for emissivity corrections to separate out energy
coming from the target.
'Film IR transmission – CSL window - measured value
Const Film = 0.79
'The correction equation
IRTFilm_T4 = ((IRSensor_T4 - ((Airtemp + 273.15)^4 *
(1 - Film))) / Film)
The line above uses air temperature as a measure of the window temperature
which is a fair assumption as long as the window is shaded from the sun. If air
temperature is not available the sensor body temperature can be used, although
this may result in small transient errors due to the different time responses of the
window and the sensor body. The variable IRTFilm_T4 is the corrected target
temperature in Kelvin to the power four. It can be converted to Celsius or used in
place of IRSensor_T4 in the emissivity correction equation shown in Section 6.3
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User Manual
6.3 Non-Blackbody Infrared Temperature Measurement
The following example shows the additional line of code required to obtain an
infrared temperature measurement from the IR100 sensor, corrected for a target
surface emissivity of 0.94. and assuming that the adjacent surfaces are at the
sensor temperature:
Emissivity = 0.94
Temp=((IRSensor_T4-((IRSensorcan_temp+273.15)^4*(1Emissivity)))/Emissivity)^0.25-273.15
When measuring surface leaf temperature under a tree canopy, a measure of air
temperature may be more suitable for the adjacent temperature than the sensor can
temperature.
See Appendix A for further examples.
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IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
6.4 CRBasic CR1000 Program Examples
6.4.1 CRBasic example with Emissivity correction
'CR1000 Program for the IR1x0 with emissivity correction
'Calibration Data for the IR1x0
'NOTE : These values should match those listed on the IR100 calibration
certificate
Const Coeff_A = 9.355652E-04
Const Coeff_B = 2.203275E-04
Const Coeff_C = 1.394681E-07
Const Coeff_X = 2.748588E-04
Const Coeff_Y = 1.787100E+00
Const Coeff_Z = 6.923498E-02
'Emissivity should be appropriate for the surface type
Const Emissivity = 0.94
Dim BR_Res
Dim IRSensor_Resis
Public IRSensorCan_Temp
Public Airtemp
Dim IRSensor_Volt
Dim IRSensor_Volt_TC
Dim IRSensor_E
Dim IRSensor_T4
Dim IRSensor_T
Public IRTemp_C
'The Measured Bridge Resistance
'Thermistor Resistance
'Thermistor Temperature in Celsius
'Used in the emissivity correction - ideally measured
'with another sensor.
'The Measured Thermopile Voltage
'The Measured Thermopile Voltage – Temp Compensated
'Energy Difference
'Black body surface temperature to the power 4
'Black body surface temperature in Kelvin - Uncorrected
'Corrected Surface Temperature in Celsius
DataTable(IR100Data,1,-1)
DataInterval(0,1,Min,10)
Average(1,IRTemp_C,FP2,False) : FieldNames("AVG_Surface_Temperature_C")
EndTable
'Main Program
BeginProg
Scan (5,Sec,0,0)
'Measure the IR1x0 Body Temperature
'---------------------------------'Measure the thermistor using a half bridge by applying a negative
'excitation voltage of -2.5V
'Note that switching the bridge excitation is set to FALSE.
'Uses channel 3 Single-ended. 20 ms settling time for long cable
BrHalf(BR_Res,1,mV2500,3,Vx1,1,-2500,False,20000,_50Hz,1,0)
'Multiply the ratio of measured voltage by a constant appropriate to the
'thermistor
IRSensor_Resis = 77020 * (BR_Res / (1 - BR_Res))
'Using Steinhart-hart, apply the calibration coefficients to arrive at a
'body temperature in Celsius
IRSensorCan_Temp = 1 / (Coeff_A + Coeff_B * LN(IRSensor_Resis)
+ Coeff_C * (LN(IRSensor_Resis))^3) - 273.15
'Measure the IR1x0 Infrared Temperature
'-------------------------------------'Measure the infrared temperature using a full bridge instruction
'Note that switching the bridge excitation is set to FALSE.
'Use 75 ms settling time, to allow amplified signal to settle
'The multiplier is used to correct the ratiometric output to mV
'Uses channel 1 differential.
ExciteV(Vx1,2500,0)
Delay(0,75,mSec)
BrFull(IRSensor_Volt,1,mV250,1,Vx1,1,2500,False,False,0,_50Hz,2.5,0)
'Apply temperature compensation
IRSensor_Volt_TC = IRSensor_Volt * 1.0004 ^(IRSensorCan_Temp - 25)
'Apply coefficients
14
User Manual
IRSensor_E = Coeff_X * IRSensor_Volt_TC^2
+ Coeff_Y * IRSensor_Volt_TC + Coeff_Z
'Add difference to absolute energy from the sensor body
IRSensor_T4 = (IRSensor_E / 5.67E-8) + ((IRSensorCan_Temp + 273.15)^4)
'Resolve for remote surface temperature in Kelvin –
‘NOTE this is the 'UNCORRECTED value
IRSensor_T = (IRSensor_T4^0.25) - 273.15
'Combine with the correction for Emissivity and Convert to Celsius
'Have to assume Airtemp = IRsensorcan_temp in this example as no air temp
'measurement
Airtemp=IRSensorCan_Temp
IRTemp_C = ((IRsensor_T4-((Airtemp + 273.15)^4*
(1-Emissivity)))/Emissivity)^0.25 - 273.15
'Store the results to a table.
CallTable(IR100Data)
NextScan
EndProg
6.4.2 CRBasic example with Emissivity and Window film correction
'CR1000 Program for the IR1x0 with film correction
'Used when the sensor is installed inside a protective housing with a
'transmissive film or window
'Calibration Data for the IR1x0
'NOTE : These values should match those listed on the IR100 calibration
certificate
Const Coeff_A = 9.355652E-04
Const Coeff_B = 2.203275E-04
Const Coeff_C = 1.394681E-07
Const Coeff_X = 2.748588E-04
Const Coeff_Y = 1.787100E+00
Const Coeff_Z = 6.923498E-02
'Emissivity should be appropriate for the surface type
Const Emissivity = 0.94
'Film IR transmission - CSL measured value
Const Film = 0.79
Dim BR_Res
Dim IRSensor_Resis
Public IRSensorCan_Temp
Public Airtemp
Dim IRSensor_Volt
Dim IRSensor_Volt_TC
Dim IRSensor_E
Dim IRSensor_T4
Dim IRSensor_T
Dim IRTFilm_T4
Public IRTemp_C
'The Measured Bridge Resistance
'Thermistor Resistance
'Thermistor Temperature in Celsius
'Used in the emissivity correction - ideally measured
'with another sensor.
'The Measured Thermopile Voltage
'The Measured Thermopile Voltage – Temp Compensated
'Energy Difference
'Black body surface temperature to the power 4
'Black body surface temperature in Kelvin – Uncorrected
'Temperature after the film correction to the power 4
'Corrected Surface Temperature in Celsius
DataTable(IR100Data,1,-1)
DataInterval(0,1,Min,10)
Average(1,IRTemp_C,FP2,False) : FieldNames("AVG_Surface_Temperature_C")
EndTable
'Main Program
BeginProg
Scan (5,Sec,0,0)
'Measure the IR1x0 Body Temperature
'---------------------------------'Measure the thermistor using a half bridge by applying a negative
'excitation voltage of -2.5V
'Note that switching the bridge excitation is set to FALSE.
15
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
'Uses channel 3 Single-ended. 20 ms settling time for long cable
BrHalf(BR_Res,1,mV2500,3,Vx1,1,-2500,False,20000,_50Hz,1,0)
'Multiply the ratio of measured voltage by a constant appropriate to the
'thermistor
IRSensor_Resis = 77020 * (BR_Res / (1 - BR_Res))
'Using Steinhart-hart, apply the calibration coefficients to arrive at a
'body temperature in Celsius
IRSensorCan_Temp = 1 / (Coeff_A + Coeff_B * LN(IRSensor_Resis)
+ Coeff_C * (LN(IRSensor_Resis))^3) 273.15
'Measure the IR1x0 Infrared Temperature
'-------------------------------------'Measure the infrared temperature using a full bridge instruction
'Note that switching the bridge excitation is set to FALSE.
'Use 75 ms settling time, to allow amplified signal to settle
'The multiplier is used to correct the ratiometric output to mV
'Uses channel 1 differential.
ExciteV(Vx1,2500,0)
Delay(0,75,mSec)
BrFull(IRSensor_Volt,1,mV250,1,Vx1,1,2500,False,False,0,_50Hz,2.5,0)
'Apply temperature compensation
IRSensor_Volt_TC = IRSensor_Volt * 1.0004 ^(IRSensorCan_Temp - 25)
'Apply coefficients
IRSensor_E = Coeff_X * IRSensor_Volt_TC^2
+ Coeff_Y * IRSensor_Volt_TC + Coeff_Z
'Add difference to absolute energy from the sensor body
IRSensor_T4 = (IRSensor_E / 5.67E-8) + ((IRSensorCan_Temp + 273.15)^4)
'Resolve for remote surface temperature in Kelvin –
'NOTE this is the 'UNCORRECTED value
IRSensor_T = (IRSensor_T4^0.25) - 273.15
'Correct for the effects of the high infrared transmission film
'Have to assume Airtemp = IRsensorcan_temp in this example as no air temp
'measurement
Airtemp=IRSensorCan_Temp
IRTFilm_T4 = ((IRSensor_T4 - ((Airtemp + 273.15)^4 * (1 - Film))) / Film)
'Combine with the correction for Emissivity and Convert to Celsius
IRTemp_C = ((IRTFilm_T4-((Airtemp + 273.15)^4*
(1-Emissivity)))/Emissivity)^0.25 - 273.15
'Store the results to a table.
CallTable(IR100Data)
NextScan
EndProg
6.5 Edlog CR10X Program Example
This example does not include a correction of any enclosure window film.
;{CR10X}
;IR120 Example Program
;
*Table 1 Program
01: 5
Execution Interval (seconds)
; Calibration Data for the IR120
; NOTE : These values should match those listed on the IR100 Calibration
Certificate
1: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 2.29176 F
2: -5
n, Exponent of 10
3: 4
Z Loc [ Coeff_X
]
16
User Manual
2:
1:
2:
3:
Z=F x 10^n (P30)
5.17221 F
-1
n, Exponent of 10
5
Z Loc [ Coeff_Y
]
3:
1:
2:
3:
Z=F x 10^n (P30)
-3.50399 F
0
n, Exponent of 10
6
Z Loc [ Coeff_Z
]
4:
1:
2:
3:
Z=F x 10^n (P30)
0.94
F
00
n, Exponent of 10
18
Z Loc [ Emissiv
]
; Measure the IR100 Body Temperature
;----------------------------------; Measure the thermistor using half bridge by applying negative excitation voltage
of -2.5V
5: Excite-Delay (SE) (P4)
1: 1
Reps
2: 5
2500 mV Slow Range
3: 3
SE Channel
4: 1
Excite all reps w/Exchan 1
5: 2
Delay (0.01 sec units)
6: -2500
mV Excitation
7: 7
Loc [ BR_Res
]
8: -.0004
Multiplier ; -1/2500 to give the ratio V/Vx
9: 0.0
Offset
; Multiply the ratio of measured voltage by constant appropriate to thermistor
6: BR Transform Rf[X/(1-X)] (P59)
1: 1
Reps
2: 7
Loc [ BR_Res
]
3: 77020
Multiplier (Rf)
;Use Steinhart-Hart, apply calibration coeff to get body temperature in deg C
; Calibration Data for the IR120
; NOTE : These values should match those listed on the IR100 Calibration
Certificate
7: Steinhart-Hart Equation (P200)
1: 1
Reps
2: 7
Source Loc (R)(Ohms) [ BR_Res
]
3: 8
Destination Loc (Deg C) [ IR_Can
]
4: 3.08524 A
5: -3
x 10^n
6: -9.95376 B
7: -5
x 10^n
8: 1.18779 C
9: -6
x 10^n
; Measure the IR100 Infrared Temperature
;--------------------------------------; Measure the infrared temperature using a full bridge Ex-Delay-Diff Volt
instruction
; Delay of 80ms for settling time
8: Ex-Del-Diff (P8)
1: 1
Reps
2: 5
2500 mV Slow Range
3: 1
DIFF Channel
4: 1
Excite all reps w/Exchan 1
5: 8
Delay (0.01 sec units)
6: 2500
mV Excitation
7: 12
Loc [ IRs_V
]
8: 1.0
Multiplier
17
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
9: 0.0
Offset
; Apply Temperature Compensation
9: Z=X+F (P34)
1: 8
X Loc [ IR_Can
]
2: -25
F
3: 10
Z Loc [ IR_Can_Tp ]
10: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 1.0004
F
2: 00
n, Exponent of 10
3: 11
Z Loc [ IRs_V_TC ]
11: Z=X^Y (P47)
1: 11
X Loc [ IRs_V_TC ]
2: 10
Y Loc [ IR_Can_Tp ]
3: 11
Z Loc [ IRs_V_TC ]
12: Z=X*Y (P36)
1: 12
X Loc [ IRs_V
2: 11
Y Loc [ IRs_V_TC
3: 11
Z Loc [ IRs_V_TC
]
]
]
; Apply Coefficients
13: Z=X*Y (P36)
1: 11
X Loc [ IRs_V_TC
2: 11
Y Loc [ IRs_V_TC
3: 13
Z Loc [ IRs_E
]
]
]
14: Z=X*Y (P36)
1: 4
X Loc [ Coeff_X
2: 13
Y Loc [ IRs_E
3: 13
Z Loc [ IRs_E
]
]
]
15: Z=X*Y (P36)
1: 5
X Loc [ Coeff_Y
2: 11
Y Loc [ IRs_V_TC
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
]
]
16: Z=X+Y (P33)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp
2: 6
Y Loc [ Coeff_Z
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
]
]
17: Z=X+Y (P33)
1: 13
X Loc [ IRs_E
2: 14
Y Loc [ IRs_Temp
3: 13
Z Loc [ IRs_E
]
]
]
; Add difference to absolute energy from sensor body
18: Z=X+F (P34)
1: 8
X Loc [ IR_Can
]
2: 273.15
F
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp ]
19: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 4
F
2: 00
n, Exponent of 10
3: 15
Z Loc [ IR_Exp
]
20: Z=X^Y (P47)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp
2: 15
Y Loc [ IR_Exp
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
18
]
]
]
User Manual
21: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 5.67
F
2: -8
n, Exponent of 10
3: 15
Z Loc [ IR_Exp
]
22: Z=X/Y (P38)
1: 13
X Loc [ IRs_E
2: 15
Y Loc [ IR_Exp
3: 13
Z Loc [ IRs_E
]
]
]
23: Z=X+Y (P33)
1: 13
X Loc [ IRs_E
2: 14
Y Loc [ IRs_Temp
3: 16
Z Loc [ IRs_T4
]
]
]
; Resolve for remote surface temp in Kelvin
24: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 0.25
F
2: 00
n, Exponent of 10
3: 15
Z Loc [ IR_Exp
]
25: Z=X^Y (P47)
1: 16
X Loc [ IRs_T4
2: 15
Y Loc [ IR_Exp
3: 17
Z Loc [ IRs_T
26: Z=X+F (P34)
1: 17
X Loc [ IRs_T
2: -273.15 F
3: 17
Z Loc [ IRs_T
]
]
]
]
]
; Correction for Emissivity and convert to deg C
27: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 4
F
2: 00
n, Exponent of 10
3: 15
Z Loc [ IR_Exp
]
28: Z=X+F (P34)
1: 8
X Loc [ IR_Can
2: 273.15
F
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
29: Z=X^Y (P47)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp
2: 15
Y Loc [ IR_Exp
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
]
]
]
]
30: Z=X*F (P37)
1: 18
X Loc [ Emissiv
]
2: -1
F
3: 19
Z Loc [ EmissivTp ]
31: Z=X+F (P34)
1: 19
X Loc [ EmissivTp ]
2: 1
F
3: 19
Z Loc [ EmissivTp ]
32: Z=X*Y (P36)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp ]
2: 19
Y Loc [ EmissivTp ]
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp ]
33: Z=X-Y (P35)
1: 16
X Loc [ IRs_T4
2: 14
Y Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
]
19
IR100/IR120 Infra-red Remote Temperature Sensor
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
34: Z=X/Y (P38)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp
2: 18
Y Loc [ Emissiv
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
]
]
35: Z=F x 10^n (P30)
1: 0.25
F
2: 00
n, Exponent of 10
3: 15
Z Loc [ IR_Exp
]
36: Z=X^Y (P47)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp
2: 15
Y Loc [ IR_Exp
3: 14
Z Loc [ IRs_Temp
]
]
]
37: Z=X+F (P34)
1: 14
X Loc [ IRs_Temp
2: -273.15 F
3: 20
Z Loc [ IRTemp_C
]
]
; Output array
38: If time is (P92)
1: 0
Minutes (Seconds --) into a
2: 1
Interval (same units as above)
3: 10
Set Output Flag High (Flag 0)
39: Set Active Storage Area (P80)
1: 1
Final Storage Area 1
2: 1
Array ID
40: Average (P71)
1: 1
Reps
2: 20
Loc [ IRTemp_C
]
41: Sample (P70)
1: 1
Reps
2: 20
Loc [ IRTemp_C
]
7. Maintenance
The sensor contains no serviceable parts. When installed outside in the field
though, the sensor should be checked and cleaned to remove dirt or insects
especially within the tube at the free end of the sensor. To clean, use an air
duster and if absolutely necessary, due to deposits on the window of the
detector, a `cotton bud’ dipped in electronics grade alcohol. Avoid scratching
the silvered window.
20
Appendix A. Correction for NonBlackbody used in Campbell Scientific’s
Road Temperature Monitoring
Equipment
This appendix is added so that those wishing to understand the correction
method used in IRIS and other road surface monitoring equipment may do so
and to help those wishing to apply similar techniques to other applications.
The radiation balance model that exists on roads is as follows:
The primary components of the observed radiation are thus reflected radiation
from the sky and surrounds, radiation emitted by the environmental protective
film and the component we are interested in - radiation from the road.
Thus:
RadObserved = A(RadFilm) + B(RadRoad) + C(RadSky) + D(RadBuildings&trees)
Since Radiation Energy = σT4 where T is in Kelvin then rearranging and
cancelling out the Stephan Boltzman constant we can say that:
TRoad4 = ((TObserved4) - A(TFilm4) - C(TSky4) - D(TBuildings&trees4))/B
The proportion of radiation being transmitted through the radiation film is
known as the Transmissivity.
Thus A = (1-Transmissivity)
The proportion of the observed radiation being emitted by the road is dependent
on both the Emissivity of the road surface and the Transmissivity of the film.
A-1
Thus:
B = Transmissivity x Emissivity
The proportion or the sky depends to an extent on the exposure to of the site in
question. This is known as the Sky View Factor and is the ratio of the area of the
surrounding buildings & trees (weighted according to the cosine of their
incidence to the surface) to the area of exposed sky. An open road, fully
exposed, has a Sky View Factor of 1. A road fully enclosed in a tree canopy may
have a Sky View Factor as low as 0.
It should be borne in mind that whatever the Sky View Factor may be, only a
portion of the radiation coming from the sky will be reflected by the road (1Emissivity) and only a portion of the resulting reflected radiation will be
transmitted through the film (Transmissivity) thus:
C = (Transmissivity) x (1-Emissivity) x SVF
And likewise for the surroundings:
D = (Transmissivity) x (1-Emissivity) x (1-SVF)
And since the surrounding buildings and trees along with the protective
environmental film are all at air temperature we can say that:
TFilm4 = TBuildings&trees4 = TAir4
Thus:
TRoad4 = ((TObserved4) - C(TSky4) - (TAir4)(A+D))/B
Where
A = (1-Transmissivity)
B = Transmissivity x Emissivity
C = Transmissivity x (1-Emissivity) x SVF
D = Transmissivity x (1-Emissivity) x (1-SVF)
This is a blank page.
A-2
Appendix B. IR100 Thermistor
Resistance
Please note tolerance on these figures is ±5%. Individual calibration for each
sensor is included on the calibration certificate.
Degree C
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
Ohms
363,300.0
273,420.0
207,600.0
158,910.0
122,580.0
95,355.0
74,655.0
58,857.0
46,716.0
37,320.0
30,000.0
24,261.0
19,734.0
16,140.0
13,272.0
10,971.0
9,114.0
7,605.0
6,378.0
5,372.4
4,544.4
3,860.4
3,292.2
2,818.8
2,422.2
2,089.2
1,808.1
This is a blank page.
B-1
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Please visit www.campbellsci.com to obtain contact information for your local US or International representative.
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