TRACK `N TRADE® PRO - Gecko Software, Inc.

TRACK `N TRADE® PRO - Gecko Software, Inc.
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time!®
USER’S GUIDE
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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A Special Thanks to:
Lan Turner
Erik Larson
Nick Russell
Ben Marchant
Krystal Anderson
Janie Blair
Jacob Anawalt
Jana Perkins
Phillip Arnoldson
Gecko Software, Inc.
95 West Golf Course RD
Suite 107
Logan, UT 84321
http://www.geckosoftware.com
Copyright © 2004 Gecko Software, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Introduction to Futures .......................................... 15
Introduction ................................................................................... 15
What are Futures? ........................................................................ 15
Margins and Guaranteeing Futures .............................................. 16
The Long and Short of Trading ..................................................... 19
Calculating Profit/Loss .................................................................. 20
Points vs. Cents ............................................................................ 21
Margins, Cents, Points & the Power of Leverage ........................ 24
Types of Orders ............................................................................ 27
Look Before You Leap .................................................................. 29
Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish ............ 43
Opening or Creating a New Chartbook ......................................... 44
Adding/Removing Charts in your Chartbook................................. 45
Switching between Charts in your Chartbook ............................... 45
Saving and Closing a Chartbook .................................................. 46
Opening an Existing Chartbook .................................................... 47
Saving Charts as an Image........................................................... 48
Printing a Chart ............................................................................. 49
Scaling a Chart ............................................................................. 50
Auto Scale Charts ................................................................... 50
Sizing Controls: ....................................................................... 50
Data Downloads...................................................... 53
Commodity Chooser ..................................................................... 53
Commodity Symbols ..................................................................... 55
Data Download Utility.................................................................... 58
Firewalls........................................................................................ 60
Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools .................. 69
Introduction ................................................................................... 69
Crosshair Tool .............................................................................. 69
Technical Analysis ........................................................................ 72
Support.................................................................................... 72
Resistance .............................................................................. 72
Line Tool ....................................................................................... 73
Multi-Line Tool ............................................................................. 74
Channels....................................................................................... 76
Narrow Sideways Channel ...................................................... 76
Narrow Sideways Channel Tool.................................................... 76
Inclining Channel..................................................................... 78
Declining Channel ................................................................... 79
Inclining/Declining Channel Tool................................................... 80
50% Retracements ....................................................................... 82
N% Tool ........................................................................................ 83
1-2-3 Formations .......................................................................... 86
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1-2-3 Top.................................................................................86
1-2-3 Bottom............................................................................87
1-2-3 Tool......................................................................................88
Head & Shoulders Formation ........................................................90
Head & Shoulders - Top ..........................................................90
Head & Shoulders - Bottom.....................................................91
Head & Shoulders Tool .................................................................92
Triangle and Wedge Formations ...................................................94
Inclining Wedge .......................................................................94
Declining Wedge .....................................................................95
Symmetrical Triangle...............................................................96
Non-Symmetrical Triangle .......................................................97
Wedge and Triangle Tool..............................................................98
Trend Fan ...................................................................................100
Trend Fan Tool............................................................................103
Advanced Charting Tools .................................... 107
Introduction .................................................................................107
Elliot Wave Theory ......................................................................107
Elliot Wave Tool ..........................................................................109
Dart Up (Blip) Formations ...........................................................111
Dart Up (Blip) Formations ......................................................111
Dart Down (Blip) Formation ................................................... 111
Dart/Blip Tool ..............................................................................112
Gann Fan Theory ........................................................................114
Gann Fan Tool ............................................................................115
Andrews Pitchfork Theory ...........................................................117
Andrews Pitchfork Tool ...............................................................118
Fibonacci Retracements .............................................................120
Fibonacci Retracement Tool .......................................................121
Fibonacci Arc Tool ......................................................................123
Fibonacci Time Zones.................................................................125
Calculating Trading/Actual Days .................................................127
Rounded Top & Bottom Formations............................................129
Rounded Top & Bottom Formations............................................130
Rounded Top......................................................................... 130
Rounded Bottom.................................................................... 130
Double Top............................................................................ 130
Double Bottom....................................................................... 131
Triple Top .............................................................................. 131
Triple Bottom ......................................................................... 131
Arc Tool.......................................................................................132
Personalizing Your Charts with Notation Tools. 137
Introduction .................................................................................137
Notes Window .............................................................................138
Arrow Tool...................................................................................138
Flag Tool .....................................................................................139
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Text Tool..................................................................................... 141
Box Tool...................................................................................... 142
Circle Tool................................................................................... 143
Using Indicators.................................................... 147
Introduction ................................................................................. 147
Displaying Indicators in the Indicator Window ....................... 147
One Button ............................................................................ 147
All Button............................................................................... 148
%R – Williams Percent R............................................................ 149
AD –Williams AD......................................................................... 151
CCI –Commodity Channel Index ................................................ 154
DMI – Directional Movement Index ............................................. 158
HVOL – Historic Volatility............................................................ 164
MACD Moving Average Convergence/Divergence .................... 170
MOM – Momentum ..................................................................... 174
RSI – Relative Strength Index..................................................... 177
FSTO – Fast Stochastics ............................................................ 181
SSTO - Slow Stochastics............................................................ 184
VOL/OI –Volume/Open Interest .................................................. 187
Displaying Indicators in the Chart Window ............................ 189
Moving Average Lines ................................................................ 190
Double Moving Average ........................................................ 190
Triple Moving Average .......................................................... 191
Pivot Points................................................................................. 195
10x8 MAC ................................................................................... 197
PSAR – Parabolic Stop and Reversal......................................... 200
Long Term Charts................................................. 203
Using Calculators ................................................. 211
Dollar Calculator ......................................................................... 211
Risk/Reward Calculator .............................................................. 213
Program Options .................................................. 219
Introduction ........................................................................... 219
Global Settings ........................................................................... 220
Track ‘n Trade Pro Themes................................................... 221
Long Term............................................................................. 222
Tools ........................................................................................... 224
My Default Settings..................................................................... 228
Appearance........................................................................... 229
Bollinger Band....................................................................... 230
MAC ...................................................................................... 232
Moving Averages .................................................................. 233
Pivot Points ........................................................................... 234
PSAR – Wilder’s Parabolic Time/Price.................................. 235
Scaling & Price Bars ............................................................. 236
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AD - Williams Accumulation/Distribution................................ 237
CCI - Commodity Channel Index ........................................... 238
DMI/ADX – Directional Movement Index ............................... 239
HVOL – Historic Volatility ...................................................... 241
MACD – Moving Average Convergence/Divergence............. 242
MOM – Momentum................................................................ 244
%R – Williams Percent R ...................................................... 245
RSI – Relative Strength Index ............................................... 246
STO – Stochastics (Fast/Slow).............................................. 247
VOL/OI – Volume and Open Interest..................................... 250
Ruler Bar .....................................................................................252
Current Chart Settings ................................................................253
Accounting & Simulator Plug-in ......................... 254
My Account............................................................................ 260
Deposits and Withdrawals ..................................................... 262
Trade Log .............................................................................. 263
Simulation..............................................................................264
Options Plug-In ..................................................... 270
Introduction............................................................................ 270
Options Accounting ............................................................... 273
Interest Rate History.............................................................. 276
OS Calculator ........................................................................ 277
OSV & STRK Options Indicators ........................................... 279
Black and Scholes Calculations............................................. 282
Seasonals Plug-In ................................................. 286
Introduction............................................................................ 288
Seasonal Trends ................................................................... 288
Historical Averages................................................................ 289
Market Probability.................................................................. 291
Spreads Plug-In..................................................... 295
Introduction............................................................................ 297
Spread Margins ..................................................................... 300
Candlestick Charting ............................................ 304
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Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR GECKO SOFTWARE
IMPORTANT-READ CAREFULLY: This Gecko End-User License Agreement
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Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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or replacement elected by Gecko with respect to any breach of the Limited
Warranty) shall be limited to the greater of the amount actually paid by you for
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exclusions and disclaimers described above shall apply to the maximum
extent permitted by applicable law, even if any remedy fails its essential
purpose.
Hypothetical or simulated performance results have certain limitations. Unlike
an actual performance record, simulated results do not represent actual
trading. Also, since the trades have not actually been executed, the results
may have over or under compensated for impact, if any, of certain market
factors, such as lack of liquidity. No representation is being made that any
account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to those shown. The
risk of loss in trading futures, stocks and options can be substantial; therefore
only genuine "risk" funds should be used in such trading. Futures, stocks and
options may not be suitable investments for all individuals and individuals
should carefully consider their financial condition in deciding whether to trade.
Option traders should be aware that the exercise of a long option would result
in a futures or stock position.
Gecko Software, Inc. at its discretion may, from time to time, contact you by
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Portions of the grid controls used in the data tab, broker's report, and Spreads
module are copyright (c) 1998, Chris Maunder.
DATA DOWNLOAD IS DEFINED AS: This is a non-guaranteed service, with
no rights or privileges whatsoever, and is only an extension of the service
provided by Track 'n Trade, and Gecko Software, Inc. not a standard feature.
SUBSCRIPTION BASED DATA DOWNLOAD IS DEFINED AS: Data in which
Gecko Software provides by computer transmission services to their
subscribing customers. This service is not a guaranteed service, and may be
discontinued or off line for any given period or amount of time without warranty
or restitution. Data subscription services and fees are a non-refundable, nonguaranteed extension of service provided by Gecko Software Inc.
Data has been provided from sources believed to be reliable but no guarantee
is made as to its accuracy, therefore use of this data in making real-life trading
situations is strongly discouraged. When trading "real" markets, consult a
licensed brokerage firm to confirm ALL price action; always remember, this is
a game, and the data provided is for simulation and practice purposes only.
This license does not give any recipient the right to re-transmit or re-distribute
this data in any format whatsoever. Much of the options data provided by
Gecko Software is not even real market data, but “fictitious data” generated by
the Black and Scholes mathematical model, it is never recommended that you
use Track ‘n Trade Pro options data as a reference to the actual “live” market
data.
Final Disclaimer: Track ‘n Trade pro and all plug-in modules were specifically
designed for entertainment purposes only – have fun!
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TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
INTRODUCTION TO FUTURES
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
INTRODUCTION TO FUTURES
The Basics of Futures Trading
Introduction
The Stock Market evolved into being a way for companies
to raise capital. By exchanging ownership in a company for
cash, early business ventures were able raise capital to buy
equipment, or build factories. Companies hundreds of
years ago, as well as today, primarily use the stock market
as a means to raise capital.
The modern futures market evolved not from a need to
raise capital, but from a need to transfer risk. The futures
market makes it possible for those who wish to manage
price risk (hedgers) to transfer that risk to those who are
willing to accept it in the hopes of a profit (speculators).
Futures markets are first and foremost a risk transference
vehicle. Futures markets also provide price information that
the world looks to as a benchmark in determining value of a
particular commodity or financial instrument on any given
day or at any specific time of the day. These benefits, risk
transference, and price discovery, reach every sector of the
economy of the world where changing market conditions
create economic risk; including such diverse fields as
agricultural products, foreign exchange, imports, exports,
financing and investment vehicles.
What are Futures?
Futures contracts are standardized to meet the specific
requirements of buyers and sellers for a variety of
commodities and financial instruments. Quantity, quality,
and delivery locations (all the essential ingredients) are preestablished. The only variable is price, which is discovered
through an auction-like process on the trading floor of an
organized futures exchange.
For example, assume an individual buys one contract of
March Corn at $2.25 per bushel on January 2nd, initiating a
long position. This contract calls for the delivery of 5,000
bushels of Number 2 Yellow Corn seven days before the
last business day of the delivery month (March) at an
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
exchange-recognized facility. If on February 15th, the
purchaser of the March Corn contract wishes to exit his
position, he can do so by selling one March Corn contract.
Assuming that the contract was sold at $2.45 per bushel,
the holder of the March Corn contract would receive
$1,000.00 before broker commissions and fees for holding
the position for six weeks:
Profit or Loss = Sale Price – Purchase Price * # of
bushels ($2.45 - $2.25 = $0.20 * 5,000 = $1,000.00)
Our person in this example is $1,000.00 richer for the
experience, and has no further obligation in the Corn
market because the sale of the March Corn futures contract
at $2.45 per bushel offset the earlier purchase at $2.25 per
bushel.
Notice in this example, that all of the features of the
contract were predetermined by the exchange except price.
ƒ Quantity: 5,000 bushels for Corn futures
ƒ Quality of the Corn: #2 Yellow
ƒ Delivery time: 7th to last business day of the contract
month
ƒ Location: exchange-recognized warehouse or transfer
station
Because futures contracts are standardized (with the only
variable being price) buyers and sellers are able to
exchange one contract for another and actually offset their
obligation to deliver or take delivery of the commodity
underlying the futures contract.
Offset means taking an equal and opposite position in the
futures market to one’s initial position.
Margins and Guaranteeing Futures
The exchanges and their members are able to guarantee
all trades because they require all parties in a transaction to
deposit performance bond margins.
Performance bond margins are financial guarantees
required of both parties (buyers and sellers) of futures
contracts to ensure fulfillment of the contract obligations.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
That is, buyers and sellers are required to take or make
delivery of the commodity or financial instrument
represented by the futures contract unless the position is
offset before contract expiration.
Before entering into a transaction, both parties have to post
Initial Margin Requirement. The Initial Margin Requirement
is the amount of money a party must have on account with
a clearing firm (your broker) at the time the order is placed.
Initial margin funds must be on deposit before any trade
can be accepted. Maintenance Margin is a set minimum
margin (per outstanding futures contract) that a party to a
futures contract must maintain in his/her margin account to
hold a futures position.
Initial Margin Requirements vary from commodity to
commodity, but are generally between 5% and 10% of the
total value of the contract.
For example, if March Corn futures are trading at
$2.11/bushel, the initial Margin Requirement for CBOT
Corn futures is $405.00 per contract, with a maintenance
margin requirement of $300.00. Our speculator would have
to have at least $405.00 on deposit with his broker before
he could enter the market. He would need to have an
account liquidating value of at least $300.00 per contract in
order to stay in the position.
Let’s assume that our speculator has $1,000 in his account
and decides to buy 2 contracts of March Corn at
$2.35/bushel on January 2nd. He is able to buy 2 contracts
of March Corn because he has more than the initial margin
requirement of $810.00 ($405.00 initial margin x 2 contracts
= $810.00). With $50.00 round turn commission rate
($25.00 in, $25.00 out) our speculators broker would
charge him $50.00 in commissions as well. Assume that
March Corn settled at his entry price of $2.35/bushel. His
account liquidating value would be $950.00, or $1,000.00
initial deposit - $50.00 commission to buy 2 contracts of
Corn. Since the liquidating value of the speculators
account (Funds on Deposit + Open Position Profit or loss)
is greater than the maintenance margin requirement of
$300.00 per contract or $600.00 for 2 March Corn, he is
able to stay in the trade.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
The next day, much to our speculators detriment, Corn
prices drop by 5 cents. Our speculator now has an open
position loss of -$500.00 and an account liquidating value
of $450.00 ($1,000.00 - $50.00 commission - $450.00 open
position loss = $450.00). Since this value is less than the
Maintenance Margin requirement of $300.00 per contract,
or $600.00, our speculator is on a Margin Call.
In order to keep the position, the speculator must either
send enough money to bring the account back above the
Initial Margin Requirement of $810.00 or liquidate the
position. The Maintenance Margin Requirement is the
minimum amount of money, which must be in the account
(including open position profits and losses) to maintain an
open position in the futures market. If the value of the
account dips below this level, then the account holder must
either send additional funds to his/her broker or liquidate
the position. Usually, traders have 5 business days to get
funds posted to the account, but in some cases the
brokerage firm may liquidate the futures positions in order
to meet the Margin Call.
Note: Brokerages have the right to liquidate your position
immediately, and many may require you to wire funds
immediately to avoid liquidation. Also be aware that margin
requirements are subject to change without notice.
Remember, Initial Margin is the minimum amount of money
you must have in your account to open up a futures
position. Maintenance Margin is the minimum amount of
money you must have in your account to maintain the
position. So in our Corn example, the initial margin was
$405.00 per contract, meaning that a trader must have at
least $405.00 per contract in his/her margin account before
a Corn futures position can be entered into. After the
position is entered into a balance of $300.00 per contract or
the Maintenance Margin must be maintained in order for
the position to be left open. If the available funds in the
account (funds deposited + open position profit or loss) are
less than the Maintenance Margin Requirement, then more
funds must be deposited or the futures positions will be
liquidated or offset by taking an opposite position in the
futures market.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Reminder: Long or buy positions are offset or closed by
selling, while short or sell positions are offset or closed out
by buying.
The dual margining system (initial and maintenance) of the
futures market ensures that all positions are adequately
financed, insuring the integrity of the futures market. The
exchanges set the minimum margin requirement based on
the volatility and dollar value of the contract. Margin levels
are subject to change both up and down at the discretion of
the Exchange. Most brokerage firms charge the exchange
minimum margin, but they are entitled to charge more, so
be sure to check with your broker before entering into any
futures transaction.
The Long and Short of Trading
There are two basic positions one can have in the futures
markets:
1. A long position entails the purchase of futures
contracts in anticipation of rising prices.
Purchasing a futures contract enters into a long position.
Long positions are profitable if the underlying futures
contract increases in price during the holding period. Selling
the same quantity and contract month that one initially
purchased offsets a long position. Long positions are
typically used by consumers to hedge against rising prices,
and initiated by speculators in anticipation of higher prices.
2. A short position entails the sale of futures contracts
in anticipation of lower prices.
A short position is entered into by initially selling a futures
contract. In the futures market, unlike the stock market, it is
just as easy to establish a short position as a long position.
Short positions are profitable if the underlying futures
contract decreases in price during the holding period.
Buying the same quantity and contract month that you
initially sold offsets your short positions. If the resulting
purchase price is less than the original sale price, a profit is
achieved. However, if the resulting purchase price is
greater than the original sale price, a loss is incurred.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Commodity producers who wish to avoid potentially lower
prices - as a short position increases in value and prices
decline - usually establish short positions. Speculators
anticipating lower prices in the future establish short
positions.
Calculating Profit/Loss:
To figure out the profit or loss associated with a position is
the same regardless of either a long or short position. The
profit or loss from a futures position is calculated as follows:
Profit or Loss = Sell Price – Buy Price x Contract Size x
Number of Contracts
For example, assume a speculator thinks that Corn prices
will go down in the coming weeks. As such, he sells 2
March Corn contracts at 235 ($2.35 per bushel, but corn
prices are quoted in cents per bushel, so the price is said to
be 235 cents per bushel), thus initiating a short position.
Having studied the behavior of Corn, using his Track ‘n’
Trade software, our speculator was correct, and Corn
prices fell from 235 to 220 over the next two weeks. Given
the –15 cent drop in Corn prices, our speculator has a
$1,500.00 open position profit, and decides to “cash in” his
winning by buying 2 March Corn futures at 220.
Profit or Loss = Sell Price – Buy Price x Contract Size x
Number of Contracts
= 235 – 220 = +15 cents
= $0.15 x 5,000 bushel contract size = $750.00 per contract
= $750.00 per contract x 2 contracts = $1,500.00 (before
commissions and fees.)
Now assume that another speculator buys (initiating a long
position) 2 March Corn at 235. After two weeks, prices
again drop by –.15 cents to 220, at which time he offsets
the long position by selling 2 March Corn at 220. His loss
from the transaction would be -$1,500.00before
commissions and fees.
Profit or Loss = Sell Price – Buy Price x Contract Size x
Number of Contracts
= 220 – 235 = +15 cents
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
= -$0.15 x 5,000 bushel contract size = $750.00 per
contract
= -$750.00 per contract x 2 contracts =- $1,500.00 (before
commissions and fees.)
As you can see, whether you are long or short, the basic
idea of speculating in the futures market is to “BUY LOW”
and “SELL HIGH.” In the futures market this can be done
in any order. You can initiate a Long Position by buying the
futures first and then at a later time offsetting by selling, and
you profit if the sale price (exit price) is higher than the
purchase price (entry price). Or, you can initiate a Short
Position by selling the futures first and then offsetting the
contract(s) at a later time by buying them. A profit will still
occur if the sale price (entry price) is higher than the
purchase price (exit price).
Of course the profit or loss amount is determined by the
contract you are trading. Each market is quoted differently.
Some markets are quoted in points, while others are quoted
in cents.
Points vs. Cents:
Quoting Prices and Calculating Profit or Loss
Each futures contract is quoted in a slightly different
manner, and as such your profit or loss calculation for most
markets is slightly different. The following is a basic
highlight of the major markets and how they are quoted. Of
course, Gecko Software’s Track ‘n Trade® Pro charting
software has tools to convert price moves to profit or
losses, but we thought we would show you a few examples
so you can understand how they are quoted.
Grains:
Corn, Wheat, Oats, and Soybeans are quoted in cents per
bushel. The contract size for all of these is 5,000 bushels.
For example, a Corn price of 235 is really $2.35 per bushel.
Each of these grains moves in 1/4-cent increments, which
equates to $12.50 before commissions and fees. Profit or
loss of 1 cent move = $50.00 before commissions and fees.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Meats:
The contracts are quoted in cents per pound. So if Live
Cattle is trading at 74.00, the price is actually 0.74 cents
per pound. Meat prices move in 0.025 cents per pound
increments, but usually the last 0.005-cent per pound is
dropped, so a price quote of 74.02 is really 74.025, while a
price quote of 74.17 is actually 74.175. Live Cattle, Lean
Hogs and Pork Bellies contracts all call for delivery of
40,000 pounds, thus a 0.025-cent per pound is worth
$10.00 before commissions and fees. Profit or loss of a 1
cent move = $400.00 before commissions and fees.
Feeder Cattle prices are quoted the same way, except that
Feeder Cattle futures call for 50,000 pounds, thus a 0.025
cent move is worth $12.50 and a 1 cent move in Feeder
Cattle = $500.00 before commissions and fees.
"Softs" or Exotics:
Coffee, Sugar and Orange Juice are all quoted in cents per
pound, but each has a different contract size. For example,
a Coffee price of 50.40 is 50.40 cents per pound, while an
Orange Juice price of 89.95 is 89.95 cents per pound, and
a Sugar price of 762 is really 7.62 cents per pound (decimal
is moved over in Sugar, as prices are quoted in cents per
hundred weight). Now, just to confuse everyone, Cocoa
prices are quoted in dollars per metric ton, so a price of
1301 is really $1301 per ton.
The contracts size for Coffee is 37,500 pounds, so a 1-cent
move is worth $375.00 before commissions and fees.
Orange Juice futures call for delivery of 15,000 pounds so a
1-cent move is worth $150.00 before commissions and
fees. Sugar is traded in 112,000-pound increments, so a 1cent move in Sugar is equal to $1,120.00 before
commissions and fees. Cocoa contracts call for 10 tonnes
at delivery so a $1 move in Cocoa is worth $10.00 before
commissions and fees.
Metals:
Gold, and Platinum prices are quoted in dollars per troy
ounce. Most quote vendors display there prices in this
format as well, so prices are easy to read. A Gold price of
285.10 is $285.10 per troy ounce, while a Platinum price of
475.5 is $475.50 per troy ounce. However, each contract
has a different contract size. Each Gold futures contract
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
represents 100 troy ounces, so a $1.00 per troy ounce
move equates to $100.00 before commissions and fees.
Platinum futures represent only 50 troy ounces, as Platinum
is much more rare than Gold. Each $1.00 per toy ounce
move in Platinum is equal to $50.00 before commissions
and fees.
Silver and Copper Futures are quoted in cents; cents per
troy ounce in Silver, and cents per pound in Copper. For
example, a Silver price of 452.5 is actually $4.525 per
ounce, while a Copper price of 70.20 is really $0.7020 per
pound. Each Silver contract represents 5,000 ounces;
therefore a 1.0-cent move equals $50.00 before
commissions and fees. Copper contracts control 25,000
pounds of copper; therefore a 1.00-cent move equals
$250.00 before commissions and fees.
Petroleum:
Crude oil is quoted in dollars per barrel (bbl). A price of
20.50 is $20.50 per barrel. Each contract represents 1,000
barrels of oil; therefore a $1.00/barrel move is equal to a
$1,000.00 profit or loss before commissions and fees.
Heating Oil and Unleaded Gasoline are just like they are at
the pump (but lower as taxes are not included nor service
station mark-ups), in cents per gallon. Therefore a price of
52.46 is $0.5246 per gallon. Both contracts call for delivery
of 42,000 gallons, therefore a 1-cent per gallon equates to
$420.00 before commissions and fees.
Currencies:
Currencies represent an exchange rate, or how many US
Dollars it take to buy one Swiss Franc, Japanese Yen,
Euro, or Mexican Peso. Prices are quoted in many different
fashions, but the basic convention is that a 0.01 move in
the Swiss Franc, or Yen equals $12.50 before commissions
and fees because of the contract size. The Canadian
Dollar, US Dollar Index, and Euro have a different contract
size, and therefore a 0.01 move equates to $10.00 before
commissions and fees.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Financials:
The same basic principles apply to the financial markets,
which are generally quoted in terms of points. Prices are
usually read as is, though some like the treasury securities
(US, TY, FV, TU) are traded in different combinations of
1/32nd or 1/64th. Each of these markets has the dollars
per point already calculated into Gecko Software’s Track ‘n
Trade application, and a list of the different contract sizes
and pricing terms are available from the various exchanges
they trade on, as they do not follow a single convention.
Margins, Cents, Points & the
Power of Leverage
Before entering into either a long or short position, one
must post a performance bond, or have the Initial Margin
Requirement necessary. Because it is only necessary to
post a fraction of the underlying value of the worth of the
underlying contract, futures are a highly leveraged trading
vehicle.
Initial Margin Requirements vary from market to market, but
generally are only 3% to 18% of the value of the underlying
contract value.
For example, with March Corn trading at 211 per bushel
($2.11/bushel), the current initial margin requirement is
$405 per contract. Each Corn futures contract represents
5,000 bushels of Corn, so the underlying value of a contract
of Corn at 211 is $10,550. In other words, for $405 you can
control $10,550 worth of Corn. Thus, by putting up just
3.9% of the value of the contract, you can control 5,000
bushels of Corn (remember, margin requirements are
subject to change without notice).
In the above example, a 1-cent move in the price of Corn
($50.00 before commissions and fees) represents a 12.3%
return on the initial Margin Requirement. This is the power
of leverage. A small move in the price of the futures
contract can mean a large move in your account.
Another example, a 3.9% move in the price of Corn could
yield a 100% return, double your money, or lose it all, if
properly or improperly positioned. The power of trading on
margin is that a small move in the price of the underlying
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
equates to a large return (either positive or negative) on the
money posted.
Just as leverage magnifies the amount of force used, as in
the case of pulleys allowing men to lift very heavy objects,
financial leverage magnifies the amount of money, which
can be made or lost in the markets. As they say in
Chicago… “The futures markets have made millionaires of
more young men than Rock and Roll.”
However, we want to point out that leverage is a two edged
sword. Over leveraging your trading is a sure fire way to
lose your money…and fast. Think about the leverage of a
roulette wheel. Each bet in roulette on a specific number
pays off at 35 to 1. For example, if you bet “6” and the ball
bounces and lands on “6”, every $1 you bet is paid back to
you with $35 dollars. 25 to 1 is great leverage.
Now, assume that you start off with $1 and bet “6” and win.
You now have $35 and bet it all on “6”, which comes up
again. You take your $1,225 winnings and let them ride on
“6” again and win, reaping $42,875. “You can win big, even
if you don’t bet big” as they say…let it ride again, making a
phenomenal $1,500,625. You let it ride one more time, and
up pops “00”. You loose everything.
Though roulette is strictly a game of chance, the above
results are possible with futures due to the leverage
involved. For example, you buy 1 Corn futures contract at
210 and the price goes up to 219, giving you open position
profit enough to post margin for a second contract. Prices
then rise another .04 cents, and you buy a third contract.
With Corn prices having risen .13 cents, you were able to
buy 3 contracts with an initial investment of only $405.00
However, all it takes is a .05 cent decline in the price of
Corn and all your profits are gone. Of course another 5cent rise would yield a $1,450.00 profit or a 358% return on
the initial margin.
It is possible to make highly leveraged, and possibly highly
profitable transactions in the futures markets by trading with
relatively little financial cushion and pyramiding contracts.
However, it has been our experience that those that
practice this type of trading generally do not “break the
bank” unless of course you are referring to your own bank
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
account, which is usually drained quickly using this type of
money management.
Most people are attracted to trading futures because of the
leverage involved, and it is the leverage involved which
seems to do in most traders. Though futures trading should
only be done with genuine risk capital, this does not mean
you should take undo risk.
As a general rule of thumb, traders should learn to
diversify their risk, only placing a small percentage of their
capital at risk at any one time.
Though this style of trade will reduce your “bang for your
buck” in the short run, it may prevent you from getting the
“bust for your buck” common to many futures traders.
Remember, in order to learn this game, you need to be able
to stick around to learn all the rules (both written and
unwritten), and the only way to stick around is through
prudent money management.
Orders to Manage Your Future
The size of your account and the amount of risk you are
personally able to bear is a completely personal matter.
Some very successful traders, like Richard Dennis who is
rumored to have parlayed $1,000.00 into several million in
the futures markets, have made fortunes starting with
relatively small sums of money. Most professional fund
managers risk as little as 1% of their account equity on
any given trade. Though both of these are probably out of
the question for most people starting out in the futures
market, as the odds of turning $1,000.00 into several million
in a couple of years is akin to hitting “6” on the roulette
wheel 5 times in a row. Also, risking 1% of a $1,000 means
only risking $10.00 per trade, which just is not practical.
However, by maybe postponing your entrance into the
futures market until you have, for example, a $5,000.00
minimum of genuine risk capital (not the kids college fund,
the rent, or your next mortgage payment), you could
achieve a level of diversity and risk, theoretically then
risking 10% of your account ($500.00 before commissions
and fees) on any one trade is realistic. This would greatly
reduce your risk of ruin, increasing your ability to trade
longer and hopefully become more proficient in the long
run.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Types of Orders
At the core of all risk management and trading is using the
appropriate order for your market objective. The following
are some basic definitions of the common order types, all of
which can be replicated in Gecko Software’s Track ‘n Trade
Pro charting software.
The Market Order
The market order is the most common type of order. With a
market order the customer states the number of contracts
of a particular delivery month of a specific commodity
he/she wishes to buy or sell. The price of the order is not
specified, as the market order is filled “at the market” or at
the current price when the order enters the trading pit.
Market orders are placed when the speculator or hedger
wants in or out of the market fast, since time is the most
important factor in this type of order, not price. Market on
Close is a common variation of this type of order, and is
used when the trader wishes to have his/her order
executed during the closing of the market (closing range).
The Market on Open is another common variation,
instructing the order to be filled during the markets opening
price range.
The Limit (“Or Better”) Order
The limit order specifies a price limit at which the order can
be filled. The limit order can only be filled at the specified
price “or better”. For example, a customer wishing to buy
two July Corn contracts at 210 when July Corn is trading at
211 would place the following order: “Buy two July Corn at
210, limit.”
Buy limit orders must be placed at the current market price
or lower; this is because when buying you want the lowest
price. The lower the price the better, and limit orders can
only be filled at the specified price or lower. Hence one can
only place a limit buy order at the current price or lower.
A customer wishing to sell two July Corn contracts at 215
when July Corn is trading at 211 would place the following
order: “Sell two July Corn at 215, limit.”
Sell limit orders must be placed at the current market price
or higher; this is because when selling you want the highest
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
price possible. The higher the price the better, and sell limit
orders can only be filled at the specified price or higher.
An important note about limit orders is that when a buy
limit is placed above the market it can turn into a market
order, and get filled immediately. This is because if the
current price is below the limit price, the market is in a
better situation and it becomes a market order. The same
principle applies to sell limits: when a sell limit is placed
below the market, it becomes a market order, as the higher
market price is better.
Remember: Gecko Software’s Track ‘n Trade program
helps you learn all these rules by allowing you to simulate
placing these orders, allowing you to practice, and make
sure you have each order under your belt, before ever
moving on to trade the live markets.
Stop Order
A stop order is not executed until the market reaches the
specified price level.
Once the stop level is hit, the stop order becomes a market
order. Buy stops are always placed above the market, while
sell stops are placed below the market.
For example, a customer wishing to buy July Soybeans at
485 when the current market price is 475 would place a
stop order: “Buy one July Soybean at 485, stop.” If the
Soybean market trades as high as 485 or is bid at 485, the
order would become a market order and would be filled as
quickly as possible.
A customer wishing to sell July Soybeans at 465 when the
market is currently priced at 475 would place a stop order
as follows: “Sell one July Soybean at 465, stop.” If the
Soybean market traded as low as 465 or was offered at
465, the order would become a market order and would be
filled as quickly as possible.
Stop orders are usually used to liquidate earlier
transactions, to cut losses, or protect profits. For example,
let’s assume that a speculator bought three July Corn at
210 and the market is currently trading at 225. He/she may
wish to protect some of his/her 15-cent profit per contract
($2,250.00 profit before commissions and fees) by placing
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
a sell stop at 220, to protect 10 cents ($1,500 of the profit
before commissions and fees). Placing the following order
would do this: "Sell three July Corn at 220, stop."
There are many other different types of orders, such as
stop limits and market if touched orders, but the above
orders are the most commonly used and are really the only
orders a beginning trader needs to learn.
Look Before You Leap:
Getting Ready to Start Trading Futures
Before starting a business it is important to have a business
plan and have adequate capital. Most new businesses start
off with a dream, and the proprietors are willing to work
hard. Despite the hard work, they fail because of
unforeseen difficulties, poor preparation, or lack of capital.
Remember this when starting your trading business, and try
to have adequate capital, and plan for the unforeseen by
developing and testing a trading plan.
Before trading, it is imperative that you
develop a trading plan.
Your trading plan should be capitalized with money you can
afford to lose. Generally trading funds are categorized as
genuine risk capital if it is money that you can afford to lose.
Again, this is not your child’s college education fund, the
mortgage money, or grocery money. Proper planning and
adequate capitalization are the cornerstones of any new
venture.
The first step in building a house is drawing up plans for
the completed house. The workmen who erect the house
consult the blueprints when placing walls, placing sinks,
appliances, and electrical outlets. The transition from bare
ground to a finished home is laid out in the blueprints, or
the plan for the completed structure. Trades should be
planed with as much detail. Every situation should be
planed for, so decisions are made not in the heat of the
moment when money is on the line.
The goal of your trading plan is to allow you to make
decisions before things happen, giving you a blueprint for
trading before entering the market. A basic trading plan
should include the following features as a minimum:
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Trade entry
Initial risk or stop loss point
Criteria for stop loss movement
Criteria for profitable trade exit
Once you have developed your trading plan, put it to the
test by “Paper Trading.” Paper Trading is fictitious trading,
or simulated trading, best done using Gecko Software’s
Track ‘n Trade Pro market simulator program, in which you
simulate buying and selling futures contracts, therefore not
risking real money. The whole purpose of paper trading is
to be as realistic as possible when doing it. It does no good
to practice trading with a million dollars, if you are going to
start with $10,000. Don’t practice your trading in the S&P if
you are intending to actually trade Corn. Keep your practice
as realistic as possible.
The one major downfall to paper trading is that it does not
involve real money. It is very easy to live through a fictitious
losing streak but quite different to live through it when it is
your money on the line. Because paper trading does not
involve real money, your emotions are kept at bay, but tend
to creep up when real money is involved.
Gecko Software’s Track ‘n’ Trade Pro Charting Program
comes with over 25 years of historical data on over 50
different markets, allowing you to learn the markets and
develop a trading plan. Four different Plug-in are available
for Track ‘n Trade Pro to help you maximize your trading
strategies. The Plug-ins are listed below:
Accounting Plug-in - Enables Track ‘n Trade Pro users to
simulate placing life like orders, applying deposits and
making withdrawals. Also, it keeps track of commissions
paid to your simulated (or live) broker, tracks orders placed,
profits & losses and even simulates margin calls.
Options Plug-in – The order tools included with this Plugin automatically snap to the different strike prices then it
shows you the actual dollar value of the option on that
particular day. Track ‘n Trade Pro users who have this
Plug-in keep track of options profit and losses concurrent
with your futures orders, allowing them to practice mixing
futures and options strategies simultaneously.
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Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Seasonal Plug-in – Comprised of three indicators for the
seasonal market, this plug-in assists the Track ‘n Trade Pro
user to calculate Seasonal Trends, Market Probability, and
gives Historical Averages. All this information is based on
what has happened in the past to a particular seasonal
contract.
Spreads Plug-in - Place orders directly on the spread chart
and let Track 'n Trade automatically simulate placing both
orders in the opposing contracts, then calculates your daily
profits and losses in the Accounting and Simulation Plug-in
module.
So, before ever attempting to trade in the futures market,
develop a strategic plan. Your trading plan should be
realistic and well tested over past history. Once it has been
developed, take six months and paper trade; “simulate”
trading in “real time”, using Track ‘n Trade Pro. If the plan
still holds up, then remember the mantra of futures traders:
“Plan your Trade, and Trade Your Plan.”
Good Luck,
Lan H. Turner, CEO
Gecko Software, Inc.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
31
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
TRACK ‘N TRADE INTRO
This section includes a quick look at Track ‘n Trade Pro
features and there location in the software. For more
information see the following sections referenced.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
32
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
File Menu – This menu consists of File, View, and Help.
The File Menu consists of:
New: Opening New Chartbook
Open: Opening a Saved Chartbook
Save: Saving current Chartbook with existing name, if
Chartbook has been saved. If it hasn’t’ the Save As
window will open for you to name the Chartbook that you
are working on.
Save As: Opens the Save As window allowing you to
choose a location to save the Chartbook (default My
Defaults) and name the Chartbook.
Print: Print the Chart Window. You will need to click in the
Chart Window if this option is not available.
Print Preview: Opens a window showing you what the
chart will look like when it is printed.
Print Setup: To change the printer options before printing.
Download Data: To open the data download utility.
Exit: Closes the Program.
See the following sections for more information:
- Creating Chartbooks From Start to Finish
- Data Downloads
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
33
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
The View Menu controls the toolbars that are showing in the
software. Click on to toggle them on or off. If a check mark is
in front of the option it is selected and shown in the software.
Tool Button Lock: This option gives you the ability to lock a
tool selected until you select another tool. Normally when you
click on a tool, you draw one item and then the tool ends and
you are defaulted to the pointer tool.
Program Options: Select this item to open the Program
Options section.
Commodity Chooser: Select this item to open the Commodity
Chooser section.
See the following sections for more information:
- Program Options
- Data Downloads
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
34
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
The Help Menu gives you information about your software
needed for technical support as well as links for accessing
documentation for the software.
About Track ‘n Trade: Select to get information about the
version installed, activation code, and plug-ins installed.
Online Help: Link to http://help.geckosoftware.com
Electronic manual: Opens the manual.
My Account Manager: Open an internet page that you can
use to update your customer information, payment information,
and placing additional orders.
How-To Videos (CD-ROM): Instructions on playing videos.
Check for Updates: This option is used to check for new
updates for the software or to update your version of the
software to include any new plug-ins you may have purchased.
Change Registration Info: If you mistyped your Activation
Code or needed to change your code for any reason, click on
this option to change the Activation code.
Keyboard Shortcuts: Select to get information on the quick
reference list of keyboard shortcuts for common commands.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
35
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Main Toolbar – This menu consists of quick buttons for: Open,
New, Save, Capture, Print, Preview Print, Commodity
Chooser, Program Options, Data download, Pointer and Hand
Tool.
These features are covered in the following sections:
- Creating Chartbooks from Start to finish
- Data Downloads
Charting Tools – This toolbar consists of the: Cross-hair,
Line, Multi-Line, 1-2-3, Head & Shoulders, Channel, N%,
Inclining/Declining, Wedge, and Trend Fan Tools
These tools are covered in the Analyzing Charts with Charting
Tools section.
Advanced Charting Tools – This Toolbar consists of the:
Elliot Wave, Dart/Blip, Gann Fan, Andrew’s Pitchfork,
Fibonacci Retracement, Fibonacci Arc, Fibonacci Time Zone,
Day Offset, and the Arc Tool.
These tools are covered in the Advanced Charting Tools
section.
Notation Tools – This Toolbar consists of the Arrow, Flag,
Text, Box, and Circle Tool.
These tools are covered in the Personalizing Charts with
Notation Tools section.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
36
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Accounting Tools – This toolbar consists of the Dollar
Calculator and the Risk/Reward Tool.
These calculators are covered in the using Calculators Section
Control Panel – The Control Panel consists of the
Commodity, Key, Data and Notes Tabs.
Commodity Tab: This section of the
Control Panel gives you the ability to
open a chart, add a chart to your
Chartbook, and select between the
charts that are open.
See the Creating Chartbooks from Start
to Finish section for detailed information.
Key & Data Tabs: These sections
display the key details and data from the
contract displayed in the Chart Window.
See the Data Download section for
detailed information.
Notes Tab: This section gives you the
ability to save notes with charts.
See Personalizing Charts with Notation
Tools section for detailed information.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
37
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Chart Window: Section of the software that displays the chart.
Play Controls: These controls consist of the center chart
button, and the daily, weekly, and monthly chart buttons.
Center Chart Button: This button scales the price
bars based on the highest/lowest values displayed in
the chart window. For more information on Scaling,
see the Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
section.
Daily Chart Button: Automatically selected when
opening a chart.
Weekly Chart Button: Opens a long-term weekly
chart based on the daily chart shown.
Monthly Chart Button: Opens a long-term monthly
chart based on the daily chart shown.
See the Long-Term Chart section for more information.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
38
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
Indicator Window: Displays the Indicators
See the Indicators section for more information.
Indicator Buttons: Used to select the indicators shown in the
Indicator window
See the Indicators section for more information.
Scaling Controls – Gives the user quick access to changing
the price bar and ruler scaling.
See the Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish for detailed
information.
Status Bar - The status bar gives you the cursor location. You
have two values displayed:
- Your mouse position when your mouse pointer is over the
Chart Window.
- The last day shown on the chart.
- The cursor bar is also available in a floating tool bar see the
View menu
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
39
Section 1 – Introduction to Futures
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
QUICK REFERENCE
CTRL and
Scroll Chart Up
CTRL and
Scroll Chart Down
CTRL and
Scroll Chart left
CTRL and
Scroll Chart Right
Page Up
Half Screen Scroll Up
Page Down
Half Screen Scroll Down
Ctrl and Page Up
Quarter Screen Scroll Up
CTRL and Page Down
Quarter Screen Scroll Down
Step Chart Back 1 Tic
Step Chart Forward 1 Tic
HOME
Step Chart to Beginning
END
Step Chart to End of Data
SHIFT
Highlight Day Under Cursor
DELETE
Delete Selected Tool
TAB
Move to next open Chart
SHIFT and TAB
Move to previous chart
CTRL
Lock tool to 45 or 90 Degrees
+
Increment Calculator
-
Decrement Calculator
F9
Toggle for text on Chart Pivot
Points Indicator
H
Toggle key for showing the
Control Panel
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
40
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
CREATING CHARTBOOKS
FROM START TO FINISH
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
41
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
42
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
CREATING CHARTBOOKS
FROM START TO FINISH
All you need to know about creating your
own Chartbooks
Introduction:
Just like a novel is made up of many single pages, a
Chartbook contains many individual charts. Track 'n Trade
Pro gives you the ability to save charts in one file; which is
called a Chartbook. Each Chartbook can contain several
charts; these charts are like the “pages” of your Chartbook.
Every time you open Track ‘n Trade Pro a blank Chartbook
named Book1 will open. You can either continue with the
new Chartbook that is open or you can open a Chartbook
that has already been created.
Each chart that you open and view from the Commodities
tab is listed below in the Active Charts list found on the left
side of the screen. This list is your "Table of Contents" per
say for your Chartbook. Charts are listed in Alphabetical
order in this window. To switch between charts simply
double-click on the different charts listed.
Active Charts List in Track ‘n Trade:
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
43
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Opening or Creating a New Chartbook
After opening Track ‘n Trade Pro, a new Chartbook has
already been started for you. It is called Book1. All this
Chartbook needs are “pages” or charts added to it. You
can add pages to your Chartbook by simply opening charts
using the Commodity Tab. See below.
Opening a chart in Track ‘n Trade:
1. Choose your commodity from the dropdown menu. Then
choose the month and year from the dropdown menu to
the right.
2. Click on the Open Chart button to open your chosen
chart.
Sorting the Commodity List:
Notice that you have sorting options above the “choose a
commodity” drop down menus. You can sort commodities by
Group or Exchange, plus you can display them in an
ascending or descending order.
Symbol Search:
If you know the symbol of the chart that you are opening,
you can type the symbol into the box after Symbol. A
complete list of Commodity Symbols and Commodity Month
Symbols can be found in the Data Download Section.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
44
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Adding/Removing Charts in your Chartbook
Now that you have charts in your Chartbook you might want
to delete some of the charts you have opened before you
save it as a Chartbook.
To Remove a
Chart:
Simply select on the
chart by clicking on
it, then right-click
and select
“Delete Chart”.
To Add a Chart:
Simply open another
chart using the
instructions found in
“Opening a New
Chartbook”.
Switching between Charts in your Chartbook
When you have several charts open in Track ‘n Trade Pro,
you are able to switch back and forth between the charts
listed in the Active Charts by:
1. Double-clicking the chart in the Active Charts list.
2. Pressing the Tab key on your keyboard.
3. Clicking on the Chart Window Title Bar. (see below)
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
45
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Saving and Closing a Chartbook
When you have your Active Chart list the way you want it,
you can save it as a Chartbook and have it available to
open later.
To Save a Chartbook, click on the File menu and then
choose Save Book As. This will open the Save As window.
In the Save As window, you will need to note two things:
First look at the folder specified next to the words Save
In. The default folder is My Documents; it is
recommended that you use the default folder unless you
are familiar with the directory structure of Windows and
feel comfortable browsing to other folders. This is the
location in which your Chartbook will be saved.
Second, notice the name of your file (Default is
Book1.tnt) located after File Name. It is recommended
that the Chartbook be renamed, so as not to accidentally
over-write this file the next time a file is saved. Some
Track ‘n Trade users have named Books according to
Groups, Commodities, or Exchanges, depending on the
charts that they are saving in the Book. As you become
familiar with Track ‘n Trade, you will soon develop a
system of your own.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
46
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Opening an Existing Chartbook
To open an existing Chartbook click on the Open Folder
button shown circled in the main Toolbar, or click on the
File Menu and select Open.
The following screen will appear:
In the Open window, select your file and click on the Open
button. In the screenshot above the Chartbook is named
“Grains.tnt”. Another way to access recently saved
Chartbooks, is to go to the bookmarked section at the end
of the File Menu.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
47
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Saving Charts as an Image
Many Track ‘n Trade Pro users include Chartbooks and
images of their charts in emails, websites etc. To save the
current chart as it is on your screen to an image follow these
instructions:
Step One: Click on the Screen Capture button in the Main
Toolbar. See below:
Step Two: The Save Chart image window will appear. In
this window you may specify: file name, location and file
type. Once the image is saved you are ready to email or
import this graphic into your document. The standard web
file types are .gif or .jpg.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
48
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Printing a Chart
To print a chart in Track 'n Trade Pro, click on the File
Menu and select Print. This will open the Windows Printer
Screen for your default printer. You can also print a Chart
by clicking on the Printer button circled below on your main
Toolbar:
The printed chart will always have the indicator window
printed at the bottom of the chart. The size of the chart will
depend on the size that it is when you press the Print
button.
For an idea of what the chart will look like, click on the
Print Preview button to view the output before printing the
chart. Also printed on the chart are the last day’s Open,
High, Low, and Close.
Printing Options:
Portrait Prints a half-page chart.
Landscape Prints a full-page chart.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
49
Section 2 – Creating Chartbooks from Start to Finish
Scaling a Chart
There are many scaling tools available for you use for
scaling your charts in Track ‘n Trade Pro. Take a look at
each individual tool and how to use them.
Auto Scale Charts:
The Auto Scale Chart feature in Track ‘n Trade Pro forces
the chart to scale the price bars displayed in the chart
window based on the highest and lowest point available in
this set of price bars.
If you have the Accounting & Simulator Plug-in, which
includes the play controls, the Auto Scale Chart feature will
re-scale the chart each time you click a Play button.
Turning on the Auto Scale Chart
Feature:
Right-click on the Chart Window, to
see the menu shown at the left, and
select the Auto Scale Chart option.
You will notice that a check mark
will appear when this option is
selected.
You may also select this feature in
the Program Options.
Sizing Controls:
A. The first set of controls scales the vertical height of the
price bar.
B. The middle set of controls scales the number of price
bars displayed per inch on the chart.
C. The last set of controls scales the days along the
bottom of the chart and the points displayed on the
right side of the chart.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
50
Section 3 – Data Downloads
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
DATA DOWNLOADS
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
51
Section 3 – Data Downloads
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
52
Section 3 – Data Downloads
DATA DOWNLOADS
Update your Track ‘n Trade Pro Database
with the simple click of a mouse!
Introduction
The Data Download Utility in Track ‘n Trade Pro is simple to
use. Easily control the commodities that you download with
the Commodity Chooser and keep current with the Data
Utility.
Commodity Chooser:
The Commodity Chooser is a utility for managing the
available commodities.
To open the Commodity Chooser:
Click on the View Menu and selecting “Commodity
Chooser” or click on the Commodity Chooser button on the
main Toolbar.
Selecting/Deselecting Commodities:
You may select/deselect futures and options data for each
commodity by clicking the appropriate check box. The
options data is only available if you own the Options Plug-in
and the Futures & Options Subscription service.
If you would like to select all futures/options or deselect all
futures/options data click on the + and – buttons at the end
of each column.
Note: Saved Chartbooks containing charts from
commodities that you have removed from the chart window,
will not be affected by the Commodity Chooser. This utility
will not delete data from your hard drive. You will still be
able to access your previously saved charts. The
Commodity Chooser will only hide this commodity from the
Commodity Tab and from the Daily Downloads.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
53
Section 3 – Data Downloads
Adding Commodities:
When you add commodities to your data set, the Data
Download Utility will retrieve any missing historical data for
the commodity on the next data download.
Limit Historical Data:
If you would like to limit the contracts listed in the
Commodity Tab drop down menu, select the “Limit History
to ___ years” and then select the number of years that you
would like to see in the drop down menu.
Note: This option does not change the amount of data
stored on your hard drive, it simply controls the data that is
displayed in the Commodity Tab. If you were to manually
type the symbol (in the symbol search) to a chart not seen
in the menu, it would still be displayed.
Commodity Chooser window in Track ‘n Trade
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
54
Section 3 – Data Downloads
Commodity Symbols
Track 'n Trade Pro will accept contracts typed in the
following format:
Track ‘n Trade Pro Commodity Symbols
Symbol
+AD
AD
+BP
BP
+CD
CD
+EC
+JY
JY
+MP
MP
+SF
SF
RZ
+DX
DX
+NG
+HU
+HO
+CL
+MB
+US
Name
Australian Dollar (c)
Australian Dollar (o)
British Pound, CME (c)
British Pound, CME (o)
Canadian Dollar, CME (c)
Canadian Dollar, CME (o)
Euro FX (c)
Japanese Yen, CME (c)
Japanese Yen, CME (o)
Mexican Peso (c)
Mexican Peso (o)
Swiss Franc (c)
Swiss Franc (o)
Euro/Swiss Franc (e)
U.S. Dollar (c)
U.S. Dollar (o)
Gas, Natural (c)
Gasoline, Unleaded (c)
Oil, Heating (c)
Oil, Light Crude (c)
Municipal Note 10 yr (c)
U.S. T-Bond 30 yr (c)
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
Exchange
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
NYBOT / FINEX
NYBOT / FINEX
NYBOT / FINEX
NYMEX
NYMEX
NYMEX
NYMEX
CBOT
CBOT
Group
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
currencies
energies
energies
energies
energies
financials
financials
55
Section 3 – Data Downloads
US
+TY
TY
+TU
TU
+FV
FV
+ED
ED
+EM
EM
+C
C
+O
O
+RR
RR
+SM
SM
+BO
BO
+S
S
+W
W
KW
MW
+DJ
YM
+GI
+ND
NQ
NK
+RL
U.S. T-Bond 30 yr (o)
U.S. T-Note 10 yr (c)
U.S. T-Note 10 yr (o)
U.S. T-Note 2 yr (c)
U.S. T-Note 2 yr (o)
U.S. T-Note 5 yr (c)
U.S. T-Note 5 yr (o)
Eurodollar (c)
Eurodollar (o)
LIBOR, 1mo (c)
LIBOR, 1mo (o)
Corn (c)
Corn (o)
Oats (c)
Oats (o)
Rice, Rough (c)
Rice, Rough (o)
Soybean Meal (c)
Soybean Meal (o)
Soybean Oil (c)
Soybean Oil (o)
Soybeans (c)
Soybeans (o)
Wheat, CBOT (c)
Wheat, CBOT (o)
Wheat, KCBT (o)
Wheat, MGEX (o)
Dow J. IA (c)
Dow J. IASM $5, mini (e)
GSCI (c)
NASDAQ 100 (c)
NASDAQ 100, mini (e)
Nikkei 225 (o)
Russell 2000 (c)
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CME / IMM
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
CBOT
KCBT
MGEX
CBOT
CBOT
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
financials
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
grains
indices
indices
indices
indices
indices
indices
indices
56
Section 3 – Data Downloads
+SP
SP
ES
+MD
MD
CR
YX
+FC
+LC
PB
+LH
DA
+HG
+GC
+PA
+PL
+SI
LB
+CC
KC
SB
CT
S&P 500 (c)
S&P 500 (o)
S&P 500 Stock, mini (e)
S&P MidCap 400 (c)
S&P MidCap 400 (o)
CRB (o)
NYSE Composite,
regular old (o)
Cattle, Feeder (c)
Cattle, Live (c)
Hogs, Frozen Bellies(o)
Hogs, Lean (c)
Milk, fluid class III (o)
Copper, High Grade (c)
Gold (c)
Palladium (c)
Platinum (c)
Silver (c)
Lumber, random length (o)
Cocoa (c)
Coffee C (o)
Sugar #11 (o)
Cotton #2 (o)
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
CME / IOM
NYBOT / NYFE
indices
indices
indices
indices
indices
indices
NYBOT / NYFE
indices
CME
CME
CME
CME
CME
NYMEX / COMEX
NYMEX / COMEX
NYMEX / COMEX
NYMEX / COMEX
NYMEX / COMEX
CME
NYBOT / CSCE
NYBOT / CSCE
NYBOT / CSCE
NYBOT / NYCE
meats
meats
meats
meats
meats
metals
metals
metals
metals
metals
softs
softs
softs
softs
softs
Legend for the Commodity Symbols:
+ Refers to a Combined Contract
(c) Combined Data
(o) Open Outcry Session
(e) Electronic Session
Commodity Month Symbols:
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Symbol
F
G
H
J
K
M
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
Month
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Symbol
N
Q
U
V
X
Z
57
Section 3 – Data Downloads
Data Download Utility
To perform a Data Download:
Click on the Data Download icon (shown below) on the
main Toolbar. This will open the Data Update Internet
Download screen. Notice that the Track ‘n Trade program
will close and the data download program – “FIDO” will
open.
Note: When the program closes, all changes are saved on
your working charts and will be reopened to the last chart
you were working on when finished.
Before opening the Data Update Window, Track ‘n Trade
will check for product updates. If one is available you will
be notified and given a window to choose Yes or No on the
update. It is recommended that you install each update as
it becomes available. After you are finished with the
program update, you will be returned to the data download
window.
Click on BEGIN to start the data download. Watch the
status bar to see the progress of the data download.
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58
Section 3 – Data Downloads
When the download is complete the following window will
appear:
Click on “OK” button and then DISMISS to exit the Data
Download Utility. You will notice that the bottom Status Bar
will display DATA CURRENT when finished.
Note: The Data Download Utility (FIDO) is able to detect
the last date available in your database. Therefore, if you
add a commodity or miss a couple of days, your data will be
completely updated upon the next data download session.
To Stop a Data Download:
If you need to end a data download before it is finished with
all of the contracts, click on the DISMISS button. This will
signal the Data Download Utility to end the download after
the current commodity is finished.
Note: Do not press the power or reset buttons if the Data
Downloader freezes and you are unable to close the
window. If this happens, press the buttons CTRL, ALT,
DEL at the same time to open the Tasks Screen (Only
press them ONCE). Then Select Spot.exe from the window
and click on End Task. This will close the Download
Program and allow you to restart the program and
download utility.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Section 3 – Data Downloads
Data Tab
The Data Tab is the tab with the graphic that looks like a
spreadsheet. Click on the tab and it will expand to say
“Data” as you see in the screen shot below. This tab is a
spreadsheet representation of the data available in the
specific contract that you are currently viewing in the chart
window. The Data Tab has values for the date, open,
high, low close, volume, open interest, and each indicator
for each day on the contract.
The left disk
button is used to
save any changes
you have made to
the data in the
Track 'n Trade Pro
database so they
are available the
next time you run
the software. You
can use this feature
to adjust the open,
high, low, close, volume and open interest values if you
don't agree with them.
Note: If you let Gecko Software Technical Support know
about the data that seems incorrect, they can research
your data question and make a correction available on the
next data download or help you understand why the data
is correct.
The disk button with the red arrow on it is for undoing
any data changes you have made but have not saved. You
can change a value in Track 'n Trade and see the results
of that change on your current chart without saving the
changes. If you mistyped a value, just click this reload
button and the data will reload from the disk. If you have
already saved the incorrect value, this action will not recall
the original value. In that case, just type the correct value
in and push the save button.
Track ‘n Trade Pro 4.0 User Manual
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Section 3 – Data Downloads
The group of three buttons with .25, 2/8 and 1/4 on them
are for changing the data format in the data tab. Some
markets are easier to understand or match up to the floor
quote if they are displayed as fractions. Many markets are
quoted in decimal numbers and don't need to be viewed as
fractions.
Key Tab
The Key Tab is the tab with the graphic that looks like a
Key. Click on the tab and it will expand to say “Key” as
you see in the screen shot below. The Key Tab displays
the information from the exchanges on the contract that
you are currently viewing in the Chart Window. See what
each value represents below.
Symbol - Gecko
Software's symbol for
the commodity. For
Track 'n Trade Pro
v4.0 we have re-done
our symbology to
make our symbols
match the exchanges
as much as possible.
Name - Short name
including an indication
of the session type.
Types include (o) for
open outcry and (c) for
combined. Group The group that Gecko
Software has put the
commodity in.
Exchange - The
exchange where the
commodity’s trades
are processed.
Sometimes a primary
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exchange will be listed with a subsidiary exchange, Eg
NYMEX/COMEX.
Contract Size - The number of units that one contract
represents.
Contract Units - The unit measurement.
Tick Size - A tick is defined by the exchanges as the
smallest increment the quote of a contract will fluctuate.
This is also called the minimum move or a point.
Minimum Move - The tick size is displayed as a decimal
value instead of a fraction.
Tick Units - The unit of measure for quotes. This is
usually the same as the unit the exchange uses. If Gecko
Software uses a different unit than the exchange, we will
adjust the full point value so that all accounting is still
correct.
Full Point Value – This value represents how much a
move in the ones place is worth. For the few commodities
that trade in whole values this is the same as the minimum
move. Generally it represents several minimum moves.
Init. Margin - The initial margin is the amount the
Exchange and your Brokerage Firm requires you to have
available in your account at the end of the first day your
order is filled in the market.
Maint. Margin - The maintenance margin is the amount of
available funds required to be in your account at the end of
each trading day after the first day your order is filled. It is
generally a smaller amount than the initial margin.
FND: First Notice Day - Depending on the exchange this
date can indicate various rules have come into effect.
Overall this is a warning that the contract will expire soon.
This value is different per contract and applies to the
contract that is currently open in the charting window.
LTD: Last Trading Day - The last day that you can trade
the contract month that is currently open.
Market Open - The time that the market opens. This time
is the exchange's time zone as listed on the exchange's
web site.
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Market Close - The time that the market closes. Like
market open, it is in the exchange's time zone. Time is in
24 hours, so 13:15 is 1:30PM. (Subtract 12 hours from
values greater than 12:00.)
Options Expiration - The date that options for the active
contract will expire worthless or be automatically exercised
into futures orders.
Options Strike Interval – The value for the minimum
spacing between options, as listed by the exchange. Some
contracts have rules that make strikes further out of the
money or on contracts that aren't the next to expire have
larger strike price intervals. Track 'n Trade auto-generates
strikes on all contract months at the minimum strike price
value.
Options Min. Move – The value of the minimum price
fluctuation for the options contract, this is similar in
function to the futures minimum move.
No. of strikes above/below: Track 'n Trade Pro v3.0 uses
this value to know how many strikes above the highest
high and below the lowest low to auto-generate. If the
exchange sends data out on strikes outside of these
ranges, they are also available in the software.
Below this table is a description of the units used, the
calculations for the minimum move, and the full point
movement.
Importing Data
Track ‘n Trade Pro gives you the ability to import a day’s
worth of data to any contract. To add data, open the
contract you would like to add the
data to and then click on the Data
Tab in the Control Panel. Click on
the “Add Data” button and the Add
Data Window will open. This window
gives you the ability to add the
values for the contract’s Open, High,
Low, Close, Volume, and Open
Interest for a specified date.
One day of data can be added to a
contract, and then a data download
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must be completed before another day can be entered. Any
data entered through the Add Data option, will be
overwritten in the database by the data downloaded.
Note: If the contract you have selected is expired, you will
not be able to add data to this contract.
Exporting Data
Data subscribers, to Track ‘n Trade Pro, have the ability of
exporting data as an ASCII file. There are two ways of
exporting data: from the software and from the internet.
Export from the software – In the Commodity Tab right
click on the contract in the Active Charts list. A quick menu
will open giving you the option of Deleting the Chart or
Exporting the Data. Select the Export Data option and a
Save Window will open. Type a name in the File name
section and then select a save location with the Save in
drop down menu. This option will save your data for the
selected contract in a “csv” or “comma separated value file.
This file can be opened by a spreadsheet type application.
Exporting from the ASCII Data Download Website – If
you are interested in downloading multiple Commodities
and contracts along with customizing the data format, visit
the ASCII Data Download Website at:
http://ascii.geckosoftware.com/
Firewalls
A firewall is a piece of software or hardware that protects
your computer from other people accessing your computer
from the Internet. A firewall only allows basic types of
Internet and Network communications, such as surfing the
Internet. When you log onto the Internet or your network,
you are open to attacks from other people. Although
attacks are rare, they do pose a big enough threat to
warrant the protection or a firewall.
Track ‘n Trade Pro uses a special utility called the “Data
Downloader” or “FIDO” to download the current market data
and update the charts. The Data Downloader does not use
conventional means to download the data in order to speed
up the downloading process. Because of this, Track ‘n
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Trade Pro may encounter problems downloading through
the firewall. It may appear that the downloader is idle for a
long period of time and then it will display an error stating it
could not find the server. This is because the firewall does
not allow the server from sending the new data to your
computer.
Track ‘n Trade Pro has a new feature to allow for both
standard and non-standard methods for downloading data.
The standard method uses port 80 which is accepted by
most firewalls as regular traffic, but this method is slower.
The non-standard method uses port 60184 and will need to
have an exception made in order for this method to work
with a firewall; this method is much faster than Port 80 in
downloading data.
Configuring Track ‘n Trade Pro for Firewalls:
1. Click on the Data Download button from Track ‘n
Trade Pro toolbar, which will start FIDO, Track ‘n
Trade Pro’s Data Download Utility.
2. There is a button located on the far right called
“Options”. Click this button.
3. This will open a new window where you can select
which method to download data.
4. If you are working behind a firewall, select “Port 80”,
and then click “OK”.
5. Once done, click “Begin” to start downloading data.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
ANALYZING CHARTS WITH
CHARTING TOOLS
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
ANALYZING CHARTS WITH
CHARTING TOOLS
Applying Technical Formations
Introduction
Track ‘n Trade Pro has a complete set of charting tools that
enable the futures trader to apply concepts from Technical
Analysis to their charting. Take a look at some of the
Technical Analysis formations and trends in this chapter
and see how to apply these concepts in trading with
Track ‘n Trade Pro charting tools.
For more information on these formations and tools see
Gecko Software Educational CDs available on
trackntrade.com.
The first tool in the Charting Toolbar is the Crosshair Tool.
Although this tool is not used in helping you define and
technically analyze data, it is used when lining up your
technical indicators and recurring patterns.
Crosshair Tool
The Crosshair Tool is used to draw a line vertically and
horizontally on the chart. The vertical line is drawn through
the Indicator Window as well. To help place the Crosshair
line on a specific value you will notice the cursor price is
displayed on the vertical line of the crosshair.
Charting a Crosshair:
1. Select the Crosshair Tool from the Charting Toolbox.
2. Click on the Chart Window to place Crosshair.
Moving a Crosshair Drawing:
1. To select the Crosshair, click on the center point or
lines of the crosshair and drag to the new location,
release mouse button to place. Note: The tool is
selected when a box appears at the center point.
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Deleting a Crosshair Drawing:
1. There are two ways to delete the Crosshair tool.
2. Select the Crosshair drawing by clicking on it and
press the Delete Key on your keyboard.
3. Place mouse cursor over the Crosshair and right click.
In the popup menu, select Delete.
Deleting only the Horizontal/Vertical Line of the
Crosshair:
1. Right-click on the center point of the Crosshair to view
the properties menu.
2. Select/Deselect Show Horizontal (Vertical) Line. A
check will appear in front of the item when it is shown.
Changing Properties of a Crosshair:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Crosshair.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Crosshair
lines. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Crosshair lines.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Font: Changes the font that the cursor price is displayed
in.
Show Text: If this option is selected, the text will stay on
the chart after the Crosshair has been drawn, If not
selected the value will only appear when drawing the
Crosshair.
Vertical Line: Select/Deselect to view or hide the vertical
Crosshair line. Note: If both the vertical and horizontal
lines are deselected, the crosshair tool will be deleted.
Show Horizontal Line: Select/Deselect to view or hide the
horizontal Crosshair line. Note: If both the vertical and
horizontal lines are deselected, the crosshair tool will be
deleted.
Setting: To define the date and value of the Crosshair,
select settings and type in the values. You can also
choose to view or not view the horizontal and vertical
lines.
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Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the 1-2-3 drawing.
Example of the Crosshair in Track ‘n Trade
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Technical Analysis
The remaining nine charting tools are used to identify
Technical Analysis formations and trends. Take a look at
the different patterns available then read about how to use
each of the charting tools and apply the Technical concepts
learned.
Support
Markets have a tendency to move in troughs and peaks, or
more appropriately “Support and Resistance”. These
troughs are called Support. The term is self-explanatory
and indicates that support is a level or area on the chart
“under the market” where buying interest is strong enough
to overcome selling pressure. Therefore a decrease in price
is reversed and prices rise once again. Typically a support
level is identified by a previous set of lows.
Resistance
Essentially, resistance (or the “peaks”) is the opposite of
support. Resistance is defined as a horizontal ceiling where
the pressure to sell is greater than the pressure to buy.
Therefore, an increase in price is reversed and prices revert
downward. Typically, support can be located on a chart by
a previous set of highs.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Line Tool
To draw a support/resistance line (also referred to as a
trend) use either the Line or Multi-Line Tools.
Drawing a Line:
1. Select the Line Tool.
2. Left click on the chart where you want the Line to
begin.
3. Hold down the mouse button and move to the position
where the Line ends.
4. Release the mouse button to place.
Resizing the Line:
1. Select the Line drawing by clicking on it. You will know
the Line is selected when boxes appear at the ends of
the Line.
2. Click on a box and drag to the desired length.
Release the mouse button to place the end point of the
Line.
Moving the Line:
1. Select the Line drawing by clicking on it.
2. Click on the Line (not on a box) and drag to new
location and release mouse button to place.
To Delete the Line:
Left click on the Line Tool to select, and then press the
Delete key on your keyboard. Or, right-click the line and
select Delete on the popup menu.
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Examples of the Line Tool in Track ‘n Trade
Multi-Line Tool
Some contracts will have a continuous line/trend of
alternating support and resistance. You may illustrate
these multi-lines with the Line or Multi-Line Tool.
Drawing a Multi-Line:
1. Select the Multi-Line Line Tool.
2. Left click on the chart where you want the Line to start.
3. Move the mouse to the next point on the Multi-Line
and left click to place.
4. Repeat step 3 until the last point. When placing the
last point on the Multi-Line, right click to place.
Resizing the Multi-Line:
1. Select the Multi-Line drawing by clicking on it. You will
know the Multi-Line is selected when boxes appear at
the ends of the Multi-Line.
2. Click on a box and drag to the desired length.
Release the mouse button to place the end point of the
Multi-Line.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Moving the Multi-Line:
1. Select the Multi-Line drawing by clicking on it.
2. Click on the Multi-Line (not on a box) and drag to new
location, release mouse button to place.
To Delete the Multi-Line:
Left click on the Multi-Line Tool to select, and then press
the Delete Key on your keyboard. Or, point mouse cursor
over the Multi-Line and right click. Select Delete on the
popup menu.
Example of Multi-Line Tool in Track ‘n Trade Pro
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Channels
The Technical Formation called a Channel consists of a
section of price bars that are between parallel support and
resistance lines. There are three types of channels the first
is the Narrow Sideways Channel, then the Inclining
Channel, and finally the Declining Channel.
Narrow Sideways Channel
A Narrow Sideways Channel is a formation that features
both resistance and support with a sideways movement.
Support forms the low price bar, while resistance provides
the price ceiling.
To trade a Narrow Sideways
Channel:
Place an order to buy on a
break up and out of the
channel, or sell on a break
down out of channel.
Narrow Sideways Channel Tool
To illustrate a Narrow Sideways Channel in a chart use the
Narrow Sideways Channel Tool.
Drawing a Narrow Sideways Channel:
1. Select the Narrow Sideways Channel Tool from the
Charting Toolbox.
2. Position the mouse pointer where you would like to place
the top left point of the channel and left click, continue to
hold down the mouse dragging it to the right bottom point
of channel, release mouse button to place.
Moving the Narrow Sideways Channel:
Select the channel drawing by clicking on it, drag to the
new location and release the mouse button to place.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Deleting the Narrow Sideways Channel:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the Delete
Key on your keyboard. Or, point mouse cursor over the
Channel and right click. Select Delete on the popup
menu.
Resizing the Narrow Sideways Channel:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes on the corners to drag the
select point and release the mouse button.
Changing Properties of a Narrow Sideways Channel:
To view the properties menu right-click your mouse on the
channel drawing tool. Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the top and bottom lines of the
channel.
Background: Changes the inside colors of the channel.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the channel
lines. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the channel lines.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to back when you need to access
a tool under the Narrow Sideways Channel drawing.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Inclining Channel
The Inclining Channel is a formation with parallel price
barriers along both the price ceiling and floor. Unlike the
sideways channel the inclining channel has an increase in
both the price ceiling and price floor. The breaking of the
bottom trend line on this formation shows a change in trend
from bullish to bearish.
To trade an
Inclining Channel:
Place an order to sell on
the break down and out of
the channel.
Example of an Inclining Channel in Track ‘n Trade
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Declining Channel
The Declining Channel is the exact opposite of the Inclining
Channel Formation. The Declining Channel has a decrease
in both the price ceiling and price floor. The breaking of the
top trend line on this formation shows a change in trend
from bearish to bullish.
To trade a
Declining Channel:
Place an order to buy on
the break up and out of the
channel.
Example of the Declining Channel in Track ‘n Trade
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Inclining/Declining Channel Tool
You can identify an Inclining/Declining Channel by using
the Inclining/Declining Channel Tool.
Drawing an Inclining/Declining Channel:
1. Select the Inclining/Declining Channel Tool from the
Charting Toolbox.
2. Position the mouse pointer where you would like to place
the top left point of the channel and left click, continue to
hold down the mouse dragging it to the right bottom point
of channel, release mouse button to place.
Moving the Inclining/Declining Channel:
Select the channel drawing by clicking on it, drag to the
new location and release the mouse button to place.
Deleting the Inclining/Declining Channel:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the Delete
key on your keyboard. Or, point mouse cursor over the
Channel and right click. Select Delete on the popup
menu.
Resizing the Inclining/Declining Channel:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes on the corners to drag the
select point and release the mouse button.
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Changing Properties of an Inclining/Declining Channel:
To view the properties menu right-click your mouse on the
channel drawing tool. Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the top and bottom lines of the
channel.
Background: Changes the inside colors of the channel.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the channel
lines. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the channel lines.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the channel drawing.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
50% Retracements
Markets move in waves called retracements, these waves
have up and down trends. Notice in the above diagram,
that the market is in an overall “uptrend” (considered a Bull
Market), but that within the uptrend, there are small areas
where the market falls back, or “retraces”; each time
establishing a new higher high.
The following chart displays an example with a down trend
(when a market is in an overall down trend it is considered
a Bear Market). In this chart you will see how the market
made lower highs and lower lows while still maintaining the
overall down trend.
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Notice how far back those retracements went, before they
continued on in their original direction... it is about 50% of
the last move.
Markets have a tendency to retrace half or 50% of the last
move as well as in overall long-term trends.
N% Tool
You can measure a retracement with the N% Tool. The
default on this charting tool is 50%, but can be changed by
simply dragging the middle bar up or down. See Fibonacci
Time Zone and Fan Tools in the Advanced Charting Tools
for more information on retracements.
Drawing an N% Channel:
1. Select the N% Tool from the Charting Toolbox.
2. Position the mouse pointer where you would like to place
the top left point of the channel and left click, continue to
hold down the mouse dragging it to the right bottom point
of channel, release mouse button to place. Note: The
default retracement percentage on the N% tool is 50%.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Moving the % Line:
1. Select the channel drawing by clicking on it.
2. You will notice that the middle line has a box in the middle
of the line. This is the handle that you will use to change
the position of the percentage line within the tool drawing.
As you change the position of the percentage line, the
percentage value to the left will change as well.
Moving the N% Tool:
Left click on the channel and drag the tool, release mouse
button to place drawing.
Deleting the N% Channel:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the Delete
Key on your keyboard. Or, right click on the channel tool
and select the delete option on the popup menu.
Resizing the N% Channel:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes on the corners to drag the
select point and release the mouse button.
Changing Properties of an N% Channel:
To view the properties menu, right-click on the drawing.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the color for top and bottom lines of
the channel.
Background: Changes the inside color of the channel.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the channel
lines. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the channel lines.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Font: Changes font, size, style, and color of text.
Show Text: Select\Deselect to view or hide the text on the
channel.
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Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to back when you need to access
a tool under the N% Channel Drawing.
Example of the N% Tool in Track ‘n Trade
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
1-2-3 Formations
The 1-2-3 Formation anticipates a change in trend. It is
available in both a Top and Bottom.
1-2-3 Top
The 1-2-3 Top Formation anticipates a change in trend,
from up to down, on a break below the number two point.
This formation is easily identified because the number one
point is the annual price high.
To trade a 1-2-3 Top:
Place a SELL order on a break
down past the #2 point. Then,
place a stop loss order just above
the #1 point (Considered to be an
industry standard) or just above
the #3 point (A more conservative
stop loss placement.)
Example of a 1-2-3 Top in Track ‘n Trade Pro
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
1-2-3 Bottom
The 1-2-3 Bottom Formation anticipates a change in trend
from down to up on a break above the number two point. A
1-2-3 Bottom Formation is easily identified because the
number one point is the annual price low.
To Trade a 1-2-3
Bottom Formation:
Place a BUY order just above
the #2 point, and then place
your stop loss order just below
the #1 point (Considered an
industry standard) or just below
the #3 point (Considered a more
conservative position.)
Example of a 1-2-3 Bottom in Track ‘n Trade Pro
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1-2-3 Tool
Use the 1-2-3 Tool to chart both a 1-2-3 Top and Bottom
Formation.
Drawing a 1-2-3 Top/Bottom:
1. Select the 1-2-3 Tool from the Charting Toolbox.
2. Position the mouse pointer where you would like to place
the #1 point and left click to place.
3. Move to the #2 point and left click to place.
4. Move to the #3 point and left click to place.
Moving a 1-2-3 Drawing:
Select the 1-2-3 drawing by clicking on it, drag to the new
location and release the mouse button to place. Note:
The tool is selected when a line appears connecting the 1,
2, and 3.
Deleting a 1-2-3 Drawing:
Select the 1-2-3 drawing by clicking on it and press the
Delete Key on your keyboard. Or, right-click the drawing
and select Delete from the popup menu.
Resizing the 1-2-3 Drawing:
1. Select the 1-2-3 drawing by clicking on it. The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
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Changing Properties of a 1-2-3 Drawing:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line and arc color of the 1-2-3.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the 1-2-3 line.
Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the 1-2-3 line, which
shows when the line is selected. Choose from solid,
dashed, dotted and more.
Arc Thickness: Changes the arcs formed at the 1, 2, and
3 points. Choose values from 1-6.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the 1, 2,
and 3.
Show Text: Select to view or hide the 1, 2, and 3.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the 1-2-3 drawing.
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Head & Shoulders Formation
This Formation can appear anywhere in the chart and is
made up of the Head, Left Shoulder, and Right Shoulder.
There are two types: Top and Bottom.
Head & Shoulders - Top
This formation has three definite peaks: the Head, Left
Shoulder and Right Shoulder. The middle peak, the Head
(H) is higher than either shoulder (LS, RS). This formation
anticipates a drop in price below the Neckline (see below).
To trade a Head &
Shoulders – Top:
Place a sell order on the break of
the Neckline. Your stop loss
order should then be placed just
above the Head. The stop loss
order can also be placed above
the Right Shoulder as a more
conservative point.
Example of Head & Shoulders Top in Track ‘n Trade
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Head & Shoulders - Bottom
This formation is simply an inverted version of the Head
and Shoulders Top Formation. Therefore, a Head and
Shoulders Bottom anticipates a rise in price above the
Neckline.
To trade a Head &
Shoulders – Bottom:
Place a buy order on the break
up of the Neckline. Then place
a stop loss order just below the
Head. The stop loss order can
also be placed below the Right
Shoulder as a more
conservative point.
Example of Head &
Shoulders: Bottom in TNT
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Section 4 – Analyzing Charts with Charting Tools
Head & Shoulders Tool
To identify either a Head & Shoulders Top or Bottom
formation, use the Head & Shoulder Tool.
Charting a Head & Shoulders (H&S) Formation:
1. Select the H&S Tool from the Charting Toolbox.
2. Position the mouse pointer where you would like to place
the Left Shoulder (LS) point and left click to place.
3. Move to the valley point between the LS and the Head,
left click to place.
4. Move to the Head point and left click to place.
5. Move to the valley point between the Head and Right
Shoulder (RS), left click to place.
6. Move to the RS point and left click to place.
Moving H&S Drawing:
Select the H&S drawing by clicking on it, drag to the new
location and release the mouse button to place. Note:
The tool is selected when a line appears connecting the
LS, H, and RS.
Deleting H&S Drawing:
Select the H&S drawing by clicking on it and press the
Delete Key on your keyboard. Or, right-click on the
drawing and choose the Delete option in the popup menu.
Resizing the H&S Drawing:
1. Select the H&S drawing by clicking on it. The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
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Changing Properties of a H&S Drawing:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line and arc color of the H&S
drawing. Note: The line is only seen when the drawing is
selected.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the H&S line.
Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the H&S line, which
shows when the line is selected. Choose from solid,
dashed, dotted and more.
Arc Thickness: Changes the arcs formed at the LS, H,
and RS points. Choose values from 1-6.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the H,
LS, and RS.
Show Text: Select to view or hide the H, LS, and RS.
Send to back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to back when you need to
access.
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Triangle and Wedge Formations
The triangle formation comes in many varieties. There are
Rising/Inclining Wedges and Symmetrical/Non-Symmetrical
Triangles.
Inclining Wedge
The Inclining Wedge Formation occurs when the slope of
price bar highs and lows join at a point forming an inclining
wedge formation. The slope of both lines is up with the
lower line being steeper than the higher one.
To Trade the Inclining Wedge:
Place a BUY order on a break up
and out of the wedge or a SELL
order on a break down and out of
the wedge. Inclining Wedges with
a prior downtrend are anticipated to
break down and out rather than up
and out.
Example of an Inclining Wedge in Track ‘n Trade
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Declining Wedge
A Declining Wedge Formation occurs when the slope of
price bar highs and lows join at a point forming a Declining
wedge. The slope of both lines is down, the top line being
steeper than the lower one. This formation is opposite the
Inclining Wedge.
To Trade the Declining Wedge:
Place an order to buy on a break up
and out of the wedge or an order to
sell on a break down and out of the
wedge. Falling wedges, with a prior
up trend, are anticipated to break up
and out, rather than down and out.
Example of a Declining Wedge in Track ‘n Trade
.
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Symmetrical Triangle
A Symmetrical Triangle Formation occurs when there is a
pause in the current trend, after which the previous trend is
resumed. Also notice that the price bars for a perfectly
symmetrical triangle shape.
To Trade a Symmetrical Triangle:
Place a BUY order on a break up
and out of the triangle or a SELL
order on break down and out of the
triangle.
Example of a Symmetrical Triangle in Track ‘n Trade
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Non-Symmetrical Triangle
A Non-Symmetrical Formation occurs in exactly the same
situation as a symmetrical triangle, only the pattern lacks
symmetry. This formation resumes the previous trend as
well when a break out occurs.
To Trade a Non-Symmetrical
Triangle:
Place a BUY order on a break up
and out of the triangle or an order to
SELL on a break down and out of
the triangle.
Example of a Non-Symmetrical Triangle in TNT
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Wedge and Triangle Tool
To identify any type of Wedge or Triangle, use the Wedge
Tool.
Drawing a Wedge/Triangle Formation:
1. Select the Wedge Tool from the Toolbox.
2. Left click your mouse at the top of the triangle.
3. Drag the mouse pointer to the bottom of the triangle and
left click to place.
4. Next drag the mouse pointer to form a triangle and left
click the mouse to place the final point.
Resizing the Wedge/Triangle Formation:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The formation
is selected when boxes appear on the corners of the
drawing.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Wedge/Triangle Formation:
Select the drawing by clicking on it, drag to the new
location and release the mouse button.
Deleting the Wedge/Triangle Formation:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard. Or, right-click on the formation and
choose the Delete Option in the popup menu.
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Changing the Properties of the Triangle Formation:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Triangle
drawing.
Background: Changes the inside color of the Triangle
drawing.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Triangle
line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Triangle line.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Triangle drawing.
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Trend Fan
Trend fans are an extension of the regular trend line, and
accent simple trend line trading concepts by extending the
single trend line to a multiple of fan lines that give you a
better look at a trend, its retracements and market
reversals.
Take a look at this diagram. As a trend moves up in scale,
a chartist will generally draw a vertical line across price bar
lows; or alternatively, when a market is moving down,
across the price bar highs.
Then, as the market continues to make its retracement, we
can then draw another trend line across the next level of
support or resistance. The line is support if the market is
moving up and resistance if it is moving down.
You will notice how the last move of the trend, which was
resistance for the first trend line, is now support for the
second trend line. Now draw the third trend line. At this
point, you can see that the market has made a solid
retracement down past this third fan line.
When the market crosses the third fan line, it is considered
to be confirmation of market retracement; a market that was
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once considered bullish...is now bearish, or if bearish,
would now be considered bullish.
Rule of Thumb:
When the markets price bars cross above or below the third
trend fan line, this is your signal and confirmation that the
market has shifted from bullish to bearish, or bearish to
bullish.
To Trade a Trend Fan:
Place an order to enter the market on the break out past
the third trend fan line. See the example charts:
Example of a Trend Fan using Track ‘n Trade Pro
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Example 2 of a Trend Fan using Track ‘n Trade Pro
Example 3 of a Trend Fan using Track ‘n Trade Pro
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Trend Fan Tool
To identify a Trend Fan within a chart use the Trend Fan
Tool.
To draw a Trend Fan:
1. Select the Trend Fan Tool.
2. Left click where you want the Fan to start.
3. Move the mouse pointer to where the first line is to end
and left click to place.
4. Repeat Step 3 until you get to the last line.
5. To place the last trend, move the mouse pointer to the
ending point and right click to place.
Resizing the Trend Fan:
1. Select the Trend Fan by clicking on it. Note: The
formation is selected when boxes appear on the corners
of the drawing.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the selected point and
release the mouse button to place.
Moving the Trend Fan:
Select the Trend Fan by clicking on it. Then, drag to the
new location and release the mouse button.
Deleting the Trend Fan:
Select the drawing by clicking on it then, press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove the Trend Fan. Or, rightclick on the fan and choose the Delete option from the
popup menu.
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Section 6 – Advanced Charting Tools
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
ADVANCED CHARTING TOOLS
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ADVANCED CHARTING TOOLS
Applying Technical Formations and
Theories
Introduction
Track ‘n Trade Pro has incorporated concepts and theories
from leading Technical and Fundamental Educators in the
Futures Industry allowing you as a trader to apply their
studies easily to your trading. In this section you will both
learn basics about their theory and learn how to apply it in
Track ‘n Trade Pro using the Advanced Charting Tools
provided you. For more detailed information on the different
theories and concepts see the educational products also
offered by Gecko Software, Inc. (www.trackntrade.com)
Elliot Wave Theory
This theory was developed by Ralph Nelson Elliot and
bares his name. Elliott wave theory is an idea that market
behavior is based on waves rather than random timing.
Elliott believed that market prices rose and fell in a series of
waves based on the same Golden ratio or Golden mean
that Fibonacci proved. This ratio is present in many aspects
of nature and science, and Elliott felt that it had great
significance on the financial markets as well.
Interpretation
The basic idea of this theory is that a market rises in a
series of 5 “waves” (as he called them) and that a market
declines in a series of 3 declines. Elliott’s theory is that on
the first wave a market rises, on wave two it declines,
begins again to rise on wave three, has a period of decline
again on wave four, and finally completes the rise on wave
five. Then thee period of correction is referred to as a threewave correction, where the market declines for wave A,
begins to rise for wave B, and falls again for wave C.
Elliot went on further to explain that a complete market
cycle consisted of a 144 wave cycle, broken down into an
89 wave bull cycle, and a 55 wave bear cycle. This is based
on his observation of Fibonacci’s golden ratio. The series of
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numbers Fibonacci describes, (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,
89, and 144) shows a relationship of 1:.618. Elliot further
showed that a market usually rises or falls based on this
wave cycle. Each wave in the cycle has its own
characteristics.
Five Wave Advance:
Wave one: Normally very short and easy to miss.
Wave two: A retracement wave, usually gives back all or
most of what the first one gained.
Wave three: Usually very prominent, as it follows a period
of what appears as consolidation, most people trade this
wave.
Wave four: Noted to be very intricate yet still a
consolidation. One of Elliot’s main rules is that in a 5wave advance cycle, wave 4 can’t overlap wave 1.
Wave five: Often very active, yet at some point declines
and leads to the 3 wave corrective cycle.
Three Wave Decline:
Wave A: Normally seen as a minor pullback, of wave 5 of
the advance cycle.
Wave B: Follows Wave A of the downtrend, and is often
hard to spot but should result in a third wave continuing
down.
Wave C: Usually quiet significant and many traders see
this selling opportunity.
Trading an Elliot Wave:
See Wave three in the “Five Wave Advance” and the
Wave C in the “Three Wave Decline”.
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Example of an Elliot Wave in Track ‘n Trade
Elliot Wave Tool
To identify an Elliot Wave on a chart use the Elliot Wave
tool located in the Advanced Charting Tools Section.
Charting an Elliot Wave:
1. Select the Elliot Wave Tool from the Toolbox.
2. Left click your mouse on the #1 point to place.
3. Continue throughout the wave by clicking on each point 15 and A,B,C to place. When you get to the last point C
the drawing is complete.
Resizing the Elliot Wave Drawing:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
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Moving the Elliot Wave Drawing:
Select the drawing by clicking on it continue holding down
the mouse button, drag to the new location and release
the mouse button.
Deleting the Elliot Wave Drawing:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove. Or, right-click the
drawing and select Options from the popup menu.
Changing the Properties of an Elliot Wave Drawing:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Elliot Wave.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Elliot Wave
Line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Elliot Wave Line.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Arc Thickness: Changes the arcs formed at the 1-5 and
ABC points. Choose values from 1-6.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the 1-5
and ABC points.
Show Text: Select to view or hide the 1-5 and ABC points.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Elliot Wave Drawing.
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Dart Up (Blip) Formations
The Dart (Blip) Formation occurs when there is a dramatic
price change which is followed by an equally dramatic price
change. There are two types of Darts: Up and Down.
Dart Up (Blip) Formations
This formation is where a sudden dramatic price increase
occurs followed by an equally dramatic drop in price. A dart
formation can appear anywhere in a chart.
To Trade a Dart Up:
Place a sell order on the break down
of the Right Feather (RF) along with
a stop loss order just above the Tip.
Trading on a Dart Formation is
very risky.
Dart Down (Blip) Formation
This formation is where a sudden dramatic price decrease
occurs followed by an equally dramatic increase in price.
This formation can appear anywhere in a chart.
To Trade a Dart Down:
Place a buy order on the break up
of the Right Feather, and then
place your stop loss order right
below the tip.
Trading on a Dart Formation is
very risky.
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Dart/Blip Tool
To chart a Dart (Blip) Up or Down formation use the
Dart/Blip Advanced Charting Tool.
To Draw a Dart Formation:
1. Select the Dart Tool from the Advanced Charting Tool
Menu bar.
2. Left Click your mouse on the Left Feather (LF)
3. Continue to hold down the mouse button while moving to
the tip of the dart.
4. Release the mouse button then move the mouse to the
Right Feather and release the mouse button.
To Lengthen or shorten the Formation:
1. Select the dart by clicking on it. (The formation is selected
when boxes appear on the corners of the drawing.)
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
To Move the Entire Dart:
Select the dart by clicking on it and drag to the new
location and release the mouse button.
To Delete the Dart:
Select the dart by clicking on it and press the delete key
on your keyboard. Or, right-click on the drawing and
select Delete from the popup menu.
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Changing the Properties of a Dart/Blip Drawing:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Elliot Wave.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Elliot Wave
Line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Elliot Wave Line.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Elliot Wave Drawing.
Example of a Dart Up and Down in Track ‘n Trade Pro
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Gann Fan Theory
W. D. Gann designed several unique techniques for
studying price charts. One of these techniques included the
use of geometric angles in conjunction with time and price.
Gann believed that specific geometric patterns and angles
had unique characteristics that could be used to predict
price action.
Gann’s techniques require that charts be drawn with equal
time and price intervals, so that a rise/run of one price unit
for each time unit (called a 1 x 1 trend or angle) will equal a
45 degree angle anywhere on the chart. Gann believed that
the ideal balance between time and price exists when
prices rise or fall at a 45 degree angle relative to the time
axis.
Interpretation
The Gann Fan is made up of nine angles based on this
concept. These trend lines are used to indicator support
and resistance levels. When one line is broken (by the
entire days price range) prices should move to the next line.
The drawing of these lines should start from either a market
top or bottom.
It is important to note that this theory is based on a squared
45 degree angle on the chart. Obviously, a 45 degree angle
drawn on a chart is no longer 45 degrees when the scale is
changed without a change to also the opposite scale. To
“square” the Gann Fan to the current chart’s scaled
settings, hold down the CTRL key on your keyboard while
clicking on and rescaling with the mouse pointer. Some
Gann experts have reported that to get a truly “squared”
chart, one must set the scaling to 8 price bars per inch
(width) and 4 price bars per inch (height).
A Gann Fan is used to define a market direction or a new
trend. For example, a bull market exists if prices are
maintaining strength between the1x2 lower line and 1x2
higher line. A bear market would be the exact opposite of
the previous scenario.
During an uptrend, the breaking of one line would suggest
a further price drop to the next lower line. Correspondingly,
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if prices break above one line, they would be expected to
rally to the next higher one.
Example of the Gann Fan in Track ‘n Trade
Gann Fan Tool
You can apply this theory to your charts by using the Gann
Fan Tool on the Advanced Charting Toolbar.
To draw a Gann Fan:
1. Select the Gann Fan Tool.
2. Left click where you want the Fan to start, continue
holding down the mouse button until reaching the final
position of the fan, release button to place.
Resizing the Gann Fan:
1. Select the Fan by clicking on it. Note: The formation is
selected when boxes appear on the corners of the
drawing.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the selected point and
release the mouse button to place.
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Moving the Gann Fan:
Select the Fan by clicking on it. Then, drag to the new
location and release the mouse button.
Deleting the Gann Fan:
Select the drawing by clicking on it then, press the delete
key on your keyboard. Or, right-click on the fan and select
Delete from the popup menu.
Changing Properties of a Gann Fan:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color for the fan.
Background: Changes the color of the background for the
fan.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness fan line. Choose
values from 1-6.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the fan
values
Show Text: Select to view or hide the fan values.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Gann Fan.
Example of a Gann Fan in Track ‘n Trade
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Andrews Pitchfork Theory
Dr. Alan Andrews developed a channel technique to show
areas of support and resistance from a baseline. This use
of a median line is the key to using the Andrews Pitchfork.
Buying near lows and selling near highs that are identified
by the “tines” of the pitchfork. The basic premise is to trade
the channel from one level of support or resistance to the
next.
Interpretation
The first element to draw the Andrews Pitchfork is the
centerline. The middle tine or median line begins at the
most recent contract low or high. To plot the direction of this
point we must attain the other two points. The top tine is
determined by looking at the highest move made from the
origin of the contract low or high. The next point is found by
looking at the retracement of that move. For example, a
contract begins at point A rallies to point B, and sells off
from B to point C. A line is drawn from point B and C, and
then the line originating at point A splits those two lines
equally.
This pitchfork shows continuing points of support and
resistance. The general use of this tool is to sell when the
market rises to line B, and take profits once prices reach
line A the middle tine. Also to buy when prices dip to line C
and take profits when they reach line A. This series of
movements within the pitchfork affords traders the
opportunity to trade a channel system within a trending
market.
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Andrews Pitchfork Tool
Charting Andrews Pitchfork:
1. Select the Andrews Pitchfork Tool from the Toolbox.
2. The first three clicks setup the pitchfork. The first point is
the handle of the pitchfork and is places at the end of the
previous trend.(A)
3. Next you are forming the base of the fork. The first point is
the top of the next trend. (B)
4. The second point completes the base and is placed at the
bottom of the trend. (C)
5. Once you have completed the first three steps you can
elongate the pitchfork to length desired. Left click to place
final point.
Resizing the Andrews Pitchfork Drawing:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Andrews Pitchfork Drawing:
Select the drawing by clicking on it continue holding down
the mouse button, drag to the new location and release
the mouse button.
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Deleting the Andrews Pitchfork Drawing:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove. Or, right-click on the
drawing and select Delete from the popup menu.
Changing the Properties of the Andrews Pitchfork
Drawing:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Andrews
Pitchfork.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Andrews
Pitchfork. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Andrews
Pitchfork Line. Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and
more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Andrews Pitchfork.
Example of Andrews Pitchfork in Track ‘n Trade
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Fibonacci Retracements
Fibonacci Retracement levels correspond with percentage
retracements that occur in the ebb and flow of a market
trend. According to the Elliot Wave Theory, market trends
tend to occur in five distinct waves. See the Elliot Wave for
more information. Elliot asserted that these counter-trend
waves will usually retrace against the trending waves by
38.2, 50 and 61.8 percent. These Retracement
Percentages correspond to natural ratios discovered by the
Greeks called the Golden Ratio and rediscovered by
Fibonacci; a medieval, Italian Mathematician.
Interpretation
Commodity prices will frequently consist of an initial wave, a
second wave (often retracing 61.8% of the initial move), the
third wave (usually the largest), then another retracement,
and finally the 5th wave (the last gap), which would exhaust
the movement.
In Track 'n Trade Pro, you have three tools that you can use
to apply these concepts: the Fibonacci Retracement,
Fibonacci Time Zone and the Fibonacci Arc.
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Fibonacci Retracement Tool
The Fibonacci Retracement Tool is used to measure the
different retracement levels within a market.
Drawing a Fibonacci Retracement:
1. Select the Fibonacci Retracement Tool from the Toolbox.
2. Left click on the chart where you would like the ruler to
begin.
3. Move the mouse pointer to the lower right position of the
ruler and left click to place.
Resizing the Fibonacci Retracement:
1. Select the ruler by clicking on it. You can tell the ruler is
selected when boxes appear on the corners of the
drawing.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Fibonacci Retracement:
Select the ruler by clicking on it, then drag to the new
location and release the mouse button.
Deleting the Fibonacci Retracement:
Select the ruler by clicking on it and press the delete key
on your keyboard. Or, right click on the ruler and select
Delete in the popup menu.
Right-click Menu
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Changing Properties for the Fibonacci Retracement:
Right-click on the ruler to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the ruler.
Background: Changes the background color of the ruler.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the ruler lines.
Choose values from 1-6.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the
values.
Show Text: Deselect/Select to view or hide the values.
Show Retracements: Select/Deselect to view the
additional retracement percentages.
Show Prediction: Select/Deselect to view the additional
prediction percentages.
Show Time Zones: Select\Deselect to overlay the Time
Zones on the ruler.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Fibonacci Retracement.
Delete: Select to delete the tool.
Example of a Fibonacci Retracement in Track ‘n Trade:
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Fibonacci Arc Tool
The Fibonacci Arc Tool is used to measure the different
retracement levels within a market.
Drawing a Fibonacci Arc:
1. Select the Fibonacci Arc Tool from the Toolbox.
2. Move the mouse pointer to the point on the chart that you
would like to start the stem of the arc tool, left click start.
3. Move the mouse pointer to the ending point for the arc
tool and left click to place. (While moving to the end point,
the arc will extend for you to get an idea of placement on
the ticks.)
Resizing the Fibonacci Arc:
1. Select the arc by clicking on it. You can tell the arc is
selected when boxes appear on the corners of the
drawing.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button to place.
Moving the Fibonacci Arc:
Select the arc by clicking on it, then drag to the new
location and release the mouse button.
Deleting the Fibonacci Arc:
Select the arc by clicking on it and press the delete key on
your keyboard. Or, right-click the arc and select Delete on
the popup menu.
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Changing Properties for the Fibonacci Arc:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the arc.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the arc lines.
Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the arc, which shows
when the line is selected. Choose from solid, dashed,
dotted and more.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the
values.
Show Text: Deselect\Select to view or hide the values.
Show Retracements: Select/Deselect to view the
additional retracement percentages.
Show Prediction: Select/Deselect to view the additional
prediction percentages.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Fibonacci Arc.
Delete: Select to delete the tool.
Example of a Fibonacci Arc in Track ‘n Trade:
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Fibonacci Time Zones
The Fibonacci Time Zone uses Fibonacci numbers rather than
the percentages used in the Ruler and Arc tools.
Charting a Fibonacci Time Zone:
1. Select the Fibonacci Time Zone Tool from the Toolbox.
2. This tool is drawn like a rectangle. Left click for the upper
left point.
3. Move the mouse to the bottom right position and left click
to finish the drawing.
Resizing the Fibonacci Time Zone:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Fibonacci Time Zone:
Select the drawing by clicking on it continue holding down
the mouse button, drag to the new location and release
the mouse button.
Deleting the Fibonacci Time Zone:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove. Or, right-click on the tool
and select Delete from the popup menu.
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Changing the Properties of a Fibonacci Time Zone:
Right-click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Fibonacci Time
Zone.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Fibonacci
Time Zone Line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Fibonacci Time
Zone Line. Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the
Fibonacci Time Zone numbers.
Show Text: Select to view or hide the numbers.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Fibonacci Time Zone drawing.
Delete: Select to delete tool.
Example of a Fibonacci Time Zone in Track ‘n Trade:
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Calculating Trading/Actual Days
In the futures industry trading days are scheduled around
holiday and weekends, therefore when looking at a futures
chart often times it is difficult to determine how many actual
days have passed while working a trade.
The number of trading days is also significant for traders
using the number of trading days as a rule in conjunction
with a formation. For example with the 1-2-3 Top or Bottom
Formation, many traders use the 10-20-50 rule. This rule
defines a 1-2-3 if there are 10 trading days between the #1
and #2 and 10 days between the #2 and #3 points.
To calculate the Actual or Trading days on a chart use the
Day Offset Tool.
Days “Up” and “Down”
Another statistic used along side formations and other
theories is the day up and down calculation. This
calculation determines how many days, in a defined set of
price bars, were “up” or “down”.
A day is considered an “Up Day” if the close is higher than
any previous close in the set of price bars selected.
Conversely a day is considered a “Down Day” if the close is
lower than any previous trading day in the defined set of
price bars.
This statistic is available in Track n Trade Pro when using
the Day Offset Tool.
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Day Offset Tool
The Day Offset Tool enables you to measure the number of
trading days vs. actual days that expired between two
points on the chart. Also calculated on this tool is the
number of days that the market closed up or down in
comparison with the previous day.
Charting a Day Offset:
1. Select the Day Offset Tool from the Toolbox.
2. This tool is drawn like a line. Left click for the left point.
3. Move the mouse to the right position and left click to
finish.
Resizing the Day Offset:
1. Select by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is selected
when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Day Offset:
Select the drawing by clicking on it continue holding down
the mouse button, drag to the new location and release
the mouse button.
Deleting the Day Offset:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove. Or, right-click on the tool
and select Delete from the popup menu.
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Changing the Properties of a Day Offset:
Right-click on the Day Offset drawing to view the properties
menu. Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Day Calculator.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Day
Calculator Line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Day Offset lines.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the Day
Calculator numbers.
Show Text: Select to view or hide the Day Calculator
numbers.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Day Calculator drawing.
Delete: Select to delete tool.
Example of the Day Offset Tool in Track ‘n Trade
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Rounded Top & Bottom Formations
The Rounded Top & Bottom Formation is a very gradual
change in trend. This formation includes: Rounded Top &
Bottom, Double Top & Bottom, & Triple Top & Bottom.
Rounded Top
The Rounded Top Formation consists of a gradual change
in trend from up to down.
Rounded Bottom
The Rounded Bottom Formation consists of a gradual
change in trend from down to up. This formation is the
exact opposite of a Rounded Top Formation.
Double Top
This formation includes two distinct “tops” and anticipates a
change in trend from up to down.
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Double Bottom
This formation includes two distinct “bottoms” and
anticipates a change in trend from down to up. This
formation is the exact opposite of a Double Top.
Triple Top
This formation includes three distinct “Tops” and anticipates
a change in trend from up to down.
Triple Bottom
This formation includes three distinct “Bottoms” and
anticipates a change in trend from down to up. This
formation is the exact opposite of a Triple Top.
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Arc Tool
To illustrate a Rounded Top/Bottom Formation on your
futures chart, use the Arc Tool in the Advanced Charting
Toolbar.
Drawing a Rounded Top Formation:
1. Select the Arc Tool from the Toolbox.
2. Left click your mouse on the left side of the arc and drag
the mouse to the right side, release mouse to place tool.
Resizing the Arc Drawing:
1. Select the arc by clicking on it. Note: The tool is selected
when boxes appear on the corners of the drawing.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Arc Drawing:
Select the arc by clicking on it and drag to the new
location and release the mouse button.
Deleting the Arc Drawing:
Select the arc by clicking on it and press the Delete key
on your keyboard. Or, right-click on the drawing and
select the Delete option on the popup menu.
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Changing the Properties of an Arc Drawing:
Right-click on the tool to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the arc.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the arc line.
Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the arc line. Choose
from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Arc Tool Drawing.
Delete: Select to delete the tool.
Example of the Arc Tool in Track ‘n Trade:
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TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
PERSONALIZING YOUR
CHARTS WITH
NOTATION TOOLS
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Section 6 – Personalizing Your Charts with Notation Tools
PERSONALIZING YOUR
CHARTS WITH
NOTATION TOOLS
Express Yourself with Text, Graphics,
and More.
Introduction
In Track ‘n Trade Pro, you have a variety of tools available
to you to help personalize, notate and analyze your futures
charts. Type text, make drawings, import flags, plus keep
notes on each chart. The Notation tools as well as the
Notes Tab in the Control panel enable you record and
remember what you learn from others tips and tricks. In this
section you will learn how to use these features.
Example of Personalizing a chart in Track ‘n Trade:
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Notes Window
The Notes Window is located in the Control Tab after the
Data Tab. The Notes Tab is for you to keep notes on the
charts that are saved within your Chartbook. Each Chart
has a new Notes section available to keep notes for that
particular chart.
Notes Tab in Track ‘n Trade
Arrow Tool
The Arrow Tool is located in the Notation Toolbar. This tool
enables you to draw arrows to help point out areas of
interest on your chart.
To draw an Arrow:
1. Select the Arrow Tool Button
2. Position mouse pointer where you want to place the point
of the arrow and click the left mouse button.
3. Continue holding down the mouse button and drag the
mouse pointer to the location you would like to end the
arrow and release.
Moving an Arrow:
Left click and continue holding down the mouse button,
drag to the new location and release to place.
Deleting an Arrow:
Left click on the arrow to select and press the delete key
on your keyboard. Or right-click on the arrow and select
Delete from the popup menu.
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Changing the Length of an Arrow:
1. Left click to select the arrow.
2. Next, click on a box (markers located each end of the
arrow) continue to hole the mouse button and drag to
lengthen/shorten arrow, and then release to place.
Changing the Properties of the Drawn Arrow:
Right-click on the arrow to open the properties menu:.
Foreground: Changes the color of the entire arrow.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the stem on the
arrow. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the style of the arrow stem. Choose
from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the arrow.
Delete: Select to delete tool.
Flag Tool
The Flag Tool enables you to place a flag or a graphic on
your chart. There are a basic set of flags available to
choose from or you can also import custom flags.
Placing a Flag:
1. Select the Flag Tool Button in the Annotation Toolbox.
2. Left click on the Chart Window where you would like to
insert the Flag.
3. The default flag seen below the screenshot will be placed
in this location.
Changing the Flag Type and Settings:
1. Right click on the flag to display properties menu.
2. Select Settings from the menu to open the Flag Options
window.
3. In Flag Settings you can select a different flag, change or
import a custom flag. Importable formats: wmf, jpeg, and
gif.
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4. After making selections, click on OK to make changes or
Cancel to exit this window.
Flag Settings Window in Track ‘n Trade
Moving a Flag:
To move a flag, left-click on the flag and drag to the new
location. Release the mouse button to place.
To Delete a Flag:
Left click on the flag and press the Delete Key on your
keyboard. Or right-click the flag and choose the Delete
option from the popup menu.
Changing Size of Flag:
To change the size of a Flag, simply click on the flag so
that it is selected and then drag one of the handles to
change the size.
Changing Chart Position of Flag:
If another tool has been drawn in the same area as the
flag, right click on it and select Send to Back from the
properties menu to access a tool under the flag.
Default Flag:
To change the default Flag, open the Program Options
window and view the Tools Tab under Global Settings.
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Text Tool
The Text Tool enables you to type text on the chart.
Adding Text to a Chart:
1. Select the Text Tool Button in the Notation Toolbar.
2. Left click on the chart where you would like to place the
upper left corner of the text box, continue holding down
the mouse button and drag to the lower right corner
position release the mouse to place the box.
3. Once the text box is drawn the Text Tool Options window
will open. (see screenshot below)
4. The Text Tool Options window allows you to enter the
text, set the font, size, position, color, and style of the text.
Also, you can select a border and background for the text
box.
5. Click on OK when finished and the text will be placed on
your chart.
Text Tool Options Window in Track ‘n Trade
Moving Text on the Chart:
Left Click to select the text box and continue holding down
the mouse button while dragging the text to the new
location. Release mouse button to place text.
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Deleting Text:
Left click to select the text box and then press the Delete
key on your keyboard. Or, right-click the text and select
Delete from the popup menu.
Changing Properties of the Text:
1. Right-click to view the properties menu.
2. Select Settings to view the text tool options.
3. Make changes to color, font, size, and style then click on
OK to close window.
Changing Text Placement on Chart:
Right click to view the properties menu. Select “send to
back” to changes the layer of the tool. This option is used
when more than one tool is in the same area of the chart
and you need to access the tool under the text.
Box Tool
The Box Tool enables you to draw square or rectangle
shaped drawings on the chart.
Drawing a Box:
1. Select Box Tool Button in the Annotation Toolbox.
2. Left click where you would like to place the upper left
hand corner of the box, hold down the mouse button and
drag to the location of the lower right hand corner of the
box.
To Move the Box:
Left Click on the box, continue holding down the mouse
button while dragging to the new location. Release mouse
button to place.
To Delete the Box:
Select the box and press the Delete Key on your
keyboard. Or, right-click the box and select Delete from
the popup menu.
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Changing Properties of the Drawn Box:
Right-click on the box to open the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the box.
Background: Changes the inside color of the box.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the box outline.
Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the box outline.
Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the box.
Delete: Select to delete tool.
Circle Tool
The Circle Tool enables you to draw circle shaped drawings
on the chart.
Drawing a Circle:
1. Select the Circle Tool Button in the Annotation Toolbox.
2. Left click on the chart where you would like the circle to
start. Continue holding down the mouse button and drag
the tool until it has formed a circle. Release the mouse
button to place the circle.
Moving a Circle:
Left Click on drawing so that it is selected. Continue
holding down the mouse button while dragging to the new
location. Release mouse button to place circle.
Deleting a Circle:
Select the circle and press the Delete Key on your
keyboard. Or, right-click on the circle and then select
Delete from the popup menu.
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Changing the Properties of the Circle:
Right-click on the circle to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the color of the outline.
Background: Changes the inside color of the circle.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the outline on
the circle. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the style of the outline. Choose from
solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the drawn in the
same area of the chart. Click on Send to Back when you
need to access a tool under the circle.
Delete: Select to delete tool.
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Section 7 – Using Indicators
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
USING INDICATORS
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USING INDICATORS
Implementing Indicators into your
Trading Strategy
Introduction
Track ‘n Trade Pro includes 11 indicators that are displayed
in the window below the chart window. This window is
referred to as the Indicator Window. Also available are five
Overlay Indicators that are displayed directly on your chart in
the Chart Window.
Displaying Indicators in the Indicator Window
The Indicator Buttons are found on the bottom left hand side
of your screen (shown below). The indicator toolbar can be
closed/open by selecting View on the Menu Bar and clicking
on Indicator Buttons.
To display an indicator in the indicator window, click on the
button that has the abbreviation for the name of the indicator
you would like to display.
One Button:
The One button on the left end of your indicator toolbar
allows you to have as many indicators as you like selected,
but only view them one at a time in the indicator window. To
switch between each selected indicator click the Indicator
Information Display to the left of the Indicator Window.
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When you click on the Indicator Information Display window
the indicator information will rotate to the next indicator you
have selected (as simulated above).
All Button
The All Button will display all the indicators you have
selected on the Indicator Toolbar in the Indicator Window.
You will still be able to rotate the information for each
indicator to the right of the Indicator window.
Indicators displayed in the Indicator Window are:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
%R – Williams Percent R
AD –Williams AD
CCI –Commodity Channel Index
DMI – Directional Movement Index
HVOL – Historic Volatility
MACD – Moving Average
Convergence/Divergence
MOM – Momentum
RSI – Relative Strength Index
FSTO – Stochastics (fast)
SSTO – Stochastics (slow)
VOL/OI –Volume/Open Interest
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%R – Williams Percent R
Introduction:
Larry Williams originally used a ten-day interval, and plotted
where the current price compared to that interval. He used
it to measure conditions of overbought and oversold. The
overbought region is the area below 20% and the oversold
region is the area above 80% - with the ability to invert the
values it can be looked at in the same manner as other
overbought/oversold indicators (Note: we will use the
traditional method, not the inverted in our discussions).
Choosing the time period which the indicator looks at the
interval for the indicator is crucial to finding the optimal
sensitivity.
Interpretation:
Williams’s basic rule is simple. When the %R reaches 20%
or lower it is interpreted as a sell signal, and conversely
when the %R goes to 80% or higher a buy signal is
activated.
Changing the sensitivity of the indicator to work for you is
essential to making the study a better tool. The longer the
period for the %R, the less sensitive it will be. The indicator
will move less but will be more smoothed. A number of
technical traders use a value that is less volatile, in other
words a larger value. Many traders find it better to use a
strategy where the market leaves the areas of overbought/
oversold before entering a trade position. In either case
using solid exit strategies is important with this indicator.
Example of the %R in the Indicator Window:
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Calculation:
Parameters:
Period (10) - The number of price bars, or the interval, used
to calculate the study.
Common Formula:
You must first determine the highest high and lowest low for
the length of the interval. This is the trading range for the
specified interval. The general formula for the %R is as
follows:
%Rt = ( (Highn - Closet) / (Highn - Lown) ) * -100
%Rt: The percent of the range for the current period.
Highn: The highest price during the past n trading periods.
Closet: The closing price for the current period.
Lown: The lowest price during the past n trading periods.
n: The length of the interval.
Example:
Assume the market is Treasury Bills. The high for the past
ten trading intervals is 9275, and the low is 9125. The
closing price in the current period is 9267. If you substitute
those values in the equation, you get:
%R = ( (9275 - 9267) / (9275 - 9125) ) * 100
= (8 / 150) * 100
= 5.33
Updated Formula:
%Rt = ( (Closet - Lown) / (Highn - Lown) ) * -100
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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AD –Williams AD
Introduction:
Larry Williams created this indicator in an attempt to
measure market pressures. It specifically looks for a
difference in price and then measures that difference. It is a
tool used to measure market sentiment and strength. The
key is to look for strong differences in what the market does
as opposed to what the indicator does. Looking for
substantial divergence from the AD index versus the
underlying chart is the key to future price direction.
Interpretation:
The indicator is computed by taking the previous days close
and comparing it to the current days close. If the close of
today was higher, then the low for the period is subtracted
from the current days close, and added to the current AD. A
pattern of higher highs would show a consistently
increasing AD. If the close of today is the same as
yesterday then there is no change in the AD. If the close of
today is lower than yesterdays low, the close of today is
subtracted from the high for the current period and that
difference is subtracted from the AD.
The main thing to look for is a difference in the AD and the
market trend. If a market were to make a matching or lower
low or a matching or higher high and the AD fails to follow
the market trend then this is divergence. Divergence
implies a reversal in the dominant trend may be near.
A series of lower lows would read as a decreasing AD. The
pattern created by the AD and the differences in the chart
are what the trader looks for. Divergence or a difference
from the pattern is what you want to see. For example, if
the market continues to march to higher territory and the
AD follows by doing the same then there is no divergence.
However if the market makes several new highs but the AD
fails to make new highs, it is a warning signal of a market
about to reverse direction.
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Example of the Williams AD in the Indicator Window
Calculation:
Formula:
The AD index is computed several different ways. Some
computations normalized the index, while others added extra
smoothing factors through the use of moving averages
The first comparison checks for accumulation (i.e. Is the
current close higher than previous close?). If the market is
accumulating, then compute the difference between current
close and low. Next, add that arithmetic difference to the
Accumulation/Distribution Index. Traders perceive an
undervalued market and buy. The procedure is:
If Closet > Closet-1 then ADt = ADt-1 + (Closet - Lowt)
The second comparison checks for no change in price. If
correct, the AD index does not change. It states:
If Closet = Closet-1 then ADt = ADt-1
The last and final comparison checks for a down market. It
checks for current close below previous close. If that is
correct, the market is distributing. The software first
computes the difference between current high and close. It
then subtracts that difference from the AD index. This
measures market distribution. Traders perceive an
overvalued market and are selling. The final computation is:
If Closet < Closet-1 then ADt = ADt-1 - (Hight - Closet)
ADt - The accumulation/distribution index for the current
period.
ADt-1 - The accumulation/distribution index for the previous
period.
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Closet - The closing price for the current interval.
Closet-1 - The closing price for the previous interval.
Hight - The true high price for the current interval.
Lowt - The true low price for the current interval.
Note: The true high is the higher value of the current high or
the previous close. The true low is the lower value of the
current low or the previous close.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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CCI –Commodity Channel Index
Introduction:
The Commodity Channel Index (CCI) is designed to detect
beginning and ending market trends. The formula
standardizes market prices so that the trader can spot
deviations from the market's trend more easily.
Proponents of this indicator say that 70% to 80% of all price
fluctuations fall within +100 and -100 as measured by the
index. This is akin to technical lore that most of the time,
markets trade in a sideways trend or channels. However,
when the indicator moves out of this range, it is said that a
trend is underway.
The calculation for CCI is very similar to the histogram
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD), as the
CCI measures the average daily prices distance from a
moving average of average daily prices, in much the same
way that MACD measures the distance between moving
averages from a base line.
The trading rules for the CCI are as follows: Establish a
long position when the CCI exceeds +100. Liquidate when
the index drops below +100. For a short position, you use
the -100 value as your reference point. Any value less than
-100 suggests a short position, while a rise above -100 tells
you to liquidate your short position.
Interpretation:
Generally, followers of the CCI look to establish long
positions when the CCI exceeds the +100 level, indicating
that prices are in a strong up trend. Generally, most users
of this indicator also try to look for patterns with in the
indicator, such as higher highs, and look for CCI
movements to be confirmed by general price readings as
well.
Standard interpretation calls for long positions, once
initiated on the upward exceeding of the +100 level, to be
held until the CCI falls back below +85, at which time
positions are exited as the market has stopped trending
upward.
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Short positions are generally established when the CCI
goes lower than -100, indicating that prices are in a strong
down trend. Like long positions, most users of this indicator
try to watch out for patterns within the CCI itself to confirm
the downward trend, and also look for confirmation from
lower prices on the chart itself.
Once a short position is established, the original
interpretation of this indicator calls for holding the position
until the index climbs above -85 to the upside, at which time
short positions should be covered.
The purpose of the CCI index is to try to keep you out of the
market during consolidation or weak trending periods. By
measuring the difference average prices versus mean
average prices, this indicator attempts to isolate only
strongly trending markets, similar to momentum and
MACD.
In the Track 'n Trade CCI indicator pane, -100 is 33% of the
window, +100 is 66% of the window. Therefore, guides
could be set at these two points for ease in tracking CCI.
Example of the CCI in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
Parameters:
Period (20) - the number of bars, or period, used to calculate
the study.
Formula:
The proper calculation of the CCI requires several steps.
They are listed in the proper sequence below. You must first
compute the typical price, using the high, low and close for
the interval. It is the simple arithmetic average of the three
values.
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TP = (Hight + Lowt + Closet) / 3
TPt - represents the typical price.
Hight - The highest price for this interval.
Lowt - The lowest price for this interval.
Closet - The closing price for this interval.
Next, you calculate a simple moving average of the typical
price for the number of periods specified.
TPAVGt = (TP1 + TP2 +... + TPn) / n
TPAVGt - The moving average of the typical price.
TPn - The typical price for the nth interval.
n - Number of intervals for the average.
The next step is rather complex; it computes the mean
deviation. The formula is:
MDt = (|TPAVG1 - TP1| +... + | TPAVG1 - TPn |) / n
MDT - The mean deviation for this interval.
TPn - The typical price for the nth interval.
n - Number of intervals.
The symbol | | designates absolute value. In mathematical
terms, negative differences are treated as positive values.
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Now, the computation for the final CCI value is:
CCIt = (TPt - TPAVGt) / (.015 * MDT)
CCIt - The Commodity Channel Index for the current
period.
TPt - The typical price for the current period.
TPAVGt - The moving average of the typical price.
.015 - A constant.
MDT - The mean deviation for this period.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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DMI – Directional Movement Index
Introduction:
Wilder's DMI is similar to the historic volatility indicator in
that it shows the market tendencies. The main use of this
tool is to show the strength of a trend. This could direct the
trader to use a trend following system or a counter trend
system in their trading. It also indicates possible price
reversals.
Directional Moving Index is plotted as three lines on a scale
of 0 to 100. This scale is a measure of market trend. The
two lines of DMI show the amount of positive and negative
movement. The positive line is called D+ and the negative
D-. The direction of these lines and the use of crossovers
can show the changes in the current market. The key to this
indicator is the ADX, or average of the difference of these
two lines. The ADX is the main factor in using this indicator.
During periods of extreme price variation the two lines can
become very volatile; the ADX is used to compensate for
this.
Interpretation:
The best application of DMI is present when used with
another indicator. DMI should either confirm or contradict
the indicator being used. It is also best to use DMI in longterm trade situations. Because the study is not as sensitive
as other indicators it is appropriate to use it as a
confirmation tool. When the DMI is advancing, the average
is higher on the 0 to 100 scale, trend following systems are
best employed. Likewise with a decreasing DMI average,
the line is lower on the scale closer to 0, a counter trend
system might be best. These traits represent the fact that
as the average line goes higher in the scale the strength of
the trend is gaining, and as the ADX goes lower the trend is
loosing strength. It is also important to look at the individual
lines for changes in price movement.
The other application for DMI is to look at the D+ and Dlines themselves. When the D+ line crosses above the Dline a buy signal is initiated. This indicates that the positive
price direction is greater than the negative. Conversely,
once the D+ line crosses below the D- line, a sell trigger is
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present. The negative price movement is overtaking the
positive.
Welles Wilder himself said that he was not comfortable
using these two lines by themselves. So when looking at
reversals the ADX should be above both lines and once it
turns lower we should see a change in market direction.
One should also look to ADX for confirmation. For a good
sell signal, the D+ should be greater than D- and both
should be lower than ADX ( D+ > D- < ADX ). For a good
buy signal, D+ should be lower than D- and both should be
lower than ADX ( D+ < D- < ADX ).
This application is much the same as momentum showing a
change in the market sentiment. Wilder also says that a
trend following system should not be used when the ADX
line is below both D lines, as this means that the market
has no discernable direction.
When using the D+ and D- crossover method, Wilder
stresses the use of an extreme point. On the day the
crossover occurs, the extreme point is the high or low of the
day, (high for a buy, and low for a sell). The market should
be able to take out that price and stay beyond it for several
days before the trade is initiated or exited. This use of
extreme points should keep the trader from getting into
whipsaws or false breakouts.
Example of the DMI in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
Parameters:
ƒ Period (14) - the number of bars, or interval, used to
calculate the study.
ƒ Show/Hide +DI (1) - this parameter is used to show or
hide the +DI line. 0=hide, 1=show.
ƒ Show/Hide -DI (1) - this parameter is used to show or
hide the -DI line. 0=hide, 1=show.
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ƒ Show/Hide ADX (1) - this parameter is used to show or
hide the ADX line. 0=hide, 1=show.
Computations:
The computations needed to generate the final figures for
the DMI are not complex but are numerous and lengthy.
The following discussion attempts to unravel the
computational mysteries of the DMI.
If you need further explanation, please refer to the author's
original work. The book titled New Concepts in Technical
Trading Systems by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. explains this
indicator and several others.
You must first compute the directional movement, DM, for
the current trading interval. Directional movement can be
up, down or zero. If directional movement is up, it is labeled
as +DM. The expression -DM refers to downward
directional movement.
Wilder defines directional movement as the largest part of
the current trading range that is outside the previous
trading range. From a mathematical view, it is the largest
value of the following differences:
Hight - Hight-1 or Lowt - Lowt-1
This is only true when the current low is less than the
previous low, or the current high exceeds the previous high.
Please note that both of these conditions do not have to be
met, only one. It is the largest portion of the trading range
outside of the previous trading range.
It is possible for the directional movement to be zero. This
occurs when the current trading range is inside the previous
trading range, or the trading ranges, current versus
previous, are equal.
Directional movement is up or positive, when the difference
between the highs is the greatest. It is down or negative
when the difference between the lows is the largest value.
Thus, the up directional movement is +DM, and down
directional movement is -DM.
Do not let the plus and minus sign designation mislead you.
They only indicate upward or downward movement, not
values. The directional movement value is always a positive
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number or absolute value, regardless of upward or
downward movement.
This concept is crucial to understanding the computations
for the indicator. If you are confused or do not understand,
draw some illustrations or work with actual price data to
determine the directional movement values.
The next step in determining the DMI is to compute the true
range. According to the author, the true range is the largest
value of the following equations:
Hight - Lowt
Hight - Closet-1
Lowt - Closet-1
The true range is always a positive number. From this point
forward, all references to the true range are designated as
TR.
Continue this process for the specified trading interval. In
this example, use a value of 14. This is the same value
Wilder used on daily data. His logic for using this value is
that it represented an average half-cycle period. When this
task is accomplished for the specified interval, you compute
the average value of the +DM, -DM and TR.
Wilder prefers to use an accumulation technique rather
than computing a pure moving average. It was actually a
short cut designed to save computational time and effort.
That technique is as follows:
Averaget = (Averaget-1 - (Averaget-1 / n)) + Valuet
Thus, when you substitute the above symbols, you have:
+DMt = (+DMt-1 - (+DMt-1 / n)) + (+DMt)
-DMt = (-DMt-1 - (-DMt-1 / n)) + (-DMt)
TRt = (TRt-1 - (TRt-1 / n)) + (TRt)
If you think about it, it really is a timesaving convention.
Remember, this indicator was developed before
microcomputers were invented. The only tool available was
the desktop calculator or adding machine. You could spend
a great deal of time and effort calculating averages.
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You now have the average values. The next step is to
compute the directional indicator. Again, it can either be up
or down, depending upon the directional movement. On up
intervals, the formula is:
+DI = (+DM / TR) * 100
On a down interval, the formula is:
-DI = (-DM / TR) * 100
The plus and minus directional indicator values are
computed as percentage figures. You are expressing the
percentage of the average true range for both up and down
trading intervals.
If you have followed this process so far, the last few steps
are relatively simple. You compute the difference between
the +DI and the -DI. Again, you use the absolute value of
this difference. Simply, convert any negative value into a
positive number. The formula is:
DIdiff = | ((+DI) - (-DI)) |
Next, compute the sum of the directional indicator values.
The formula reads as follows:
DIsum = ((+DI) + (-DI))
Once you compute the DIdiff and the DIsum, you calculate
the DX or directional movement index. This value is always
a percentage. The formula is:
DX = (DIdiff / DIsum) * 100
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The DX is always a value between 0 and 100. If your
calculations exceed this range, you made an error. Wilder
was not comfortable using just the directional movement
index. It could become very volatile during periods of
extreme price movement, especially markets that rise and
fall quickly. Again, he implements his accumulated moving
average technique to smooth the DX. The result is the ADX
or average directional movement index. The computational
procedure is as follows:
ADXt = ( (ADXt-1 * (n - 1) ) + DXt) / n
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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HVOL – Historic Volatility
Introduction:
The Historic Volatility indicator is used mainly as an option
evaluation tool. It does not give trading signals like those
given with other technical indicators. What it does do is give
the trader an idea of how volatile the market has been for
the previous period of time.
Changing the period of time the study observes allows the
trader to fine tune options prices. If a market has been
extremely volatile for the past 3 months, for example, then
near term options should be more expensive. If the market
has been calm for an extended period of time longer term
options should be reasonable.
Its use in futures is for observation, telling the trader if
prices are calming down or becoming more erratic.
Interpretation:
The key to using historic volatility is determining the correct
period of time for each market. The market you are looking
at may show a history of volatility years ago but may have
been relatively calm the last few months. Getting an idea of
the markets behavior recently may be of no use to the
trader that is looking at distant options and vice versa for
the trader looking at near term options.
For the futures trader this tool is useful as a guide for order
placement. Seeing that market volatility is changing may
indicate that it is time to move stops closer or farther away.
If the trader is profitable with the trend and volatility is
changing it might be a time to move stops closer to protect
profits. If a trader is trading against the trend, they might
want to move stops further away to avoid getting bumped
out prematurely.
Options traders could use this study to help them purchase
profitable options. The basic idea is to buy options when
volatility is decreasing to take advantage of a change in
that volatility. Any rise in volatility will translate to an
increase in option values. Look at options strategies that
take advantage of low volatility, such as straddles or ratio
spreads. When volatility is high selling options would be
better, because any decrease in volatility will translate to a
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loss of option value. Option strategies that take advantage
of a decrease in volatility are strangles and regular short
option positions.
Obviously, historic volatility is only one component of option
pricing. Any changes in the underlying futures market could
negate the changes in option prices due to volatility. For
example, if you were to buy a low volatility Put option and
prices go higher that option will lose value but not as
quickly as a higher volatility option.
For the futures trader the basic concept is to expect market
changes during periods of increased volatility. George
Soros, the trading legend, said "Short term volatility is
greatest at a turn around and diminishes as a trend
becomes established."
This indicator is commonly viewed as very mean
regressive. What this term means is that the historic
volatility indicator tends to return to the opposite end of the
spectrum and therefore return to an average. If volatility is
great it will eventually cool off and return to that place. If
volatility is low it will not stay quiet forever. What this means
to traders is that a market that is erratic will sooner or later
calm down and a market that is quiet will eventually get
loud again.
Example of Historical Velocity in the Indicator Window:
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Calculation:
Parameters:
Period (20) - the number of bars, or period, used to
calculate the study. You may alter this to use any number
greater than 1 for the close. The historical volatility displays
in simple percentage values.
Formula:
The calculation for the historical volatility is rather involved.
The number of periods per year vary depending on the type
of price chart used for the study. The following table lists
the number of periods for each type of chart:
Chart Type
Trading Periods per Year
Perpetual
262
Daily
262
Weekly
52
Monthly
12
Variable
Based on chart period (see below)
Tick
Not available for this study
When using variable charts, you must first calculate the
number of trading periods per year. To do this, you must
determine the trading time of the selected commodity. The
formula is as follows:
TP = (Tt / Pn) * 262
TP - The total number of trading periods per year.
Tt - The total trading time in a day.
Pn - The length of the period.
262 - The number of weekdays per year.
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For instance, the S&P 500 trades from 8:30 a.m. to 3:15
p.m. That is a total trading time of 6 hours and 45 minutes.
On a variable chart using 5 minute bars, the number of
periods for the day is 81 as demonstrated:
6 hours @ 60 minutes = 360 minutes
45 minutes +45 minutes
Total minutes of trading = 405 minutes
405 / 5 minute bars = 81 trading periods per day
Now that you have calculated the trading periods per day,
you now must calculate the number of periods for the year.
Since historical volatility considers every weekday of the
year when calculating total periods for the year, the multiplier
is 262:
TP = (405)/5) * 262
TP = 81* 262
TP = 21,222
Note: This formula applies only to historical volatility on a
variable chart. It does not apply to other chart types.
Now that you have the total number of periods per year,
continue with the calculation of the historical volatility.
Next calculate the logarithm of the price change for each
price in the specified time span of n periods. The formula is:
LOGSi = LOG(Pi / Pi-1)
LOG - The logarithm function.
Pi - The current price
Pi-1 - The previous price
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Now that you have the logarithms of the price changes,
calculate the total logarithms for the time span you are
reviewing. To calculate the total of the logarithms, use the
following formula:
Tlogs - The total of the logarithm price ratio for the time
span.
S - Indicates to sum all n logarithms.
LOGSi - The logarithm of the price change for period i.
n - The number of periods for the specified time span.
The next step is to calculate the average of the logs by
dividing the total logarithm by the number of periods as
shown below:
ALOGS = Tlogs / n
ALOGS - The average of the logarithms.
Tlogs - The total of the logarithm for the time span.
n - The number of periods for the specified time span.
The last calculation is to sum the squares of the difference
between the individual logarithms for each period and the
average logarithm. This is accomplished in the following
formula:
SSD - The sum of the squared differences.
S - Indicates to total the squares of all n differences.
LOGSi - The logarithm of the price change for period i.
ALOGS - The average of the logarithms.
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Now that the elements of the final formula are complete, the
following formula calculates the historical volatility for a
given period over a specified time span.
SSD - The sum of the squared differences.
n - The number of periods for the specified time span.
TP - The total number of trading periods for the year.
Due to the complexity of the formula, it is preferable to use
a scientific calculator when attempting to manually calculate
the historical volatility of a futures instrument.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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MACD
Moving Average Convergence/Divergence
Introduction:
In an attempt to determine the strength of a trend along
with the direction of that trend MACD was created. Gerald
Appel created a system that looked at two exponential
moving averages and the difference between those two
averages. Looking at these moving averages of the market
we are able to see clear buy and sell signals. By also
looking at an average of the difference in the two moving
averages we are able to get a more accurate signal.
Interpretation:
Computing this indicator requires the use of exponential
moving averages. Exponential moving averages are
different than simple moving averages because instead of
looking at only the last few days and averaging them, the
exponential averages look at all the prices, and then put
more weight on the most recent data. This type of weighted
average gives a smoother average price that reacts more
quickly to market moves. The two averages of MACD move
above and below a base line, which gives indication of the
strength of the current move. This placement of the two
averages in relationship to the base line is calculated by
looking at the exponential moving average of the difference
between the two averages. So even though the two
averages may cross, the divergence or true indication of
the signal is not shown until both averages cross the base
line.
Keeping this in mind, an ideal buy signal is seen on a move
where the shorter-term average moves above the other
average and both averages cross above the base line of
zero. Inversely a sell signal would be the opposite of this.
The histogram method of MACD is read as a straight line
above or below the zero baseline. This line represents the
difference between the Moving Averages. Therefore when
the moving averages move above the base line they are
indicating a buy, and as the difference between the
averages increases the lines will get taller.
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The opposite is true of a sell signal. Track 'n Trade's ability
to display MACD in this fashion is vital because it allows
you to read the strength of the current trend along with the
signal to buy or sell.
When MACD is plotted as a histogram, the values used to
plot the histogram are the differences between the two
moving averages on each day. The "trigger" line that
appears on this chart is an average of the histogram data,
or put more simply, a smoothed view of the histogram.
Using the MACD as a histogram also allows the trader to
spot divergences between the indicator and the market
price. A divergence is present when the market makes a
higher high than the previous high, but the MACD
histogram fails to make a corresponding higher high. This
is considered - in technical lore - to be a sign of weakness
and a sell signal when the MACD breaks below the lowest
point in between the divergent highs.
Bullish divergence is seen in an exact opposite fashion.
Assume a market has been trending downward. The
market has been consistently making lower lows, as has
been the MACD histogram indicator. However, eventually
the MACD fails to make a lower low, corresponding to the
lower low in price. If the MACD histogram line crosses
above the highest high in between the divergent lows, then
technical lore holds that higher prices should follow.
Example of the MACD in the indicator Window:
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Calculation:
Parameters:
First (12) - the number of bars, or interval, used to
calculate the first Exponential Moving Average.
Second (26) - the number of bars, or interval, used to
calculate the second Exponential Moving Average.
Difference (9) - the number of bars, or interval, used to
calculate an additional Exponential Moving Average.
Formula:
In this study, the oscillator is the simple difference between
the first two exponential moving averages. The formula is
as follows:
OSCt = (EMA1 - EMA2)
OSCt - The oscillator for the current period.
EMA1 - The first exponential moving average.
EMA2 - The second exponential moving average.
The second part of the study computes an exponential
moving average of the oscillator. You have:
EMAosct = EMAosct-1+ (k * (OSCt - EMAosct-1))
EMAosct - The exponential moving average of the
oscillator.
OSCt - The oscillator for the current interval.
EMAosct-1 - The exponential moving average of the
oscillator for the previous interval.
k - The exponential smoothing constant.
Since the second value, EMAosct, is an exponential moving
average, it rises and falls more slowly than the oscillator.
Hence, the two lines generate crossover points. These
crossover points are the buy/sell signals. Review Reading
Moving average Convergence/Divergence Trading Signals
for other possible trading signals.
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If the study is displayed as a histogram, each value for the
lines is calculated as:
DIFFt = OSCt - EMAosct
DIFFt - The difference between the oscillator for the current
interval and the exponential moving average of the
oscillator.
OSCt - The oscillator for the current interval.
EMAosct - The exponential moving average of the
oscillator.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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MOM – Momentum
Introduction:
The momentum indicator describes how price changes
occur. It is a measure of the price change. It lets you know
if prices are increasing at a continually increasing rate or
decreasing at a more decreasing rate. Momentum can help
gauge the current market trend. This indicator will
sometimes shift ahead of a price change. It is both an
indicator of trend as well as an indicator of a changing
trend. The main thing to look for when using it is a
divergence or difference between price behavior and the
indicators behavior.
Interpretation:
Momentum measures the rate of change in prices rather
than actual price levels themselves. By measuring this rate
of incline or decline momentum tells whether the current
trend is strengthening or weakening. If prices are rising and
the momentum indicator is above the zero line then the
trend is gaining strength. If prices were rising but the
indicator was sagging or went below the zero line then we
would interpret this as a sign of a coming change in trend.
This is true because although prices were still increasing
they are doing so at a decreasing rate.
The reverse would be true during a declining market. For
example, think of a race car gaining 20 miles an hour each
lap, until it starts to only gain 15 miles an hour, then 10
mph, then 5 mph until eventually it reaches its top speed.
Like a race car, a market can not sustain growing
momentum forever, and in many occurrences momentum
slows before prices change direction.
Typically, the trade signals are to buy when the momentum
indicator crosses from below the zero line to above it. This
indicates that a new upward trend has begun, as the
market is able to violate resistance levels and continue
higher with increasing speed.
The sell signal would be to sell when the line crosses from
above the zero line to below it. This indicates that the
market is picking up speed to the downside and should be
able to violate support areas.
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It is in this way that this unique indicator is a trend following
tool. Another way to use momentum is to establish regions
of overbought or oversold. For example when, in a
declining market, the prices continue downward and the
momentum indicator moves toward more negative but
begins to level out. We would be looking for a buy signal
when the indicator turned upward and out of that oversold
region.
It is in this way that momentum can sometimes shift ahead
of the price movement. This use of the momentum indicator
is a counter trend usage.
In either implementation of this indicator the key is
divergence -seeing momentum make lower highs while
prices are making higher highs or momentum making
higher lows while prices are making lower lows. Being
aware of a difference in price movement and the
momentum level can help the trader make informed trading
decisions.
Example of the Momentum in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
Parameters:
Period (20) - the number of bars, or period, used to
calculate the study. You must determine a value suitable
to your trading needs and methods. Some technicians
argue the length of the momentum indicator should
equal the normal price cycle. The best method is to
experiment with different lengths until you find the length
that works best for that particular commodity you are
trading.
Formula:
The general formula to calculate momentum is as
follows:
MOMt = Pi - Pi-n
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MOMt - The momentum indicator for the current period.
Pi - The price of the i interval.
Pin - The price n intervals ago.
n - The number of intervals or length specified.
Assume the current price is 7470. This example examines
a momentum study using a length of ten trading intervals.
The price ten intervals ago was 7400. The calculation is:
MOM = 7470 - 7400 = +70
The momentum value can have a very broad range. It is a
function of the length you select for the momentum and the
volatility of the underlying futures contract. Thus, it could
swing very widely and wildly about the zero line.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
.
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RSI – Relative Strength Index
Introduction:
The RSI was developed by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. as a
measure of the market's strength or weakness. The
principle idea of this study is that it will indicate a general
zone that the market is in, either the buy or sell zone. This
indicator is similar to Stochastics in that it shows regions of
overbought and oversold. This indicator should be
incorporated into a system rather using it by itself. Wilder's
popular indicator is known for its accuracy and its ability to
compensate for erratic price movement.
Interpretation:
RSI computes the difference in recent prices as a solid line
and plots this line on a scale similar to the scale used by
Stochastics. The area above 70 is generally considered to
be the overbought region, and the region below 30 is
referred to as the oversold region. Simply selling in the
overbought region and buying when RSI is in the oversold
region is not a consistent method of trade. Trade signals
are not generated until the RSI leaves these regions. So a
sell signal would not be present until the RSI has begun
sloping down and leaves the 70 region.
A buy signal, in the simple methodology associated with
this pattern, is derived when RSI leaves the oversold region
- crosses from below 30 to above it. Just like sell signals,
RSI buy signals are present when the market begins to turn
and the indicator leaves the oversold region.
Another use of the RSI is to look for a divergence in prices.
When a market makes higher highs or lower lows and the
RSI fails to follow suit. This difference in the indicator and
the market could be a signal that the market lacks the
momentum to continue its current price direction. So you
may be able to take a position sooner using this strategy
than you would with the previous way. Wilder says that this
divergence is "the single most indicative characteristic of
the RSI."
The RSI indicator uses in it's calculation a moving average
of price changes over the period. You can select which type
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of moving average is used to produce the desired amount
of smoothing on the RSI indicator.
Example of the RSI in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
Parameters:
Period (14) - the number of bars, or period, used to
calculate the study.
Formula:
The RSI computations are not difficult, but they are
tedious. You first calculate the difference between the
current closing price and the previous closing price. The
general formula is:
DIFt = Closet - Closet-1
If that difference is a positive value, it is an up period the current close is higher than previous close. If the
difference is negative, it is a down period - the current
close is below the previous close. The DIF value for a
series of UP and DOWN days. The DOWN value is
always a positive number for all computations. It is the
absolute value of a negative DIF.
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The worksheet below shows the calculations needed to
create a 9 period RSI.
Day
Current Previous
Close
Close
Dif
Up
Down
1
7450
7430
+20
20
0
2
7460
7450
+10
10
0
3
7470
7460
+10
10
0
4
7480
7470
+10
10
0
5
7485
7480
+5
5
0
6
7490
7485
+5
6
0
7
7480
7490
-10
0
10
8
7470
7480
-10
0
10
9
7455
7470
-15
0
15
&nbsp;
Totals 60
&nbsp; &nbsp;
35
You now compute the up and down averages, which are
calculated as follows:
Ut = (UP1 +... + UPi) / n
Dt = (DOWN1 +... + DOWNn) / n
UT - The up average for the current period.
DT - The down average for the current period.
UPn - The UP value for the nth period.
DOWNn - The DOWN value for the nth period.
n - The number of periods for the RSI.
Now, use the values from the worksheet. The up average is:
U = 60 / 9
= 6.67
and the down average is:
D = 35 / 9
= 3.89
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The general formula for the RSI is:
RSIt = ( UT / (UT + DT) ) * 100
If you use the above values and place them in the formula,
it appears as follows:
RSI = ( 6.67 / ( 6.67 + 3.89 )) * 100
= 63.16
Assume the market continues the downward trend. The
next DIF value is -15, which sets the UP value to 0, zero,
and the DOWN value to 15. Calculate the next up and
down average by using Wilder's accumulative moving
average technique. The formulae are:
UT = ( (UT-1 * (n-1) ) + UPt) / n
= ( (6.67 * (9 -1) ) + 0) / 9
= 5.93
DT = ( ( DT-1 * (n-1) ) + DOWNt) / n
= ( ( 3.89 * (9 - 1) ) + 15) / 9
= 5.12
The value for the new RSI equals the following:
RSI = ( (5.93) / (5.93 + 5.12)) * 100
= 53.67
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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FSTO – Fast Stochastics
Introduction:
Stochastic Process was invented by Dr. George C. Lane
many years ago under this basic premise: During periods of
decrease daily closes tend to accumulate near the extreme
low of the day and conversely during periods of increase
daily closes tend to accumulate near the extreme highs of
the day.
This indicator is designed to show conditions of overbought
and oversold markets. Stochastics are divided into two
types regular Stochastics, often referred to as Fast
Stochastics, and Slow Stochastics. Fast Stochastics are
said to be more sensitive to price changes and can give
very greatly in the short-term, hence the need for Slow
Stochastics.
Interpretation:
Stochastics display two lines that move in a vertical scale
between 0 and 100 - representing percentiles from 0% to
100%. Think of the level of Stochastics as where the most
current close is within a specific range. For example, if
Stochastics are reading 50%, the current close is in the
middle of the price range for specified period of time. If
Stochastics are reading 100%, the close is at the high of
the range, and 0% represents current close price being at
the low of the range. Of course, because Stochastics are
smoothed this is not exactly true, but should help you
visualize the information being shown. This will also help
you to understand why Stochastics are a counter trend
indicator, in that the underlying principle behind Stochastics
is that prices will move back to the center of the trading
range, or the opposite extreme.
When both lines move to an area below 20 on this scale
they are said to be in an oversold zone. Conversely, when
both %K and %D move to above 80 on this same scale
they are indicating overbought. It is this indication of market
sentiment that makes this counter trend indicator useful.
George Lane emphasized that the most important signal
generated by this method was the difference or divergence
between %D and the underlying market price. He said that
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the divergence is where %D line makes a group of lower
highs while the market makes a series of higher highs. This
would indicate an overbought condition. The reverse would
be true of an oversold market, with %D making higher lows
and prices making lower lows.
Trade triggers to buy are created when, during an oversold
condition (Stochastics below 20) the slow line, %D is
crossed by the faster moving line, %K.
The opposite would occur with a sell signal. The faster %K
line crosses above the slower %D line, when both are at a
reading above 80.
As with a dual moving average system when the faster
reacting indicator crosses the slower moving indicator a buy
or sell is signaled. Because Stochastics give an indication
of either overbought or oversold you would first want to see
both lines in that above 80 or below 20 range and sloping
out of that range back to the middle before looking for these
trade triggers.
Example of FSTO in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
Parameters:
Overall Period (3) - the number of periods used to
determine the highest high and lowest low.
%D MA Period (14) - the number of periods used to
determine the moving average for the %D value.
Formula:
The first step in computing the stochastic indicator is to
determine the n period high and low. For example, suppose
you specified twenty periods for the stochastic. Determine
the highest high and lowest low during the last twenty trading
intervals. It determines the trading range for that time period.
The trading range changes on a continuous basis.
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The calculations for the %K are as follows:
%Kt = ( (Closet - Lown) / (Highn - Lown) ) * 100
%Kt - The value for the first %K for the current time period.
Closet - The closing price for the current period.
Lown - The lowest low during the n periods.
Highn - The highest high during the n time periods.
n - The value you specify.
Once you obtain the %K value, you start computing the %D
value which is an accumulative moving average. Since the
%D is a moving average of a moving average, it requires
several trading intervals before the values are calculated
properly. For example, if you specify a 20 period stochastic,
the software system requires 26 trading intervals before it
can calculate valid %K and %D values. The formula for the
%D is:
%DT = ( (%DT-1 * 2) + %Kt) / 3
%DT - The value for %D in the current period.
%DT-1 - The value for %D in the previous period.
%Kt - The value for %K in the current period.
The values 2 and 3 are constants. You specify the
constants and the length of the time period to examine for
the trading range.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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SSTO - Slow Stochastics
Introduction:
The slower version of Stochastics is commonly believed to
be a more reliable indicator. In this version of Stochastics
the more sensitive %K line is dropped. The original %D
now becomes the slower line %K. The new %D is a 3-day
moving average of the %K. This basically gives you a
smoothed version of the original indictor. This modified
counter trend indicator is less reactive but considered to be
more accurate.
Interpretation:
Slow Stochastics are interpreted the same as fast
Stochastics. Quite often the faster of the two indicators
moves into and out of the overbought/oversold regions
quite quickly.
Example of the SSTO in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
Parameters:
Overall Period (14) - the number of periods used to
determine the highest high and lowest low.
%K MA Period (3) - the number of periods used to
determine the moving average for the %K value.
%D MA Period (3) - the number of periods used to
determine the moving average for the %D value.
AdditionalLinePeriod (3) - the number of periods used to
determine an additional Moving Average on the Stochastic.
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Formula:
The calculations for the slow stochastic are similar to the
normal stochastic. The first step in computing the stochastic
indicator is to determine the n period high and low. For
example, suppose you specified twenty periods for the
stochastic. Determine the highest high and lowest low
during the last twenty trading intervals. It determines the
trading range for that time period. The trading range
changes on a continuous basis.
The calculations for the %K are as follows:
%Kt = ( (Closet - Lown) / (Highn - Lown) ) * 100
%Kt - The value for the first %K for the current time period.
Closet - The closing price for the current period.
Lown - The lowest low during the n periods.
Highn - The highest high during the n time periods.
n - The value you specify.
Once you obtain the %K value, you start computing the %D
value which is an accumulative moving average. Since the
%D is a moving average of a moving average, it requires
several trading intervals before the values are calculated
properly. For example, if you specify a 20 period stochastic,
the software system requires 26 trading intervals before it
can calculate valid %K and %D values. The formula for the
%D is:
%DT = ( (%DT-1 * 2) + %Kt) / 3
%DT - The value for %D in the current period.
%DT-1 - The value for %D in the previous time period.
%Kt - The value for %K in the current period.
The values 2 and 3 are constants. You specify the
constants and the length of the time period to examine for
the trading range.
Once the %K and %D values for the normal stochastic are
derived, the slow stochastic can be computed. The formula
for the slow stochastic is below:
%KSLOW = %DNORMAL
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%DSLOWt = ( ( %D SLOWt-1 * 2 ) + %K SLOWt-1 ) ) / 3
%KSLOW - The %D for the normal stochastic.
%DSLOWt - Slow %D value for the current period.
%DSLOWt-1 - The slow %D for the previous period.
%KSLOWt-1 - The slow %K for the previous period.
The values 2 and 3 are the smoothing constants. You may
select different values.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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VOL/OI –Volume/Open Interest
Introduction
Volume is a measurement of the number of contracts
traded in a day. It is a sign of market activity. Open Interest
is the number of contracts outstanding or those held
overnight. This is a measure of market participation. In
liquid markets these numbers will be consistently higher
than in a thin or illiquid market. These numbers are always
a day behind, because it takes the exchange that long to
tabulate these figures. When displayed Track 'n Trade
offsets these values to put them beneath their respective
data in the chart, consequently there is not a value for
either volume or open interest for the most recent day of
any contract. Volume and Open Interest indicate
participation and urgency. This tells the trader which market
is the correct one to be in based on its participation.
Interpretation:
Volume measures the number of contracts that changed
hands during that trading session. This indicator of market
activity can show whether trade was heavy or light. That will
give you an idea of the possible volatility present in that
market.
Contracts that have not been settled at the end of the day
are represented by open interest. New buyers and sellers
entering or exiting the market change open interest.
The key to this indicator is to look at volume as a
percentage of open interest. VOI does not give straight buy
or sell signals or have set trading rules. Rather it shows the
cyclical tendencies of the market. The flow of the underlying
market can be represented. Looking at VOI shows whether
new buyers or sellers are entering the market or if they are
liquidating positions.
There are basic common sense rules for this indicator.
Prices are up and VOI is increasing, the market is strong.
Prices are up and VOI is declining, the market is getting
weaker. Prices are down and VOI is rising, the market is
getting weaker. Prices are down and VOI is declining, the
market is gaining strength.
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In bull markets, volume tends to increase during rallies, and
tends to decrease on reactions. In bear markets, volume
tends to increase on declines and decrease during rallies.
Trading volume usually increases dramatically at tops and
bottoms.
Look at volume and open interest will show you which
contract month to be in. When looking at trading a specific
commodity it is important to know which contract month to
be in. Commodities expire or are delivered several times a
year. This creates a situation where traders are constantly
"rolling over" from one contract month to the next. This
means that traders need to know which month to be in. VOI
is the tool that shows us which contract month. The months
that have the highest open interest are usually the best to
be in because they are the most liquid. The months that
have higher volume will afford the trader a better
opportunity to enter and exit the market.
Example of V/OI in the Indicator Window:
Calculation:
This study has no computations. The values for the volume
and open interest are transmitted from the exchanges.
However, the actual volume and open interest figures are
always one day behind price information. You will not know
Monday's volume and open interest until Tuesday at
approximately noon (for U.S. markets - central time). That
is due to the exchanges and their reporting requirements.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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Displaying Indicators in the Chart Window
The Overlay Indicators are displayed in the Chart Window.
To select these Indicators, right-click on the chart window
and select the name of the Indicator that you would like to
display on the chart.
Indicators displayed in the
Chart Window are the:
Moving Averages
Bollinger Bands
Pivot Points
10x8 MAC
Parabolic SAR
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Moving Average Lines
Introduction:
The moving average, or simple moving average as it is
commonly referred to as, represents the average of the last
several closing prices. The moving average is simple to
compute, easy to understand, and reliable under tests. This
simplicity is the strength of the moving average.
The basic moving average is computed exactly the same
as any other mathematical average. The most common
way of determining the moving average of a market is to
take the closing price over a certain number of days add
them together and then divide by the select number of
days.
Interpretation:
Generally, moving averages are thought to be indicators of
trend. For example, conventional interpretation is that once
prices cross from below the moving average to above it, the
trend is considered up.
On the other hand, if prices go from above the moving
average to below it, the trend of the market is considered
down.
The purpose of the simple moving average is to track the
progress of the trend. Moving averages keep you in the
trend for potentially a long time. The moving average gives
you an indication of the trend being up (prices above the
moving average) or down (below the moving average).
However, the moving average gives you no indication of the
length or duration of the trend.
Double Moving Average
Introduction:
Double moving averages use two different averages in
tandem. The first average is generally a faster reacting
average using a shorter period of time, usually 10 days.
The second average is a slower reacting average that will
indicate longer-term price movement.
Using these two averages together helps to alleviate
“whipsaws” by giving a basis of comparison. The faster
average breaking above the slower average is a buy signal,
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the faster average breaking below the slower average is a
sell signal.
Interpretation:
When using two different moving averages the trader gets a
clearer picture of price indications. By combining a slower
moving average, 20-day average, with a quicker reacting
average, 10-day average you can see where the long-term
indications are going.
The trend being your friend, until it ends, you would sell
once the faster moving average crosses below the slower
trend because that is an indication of change in trend. Near
term prices should be rising at a greater rate than longer
term prices in a good upward trending market, and vice
versa for a down trend.
Triple Moving Average
Introduction:
The system of triple moving averages is employed by
plotting three different moving averages together. The first
of these averages is a faster average that only looks at the
short-term price direction. The second average is a medium
average that reacts to a longer period of time, but not as
long as the final average. The third average is the slowest
to react, because it takes an average of the longest period
of time.
Interpretation:
A 10, 20, and 40 day moving average system would be
considered a triple moving average. The first average, the
10-day, is the quickest to move when prices show a
change. The second average, the 20-day, is the medium
average that does not show change until the prices have
moved for a longer period of time. Finally the slowest
moving of the averages is the 40-day. This slow average
will not indicate a difference until prices have made a
significant move. Shorter-term moving averages being
more sensitive to changes in price are said to follow the
trend more closely. The middle or medium average would
follow less closely and the slowest or least sensitive
average would lag the most.
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The use of the triple moving average is to buy when all three
averages move to be in an upward trend or to sell when these
averages are in a downtrend. The upward trend appears when
the fastest average is higher than both of the other averages,
the medium is above the slowest, and the longer term moving
average is on the bottom.
This look would be reversed for a strong down trend with slow
average on top, followed by the medium average, and the
fastest on bottom.
Calculation
Parameters:
Period1 (4) - the number of bars, or interval, used to calculate
the first moving average.
Period2 (9) - the number of bars, or interval, used to calculate
the second moving average.
Period3 (18) - the number of bars, or interval, used to calculate
the third moving average.
Formula:
The formula to calculate a moving average is as follows:
Mat = (P1 +... + Pn) / n
Mat - The moving average for the current period,
Pn - The price for the nth interval
n - The length of the moving average.
Compute the average of the past n intervals using the price specified
for that period. Now use real values to compute a five interval moving
average. If you assume the following prices, the calculations are:
MA = (7380 + 7375 + 7385 + 7390 + 7395) / 5
= 36925 / 5
= 7385
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings.
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Bollinger Bands
Introduction:
Bollinger Bands are a type of trading envelope. They are
lines at an interval around the moving average. They
consist of a moving average and two different standard
deviations represented as a line above the MA (Moving
Average) and a line below the MA. The line above is the
MA plus two standard deviations; the line below is the MA
minus two standard deviations Bollinger Bands are used to
determine overbought and oversold conditions and to
project price targets.
John Bollinger, created Bollinger bands in an effort to gage
the volatility and condition of a market. These bands are
used to determine the trading range and give an indication
of when to buy and when to sell. Bollinger bands are also
used to indicate market volatility, the wider the bands the
greater the volatility. Inversely the narrower the bands the
lesser the volatility. By plotting two lines at an interval
around a moving average Bollinger bands give a good
indication of market conditions and price relation. The
moving average which the band is based on works as an
indicator to confirm trade signals.
Interpretation:
The most basic use of the Bollinger Band is to look for a
chart top that occurs above the uppermost band, followed
by another top that is below the upper band. This set of
chart tops would create a sell signal, as neither upward
price direction was able to sustain a rally.
The opposite would occur for a buy signal, there would be a
chart bottom below the lower band followed by a bottom
above the lower band. This is a buy signal because neither
sell of was able to continue, indicated by one below and the
other above the lowest band.
Calculation
Parameters:
Period (20) - the number of bars, or period, used to
calculate the study. John Bollinger, the creator of this study,
states that those periods of less than ten days do not seem
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to work well for Bollinger Bands. He says that the optimal
period for most applications is 20 or 21 days.
Standard Deviation (2) - the percent of one standard
deviation. John Bollinger suggests, if you reduce the
number of days used to calculate the bands, you should
also reduce the number of deviations and vise versa. For
example, 200 percent of a standard deviation means two
deviations above and two deviations below the moving
average. If you use a period of 50, you may want to use
250 percent of a standard deviation. For a period of 10, you
may want to use 150 or 100 percent.
Formula:
1. Calculate the moving average. The formula is:
Pn - The price you pay for the nth interval
n -The number of periods you select
2. Subtract the moving average from each of the individual
data points used in the moving average calculation. This
gives you a list of deviations from the average. Square
each deviation and add them all together. Divide this sum
by the number of periods you selected.
3. Take the square root of d. This gives you the standard
deviation.
4. Compute the bands by using the following formulas:
Pn - The price you pay for the nth interval
n - The number of periods you select
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Pivot Points
Introduction:
Pivot points used to be referred to as "traders numbers"
because of the popularity of these points amongst floor
traders. The theory behind them is that markets tend to have
overlap from one period to another. On most days, the daily
high or low is within the previous days range, as with the
previous week’s extremes, and previous month’s extremes.
In this sense, pivot points are a counter trend indicator.
However, many traders believe that once one point is
violated, the next point will tested, making a violation of
these support and resistance levels a clue in trend following.
Though we cannot vouch for the truth of this statement, the
popularity of pivot points amongst floor traders tends to
make these points worth watching.
The popularity of these numbers can be seen on any day
when the exchanges are cleaned-up. The trading floor is
literally piled high with folded pieces of paper that contain
pivot points calculated on them.
Interpretation:
The uses of pivot points or "traders numbers" varies greatly
by trader. The most common interpretation is this: The daily
pivot is used as a guide. If prices are trading above the pivot
point, then the trend is considered up. Traders may wish to
take short-term positions on a violation of the daily pivot to
the upside with an initial upside objective of the 1st
resistance level. If prices stall or slow at the 1st resistance
level, then aggressive traders may wish to take profits.
However, if the 1st Resistance level is violated to the upside,
then the market should go on to test the 2nd resistance
level. If prices have violated the 1st resistance level, then
this level should act as support on future pullbacks, as
should the pivot point.
The converse is true for support levels. A violation of the
daily pivot to the downside indicates that the daily trend is
down, with a downside target being the 1st support level. If
the market stalls, then traders may wish to take profits on
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short positions, or initiate long positions in anticipation of a
retracement to the daily pivot. However, if the 1st support
level is violated, the day is said to be a strongly down
trending day, and as such should move down further to test
the second support level. As with the resistance numbers,
the support numbers, once violated, become resistance lines
to trade with in the trend.
Though originally used as a means for floor trading, longerterm traders can use pivot points of longer periods. Try
plotting the pivot points on a weekly chart and using it for
shorter term positioning on the daily charts. Pivot points can
also be calculated using the monthly charts, and used for
longer-term positions.
Example of Pivot Points in Track ‘n Trade:
Calculation:
There are several methods used to determine the Pivot Point,
we have included the three different formulas in Track 'n Trade
Pro.
Traditional
Pivot Point = (H + L + C)/3
First Support Line = (2 * Pivot Point) - H
First Resistance Line = (2 * Pivot Point) - L
Second Support Line = Pivot Point - (H - L)
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Second Resistance Line = Pivot + (H - L)
Variation 1
This method Changes the formula used to derive the Pivot
Point. The changes include adding the trading day's open and
calculating the average of the four values. In doing this
Variation one takes into account both opening gaps and
overnight trading. The formula is:
Pivot Point = (H* + L* + C* + O**)/4
*=Yesterday
**=Today
Variation 2
This method changes the formula used to derive the Pivot
Point as well. In this method you substitute yesterday's close
with today's open. In doing this Variation 2 also takes into
account opening gaps and overnight trading. The formula is:
Pivot Point = (H* + L* + O**)/3
*=Yesterday
**=Today
Customizing
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings of each
indicator.
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10x8 MAC
Introduction
It has often been said that prices fall faster than they rise, or
simply put it is easier to ride a bike downhill than uphill. Due
to this perceived quirk in pricing, the legendary market
analyst, author, and seminar speaker Jake Bernstein
developed the 10x8 moving average system.
This system uses two simple moving averages, but they are
calculated in a slightly different manner than those
traditionally used. The first moving average is a moving
average of the daily highs, as opposed to that of the daily
settlement like most traditional moving averages. The
second moving average is calculated using the daily lows.
Though Mr. Bernstein recommends using a 10 period
moving average of the daily highs and an 8 period moving
average of the daily, based on his observation that prices
tend to fall about 20% faster than they rise, any combination
would do the trick. Generally though, accepting market lore
that prices fall faster than they rise, the moving average of
the lows should be of shorter term duration than that of the
highs.
Interpretation:
The most basic use of the 10x8 Moving Average is to look
for a breakout above the upper moving average to initiate a
buy signal. When the daily settlement price exceeds the
average high of the last 10 days, this indicator flashes a buy
signal indicating that the trend of the market should be up.
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Example of 10x8 MAC in Track ‘n Trade
Customizing
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings of each
indicator.
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PSAR – Parabolic Stop and Reversal
Introduction:
The Parabolic SAR, Developed by Welles Wilder, creator of
RSI and DMI, sets trailing price stops for either long or short
positions. Also referred to as the stop-and-reversal indicator
(SAR stands for "stop and reversal"), Parabolic SAR is more
popular for setting stops than for establishing direction or
trend. Wilder recommended establishing the trend first, and
then trading with Parabolic SAR in the direction of the trend. If
the trend is up, but the underlying price drops back below the
trailing PSAR indicator, then sell or liquidate your long position.
If the trend is down, and the underlying price rises above the
trailing PSAR indicator then buy or liquidate your short
position.
Example of PSAR in Track ‘n Trade:
Calculation:
Parameters:
Initial (20) - the initial acceleration factor, in 1/1000.
Addition (20) - the additional acceleration factor, in
1/1000.
Limit (200) - the acceleration factor limit, in 1/1000.
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Formula:
The computational procedure for the parabolic time/price
study is a logic exercise. The actual computations are quite
simple. The logic to derive those computations is somewhat
more complex.
Once the market establishes a direction, the initial SAR
becomes the extreme price for the two intervals. The
extreme price is either the lowest price or highest price for
the two trading intervals. The short position uses the high,
and the long position uses the low.
The formula for the PSAR is:
SARt = SARt-1 + ( a * ( EPtrade - SARt-1) )
SARt - The stop and reverse price for the current interval.
SARt-1 is the stop and reverse price for the previous
interval.
a -The acceleration factor.
EPtrade - The extreme price for the trade.
The SAR is always the "stop and reverse" price point. This is
the point you liquidate your current position and establish the
opposite position.
The acceleration factor, a, is a weighting factor. In Wilder's
work, the initial value for the acceleration factor is .02 The
acceleration factor increases by a value of .02 each time the
extreme price changes for the trade. You do not increment
the acceleration factor if the extreme price fails to change.
The value for a, acceleration factor, never exceeds .20 in
Wilder's methodology.
The extreme price for the trade, EP, is just that. What was
the highest or lowest price achieved during this trade? If you
have a long position, use new highs as the extreme price.
When you have a short position, use the new lows as the
extreme price. The extreme price concept allows for normal
market corrections without immediately triggering the SAR
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price, but it keeps the SAR price moving in the direction of
the market.
Customizing:
To change the settings of this indicator, open the Program
Options screen by clicking the Program Options button
located on the main Toolbar. See the Program Options
section for more details on changing the settings of each
indicator.
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Section 8 – Long-Term Charts
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
LONG TERM CHARTS
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LONG TERM CHARTS
Generating and Customizing Long Term
Charts
Introduction:
Track 'n Trade Pro generates weekly and monthly longterm charts with up to 25 years of historical data. To open
a long-term chart, click on the appropriate button to the
right of the chart window. The day button is selected
automatically when you open a commodity contract.
When you click on either the Week or Month buttons a long
term chart is then created and listed in the Active Charts
window.
Comparison of Chart Ticks
Chart
Daily
Tick
Represents
Open
High
Low
Close
One Day
Day's open
Day's High
Day's low
Weekly
One Week
1st Day's
Open Value
High for the
Week
Low for the Last Day's
Week
Close Value
Monthly
One Month
1st Day's
Open Value
High for the
Month
Low for the Last Day's
Month
Close Value
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Section 8 – Long-Term Charts
How are Long Term Charts created?
Because commodity contracts overlap over each other,
Track 'n Trade Pro creates Long Term charts using the
data from the front month contracts. This method includes
the data for the section of the contract that is actively being
traded, therefore has higher volume and open interest.
This is demonstrated in the Diagram #1:
Diagram 1: The boxes represent the portion of the contract that Track 'n
Trade Pro uses to create the long term chart.
Long Term Chart Options
Another way to create a long-term chart is to take only the
"fat" portion of each front month contract and paste them
together. With this method, you are both cutting off the
beginning of the chart (where there is typically less volume
and open interest) and the end of the chart where it is
"cooling down" (Most traders are transferring their orders to
the next month's contract). See Diagrams 2 & 3:
Diagram 2: Contracts tend to have more activity during the middle of the
contract and less toward the end when trader's are transferring their
orders to the next month's contract. Track 'n Trade Pro can cut out the
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middle of each contract and then paste them together as a long term
chart.
Diagram 3: Using options available in Track 'n Trade Pro, traders are
able to specify the number of days at the end of a contract that they
would like excluded from a long term chart.
Setting Long Term Chart Options:
See the Program Options Section of the Manual for more
information.
IMPORTANT: After applying the new settings in Program
Options, you will need to delete the long-term chart from
the Active Charts list, if you currently have a long term
open, and then re-generate the chart to apply the new
settings to the long-term chart.
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Section 8 – Long-Term Charts
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
USING CALCULATORS
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
USING CALCULATORS
Calculations Made Easy with Track ‘n
Trade Pro Market Calculators
Introduction:
Track ‘n Trade includes two calculators to help simplify the
trading process. With both the Dollar Calculator and the
Risk/Reward Calculator, simply click and drag between two
locations on the chart and instantly know what the $ value
between the two points.
Dollar Calculator
Risk vs. Reward Calculator
Dollar Calculator
1.
2.
3.
4.
To Calculate the Effect of a Chart Movement:
Click on the Dollar Calculator Tool.
Left click where you want the calculator to start
Left click where the calculation is completed.
The dollar amount of the chart movement will be
calculated from the beginning and end point values, and
will then be displayed in the center of the line.
Resizing the Dollar Calculator:
1. Select the drawing by clicking on it. Note: The drawing is
selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Dollar Calculator:
Select the drawing by clicking on it continue holding down
the mouse button, drag to the new location and release
the mouse button.
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
Deleting the Dollar Calculator:
Select the drawing by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove.
Changing the Properties of a Dollar Calculator:
Right-Click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Dollar
Calculator.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the Dollar
Calculator line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Dollar Calculator
line. Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and more.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the
values.
Show Text: Deselect/Select to view or hide the values.
Settings: The settings window allows users to adjust the
end points and make their calculations more accurate.
Click on OK to make the change or Cancel to exit this
window.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back: when you need to
access a tool under the Dollar Calculator.
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
Example of the Dollar Calculator
Risk/Reward Calculator
To draw a Risk/Reward Calculator:
1. Click on the Risk/Reward Calculator on the Financial
Toolbox.
2. Left click at the beginning of your technical formation,
highlighting in red the area between your initial order and
your risking stop loss order.
3. This will automatically create an equal sized reward area
in green, which can then be stretched to the proper
distance you expect the graph to retrace. Note the
numbers in the tool indicate the dollar amount of risk and
reward.
4. When the chart is trading within the red area, you are
risking your own money. When the chart is trading within
the green area, you are risking OPM or “Other People's
Money”.
5. Use the Risk/Reward Calculator on all trades to calculate
where your order entries and exits should be placed.
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
Resizing the Risk/Reward Calculator:
1. Select the calculator by clicking on it. Note: The
calculator is selected when boxes appear on the corners.
2. Click on one of the boxes to drag the select point and
release the mouse button.
Moving the Risk/Reward Calculator:
Select the calculator by clicking on it, continue holding
down the mouse button, drag to the new location and
release the mouse button.
Deleting the Risk/Reward Calculator:
Select the calculator by clicking on it and press the delete
key on your keyboard to remove.
Changing the Properties of a Risk/Reward Calculator:
Right-Click on the drawing to view the properties menu.
Properties that can be changed are:
Foreground: Changes the line color of the Risk/Reward
Calculator.
Line Thickness: Changes the thickness of the
Risk/Reward line. Choose values from 1-6.
Line Style: Changes the line style of the Risk/Reward
Calculator line: Choose from solid, dashed, dotted and
more.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the
values.
Show Text: Deselect\Select to view or hide the values.
Settings: The settings window allows users to adjust the
end points and make their calculations more accurate as
well as specify the number of contracts purchased. Click
on OK to make the change or Cancel to exit this window.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Risk/Reward Calculator.
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Section 9 – Using Calculators
Example of the Risk/Reward Calculator:
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Section 10 –Program Options
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
PROGRAM OPTIONS
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Section 10 –Program Options
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Section 10 –Program Options
PROGRAM OPTIONS
Customizing each chart for your
maximum benefit
Introduction
The Program Options, in Track ‘n Trade Pro, enable you to
customize the chart appearance, tool options, and indicator
settings on either a Global or Per Chart basis. The
Program Options window includes three setting areas:
1. Global Settings: This section contains settings for
Tools and Long Term settings and some Plug-in
Settings (if you have the Plug-in installed).These
settings will only affect new charts that are opened.
2. My Default Settings: This section contains settings
for the chart appearance and indicators. Anything
changed in this section will affect new Chartbooks and
new charts opened in a saved Chartbook, it will not
affect currently opened charts or already saved charts.
3. Current Chart Settings: This section contains all of
the settings also in the My Default Section of Program
Options. Anything changed in this section will affect
only the specific chart that you have open and have
selected.
To View the Program Options Screen
There are two ways to pull up the Program Options screen:
1. Click on the View Menu and select Program Options.
2. You can also click on the Program Options icon on the
main Toolbar. (shown below)
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Section 10 –Program Options
Global Settings
The Global Settings section of the Program Options folder
gives you the ability to change settings that will affect only
new Chartbooks or new charts opened within a saved
Chartbook.
Saved Charts will keep the settings on currently drawn tools
and apply the new settings to new tools drawn on the chart.
For example, if you change the Global setting Line Tool
Color to blue, and then open a previously saved chart that
contains tools drawn on it in green, these tools will keep the
green color. Any new tools that you draw on this saved
chart will be colored blue until the setting is changed.
See the Tool section for more information.
Global Settings Window in Track ‘n Trade
To open the Global Settings folder, click on the plus sign
to the left of the folder. The blue Global Settings folder
contains your Long Term Chartings settings and your Tool
settings.
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Section 10 –Program Options
Track ‘n Trade Pro Themes:
Track ‘n Trade Pro gives you the ability to take all of the
settings in the Program Options settings and save them into
a “theme” file. This gives you the ability to have different
themes and apply many settings quickly to a chart.
Creating a Theme:
To create a Theme, simply select your desired settings
within the three sections of settings: Global, My Defaults,
and Per Chart. Next, go to the Global Settings main page
and select the Save Settings button.
This will open the Save As window. Choose a name for
the file and click on the Save button. The theme will be
saved in the themes folder located in the Track ‘n Trade
Pro folder where you installed it. (Default location for the
software is C:\Program Files\Gecko Software\Track 'n
Trade Pro 4.0)
To Apply a Theme:
1. Open the Program Options window.
2. Click on the Load settings button located on the Global
Settings page.
3. This will open the themes directory. Click on the theme
file that you would like to apply by clicking on the Open
button.
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Section 10 –Program Options
Long Term
The Long Term section allows the user to define how long
term charts are calculated. There are two types of LongTerm Charts: Weekly and Monthly. See the Long-Term
Charts Section for information on how these charts are
generated and how to use them in your trading.
Long Term Charting Options:
1. Build Long Term Charts From:
a. Front Month Data: This option uses data from
one contract month to the next in historical
order. For example: Jan 2001, Mar 2001, May
2001 and so on.
b. Contract Month Data: This option uses data
from a contract month from each successive
year. For example: Jan 2001, Jan 2002, Jan
2003 and so on.
2. How much data should be included? 2-10 years of
data can be displayed at a time on a long term chart.
Click on the drop down menu to specify the number of
years to be displayed.
3. To cut off the end of the contract used in your long term
chart, click on the empty check box in front of the text:
"Read ahead to next contract month before the end of
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Section 10 –Program Options
the current contract month." Next, specify the number
of days in the box that you would like to exclude. (Note:
This option is best used for historical data. If you are
looking at a long-term chart that includes current data,
remember that if you set this option to exclude 10 days,
the last few days will apply this rule and exclude the last
10 days of data.)
4. To set the options back to Factory Defaults, click on the
Restore Factory Defaults button on the bottom of the
Properties screen.
5. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
IMPORTANT: After applying the new settings in Program
Options, you will need to delete the long-term chart from
the Active Charts list, if you currently have a long term
open, and then re-generate the chart to apply the new
settings to the long-term chart.
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Section 10 –Program Options
Tools
The Tools Default Options section allows you to change
properties of the Charting, Advanced Charting, Notation,
and Accounting Tools.
Clicking the OK button, will apply new default settings and
will apply all changes made in this window to any NEW
tools or text created from this point forward. Any tools,
within the active Chartbook that have already been created
will NOT be affected by this change, unless you press the
Apply To All Charts button. These new default settings will
then be stored in Track ‘n Trade and applied to any new
AND past files upon the opening or reopening of those
files.
Simply click on the Apply all Color Changes button if you
would like to apply ONLY the color changes to the tools in
all the Active Charts.
If you would like to change settings for one specific tool,
you will need to right-click on that tool and select the
individual tool settings. See Individual Tool Settings for
more information.
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Section 10 –Program Options
1. Font Options:
a. Tool Labels: This setting changes the text in any
tool included in Track ‘n Trade Pro. To change font,
size, color, etc click on the Change Button. See the
Font Window that opens on the following page.
Font Window in Track ‘n Trade Program Options
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Section 10 –Program Options
Font: Change the Default Font by clicking on a
Font listed below.
Font Style: Change the Default Font Style by
clicking on a new Font Style listed below.
Size: Change the Font Size by clicking on a new
size listed below.
Effects: Add a Strikeout or Underline effect to the
Default Font by checking one or both of these
items.
Color: Change the Color of the Default Font by
clicking on the drop down arrow and selecting a
new color.
Sample: See a Preview of the newly created
settings for the Default Font.
Script: Change the Font Script by clicking on the
drop down arrow and selecting a new Script.
Text Boxes: This tool applies to the Text Tool
only. Click on the Change button too see the Font
Window and change the Default Text Box settings.
3. Line Options:
Line Color: Change the Default Line Color, used
by all Track ‘n Trade Tools, by clicking on the color
box and choosing a new color from the Windows
Color Palette.
Line Style: Change the Default Line Style to
Solid, Dashed, Dotted and more by clicking on the
drop down arrow and choosing a new style.
Line Thickness: Change the Default Line
Thickness, used on all Track ‘n Trade Tools by
clicking on the drop down menu and choosing a
new thickness (0-6).
Arc Thickness: Change the Default Arcs
Thickness on the Track ‘n Trade Tools that include
Arcs. (An example is the 1-2-3 Tool). Click on the
drop down menu to select a new thickness (0-6).
4. Background Color: Change the Default Color used for
backgrounds of tools that have background capabilities.
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Section 10 –Program Options
5.
6.
7.
8.
Click on the color box to choose a new color from the
Windows Color Palette.
Default Flag: Change the Default Flag for the Flag
Notation Tool by clicking on the Flag Button. A window
will open with a selection of Flags to choose from. You
may also import a custom flag.
Reset Questions: In Track ‘n Trade you will get extra
help in using the software with “questions” that prompt
you throughout your use. These questions are initially
shown when you install the software; however on each
question window there is an option to hide the display
questions. If you have selected this option, but would now
like to see the “questions” again, click on the Reset
Questions button.
To set the options back to Factory Defaults, click on the
Restore Defaults button on the bottom of the Properties
screen.
Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
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Section 10 –Program Options
My Default Settings
The My Default Settings allows you to set custom settings
for chart appearance and indicator options. These settings
will only affect newly created charts after the selection has
been made.
If you wish to apply your chosen settings to all the charts you
have open, click the ‘Apply to all charts’ button that appears
on all the screens in this folder.
To open the My Default Settings folder:
Click on the plus sign to the left of the yellow My Default
Settings folder, and select the section you want to
customize.
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Section 10 –Program Options
Appearance
This screen allows the user to change tick color options,
ruler paper options, background changes and much more.
1. Grid Lines and Day Line:
a. Light & Dark Grid Lines: Select the check box in
front of the line to display them on the chart.
Change the color of the Grid Line by clicking on the
color box and selecting a new color from the
Windows Color Palette. These lines are based on
the scaling selected for the chart. For more
information see Scaling.
b. Day Line: Displays an additional vertical line,
based on the day of the week, on the chart by
selecting the check box. Select a particular day of
the week by clicking on the drop down menu.
Change the color by clicking on the color box and
select a color from the Color Palette.
2. Expiration and Notice Dates:
Click on the corresponding check box in front of the item
to display: Options Expiration, Last Trading Date, or First
Notice Date on your Chart. To change the color of the
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Section 10 –Program Options
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
line, click on the corresponding color box and select a
new color from the Windows Color Palette.
Ruler Colors:
a. Ruler Text / Marks: Indicates the color used for
the ruler lines and text.
b. Ruler Background: Indicates the color used for
the background of the rulers.
Chart Background and Order Colors:
a. To change the background color of your chart
window, click on the color box and select a new
color from the Color Palette.
b. To change the color of your order arrow, click on
the color box and select a new color from the Color
Palette.
Price Bars:
a. Changes, based the #6 condition, are displayed by
tick color, specify the color for: No Change, Close
Lower, and Close Higher by clicking on the color
box and selecting a color from the Color Palette.
b. Highlight: When holding down the SHIFT key while
using the pointer tool, you will see a vertical line
highlighting the chosen trading day from the chart
window through the Indicator Window. To change
the highlight color, click on the color box and select
a color from the Color Palette.
Choose the value used to calculate the price bar change.
You may choose: yesterday’s open, high, low, close or
today’s open, high, or low to compare to today’s close. If
you would like to modify the colors of the ticks based on
this change, see step 5a.
Proportional Tick Thickness: When selected this
feature increases the thickness of both chart price bars
and indicator lines.
Fill All Candles: When this feature is selected, all of the
candle bodies will be filled.
Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings for this window.
Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
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Section 10 –Program Options
Bollinger Band
1. Bands: The Bollinger Band Indicator is made up of three
lines on the chart. They are: Upper, Middle & Lower.
2. Period: Define the period interval for the Bollinger Band.
This value affects all three lines.
3. Type: The Bollinger Band Indicator can be based on a
Simple, Linearly Weighted or Exponentially Smoothed
Average. Click on the drop down menu to change the
type of average.
4. Data: The average can be based on four values: Open,
High, Low or Close. Click on the drop down menu to
change the data option.
5. Style & Color: Bollinger Band lines can be displayed as
solid, dashed, or dotted lines. Click on the drop down
menu to specify the type of line style. Next to the drop
down menu is the color box for the line. Click on the color
box to choose a new color from the Color Palette.
6. Check this box to Display the Bollinger Bands.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
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Section 10 –Program Options
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been
integrated into the software. When clicking on the
Help button and you will get specific documentation
based on the location of the button. You may also
press F1 on your keyboard.
MAC
1. Lines: The 10x8 & 3x3 MAC consists of two lines. Each
line’s parameters may be changed independently in the
options screen.
2. Period: The period values of the MAC Indicators are not
editable. If you would like to specify different time periods
for an average, it is recommended that you use a moving
average instead of the MAC Indicators.
3. Type: Choose between Simple, Linearly Weighted, and
Exponentially Smoothed averages for each line. Click on
the drop down menu and select the type desired.
4. Data: To change the data that the line is based on click
on the drop down menu. The options available are:
High, Low, Open, and Close.
5. Style & Color: Average lines can be displayed as solid,
dashed, or dotted lines. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style. Next to the drop down menu
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Section 10 –Program Options
is the color box for the line. Click on the color box to
choose a new color from the Color Palette.
6. Check these boxes to display the 3x3 and/or the 10x8
MAC Lines on your charts.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
Moving Averages
1. Average1-6: Each Moving average displayed on the
chart is referred to as an Average. You may have up to 6
different averages displayed at once on the screen.
2. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating the moving average simply click on the box,
highlight the current number and type in a new value.
3. Type: Choose from simple, linearly weighted and
exponentially smoothed calculations. Click on the drop
down menu to specify the type.
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4. Data: The average can be based on four values: Open,
High, Low or Close. Click on the drop down menu and
select the data value.
5. Style & Color: Average lines can be displayed as solid,
dashed, or dotted lines. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of Line Style. Also, change the color of
the line by clicking on the color box for the line ands elect
a new color from the Color Palette.
6. Check this box to Display the Moving Average Lines.
Only the lines checked above will show on the chart.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selected settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
Pivot Points
1. Pivot Point Lines: Pivot Points are made up of 5 Lines.
You can specify preferences for each line independently.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
For information on their value and how they are
calculated, refer to the Indicator Section.
Style & Color: The Pivot Point Indicator lines can be
displayed as a solid, dashed, or dotted. Click on the drop
down menu to specify the type of line style. To change the
line color click on the color box, next to the line, and select
new color from the Color Palette.
Pivot Points are available in Traditional, Variation 1, and
Variation 2.
Display Pivot Point Lines: Click on the check box to
display Pivot Point Lines in the chart window. You may
also choose to show the historical and prediction lines
separately by checking the boxes by each of those
choices.
Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selected settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
PSAR – Wilder’s Parabolic Time/Price
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Section 10 –Program Options
1. To enter the values for the Initial Acceleration,
Additional Acceleration, and Acceleration Limit;
highlight the current numbers and type in your value.
2. Style & Color: To change the style click on the dropdown
menu and choose from: squares, dots, lines, or crosses.
Click on the color box to change the color of the indicator.
3. Check this box to Display the PSAR Indicator.
4. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selected settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
5. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
Scaling & Price Bars
1. This section allows you to select your own preferences on
scaling. You can select different scaling on each tick
style; OHLC, HLC, Close, or Candlestick. You can select
how many days are in one inch on your charts, as well as
when the dark grid lines appear.
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2. The Price Bar determines what style of tick is shown on
your charts. This also can be selected by right clicking on
your open chart and selecting OHLC, HLC, Close, or
Candlestick. The no tick option is only available on the
screen shown above.
3. Vertical Scaling: Check this option to automatically
adjust to fit your chart window vertically. Note: If you have
the Accounting & Simulator Plug-in, which includes the
play controls, the Auto Scale Chart feature will re-scale
the chart each time you click a Play button.
4. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
5. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
AD - Williams Accumulation/Distribution
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in calculating
the ADMA Indicator, simply highlight the current number
and type in a new value.
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2. Style: The AD Indicator lines can be displayed as a solid
or dotted lines. Click on the drop down menu to specify
the type of line style desired.
3. Color: Click on the color box and a color panel will open
for you to specify the new color.
4. To display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
5. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section.
6. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
CCI - Commodity Channel Index
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating CCI, simply click on the box, highlight the
current number and type in a new value.
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2. Style & Color: The CCI Line can be displayed as a solid,
dashed, or dotted. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style. To change the color, click
on the color box, select the new color in the Color Palette.
3. To Display the indicator click the check box.
4. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section.
5. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
6. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you open. Click
on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to restore
original software settings.
7. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
DMI/ADX – Directional Movement Index
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating DMI, simply click on the box, highlight the
current number and type in a new value. Be sure to click
on Ok to save your changes.
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2. Style & Color: The DMI Lines can be displayed as a
solid, dashed, or dotted. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style desired. Next to the drop
down menu is a color box, click on this box to change the
color of the line.
3. Directional Indicator: The two methods available in
displaying the DMI Indicator are Averaged Directional
Index (ADX) and the Directional Index (DX). Click on the
radio button in front of the method to select. For more
information on the different values, refer to the article
above.
4. Use Relative Scale: When choosing this option, the
100% location is changed to the highest point value in the
DMI Indicator.
5. To display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
6. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
7. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
8. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
9. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
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HVOL – Historic Volatility
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating Historic Volatility, simply click on the box,
highlight the current number and type in a new value. Be
sure to click on Ok to save your changes.
2. Style & Color: The Historic Volatility Line can be
displayed as a solid, dashed, or dotted line. Click on the
drop down menu to specify the type of line style desired.
Next to the drop down menu is a color box, click on this
box to change the color of the line.
3. Use Relative Scale: When choosing this option, the
100% location is changed to the highest point value in the
HVOL Indicator.
4. To display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
5. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
6. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
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8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
MACD – Moving Average Convergence/Divergence
1. The MACD Indicator can be displayed differently, choose
from Difference as Histogram or Difference as Line in
the drop down menu.
2. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating the MACD simply click on the box, highlight
the current number and type in a new value.
3. Style & Color: MACD Trigger line can be displayed as
solid or dotted line. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style. Click on the color box and a
color panel will open for you to specify the new color.
4. The MACD is calculated using two exponential moving
averages. To change the periods used in the formula,
highlight the number value and type in the new value
desired.
5. There are three components that create the MACD
Indicator; Bullish, Bearish, and Trigger lines. More
information on how these components are calculated in
the Indicators section under MACD.
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6. MACD Type:
Choose from two types of MACD Indicators.
a. Standard Calculation
b. Extra Smoothed: This Calculation is a
proprietary formula developed by Lan H. Turner,
president and founder of Gecko Software, Inc.,
and Gecko Software's Programming staff. This
method increases the movement in the MACD
Indicator and has shown to be more accurate (in
Gecko Software's market testing) than the
standard calculation. Click the Extra Smoothed
option to test it's accuracy for yourself! Its
relationship to the MACD is similar to the
relationship between the Fast and Slow
Stochastics - so think of this indicator as the
"Fast MACD".
7. To Display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
8. Ruler Bar: See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
9. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
10. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
11. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
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MOM – Momentum
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in calculating
the Momentum or MOMMA Indicators simply click on the
box, highlight the current number and type in a new
value. Be sure to click on Ok to save your changes.
2. Style & Color: The Momentum Indicator Line (when
displayed as a Line Graph) can be displayed as a solid,
dashed, or dotted line. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style desired. Next to the drop
down menu is a color box, click on this box to change the
color of the line.
3. Show Momentum As:
a. Histogram Graph: Momentum represented as a
Time Progression Bar Chart.
b. Line Graph: Momentum represented as Lines.
c. MOMMA – Momentum Moving Average. This is a
moving average of the Momentum line.
4. To Display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box. Once the box is checked you may also select
the box to display the MOMMA Indicator.
5. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
6. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
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7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you open. Click
on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to restore
original software settings.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
%R – Williams Percent R
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating the %R simply click on the box, highlight the
current number and type in a new value.
2. Style & Color: The %R line can be displayed as a solid,
dashed, or dotted line. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style desired. Click on the color
box and a color panel will open for you to specify the new
color.
3. There are a couple different calculations used for the %R
Indicators click on the preferred calculation under the
“Calculation used in %R” section. For more
information on the different calculations see the Indicator
Section under Williams’ % R.
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4. To Display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
5. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
6. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
RSI – Relative Strength Index
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating the RSI simply click on the box, highlight the
current number and type in a new value.
2. Style & Color: The RSI line can be displayed as a solid,
dashed, or dotted line. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style desired. Next to the drop
down menu is a color box, click on this box to change the
color of the line.
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3. Average Calculation: Choose between Exponential,
Simple, and Wilder’s smoothing calculations.
4. To Display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
5. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
6. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
7. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
FSTO – Fast Stochastics
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating the Fast Stochastics Indicator simply click
on the box, highlight the current number and type in a
new value.
2. Smoothing: To specify the number of days used in
calculating Smoothing, simply click on the box, highlight
the current number, and type in a new value.
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3. Style & Color: The Fast Stochastics Indicator lines can
be displayed as a solid, dashed, or dotted. Click on the
drop down menu to specify the type of line style
desired. To change the line color, click on the color
box.
4. Stochastic Formula Using: Chose from the dropdown menu the type of formula you prefer to be
used. The choices are the Exponential Moving
Average and the Simple Moving Average. For more
information on the formulas used, see the
Stochastics information under the Using Indicators
Section.
5. To Display the Fast Stochastics indicators check the
box by the corresponding indicator.
6. Ruler Bar: See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
7. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
8. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you have open.
Click on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to
restore original software settings.
9. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button
and you will get specific documentation based on the
location of the button. You may also press F1 on your
keyboard.
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SSTO – Slow Stochastics
1. Period: To specify the number of days used in
calculating the Slow Stochastics Indicator simply
click on the box, highlight the current number and
type in a new value.
2. Smoothing: To specify the number of days used
in calculating Smoothing, simply click on the box,
highlight the current number, and type in a new
value.
3. Style & Color: The Slow Stochastics Indicator
lines can be displayed as a solid, dashed, or
dotted. Click on the drop down menu to specify
the type of line style desired. To change the line
color, click on the color box.
4. Stochastic Formula Using: Chose from the
drop-down menu the type of formula you
prefer to be used. The choices are the
Exponential Moving Average and the Simple
Moving Average. For more information on the
formulas used, see the Slow Stochastics
information under the Using Indicators
Section.
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5. To Display the Slow Stochastics indicators
check the box by the corresponding indicator.
6. Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this
section
7. Preview Window: This Window allows you to
make changes and preview them before saving
them.
8. Click on Apply to active charts if you would like
to see your selecting settings on all the charts you
have open. Click on Restore Factory Defaults if
you would like to restore original software settings.
9. Help: Information from the Manual has been
integrated into the software. When clicking on the
Help button and you will get specific
documentation based on the location of the button.
You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
VOL/OI – Volume and Open Interest
1. Style & Color: The Volume\Open Interest line can be
displayed as a solid, dashed, or dotted. Click on the drop
down menu to specify the type of line style desired. Next
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
to the drop down menu is the color box, click on this box
to open a panel and change the line color.
If you would like to Display the Volume Indicator in two
colors check this box.
Choose how you would like to view the VOL Indicator by
selecting the radial button you prefer.
a. Same Scale: The VOL Indicator will not be
proportional to the size of the indicator window.
b. Individual Scale: The VOL Indicator will be
displayed with their highest value being equal to
100%.
To Display the indicator in the chart window, click the
check box.
Ruler Bar – See the Ruler Bar at the end of this section
Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you open. Click
on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to restore
original software settings.
Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button and
you will get specific documentation based on the location
of the button. You may also press F1 on your keyboard.
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Ruler Bar
The Ruler Bar inside the Program Options windows for the
indicators that are displayed in the Indicator window, allows
user's to create highlighted regions or horizontal lines within
the indicator window.
To create a highlighted region: Click at either end of the
Ruler bar and drag either up or down to the end point of the
region.
To place a line: Click in side the ruler bar and drag the line to
the desired point.
To change the color of the highlighted region: You must
right-click on either the bottom edge (if it is on the top of the
indicator window) or the top edge (if it is on the bottom of the
indicator window). Next choose the “Select Color” option from
the right-click menu. The Color Palette will open, choose a
color and click on OK.
You may also Clear the item that you right-clicked on or Clear
All items in the Indicator window by selecting these items
from the right-click menu.
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Current Chart Settings
This folder only appears in the Program Options screen
when a Chart is open.
All of the options that appear in this folder are identical to
those found in the My Default Settings folder. The difference
between the two folders is when you set your options in the
Current Chart Settings folder; the options you change will
only affect your currently opened chart.
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Section 14 –Accounting & Simulator Plug-In
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
ACCOUNTING &
SIMULATOR PLUG-IN
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Section 14 –Accounting & Simulator Plug-In
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Section 14 –Accounting & Simulator Plug-In
ACCOUNTING &
SIMULATOR PLUG-IN
Track your Account Profits/Losses
with Ease
Introduction:
The Accounting & Simulator Plug-In enables you to place
orders, deposits, and withdrawals using the historical
and/or current data. Traders will find this Plug-In very
helpful in getting to know the markets and testing different
trading strategies. This Plug-in also allows you to play
charts forward and backward using VCR style buttons,
which is called simulation.
Requirements:
In order to place futures orders or simulate trading using
Track ‘n Trade Pro, you will need to purchase the
Accounting and Simulator Plug-In. Call us at 1-800-8627193 to reach the sales department and order the plug-in
today!
Placing a Futures Order
Once you have opened a chart using the Commodity Tab,
you are ready to place an order. There are two ways in
which an order can be placed in Track 'n Trade Pro:
1. Order Placement Tool.
2. Order button in My Account Window.
This section will step you through placing orders both ways.
Order Placement Tool
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To Place an Order using the Accounting Toolbar:
1. Click on the Order Placement Tool on the Toolbox.
2. Click and drag your order on the chart until you find your
order point, then release the mouse button. The following
window will appear.
3. Fill out the information in the order placement window.
a. In this window, you can specify the brokerage fee
(per side), date order placed, buy or sell, quantity
of contracts, symbol of contact, order type and
change the price on the order. Also, Help options
are available to give instructions on the different
types of orders.
b. When you place an order using the Accounting
Toolbar the screen above will be pre filled with
default settings. You will not be able to change
the date or the symbol.
4. Click on OK to place the order and Cancel to dismiss
order screen.
To Place an order using the Accounting Tab:
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1. Click on the Order button in My Account Window:
2. Release the mouse button and the order placement
dialogue box will open:
3. Fill out the information in the order placement window.
a. In this window, you can specify the brokerage fee
(per side), date order placed, buy or sell, quantity of
contracts, symbol of contact, order type and
change the price on the order.
b. When you place an order using the Accounting Tab
the screen above will not be pre filled and you can
change the date and symbol.
5. Click on OK to place the order and Cancel to dismiss
order screen.
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To Edit an Unfilled Order:
1. To edit an order on a chart, right click on the order and
select Settings to view the order placement window.
2. To edit an order in My Accounts Window, right click on the
order and select Settings to view the order placement
window.
A Filled Order:
When you order is filled, the triangle will fill in red on the
chart (see chart below). In My Account Window, the icon
will fill green and an F will appear after the icon. See My
Account Window for more details.
Example of orders displayed on the Chart:
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My Account
From the My Account Window, user's can place orders,
make deposits and withdrawals. This window also has
overall totals for the trading account and for the current
contract that you have open in the Chart Window.
Accounting Date: Date that the current chart is played to.
Open Order P/L: Profit/Loss on trades that are open.
Closed Order P/L: Profit /Loss on completed trades.
Order Commissions: Total commissions paid.
Account Balance: All closed Profit /Loss, Commissions,
Withdrawals, and Deposits
Margins: Requirements in placing & maintaining an order.
Current Position: Market position (not in market, long, or
short)
Color Codes:
Green Filled
Yellow Placed
Red
Placed, but in the future.
Faded Order exists, but was deleted from the chart.
Gray The chart that this order was placed on was
deleted from the Chartbook.
Letter Codes:
W – Withdrawal D – Deposit B – Buy S – Sell
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Orders are also noted on the commodity tab. The following
symbols represent the different orders placed.
Each order is listed on the My Account tab by Date,
Commodity, Details, and Placed On.
To modify an Order:
Right-click the entry and select Settings from the menu.
To Cancel or Delete an Order:
Right-click on the order listed in My Account and click on
Delete from the menu.
Note: If you delete an order from a chart in the Chart
Window, this simply hides the order; orders need to be
deleted in the My Account window. Also, if you delete a
chart in the Commodities Window, any orders placed on
that chart will not be deleted from your book.
To Hide/Show an order on a Chart:
Right -click on the order listed in My Account and select
Hide/Show from the menu.
Note: If you would like to hide/show all orders use the
Hide All/Show All from the menu.
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Deposits and Withdrawals
Track 'n Trade Pro's Accounting systems allows entering
deposits and making a withdrawals in your trading account
as well as placing orders.
To Place a Deposit:
1. Click on the Deposit button in My Account Window. This
will bring up the Deposit window. See below
2. Next select the day of the deposit and the amount.
3. Click OK to enter deposit.
4. Click Cancel to dismiss Deposit Window.
To Make a Withdrawal:
1. Click on the Withdrawal button in My Account Window.
This will bring up the Withdrawal window. (see below)
2. Next select the day of the withdrawal and the amount.
3. Click OK to enter withdrawal.
4. Click Cancel to dismiss Withdrawal Window.
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Deleting Deposits/Withdrawals:
Right-click on the deposit or withdrawal and select Delete
from the menu to remove.
Editing a Deposit/Withdrawal:
Right-click on the deposit or withdrawal and select
Settings, you can change the date, amount or order type.
Trade Log
The Accounting and Simulator Plug-In also includes a trade
log that tracks the changes that you make to orders in a
Chartbook. This trade log will list new orders placed, orders
cancelled as well as any order that you have moved.
To generate the trade log, click on the Trade Log button on
the Accounting Tab. Next, select the date range for the
trade log from the drop down menus. This will give you the
changes in the orders placed within that date range. You
also can filter the trade log by All Charts or by one of the
contracts being traded. You can print and/or save this trade
log by clicking on the corresponding button in the upper left
corner.
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Simulation
The ability to play charts forward and backward, using the
Play Controls, gives you the ability to go back in time and
simulate the trading experience using historical data.
Icon
Action
Lock Charts to Date. This option will “lock”
all the charts to the date displayed on the
current chart .
Red – Play to End: Never. This option will
open saved charts at the last date viewed
before they were saved and new charts with
no data displayed.
Yellow – Play to End: New Charts. This
option will leave the data in saved charts at
the date that they were last displayed before
saved and play any new charts to end of the
data available for that contract. This setting
is the factory default setting.
Play to End: All Charts. This option will
display all available data on both saved and
new chart that are selected.
Play Buttons:
Icon
Action
Go to First Day in Chart
Back One Month
Back One Day
Reverse Fast
Play Backward (one day at a time)
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Stop
Play Forward (one day at a time)
Fast Forward
Forward One day
Forward One Month
Go to the Last Day in the Contract
Chart Option Buttons
Icon
Action
Center Chart with in Chart Window
Daily Chart
Weekly Long-Term Chart
Monthly Long-Term Chart
Smooth Scroll:
The Smooth Scroll option changes the way that the chart
“plays” when coming to the right edge of the chart window.
The default is for this feature to be selected. This option is
located on the Appearance tab in the Program Options.
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Smooth Scroll Selected: As the data nears the right edge
of the Chart Window, the chart will shift to the left one price
bar displaying the new price bar. This continues in a
smooth motion from the right to left.
Smooth Scroll Not Selected: As the data nears the right
edge of the Chart Window, the chart will shift to the left so
that the last price bar is centered and then continues
playing data until approaching the right edge again, causing
the process to recur.
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Section 14 –Accounting & Simulator Plug-In
TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
OPTIONS PLUG-IN
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Section 12 – Options Plug-In
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Section 12 – Options Plug-In
OPTIONS PLUG-IN
Implementing Options Strategies in Your
Trading
Introduction:
The Track ‘n Trade Pro Options Plug-in gives you the ability
to place put/call orders on the futures chart, calculate
profit/loss on an option or on an option strategy, calculate
the “Greeks”, plus two indicators that display the option as
under or over valued.
Options Requirements:
In order to place options orders or use any of the options
tools, you will need to also own the Accounting & Simulator
Plug-in. See the Accounting & Simulator Plug-in Chapter
for more information.
Call us at 1-800-862-7193 to reach the sales department
and order the plug-in today!
Placing an Options Put/Call Order:
Option orders can be placed by selecting the Options Put or
Options Call order tools in the Accounting Toolbar or in the
OS Calculator.
Call Order
Put Order
1. Select either the Call or Put Accounting Tool.
2. Click onto the futures chart and hold down the mouse
button.
3. When you drag the order tool along the futures chart, you
will notice that the cursor skips from striker price to strike
price. When you have reached the desired strike price
release the mouse and the Options Order Window will
open.
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The Options Orders window allows you to specify:
1. Commodity: This is the commodity Symbol for the chart.
(Value pre-filled when placing on chart)
2. Date: This is the date of the futures chart that the option is
placed on (Value pre-filled when placing on chart)
3. BUY or SELL: Click on the dropdown menu to change.
4. Quantity: Default 1, Highlight and change to increase the
number of Options to purchase.
5. Strike Price: Value of the Strike Price (Value pre-filled
when placing on chart)
6. Brokerage Fee: This value is based on “per side fee”
highlight and change value. Default is $0.00.
7. CALL or PUT: Choose the order type from the dropdown
menu. (Value pre-filled with type of option order tool
chosen)
8. Premium: Point value for the strike price.
9. Value: The Dollar amount of the Premium
10. Contingency Order: If this box is check then the option
order is executed based on a specific Futures price.
11. On Screen Text: This section controls the text that is
displayed on the chart window next to the order. Click on
OK to place the order or Cancel to exit.
The second way of entering Options orders is through the OS
Calculator. Click on Place orders when you complete your
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options strategy in the OS Calculator. See the OS Calculator
section for more information.
Changing Properties of an Options Order
To change the properties of an order, right click on the
diamond shape representing an options order on the chart
window.
Font: Changes the Font, Size, Style, and Color of the 1-5
and ABC points.
Show Text: Select to view or hide the 1-5 and ABC points.
Settings: Select to view the Options Order window.
Send to Back: Changes the layer of the tool. This option
is used when more than one tool is in the same area of
the chart. Click on Send to Back when you need to
access a tool under the Elliot Wave Drawing.
Exercise: Select on a Put or Call Buy order to “exercise
the option”. This will place a futures order for the
underlying contract.
Hide: Select/Unselect this option to hide or view the order
on the chart window. Once you have hidden the order you
can right-click on the order listed in the My Account Tab
and toggle the Hide option to show the order on the chart
again.
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Options Accounting
When you purchase the Options Plug-in you add on an
Options section to the “My Account” tab as well. Plus the
Options orders that are placed are listed in the My Account
window.
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Options Tab:
The Options Tab is located in the Control Panel after the
Data Tab. It looks like a green up and purple down arrow.
Once you click on this tab, it will expand and display
“Options”. See the screenshot below for further clarification:
Viewing Options Data:
When you first click on the Options Data Tab it defaults to
the “Date View” which contains the options data available.
Instructions:
1. Open the corresponding futures chart in the Commodity
Tab for the options pricing that you are interested in
viewing.
2. After opening the futures chart, you will notice that the
Options Tab is now populated with values, included in
this tab are:
a. Strike: The price at which the futures contract
underlying an option is to be bought or sold upon
exercise.
b. Type: Type of options order – Put or Call.
c. Premium: Value (in points) to purchase the Option.
d. $Value: Dollar amount for the Premium value.
e. Change: The difference between yesterday and
today’s strike.
f. Diff: Dollar amount for the Change.
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g. IVOL: Implied Volatility of the underlying futures
contract.
h. Delta: Measures how much the options price
changes when the underlying futures contract
changes by one point.
i. Gamma: Measures how much the delta changes
when the underlying futures contract changes by
one point.
j. Theta: Measures time decay of an option.
k. Vega: Measures how a change in volatility affects
the price of an option when all other factors remain
the same.
l. Rho: Measures how a change in a short-tem risk
free interest rate affects the price of an Option.
*If you DO NOT have a contract open, the only item
available in Options Tab is the Interest Rate History.
Viewing the Strike Price History:
The Options Tab defaults to the “Date View”, which shows a
list of all strike prices available for that day.
To see the history for a particular strike price:
1. Click on the Strike button and a dropdown box will
appear below the buttons.
2. Click on the dropdown box to choose the specific
Put/Call Strike price.
3. Once this value is selected, the history for that price is
generated.
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Interest Rate History:
The Options Tab defaults to the Date View, which shows a
list of all strike prices available for that day. To view the
Interest Rates history, click on the Rate button to the right of
the Strike button.
The historical interest rate data consists of the monthly
average interest rate of the three month Treasury Bill
secondary market rates. Interest rates are used by the Black
Scholes (More information is available in the Black &
Scholes description at the end of this section.) options
formulas to determine the theoretical options price.
Note: Because most futures contracts expire in under a
year, we have not noticed the interest rate to make a large
difference on the dollar value of an options price.
Adding an Interest Rate:
Interest rates are updated by Gecko Software, Inc. on a
regular basis however, if you would like to add a new interest
rate follow these instructions:
1. Click on the Add Interest Rate button and the “Add
Interest Rate” Window will open.
2. Chose the date for the effective date dropdown menu,
then type the new interest rate in the input box.
3. Click on Ok to save or Cancel to exit from this window.
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Deleting an Existing Interest Rate:
1. Click on and select the interest rate that you would like
to delete.
2. Click on the Delete Interest Rate button.
3. A window will open asking you to verify that you would
like to delete this interest rate. Click on YES to continue
and NO to cancel.
OS Calculator
The OS Calculator Determines Profit/Loss on an Option or
Option Strategy:
1. Click on the CALC button to open the OS Calculator.
2. Click on the Add New button to add an option order to
the calculator. This will open the Option Order window.
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3. Specify the details of the options order and then click
on OK to add the order to the calculator. For more
information on this window see “Placing an Options
Put/Call Order”.
4. The options order details have now been added to your
option strategy list on the left side of the OS Calculator
and the Profitability Graph of the Option Expiration is
available on the right side. See the screenshot on the
next page.
To modify orders click on to select the order and then click
on the Modify Selected button.
To delete orders from the calculator, click on the order and
then click on the Delete Selected button.
To place the orders from the calculator on the
underlying futures chart, click on the Place Orders Button
or click Cancel to exit the Options Strategy Calculator.
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The Profitability of Option Strategy at Expiration:
The OS Calculator enables you to enter an Option Strategy
to see the potential profit/loss of that strategy/order. See
diagram below with the details of the OS Calculator.
OSV & STRK Options Indicators
Determining if your Option is Over or Under Valued?
The Options Plug-in contains two indicators used to
determine if an option is over or under valued. The
indicators available are Options Strike Value and Strike
Price.
Selecting the OSV or STRK Indicator: To view the Options
Indicators you may choose to display them from in three
separate locations:
1. The Indicator Button Bar: To select the OSV or STRK
Indicators, click on the corresponding button on the
Indicator bar. You may also change the put/call strike
that the indicator is based on from the Indicator Bar.
See screenshot below:
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2. The Right-Click Indicator Window Menu: Simply
right-click inside the Indicator Window to view the
menu. Highlight and then left-click to select the
indicator. You will notice that the selected indicator is
shown with a check mark below:
3. OSV/STKE Section under the My Defaults or My Chart
Settings in Program Options.
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1. Strike Price Indicator: The lines that make up the OSV
indicator are the Black and Scholes Theoretical and the
Reported Market Value
2. Style and Color: To change the line style, click on the
drop down menu and choose from solid, dashed, or
dotted lines. To change the color of the line, click on the
corresponding color box and choose a new color from the
Color Palette.
3. Options Strike Value: This indicator is a histogram style
chart measuring Under and Over Valued Options.
4. To Display the Strike Price Indicator or the Options
Strike Value, select the check box in front of the indicator.
5. Ruler Bar – See page 247 for full instructions
6. Preview Window: This Window allows you to make
changes and preview them before saving them.
7. To apply the changes you made to all open chart (listed in
your Active Charts list) click on the Apply to active
charts button. To restore the software defaults to the
Options Indicators, click on the Restore Factory Defaults
button.
8. Help: Information from the Manual has been integrated
into the software. When clicking on the Help button, you
will get specific documentation based on the location of
the button.
The Option Strike Price Indicator (OSV)
This indicator displays the theoretical option values vs. the
actual option price value for a specific put/call strike price.
By looking at these two lines you are able to determine if the
option price is under or over priced. Take a look at the
example below:
Example of the Options Strike Price in Track ‘n Trade:
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The Strike Price Indicator (STRK)
This Indicator also displays the theoretical option prices vs.
actual option prices however; this indicator displays them as
a histogram. The positive values represent over valued and
the negative values represent under valued options. See the
example below:
Black and Scholes Calculations
Modern option pricing techniques are often considered
among the most mathematically complex of all applied
areas of finance. Financial analysis has reached the point
to where we are now able to calculate, with alarming
accuracy, the fair market value of a financial option.
Gecko Software employs the calculations developed in
1973 by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes. This model is
known as the “Black and Scholes Options Pricing Model.”
The Black and Scholes pricing model uses a sophisticated
mathematical formula to calculate the theoretical value of
an option using variables such as; market open, high, low,
close values, interest rates, volatility calculations and other
such information to give us these all important values.
Track ‘n Trade Pro puts to use these unique abilities in
several different ways. First and foremost, Track ‘n Trade
Pro is a trading simulation software application where you
are able to go back in time nearly 30 years and “practice”
trading forward, one day at a time. In essence we are giving
a trader 30 years of simulated trading experience in a
matter of hours, days, or possibly weeks. We allow the
trader to use actual historical futures market OHLC (Open,
High, Low, Close) data to simulate trading the commodities
market. In that regard, it would be nearly impossible for us
to assemble a complete set of 30 years of historical options
data which would allow users this same historical data
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training privilege. Also, due to the massive amount of data
this would require and given today’s limits of computer
speeds, hard drives, and storage capacity, trying to provide
this type of data history to a typical user would simply put
this capability out of reach for the common trader.
This is where the Black and Scholes pricing model comes
into play. Our skilled computer scientists at Gecko
Software have created a way for us to use the data
generated by the Black & Scholes data formula to recreate
“on the fly” historical options data as needed by the user.
This way a trader using our software can recall acutely
accurate “simulated” options data from 30 years ago
without actually having hundreds of megabytes of options
data history stored on their computer. The trader can then
simulate trading the financial options market with
unparalleled accuracy. This unparalleled capability allows
new traders the ability to learn and practice basic trading
strategies that can then be taken to the actual markets. It
also allows experienced traders the ability to create and
back test advanced simulated trading models and systems.
Another way in which Gecko Software computer scientists
have implemented the Black & Scholes formulas to help our
traders is with two very unique indicators which sit below a
chart of the underlying financial asset. As the Black and
Scholes formula dictates what the actual “theoretical” value
of an option should be on any given day, Track ‘n Trade will
plot the “actual” value of the option along side the Black &
Scholes model, creating an overvalued or undervalued
indicator, letting our users know, from a simple graphical
representation, if the current price of an option is inline with
market sentiment and trading at a premium or a discount.
One stumbling block that Gecko Software engineers had to
overcome when creating our options trade simulator was
that options data is often times very spotty and full of holes,
and due to the enormous amount of data generated by the
options exchanges there is very little done to try and repair
these holes or bad data ticks. When options trade, they
begin a data stream where they generate an open, high,
low and close for each day’s trading range, but some
options, which are usually further out of the money, don’t
trade every single day, which causes gaps or holes in the
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data stream. One way or another, these gaps or holes are
either filled, or just left blank. Often times, these gaps are
filled by data vendors who simply pull yesterdays values
forward to today, often times doing this for weeks on end
which only serves to create a very inaccurate and
unreliable value stream, a stream of data that would be
difficult to use in any kind of simulated trading environment
or to provide much real-market value.
Just like the genetic scientists did in the classic movie
Jurassic Park, where they filled the gaps in the dinosaurs
DNA strand with frog DNA which allowed them to recreate
or clone a dinosaur; our computer scientists here at Gecko
Software fill the gaps in the live options market data stream
with Black & Scholes “theoretical” prices, giving a more
accurate representation of the actual options value, which
in turn allows our users the ability to have a more complete
and highly accurate representation of what actual market
data would have been on any given day.
To differentiate the fictitious theoretical data within the data
stream, we tag it with a trailing asterisk (*) so our users will
know when they are looking at actual market data reported
by the exchange, or a theoretical value inserted into a gap
by the Black & Scholes model. In keeping with the classic
movie Jurassic Park, the process that creates and inserts
the theoretical data into the actual data stream is code
named “Frog Data.”
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TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
SEASONALS PLUG-IN
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SEASONALS PLUG-IN
Using Seasonal Trends to Improve Your
Trading
Introduction
The seasonal markets consist of the commodities that
began the futures industry. Wheat was the first commodity
traded as a futures contact on the futures market.
Commodities like Crude, Corn, Gold, Cattle, etc. have been
around longer than financial commodities. Because they
have been around longer, the seasonal commodities have
more historical data. Being able to analyze that historical
data gives you an advantage when you are trading a
seasonal commodity.
The Seasonal Plug-In consists of three separate
indicators:
ƒ Seasonal Trends
ƒ Historical Averages
ƒ Market Probability
Seasonal Trends
The seasonal trend indicator represents the “normal”
historical behavior of the market. The indicator is calculated
on the specific contract month, showing you behavior of that
specific chart. This is very important in agricultural markets
with new and old crop contracts; such as wheat or corn.
The charts depict behavior on a relative basis, meaning the
actual prices are not forecasted, just the relative position of
the market versus its contract high and low. On the seasonal
charts, the high is depicted as 1.0, or 100%, while the low is
depicted as 0.0 or 0%. All similar trading days are lined up
for X number of years (the default in Track ‘n Trade Pro are
10 years for Trend 1, and 15 years for Trend 2) and are
analyzed in terms of where each day falls as a percentage of
the highest and lowest price of either the last 12 months or
the life of the contract for each specific contract. These
prices are then averaged and the average is depicted in the
indicator window. When the trend line is at 100% or 1.0, it
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indicates where the contract has on average been at its
highest value for specified time range and scale period.
Interpretation:
When the trend line is at 0% or 0.0, it indicates where the
contract has on average been at its lowest value for the
specified time range and scale period. The averages use
data from all previous years and are not affected by the
current year's trend.
Displaying the Seasonal Trend Indicator:
Once you have your settings the way you would like them
in the Program Options window, you can display the Market
Probability indicator anytime you wish. Just click on the
SEAS button located in your indicators menu bar (shown
below).
Historical Averages
The Historical Average indicator is very similar to a moving
average indicator, except that it is based on the average
price of the specific contract lined up by date. The charts
are made for specific contract months, so that the trader can
see the behavior of the specific contract they are looking at.
This detail is important in a market with new and old crop
contracts, such as the agricultural commodities.
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Unlike the seasonal average prices, the Historic Average
lines depicted in this feature are based on price, not a
relative basis. In essence, what this feature does is give you
the average price on a specific day. This chart will have the
same basic feel and theme as the seasonal chart, except
instead of prices being scaled on a relative basis (0 to 100%)
they are the average historical price for that day.
This feature also may help traders divine value in a
commodity, in that with a quick look not only can the trader
see how current prices line versus average prices
historically, but they can also see seasonal trends. By simply
checking the Historical Average check box within the
Seasonals tab, displays the average line in the main chart
window. You may also change the number of years, the
color, and line style in which the indicator is displayed. The
weighted box can be selected to provide more significance
to the latter years than the earlier years. The un-weighted is
a simple average, giving equal significance to each year
included in the study.
Example of Historical Averages:
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Displaying the Historical Average Indicator:
To display the Historical Average on your
chart simply right click on the chart window
and select Historical Averages from the
menu.
To unselect, use the same process; right
click and select Historical Averages.
Market Probability
The historic Market Probability indicator shows the
cumulative number of times the market in question has
settled higher, lower, or the same on a specific date
compared to the previous trading day's settlement price.
For example, if you are looking at a five year market
probability indicator with a reading of +1, then the market in
question may have historically settled higher three times and
lower two times on this trading day than the previous trading
day, or settled higher twice, lower once, and the same twice.
The +1 reading is derived by subtracting the number of
negative settlements from positive settlements, resulting in a
net number of positive (+) or (-) settles. In other words the
+1 reading in these examples would be indicative of a
market which has settled higher one more time than it has
settled lower. If the market settled at the same price as the
previous day, the total is not changed.
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Displaying the Market Probability Indicator
Click on the PROB button located in your indicators menu
bar (shown below).
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Customizing Seasonal Indicators
To customize your seasonal indicators pull up your Program
Options Screen by clicking on this button
on your main
Toolbar. Click on the My Default Settings to make changes
to the default options on the Seasonal Indicators. Click on
the Current Chart Settings to make changes to the currently
open chart only. In each of these sections, you can click on
the Seasonal section.
Seasonals Program Options
1. Seasonal Trends: The Trend 1 and Trend 2 boxes
determine if either or both of the Seasonal Trend lines are
active.
2. To change the number of years the trend is based on
select the number from the drop down menu.
3. Style & Color: Trend lines can be displayed as a solid,
dashed, or dotted line. Click on the drop down menu to
specify the type of line style desired. Next to the drop
down menu is the color box, click on this box to open a
panel and change the line color.
4. Fill Background: If you would like to fill the area from the
Trend line selected to the bottom of the indicator window
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
check this option and then choose the trend line to apply it
to.
Scale Seasonal To: This setting will base the scaling on
the highest point in the entire contract or the last 12
months and the lowest point on the option selected.
Historical Averages: This section changes the properties
for calculating the average lines for the Historical
Averages Indicator on the Chart Window.
Market Probability: This section changes how the Market
Probability indicator is displayed in the Indicator window
properties.
Displaying the Indicators: Click on the check box in
front of the indicator that you would like to display.
Click on Apply to active charts if you would like to see
your selecting settings on all the charts you open. Click
on Restore Factory Defaults if you would like to restore
original software settings.
Help: When you click on this button, a pdf file will open
showing the printed manual. If you do not have Adobe
Acrobat Reader on your computer, visit:
http://www.adobe.com
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TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
SPREADS PLUG-IN
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SPREADS PLUG-IN
Expand your Trading Options
Introduction
The futures markets provide a variety of trading
opportunities. In addition to profiting from rising prices by
purchasing futures options or from falling prices by selling
futures contracts, there is an opportunity to profit from the
relationship between different contracts, or SPREAD. A
Spread refers to the simultaneous purchase and sale of two
or more different futures contracts.
When establishing - or "putting on" - a spread, a trader looks
at the price differential of the spread rather than the absolute
contract price levels. The contract that is viewed as "cheap"
is purchased - or a long position is established. The contract
that is viewed as "expensive" - or "dear" - is sold - or a short
position is established. If market prices move as expected,
meaning the long position gains in value relative to the short
position, the trader profits from the change in the relationship
between the prices.
Remember, the concern for a spread trader is the change in
the relationship between contract he or she is long and the
one that he/she is short, not the absolute price level of the
commodity in question.
Of course, just because you are trading a spread does not
guarantee or eliminate losses. If the long contract
decreases in value RELATIVE to the short position, then the
spread trader will incur losses.
The key to spread trading is in the relative performance of
one futures contract to another. Though some spreads have
a basic market bias, known as bull and bear spreads, the
absolute price level of the underlying commodity contracts is
not important, only the relative performance of one contract
versus the other. In other words, a spread trade is a
speculation that one contract will out perform another
contract.
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Available online: Introduction Video to the Spreads Plugin. Visit us at: http://www.trackntrade.com/tour.htm and
select the Spreads video. To view this video you will need a
copy of Microsoft’s Media Player.
Example of a Spreads Chart in Track ‘n Trade:
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The Spreads Plug-In includes:
ƒ Spreads Tab in the Control Panel
ƒ Margins Section in the Program Options
Opening a Spreads Chart:
Step One: Select the
Spreads tab in the Control
Panel.
Step Two: Select the two
futures contracts from the
drop down menu that you
would like to use in
generating a spread chart.
Step Three: When you
have made your
selections, click the Open
Chart button and the
Spread chart will be
displayed.
The Spread will be listed in
the Spread Chart list and
the individual contracts will
be listed in the Commodity
Tab. These Spreads that
you open will be part of
your Chartbook when you
save and close it.
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Spread Margins:
In the Program Options panel, under Global Settings you are
able to modify spread margin requirements.
To modify a margin: Click on the margin in the list, make
changes to the margins, and then select the Add/Modify
button.
To add a new margin: Select the commodities for the
spread and then type in the values for the Initial and
Maintenance amounts and then click the Add/Modify button.
Restore factory defaults: To restore the margins to
software defaults click on the Restore factory defaults
button
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Indicators Plus Plug-in
Introduction
The Indicators Plug Plug-in includes added studies and
indicator buy/sell signals.
Buy/Sell Signals
Many of the indicators included in Track ‘n Trade Pro have
buy/sell signals. Using the Indicator Plus Plug-in users will
be able to view these signals on the chart. The indicators
that have buy/sell signals are:
• AD - Williams Accumulation/Distribution
• CCI - Commodity Channel Index.
• DMI - Directional Movement Index
• MACD - Moving Average Convergence Divergence
• MOM - Momentum
• %R - Williams Percent R
• RSI - Relative Strength Index
• FSTO - Fast Stochastics
• SSTO - Slow Stochastics
Displaying the Indicators Plus Plug-in
To display the Indicators Plus Plug-in, click on the
Program Options and select the Indicator from either My
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Default Settings or Current Chart Settings. Next, select the
drop-down menu for Show Buy/Sell Arrows and select either
Show Always or Only When Indicator is Visible to view the
buy/sell signals.
Remove buy/sell signals from chart: click on the Program
Options and select the Indicator from either My Default
Settings or Current Chart Settings. Next, select the dropdown menu for Show Buy/Sell Arrows and select Never
Show Arrows.
{
bml Images\Arrows_MACD.gif}
Customizing the Indicators Plus Plug-in
To change the color of the buy/sell arrows, click on the
color box to open the color panel. Choose a new color by
clicking on it.
Thresholds: A threshold is the area defined by the study as
a region used to determine buy sell signals. Not all studies
include thresholds; see the Using Indicators Section for
further documentation.
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Changing the threshold numbers: Click on Program
Options and select the Indicator under My Default Settings
or Current Chart Settings. Select the threshold number and
type the new number in the edit box.
To change the color of the threshold lines displayed in
the Indicator Window, click on the color box next to the
threshold and select the new color from the color panel.
Displaying/Removing threshold lines: Click on Program
Options and select the Indicator under My Default Settings
or Current Chart Settings. Before each threshold is a check
box, check to display and uncheck to remove.
{bml Images\Arrow_Thresholds.gif}
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TRACK ‘N TRADE PRO
VERSION 4.0
Accumulating Wealth One Tic at a Time! ®
CANDLESTICK CHARTING
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CANDLESTICK CHARTING
An Introduction to Japanese Candlestick
Charting By Erik Gebhard
Introduction…a New Way to Look at Prices
Would you like to learn about a commodity price chart that is
possibly more effective than the type you are probably
currently using? If so, keep reading. If you are brand new to
the art/science of chart reading, don’t worry, this stuff is
really quite simple to learn.
Technical Analysis…a Brief Background
Technical analysis is simply the study of prices as reflected
on price charts. Technical analysis assumes that current
prices should represent all known information about the
markets. Prices not only reflect intrinsic facts, they also
represent human emotion and the pervasive mass
psychology and mood of the moment. Prices are, in the end,
a function of supply and demand. However, on a moment to
moment basis, human emotions…fear, greed, panic,
hysteria, elation, etc. also dramatically effect prices. Markets
may move based upon people’s expectations, not
necessarily facts. A market "technician" attempts to
disregard the emotional component of trading by making his
decisions based upon chart formations, assuming that prices
reflect both facts and emotion.
Standard bar charts are commonly used to convey price
activity into an easily readable chart. Usually four elements
make up a bar chart, the Open, High, Low, and Close for the
trading session/time period. A price bar can represent any
time frame the user wishes, from 1 minute to 1 month. The
total vertical length/height of the bar represents the entire
trading range for the period. The top of the bar represents
the highest price of the period, and the bottom of the bar
represents the lowest price of the period. The Open is
represented by a small dash to the left of the bar, and the
Close for the session is a small dash to the right of the bar.
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Figure #: Candlesticks - Standard
Bar Chart Example
Candlestick Charts Explained
You may be asking yourself, "If I can already use bar charts
to view prices, then why do I need another type of chart?"
The answer to this question may not seem obvious, but after
going through the following candlestick chart explanations
and examples, you will surely see value in the different
perspective candlesticks bring to the table. In my opinion,
they are much more visually appealing, and convey the price
information in a quicker, easier manner.
What is the History of Candlestick Charts?
Candlestick charts are on record as being the oldest type of
charts used for price prediction. They date back to the
1700's, when they were used for predicting rice prices. In
fact, during this era in Japan, Munehisa Homma become a
legendary rice trader and gained a huge fortune using
candlestick analysis. He is said to have executed over 100
consecutive winning trades!
The candlesticks themselves and the formations they shape
were give colorful names by the Japanese traders. Due in
part to the military environment of the Japanese feudal
system during this era, candlestick formations developed
names such as "counter attack lines" and the "advancing
three soldiers". Just as skill, strategy, and psychology are
important in battle, so too are they important elements when
in the midst of trading battle.
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What do Candlesticks Look Like?
Candlestick charts are much more visually appealing than a
standard two-dimensional bar chart. As in a standard bar
chart, there are four elements necessary to construct a
candlestick chart, the OPEN, HIGH, LOW and CLOSING
price for a given time period. Examples of candlesticks and a
definition for each candlestick component are located below.
ƒ The body of the candlestick is called the real body, and
represents the range between the open and closing
prices.
ƒ A black or filled-in body represents that the close during
that time period was lower than the open, (normally
considered bearish) and when the body is open or
white, that means the close was higher than the open
(normally bullish).
ƒ The thin vertical line above and/or below the real body
is called the upper/lower shadow, representing the
high/low price extremes for the period.
Bar Compared to Candlestick Charts
Below is an example of the same price data conveyed in a
standard bar chart and a candlestick chart. Notice how the
candlestick chart appears 3-dimensional, as price data
almost jumps out at you.
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( 3a )
(3b)
The long, dark, filled-in real bodies represent a weak
(bearish) close ( 3a ), while a long open, light-colored real
body represents a strong (bullish) close ( 3b ). It is important
to note that Japanese candlestick analysts traditionally
view the open and closing prices as the most critical of the
day. At a glance, notice how much easier it is with
candlesticks to determine if the closing price was higher or
lower than the opening price.
Common Candlestick Terminology
The following is a list of some individual candlestick terms. It
is important to realize that many formations occur within the
context of prior candlesticks. What follows is merely a
definition of terms, not formations.
The Black Candlestick -- when the close is lower than the
open.
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The White Candlestick -- when the close is higher than the
open.
The Shaven Head -- a candlestick with no upper shadow.
The Shaven Bottom -- a candlestick with no lower shadow.
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Spinning Tops -- candlesticks with small real bodies, and
when appearing within a sideways choppy market, they
represent equilibrium between the bulls and the bears. They
can be either white or black.
Doji Lines -- have no real body, but instead have a horizontal
line. This represents when the Open and Close are the same
or very close. The length of the shadow can vary.
Candlestick Reversal Patterns
Just as many traders look to bar charts for double tops and
bottoms, head-and-shoulders, and technical indicators for
reversal signals, so too can candlestick formations be looked
upon for the same purpose. A reversal does not always
mean that the current uptrend/downtrend will reverse
direction, but merely that the current direction may end. The
market may then decide to drift sideways. Candlestick
reversal patterns must be viewed within the context of prior
activity to be effective. In fact, identical candlesticks may
have different meanings depending on where they occur
within the context of prior trends and formations.
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Hammer: a candlestick with a long lower shadow and small
real body. The shadow should be at least twice the length of
the real body, and there should be no or very little upper
shadow. The body may be either black or white, but the key
is that this candlestick must occur within the context of a
downtrend to be considered a hammer. The market may be
"hammering" out a bottom.
Hanging Man -- identical in appearance to the hammer, but
appears within the context of an uptrend.
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Engulfing Patterns -- Bullish -- when a white, real body totally
covers, "engulfs" the prior day's real body. The market
should be in a definable trend, not chopping around
sideways. The shadows of the prior candlestick do not need
to be engulfed.
Bearish -- when a black, real body totally covers, "engulfs"
the prior day's real body. The market should be in a
definable trend, not chopping around sideways. The
shadows of the prior candlestick do not need to be engulfed.
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Dark-Cloud Cover (bearish)-- a top reversal formation where
the first day of the pattern consists of a strong white, real
body. The second day's price opens above the top of the
upper shadow of the prior candlestick, but the close is at or
near the low of the day, and well into the prior white, real
body.
Piercing Pattern (bullish) -- opposite of the dark-cloud cover.
Occurs within a downtrend. The first candlestick having a
black, real body, and the second has a long, white, real
body. The white day opens sharply lower, under the low of
the prior black day. Then, prices close above the 50% point
of the prior day's black real body.
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These candlestick formations consist of a small real body
that gaps away from the real body preceding it. The real
body of the star should not overlap the prior real body. The
color of the star is not too important, and they can occur at
either tops or bottoms. Stars are the equivalent of gaps on
standard bar charts.
Stars make up part of four separate reversal patterns:
ƒ Morning Star
ƒ Evening Star
ƒ Doji Star
ƒ Shooting Star (Inverted Hammer)
Morning Star-- this is a bullish bottom reversal pattern. The
formation is comprised of 3 candlesticks. The first
candlestick is a tall black real body followed by the second, a
small real body, which gaps (opens), lower (a star pattern).
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The third candlestick is a white real body that moves well
into the first period's black real body. This is similar to an
island pattern on standard bar charts.
Evening Star --- a bearish top reversal pattern and
counterpart to the Morning Star. Three candlesticks
compose the evening star, the first being long and white.
The second forms a star, followed by the third, which has a
black real body that moves sharply into the first white
candlestick.
Doji Stars -- When a doji gaps above a real body in an
uptrend, or gaps under a real body in a falling market, that
particular doji is called a doji star. Two popular doji stars are
the evening star and the morning star.
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Evening Doji Star: a doji star in an uptrend followed by a
long, black real body that closed well into the prior white real
body. If the candlestick after the doji star is white and
gapped higher, the bearishness of the doji is invalidated.
Morning Doji Star -- a doji star in a downtrend followed by a
long, white real body that closes well into the prior black real
body. If the candlestick after the doji star is black and
gapped lower, the bullishness of the doji is invalidated.
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Shooting Star -- a small real body near the lower end of the
trading range, with a long upper shadow. The color of the
body is not critical. Not usually considered a major reversal
sign, only a warning.
Inverted Hammer-- not really a star, but does look like a
shooting star. When occurring within a downtrend, may be a
turning signal. Body color is not critical.
Final Thoughts and Credits
It is important to realize that this introduction is just that, an
introduction to candlestick analysis. After having read this,
you will have merely scratched the surface of the many
patterns and variables that can go into candlestick analysis.
No attempt was made to provide a thorough analysis of each
and every pattern. In fact, many formations were left out as
they cross the border into more complicated analysis. For a
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more complete overview of candlestick analysis, it is highly
recommended that you read the book that is referred to
below.
A large portion of the material in this introduction is taken
from an excellent book called Japanese Candlestick
Charting Techniques: A Contemporary Guide to the Ancient
Investment Techniques of the Far East. (You can find this
book in The PitMaster's Bookstore.) In some cases,
sentences were taken almost verbatim, as there was no
better way to say what Mr. Steve Nison, the author, already
said. In his book, Mr. Nison, completely explains
candlesticks and their formations, but more importantly
explains how to combine candlestick analysis with traditional
technical analysis. It is highly recommended that you
consider purchasing this book.
As traders, we need as many trading tools in our arsenal,
and a basic knowledge of candlesticks provides a trader
much needed ammunition. Also remember that no matter
what the trading tool, no matter how advanced or ancient; it
is only effective when put into practice properly. This is, of
course, your job as the trader.
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