AVR-libc Introduction - Iowa State University

AVR-libc Introduction - Iowa State University
avr-libc
1.6.6
Generated by Doxygen 1.5.6
Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009
CONTENTS
i
Contents
1
2
3
4
AVR Libc
1
1.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.2
General information about this library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.3
Supported Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.4
avr-libc License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Toolchain Overview
10
2.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2.2
FSF and GNU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2.3
GCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2.4
GNU Binutils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
2.5
avr-libc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2.6
Building Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2.7
AVRDUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2.8
GDB / Insight / DDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.9
AVaRICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.10 SimulAVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.11 Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.12 Toolchain Distributions (Distros) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.13 Open Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
Memory Areas and Using malloc()
15
3.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
3.2
Internal vs. external RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
3.3
Tunables for malloc() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
3.4
Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
Memory Sections
20
4.1
The .text Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
4.2
The .data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
4.3
The .bss Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
5
6
7
8
ii
4.4
The .eeprom Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
4.5
The .noinit Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
4.6
The .initN Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
4.7
The .finiN Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
4.8
Using Sections in Assembler Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.9
Using Sections in C Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
Data in Program Space
25
5.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
5.2
A Note On const . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
5.3
Storing and Retrieving Data in the Program Space . . . . . . . . . . .
26
5.4
Storing and Retrieving Strings in the Program Space . . . . . . . . .
28
5.5
Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
avr-libc and assembler programs
30
6.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
6.2
Invoking the compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
6.3
Example program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
6.4
Pseudo-ops and operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
Inline Assembler Cookbook
36
7.1
GCC asm Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
7.2
Assembler Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
7.3
Input and Output Operands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
7.4
Clobbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
7.5
Assembler Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
7.6
C Stub Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
7.7
C Names Used in Assembler Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
7.8
Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
How to Build a Library
48
8.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
8.2
How the Linker Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
9
iii
8.3
How to Design a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
8.4
Creating a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
8.5
Using a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
Benchmarks
51
9.1
A few of libc functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
9.2
Math functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
10 Porting From IAR to AVR GCC
55
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
10.2 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
10.3 Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
10.4 Intrinsic Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
10.5 Flash Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
10.6 Non-Returning main() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
10.7 Locking Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
11 Frequently Asked Questions
59
11.1 FAQ Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
11.2 My program doesn’t recognize a variable updated within an interrupt
routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
11.3 I get "undefined reference to..." for functions like "sin()" . . . . . . .
61
11.4 How to permanently bind a variable to a register? . . . . . . . . . . .
61
11.5 How to modify MCUCR or WDTCR early? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
11.6 What is all this _BV() stuff about? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
11.7 Can I use C++ on the AVR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
11.8 Shouldn’t I initialize all my variables? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
11.9 Why do some 16-bit timer registers sometimes get trashed? . . . . . .
65
11.10How do I use a #define’d constant in an asm statement? . . . . . . . .
66
11.11Why does the PC randomly jump around when single-stepping through
my program in avr-gdb? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
11.12How do I trace an assembler file in avr-gdb? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
11.13How do I pass an IO port as a parameter to a function? . . . . . . . .
68
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
iv
11.14What registers are used by the C compiler? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
11.15How do I put an array of strings completely in ROM? . . . . . . . . .
72
11.16How to use external RAM? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
11.17Which -O flag to use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
11.18How do I relocate code to a fixed address? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
11.19My UART is generating nonsense! My ATmega128 keeps crashing!
Port F is completely broken! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
11.20Why do all my "foo...bar" strings eat up the SRAM? . . . . . . . . .
76
11.21Why does the compiler compile an 8-bit operation that uses bitwise
operators into a 16-bit operation in assembly? . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
11.22How to detect RAM memory and variable overlap problems? . . . . .
78
11.23Is it really impossible to program the ATtinyXX in C? . . . . . . . . .
79
11.24What is this "clock skew detected" message? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
11.25Why are (many) interrupt flags cleared by writing a logical 1? . . . .
79
11.26Why have "programmed" fuses the bit value 0? . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
11.27Which AVR-specific assembler operators are available? . . . . . . . .
80
11.28Why are interrupts re-enabled in the middle of writing the stack pointer? 81
11.29Why are there five different linker scripts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
11.30How to add a raw binary image to linker output? . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
11.31How do I perform a software reset of the AVR? . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
11.32I am using floating point math. Why is the compiled code so big? Why
does my code not work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
11.33What pitfalls exist when writing reentrant code? . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
11.34Why are some addresses of the EEPROM corrupted (usually address
zero)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
11.35Why is my baud rate wrong? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
12 Building and Installing the GNU Tool Chain
88
12.1 Building and Installing under Linux, FreeBSD, and Others . . . . . .
89
12.2 Required Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
12.3 Optional Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
12.4 GNU Binutils for the AVR target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
12.5 GCC for the AVR target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
v
12.6 AVR Libc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
12.7 AVRDUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
12.8 GDB for the AVR target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
12.9 SimulAVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
12.10AVaRICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
12.11Building and Installing under Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
12.12Tools Required for Building the Toolchain for Windows . . . . . . . .
95
12.13Building the Toolchain for Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
13 Using the GNU tools
104
13.1 Options for the C compiler avr-gcc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
104
13.1.1 Machine-specific options for the AVR . . . . . . . . . . . . .
104
13.1.2 Selected general compiler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
13.2 Options for the assembler avr-as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
112
13.2.1 Machine-specific assembler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
112
13.2.2 Examples for assembler options passed through the C compiler 113
13.3 Controlling the linker avr-ld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
13.3.1 Selected linker options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
13.3.2 Passing linker options from the C compiler . . . . . . . . . .
115
14 Using the avrdude program
116
15 Release Numbering and Methodology
118
15.1 Release Version Numbering Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
15.1.1 Stable Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
15.1.2 Development Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
15.2 Releasing AVR Libc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
119
15.2.1 Creating a cvs branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
119
15.2.2 Making a release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
120
16 Acknowledgments
121
17 Todo List
122
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
vi
18 Deprecated List
122
19 Module Index
123
19.1 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 Data Structure Index
20.1 Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21 File Index
21.1 File List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22 Module Documentation
123
125
125
125
125
129
22.1 <alloca.h>: Allocate space in the stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
129
22.1.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
129
22.1.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
129
22.2 <assert.h>: Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
22.2.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
22.2.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
22.3 <ctype.h>: Character Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
131
22.3.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
131
22.3.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
131
22.4 <errno.h>: System Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
22.4.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
22.4.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
134
22.5 <inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
134
22.5.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
134
22.5.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
22.5.3 Typedef Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146
22.6 <math.h>: Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146
22.6.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146
22.6.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
147
22.6.3 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
148
22.7 <setjmp.h>: Non-local goto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
153
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
vii
22.7.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
153
22.7.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
154
22.8 <stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155
22.8.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155
22.8.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
159
22.8.3 Typedef Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
164
22.9 <stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
167
22.9.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
167
22.9.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
172
22.9.3 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
175
22.10<stdlib.h>: General utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
186
22.10.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
186
22.10.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
188
22.10.3 Typedef Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
188
22.10.4 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
188
22.10.5 Variable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197
22.11<string.h>: Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197
22.11.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197
22.11.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198
22.11.3 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
199
22.12<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
209
22.12.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
209
22.12.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
211
22.13<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
22.13.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
22.13.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
217
22.13.3 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
218
22.14<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
219
22.15<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
222
22.15.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
222
22.15.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
242
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
viii
22.16<avr/io.h>: AVR device-specific IO definitions . . . . . . . . . . . .
245
22.17<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
246
22.18<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . .
249
22.18.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
249
22.18.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
251
22.18.3 Typedef Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
254
22.18.4 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
256
22.19<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management . . . . . . . . . . . .
262
22.20Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
265
22.21<avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
267
22.21.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
267
22.21.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
268
22.22<avr/sleep.h>: Power Management and Sleep Modes . . . . . . . . .
269
22.22.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
269
22.22.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
270
22.23<avr/version.h>: avr-libc version macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
271
22.23.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
271
22.23.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
272
22.24<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
272
22.24.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
272
22.24.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
274
22.25<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed Code Blocks276
22.25.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
276
22.25.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
278
22.26<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
280
22.26.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
280
22.26.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
281
22.27<util/delay.h>: Convenience functions for busy-wait delay loops . . .
283
22.27.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
22.27.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
284
22.28<util/delay_basic.h>: Basic busy-wait delay loops . . . . . . . . . .
284
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
ix
22.28.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
284
22.28.2 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
285
22.29<util/parity.h>: Parity bit generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
285
22.29.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
285
22.29.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
286
22.30<util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for baud rate calculations . . . . . .
286
22.30.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
286
22.30.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
288
22.31<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
288
22.31.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
288
22.31.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
290
22.32<compat/deprecated.h>: Deprecated items . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
293
22.32.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
293
22.32.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
294
22.32.3 Function Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
296
22.33<compat/ina90.h>: Compatibility with IAR EWB 3.x . . . . . . . .
296
22.34Demo projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
296
22.34.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
296
22.35Combining C and assembly source files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
298
22.35.1 Hardware setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
298
22.35.2 A code walkthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
299
22.35.3 The source code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
301
22.36A simple project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
301
22.36.1 The Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
301
22.36.2 The Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
304
22.36.3 Compiling and Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
305
22.36.4 Examining the Object File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
306
22.36.5 Linker Map Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
311
22.36.6 Generating Intel Hex Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
313
22.36.7 Letting Make Build the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
314
22.36.8 Reference to the source code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
317
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
x
22.37A more sophisticated project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
317
22.37.1 Hardware setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
317
22.37.2 Functional overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
321
22.37.3 A code walkthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
321
22.37.4 The source code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
324
22.38Using the standard IO facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
325
22.38.1 Hardware setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
325
22.38.2 Functional overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
326
22.38.3 A code walkthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
327
22.38.4 The source code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
332
22.39Example using the two-wire interface (TWI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
332
22.39.1 Introduction into TWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
332
22.39.2 The TWI example project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
333
22.39.3 The Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
333
23 Data Structure Documentation
337
23.1 div_t Struct Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
337
23.1.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
337
23.1.2 Field Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
337
23.2 ldiv_t Struct Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
338
23.2.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
338
23.2.2 Field Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
338
24 File Documentation
338
24.1 assert.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
338
24.1.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
338
24.2 atoi.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.2.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.3 atol.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.3.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.4 atomic.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.4.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
xi
24.5 boot.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.5.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
339
24.5.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
341
24.6 crc16.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
346
24.6.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
346
24.7 ctype.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
346
24.7.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
346
24.8 delay.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
24.8.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
24.9 delay_basic.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
24.9.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
24.10errno.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
24.10.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
24.11fdevopen.c File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.11.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.12ffs.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.12.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.13ffsl.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.13.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.14ffsll.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.14.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.15fuse.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.15.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.16interrupt.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.16.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
24.17inttypes.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
349
24.17.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
349
24.18io.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352
24.18.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352
24.19lock.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352
24.19.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
xii
24.20math.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352
24.20.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352
24.21memccpy.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.21.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.22memchr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.22.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.23memchr_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.23.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.24memcmp.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.24.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.25memcmp_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.25.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.26memcpy.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.26.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.27memcpy_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.27.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.28memmem.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.28.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.29memmove.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.29.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.30memrchr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.30.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.31memrchr_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.31.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.32memset.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.32.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.33parity.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.33.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
24.34pgmspace.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
356
24.34.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
356
24.34.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
358
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
xiii
24.35power.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
366
24.35.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
366
24.35.2 Define Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
366
24.36setbaud.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
24.36.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
24.37setjmp.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
24.37.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
24.38sleep.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
24.38.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
24.39stdint.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
368
24.39.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
368
24.40stdio.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
371
24.40.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
371
24.41stdlib.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
373
24.41.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
373
24.42strcasecmp.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.42.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.43strcasecmp_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.43.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.44strcasestr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.44.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.45strcat.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.45.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.46strcat_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.46.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.47strchr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.47.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.48strchr_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.48.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.49strchrnul.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.49.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
xiv
24.50strchrnul_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.50.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.51strcmp.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.51.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.52strcmp_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.52.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.53strcpy.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.53.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.54strcpy_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.54.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.55strcspn.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.55.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.56strcspn_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.56.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.57strdup.c File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.57.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
24.58string.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
377
24.58.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
377
24.59strlcat.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.59.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.60strlcat_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.60.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.61strlcpy.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.61.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.62strlcpy_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.62.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.63strlen.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.63.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.64strlen_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.64.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.65strlwr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
CONTENTS
xv
24.65.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.66strncasecmp.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.66.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.67strncasecmp_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.67.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.68strncat.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.68.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.69strncat_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.69.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.70strncmp.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.70.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.71strncmp_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.71.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.72strncpy.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.72.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.73strncpy_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.73.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.74strnlen.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.74.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.75strnlen_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.75.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.76strpbrk.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.76.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.77strpbrk_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.77.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.78strrchr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.78.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.79strrchr_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.79.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.80strrev.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.80.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
1 AVR Libc
1
1.1
1
24.81strsep.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.81.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.82strsep_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.82.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.83strspn.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.83.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.84strspn_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.84.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.85strstr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.85.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.86strstr_P.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.86.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.87strtok.c File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.87.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
24.88strtok_r.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
24.88.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
24.89strupr.S File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
24.89.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
24.90twi.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
24.90.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
24.91wdt.h File Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
382
24.91.1 Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
382
AVR Libc
Introduction
The latest version of this document is always available
http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avr-libc/
from
The AVR Libc package provides a subset of the standard C library for Atmel AVR
8-bit RISC microcontrollers. In addition, the library provides the basic
startup code needed by most applications.
There is a wealth of information in this document which goes beyond simply describ-
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
1.2
General information about this library
2
ing the interfaces and routines provided by the library. We hope that this document
provides enough information to get a new AVR developer up to speed quickly using
the freely available development tools: binutils, gcc avr-libc and many others.
If you find yourself stuck on a problem which this document doesn’t quite address, you
may wish to post a message to the avr-gcc mailing list. Most of the developers of the
AVR binutils and gcc ports in addition to the devleopers of avr-libc subscribe to the
list, so you will usually be able to get your problem resolved. You can subscribe to the
list at http://lists.nongnu.org/mailman/listinfo/avr-gcc-list
. Before posting to the list, you might want to try reading the Frequently Asked Questions chapter of this document.
Note:
If you think you’ve found a bug, or have a suggestion for an improvement, either in this documentation or in the library itself, please use the bug tracker at
https://savannah.nongnu.org/bugs/?group=avr-libc to ensure
the issue won’t be forgotten.
1.2
General information about this library
In general, it has been the goal to stick as best as possible to established standards
while implementing this library. Commonly, this refers to the C library as described by
the ANSI X3.159-1989 and ISO/IEC 9899:1990 ("ANSI-C") standard, as well as parts
of their successor ISO/IEC 9899:1999 ("C99"). Some additions have been inspired by
other standards like IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 ("POSIX.1"), while other extensions are
purely AVR-specific (like the entire program-space string interface).
Unless otherwise noted, functions of this library are not guaranteed to be reentrant. In
particular, any functions that store local state are known to be non-reentrant, as well
as functions that manipulate IO registers like the EEPROM access routines. If these
functions are used within both standard and interrupt contexts undefined behaviour will
result. See the FAQ for a more detailed discussion.
1.3
Supported Devices
The following is a list of AVR devices currently supported by the library. Note that
actual support for some newer devices depends on the ability of the compiler/assembler
to support these devices at library compile-time.
megaAVR Devices:
• atmega103
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
1.3
Supported Devices
• atmega128
• atmega1280
• atmega1281
• atmega1284p
• atmega16
• atmega161
• atmega162
• atmega163
• atmega164p
• atmega165
• atmega165p
• atmega168
• atmega168p
• atmega2560
• atmega2561
• atmega32
• atmega323
• atmega324p
• atmega325
• atmega325p
• atmega3250
• atmega3250p
• atmega328p
• atmega48
• atmega48p
• atmega64
• atmega640
• atmega644
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
3
1.3
Supported Devices
• atmega644p
• atmega645
• atmega6450
• atmega8
• atmega88
• atmega88p
• atmega8515
• atmega8535
tinyAVR Devices:
• attiny11 [1]
• attiny12 [1]
• attiny13
• attiny13a
• attiny15 [1]
• attiny22
• attiny24
• attiny25
• attiny26
• attiny261
• attiny28 [1]
• attiny2313
• attiny43u
• attiny44
• attiny45
• attiny461
• attiny48
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
4
1.3
Supported Devices
• attiny84
• attiny85
• attiny861
• attiny87
• attiny88
Automotive AVR Devices:
• atmega16m1
• atmega32c1
• atmega32m1
• atmega64c1
• atmega64m1
• attiny167
CAN AVR Devices:
• at90can32
• at90can64
• at90can128
LCD AVR Devices:
• atmega169
• atmega169p
• atmega329
• atmega329p
• atmega3290
• atmega3290p
• atmega649
• atmega6490
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5
1.3
Supported Devices
Lighting AVR Devices:
• at90pwm1
• at90pwm2
• at90pwm2b
• at90pwm216
• at90pwm3
• at90pwm3b
• at90pwm316
• at90pwm81
Smart Battery AVR Devices:
• atmega8hva
• atmega16hva
• atmega32hvb
• atmega406
USB AVR Devices:
• at90usb82
• at90usb162
• at90usb646
• at90usb647
• at90usb1286
• at90usb1287
• atmega16u4
• atmega32u4
• atmega32u6
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
6
1.3
Supported Devices
XMEGA Devices:
• atxmega16a4
• atxmega16d4
• atxmega32a4
• atxmega32d4
• atxmega64a1
• atxmega64a3
• atxmega128a1
• atxmega128a3
• atxmega256a3
• atxmega256a3b
Miscellaneous Devices:
• at94K [2]
• at76c711 [3]
• at43usb320
• at43usb355
• at86rf401
• at90scr100
• ata6289
Classic AVR Devices:
• at90s1200 [1]
• at90s2313
• at90s2323
• at90s2333
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7
1.4
avr-libc License
8
• at90s2343
• at90s4414
• at90s4433
• at90s4434
• at90s8515
• at90c8534
• at90s8535
Note:
[1] Assembly only. There is no direct support for these devices to be programmed
in C since they do not have a RAM based stack. Still, it could be possible to
program them in C, see the FAQ for an option.
Note:
[2] The at94K devices are a combination of FPGA and AVR microcontroller.
[TRoth-2002/11/12: Not sure of the level of support for these. More information
would be welcomed.]
Note:
[3] The at76c711 is a USB to fast serial interface bridge chip using an AVR core.
1.4
avr-libc License
avr-libc can be freely used and redistributed, provided the following license conditions
are met.
Portions of avr-libc are Copyright (c) 1999-2008
Werner Boellmann,
Dean Camera,
Pieter Conradie,
Brian Dean,
Keith Gudger,
Wouter van Gulik,
Bjoern Haase,
Steinar Haugen,
Peter Jansen,
Reinhard Jessich,
Magnus Johansson,
Harald Kipp,
Carlos Lamas,
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
1.4
avr-libc License
9
Cliff Lawson,
Artur Lipowski,
Marek Michalkiewicz,
Todd C. Miller,
Rich Neswold,
Colin O’Flynn,
Bob Paddock,
Andrey Pashchenko,
Reiner Patommel,
Florin-Viorel Petrov,
Alexander Popov,
Michael Rickman,
Theodore A. Roth,
Juergen Schilling,
Philip Soeberg,
Anatoly Sokolov,
Nils Kristian Strom,
Michael Stumpf,
Stefan Swanepoel,
Helmut Wallner,
Eric B. Weddington,
Joerg Wunsch,
Dmitry Xmelkov,
Atmel Corporation,
egnite Software GmbH,
The Regents of the University of California.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
distribution.
* Neither the name of the copyright holders nor the names of
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
2 Toolchain Overview
2
2.1
10
Toolchain Overview
Introduction
Welcome to the open source software development toolset for the Atmel AVR!
There is not a single tool that provides everything needed to develop software for the
AVR. It takes many tools working together. Collectively, the group of tools are called a
toolset, or commonly a toolchain, as the tools are chained together to produce the final
executable application for the AVR microcontroller.
The following sections provide an overview of all of these tools. You may be used
to cross-compilers that provide everything with a GUI front-end, and not know what
goes on "underneath the hood". You may be coming from a desktop or server computer
background and not used to embedded systems. Or you may be just learning about the
most common software development toolchain available on Unix and Linux systems.
Hopefully the following overview will be helpful in putting everything in perspective.
2.2
FSF and GNU
According to its website, "the Free Software Foundation (FSF), established in 1985, is
dedicated to promoting computer users’ rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. The FSF promotes the development and use of free software, particularly the GNU operating system, used widely in its GNU/Linux variant."
The FSF remains the primary sponsor of the GNU project.
The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating
system which is free software: the GNU system. GNU is a recursive acronym for
»GNU’s Not Unix«; it is pronounced guh-noo, approximately like canoe.
One of the main projects of the GNU system is the GNU Compiler Collection, or GCC,
and its sister project, GNU Binutils. These two open source projects provide a foundation for a software development toolchain. Note that these projects were designed to
originally run on Unix-like systems.
2.3
GCC
GCC stands for GNU Compiler Collection. GCC is highly flexible compiler system. It
has different compiler front-ends for different languages. It has many back-ends that
generate assembly code for many different processors and host operating systems. All
share a common "middle-end", containing the generic parts of the compiler, including
a lot of optimizations.
In GCC, a host system is the system (processor/OS) that the compiler runs on. A
target system is the system that the compiler compiles code for. And, a build system
is the system that the compiler is built (from source code) on. If a compiler has the
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
2.4
GNU Binutils
11
same system for host and for target, it is known as a native compiler. If a compiler
has different systems for host and target, it is known as a cross-compiler. (And if all
three, build, host, and target systems are different, it is known as a Canadian cross
compiler, but we won’t discuss that here.) When GCC is built to execute on a host
system such as FreeBSD, Linux, or Windows, and it is built to generate code for the
AVR microcontroller target, then it is a cross compiler, and this version of GCC is
commonly known as "AVR GCC". In documentation, or discussion, AVR GCC is
used when referring to GCC targeting specifically the AVR, or something that is AVR
specific about GCC. The term "GCC" is usually used to refer to something generic
about GCC, or about GCC as a whole.
GCC is different from most other compilers. GCC focuses on translating a high-level
language to the target assembly only. AVR GCC has three available compilers for the
AVR: C language, C++, and Ada. The compiler itself does not assemble or link the
final code.
GCC is also known as a "driver" program, in that it knows about, and drives other
programs seamlessly to create the final output. The assembler, and the linker are part
of another open source project called GNU Binutils. GCC knows how to drive the
GNU assembler (gas) to assemble the output of the compiler. GCC knows how to drive
the GNU linker (ld) to link all of the object modules into a final executable.
The two projects, GCC and Binutils, are very much interrelated and many of the same
volunteers work on both open source projects.
When GCC is built for the AVR target, the actual program names are prefixed with
"avr-". So the actual executable name for AVR GCC is: avr-gcc. The name "avr-gcc"
is used in documentation and discussion when referring to the program itself and not
just the whole AVR GCC system.
See the GCC Web Site and GCC User Manual for more information about GCC.
2.4
GNU Binutils
The name GNU Binutils stands for "Binary Utilities". It contains the GNU assembler
(gas), and the GNU linker (ld), but also contains many other utilities that work with
binary files that are created as part of the software development toolchain.
Again, when these tools are built for the AVR target, the actual program names are
prefixed with "avr-". For example, the assembler program name, for a native assembler
is "as" (even though in documentation the GNU assembler is commonly referred to as
"gas"). But when built for an AVR target, it becomes "avr-as". Below is a list of the
programs that are included in Binutils:
avr-as
The Assembler.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
2.4
GNU Binutils
avr-ld
The Linker.
avr-ar
Create, modify, and extract from libraries (archives).
avr-ranlib
Generate index to library (archive) contents.
avr-objcopy
Copy and translate object files to different formats.
avr-objdump
Display information from object files including disassembly.
avr-size
List section sizes and total size.
avr-nm
List symbols from object files.
avr-strings
List printable strings from files.
avr-strip
Discard symbols from files.
avr-readelf
Display the contents of ELF format files.
avr-addr2line
Convert addresses to file and line.
avr-c++filt
Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12
2.5
2.5
avr-libc
13
avr-libc
GCC and Binutils provides a lot of the tools to develop software, but there is one critical
component that they do not provide: a Standard C Library.
There are different open source projects that provide a Standard C Library depending
upon your system time, whether for a native compiler (GNU Libc), for some other
embedded system (newlib), or for some versions of Linux (uCLibc). The open source
AVR toolchain has its own Standard C Library project: avr-libc.
AVR-Libc provides many of the same functions found in a regular Standard C Library
and many additional library functions that is specific to an AVR. Some of the Standard
C Library functions that are commonly used on a PC environment have limitations or
additional issues that a user needs to be aware of when used on an embedded system.
AVR-Libc also contains the most documentation about the whole AVR toolchain.
2.6
Building Software
Even though GCC, Binutils, and avr-libc are the core projects that are used to build
software for the AVR, there is another piece of software that ties it all together: Make.
GNU Make is a program that makes things, and mainly software. Make interprets and
executes a Makefile that is written for a project. A Makefile contains dependency rules,
showing which output files are dependent upon which input files, and instructions on
how to build output files from input files.
Some distributions of the toolchains, and other AVR tools such as MFile, contain a
Makefile template written for the AVR toolchain and AVR applications that you can
copy and modify for your application.
See the GNU Make User Manual for more information.
2.7
AVRDUDE
After creating your software, you’ll want to program your device. You can do this by
using the program AVRDUDE which can interface with various hardware devices to
program your processor.
AVRDUDE is a very flexible package. All the information about AVR processors
and various hardware programmers is stored in a text database. This database can be
modified by any user to add new hardware or to add an AVR processor if it is not
already listed.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
2.8
2.8
GDB / Insight / DDD
14
GDB / Insight / DDD
The GNU Debugger (GDB) is a command-line debugger that can be used with the rest
of the AVR toolchain. Insight is GDB plus a GUI written in Tcl/Tk. Both GDB and
Insight are configured for the AVR and the main executables are prefixed with the target
name: avr-gdb, and avr-insight. There is also a "text mode" GUI for GDB: avr-gdbtui.
DDD (Data Display Debugger) is another popular GUI front end to GDB, available on
Unix and Linux systems.
2.9
AVaRICE
AVaRICE is a back-end program to AVR GDB and interfaces to the Atmel JTAG InCircuit Emulator (ICE), to provide emulation capabilities.
2.10
SimulAVR
SimulAVR is an AVR simulator used as a back-end with AVR GDB. Unfortunately,
this project is currently unmaintained and could use some help.
2.11
Utilities
There are also other optional utilities available that may be useful to add to your toolset.
SRecord is a collection of powerful tools for manipulating EPROM load files. It
reads and writes numerous EPROM file formats, and can perform many different manipulations.
MFile is a simple Makefile generator is meant as an aid to quickly customize a Makefile to use for your AVR application.
2.12
Toolchain Distributions (Distros)
All of the various open source projects that comprise the entire toolchain are normally
distributed as source code. It is left up to the user to build the tool application from its
source code. This can be a very daunting task to any potential user of these tools.
Luckily there are people who help out in this area. Volunteers take the time to build the
application from source code on particular host platforms and sometimes packaging
the tools for convenient installation by the end user. These packages contain the binary
executables of the tools, pre-made and ready to use. These packages are known as
"distributions" of the AVR toolchain, or by a more shortened name, "distros".
AVR toolchain distros are available on FreeBSD, Windows, Mac OS X, and certain
flavors of Linux.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
2.13
2.13
Open Source
15
Open Source
All of these tools, from the original source code in the multitude of projects, to the
various distros, are put together by many, many volunteers. All of these projects could
always use more help from other people who are willing to volunteer some of their time.
There are many different ways to help, for people with varying skill levels, abilities,
and available time.
You can help to answer questions in mailing lists such as the avr-gcc-list, or on forums
at the AVR Freaks website. This helps many people new to the open source AVR tools.
If you think you found a bug in any of the tools, it is always a big help to submit a good
bug report to the proper project. A good bug report always helps other volunteers to
analyze the problem and to get it fixed for future versions of the software.
You can also help to fix bugs in various software projects, or to add desirable new
features.
Volunteers are always welcome! :-)
3
3.1
Memory Areas and Using malloc()
Introduction
Many of the devices that are possible targets of avr-libc have a minimal amount of
RAM. The smallest parts supported by the C environment come with 128 bytes of
RAM. This needs to be shared between initialized and uninitialized variables (sections
.data and .bss), the dynamic memory allocator, and the stack that is used for calling
subroutines and storing local (automatic) variables.
Also, unlike larger architectures, there is no hardware-supported memory management
which could help in separating the mentioned RAM regions from being overwritten by
each other.
The standard RAM layout is to place .data variables first, from the beginning of the
internal RAM, followed by .bss. The stack is started from the top of internal RAM,
growing downwards. The so-called "heap" available for the dynamic memory allocator
will be placed beyond the end of .bss. Thus, there’s no risk that dynamic memory will
ever collide with the RAM variables (unless there were bugs in the implementation of
the allocator). There is still a risk that the heap and stack could collide if there are large
requirements for either dynamic memory or stack space. The former can even happen
if the allocations aren’t all that large but dynamic memory allocations get fragmented
over time such that new requests don’t quite fit into the "holes" of previously freed
regions. Large stack space requirements can arise in a C function containing large
and/or numerous local variables or when recursively calling function.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
3.2
Internal vs. external RAM
16
Note:
on−board RAM
.data
.bss
variables variables
heap
!
external RAM
0xFFFF
0x10FF
0x1100
0x0100
The pictures shown in this document represent typical situations where the RAM
locations refer to an ATmega128. The memory addresses used are not displayed
in a linear scale.
stack
SP
RAMEND
*(__brkval) (<= *SP − *(__malloc_margin))
*(__malloc_heap_start) == __heap_start
__bss_end
__data_end == __bss_start
__data_start
Figure 1: RAM map of a device with internal RAM
On a simple device like a microcontroller it is a challenge to implement a dynamic
memory allocator that is simple enough so the code size requirements will remain low,
yet powerful enough to avoid unnecessary memory fragmentation and to get it all done
with reasonably few CPU cycles. Microcontrollers are often low on space and also run
at much lower speeds than the typical PC these days.
The memory allocator implemented in avr-libc tries to cope with all of these constraints, and offers some tuning options that can be used if there are more resources
available than in the default configuration.
3.2
Internal vs. external RAM
Obviously, the constraints are much harder to satisfy in the default configuration where
only internal RAM is available. Extreme care must be taken to avoid a stack-heap
collision, both by making sure functions aren’t nesting too deeply, and don’t require
too much stack space for local variables, as well as by being cautious with allocating
too much dynamic memory.
If external RAM is available, it is strongly recommended to move the heap into the external RAM, regardless of whether or not the variables from the .data and .bss sections
are also going to be located there. The stack should always be kept in internal RAM.
Some devices even require this, and in general, internal RAM can be accessed faster
since no extra wait states are required. When using dynamic memory allocation and
stack and heap are separated in distinct memory areas, this is the safest way to avoid a
stack-heap collision.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
3.3
Tunables for malloc()
3.3
17
Tunables for malloc()
There are a number of variables that can be tuned to adapt the behavior of malloc()
to the expected requirements and constraints of the application. Any changes to these
tunables should be made before the very first call to malloc(). Note that some library
functions might also use dynamic memory (notably those from the <stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities), so make sure the changes will be done early enough in the startup
sequence.
The variables __malloc_heap_start and __malloc_heap_end can be used
to restrict the malloc() function to a certain memory region. These variables are statically initialized to point to __heap_start and __heap_end, respectively, where
__heap_start is filled in by the linker to point just beyond .bss, and __heap_end
is set to 0 which makes malloc() assume the heap is below the stack.
If the heap is going to be moved to external RAM, __malloc_heap_end must be
adjusted accordingly. This can either be done at run-time, by writing directly to this
variable, or it can be done automatically at link-time, by adjusting the value of the
symbol __heap_end.
The following example shows a linker command to relocate the entire .data and .bss
segments, and the heap to location 0x1100 in external RAM. The heap will extend up
to address 0xffff.
avr-gcc ... -Wl,--section-start,.data=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff ...
Note:
See explanation for offset 0x800000. See the chapter about using gcc for the -Wl
options.
The ld (linker) user manual states that using -Tdata=<x> is equivalent to using
–section-start,.data=<x>. However, you have to use –section-start as above because the GCC frontend also sets the -Tdata option for all MCU types where the
SRAM doesn’t start at 0x800060. Thus, the linker is being faced with two -Tdata
options. Sarting with binutils 2.16, the linker changed the preference, and picks
the "wrong" option in this situation.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
stack
0xFFFF
on−board RAM
0x1100
18
0x10FF
Tunables for malloc()
0x0100
3.3
external RAM
.data
.bss
variables variables
heap
SP
RAMEND
*(__malloc_heap_end) == __heap_end
*(__brkval)
*(__malloc_heap_start) == __heap_start
__bss_end
__data_end == __bss_start
__data_start
Figure 2: Internal RAM: stack only, external RAM: variables and heap
If dynamic memory should be placed in external RAM, while keeping the variables in
internal RAM, something like the following could be used. Note that for demonstration
purposes, the assignment of the various regions has not been made adjacent in this
example, so there are "holes" below and above the heap in external RAM that remain
completely unaccessible by regular variables or dynamic memory allocations (shown
in light bisque color in the picture below).
avr-gcc ... -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x802000,--defsym=__heap_end=0x803fff ...
.data
0xFFFF
0x3FFF
0x2000
on−board RAM
0x1100
0x10FF
0x0100
external RAM
.bss
variables variables
stack
heap
SP
RAMEND
__bss_end
__data_end == __bss_start
*(__malloc_heap_end) == __heap_end
*(__brkval)
*(__malloc_heap_start) == __heap_start
__data_start
Figure 3: Internal RAM: variables and stack, external RAM: heap
If __malloc_heap_end is 0, the allocator attempts to detect the bottom of stack
in order to prevent a stack-heap collision when extending the actual size of the heap
to gain more space for dynamic memory. It will not try to go beyond the current
stack limit, decreased by __malloc_margin bytes. Thus, all possible stack frames
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
3.4
Implementation details
19
of interrupt routines that could interrupt the current function, plus all further nested
function calls must not require more stack space, or they will risk colliding with the
data segment.
The default value of __malloc_margin is set to 32.
3.4
Implementation details
Dynamic memory allocation requests will be returned with a two-byte header
prepended that records the size of the allocation. This is later used by free(). The
returned address points just beyond that header. Thus, if the application accidentally
writes before the returned memory region, the internal consistency of the memory allocator is compromised.
The implementation maintains a simple freelist that accounts for memory blocks that
have been returned in previous calls to free(). Note that all of this memory is considered
to be successfully added to the heap already, so no further checks against stack-heap
collisions are done when recycling memory from the freelist.
The freelist itself is not maintained as a separate data structure, but rather by modifying
the contents of the freed memory to contain pointers chaining the pieces together. That
way, no additional memory is reqired to maintain this list except for a variable that
keeps track of the lowest memory segment available for reallocation. Since both, a
chain pointer and the size of the chunk need to be recorded in each chunk, the minimum
chunk size on the freelist is four bytes.
When allocating memory, first the freelist is walked to see if it could satisfy the request.
If there’s a chunk available on the freelist that will fit the request exactly, it will be
taken, disconnected from the freelist, and returned to the caller. If no exact match could
be found, the closest match that would just satisfy the request will be used. The chunk
will normally be split up into one to be returned to the caller, and another (smaller)
one that will remain on the freelist. In case this chunk was only up to two bytes larger
than the request, the request will simply be altered internally to also account for these
additional bytes since no separate freelist entry could be split off in that case.
If nothing could be found on the freelist, heap extension is attempted. This is where
__malloc_margin will be considered if the heap is operating below the stack, or
where __malloc_heap_end will be verified otherwise.
If the remaining memory is insufficient to satisfy the request, NULL will eventually be
returned to the caller.
When calling free(), a new freelist entry will be prepared. An attempt is then made to
aggregate the new entry with possible adjacent entries, yielding a single larger entry
available for further allocations. That way, the potential for heap fragmentation is
hopefully reduced.
A call to realloc() first determines whether the operation is about to grow or shrink the
current allocation. When shrinking, the case is easy: the existing chunk is split, and the
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
4 Memory Sections
20
tail of the region that is no longer to be used is passed to the standard free() function for
insertion into the freelist. Checks are first made whether the tail chunk is large enough
to hold a chunk of its own at all, otherwise realloc() will simply do nothing, and return
the original region.
When growing the region, it is first checked whether the existing allocation can be extended in-place. If so, this is done, and the original pointer is returned without copying
any data contents. As a side-effect, this check will also record the size of the largest
chunk on the freelist.
If the region cannot be extended in-place, but the old chunk is at the top of heap, and
the above freelist walk did not reveal a large enough chunk on the freelist to satisfy
the new request, an attempt is made to quickly extend this topmost chunk (and thus
the heap), so no need arises to copy over the existing data. If there’s no more space
available in the heap (same check is done as in malloc()), the entire request will fail.
Otherwise, malloc() will be called with the new request size, the existing data will be
copied over, and free() will be called on the old region.
4
Memory Sections
Remarks:
Need to list all the sections which are available to the avr.
Weak Bindings
FIXME: need to discuss the .weak directive.
The following describes the various sections available.
4.1
The .text Section
The .text section contains the actual machine instructions which make up your program.
This section is further subdivided by the .initN and .finiN sections dicussed below.
Note:
The avr-size program (part of binutils), coming from a Unix background,
doesn’t account for the .data initialization space added to the .text section, so in
order to know how much flash the final program will consume, one needs to add
the values for both, .text and .data (but not .bss), while the amount of pre-allocated
SRAM is the sum of .data and .bss.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
4.2
The .data Section
4.2
21
The .data Section
This section contains static data which was defined in your code. Things like the following would end up in .data:
char err_str[] = "Your program has died a horrible death!";
struct point pt = { 1, 1 };
It is possible to tell the linker the SRAM address of the beginning of the .data section.
This is accomplished by adding -Wl,-Tdata,addr to the avr-gcc command
used to the link your program. Not that addr must be offset by adding 0x800000
the to real SRAM address so that the linker knows that the address is in the SRAM
memory space. Thus, if you want the .data section to start at 0x1100, pass 0x801100
at the address to the linker. [offset explained]
Note:
When using malloc() in the application (which could even happen inside library
calls), additional adjustments are required.
4.3
The .bss Section
Uninitialized global or static variables end up in the .bss section.
4.4
The .eeprom Section
This is where eeprom variables are stored.
4.5
The .noinit Section
This sections is a part of the .bss section. What makes the .noinit section special is that
variables which are defined as such:
int foo __attribute__ ((section (".noinit")));
will not be initialized to zero during startup as would normal .bss data.
Only uninitialized variables can be placed in the .noinit section. Thus, the following
code will cause avr-gcc to issue an error:
int bar __attribute__ ((section (".noinit"))) = 0xaa;
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
4.6
The .initN Sections
22
It is possible to tell the linker explicitly where to place the .noinit section by adding
-Wl,-section-start=.noinit=0x802000 to the avr-gcc command line
at the linking stage. For example, suppose you wish to place the .noinit section at
SRAM address 0x2000:
$ avr-gcc ... -Wl,--section-start=.noinit=0x802000 ...
Note:
Because of the Harvard architecture of the AVR devices, you must manually add
0x800000 to the address you pass to the linker as the start of the section. Otherwise, the linker thinks you want to put the .noinit section into the .text section
instead of .data/.bss and will complain.
Alternatively, you can write your own linker script to automate this. [FIXME: need an
example or ref to dox for writing linker scripts.]
4.6
The .initN Sections
These sections are used to define the startup code from reset up through the start of
main(). These all are subparts of the .text section.
The purpose of these sections is to allow for more specific placement of code within
your program.
Note:
Sometimes, it is convenient to think of the .initN and .finiN sections as functions,
but in reality they are just symbolic names which tell the linker where to stick a
chunk of code which is not a function. Notice that the examples for asm and C can
not be called as functions and should not be jumped into.
The .initN sections are executed in order from 0 to 9.
.init0:
Weakly bound to __init(). If user defines __init(), it will be jumped into immediately after a reset.
.init1:
Unused. User definable.
.init2:
In C programs, weakly bound to initialize the stack, and to clear __zero_reg__
(r1).
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
4.7
The .finiN Sections
23
.init3:
Unused. User definable.
.init4:
For devices with > 64 KB of ROM, .init4 defines the code which takes care of copying
the contents of .data from the flash to SRAM. For all other devices, this code as well
as the code to zero out the .bss section is loaded from libgcc.a.
.init5:
Unused. User definable.
.init6:
Unused for C programs, but used for constructors in C++ programs.
.init7:
Unused. User definable.
.init8:
Unused. User definable.
.init9:
Jumps into main().
4.7
The .finiN Sections
These sections are used to define the exit code executed after return from main() or a
call to exit(). These all are subparts of the .text section.
The .finiN sections are executed in descending order from 9 to 0.
.finit9:
Unused. User definable. This is effectively where _exit() starts.
.fini8:
Unused. User definable.
.fini7:
Unused. User definable.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
4.8
Using Sections in Assembler Code
24
.fini6:
Unused for C programs, but used for destructors in C++ programs.
.fini5:
Unused. User definable.
.fini4:
Unused. User definable.
.fini3:
Unused. User definable.
.fini2:
Unused. User definable.
.fini1:
Unused. User definable.
.fini0:
Goes into an infinite loop after program termination and completion of any _exit()
code (execution of code in the .fini9 -> .fini1 sections).
4.8
Using Sections in Assembler Code
Example:
#include <avr/io.h>
.section .init1,"ax",@progbits
ldi
r0, 0xff
out
_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTB), r0
out
_SFR_IO_ADDR(DDRB), r0
Note:
The ,"ax",@progbits tells the assembler that the section is allocatable ("a"),
executable ("x") and contains data ("@progbits"). For more detailed information
on the .section directive, see the gas user manual.
4.9
Using Sections in C Code
Example:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5 Data in Program Space
25
#include <avr/io.h>
void my_init_portb (void) __attribute__ ((naked)) \
__attribute__ ((section (".init3")));
void
my_init_portb (void)
{
PORTB = 0xff;
DDRB = 0xff;
}
Note:
Section .init3 is used in this example, as this ensures the inernal __zero_reg__ has already been set up. The code generated by the compiler might blindly rely
on __zero_reg__ being really 0.
5
5.1
Data in Program Space
Introduction
So you have some constant data and you’re running out of room to store it? Many
AVRs have limited amount of RAM in which to store data, but may have more Flash
space available. The AVR is a Harvard architecture processor, where Flash is used for
the program, RAM is used for data, and they each have separate address spaces. It is
a challenge to get constant data to be stored in the Program Space, and to retrieve that
data to use it in the AVR application.
The problem is exacerbated by the fact that the C Language was not designed for
Harvard architectures, it was designed for Von Neumann architectures where code and
data exist in the same address space. This means that any compiler for a Harvard
architecture processor, like the AVR, has to use other means to operate with separate
address spaces.
Some compilers use non-standard C language keywords, or they extend the standard
syntax in ways that are non-standard. The AVR toolset takes a different approach.
GCC has a special keyword, __attribute__ that is used to attach different attributes to things such as function declarations, variables, and types. This keyword is
followed by an attribute specification in double parentheses. In AVR GCC, there is a
special attribute called progmem. This attribute is use on data declarations, and tells
the compiler to place the data in the Program Memory (Flash).
AVR-Libc provides a simple macro PROGMEM that is defined as the attribute syntax of GCC with the progmem attribute. This macro was created as a convenience
to the end user, as we will see below. The PROGMEM macro is defined in the
<avr/pgmspace.h> system header file.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5.2
A Note On const
26
It is difficult to modify GCC to create new extensions to the C language syntax, so
instead, avr-libc has created macros to retrieve the data from the Program Space. These
macros are also found in the <avr/pgmspace.h> system header file.
5.2
A Note On const
Many users bring up the idea of using C’s keyword const as a means of declaring
data to be in Program Space. Doing this would be an abuse of the intended meaning of
the const keyword.
const is used to tell the compiler that the data is to be "read-only". It is used to help
make it easier for the compiler to make certain transformations, or to help the compiler
check for incorrect usage of those variables.
For example, the const keyword is commonly used in many functions as a modifier on
the parameter type. This tells the compiler that the function will only use the parameter
as read-only and will not modify the contents of the parameter variable.
const was intended for uses such as this, not as a means to identify where the data
should be stored. If it were used as a means to define data storage, then it loses its
correct meaning (changes its semantics) in other situations such as in the function parameter example.
5.3
Storing and Retrieving Data in the Program Space
Let’s say you have some global data:
unsigned char mydata[11][10] =
{
{0x00,0x01,0x02,0x03,0x04,0x05,0x06,0x07,0x08,0x09},
{0x0A,0x0B,0x0C,0x0D,0x0E,0x0F,0x10,0x11,0x12,0x13},
{0x14,0x15,0x16,0x17,0x18,0x19,0x1A,0x1B,0x1C,0x1D},
{0x1E,0x1F,0x20,0x21,0x22,0x23,0x24,0x25,0x26,0x27},
{0x28,0x29,0x2A,0x2B,0x2C,0x2D,0x2E,0x2F,0x30,0x31},
{0x32,0x33,0x34,0x35,0x36,0x37,0x38,0x39,0x3A,0x3B},
{0x3C,0x3D,0x3E,0x3F,0x40,0x41,0x42,0x43,0x44,0x45},
{0x46,0x47,0x48,0x49,0x4A,0x4B,0x4C,0x4D,0x4E,0x4F},
{0x50,0x51,0x52,0x53,0x54,0x55,0x56,0x57,0x58,0x59},
{0x5A,0x5B,0x5C,0x5D,0x5E,0x5F,0x60,0x61,0x62,0x63},
{0x64,0x65,0x66,0x67,0x68,0x69,0x6A,0x6B,0x6C,0x6D}
};
and later in your code you access this data in a function and store a single byte into a
variable like so:
byte = mydata[i][j];
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5.3
Storing and Retrieving Data in the Program Space
27
Now you want to store your data in Program Memory. Use the PROGMEM macro found
in <avr/pgmspace.h> and put it after the declaration of the variable, but before
the initializer, like so:
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
.
.
.
unsigned char mydata[11][10] PROGMEM =
{
{0x00,0x01,0x02,0x03,0x04,0x05,0x06,0x07,0x08,0x09},
{0x0A,0x0B,0x0C,0x0D,0x0E,0x0F,0x10,0x11,0x12,0x13},
{0x14,0x15,0x16,0x17,0x18,0x19,0x1A,0x1B,0x1C,0x1D},
{0x1E,0x1F,0x20,0x21,0x22,0x23,0x24,0x25,0x26,0x27},
{0x28,0x29,0x2A,0x2B,0x2C,0x2D,0x2E,0x2F,0x30,0x31},
{0x32,0x33,0x34,0x35,0x36,0x37,0x38,0x39,0x3A,0x3B},
{0x3C,0x3D,0x3E,0x3F,0x40,0x41,0x42,0x43,0x44,0x45},
{0x46,0x47,0x48,0x49,0x4A,0x4B,0x4C,0x4D,0x4E,0x4F},
{0x50,0x51,0x52,0x53,0x54,0x55,0x56,0x57,0x58,0x59},
{0x5A,0x5B,0x5C,0x5D,0x5E,0x5F,0x60,0x61,0x62,0x63},
{0x64,0x65,0x66,0x67,0x68,0x69,0x6A,0x6B,0x6C,0x6D}
};
That’s it! Now your data is in the Program Space. You can compile, link, and check
the map file to verify that mydata is placed in the correct section.
Now that your data resides in the Program Space, your code to access (read) the data
will no longer work. The code that gets generated will retrieve the data that is located
at the address of the mydata array, plus offsets indexed by the i and j variables.
However, the final address that is calculated where to the retrieve the data points to
the Data Space! Not the Program Space where the data is actually located. It is likely
that you will be retrieving some garbage. The problem is that AVR GCC does not
intrinsically know that the data resides in the Program Space.
The solution is fairly simple. The "rule of thumb" for accessing data stored in the
Program Space is to access the data as you normally would (as if the variable is stored
in Data Space), like so:
byte = mydata[i][j];
then take the address of the data:
byte = &(mydata[i][j]);
then use the appropriate pgm_read_∗ macro, and the address of your data becomes
the parameter to that macro:
byte = pgm_read_byte(&(mydata[i][j]));
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5.4
Storing and Retrieving Strings in the Program Space
28
The pgm_read_∗ macros take an address that points to the Program Space, and retrieves the data that is stored at that address. This is why you take the address of the
offset into the array. This address becomes the parameter to the macro so it can generate the correct code to retrieve the data from the Program Space. There are different
pgm_read_∗ macros to read different sizes of data at the address given.
5.4
Storing and Retrieving Strings in the Program Space
Now that you can successfully store and retrieve simple data from Program Space you
want to store and retrive strings from Program Space. And specifically you want to
store and array of strings to Program Space. So you start off with your array, like so:
char *string_table[] =
{
"String 1",
"String 2",
"String 3",
"String 4",
"String 5"
};
and then you add your PROGMEM macro to the end of the declaration:
char *string_table[] PROGMEM =
{
"String 1",
"String 2",
"String 3",
"String 4",
"String 5"
};
Right? WRONG!
Unfortunately, with GCC attributes, they affect only the declaration that they are attached to. So in this case, we successfully put the string_table variable, the array
itself, in the Program Space. This DOES NOT put the actual strings themselves into
Program Space. At this point, the strings are still in the Data Space, which is probably
not what you want.
In order to put the strings in Program Space, you have to have explicit declarations for
each string, and put each string in Program Space:
char
char
char
char
char
string_1[]
string_2[]
string_3[]
string_4[]
string_5[]
PROGMEM
PROGMEM
PROGMEM
PROGMEM
PROGMEM
=
=
=
=
=
"String
"String
"String
"String
"String
1";
2";
3";
4";
5";
Then use the new symbols in your table, like so:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5.4
Storing and Retrieving Strings in the Program Space
29
PGM_P string_table[] PROGMEM =
{
string_1,
string_2,
string_3,
string_4,
string_5
};
Now this has the effect of putting string_table in Program Space, where
string_table is an array of pointers to characters (strings), where each pointer
is a pointer to the Program Space, where each string is also stored.
The PGM_P type above is also a macro that defined as a pointer to a character in the
Program Space.
Retrieving the strings are a different matter. You probably don’t want to pull the string
out of Program Space, byte by byte, using the pgm_read_byte() macro. There are
other functions declared in the <avr/pgmspace.h> header file that work with strings
that are stored in the Program Space.
For example if you want to copy the string from Program Space to a buffer in RAM
(like an automatic variable inside a function, that is allocated on the stack), you can do
this:
void foo(void)
{
char buffer[10];
for (unsigned char i = 0; i < 5; i++)
{
strcpy_P(buffer, (PGM_P)pgm_read_word(&(string_table[i])));
// Display buffer on LCD.
}
return;
}
Here, the string_table array is stored in Program Space, so we access it normally,
as if were stored in Data Space, then take the address of the location we want to access,
and use the address as a parameter to pgm_read_word. We use the pgm_read_word macro to read the string pointer out of the string_table array. Remember
that a pointer is 16-bits, or word size. The pgm_read_word macro will return a 16bit unsigned integer. We then have to typecast it as a true pointer to program memory,
PGM_P. This pointer is an address in Program Space pointing to the string that we
want to copy. This pointer is then used as a parameter to the function strcpy_P. The
function strcpy_P is just like the regular strcpy function, except that it copies a
string from Program Space (the second parameter) to a buffer in the Data Space (the
first parameter).
There are many string functions available that work with strings located in Program
Space. All of these special string functions have a suffix of _P in the function name,
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
5.5
Caveats
30
and are declared in the <avr/pgmspace.h> header file.
5.5
Caveats
The macros and functions used to retrieve data from the Program Space have to generate some extra code in order to actually load the data from the Program Space. This
incurs some extra overhead in terms of code space (extra opcodes) and execution time.
Usually, both the space and time overhead is minimal compared to the space savings
of putting data in Program Space. But you should be aware of this so you can minimize the number of calls within a single function that gets the same piece of data from
Program Space. It is always instructive to look at the resulting disassembly from the
compiler.
6
6.1
avr-libc and assembler programs
Introduction
There might be several reasons to write code for AVR microcontrollers using plain
assembler source code. Among them are:
• Code for devices that do not have RAM and are thus not supported by the C
compiler.
• Code for very time-critical applications.
• Special tweaks that cannot be done in C.
Usually, all but the first could probably be done easily using the inline assembler facility
of the compiler.
Although avr-libc is primarily targeted to support programming AVR microcontrollers
using the C (and C++) language, there’s limited support for direct assembler usage as
well. The benefits of it are:
• Use of the C preprocessor and thus the ability to use the same symbolic constants
that are available to C programs, as well as a flexible macro concept that can use
any valid C identifier as a macro (whereas the assembler’s macro concept is
basically targeted to use a macro in place of an assembler instruction).
• Use of the runtime framework like automatically assigning interrupt vectors. For
devices that have RAM, initializing the RAM variables can also be utilized.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
6.2
Invoking the compiler
6.2
31
Invoking the compiler
For the purpose described in this document, the assembler and linker are usually not
invoked manually, but rather using the C compiler frontend (avr-gcc) that in turn
will call the assembler and linker as required.
This approach has the following advantages:
• There is basically only one program to be called directly, avr-gcc, regardless
of the actual source language used.
• The invokation of the C preprocessor will be automatic, and will include the
appropriate options to locate required include files in the filesystem.
• The invokation of the linker will be automatic, and will include the appropriate options to locate additional libraries as well as the application start-up code
(crtXXX.o) and linker script.
Note that the invokation of the C preprocessor will be automatic when the filename
provided for the assembler file ends in .S (the capital letter "s"). This would even apply
to operating systems that use case-insensitive filesystems since the actual decision is
made based on the case of the filename suffix given on the command-line, not based on
the actual filename from the file system.
Alternatively, the language can
assembler-with-cpp option.
6.3
explicitly
be
specified
using
the
-x
Example program
The following annotated example features a simple 100 kHz square wave generator
using an AT90S1200 clocked with a 10.7 MHz crystal. Pin PD6 will be used for the
square wave output.
#include <avr/io.h>
; Note [1]
work
tmp
=
=
16
17
; Note [2]
inttmp
=
19
intsav
=
0
SQUARE
=
PD6
tmconst= 10700000 / 200000
fuzz=
8
; Note [3]
; Note [4]:
; 100 kHz => 200000 edges/s
; # clocks in ISR until TCNT0 is set
.section .text
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
6.3
Example program
.global main
32
; Note [5]
main:
rcall
ioinit
rjmp
1b
1:
.global TIMER0_OVF_vect
TIMER0_OVF_vect:
ldi
inttmp, 256 - tmconst + fuzz
out
_SFR_IO_ADDR(TCNT0), inttmp
1:
2:
in
intsav, _SFR_IO_ADDR(SREG)
sbic
rjmp
sbi
rjmp
cbi
_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD), SQUARE
1f
_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD), SQUARE
2f
_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD), SQUARE
out
reti
_SFR_IO_ADDR(SREG), intsav
sbi
_SFR_IO_ADDR(DDRD), SQUARE
ldi
out
work, _BV(TOIE0)
_SFR_IO_ADDR(TIMSK), work
ldi
out
work, _BV(CS00)
; tmr0:
_SFR_IO_ADDR(TCCR0), work
ldi
out
work, 256 - tmconst
_SFR_IO_ADDR(TCNT0), work
; Note [6]
; Note [7]
; Note [8]
; Note [9]
ioinit:
CK/1
sei
ret
.global __vector_default
__vector_default:
reti
; Note [10]
.end
Note [1]
As in C programs, this includes the central processor-specific file containing the IO port
definitions for the device. Note that not all include files can be included into assembler
sources.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
6.3
Example program
33
Note [2]
Assignment of registers to symbolic names used locally. Another option would be to
use a C preprocessor macro instead:
#define work 16
Note [3]
Our bit number for the square wave output. Note that the right-hand side consists of a
CPP macro which will be substituted by its value (6 in this case) before actually being
passed to the assembler.
Note [4]
The assembler uses integer operations in the host-defined integer size (32 bits or longer)
when evaluating expressions. This is in contrast to the C compiler that uses the C type
int by default in order to calculate constant integer expressions.
In order to get a 100 kHz output, we need to toggle the PD6 line 200000 times per
second. Since we use timer 0 without any prescaling options in order to get the desired frequency and accuracy, we already run into serious timing considerations: while
accepting and processing the timer overflow interrupt, the timer already continues to
count. When pre-loading the TCCNT0 register, we therefore have to account for the
number of clock cycles required for interrupt acknowledge and for the instructions to
reload TCCNT0 (4 clock cycles for interrupt acknowledge, 2 cycles for the jump from
the interrupt vector, 2 cycles for the 2 instructions that reload TCCNT0). This is what
the constant fuzz is for.
Note [5]
External functions need to be declared to be .global. main is the application entry
point that will be jumped to from the ininitalization routine in crts1200.o.
Note [6]
The main loop is just a single jump back to itself. Square wave generation itself is
completely handled by the timer 0 overflow interrupt service. A sleep instruction
(using idle mode) could be used as well, but probably would not conserve much energy
anyway since the interrupt service is executed quite frequently.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
6.3
Example program
34
Note [7]
Interrupt functions can get the usual names that are also available to C programs. The
linker will then put them into the appropriate interrupt vector slots. Note that they must
be declared .global in order to be acceptable for this purpose. This will only work if
<avr/io.h> has been included. Note that the assembler or linker have no chance
to check the correct spelling of an interrupt function, so it should be double-checked.
(When analyzing the resulting object file using avr-objdump or avr-nm, a name
like __vector_N should appear, with N being a small integer number.)
Note [8]
As explained in the section about special function registers, the actual IO port address
should be obtained using the macro _SFR_IO_ADDR. (The AT90S1200 does not have
RAM thus the memory-mapped approach to access the IO registers is not available. It
would be slower than using in / out instructions anyway.)
Since the operation to reload TCCNT0 is time-critical, it is even performed before
saving SREG. Obviously, this requires that the instructions involved would not change
any of the flag bits in SREG.
Note [9]
Interrupt routines must not clobber the global CPU state. Thus, it is usually necessary
to save at least the state of the flag bits in SREG. (Note that this serves as an example
here only since actually, all the following instructions would not modify SREG either,
but that’s not commonly the case.)
Also, it must be made sure that registers used inside the interrupt routine do not conflict
with those used outside. In the case of a RAM-less device like the AT90S1200, this can
only be done by agreeing on a set of registers to be used exclusively inside the interrupt
routine; there would not be any other chance to "save" a register anywhere.
If the interrupt routine is to be linked together with C modules, care must be taken
to follow the register usage guidelines imposed by the C compiler. Also, any register
modified inside the interrupt sevice needs to be saved, usually on the stack.
Note [10]
As explained in Interrupts, a global "catch-all" interrupt handler that gets all unassigned
interrupt vectors can be installed using the name __vector_default. This must
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
6.4
Pseudo-ops and operators
35
be .global, and obviously, should end in a reti instruction. (By default, a jump to
location 0 would be implied instead.)
6.4
Pseudo-ops and operators
The available pseudo-ops in the assembler are described in the GNU assembler (gas)
manual. The manual can be found online as part of the current binutils release under
http://sources.redhat.com/binutils/.
As gas comes from a Unix origin, its pseudo-op and overall assembler syntax is slightly
different than the one being used by other assemblers. Numeric constants follow the C
notation (prefix 0x for hexadecimal constants), expressions use a C-like syntax.
Some common pseudo-ops include:
• .byte allocates single byte constants
• .ascii allocates a non-terminated string of characters
• .asciz allocates a \0-terminated string of characters (C string)
• .data switches to the .data section (initialized RAM variables)
• .text switches to the .text section (code and ROM constants)
• .set declares a symbol as a constant expression (identical to .equ)
• .global (or .globl) declares a public symbol that is visible to the linker (e. g.
function entry point, global variable)
• .extern declares a symbol to be externally defined; this is effectively a comment
only, as gas treats all undefined symbols it encounters as globally undefined anyway
Note that .org is available in gas as well, but is a fairly pointless pseudo-op in an assembler environment that uses relocatable object files, as it is the linker that determines
the final position of some object in ROM or RAM.
Along with the architecture-independent standard operators, there are some AVRspecific operators available which are unfortunately not yet described in the official
documentation. The most notable operators are:
• lo8 Takes the least significant 8 bits of a 16-bit integer
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7 Inline Assembler Cookbook
36
• hi8 Takes the most significant 8 bits of a 16-bit integer
• pm Takes a program-memory (ROM) address, and converts it into a RAM address. This implies a division by 2 as the AVR handles ROM addresses as 16-bit
words (e.g. in an IJMP or ICALL instruction), and can also handle relocatable
symbols on the right-hand side.
Example:
ldi r24, lo8(pm(somefunc))
ldi r25, hi8(pm(somefunc))
call something
This passes the address of function somefunc as the first parameter to function
something.
7
Inline Assembler Cookbook
AVR-GCC
Inline Assembler Cookbook
About this Document
The GNU C compiler for Atmel AVR RISC processors offers, to embed assembly
language code into C programs. This cool feature may be used for manually optimizing
time critical parts of the software or to use specific processor instruction, which are not
available in the C language.
Because of a lack of documentation, especially for the AVR version of the compiler, it
may take some time to figure out the implementation details by studying the compiler
and assembler source code. There are also a few sample programs available in the net.
Hopefully this document will help to increase their number.
It’s assumed, that you are familiar with writing AVR assembler programs, because this
is not an AVR assembler programming tutorial. It’s not a C language tutorial either.
Note that this document does not cover file written completely in assembler language,
refer to avr-libc and assembler programs for this.
Copyright (C) 2001-2002 by egnite Software GmbH
Permission is granted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided
that the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual provided that
the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice
identical to this one.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.1
GCC asm Statement
37
This document describes version 3.3 of the compiler. There may be some parts, which
hadn’t been completely understood by the author himself and not all samples had been
tested so far. Because the author is German and not familiar with the English language,
there are definitely some typos and syntax errors in the text. As a programmer the
author knows, that a wrong documentation sometimes might be worse than none. Anyway, he decided to offer his little knowledge to the public, in the hope to get enough
response to improve this document. Feel free to contact the author via e-mail. For the
latest release check http://www.ethernut.de/.
Herne, 17th of May 2002 Harald Kipp harald.kipp-at-egnite.de
Note:
As of 26th of July 2002, this document has been merged into the
documentation for avr-libc.
The latest version is now available at
http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avr-libc/.
7.1
GCC asm Statement
Let’s start with a simple example of reading a value from port D:
asm("in %0, %1" : "=r" (value) : "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD)) );
Each asm statement is devided by colons into (up to) four parts:
1. The assembler instructions, defined as a single string constant:
"in %0, %1"
2. A list of output operands, separated by commas. Our example uses just one:
"=r" (value)
3. A comma separated list of input operands. Again our example uses one operand
only:
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD))
4. Clobbered registers, left empty in our example.
You can write assembler instructions in much the same way as you would write assembler programs. However, registers and constants are used in a different way if they refer
to expressions of your C program. The connection between registers and C operands is
specified in the second and third part of the asm instruction, the list of input and output
operands, respectively. The general form is
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.1
GCC asm Statement
38
asm(code : output operand list : input operand list [: clobber list]);
In the code section, operands are referenced by a percent sign followed by a single digit.
0 refers to the first 1 to the second operand and so forth. From the above example:
0 refers to "=r" (value) and
1 refers to "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD)).
This may still look a little odd now, but the syntax of an operand list will be explained
soon. Let us first examine the part of a compiler listing which may have been generated
from our example:
lds r24,value
/* #APP */
in r24, 12
/* #NOAPP */
sts value,r24
The comments have been added by the compiler to inform the assembler that the included code was not generated by the compilation of C statements, but by inline assembler statements. The compiler selected register r24 for storage of the value read
from PORTD. The compiler could have selected any other register, though. It may not
explicitely load or store the value and it may even decide not to include your assembler
code at all. All these decisions are part of the compiler’s optimization strategy. For
example, if you never use the variable value in the remaining part of the C program,
the compiler will most likely remove your code unless you switched off optimization.
To avoid this, you can add the volatile attribute to the asm statement:
asm volatile("in %0, %1" : "=r" (value) : "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD)));
Alternatively, operands can be given names. The name is prepended in brackets to the
constraints in the operand list, and references to the named operand use the bracketed
name instead of a number after the % sign. Thus, the above example could also be
written as
asm("in %[retval], %[port]" :
[retval] "=r" (value) :
[port] "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTD)) );
The last part of the asm instruction, the clobber list, is mainly used to tell the compiler
about modifications done by the assembler code. This part may be omitted, all other
parts are required, but may be left empty. If your assembler routine won’t use any
input or output operand, two colons must still follow the assembler code string. A
good example is a simple statement to disable interrupts:
asm volatile("cli"::);
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.2
Assembler Code
7.2
39
Assembler Code
You can use the same assembler instruction mnemonics as you’d use with any other
AVR assembler. And you can write as many assembler statements into one code string
as you like and your flash memory is able to hold.
Note:
The available assembler directives vary from one assembler to another.
To make it more readable, you should put each statement on a seperate line:
asm volatile("nop\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
::);
The linefeed and tab characters will make the assembler listing generated by the compiler more readable. It may look a bit odd for the first time, but that’s the way the
compiler creates it’s own assembler code.
You may also make use of some special registers.
Symbol
__SREG__
__SP_H__
__SP_L__
__tmp_reg__
__zero_reg__
Register
Status register at address 0x3F
Stack pointer high byte at address 0x3E
Stack pointer low byte at address 0x3D
Register r0, used for temporary storage
Register r1, always zero
Register r0 may be freely used by your assembler code and need not be restored at
the end of your code. It’s a good idea to use __tmp_reg__ and __zero_reg__
instead of r0 or r1, just in case a new compiler version changes the register usage
definitions.
7.3
Input and Output Operands
Each input and output operand is described by a constraint string followed by a C
expression in parantheses. AVR-GCC 3.3 knows the following constraint characters:
Note:
The most up-to-date and detailed information on contraints for the avr can be found
in the gcc manual.
The x register is r27:r26, the y register is r29:r28, and the z register is
r31:r30
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.3
Input and Output Operands
Constraint
a
b
d
e
q
r
t
w
x
y
z
G
I
J
K
L
l
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Used for
Simple upper registers
Base pointer registers
pairs
Upper register
Pointer register pairs
Stack pointer register
Any register
Temporary register
Special upper register
pairs
Pointer register pair X
Pointer register pair Y
Pointer register pair Z
Floating point constant
6-bit positive integer
constant
6-bit negative integer
constant
Integer constant
Integer constant
Lower registers
8-bit integer constant
Integer constant
Integer constant
Integer constant
(GCC >= 4.2.x) A
memory address based
on Y or Z pointer with
displacement.
(GCC >= 4.3.x) Integer
constant.
40
Range
r16 to r23
y, z
r16 to r31
x, y, z
SPH:SPL
r0 to r31
r0
r24, r26, r28, r30
x (r27:r26)
y (r29:r28)
z (r31:r30)
0.0
0 to 63
-63 to 0
2
0
r0 to r15
0 to 255
-1
8, 16, 24
1
-6 to 5
The selection of the proper contraint depends on the range of the constants or registers,
which must be acceptable to the AVR instruction they are used with. The C compiler
doesn’t check any line of your assembler code. But it is able to check the constraint
against your C expression. However, if you specify the wrong constraints, then the
compiler may silently pass wrong code to the assembler. And, of course, the assembler
will fail with some cryptic output or internal errors. For example, if you specify the
constraint "r" and you are using this register with an "ori" instruction in your assembler code, then the compiler may select any register. This will fail, if the compiler
chooses r2 to r15. (It will never choose r0 or r1, because these are uses for special
purposes.) That’s why the correct constraint in that case is "d". On the other hand, if
you use the constraint "M", the compiler will make sure that you don’t pass anything
else but an 8-bit value. Later on we will see how to pass multibyte expression results
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.3
Input and Output Operands
41
to the assembler code.
The following table shows all AVR assembler mnemonics which require operands, and
the related contraints. Because of the improper constraint definitions in version 3.3,
they aren’t strict enough. There is, for example, no constraint, which restricts integer
constants to the range 0 to 7 for bit set and bit clear operations.
Mnemonic
adc
adiw
andi
bclr
brbc
bset
cbi
com
cpc
cpse
elpm
in
ld
ldi
lpm
lsr
movw
neg
ori
pop
rol
sbc
sbi
sbiw
sbrc
ser
std
sub
swap
Constraints
r,r
w,I
d,M
I
I,label
I
I,I
r
r,r
r,r
t,z
r,I
r,e
d,M
t,z
r
r,r
r
d,M
r
r
r,r
I,I
w,I
r,I
d
b,r
r,r
r
Mnemonic
add
and
asr
bld
brbs
bst
cbr
cp
cpi
dec
eor
inc
ldd
lds
lsl
mov
mul
or
out
push
ror
sbci
sbic
sbr
sbrs
st
sts
subi
Constraints
r,r
r,r
r
r,I
I,label
r,I
d,I
r,r
d,M
r
r,r
r
r,b
r,label
r
r,r
r,r
r,r
I,r
r
r
d,M
I,I
d,M
r,I
e,r
label,r
d,M
Constraint characters may be prepended by a single constraint modifier. Contraints
without a modifier specify read-only operands. Modifiers are:
Modifier
=
+
&
Specifies
Write-only operand, usually used for all
output operands.
Read-write operand
Register should be used for output only
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.3
Input and Output Operands
42
Output operands must be write-only and the C expression result must be an lvalue,
which means that the operands must be valid on the left side of assignments. Note,
that the compiler will not check if the operands are of reasonable type for the kind of
operation used in the assembler instructions.
Input operands are, you guessed it, read-only. But what if you need the same operand
for input and output? As stated above, read-write operands are not supported in inline
assembler code. But there is another solution. For input operators it is possible to use
a single digit in the constraint string. Using digit n tells the compiler to use the same
register as for the n-th operand, starting with zero. Here is an example:
asm volatile("swap %0" : "=r" (value) : "0" (value));
This statement will swap the nibbles of an 8-bit variable named value. Constraint "0"
tells the compiler, to use the same input register as for the first operand. Note however,
that this doesn’t automatically imply the reverse case. The compiler may choose the
same registers for input and output, even if not told to do so. This is not a problem in
most cases, but may be fatal if the output operator is modified by the assembler code
before the input operator is used. In the situation where your code depends on different
registers used for input and output operands, you must add the & constraint modifier to
your output operand. The following example demonstrates this problem:
asm volatile("in %0,%1"
"\n\t"
"out %1, %2" "\n\t"
: "=&r" (input)
: "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(port)), "r" (output)
);
In this example an input value is read from a port and then an output value is written to
the same port. If the compiler would have choosen the same register for input and output, then the output value would have been destroyed on the first assembler instruction.
Fortunately, this example uses the & constraint modifier to instruct the compiler not to
select any register for the output value, which is used for any of the input operands.
Back to swapping. Here is the code to swap high and low byte of a 16-bit value:
asm volatile("mov __tmp_reg__, %A0" "\n\t"
"mov %A0, %B0"
"\n\t"
"mov %B0, __tmp_reg__" "\n\t"
: "=r" (value)
: "0" (value)
);
First you will notice the usage of register __tmp_reg__, which we listed among
other special registers in the Assembler Code section. You can use this register without
saving its contents. Completely new are those letters A and B in %A0 and %B0. In fact
they refer to two different 8-bit registers, both containing a part of value.
Another example to swap bytes of a 32-bit value:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.3
Input and Output Operands
asm volatile("mov __tmp_reg__, %A0"
"mov %A0, %D0"
"mov %D0, __tmp_reg__"
"mov __tmp_reg__, %B0"
"mov %B0, %C0"
"mov %C0, __tmp_reg__"
: "=r" (value)
: "0" (value)
);
43
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
Instead of listing the same operand as both, input and output operand, it can also be
declared as a read-write operand. This must be applied to an output operand, and the
respective input operand list remains empty:
asm volatile("mov __tmp_reg__, %A0"
"mov %A0, %D0"
"mov %D0, __tmp_reg__"
"mov __tmp_reg__, %B0"
"mov %B0, %C0"
"mov %C0, __tmp_reg__"
: "+r" (value));
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
If operands do not fit into a single register, the compiler will automatically assign
enough registers to hold the entire operand. In the assembler code you use %A0 to refer
to the lowest byte of the first operand, %A1 to the lowest byte of the second operand
and so on. The next byte of the first operand will be %B0, the next byte %C0 and so on.
This also implies, that it is often neccessary to cast the type of an input operand to the
desired size.
A final problem may arise while using pointer register pairs. If you define an input
operand
"e" (ptr)
and the compiler selects register Z (r30:r31), then
%A0 refers to r30 and
%B0 refers to r31.
But both versions will fail during the assembly stage of the compiler, if you explicitely
need Z, like in
ld r24,Z
If you write
ld r24, %a0
with a lower case a following the percent sign, then the compiler will create the proper
assembler line.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.4
7.4
Clobbers
44
Clobbers
As stated previously, the last part of the asm statement, the list of clobbers, may be
omitted, including the colon seperator. However, if you are using registers, which
had not been passed as operands, you need to inform the compiler about this. The
following example will do an atomic increment. It increments an 8-bit value pointed
to by a pointer variable in one go, without being interrupted by an interrupt routine
or another thread in a multithreaded environment. Note, that we must use a pointer,
because the incremented value needs to be stored before interrupts are enabled.
asm volatile(
"cli"
"ld r24, %a0"
"inc r24"
"st %a0, r24"
"sei"
:
: "e" (ptr)
: "r24"
);
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
The compiler might produce the following code:
cli
ld r24, Z
inc r24
st Z, r24
sei
One easy solution to avoid clobbering register r24 is, to make use of the special temporary register __tmp_reg__ defined by the compiler.
asm volatile(
"cli"
"ld __tmp_reg__, %a0"
"inc __tmp_reg__"
"st %a0, __tmp_reg__"
"sei"
:
: "e" (ptr)
);
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
The compiler is prepared to reload this register next time it uses it. Another problem
with the above code is, that it should not be called in code sections, where interrupts
are disabled and should be kept disabled, because it will enable interrupts at the end.
We may store the current status, but then we need another register. Again we can solve
this without clobbering a fixed, but let the compiler select it. This could be done with
the help of a local C variable.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.4
Clobbers
45
{
uint8_t s;
asm volatile(
"in %0, __SREG__"
"cli"
"ld __tmp_reg__, %a1"
"inc __tmp_reg__"
"st %a1, __tmp_reg__"
"out __SREG__, %0"
: "=&r" (s)
: "e" (ptr)
);
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
}
Now every thing seems correct, but it isn’t really. The assembler code modifies the
variable, that ptr points to. The compiler will not recognize this and may keep its
value in any of the other registers. Not only does the compiler work with the wrong
value, but the assembler code does too. The C program may have modified the value
too, but the compiler didn’t update the memory location for optimization reasons. The
worst thing you can do in this case is:
{
uint8_t s;
asm volatile(
"in %0, __SREG__"
"cli"
"ld __tmp_reg__, %a1"
"inc __tmp_reg__"
"st %a1, __tmp_reg__"
"out __SREG__, %0"
: "=&r" (s)
: "e" (ptr)
: "memory"
);
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
"\n\t"
}
The special clobber "memory" informs the compiler that the assembler code may modify any memory location. It forces the compiler to update all variables for which the
contents are currently held in a register before executing the assembler code. And of
course, everything has to be reloaded again after this code.
In most situations, a much better solution would be to declare the pointer destination
itself volatile:
volatile uint8_t *ptr;
This way, the compiler expects the value pointed to by ptr to be changed and will
load it whenever used and store it whenever modified.
Situations in which you need clobbers are very rare. In most cases there will be better
ways. Clobbered registers will force the compiler to store their values before and reload
them after your assembler code. Avoiding clobbers gives the compiler more freedom
while optimizing your code.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.5
7.5
Assembler Macros
46
Assembler Macros
In order to reuse your assembler language parts, it is useful to define them as macros
and put them into include files. AVR Libc comes with a bunch of them, which could be
found in the directory avr/include. Using such include files may produce compiler
warnings, if they are used in modules, which are compiled in strict ANSI mode. To
avoid that, you can write __asm__ instead of asm and __volatile__ instead of
volatile. These are equivalent aliases.
Another problem with reused macros arises if you are using labels. In such
cases you may make use of the special pattern =, which is replaced by a unique
number on each asm statement.
The following code had been taken from
avr/include/iomacros.h:
#define loop_until_bit_is_clear(port,bit) \
__asm__ __volatile__ (
\
"L_%=: " "sbic %0, %1" "\n\t"
\
"rjmp L_%="
\
: /* no outputs */
: "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(port)),
"I" (bit)
)
When used for the first time, L_= may be translated to L_1404, the next usage might
create L_1405 or whatever. In any case, the labels became unique too.
Another option is to use Unix-assembler style numeric labels. They are explained in
How do I trace an assembler file in avr-gdb?. The above example would then look like:
#define loop_until_bit_is_clear(port,bit)
__asm__ __volatile__ (
"1: " "sbic %0, %1" "\n\t"
"rjmp 1b"
: /* no outputs */
: "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(port)),
"I" (bit)
)
7.6
C Stub Functions
Macro definitions will include the same assembler code whenever they are referenced.
This may not be acceptable for larger routines. In this case you may define a C stub
function, containing nothing other than your assembler code.
void delay(uint8_t ms)
{
uint16_t cnt;
asm volatile (
"\n"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.7
C Names Used in Assembler Code
47
"L_dl1%=:" "\n\t"
"mov %A0, %A2" "\n\t"
"mov %B0, %B2" "\n"
"L_dl2%=:" "\n\t"
"sbiw %A0, 1" "\n\t"
"brne L_dl2%=" "\n\t"
"dec %1" "\n\t"
"brne L_dl1%=" "\n\t"
: "=&w" (cnt)
: "r" (ms), "r" (delay_count)
);
}
The purpose of this function is to delay the program execution by a specified number
of milliseconds using a counting loop. The global 16 bit variable delay_count must
contain the CPU clock frequency in Hertz divided by 4000 and must have been set
before calling this routine for the first time. As described in the clobber section, the
routine uses a local variable to hold a temporary value.
Another use for a local variable is a return value. The following function returns a 16
bit value read from two successive port addresses.
uint16_t inw(uint8_t port)
{
uint16_t result;
asm volatile (
"in %A0,%1" "\n\t"
"in %B0,(%1) + 1"
: "=r" (result)
: "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(port))
);
return result;
}
Note:
inw() is supplied by avr-libc.
7.7
C Names Used in Assembler Code
By default AVR-GCC uses the same symbolic names of functions or variables in C and
assembler code. You can specify a different name for the assembler code by using a
special form of the asm statement:
unsigned long value asm("clock") = 3686400;
This statement instructs the compiler to use the symbol name clock rather than value.
This makes sense only for external or static variables, because local variables do not
have symbolic names in the assembler code. However, local variables may be held in
registers.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
7.8
Links
48
With AVR-GCC you can specify the use of a specific register:
void Count(void)
{
register unsigned char counter asm("r3");
... some code...
asm volatile("clr r3");
... more code...
}
The assembler instruction, "clr r3", will clear the variable counter. AVR-GCC will
not completely reserve the specified register. If the optimizer recognizes that the variable will not be referenced any longer, the register may be re-used. But the compiler
is not able to check wether this register usage conflicts with any predefined register. If
you reserve too many registers in this way, the compiler may even run out of registers
during code generation.
In order to change the name of a function, you need a prototype declaration, because
the compiler will not accept the asm keyword in the function definition:
extern long Calc(void) asm ("CALCULATE");
Calling the function Calc() will create assembler instructions to call the function
CALCULATE.
7.8
Links
For a more thorough discussion of inline assembly usage, see the gcc user
manual.
The latest version of the gcc manual is always available here:
http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/
8
8.1
How to Build a Library
Introduction
So you keep reusing the same functions that you created over and over? Tired of cut and
paste going from one project to the next? Would you like to reduce your maintenance
overhead? Then you’re ready to create your own library! Code reuse is a very laudable
goal. With some upfront investment, you can save time and energy on future projects
by having ready-to-go libraries. This chapter describes some background information,
design considerations, and practical knowledge that you will need to create and use
your own libraries.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
8.2
8.2
How the Linker Works
49
How the Linker Works
The compiler compiles a single high-level language file (C language, for example) into
a single object module file. The linker (ld) can only work with object modules to link
them together. Object modules are the smallest unit that the linker works with.
Typically, on the linker command line, you will specify a set of object modules (that
has been previously compiled) and then a list of libraries, including the Standard C
Library. The linker takes the set of object modules that you specify on the command
line and links them together. Afterwards there will probably be a set of "undefined
references". A reference is essentially a function call. An undefined reference is a
function call, with no defined function to match the call.
The linker will then go through the libraries, in order, to match the undefined references
with function definitions that are found in the libraries. If it finds the function that
matches the call, the linker will then link in the object module in which the function is
located. This part is important: the linker links in THE ENTIRE OBJECT MODULE in
which the function is located. Remember, the linker knows nothing about the functions
internal to an object module, other than symbol names (such as function names). The
smallest unit the linker works with is object modules.
When there are no more undefined references, the linker has linked everything and is
done and outputs the final application.
8.3
How to Design a Library
How the linker behaves is very important in designing a library. Ideally, you want to
design a library where only the functions that are called are the only functions to be
linked into the final application. This helps keep the code size to a minimum. In order
to do this, with the way the linker works, is to only write one function per code module.
This will compile to one function per object module. This is usually a very different
way of doing things than writing an application!
There are always exceptions to the rule. There are generally two cases where you
would want to have more than one function per object module.
The first is when you have very complementary functions that it doesn’t make much
sense to split them up. For example, malloc() and free(). If someone is going to use
malloc(), they will very likely be using free() (or at least should be using free()). In this
case, it makes more sense to aggregate those two functions in the same object module.
The second case is when you want to have an Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) in your
library that you want to link in. The problem in this case is that the linker looks for
unresolved references and tries to resolve them with code in libraries. A reference is
the same as a function call. But with ISRs, there is no function call to initiate the ISR.
The ISR is placed in the Interrupt Vector Table (IVT), hence no call, no reference,
and no linking in of the ISR. In order to do this, you have to trick the linker in a way.
Aggregate the ISR, with another function in the same object module, but have the other
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
8.4
Creating a Library
50
function be something that is required for the user to call in order to use the ISR, like
perhaps an initialization function for the subsystem, or perhaps a function that enables
the ISR in the first place.
8.4
Creating a Library
The librarian program is called ar (for "archiver") and is found in the GNU Binutils
project. This program will have been built for the AVR target and will therefore be
named avr-ar.
The job of the librarian program is simple: aggregate a list of object modules into a
single library (archive) and create an index for the linker to use. The name that you
create for the library filename must follow a specific pattern: libname.a. The name part
is the unique part of the filename that you create. It makes it easier if the name part
relates to what the library is about. This name part must be prefixed by "lib", and it
must have a file extension of .a, for "archive". The reason for the special form of the
filename is for how the library gets used by the toolchain, as we will see later on.
Note:
The filename is case-sensitive. Use a lowercase "lib" prefix, and a lowercase ".a"
as the file extension.
The command line is fairly simple:
avr-ar rcs <library name> <list of object modules>
The r command switch tells the program to insert the object modules into the archive
with replacement. The c command line switch tells the program to create the archive.
And the s command line switch tells the program to write an object-file index into the
archive, or update an existing one. This last switch is very important as it helps the
linker to find what it needs to do its job.
Note:
The command line switches are case sensitive! There are uppercase switches that
have completely different actions.
MFile and the WinAVR distribution contain a Makefile Template that includes the
necessary command lines to build a library. You will have to manually modify the
template to switch it over to build a library instead of an application.
See the GNU Binutils manual for more information on the ar program.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
8.5
8.5
Using a Library
51
Using a Library
To use a library, use the -l switch on your linker command line. The string immediately following the -l is the unique part of the library filename that the linker will link
in. For example, if you use:
-lm
this will expand to the library filename:
libm.a
which happens to be the math library included in avr-libc.
If you use this on your linker command line:
-lprintf_flt
then the linker will look for a library called:
libprintf_flt.a
This is why naming your library is so important when you create it!
The linker will search libraries in the order that they appear on the command line.
Whichever function is found first that matches the undefined reference, it will be linked
in.
There are also command line switches that tell GCC which directory to look in (-L)
for the libraries that are specified to be linke in with -l.
See the GNU Binutils manual for more information on the GNU linker (ld) program.
9
Benchmarks
The results below can only give a rough estimate of the resources necessary for using
certain library functions. There is a number of factors which can both increase or
reduce the effort required:
• Expenses for preparation of operands and their stack are not considered.
• In the table, the size includes all additional functions (for example, function to
multiply two integers) but they are only linked from the library.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
9.1
A few of libc functions.
52
• Expenses of time of performance of some functions essentially depend on parameters of a call, for example, qsort() is recursive, and sprintf() receives parameters
in a stack.
• Different versions of the compiler can give a significant difference in code size
and execution time. For example, the dtostre() function, compiled with avr-gcc
3.4.6, requires 930 bytes. After transition to avr-gcc 4.2.3, the size become 1088
bytes.
9.1
A few of libc functions.
Avr-gcc version is 4.2.3
The size of function is given in view of all picked up functions. By default Avr-libc
is compiled with -mcall-prologues option. In brackets the size without taking
into account modules of a prologue and an epilogue is resulted. Both of the size can
coincide, if function does not cause a prologue/epilogue.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
9.1
A few of libc functions.
Function
atoi ("12345")
atol ("12345")
dtostre (1.2345,
s, 6, 0)
dtostrf (1.2345,
15, 6, s)
itoa (12345, s,
10)
ltoa (12345L, s,
10)
malloc (1)
realloc ((void
∗)0, 1)
qsort (s,
sizeof(s), 1, cmp)
sprintf_min (s,
"%d", 12345)
sprintf (s, "%d",
12345)
sprintf_flt (s,
"%e", 1.2345)
sscanf_min
("12345", "%d",
&i)
sscanf ("12345",
"%d", &i)
sscanf
("point,color",
"%[a-z]", s)
sscanf_flt
("1.2345", "%e",
&x)
strtod ("1.2345",
&p)
strtol ("12345",
&p, 0)
Units
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
Flash bytes
Stack bytes
MCU clocks
53
Avr2
82 (82)
2
155
122 (122)
2
221
1184 (1072)
17
1313
1676 (1564)
36
1608
150 (150)
4
1172
220 (220)
9
3174
554 (554)
4
196
1152 (1040)
20
303
1242 (1130)
38
20914
1216 (1104)
59
1846
1674 (1562)
58
1610
3334 (3222)
66
2513
1540 (1428)
55
1339
1950 (1838)
53
1334
1950 (1838)
87
2878
3298 (3186)
63
2187
1570 (1458)
22
1237
942 (830)
29
1074
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
Avr25
78 (78)
118 (118)
1088 (978)
1548 (1438)
134 (134)
200 (200)
506 (506)
1042 (932)
990 (880)
1090 (980)
1542 (1432)
3084 (2974)
1354 (1244)
1704 (1594)
1704 (1594)
2934 (2824)
1472 (1362)
874 (764)
Avr4
74 (74)
2
149
118 (118)
2
219
1088 (978)
17
1152
1548 (1438)
36
1443
134 (134)
4
1152
200 (200)
9
3136
506 (506)
4
178
1042 (932)
20
280
1008 (898)
38
16678
1086 (976)
59
1711
1498 (1388)
58
1528
3040 (2930)
66
2297
1354 (1244)
55
1240
1704 (1594)
53
1235
1704 (1594)
87
2718
2918 (2808)
63
1833
1456 (1346)
22
971
808 (698)
21
722
9.2
9.2
Math functions.
54
Math functions.
The table contains the number of MCU clocks to calculate a function with a given
argument(s). The main reason of a big difference between Avr2 and Avr4 is a hardware
multiplication.
Function
__addsf3 (1.234, 5.678)
__mulsf3 (1.234, 5.678)
__divsf3 (1.234, 5.678)
acos (0.54321)
asin (0.54321)
atan (0.54321)
atan2 (1.234, 5.678)
ceil (1.2345)
cos (1.2345)
cosh (1.2345)
exp (1.2345)
fdim (5.678, 1.234)
floor (1.2345)
fmax (1.234, 5.678)
fmin (1.234, 5.678)
fmod (5.678, 1.234)
frexp (1.2345, 0)
hypot (1.234, 5.678)
ldexp (1.2345, 6)
log (1.2345)
log10 (1.2345)
modf (1.2345, 0)
pow (1.234, 5.678)
round (1.2345)
sin (1.2345)
sinh (1.2345)
sqrt (1.2345)
tan (1.2345)
tanh (1.2345)
trunc (1.2345)
Avr2
113
375
466
4411
4517
4710
5270
177
3387
4922
4708
111
180
39
35
131
42
1341
42
4142
4498
433
9293
150
3353
4946
494
4381
5126
178
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
Avr4
108
138
465
2455
2556
2271
2857
177
1671
2979
2765
111
180
37
35
131
41
866
42
2134
2260
429
5047
150
1653
3003
492
2426
3173
178
10 Porting From IAR to AVR GCC
10
55
Porting From IAR to AVR GCC
10.1
Introduction
C language was designed to be a portable language. There two main types of porting activities: porting an application to a different platform (OS and/or processor),
and porting to a different compiler. Porting to a different compiler can be exacerbated
when the application is an embedded system. For example, the C language Standard,
strangely, does not specify a standard for declaring and defining Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). Different compilers have different ways of defining registers, some of
which use non-standard language constructs.
This chapter describes some methods and pointers on porting an AVR application built
with the IAR compiler to the GNU toolchain (AVR GCC). Note that this may not be
an exhaustive list.
10.2
Registers
IO header files contain identifiers for all the register names and bit names for a particular processor. IAR has individual header files for each processor and they must be
included when registers are being used in the code. For example:
#include <iom169.h>
Note:
IAR does not always use the same register names or bit names that are used in the
AVR datasheet.
AVR GCC also has individual IO header files for each processor. However, the actual processor type is specified as a command line flag to the compiler. (Using the
-mmcu=processor flag.) This is usually done in the Makefile. This allows you to
specify only a single header file for any processor type:
#include <avr/io.h>
Note:
The forward slash in the <avr/io.h> file name that is used to separate subdirectories can be used on Windows distributions of the toolchain and is the recommended
method of including this file.
The compiler knows the processor type and through the single header file above, it can
pull in and include the correct individual IO header file. This has the advantage that you
only have to specify one generic header file, and you can easily port your application
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
10.3
Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs)
56
to another processor type without having to change every file to include the new IO
header file.
The AVR toolchain tries to adhere to the exact names of the registers and names of
the bits found in the AVR datasheet. There may be some descrepencies between the
register names found in the IAR IO header files and the AVR GCC IO header files.
10.3
Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs)
As mentioned above, the C language Standard, strangely, does not specify a standard
way of declaring and defining an ISR. Hence, every compiler seems to have their own
special way of doing so.
IAR declares an ISR like so:
#pragma vector=TIMER0_OVF_vect
__interrupt void MotorPWMBottom()
{
// code
}
In AVR GCC, you declare an ISR like so:
ISR(PCINT1_vect)
{
//code
}
AVR GCC uses the ISR macro to define an ISR. This macro requries the header file:
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
The names of the various interrupt vectors are found in the individual processor IO
header files that you must include with <avr/io.h>.
Note:
The names of the interrupt vectors in AVR GCC has been changed to match the
names of the vectors in IAR. This significantly helps in porting applications from
IAR to AVR GCC.
10.4
Intrinsic Routines
IAR has a number of intrinsic routine such as
__enable_interrupts() __disable_interrupts() __watchdog_reset()
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
10.5
Flash Variables
57
These intrinsic functions compile to specific AVR opcodes (SEI, CLI, WDR).
There are equivalent macros that are used in AVR GCC, however they are not located
in a single include file.
AVR GCC has sei() for __enable_interrupts(), and cli()
for __disable_interrupts().
Both of these macros are located in
<avr/interrupts.h>.
AVR GCC has the macro wdt_reset() in place of __watchdog_reset().
However, there is a whole Watchdog Timer API available in AVR GCC that can be
found in <avr/wdt.h>.
10.5
Flash Variables
The C language was not designed for Harvard architecture processors with separate
memory spaces. This means that there are various non-standard ways to define a variable whose data resides in the Program Memory (Flash).
IAR uses a non-standard keyword to declare a variable in Program Memory:
__flash int mydata[] = ....
AVR GCC uses Variable Attributes to achieve the same effect:
int mydata[] __attribute__((progmem))
Note:
See the GCC User Manual for more information about Variable Attributes.
avr-libc provides a convenience macro for the Variable Attribute:
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
.
.
.
int mydata[] PROGMEM = ....
Note:
The PROGMEM macro expands to the Variable Attribute of progmem. This
macro requires that you include <avr/pgmspace.h>. This is the canonical
method for defining a variable in Program Space.
To read back flash data, use the pgm_read_∗() macros defined in
<avr/pgmspace.h>.
All Program Memory handling macros are defined
there.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
10.6
Non-Returning main()
58
There is also a way to create a method to define variables in Program Memory that is
common between the two compilers (IAR and AVR GCC). Create a header file that has
these definitions:
#if defined(__ICCAVR__) // IAR C Compiler
#define FLASH_DECLARE(x) __flash x
#endif
#if defined(__GNUC__) // GNU Compiler
#define FLASH_DECLARE(x) x __attribute__((__progmem__))
#endif
This code snippet checks for the IAR compiler or for the GCC compiler and defines a
macro FLASH_DECLARE(x) that will declare a variable in Program Memory using
the appropriate method based on the compiler that is being used. Then you would used
it like so:
FLASH_DECLARE(int mydata[] = ...);
10.6
Non-Returning main()
To declare main() to be a non-returning function in IAR, it is done like this:
__C_task void main(void)
{
// code
}
To do the equivalent in AVR GCC, do this:
void main(void) __attribute__((noreturn));
void main(void)
{
//...
}
Note:
See the GCC User Manual for more information on Function Attributes.
In AVR GCC, a prototype for main() is required so you can declare the function attribute to specify that the main() function is of type "noreturn". Then, define main() as
normal. Note that the return type for main() is now void.
10.7
Locking Registers
The IAR compiler allows a user to lock general registers from r15 and down by using
compiler options and this keyword syntax:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11 Frequently Asked Questions
59
__regvar __no_init volatile unsigned int filteredTimeSinceCommutation @14;
This line locks r14 for use only when explicitly referenced in your code thorugh the var
name "filteredTimeSinceCommutation". This means that the compiler cannot dispose
of it at its own will.
To do this in AVR GCC, do this:
register unsigned char counter asm("r3");
Typically, it should be possible to use r2 through r15 that way.
Note:
Do not reserve r0 or r1 as these are used internally by the compiler for a temporary
register and for a zero value.
Locking registers is not recommended in AVR GCC as it removes this register
from the control of the compiler, which may make code generation worse. Use at
your own risk.
11
11.1
Frequently Asked Questions
FAQ Index
1. My program doesn’t recognize a variable updated within an interrupt routine
2. I get "undefined reference to..." for functions like "sin()"
3. How to permanently bind a variable to a register?
4. How to modify MCUCR or WDTCR early?
5. What is all this _BV() stuff about?
6. Can I use C++ on the AVR?
7. Shouldn’t I initialize all my variables?
8. Why do some 16-bit timer registers sometimes get trashed?
9. How do I use a #define’d constant in an asm statement?
10. Why does the PC randomly jump around when single-stepping through my program in avr-gdb?
11. How do I trace an assembler file in avr-gdb?
12. How do I pass an IO port as a parameter to a function?
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.1
FAQ Index
60
13. What registers are used by the C compiler?
14. How do I put an array of strings completely in ROM?
15. How to use external RAM?
16. Which -O flag to use?
17. How do I relocate code to a fixed address?
18. My UART is generating nonsense! My ATmega128 keeps crashing! Port F is
completely broken!
19. Why do all my "foo...bar" strings eat up the SRAM?
20. Why does the compiler compile an 8-bit operation that uses bitwise operators
into a 16-bit operation in assembly?
21. How to detect RAM memory and variable overlap problems?
22. Is it really impossible to program the ATtinyXX in C?
23. What is this "clock skew detected" message?
24. Why are (many) interrupt flags cleared by writing a logical 1?
25. Why have "programmed" fuses the bit value 0?
26. Which AVR-specific assembler operators are available?
27. Why are interrupts re-enabled in the middle of writing the stack pointer?
28. Why are there five different linker scripts?
29. How to add a raw binary image to linker output?
30. How do I perform a software reset of the AVR?
31. I am using floating point math. Why is the compiled code so big? Why does my
code not work?
32. What pitfalls exist when writing reentrant code?
33. Why are some addresses of the EEPROM corrupted (usually address zero)?
34. Why is my baud rate wrong?
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.2 My program doesn’t recognize a variable updated within an interrupt
routine
61
11.2
My program doesn’t recognize a variable updated within an
interrupt routine
When using the optimizer, in a loop like the following one:
uint8_t flag;
...
ISR(SOME_vect) {
flag = 1;
}
...
while (flag == 0) {
...
}
the compiler will typically access flag only once, and optimize further accesses completely away, since its code path analysis shows that nothing inside the loop could
change the value of flag anyway. To tell the compiler that this variable could be
changed outside the scope of its code path analysis (e. g. from within an interrupt
routine), the variable needs to be declared like:
volatile uint8_t flag;
Back to FAQ Index.
11.3
I get "undefined reference to..." for functions like "sin()"
In order to access the mathematical functions that are declared in <math.h>, the
linker needs to be told to also link the mathematical library, libm.a.
Typically, system libraries like libm.a are given to the final C compiler command
line that performs the linking step by adding a flag -lm at the end. (That is, the initial
lib and the filename suffix from the library are written immediately after a -l flag. So
for a libfoo.a library, -lfoo needs to be provided.) This will make the linker
search the library in a path known to the system.
An alternative would be to specify the full path to the libm.a file at the same place
on the command line, i. e. after all the object files (∗.o). However, since this requires knowledge of where the build system will exactly find those library files, this is
deprecated for system libraries.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.4
How to permanently bind a variable to a register?
This can be done with
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.5
How to modify MCUCR or WDTCR early?
62
register unsigned char counter asm("r3");
Typically, it should be safe to use r2 through r7 that way.
Registers r8 through r15 can be used for argument passing by the compiler in case
many or long arguments are being passed to callees. If this is not the case throughout
the entire application, these registers could be used for register variables as well.
Extreme care should be taken that the entire application is compiled with a consistent
set of register-allocated variables, including possibly used library functions.
See C Names Used in Assembler Code for more details.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.5
How to modify MCUCR or WDTCR early?
The method of early initialization (MCUCR, WDTCR or anything else) is different (and
more flexible) in the current version. Basically, write a small assembler file which
looks like this:
;; begin xram.S
#include <avr/io.h>
.section .init1,"ax",@progbits
ldi r16,_BV(SRE) | _BV(SRW)
out _SFR_IO_ADDR(MCUCR),r16
;; end xram.S
Assemble it, link the resulting xram.o with other files in your program, and this piece
of code will be inserted in initialization code, which is run right after reset. See the
linker script for comments about the new .initN sections (which one to use, etc.).
The advantage of this method is that you can insert any initialization code you want
(just remember that this is very early startup – no stack and no __zero_reg__ yet),
and no program memory space is wasted if this feature is not used.
There should be no need to modify linker scripts anymore, except for some very special cases. It is best to leave __stack at its default value (end of internal SRAM
– faster, and required on some devices like ATmega161 because of errata), and add
-Wl,-Tdata,0x801100 to start the data section above the stack.
For more information on using sections, see Memory Sections. There is also an example for Using Sections in C Code. Note that in C code, any such function would
preferably be placed into section .init3 as the code in .init2 ensures the internal register
__zero_reg__ is already cleared.
Back to FAQ Index.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.6
11.6
What is all this _BV() stuff about?
63
What is all this _BV() stuff about?
When performing low-level output work, which is a very central point in microcontroller programming, it is quite common that a particular bit needs to be set or cleared
in some IO register. While the device documentation provides mnemonic names for
the various bits in the IO registers, and the AVR device-specific IO definitions reflect
these names in definitions for numerical constants, a way is needed to convert a bit
number (usually within a byte register) into a byte value that can be assigned directly
to the register. However, sometimes the direct bit numbers are needed as well (e. g. in
an SBI() instruction), so the definitions cannot usefully be made as byte values in the
first place.
So in order to access a particular bit number as a byte value, use the _BV() macro.
Of course, the implementation of this macro is just the usual bit shift (which is done
by the compiler anyway, thus doesn’t impose any run-time penalty), so the following
applies:
_BV(3) => 1 << 3 => 0x08
However, using the macro often makes the program better readable.
"BV" stands for "bit value", in case someone might ask you. :-)
Example: clock timer 2 with full IO clock (CS2x = 0b001), toggle OC2 output on
compare match (COM2x = 0b01), and clear timer on compare match (CTC2 = 1). Make
OC2 (PD7) an output.
TCCR2 = _BV(COM20)|_BV(CTC2)|_BV(CS20);
DDRD = _BV(PD7);
Back to FAQ Index.
11.7
Can I use C++ on the AVR?
Basically yes, C++ is supported (assuming your compiler has been configured and
compiled to support it, of course). Source files ending in .cc, .cpp or .C will automatically cause the compiler frontend to invoke the C++ compiler. Alternatively, the C++
compiler could be explicitly called by the name avr-c++.
However, there’s currently no support for libstdc++, the standard support library
needed for a complete C++ implementation. This imposes a number of restrictions on
the C++ programs that can be compiled. Among them are:
• Obviously, none of the C++ related standard functions, classes, and template
classes are available.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.8
Shouldn’t I initialize all my variables?
64
• The operators new and delete are not implemented, attempting to use them
will cause the linker to complain about undefined external references. (This
could perhaps be fixed.)
• Some of the supplied include files are not C++ safe, i. e. they need to be wrapped
into
extern "C" { . . . }
(This could certainly be fixed, too.)
• Exceptions are not supported. Since exceptions are enabled by default in the
C++ frontend, they explicitly need to be turned off using -fno-exceptions
in the compiler options. Failing this, the linker will complain about an undefined
external reference to __gxx_personality_sj0.
Constructors and destructors are supported though, including global ones.
When programming C++ in space- and runtime-sensitive environments like microcontrollers, extra care should be taken to avoid unwanted side effects of the C++ calling
conventions like implied copy constructors that could be called upon function invocation etc. These things could easily add up into a considerable amount of time and
program memory wasted. Thus, casual inspection of the generated assembler code
(using the -S compiler option) seems to be warranted.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.8
Shouldn’t I initialize all my variables?
Global and static variables are guaranteed to be initialized to 0 by the C standard.
avr-gcc does this by placing the appropriate code into section .init4 (see The .initN
Sections). With respect to the standard, this sentence is somewhat simplified (because
the standard allows for machines where the actual bit pattern used differs from all bits
being 0), but for the AVR target, in general, all integer-type variables are set to 0, all
pointers to a NULL pointer, and all floating-point variables to 0.0.
As long as these variables are not initialized (i. e. they don’t have an equal sign and
an initialization expression to the right within the definition of the variable), they go
into the .bss section of the file. This section simply records the size of the variable,
but otherwise doesn’t consume space, neither within the object file nor within flash
memory. (Of course, being a variable, it will consume space in the target’s SRAM.)
In contrast, global and static variables that have an initializer go into the .data section
of the file. This will cause them to consume space in the object file (in order to record
the initializing value), and in the flash ROM of the target device. The latter is needed
since the flash ROM is the only way that the compiler can tell the target device the
value this variable is going to be initialized to.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.9
Why do some 16-bit timer registers sometimes get trashed?
65
Now if some programmer "wants to make doubly sure" their variables really get a 0
at program startup, and adds an initializer just containing 0 on the right-hand side,
they waste space. While this waste of space applies to virtually any platform C is
implemented on, it’s usually not noticeable on larger machines like PCs, while the
waste of flash ROM storage can be very painful on a small microcontroller like the
AVR.
So in general, variables should only be explicitly initialized if the initial value is nonzero.
Note:
Recent versions of GCC are now smart enough to detect this situation, and revert
variables that are explicitly initialized to 0 to the .bss section. Still, other compilers
might not do that optimization, and as the C standard guarantees the initialization,
it is safe to rely on it.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.9
Why do some 16-bit timer registers sometimes get trashed?
Some of the timer-related 16-bit IO registers use a temporary register (called TEMP in
the Atmel datasheet) to guarantee an atomic access to the register despite the fact that
two separate 8-bit IO transfers are required to actually move the data. Typically, this
includes access to the current timer/counter value register (TCNTn), the input capture
register (ICRn), and write access to the output compare registers (OCRnM). Refer to
the actual datasheet for each device’s set of registers that involves the TEMP register.
When accessing one of the registers that use TEMP from the main application, and
possibly any other one from within an interrupt routine, care must be taken that no
access from within an interrupt context could clobber the TEMP register data of an
in-progress transaction that has just started elsewhere.
To protect interrupt routines against other interrupt routines, it’s usually best to use the
ISR() macro when declaring the interrupt function, and to ensure that interrupts are still
disabled when accessing those 16-bit timer registers.
Within the main program, access to those registers could be encapsulated in calls to the
cli() and sei() macros. If the status of the global interrupt flag before accessing one of
those registers is uncertain, something like the following example code can be used.
uint16_t
read_timer1(void)
{
uint8_t sreg;
uint16_t val;
sreg = SREG;
cli();
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.10
How do I use a #define’d constant in an asm statement?
66
val = TCNT1;
SREG = sreg;
return val;
}
Back to FAQ Index.
11.10
How do I use a #define’d constant in an asm statement?
So you tried this:
asm volatile("sbi 0x18,0x07;");
Which works. When you do the same thing but replace the address of the port by its
macro name, like this:
asm volatile("sbi PORTB,0x07;");
you get a compilation error: "Error:
constant value required".
PORTB is a precompiler definition included in the processor specific file included in
avr/io.h. As you may know, the precompiler will not touch strings and PORTB,
instead of 0x18, gets passed to the assembler. One way to avoid this problem is:
asm volatile("sbi %0, 0x07" : "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(PORTB)):);
Note:
For C programs, rather use the standard C bit operators instead, so the above would
be expressed as PORTB |= (1 << 7). The optimizer will take care to transform this into a single SBI instruction, assuming the operands allow for this.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.11
Why does the PC randomly jump around when singlestepping through my program in avr-gdb?
When compiling a program with both optimization (-O) and debug information (-g)
which is fortunately possible in avr-gcc, the code watched in the debugger is optimized code. While it is not guaranteed, very often this code runs with the exact same
optimizations as it would run without the -g switch.
This can have unwanted side effects. Since the compiler is free to reorder code execution as long as the semantics do not change, code is often rearranged in order to
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.12
How do I trace an assembler file in avr-gdb?
67
make it possible to use a single branch instruction for conditional operations. Branch
instructions can only cover a short range for the target PC (-63 through +64 words from
the current PC). If a branch instruction cannot be used directly, the compiler needs to
work around it by combining a skip instruction together with a relative jump (rjmp)
instruction, which will need one additional word of ROM.
Another side effect of optimization is that variable usage is restricted to the area of code
where it is actually used. So if a variable was placed in a register at the beginning of
some function, this same register can be re-used later on if the compiler notices that the
first variable is no longer used inside that function, even though the variable is still in
lexical scope. When trying to examine the variable in avr-gdb, the displayed result
will then look garbled.
So in order to avoid these side effects, optimization can be turned off while debugging.
However, some of these optimizations might also have the side effect of uncovering
bugs that would otherwise not be obvious, so it must be noted that turning off optimization can easily change the bug pattern. In most cases, you are better off leaving
optimizations enabled while debugging.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.12
How do I trace an assembler file in avr-gdb?
When using the -g compiler option, avr-gcc only generates line number and other
debug information for C (and C++) files that pass the compiler. Functions that don’t
have line number information will be completely skipped by a single step command
in gdb. This includes functions linked from a standard library, but by default also
functions defined in an assembler source file, since the -g compiler switch does not
apply to the assembler.
So in order to debug an assembler input file (possibly one that has to be passed through
the C preprocessor), it’s the assembler that needs to be told to include line-number
information into the output file. (Other debug information like data types and variable
allocation cannot be generated, since unlike a compiler, the assembler basically doesn’t
know about this.) This is done using the (GNU) assembler option -gstabs.
Example:
$ avr-as -mmcu=atmega128 --gstabs -o foo.o foo.s
When the assembler is not called directly but through the C compiler frontend
(either implicitly by passing a source file ending in .S, or explicitly using -x
assembler-with-cpp), the compiler frontend needs to be told to pass the
-gstabs option down to the assembler. This is done using -Wa,-gstabs. Please
take care to only pass this option when compiling an assembler input file. Otherwise,
the assembler code that results from the C compilation stage will also get line number
information, which confuses the debugger.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.13
How do I pass an IO port as a parameter to a function?
68
Note:
You can also use -Wa,-gstabs since the compiler will add the extra ’-’ for
you.
Example:
$ EXTRA_OPTS="-Wall -mmcu=atmega128 -x assembler-with-cpp"
$ avr-gcc -Wa,--gstabs ${EXTRA_OPTS} -c -o foo.o foo.S
Also note that the debugger might get confused when entering a piece of code that has
a non-local label before, since it then takes this label as the name of a new function that
appears to have been entered. Thus, the best practice to avoid this confusion is to only
use non-local labels when declaring a new function, and restrict anything else to local
labels. Local labels consist just of a number only. References to these labels consist
of the number, followed by the letter b for a backward reference, or f for a forward
reference. These local labels may be re-used within the source file, references will pick
the closest label with the same number and given direction.
Example:
myfunc: push
push
push
push
push
...
eor
ldi
ldi
rjmp
1:
ld
...
breq
...
inc
2:
cmp
brlo
r16
r17
r18
YL
YH
1:
YH
YL
r18
r17
r16
pop
pop
pop
pop
pop
ret
r16, r16
; start loop
YL, lo8(sometable)
YH, hi8(sometable)
2f
; jump to loop test at end
r17, Y+
; loop continues here
1f
; return from myfunc prematurely
r16
r16, r18
1b
; jump back to top of loop
Back to FAQ Index.
11.13
How do I pass an IO port as a parameter to a function?
Consider this example code:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.13
How do I pass an IO port as a parameter to a function?
69
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
void
set_bits_func_wrong (volatile uint8_t port, uint8_t mask)
{
port |= mask;
}
void
set_bits_func_correct (volatile uint8_t *port, uint8_t mask)
{
*port |= mask;
}
#define set_bits_macro(port,mask) ((port) |= (mask))
int main (void)
{
set_bits_func_wrong (PORTB, 0xaa);
set_bits_func_correct (&PORTB, 0x55);
set_bits_macro (PORTB, 0xf0);
return (0);
}
The first function will generate object code which is not even close to what is intended.
The major problem arises when the function is called. When the compiler sees this call,
it will actually pass the value of the PORTB register (using an IN instruction), instead
of passing the address of PORTB (e.g. memory mapped io addr of 0x38, io port 0x18
for the mega128). This is seen clearly when looking at the disassembly of the call:
set_bits_func_wrong
10a:
6a ea
10c:
88 b3
10e:
0e 94 65 00
(PORTB,
ldi
in
call
0xaa);
r22, 0xAA
r24, 0x18
0xca
; 170
; 24
So, the function, once called, only sees the value of the port register and knows nothing
about which port it came from. At this point, whatever object code is generated for
the function by the compiler is irrelevant. The interested reader can examine the full
disassembly to see that the function’s body is completely fubar.
The second function shows how to pass (by reference) the memory mapped address of
the io port to the function so that you can read and write to it in the function. Here’s
the object code generated for the function call:
set_bits_func_correct (&PORTB, 0x55);
112:
65 e5
ldi
r22, 0x55
114:
88 e3
ldi
r24, 0x38
116:
90 e0
ldi
r25, 0x00
118:
0e 94 7c 00
call
0xf8
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
; 85
; 56
; 0
11.13
How do I pass an IO port as a parameter to a function?
70
You can clearly see that 0x0038 is correctly passed for the address of the io port.
Looking at the disassembled object code for the body of the function, we can see that
the function is indeed performing the operation we intended:
void
set_bits_func_correct (volatile uint8_t *port, uint8_t mask)
{
f8:
fc 01
movw
r30, r24
*port |= mask;
fa:
80 81
ld
r24, Z
fc:
86 2b
or
r24, r22
fe:
80 83
st
Z, r24
}
100:
08 95
ret
Notice that we are accessing the io port via the LD and ST instructions.
The port parameter must be volatile to avoid a compiler warning.
Note:
Because of the nature of the IN and OUT assembly instructions, they can not be
used inside the function when passing the port in this way. Readers interested in
the details should consult the Instruction Set datasheet.
Finally we come to the macro version of the operation. In this contrived example, the
macro is the most efficient method with respect to both execution speed and code size:
set_bits_macro (PORTB, 0xf0);
11c:
88 b3
in
r24, 0x18
11e:
80 6f
ori
r24, 0xF0
120:
88 bb
out
0x18, r24
; 24
; 240
; 24
Of course, in a real application, you might be doing a lot more in your function which
uses a passed by reference io port address and thus the use of a function over a macro
could save you some code space, but still at a cost of execution speed.
Care should be taken when such an indirect port access is going to one of the 16-bit
IO registers where the order of write access is critical (like some timer registers). All
versions of avr-gcc up to 3.3 will generate instructions that use the wrong access order
in this situation (since with normal memory operands where the order doesn’t matter,
this sometimes yields shorter code).
See http://mail.nongnu.org/archive/html/avr-libc-dev/2003-01/msg00044.html
for a possible workaround.
avr-gcc versions after 3.3 have been fixed in a way where this optimization will be
disabled if the respective pointer variable is declared to be volatile, so the correct
behaviour for 16-bit IO ports can be forced that way.
Back to FAQ Index.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.14
What registers are used by the C compiler?
11.14
71
What registers are used by the C compiler?
• Data types:
char is 8 bits, int is 16 bits, long is 32 bits, long long is 64 bits, float and
double are 32 bits (this is the only supported floating point format), pointers
are 16 bits (function pointers are word addresses, to allow addressing up to 128K
program memory space). There is a -mint8 option (see Options for the C
compiler avr-gcc) to make int 8 bits, but that is not supported by avr-libc and
violates C standards (int must be at least 16 bits). It may be removed in a future
release.
• Call-used registers (r18-r27, r30-r31):
May be allocated by gcc for local data. You may use them freely in assembler
subroutines. Calling C subroutines can clobber any of them - the caller is responsible for saving and restoring.
• Call-saved registers (r2-r17, r28-r29):
May be allocated by gcc for local data. Calling C subroutines leaves them unchanged. Assembler subroutines are responsible for saving and restoring these
registers, if changed. r29:r28 (Y pointer) is used as a frame pointer (points to
local data on stack) if necessary. The requirement for the callee to save/preserve
the contents of these registers even applies in situations where the compiler assigns them for argument passing.
• Fixed registers (r0, r1):
Never allocated by gcc for local data, but often used for fixed purposes:
r0 - temporary register, can be clobbered by any C code (except interrupt handlers
which save it), may be used to remember something for a while within one piece of
assembler code
r1 - assumed to be always zero in any C code, may be used to remember something for
a while within one piece of assembler code, but must then be cleared after use (clr
r1). This includes any use of the [f]mul[s[u]] instructions, which return their
result in r1:r0. Interrupt handlers save and clear r1 on entry, and restore r1 on exit (in
case it was non-zero).
• Function call conventions:
Arguments - allocated left to right, r25 to r8. All arguments are aligned to start in
even-numbered registers (odd-sized arguments, including char, have one free
register above them). This allows making better use of the movw instruction on
the enhanced core.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.15
How do I put an array of strings completely in ROM?
72
If too many, those that don’t fit are passed on the stack.
Return values: 8-bit in r24 (not r25!), 16-bit in r25:r24, up to 32 bits in r22-r25, up to
64 bits in r18-r25. 8-bit return values are zero/sign-extended to 16 bits by the called
function (unsigned char is more efficient than signed char - just clr r25).
Arguments to functions with variable argument lists (printf etc.) are all passed on stack,
and char is extended to int.
Warning:
There was no such alignment before 2000-07-01, including the old patches for
gcc-2.95.2. Check your old assembler subroutines, and adjust them accordingly.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.15
How do I put an array of strings completely in ROM?
There are times when you may need an array of strings which will never be modified.
In this case, you don’t want to waste ram storing the constant strings. The most obvious
(and incorrect) thing to do is this:
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
PGM_P array[2] PROGMEM = {
"Foo",
"Bar"
};
int main (void)
{
char buf[32];
strcpy_P (buf, array[1]);
return 0;
}
The result is not what you want though. What you end up with is the array stored in
ROM, while the individual strings end up in RAM (in the .data section).
To work around this, you need to do something like this:
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
const char foo[] PROGMEM = "Foo";
const char bar[] PROGMEM = "Bar";
PGM_P array[2] PROGMEM = {
foo,
bar
};
int main (void)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.15
How do I put an array of strings completely in ROM?
73
{
char buf[32];
PGM_P p;
int i;
memcpy_P(&p, &array[i], sizeof(PGM_P));
strcpy_P(buf, p);
return 0;
}
Looking at the disassembly of the resulting object file we see that array is in flash as
such:
00000026 <array>:
26:
2e 00
28:
2a 00
.word
.word
0x002e
0x002a
; ????
; ????
0000002a <bar>:
2a:
42 61 72 00
Bar.
0000002e <foo>:
2e:
46 6f 6f 00
Foo.
foo is at addr 0x002e.
bar is at addr 0x002a.
array is at addr 0x0026.
Then in main we see this:
memcpy_P(&p, &array[i], sizeof(PGM_P));
70:
66 0f
add
r22, r22
72:
77 1f
adc
r23, r23
74:
6a 5d
subi
r22, 0xDA
76:
7f 4f
sbci
r23, 0xFF
78:
42 e0
ldi
r20, 0x02
7a:
50 e0
ldi
r21, 0x00
7c:
ce 01
movw
r24, r28
7e:
81 96
adiw
r24, 0x21
80:
08 d0
rcall
.+16
;
;
;
;
218
255
2
0
; 33
; 0x92
This code reads the pointer to the desired string from the ROM table array into a
register pair.
The value of i (in r22:r23) is doubled to accommodate for the word offset required to
access array[], then the address of array (0x26) is added, by subtracting the negated
address (0xffda). The address of variable p is computed by adding its offset within the
stack frame (33) to the Y pointer register, and memcpy_P is called.
strcpy_P(buf, p);
82:
69 a1
84:
7a a1
ldd
ldd
r22, Y+33
r23, Y+34
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
; 0x21
; 0x22
11.16
86:
88:
8a:
How to use external RAM?
ce 01
01 96
0c d0
movw
adiw
rcall
74
r24, r28
r24, 0x01
.+24
; 1
; 0xa4
This will finally copy the ROM string into the local buffer buf.
Variable p (located at Y+33) is read, and passed together with the address of buf (Y+1)
to strcpy_P. This will copy the string from ROM to buf.
Note that when using a compile-time constant index, omitting the first step (reading
the pointer from ROM via memcpy_P) usually remains unnoticed, since the compiler
would then optimize the code for accessing array at compile-time.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.16
How to use external RAM?
Well, there is no universal answer to this question; it depends on what the external
RAM is going to be used for.
Basically, the bit SRE (SRAM enable) in the MCUCR register needs to be set in order
to enable the external memory interface. Depending on the device to be used, and
the application details, further registers affecting the external memory operation like
XMCRA and XMCRB, and/or further bits in MCUCR might be configured. Refer to the
datasheet for details.
If the external RAM is going to be used to store the variables from the C program
(i. e., the .data and/or .bss segment) in that memory area, it is essential to set up the
external memory interface early during the device initialization so the initialization of
these variable will take place. Refer to How to modify MCUCR or WDTCR early? for
a description how to do this using few lines of assembler code, or to the chapter about
memory sections for an example written in C.
The explanation of malloc() contains a discussion about the use of internal RAM vs.
external RAM in particular with respect to the various possible locations of the heap
(area reserved for malloc()). It also explains the linker command-line options that are
required to move the memory regions away from their respective standard locations in
internal RAM.
Finally, if the application simply wants to use the additional RAM for private data
storage kept outside the domain of the C compiler (e. g. through a char ∗ variable
initialized directly to a particular address), it would be sufficient to defer the initialization of the external RAM interface to the beginning of main(), so no tweaking of the
.init3 section is necessary. The same applies if only the heap is going to be located
there, since the application start-up code does not affect the heap.
It is not recommended to locate the stack in external RAM. In general, accessing external RAM is slower than internal RAM, and errata of some AVR devices even prevent
this configuration from working properly at all.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.17
Which -O flag to use?
75
Back to FAQ Index.
11.17
Which -O flag to use?
There’s a common misconception that larger numbers behind the -O option might automatically cause "better" optimization. First, there’s no universal definition for "better",
with optimization often being a speed vs. code size trade off. See the detailed discussion for which option affects which part of the code generation.
A test case was run on an ATmega128 to judge the effect of compiling the library itself
using different optimization levels. The following table lists the results. The test case
consisted of around 2 KB of strings to sort. Test #1 used qsort() using the standard
library strcmp(), test #2 used a function that sorted the strings by their size (thus had
two calls to strlen() per invocation).
When comparing the resulting code size, it should be noted that a floating point version
of fvprintf() was linked into the binary (in order to print out the time elapsed) which
is entirely not affected by the different optimization levels, and added about 2.5 KB to
the code.
Optimization
flags
-O3
-O2
-Os
-Os
-mcall-prologues
Size of .text
Time for test #1
Time for test #2
6898
6666
6618
6474
903 µs
972 µs
955 µs
972 µs
19.7 ms
20.1 ms
20.1 ms
20.1 ms
(The difference between 955 µs and 972 µs was just a single timer-tick, so take this
with a grain of salt.)
So generally, it seems -Os -mcall-prologues is the most universal "best" optimization level. Only applications that need to get the last few percent of speed benefit
from using -O3.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.18
How do I relocate code to a fixed address?
First, the code should be put into a new named section. This is done with a section
attribute:
__attribute__ ((section (".bootloader")))
In this example, .bootloader is the name of the new section. This attribute needs to be
placed after the prototype of any function to force the function into the new section.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.19 My UART is generating nonsense! My ATmega128 keeps crashing! Port
F is completely broken!
76
void boot(void) __attribute__ ((section (".bootloader")));
To relocate the section to a fixed address the linker flag -section-start is used.
This option can be passed to the linker using the -Wl compiler option:
-Wl,--section-start=.bootloader=0x1E000
The name after section-start is the name of the section to be relocated. The number
after the section name is the beginning address of the named section.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.19
My UART is generating nonsense! My ATmega128 keeps
crashing! Port F is completely broken!
Well, certain odd problems arise out of the situation that the AVR devices as shipped
by Atmel often come with a default fuse bit configuration that doesn’t match the user’s
expectations. Here is a list of things to care for:
• All devices that have an internal RC oscillator ship with the fuse enabled that
causes the device to run off this oscillator, instead of an external crystal. This
often remains unnoticed until the first attempt is made to use something critical
in timing, like UART communication.
• The ATmega128 ships with the fuse enabled that turns this device into ATmega103 compatibility mode. This means that some ports are not fully usable,
and in particular that the internal SRAM is located at lower addresses. Since by
default, the stack is located at the top of internal SRAM, a program compiled for
an ATmega128 running on such a device will immediately crash upon the first
function call (or rather, upon the first function return).
• Devices with a JTAG interface have the JTAGEN fuse programmed by default.
This will make the respective port pins that are used for the JTAG interface unavailable for regular IO.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.20
Why do all my "foo...bar" strings eat up the SRAM?
By default, all strings are handled as all other initialized variables: they occupy RAM
(even though the compiler might warn you when it detects write attempts to these RAM
locations), and occupy the same amount of flash ROM so they can be initialized to the
actual string by startup code. The compiler can optimize multiple identical strings into
a single one, but obviously only for one compilation unit (i. e., a single C source file).
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.20
Why do all my "foo...bar" strings eat up the SRAM?
77
That way, any string literal will be a valid argument to any C function that expects a
const char ∗ argument.
Of course, this is going to waste a lot of SRAM. In Program Space String Utilities, a
method is described how such constant data can be moved out to flash ROM. However, a constant string located in flash ROM is no longer a valid argument to pass to a
function that expects a const char ∗-type string, since the AVR processor needs
the special instruction LPM to access these strings. Thus, separate functions are needed
that take this into account. Many of the standard C library functions have equivalents
available where one of the string arguments can be located in flash ROM. Private functions in the applications need to handle this, too. For example, the following can be
used to implement simple debugging messages that will be sent through a UART:
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
int
uart_putchar(char c)
{
if (c == ’\n’)
uart_putchar(’\r’);
loop_until_bit_is_set(USR, UDRE);
UDR = c;
return 0; /* so it could be used for fdevopen(), too */
}
void
debug_P(const char *addr)
{
char c;
while ((c = pgm_read_byte(addr++)))
uart_putchar(c);
}
int
main(void)
{
ioinit(); /* initialize UART, ... */
debug_P(PSTR("foo was here\n"));
return 0;
}
Note:
By convention, the suffix _P to the function name is used as an indication that
this function is going to accept a "program-space string". Note also the use of the
PSTR() macro.
Back to FAQ Index.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.21 Why does the compiler compile an 8-bit operation that uses bitwise
operators into a 16-bit operation in assembly?
11.21
78
Why does the compiler compile an 8-bit operation that uses
bitwise operators into a 16-bit operation in assembly?
Bitwise operations in Standard C will automatically promote their operands to an int,
which is (by default) 16 bits in avr-gcc.
To work around this use typecasts on the operands, including literals, to declare that
the values are to be 8 bit operands.
This may be especially important when clearing a bit:
var &= ~mask;
/* wrong way! */
The bitwise "not" operator (∼) will also promote the value in mask to an int. To keep
it an 8-bit value, typecast before the "not" operator:
var &= (unsigned char)~mask;
Back to FAQ Index.
11.22
How to detect RAM memory and variable overlap problems?
You can simply run avr-nm on your output (ELF) file. Run it with the -n option, and
it will sort the symbols numerically (by default, they are sorted alphabetically).
Look for the symbol _end, that’s the first address in RAM that is not allocated by
a variable. (avr-gcc internally adds 0x800000 to all data/bss variable addresses, so
please ignore this offset.) Then, the run-time initialization code initializes the stack
pointer (by default) to point to the last available address in (internal) SRAM. Thus, the
region between _end and the end of SRAM is what is available for stack. (If your
application uses malloc(), which e. g. also can happen inside printf(), the heap for
dynamic memory is also located there. See Memory Areas and Using malloc().)
The amount of stack required for your application cannot be determined that easily.
For example, if you recursively call a function and forget to break that recursion, the
amount of stack required is infinite. :-) You can look at the generated assembler code
(avr-gcc ... -S), there’s a comment in each generated assembler file that tells
you the frame size for each generated function. That’s the amount of stack required for
this function, you have to add up that for all functions where you know that the calls
could be nested.
Back to FAQ Index.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.23
11.23
Is it really impossible to program the ATtinyXX in C?
79
Is it really impossible to program the ATtinyXX in C?
While some small AVRs are not directly supported by the C compiler since they do not
have a RAM-based stack (and some do not even have RAM at all), it is possible anyway
to use the general-purpose registers as a RAM replacement since they are mapped into
the data memory region.
Bruce D. Lightner wrote an excellent description of how to do this, and offers this
together with a toolkit on his web page:
http://lightner.net/avr/ATtinyAvrGcc.html
Back to FAQ Index.
11.24
What is this "clock skew detected" message?
It’s a known problem of the MS-DOS FAT file system. Since the FAT file system has
only a granularity of 2 seconds for maintaining a file’s timestamp, and it seems that
some MS-DOS derivative (Win9x) perhaps rounds up the current time to the next second when calculating the timestamp of an updated file in case the current time cannot
be represented in FAT’s terms, this causes a situation where make sees a "file coming
from the future".
Since all make decisions are based on file timestamps, and their dependencies, make
warns about this situation.
Solution: don’t use inferior file systems / operating systems. Neither Unix file systems
nor HPFS (aka NTFS) do experience that problem.
Workaround: after saving the file, wait a second before starting make. Or simply
ignore the warning. If you are paranoid, execute a make clean all to make sure
everything gets rebuilt.
In networked environments where the files are accessed from a file server, this message
can also happen if the file server’s clock differs too much from the network client’s
clock. In this case, the solution is to use a proper time keeping protocol on both systems, like NTP. As a workaround, synchronize the client’s clock frequently with the
server’s clock.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.25
Why are (many) interrupt flags cleared by writing a logical
1?
Usually, each interrupt has its own interrupt flag bit in some control register, indicating
the specified interrupt condition has been met by representing a logical 1 in the respective bit position. When working with interrupt handlers, this interrupt flag bit usually
gets cleared automatically in the course of processing the interrupt, sometimes by just
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.26
Why have "programmed" fuses the bit value 0?
80
calling the handler at all, sometimes (e. g. for the U[S]ART) by reading a particular
hardware register that will normally happen anyway when processing the interrupt.
From the hardware’s point of view, an interrupt is asserted as long as the respective bit
is set, while global interrupts are enabled. Thus, it is essential to have the bit cleared
before interrupts get re-enabled again (which usually happens when returning from an
interrupt handler).
Only few subsystems require an explicit action to clear the interrupt request when using
interrupt handlers. (The notable exception is the TWI interface, where clearing the
interrupt indicates to proceed with the TWI bus hardware handshake, so it’s never done
automatically.)
However, if no normal interrupt handlers are to be used, or in order to make extra
sure any pending interrupt gets cleared before re-activating global interrupts (e. g.
an external edge-triggered one), it can be necessary to explicitly clear the respective
hardware interrupt bit by software. This is usually done by writing a logical 1 into this
bit position. This seems to be illogical at first, the bit position already carries a logical
1 when reading it, so why does writing a logical 1 to it clear the interrupt bit?
The solution is simple: writing a logical 1 to it requires only a single OUT instruction,
and it is clear that only this single interrupt request bit will be cleared. There is no need
to perform a read-modify-write cycle (like, an SBI instruction), since all bits in these
control registers are interrupt bits, and writing a logical 0 to the remaining bits (as it
is done by the simple OUT instruction) will not alter them, so there is no risk of any
race condition that might accidentally clear another interrupt request bit. So instead of
writing
TIFR |= _BV(TOV0); /* wrong! */
simply use
TIFR = _BV(TOV0);
Back to FAQ Index.
11.26
Why have "programmed" fuses the bit value 0?
Basically, fuses are just a bit in a special EEPROM area. For technical reasons, erased
E[E]PROM cells have all bits set to the value 1, so unprogrammed fuses also have a
logical 1. Conversely, programmed fuse cells read out as bit value 0.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.27
Which AVR-specific assembler operators are available?
See Pseudo-ops and operators.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.28
Why are interrupts re-enabled in the middle of writing the stack pointer?
81
Back to FAQ Index.
11.28
Why are interrupts re-enabled in the middle of writing the
stack pointer?
When setting up space for local variables on the stack, the compiler generates code like
this:
/* prologue: frame size=20 */
push r28
push r29
in r28,__SP_L__
in r29,__SP_H__
sbiw r28,20
in __tmp_reg__,__SREG__
cli
out __SP_H__,r29
out __SREG__,__tmp_reg__
out __SP_L__,r28
/* prologue end (size=10) */
It reads the current stack pointer value, decrements it by the required amount of bytes,
then disables interrupts, writes back the high part of the stack pointer, writes back
the saved SREG (which will eventually re-enable interrupts if they have been enabled
before), and finally writes the low part of the stack pointer.
At the first glance, there’s a race between restoring SREG, and writing SPL. However,
after enabling interrupts (either explicitly by setting the I flag, or by restoring it as part
of the entire SREG), the AVR hardware executes (at least) the next instruction still with
interrupts disabled, so the write to SPL is guaranteed to be executed with interrupts
disabled still. Thus, the emitted sequence ensures interrupts will be disabled only for
the minimum time required to guarantee the integrity of this operation.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.29
Why are there five different linker scripts?
From a comment in the source code:
Which one of the five linker script files is actually used depends on command line
options given to ld.
A .x script file is the default script A .xr script is for linking without relocation (-r flag)
A .xu script is like .xr but ∗do∗ create constructors (-Ur flag) A .xn script is for linking
with -n flag (mix text and data on same page). A .xbn script is for linking with -N flag
(mix text and data on same page).
Back to FAQ Index.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.30
11.30
How to add a raw binary image to linker output?
82
How to add a raw binary image to linker output?
The GNU linker avr-ld cannot handle binary data directly. However, there’s a companion tool called avr-objcopy. This is already known from the output side: it’s
used to extract the contents of the linked ELF file into an Intel Hex load file.
avr-objcopy can create a relocatable object file from arbitrary binary input, like
avr-objcopy -I binary -O elf32-avr foo.bin foo.o
This will create a file named foo.o, with the contents of foo.bin. The contents
will default to section .data, and two symbols will be created named _binary_foo_bin_start and _binary_foo_bin_end. These symbols can be referred
to inside a C source to access these data.
If the goal is to have those data go to flash ROM (similar to having used the PROGMEM
attribute in C source code), the sections have to be renamed while copying, and it’s also
useful to set the section flags:
avr-objcopy --rename-section .data=.progmem.data,contents,alloc,load,readonly,data -I binary -O elf32
Note that all this could be conveniently wired into a Makefile, so whenever foo.bin
changes, it will trigger the recreation of foo.o, and a subsequent relink of the final
ELF file.
Below are two Makefile fragments that provide rules to convert a .txt file to an object
file, and to convert a .bin file to an object file:
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.txt
@echo Converting $<
@cp $(<) $(*).tmp
@echo -n 0 | tr 0 ’\000’ >> $(*).tmp
@$(OBJCOPY) -I binary -O elf32-avr \
--rename-section .data=.progmem.data,contents,alloc,load,readonly,data \
--redefine-sym _binary_$*_tmp_start=$* \
--redefine-sym _binary_$*_tmp_end=$*_end \
--redefine-sym _binary_$*_tmp_size=$*_size_sym \
$(*).tmp $(@)
@echo "extern const char" $(*)"[] PROGMEM;" > $(*).h
@echo "extern const char" $(*)_end"[] PROGMEM;" >> $(*).h
@echo "extern const char" $(*)_size_sym"[];" >> $(*).h
@echo "#define $(*)_size ((int)$(*)_size_sym)" >> $(*).h
@rm $(*).tmp
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.bin
@echo Converting $<
@$(OBJCOPY) -I binary -O elf32-avr \
--rename-section .data=.progmem.data,contents,alloc,load,readonly,data \
--redefine-sym _binary_$*_bin_start=$* \
--redefine-sym _binary_$*_bin_end=$*_end \
--redefine-sym _binary_$*_bin_size=$*_size_sym \
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.31
How do I perform a software reset of the AVR?
83
$(<) $(@)
@echo "extern const char" $(*)"[] PROGMEM;" > $(*).h
@echo "extern const char" $(*)_end"[] PROGMEM;" >> $(*).h
@echo "extern const char" $(*)_size_sym"[];" >> $(*).h
@echo "#define $(*)_size ((int)$(*)_size_sym)" >> $(*).h
Back to FAQ Index.
11.31
How do I perform a software reset of the AVR?
The canonical way to perform a software reset of the AVR is to use the watchdog timer.
Enable the watchdog timer to the shortest timeout setting, then go into an infinite, donothing loop. The watchdog will then reset the processor.
The reason why this is preferable over jumping to the reset vector, is that when the
watchdog resets the AVR, the registers will be reset to their known, default settings.
Whereas jumping to the reset vector will leave the registers in their previous state,
which is generally not a good idea.
CAUTION! Older AVRs will have the watchdog timer disabled on a reset. For these
older AVRs, doing a soft reset by enabling the watchdog is easy, as the watchdog will
then be disabled after the reset. On newer AVRs, once the watchdog is enabled, then it
stays enabled, even after a reset! For these newer AVRs a function needs to be added
to the .init3 section (i.e. during the startup code, before main()) to disable the watchdog
early enough so it does not continually reset the AVR.
Here is some example code that creates a macro that can be called to perform a soft
reset:
#include <avr/wdt.h>
...
#define soft_reset()
do
{
wdt_enable(WDTO_15MS);
for(;;)
{
}
} while(0)
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
For newer AVRs (such as the ATmega1281) also add this function to your code to then
disable the watchdog after a reset (e.g., after a soft reset):
#include <avr/wdt.h>
...
// Function Pototype
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.32 I am using floating point math. Why is the compiled code so big? Why
does my code not work?
84
void wdt_init(void) __attribute__((naked)) __attribute__((section(".init3")));
...
// Function Implementation
void wdt_init(void)
{
MCUSR = 0;
wdt_disable();
return;
}
Back to FAQ Index.
11.32
I am using floating point math. Why is the compiled code so
big? Why does my code not work?
You are not linking in the math library from AVR-LibC. GCC has a library that is used
for floating point operations, but it is not optimized for the AVR, and so it generates big
code, or it could be incorrect. This can happen even when you are not using any floating
point math functions from the Standard C library, but you are just doing floating point
math operations.
When you link in the math library from AVR-LibC, those routines get replaced by
hand-optimized AVR assembly and it produces much smaller code.
See I get "undefined reference to..." for functions like "sin()" for more details on how
to link in the math library.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.33
What pitfalls exist when writing reentrant code?
Reentrant code means the ability for a piece of code to be called simultaneously from
two or more threads. Attention to re-enterability is needed when using a multi-tasking
operating system, or when using interrupts since an interrupt is really a temporary
thread.
The code generated natively by gcc is reentrant. But, only some of the libraries in
avr-libc are explicitly reentrant, and some are known not to be reentrant. In general,
any library call that reads and writes global variables (including I/O registers) is not
reentrant. This is because more than one thread could read or write the same storage at
the same time, unaware that other threads are doing the same, and create inconsistent
and/or erroneous results.
A library call that is known not to be reentrant will work if it is used only within one
thread and no other thread makes use of a library call that shares common storage with
it.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.33
What pitfalls exist when writing reentrant code?
Below is a table of library calls with known issues.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
85
11.33
What pitfalls exist when writing reentrant code?
Library call
Reentrant Issue
rand(), random()
Uses global variables to
keep state information.
strtod(), strtol(), strtoul()
Uses the global variable
errno to return
success/failure.
malloc(), realloc(),
calloc(), free()
Uses the stack pointer
and global variables to
allocate and free
memory.
fdevopen(), fclose()
Uses calloc() and free().
eeprom_∗(), boot_∗()
Accesses I/O registers.
pgm_∗_far()
Accesses I/O register
RAMPZ.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
printf(), printf_P(),
vprintf(), vprintf_P(),
Alters flags and character
count in global FILE
86
Workaround/Alternative
Use special reentrant
versions: rand_r(),
random_r().
Ignore errno, or protect
calls with cli()/sei() or
ATOMIC_BLOCK() if
the application can
tolerate it. Or use
sccanf() or sccanf_P() if
possible.
Protect calls with
cli()/sei() or
ATOMIC_BLOCK() if
the application can
tolerate it. If using an
OS, use the OS provided
memory allocator since
the OS is likely
modifying the stack
pointer anyway.
Protect calls with
cli()/sei() or
ATOMIC_BLOCK() if
the application can
tolerate it. Or use
fdev_setup_stream() or
FDEV_SETUP_STREAM().
Note: fclose() will only
call free() if the stream
has been opened with
fdevopen().
Protect calls with
cli()/sei(),
ATOMIC_BLOCK(), or
use OS locking.
Starting with GCC 4.3,
RAMPZ is automatically
saved for ISRs, so
nothing further is needed
if only using interrupts.
Some OSes may
automatically preserve
RAMPZ during context
switching. Check the OS
documentation before
assuming it does.
Otherwise, protect calls
with cli()/sei(),
ATOMIC_BLOCK(), or
use explicit OS locking.
Use only in one thread.
Or if returned character
11.34 Why are some addresses of the EEPROM corrupted (usually address
zero)?
87
∗∗∗ It’s not clear one would ever want to do character input simultaneously from more
than one thread anyway, but these entries are included for completeness.
An effort will be made to keep this table up to date if any new issues are discovered or
introduced.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.34
Why are some addresses of the EEPROM corrupted (usually
address zero)?
The two most common reason for EEPROM corruption is either writing to the EEPROM beyond the datasheet endurance specification, or resetting the AVR while an
EEPROM write is in progress.
EEPROM writes can take up to tens of milliseconds to complete. So that the CPU
is not tied up for that long of time, an internal state-machine handles EEPROM write
requests. The EEPROM state-machine expects to have all of the EEPROM registers
setup, then an EEPROM write request to start the process. Once the EEPROM statemachine has started, changing EEPROM related registers during an EEPROM write
is guaranteed to corrupt the EEPROM write process. The datasheet always shows the
proper way to tell when a write is in progress, so that the registers are not changed by
the user’s program. The EEPROM state-machine will always complete the write in
progress unless power is removed from the device.
As with all EEPROM technology, if power fails during an EEPROM write the state of
the byte being written is undefined.
In older generation AVRs the EEPROM Address Register (EEAR) is initialized to zero
on reset, be it from Brown Out Detect, Watchdog or the Reset Pin. If an EEPROM
write has just started at the time of the reset, the write will be completed, but now
at address zero instead of the requested address. If the reset occurs later in the write
process both the requested address and address zero may be corrupted.
To distinguish which AVRs may exhibit the corrupt of address zero while a write is
in process during a reset, look at the "initial value" section for the EEPROM Address
Register. If EEAR shows the initial value as 0x00 or 0x0000, then address zero and
possibly the one being written will be corrupted. Newer parts show the initial value as
"undefined", these will not corrupt address zero during a reset (unless it was address
zero that was being written).
EEPROMs have limited write endurance. The datasheet specifies the number of EEPROM writes that are guaranteed to function across the full temperature specification of
the AVR, for a given byte. A read should always be performed before a write, to see
if the value in the EEPROM actually needs to be written, so not to cause unnecessary
EEPROM wear.
AVRs use a paging mechanism for doing EEPROM writes. This is almost entirely
transparent to the user with one exception: When a byte is written to the EEPROM,
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
11.35
Why is my baud rate wrong?
88
the entire EEPROM page is also transparently erased and (re)written, which will cause
wear to bytes that the programmer did not explicitly write. If it is desired to extend
EEPROM write lifetimes, in an attempt not to exceed the datasheet EEPROM write
endurance specification for a given byte, then writes must be in multiples of the EEPROM page size, and not sequential bytes. The EEPROM write page size varies with
the device. The EEPROM page size is found in the datasheet section on Memory Programming, generally before the Electrical Specifications near the end of the datasheet.
The failure mechanism for an overwritten byte/page is generally one of "stuck" bits,
i. e. a bit will stay at a one or zero state regardless of the byte written. Also a write
followed by a read may return the correct data, but the data will change with the passage
of time, due the EEPROM’s inability to hold a charge from the excessive write wear.
Back to FAQ Index.
11.35
Why is my baud rate wrong?
Some AVR datasheets give the following formula for calculating baud rates:
(F_CPU/(UART_BAUD_RATE*16L)-1)
Unfortunately that formula does not work with all combinations of clock speeds and
baud rates due to integer truncation during the division operator.
When doing integer division it is usually better to round to the nearest integer, rather
than to the lowest. To do this add 0.5 (i. e. half the value of the denominator) to the
numerator before the division, resulting in the formula:
((F_CPU + UART_BAUD_RATE * 8L) / (UART_BAUD_RATE * 16L) - 1)
This is also the way it is implemented in <util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for baud
rate calculations.
Back to FAQ Index.
12
Building and Installing the GNU Tool Chain
This chapter shows how to build and install, from source code, a complete development environment for the AVR processors using the GNU toolset. There are two main
sections, one for Linux, FreeBSD, and other Unix-like operating systems, and another
section for Windows.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.1
Building and Installing under Linux, FreeBSD, and Others
12.1
89
Building and Installing under Linux, FreeBSD, and Others
The default behaviour for most of these tools is to install every thing under the
/usr/local directory. In order to keep the AVR tools separate from the base
system, it is usually better to install everything into /usr/local/avr. If the
/usr/local/avr directory does not exist, you should create it before trying to
install anything. You will need root access to install there. If you don’t have root
access to the system, you can alternatively install in your home directory, for example, in $HOME/local/avr. Where you install is a completely arbitrary decision, but
should be consistent for all the tools.
You specify the installation directory by using the -prefix=dir option with the
configure script. It is important to install all the AVR tools in the same directory
or some of the tools will not work correctly. To ensure consistency and simplify the
discussion, we will use $PREFIX to refer to whatever directory you wish to install in.
You can set this as an environment variable if you wish as such (using a Bourne-like
shell):
$ PREFIX=$HOME/local/avr
$ export PREFIX
Note:
Be sure that you have your PATH environment variable set to search the directory you install everything in before you start installing anything. For example, if
you use -prefix=$PREFIX, you must have $PREFIX/bin in your exported
PATH. As such:
$ PATH=$PATH:$PREFIX/bin
$ export PATH
Warning:
If you have CC set to anything other than avr-gcc in your environment, this will
cause the configure script to fail. It is best to not have CC set at all.
Note:
It is usually the best to use the latest released version of each of the tools.
12.2
Required Tools
• GNU Binutils
http://sources.redhat.com/binutils/
Installation
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.3
Optional Tools
90
• GCC
http://gcc.gnu.org/
Installation
• AVR Libc
http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/avr-libc/
Installation
12.3
Optional Tools
You can develop programs for AVR devices without the following tools. They may or
may not be of use for you.
• AVRDUDE
http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude/
Installation
Usage Notes
• GDB
http://sources.redhat.com/gdb/
Installation
• SimulAVR
http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/simulavr/
Installation
• AVaRICE
http://avarice.sourceforge.net/
Installation
12.4
GNU Binutils for the AVR target
The binutils package provides all the low-level utilities needed in building and manipulating object files. Once installed, your environment will have an AVR assembler
(avr-as), linker (avr-ld), and librarian (avr-ar and avr-ranlib). In addition, you get tools which extract data from object files (avr-objcopy), dissassemble object file information (avr-objdump), and strip information from object files
(avr-strip). Before we can build the C compiler, these tools need to be in place.
Download and unpack the source files:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.4
GNU Binutils for the AVR target
91
$ bunzip2 -c binutils-<version>.tar.bz2 | tar xf $ cd binutils-<version>
Note:
Replace <version> with the version of the package you downloaded.
If you obtained a gzip compressed file (.gz), use gunzip instead of bunzip2.
It is usually a good idea to configure and build binutils in a subdirectory so as not
to pollute the source with the compiled files. This is recommended by the binutils
developers.
$ mkdir obj-avr
$ cd obj-avr
The next step is to configure and build the tools. This is done by supplying arguments
to the configure script that enable the AVR-specific options.
$ ../configure --prefix=$PREFIX --target=avr --disable-nls
If you don’t specify the -prefix option, the tools will get installed in the
/usr/local hierarchy (i.e. the binaries will get installed in /usr/local/bin,
the info pages get installed in /usr/local/info, etc.) Since these tools are changing frequently, It is preferrable to put them in a location that is easily removed.
When configure is run, it generates a lot of messages while it determines what
is available on your operating system. When it finishes, it will have created several
Makefiles that are custom tailored to your platform. At this point, you can build the
project.
$ make
Note:
BSD users should note that the project’s Makefile uses GNU make syntax.
This means FreeBSD users may need to build the tools by using gmake.
If the tools compiled cleanly, you’re ready to install them. If you specified a destination
that isn’t owned by your account, you’ll need root access to install them. To install:
$ make install
You should now have the programs from binutils installed into $PREFIX/bin. Don’t
forget to set your PATH environment variable before going to build avr-gcc.
Note:
The official version of binutils might lack support for recent AVR
devices.
A patch that adds more AVR types can be found at
http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/ports/devel/avr-binutils/files/patch-new
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.5
GCC for the AVR target
12.5
92
GCC for the AVR target
Warning:
You must install avr-binutils and make sure your path is set properly before installing avr-gcc.
The steps to build avr-gcc are essentially same as for binutils:
$
$
$
$
$
bunzip2 -c gcc-<version>.tar.bz2 | tar xf cd gcc-<version>
mkdir obj-avr
cd obj-avr
../configure --prefix=$PREFIX --target=avr --enable-languages=c,c++ \
--disable-nls --disable-libssp --with-dwarf2
$ make
$ make install
To save your self some download time, you can alternatively download only the
gcc-core-<version>.tar.bz2 and gcc-c++-<version>.tar.bz2
parts of the gcc. Also, if you don’t need C++ support, you only need the core part
and should only enable the C language support.
Note:
Early versions of these tools did not support C++.
The stdc++ libs are not included with C++ for AVR due to the size limitations of
the devices.
The official version of GCC might lack support for recent AVR
devices.
A patch that adds more AVR types can be found at
http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/ports/devel/avr-gcc/files/patch-newdevic
12.6
AVR Libc
Warning:
You must install avr-binutils, avr-gcc and make sure your path is set properly
before installing avr-libc.
Note:
If you have obtained the latest avr-libc from cvs, you will have to run the
bootstrap script before using either of the build methods described below.
To build and install avr-libc:
$ gunzip -c avr-libc-<version>.tar.gz | tar xf -
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.7
$
$
$
$
AVRDUDE
93
cd avr-libc-<version>
./configure --prefix=$PREFIX --build=‘./config.guess‘ --host=avr
make
make install
12.7
AVRDUDE
Note:
It has been ported to windows (via MinGW or cygwin), Linux and Solaris. Other
Unix systems should be trivial to port to.
avrdude is part of the FreeBSD ports system. To install it, simply do the following:
# cd /usr/ports/devel/avrdude
# make install
Note:
Installation into the default location usually requires root permissions. However,
running the program only requires access permissions to the appropriate ppi(4)
device.
Building and installing on other systems should use the configure system, as such:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
gunzip -c avrdude-<version>.tar.gz | tar xf cd avrdude-<version>
mkdir obj-avr
cd obj-avr
../configure --prefix=$PREFIX
make
make install
12.8
GDB for the AVR target
GDB also uses the configure system, so to build and install:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
bunzip2 -c gdb-<version>.tar.bz2 | tar xf cd gdb-<version>
mkdir obj-avr
cd obj-avr
../configure --prefix=$PREFIX --target=avr
make
make install
Note:
If you are planning on using avr-gdb, you will probably want to install either
simulavr or avarice since avr-gdb needs one of these to run as a a remote target
backend.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.9
SimulAVR
12.9
94
SimulAVR
SimulAVR also uses the configure system, so to build and install:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
gunzip -c simulavr-<version>.tar.gz | tar xf cd simulavr-<version>
mkdir obj-avr
cd obj-avr
../configure --prefix=$PREFIX
make
make install
Note:
You might want to have already installed avr-binutils, avr-gcc and avr-libc if you
want to have the test programs built in the simulavr source.
12.10
AVaRICE
Note:
These install notes are not applicable to avarice-1.5 or older. You probably don’t
want to use anything that old anyways since there have been many improvements
and bug fixes since the 1.5 release.
AVaRICE also uses the configure system, so to build and install:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
gunzip -c avarice-<version>.tar.gz | tar xf cd avarice-<version>
mkdir obj-avr
cd obj-avr
../configure --prefix=$PREFIX
make
make install
Note:
AVaRICE uses the BFD library for accessing various binary file formats. You
may need to tell the configure script where to find the lib and headers for the link
to work. This is usually done by invoking the configure script like this (Replace
<hdr_path> with the path to the bfd.h file on your system. Replace <lib_path> with the path to libbfd.a on your system.):
$ CPPFLAGS=-I<hdr_path> LDFLAGS=-L<lib_path> ../configure --prefix=$PREFIX
12.11
Building and Installing under Windows
Building and installing the toolchain under Windows requires more effort because all
of the tools required for building, and the programs themselves, are mainly designed
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.12
Tools Required for Building the Toolchain for Windows
95
for running under a POSIX environment such as Unix and Linux. Windows does not
natively provide such an environment.
There are two projects available that provide such an environment, Cygwin and
MinGW/MSYS. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. Cygwin provides
a very complete POSIX environment that allows one to build many Linux based tools
from source with very little or no source modifications. However, POSIX functionality
is provided in the form of a DLL that is linked to the application. This DLL has to
be redistributed with your application and there are issues if the Cygwin DLL already
exists on the installation system and different versions of the DLL. On the other hand,
MinGW/MSYS can compile code as native Win32 applications. However, this means
that programs designed for Unix and Linux (i.e. that use POSIX functionality) will not
compile as MinGW/MSYS does not provide that POSIX layer for you. Therefore most
programs that compile on both types of host systems, usually must provide some sort
of abstraction layer to allow an application to be built cross-platform.
MinGW/MSYS does provide somewhat of a POSIX environment that allows you to
build Unix and Linux applications as they woud normally do, with a configure
step and a make step. Cygwin also provides such an environment. This means that
building the AVR toolchain is very similar to how it is built in Linux, described above.
The main differences are in what the PATH environment variable gets set to, pathname
differences, and the tools that are required to build the projects under Windows. We’ll
take a look at the tools next.
12.12
Tools Required for Building the Toolchain for Windows
These are the tools that are currently used to build WinAVR 20070525 (or later). This
list may change, either the version of the tools, or the tools themselves, as improvements are made.
• MinGW/MSYS
<http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mingw/MinGW-5.1.4.exe?use_mirror=superb-east>
– Put MinGW-5.1.4.exe
C:\MinGWSetup)
in
it’s
own
directory
(for
example:
– Run MinGW-5.1.4.exe
– Select "Download and install"
– Select "Current" package.
– Select type of install: Full.
• Install MSYS-1.0.10.exe package.
<http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/MSYS-1.0.10.exe?download>
– Default selections
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.12
Tools Required for Building the Toolchain for Windows
96
– Batch file will ask:
* "Do you wish to continue with the post install?" Press "y" and press
enter.
* "Do you have MinGW installed?" Press "y" and press enter.
* "Where is your MinGW installation?" Type in "c:/mingw" (without
quotes) and press enter
* "Do you wish for me to add mount bindings for c:/mingw to /mingw?"
Press "y" and press enter.
* It will display some messages on the screen, then it will display: "Press
any key to continue . . .". Press any key.
• Edit c:\msys\1.0\msys.bat
Change line (should be line 41):
if EXIST rxvt.exe goto startrxvt
to:
rem if EXIST rxvt.exe goto startrxvt
to remark out this line. Doing this will cause MSYS to always use the bash shell
and not the rxvt shell.
Note:
The order of the next three is important. Install MSYS Developer toolkit before
the autotools.
• MSYS Developer Toolkit version 1.0.1
– This is needed to build avr-libc in MinGW.
– <http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mingw/msysDTK-1.0.1.exe?use_mirror=internap>
– Single file installer executable. Install.
• autoconf 2.59 from the "MSYS Developer Toolkit" release
– autoconf 2.59/2.60 is needed to build avr-libc in MinGW.
– <http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mingw/msys-autoconf-2.59.tar.bz2?use_mirror=internap>
– Extract to c:\msys\1.0
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.12
Tools Required for Building the Toolchain for Windows
97
• automake 1.8.2
– automake 1.8/1.9 is needed to build avr-libc in MinGW.
– <http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mingw/msys-automake-1.8.2.tar.bz2?use_
mirror=internap>
– Extract to c:\msys\1.0
• Install Cygwin
– Install everything, all users, UNIX line endings. This will take a ∗long∗
time. A fat internet pipe is highly recommended. It is also recommended
that you download all to a directory first, and then install from that directory
to your machine.
Note:
GMP is a prequisite for building MPFR. Build GMP first.
• Build GMP for MinGW
– Version 4.2.3
– <http://gmplib.org/>
– Build script:
./configure
make
make check
make install
2>&1
2>&1
2>&1
2>&1
|
|
|
|
tee
tee
tee
tee
gmp-configure.log
gmp-make.log
gmp-make-check.log
gmp-make-install.log
– GMP headers will be installed under /usr/local/include and library installed
under /usr/local/lib.
• Build MPFR for MinGW
– Version 2.3.2
– <http://www.mpfr.org/>
– Build script:
./configure --with-gmp=/usr/local 2>&1 | tee mpfr-configure.log
make
2>&1 | tee mpfr-make.log
make check
2>&1 | tee mpfr-make-check.log
make install 2>&1 | tee mpfr-make-install.log
– MPFR headers will be installed under /usr/local/include and library installed under /usr/local/lib.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
98
• Install Doxygen
– Version 1.5.6
– <http://www.stack.nl/∼dimitri/doxygen/>
– Download and install.
• Install NetPBM
– Version 10.27.0
– From the GNUWin32 project: <http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages.html>
– Download and install.
• Install fig2dev
– Version 3.2 Patchlevel 5
– From WinFig 2.2: <http://www.schmidt-web-berlin.de/winfig/>
– Unzip the download file and install fig2dev.exe in a location of your choice.
• Install MiKTeX
– Version 2.7
– <http://miktex.org/>
– Download and install.
• Install Ghostscript
– Version 8.63
– <http://www.cs.wisc.edu/∼ghost/>
– Download and install.
– In the subdirectory of the installaion, copy gswin32c.exe to gs.exe.
• Set the TEMP and TMP environment variables to c:\temp or to the short filename version. This helps to avoid NTVDM errors during building.
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
All directories in the PATH enviornment variable should be specified using their short
filename (8.3) version. This will also help to avoid NTVDM errors during building.
These short filenames can be specific to each machine.
Build the tools below in MSYS.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
99
• Binutils
– Open source code pacakge and patch as necessary.
– Configure and build in a directory outside of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
* /bin
* /mingw/bin
* c:/cygwin/bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Configure
CFLAGS=-D__USE_MINGW_ACCESS \
../$archivedir/configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--target=avr \
--disable-nls \
--enable-doc \
--datadir=$installdir/doc/binutils \
--with-gmp=/usr/local \
--with-mpfr=/usr/local \
2>&1 | tee binutils-configure.log
– Make
make all html install install-html 2>&1 | tee binutils-make.log
– Manually change documentation location.
• GCC
– Open source code pacakge and patch as necessary.
– Configure and build in a directory outside of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
* /bin
* /mingw/bin
* c:/cygwin/bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Configure
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
100
CFLAGS=-D__USE_MINGW_ACCESS \
../gcc-$version/configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--target=$target \
--enable-languages=c,c++ \
--with-dwarf2 \
--enable-win32-registry=WinAVR-$release \
--disable-nls \
--with-gmp=/usr/local \
--with-mpfr=/usr/local \
--enable-doc \
--disable-libssp \
2>&1 | tee $package-configure.log
– Make
make all html install 2>&1 | tee $package-make.log
– Manually copy the HTML documentation from the source code tree to the
installation tree.
• avr-libc
– Open source code package.
– Configure and build at the top of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* /usr/local/bin
* /mingw/bin
* /bin
* <MikTex executables>
* <install directory>/bin
* <Doxygen executables>
* <NetPBM executables>
* <fig2dev executable>
* <Ghostscript executables>
* c:/cygwin/bin
– Configure
./configure \
--host=avr \
--prefix=$installdir \
--enable-doc \
--disable-versioned-doc \
--enable-html-doc \
--enable-pdf-doc \
--enable-man-doc \
--mandir=$installdir/man \
--datadir=$installdir \
2>&1 | tee $package-configure.log
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
101
– Make
make all install 2>&1 | tee $package-make.log
– Manually change location of man page documentation.
– Move the examples to the top level of the install tree.
– Convert line endings in examples to Windows line endings.
– Convert line endings in header files to Windows line endings.
• AVRDUDE
– Open source code package.
– Configure and build at the top of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
* /bin
* /mingw/bin
* c:/cygwin/bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Set location of LibUSB headers and libraries
export CPPFLAGS="-I../../libusb-win32-device-bin-$libusb_version/include"
export CFLAGS="-I../../libusb-win32-device-bin-$libusb_version/include"
export LDFLAGS="-L../../libusb-win32-device-bin-$libusb_version/lib/gcc"
– Configure
./configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--datadir=$installdir \
--sysconfdir=$installdir/bin \
--enable-doc \
--disable-versioned-doc \
2>&1 | tee $package-configure.log
– Make
make -k all install 2>&1 | tee $package-make.log
– Convert line endings in avrdude config file to Windows line endings.
– Delete backup copy of avrdude config file in install directory if exists.
• Insight/GDB
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
– Open source code pacakge and patch as necessary.
– Configure and build in a directory outside of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
* /bin
* /mingw/bin
* c:/cygwin/bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Configure
CFLAGS=-D__USE_MINGW_ACCESS \
LDFLAGS=’-static’ \
../$archivedir/configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--target=avr \
--with-gmp=/usr/local \
--with-mpfr=/usr/local \
--enable-doc \
2>&1 | tee insight-configure.log
– Make
make all install 2>&1 | tee $package-make.log
• SRecord
– Open source code package.
– Configure and build at the top of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
* /bin
* /mingw/bin
* c:/cygwin/bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Configure
./configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--infodir=$installdir/info \
--mandir=$installdir/man \
2>&1 | tee $package-configure.log
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
102
12.13
Building the Toolchain for Windows
103
– Make
make all install 2>&1 | tee $package-make.log
Build the tools below in Cygwin.
• AVaRICE
– Open source code package.
– Configure and build in a directory outside of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
* /bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Set location of LibUSB headers and libraries
export CPPFLAGS=-I$startdir/libusb-win32-device-bin-$libusb_version/include
export CFLAGS=-I$startdir/libusb-win32-device-bin-$libusb_version/include
export LDFLAGS="-static -L$startdir/libusb-win32-device-bin-$libusb_version/lib/gcc
– Configure
../$archivedir/configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--datadir=$installdir/doc \
--mandir=$installdir/man \
--infodir=$installdir/info \
2>&1 | tee avarice-configure.log
– Make
make all install 2>&1 | tee avarice-make.log
• SimulAVR
– Open source code package.
– Configure and build in a directory outside of the source code tree.
– Set PATH, in order:
* <MikTex executables>
* /usr/local/bin
* /usr/bin
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13 Using the GNU tools
104
* /bin
* <install directory>/bin
– Configure
export LDFLAGS="-static"
../$archivedir/configure \
--prefix=$installdir \
--datadir=$installdir \
--disable-tests \
--disable-versioned-doc \
2>&1 | tee simulavr-configure.log
– Make
make -k all install 2>&1 | tee simulavr-make.log
make pdf install-pdf 2>&1 | tee simulavr-pdf-make.log
13
Using the GNU tools
This is a short summary of the AVR-specific aspects of using the GNU tools. Normally,
the generic documentation of these tools is fairly large and maintained in texinfo
files. Command-line options are explained in detail in the manual page.
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
13.1.1
Machine-specific options for the AVR
The following machine-specific options are recognized by the C compiler frontend. In
addition to the preprocessor macros indicated in the tables below, the preprocessor will
define the macros __AVR and __AVR__ (to the value 1) when compiling for an AVR
target. The macro AVR will be defined as well when using the standard levels gnu89
(default) and gnu99 but not with c89 and c99.
• -mmcu=architecture
Compile code for architecture. Currently known architectures are
Architecture
avr1
avr2
avr25 [1]
avr3
avr31
Macros
__AVR_ARCH__=1__AVR_ASM_ONLY____AVR_2_BYTE_PC__ [2]
__AVR_ARCH__=2__AVR_2_BYTE_PC__ [2]
__AVR_ARCH__=25__AVR_HAVE_MOVW__ [1]__AVR_HAVE_LPMX__ [1]__AVR_2_BYTE_PC
__AVR_ARCH__=3__AVR_MEGA__ [5]__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__ [4]__AVR_2_BYTE_PC__
__AVR_ARCH__=31__AVR_MEGA____AVR_HAVE_RAMPZ__[4]__AVR_HAVE_ELPM__[4]__A
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
Architecture
avr35 [3]
avr4
avr5
avr51
avr6 [2]
105
Macros
__AVR_ARCH__=35__AVR_MEGA__ [5]__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__ [4]__AVR_HAVE_MOVW
__AVR_ARCH__=4__AVR_ENHANCED__ [5]__AVR_HAVE_MOVW__ [1]__AVR_HAVE_LPMX
__AVR_ARCH__=5__AVR_MEGA__ [5]__AVR_ENHANCED__ [5]__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__
__AVR_ARCH__=51__AVR_MEGA____AVR_ENHANCED____AVR_HAVE_MOVW__ [1]__AVR
__AVR_ARCH__=6__AVR_MEGA__ [5]__AVR_ENHANCED__ [5]__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__
[1] New in GCC 4.2
[2] Unofficial patch for GCC 4.1
[3] New in GCC 4.2.3
[4] New in GCC 4.3
[5] Obsolete.
By default, code is generated for the avr2 architecture.
Note that when only using -mmcu=architecture but no -mmcu=MCU type, including
the file <avr/io.h> cannot work since it cannot decide which device’s definitions
to select.
• -mmcu=MCU type
The following MCU types are currently understood by avr-gcc. The table matches
them against the corresponding avr-gcc architecture name, and shows the preprocessor
symbol declared by the -mmcu option.
Architecture
avr1
avr1
avr1
avr1
avr1
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
avr2
MCU name
at90s1200
attiny11
attiny12
attiny15
attiny28
at90s2313
at90s2323
at90s2333
at90s2343
attiny22
attiny26
at90s4414
at90s4433
at90s4434
at90s8515
at90c8534
at90s8535
Macro
__AVR_AT90S1200__
__AVR_ATtiny11__
__AVR_ATtiny12__
__AVR_ATtiny15__
__AVR_ATtiny28__
__AVR_AT90S2313__
__AVR_AT90S2323__
__AVR_AT90S2333__
__AVR_AT90S2343__
__AVR_ATtiny22__
__AVR_ATtiny26__
__AVR_AT90S4414__
__AVR_AT90S4433__
__AVR_AT90S4434__
__AVR_AT90S8515__
__AVR_AT90C8534__
__AVR_AT90S8535__
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
Architecture
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr2/avr25 [1]
avr3
avr3
avr3/avr31 [3]
avr3/avr31 [3]
avr3/avr35 [2]
avr3/avr35 [2]
avr3/avr35 [2]
avr3
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr4
avr5
avr5
avr5
MCU name
at86rf401
ata6289
attiny13
attiny13a
attiny2313
attiny24
attiny25
attiny261
attiny43u
attiny44
attiny45
attiny461
attiny48
attiny84
attiny85
attiny861
attiny87
attiny88
atmega603
at43usb355
atmega103
at43usb320
at90usb82
at90usb162
attiny167
at76c711
atmega48
atmega48p
atmega8
atmega8515
atmega8535
atmega88
atmega88p
atmega8hva
at90pwm1
at90pwm2
at90pwm2b
at90pwm3
at90pwm3b
at90pwm81
at90pwm216
at90pwm316
at90can32
106
Macro
__AVR_AT86RF401__
__AVR_ATA6289__
__AVR_ATtiny13__
__AVR_ATtiny13A__
__AVR_ATtiny2313__
__AVR_ATtiny24__
__AVR_ATtiny25__
__AVR_ATtiny261__
__AVR_ATtiny43U__
__AVR_ATtiny44__
__AVR_ATtiny45__
__AVR_ATtiny461__
__AVR_ATtiny48__
__AVR_ATtiny84__
__AVR_ATtiny85__
__AVR_ATtiny861__
__AVR_ATtiny87__
__AVR_ATtiny88__
__AVR_ATmega603__
__AVR_AT43USB355__
__AVR_ATmega103__
__AVR_AT43USB320__
__AVR_AT90USB82__
__AVR_AT90USB162__
__AVR_ATtiny167__
__AVR_AT76C711__
__AVR_ATmega48__
__AVR_ATmega48P__
__AVR_ATmega8__
__AVR_ATmega8515__
__AVR_ATmega8535__
__AVR_ATmega88__
__AVR_ATmega88P__
__AVR_ATmega8HVA__
__AVR_AT90PWM1__
__AVR_AT90PWM2__
__AVR_AT90PWM2B__
__AVR_AT90PWM3__
__AVR_AT90PWM3B__
__AVR_AT90PWM81__
__AVR_AT90PWM216__
__AVR_AT90PWM316__
__AVR_AT90CAN32__
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
Architecture
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
MCU name
at90can64
at90usb646
at90usb647
atmega16
atmega161
atmega162
atmega163
atmega164p
atmega165
atmega165p
atmega168
atmega168p
atmega169
atmega169p
atmega16hva
atmega16m1
atmega16u4
atmega32
atmega323
atmega324p
atmega325
atmega325p
atmega3250
atmega3250p
atmega328p
atmega329
atmega329p
atmega3290
atmega3290p
atmega32c1
atmega32hvb
atmega32m1
atmega32u4
atmega32u6
atmega406
atmega64
atmega640
atmega644
atmega644p
atmega645
atmega6450
atmega649
atmega6490
107
Macro
__AVR_AT90CAN64__
__AVR_AT90USB646__
__AVR_AT90USB647__
__AVR_ATmega16__
__AVR_ATmega161__
__AVR_ATmega162__
__AVR_ATmega163__
__AVR_ATmega164P__
__AVR_ATmega165__
__AVR_ATmega165P__
__AVR_ATmega168__
__AVR_ATmega168P__
__AVR_ATmega169__
__AVR_ATmega169P__
__AVR_ATmega16HVA__
__AVR_ATmega16M1__
__AVR_ATmega16U4__
__AVR_ATmega32__
__AVR_ATmega323__
__AVR_ATmega324P__
__AVR_ATmega325__
__AVR_ATmega325P__
__AVR_ATmega3250__
__AVR_ATmega3250P__
__AVR_ATmega328P__
__AVR_ATmega329__
__AVR_ATmega329P__
__AVR_ATmega3290__
__AVR_ATmega3290P__
__AVR_ATmega32C1__
__AVR_ATmega32HVB__
__AVR_ATmega32M1__
__AVR_ATmega32U4__
__AVR_ATmega32U6__
__AVR_ATmega406__
__AVR_ATmega64__
__AVR_ATmega640__
__AVR_ATmega644__
__AVR_ATmega644P__
__AVR_ATmega645__
__AVR_ATmega6450__
__AVR_ATmega649__
__AVR_ATmega6490__
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
Architecture
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr5/avr51 [3]
avr6
avr6
avrxmega2
avrxmega2
avrxmega2
avrxmega3
avrxmega4
avrxmega5
avrxmega6
avrxmega6
avrxmega6
avrxmega7
MCU name
atmega64c1
atmega64m1
at94k
at90scr100
atmega128
atmega1280
atmega1281
atmega1284p
at90can128
at90usb1286
at90usb1287
atmega2560
atmega2561
atxmega16a4
atxmega16d4
atxmega32d4
atxmega32a4
atxmega64a3
atxmega64a1
atxmega128a3
atxmega256a3
atxmega256a3b
atxmega128a1
108
Macro
__AVR_ATmega64C1__
__AVR_ATmega64M1__
__AVR_AT94K__
__AVR_AT90SCR100__
__AVR_ATmega128__
__AVR_ATmega1280__
__AVR_ATmega1281__
__AVR_ATmega1284P__
__AVR_AT90CAN128__
__AVR_AT90USB1286__
__AVR_AT90USB1287__
__AVR_ATmega2560__
__AVR_ATmega2561__
__AVR_ATxmega16A4__
__AVR_ATxmega16D4__
__AVR_ATxmega32D4__
__AVR_ATxmega32A4__
__AVR_ATxmega64A3__
__AVR_ATxmega64A1__
__AVR_ATxmega128A3__
__AVR_ATxmega256A3__
__AVR_ATxmega256A3B__
__AVR_ATxmega128A1__
[1] ’avr25’ architecture is new in GCC 4.2
[2] ’avr35’ architecture is new in GCC 4.2.3
• -morder1
• -morder2
Change the order of register assignment. The default is
r24, r25, r18, r19, r20, r21, r22, r23, r30, r31, r26, r27, r28, r29, r17, r16, r15, r14, r13,
r12, r11, r10, r9, r8, r7, r6, r5, r4, r3, r2, r0, r1
Order 1 uses
r18, r19, r20, r21, r22, r23, r24, r25, r30, r31, r26, r27, r28, r29, r17, r16, r15, r14, r13,
r12, r11, r10, r9, r8, r7, r6, r5, r4, r3, r2, r0, r1
Order 2 uses
r25, r24, r23, r22, r21, r20, r19, r18, r30, r31, r26, r27, r28, r29, r17, r16, r15, r14, r13,
r12, r11, r10, r9, r8, r7, r6, r5, r4, r3, r2, r1, r0
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
109
• -mint8
Assume int to be an 8-bit integer. Note that this is not really supported by
avr-libc, so it should normally not be used. The default is to use 16-bit integers.
• -mno-interrupts
Generates code that changes the stack pointer without disabling interrupts. Normally,
the state of the status register SREG is saved in a temporary register, interrupts are
disabled while changing the stack pointer, and SREG is restored.
Specifying this option will define the preprocessor macro __NO_INTERRUPTS__ to
the value 1.
• -mcall-prologues
Use subroutines for function prologue/epilogue. For complex functions that use many
registers (that needs to be saved/restored on function entry/exit), this saves some space
at the cost of a slightly increased execution time.
• -mtiny-stack
Change only the low 8 bits of the stack pointer.
• -mno-tablejump
Deprecated, use -fno-jump-tables instead.
• -mshort-calls
Use rjmp/rcall (limited range) on >8K devices. On avr2 and avr4 architectures (less than 8 KB or flash memory), this is always the case. On avr3 and avr5
architectures, calls and jumps to targets outside the current function will by default use
jmp/call instructions that can cover the entire address range, but that require more
flash ROM and execution time.
• -mrtl
Dump the internal compilation result called "RTL" into comments in the generated
assembler code. Used for debugging avr-gcc.
• -msize
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
110
Dump the address, size, and relative cost of each statement into comments in the generated assembler code. Used for debugging avr-gcc.
• -mdeb
Generate lots of debugging information to stderr.
13.1.2
Selected general compiler options
The following general gcc options might be of some interest to AVR users.
• -On
Optimization level n. Increasing n is meant to optimize more, an optimization level of
0 means no optimization at all, which is the default if no -O option is present. The
special option -Os is meant to turn on all -O2 optimizations that are not expected to
increase code size.
Note that at -O3, gcc attempts to inline all "simple" functions. For the AVR target,
this will normally constitute a large pessimization due to the code increasement. The
only other optimization turned on with -O3 is -frename-registers, which could
rather be enabled manually instead.
A simple -O option is equivalent to -O1.
Note also that turning off all optimizations will prevent some warnings from being
issued since the generation of those warnings depends on code analysis steps that are
only performed when optimizing (unreachable code, unused variables).
See also the appropriate FAQ entry for issues regarding debugging optimized code.
• -Wa,assembler-options
• -Wl,linker-options
Pass the listed options to the assembler, or linker, respectively.
• -g
Generate debugging information that can be used by avr-gdb.
• -ffreestanding
Assume a "freestanding" environment as per the C standard. This turns off automatic
builtin functions (though they can still be reached by prepending __builtin_ to
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.1
Options for the C compiler avr-gcc
111
the actual function name). It also makes the compiler not complain when main()
is declared with a void return type which makes some sense in a microcontroller
environment where the application cannot meaningfully provide a return value to its
environment (in most cases, main() won’t even return anyway). However, this also
turns off all optimizations normally done by the compiler which assume that functions
known by a certain name behave as described by the standard. E. g., applying the
function strlen() to a literal string will normally cause the compiler to immediately
replace that call by the actual length of the string, while with -ffreestanding, it
will always call strlen() at run-time.
• -funsigned-char
Make any unqualfied char type an unsigned char. Without this option, they default to
a signed char.
• -funsigned-bitfields
Make any unqualified bitfield type unsigned. By default, they are signed.
• -fshort-enums
Allocate to an enum type only as many bytes as it needs for the declared range of
possible values. Specifically, the enum type will be equivalent to the smallest integer
type which has enough room.
• -fpack-struct
Pack all structure members together without holes.
• -fno-jump-tables
Do not generate tablejump instructions. By default, jump tables can be used to optimize switch statements. When turned off, sequences of compare statements are
used instead. Jump tables are usually faster to execute on average, but in particular for
switch statements, where most of the jumps would go to the default label, they might
waste a bit of flash memory.
NOTE: The tablejump instructions use the LPM assembler instruction for access to
jump tables. Always use -fno-jump-tables switch, if compiling a bootloader for
devices with more than 64 KB of code memory.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.2
Options for the assembler avr-as
13.2
Options for the assembler avr-as
13.2.1
Machine-specific assembler options
112
• -mmcu=architecture
• -mmcu=MCU name
avr-as understands the same -mmcu= options as avr-gcc. By default, avr2 is assumed,
but this can be altered by using the appropriate .arch pseudo-instruction inside the
assembler source file.
• -mall-opcodes
Turns off opcode checking for the actual MCU type, and allows any possible AVR
opcode to be assembled.
• -mno-skip-bug
Don’t emit a warning when trying to skip a 2-word instruction with a
CPSE/SBIC/SBIS/SBRC/SBRS instruction. Early AVR devices suffered from a
hardware bug where these instructions could not be properly skipped.
• -mno-wrap
For RJMP/RCALL instructions, don’t allow the target address to wrap around for devices that have more than 8 KB of memory.
• -gstabs
Generate .stabs debugging symbols for assembler source lines. This enables avr-gdb
to trace through assembler source files. This option must not be used when assembling
sources that have been generated by the C compiler; these files already contain the
appropriate line number information from the C source files.
• -a[cdhlmns=file]
Turn on the assembler listing. The sub-options are:
• c omit false conditionals
• d omit debugging directives
• h include high-level source
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.3
Controlling the linker avr-ld
113
• l include assembly
• m include macro expansions
• n omit forms processing
• s include symbols
• =file set the name of the listing file
The various sub-options can be combined into a single -a option list; =file must be the
last one in that case.
13.2.2
Examples for assembler options passed through the C compiler
Remember that assembler options can be passed from the C compiler frontend using
-Wa (see above), so in order to include the C source code into the assembler listing in
file foo.lst, when compiling foo.c, the following compiler command-line can be
used:
$ avr-gcc -c -O foo.c -o foo.o -Wa,-ahls=foo.lst
In order to pass an assembler file through the C preprocessor first, and have the assembler generate line number debugging information for it, the following command can be
used:
$ avr-gcc -c -x assembler-with-cpp -o foo.o foo.S -Wa,--gstabs
Note that on Unix systems that have case-distinguishing file systems, specifying a file
name with the suffix .S (upper-case letter S) will make the compiler automatically
assume -x assembler-with-cpp, while using .s would pass the file directly to
the assembler (no preprocessing done).
13.3
Controlling the linker avr-ld
13.3.1
Selected linker options
While there are no machine-specific options for avr-ld, a number of the standard options might be of interest to AVR users.
• -lname
Locate the archive library named libname.a, and use it to resolve currently
unresolved symbols from it. The library is searched along a path that consists of builtin pathname entries that have been specified at compile time (e. g.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.3
Controlling the linker avr-ld
114
/usr/local/avr/lib on Unix systems), possibly extended by pathname entries
as specified by -L options (that must precede the -l options on the command-line).
• -Lpath
Additional location to look for archive libraries requested by -l options.
• -defsym symbol=expr
Define a global symbol symbol using expr as the value.
• -M
Print a linker map to stdout.
• -Map mapfile
Print a linker map to mapfile.
• -cref
Output a cross reference table to the map file (in case -Map is also present), or to
stdout.
• -section-start sectionname=org
Start section sectionname at absolute address org.
• -Tbss org
• -Tdata org
• -Ttext org
Start the bss, data, or text section at org, respectively.
• -T scriptfile
Use scriptfile as the linker script, replacing the default linker script.
Default linker scripts are stored in a system-specific location (e.
g.
under
/usr/local/avr/lib/ldscripts on Unix systems), and consist of the AVR
architecture name (avr2 through avr5) with the suffix .x appended. They describe how
the various memory sections will be linked together.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
13.3
13.3.2
Controlling the linker avr-ld
115
Passing linker options from the C compiler
By default, all unknown non-option arguments on the avr-gcc command-line (i. e.,
all filename arguments that don’t have a suffix that is handled by avr-gcc) are passed
straight to the linker. Thus, all files ending in .o (object files) and .a (object libraries)
are provided to the linker.
System libraries are usually not passed by their explicit filename but rather using the
-l option which uses an abbreviated form of the archive filename (see above). avrlibc ships two system libraries, libc.a, and libm.a. While the standard library
libc.a will always be searched for unresolved references when the linker is started
using the C compiler frontend (i. e., there’s always at least one implied -lc option),
the mathematics library libm.a needs to be explicitly requested using -lm. See also
the entry in the FAQ explaining this.
Conventionally, Makefiles use the make macro LDLIBS to keep track of -l (and
possibly -L) options that should only be appended to the C compiler command-line
when linking the final binary. In contrast, the macro LDFLAGS is used to store other
command-line options to the C compiler that should be passed as options during the
linking stage. The difference is that options are placed early on the command-line,
while libraries are put at the end since they are to be used to resolve global symbols
that are still unresolved at this point.
Specific linker flags can be passed from the C compiler command-line using the -Wl
compiler option, see above. This option requires that there be no spaces in the appended
linker option, while some of the linker options above (like -Map or -defsym) would
require a space. In these situations, the space can be replaced by an equal sign as
well. For example, the following command-line can be used to compile foo.c into an
executable, and also produce a link map that contains a cross-reference list in the file
foo.map:
$ avr-gcc -O -o foo.out -Wl,-Map=foo.map -Wl,--cref foo.c
Alternatively, a comma as a placeholder will be replaced by a space before passing the
option to the linker. So for a device with external SRAM, the following command-line
would cause the linker to place the data segment at address 0x2000 in the SRAM:
$ avr-gcc -mmcu=atmega128 -o foo.out -Wl,-Tdata,0x802000
See the explanation of the data section for why 0x800000 needs to be added to the
actual value. Note that the stack will still remain in internal RAM, through the symbol
__stack that is provided by the run-time startup code. This is probably a good idea
anyway (since internal RAM access is faster), and even required for some early devices
that had hardware bugs preventing them from using a stack in external RAM. Note
also that the heap for malloc() will still be placed after all the variables in the data
section, so in this situation, no stack/heap collision can occur.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
14 Using the avrdude program
116
In order to relocate the stack from its default location at the top of interns RAM, the
value of the symbol __stack can be changed on the linker command-line. As the
linker is typically called from the compiler frontend, this can be achieved using a compiler option like
-Wl,--defsym=__stack=0x8003ff
The above will make the code use stack space from RAM address 0x3ff downwards.
The amount of stack space available then depends on the bottom address of internal
RAM for a particular device. It is the responsibility of the application to ensure the
stack does not grow out of bounds, as well as to arrange for the stack to not collide
with variable allocations made by the compiler (sections .data and .bss).
14
Using the avrdude program
Note:
This section was contributed by Brian Dean [ [email protected] ].
The avrdude program was previously called avrprog. The name was changed to
avoid confusion with the avrprog program that Atmel ships with AvrStudio.
avrdude is a program that is used to update or read the flash and EEPROM memories
of Atmel AVR microcontrollers on FreeBSD Unix. It supports the Atmel serial programming protocol using the PC’s parallel port and can upload either a raw binary file
or an Intel Hex format file. It can also be used in an interactive mode to individually
update EEPROM cells, fuse bits, and/or lock bits (if their access is supported by the
Atmel serial programming protocol.) The main flash instruction memory of the AVR
can also be programmed in interactive mode, however this is not very useful because
one can only turn bits off. The only way to turn flash bits on is to erase the entire
memory (using avrdude’s -e option).
avrdude is part of the FreeBSD ports system. To install it, simply do the following:
# cd /usr/ports/devel/avrdude
# make install
Once installed, avrdude can program processors using the contents of the .hex file
specified on the command line. In this example, the file main.hex is burned into the
flash memory:
# avrdude -p 2313 -e -m flash -i main.hex
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9101
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
14 Using the avrdude program
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
117
erasing chip
done.
reading input file "main.hex"
input file main.hex auto detected as Intel Hex
avrdude: writing flash:
1749 0x00
avrdude: 1750 bytes of flash written
avrdude: verifying flash memory against main.hex:
avrdude: reading on-chip flash data:
1749 0x00
avrdude: verifying ...
avrdude: 1750 bytes of flash verified
avrdude done.
Thank you.
The -p 2313 option lets avrdude know that we are operating on an AT90S2313
chip. This option specifies the device id and is matched up with the device of the same
id in avrdude’s configuration file ( /usr/local/etc/avrdude.conf ). To list
valid parts, specify the -v option. The -e option instructs avrdude to perform a
chip-erase before programming; this is almost always necessary before programming
the flash. The -m flash option indicates that we want to upload data into the flash
memory, while -i main.hex specifies the name of the input file.
The EEPROM is uploaded in the same way, the only difference is that you would use
-m eeprom instead of -m flash.
To use interactive mode, use the -t option:
# avrdude -p 2313 -t
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9101
avrdude>
The ’?’ command displays a list of valid
commands:
avrdude> ?
>>> ?
Valid commands:
dump
read
write
erase
sig
part
send
help
?
quit
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
dump memory : dump <memtype> <addr> <N-Bytes>
alias for dump
write memory : write <memtype> <addr> <b1> <b2> ... <bN>
perform a chip erase
display device signature bytes
display the current part information
send a raw command : send <b1> <b2> <b3> <b4>
help
help
quit
Use the ’part’ command to display valid memory types for use with the
’dump’ and ’write’ commands.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
15 Release Numbering and Methodology
118
avrdude>
15
Release Numbering and Methodology
15.1
Release Version Numbering Scheme
15.1.1
Stable Versions
A stable release will always have a minor number that is an even number. This implies
that you should be able to upgrade to a new version of the library with the same major
and minor numbers without fear that any of the APIs have changed. The only changes
that should be made to a stable branch are bug fixes and under some circumstances,
additional functionality (e.g. adding support for a new device).
If major version number has changed, this implies that the required versions of gcc and
binutils have changed. Consult the README file in the toplevel directory of the AVR
Libc source for which versions are required.
15.1.2
Development Versions
The major version number of a development series is always the same as the last stable
release.
The minor version number of a development series is always an odd number and is 1
more than the last stable release.
The patch version number of a development series is always 0 until a new branch is cut
at which point the patch number is changed to 90 to denote the branch is approaching
a release and the date appended to the version to denote that it is still in development.
All versions in development in cvs will also always have the date appended as a fourth
version number. The format of the date will be YYYYMMDD.
So, the development version number will look like this:
1.1.0.20030825
While a pre-release version number on a branch (destined to become either 1.2 or 2.0)
will look like this:
1.1.90.20030828
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
15.2
Releasing AVR Libc
15.2
119
Releasing AVR Libc
The information in this section is only relevant to AVR Libc developers and can be
ignored by end users.
Note:
In what follows, I assume you know how to use cvs and how to checkout multiple
source trees in a single directory without having them clobber each other. If you
don’t know how to do this, you probably shouldn’t be making releases or cutting
branches.
15.2.1
Creating a cvs branch
The following steps should be taken to cut a branch in cvs:
1. Check out a fresh source tree from cvs HEAD.
2. Update the NEWS file with pending release number and commit to cvs HEAD:
Change "Changes since avr-libc-<last_release>:" to "Changes in avr-libc<this_relelase>:".
3. Set the branch-point tag (setting <major> and <minor> accordingly):
’cvs tag avr-libc-<major>_<minor>-branchpoint’
4. Create the branch:
’cvs tag -b avr-libc-<major>_<minor>-branch’
5. Update the package version in configure.ac and commit configure.ac to cvs
HEAD:
Change minor number to next odd value.
6. Update the NEWS file and commit to cvs HEAD:
Add "Changes since avr-libc-<this_release>:"
7. Check out a new tree for the branch:
’cvs co -r avr-libc-<major>_<minor>-branch’
8. Update the package version in configure.ac and commit configure.ac to cvs
branch:
Change the patch number to 90 to denote that this now a branch leading up to a
release. Be sure to leave the <date> part of the version.
9. Bring the build system up to date by running bootstrap and configure.
10. Perform a ’make distcheck’ and make sure it succeeds. This will create the
snapshot source tarball. This should be considered the first release candidate.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
15.2
Releasing AVR Libc
120
11. Upload the snapshot tarball to savannah.
12. Announce the branch and the branch tag to the avr-libc-dev list so other developers can checkout the branch.
Note:
CVS tags do not allow the use of periods (’.’).
15.2.2
Making a release
A stable release will only be done on a branch, not from the cvs HEAD.
The following steps should be taken when making a release:
1. Make sure the source tree you are working from is on the correct branch:
’cvs update -r avr-libc-<major>_<minor>-branch’
2. Update the package version in configure.ac and commit it to cvs.
3. Update the gnu tool chain version requirements in the README and commit to
cvs.
4. Update the ChangeLog file to note the release and commit to cvs on the branch:
Add "Released avr-libc-<this_release>."
5. Update the NEWS file with pending release number and commit to cvs:
Change "Changes since avr-libc-<last_release>:" to "Changes in avr-libc<this_relelase>:".
6. Bring the build system up to date by running bootstrap and configure.
7. Perform a ’make distcheck’ and make sure it succeeds. This will create the
source tarball.
8. Tag the release:
’cvs tag avr-libc-<major>_<minor>_<patch>-release’
9. Upload the tarball to savannah.
10. Update the NEWS file, and commit to cvs:
Add "Changes since avr-libc-<major>_<minor>_<patch>:"
11. Generate the latest documentation and upload to savannah.
12. Announce the release.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
16 Acknowledgments
121
The following hypothetical diagram should help clarify version and branch relationships.
HEAD
1.0 Branch
1.2 Branch
cvs tag avr−libc−1_0−branchpoint
set version to 1.1.0.<date>
cvs tag −b avr−libc−1_0−branch
set version to 0.90.90.<date>
set version to 1.0
cvs tag avr−libc−1_0−release
set version to 1.0.0.<date>
set version to 1.0.1
cvs tag avr−libc−1_0_1−release
cvs tag avr−libc−1_2−branchpoint
set version to 1.3.0.<date>
cvs tag −b avr−libc−1_2−branch
set version to 1.1.90.<date>
set version to 1.2
cvs tag avr−libc−1_2−release
cvs tag avr−libc−2.0−branchpoint
set version to 2.1.0.<date>
Figure 4: Release tree
16
Acknowledgments
This document tries to tie together the labors of a large group of people. Without
these individuals’ efforts, we wouldn’t have a terrific, free set of tools to develop AVR
projects. We all owe thanks to:
• The GCC Team, which produced a very capable set of development tools for an
amazing number of platforms and processors.
• Denis Chertykov [ [email protected] ] for making the AVR-specific
changes to the GNU tools.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
17 Todo List
122
• Denis Chertykov and Marek Michalkiewicz [ [email protected] ] for
developing the standard libraries and startup code for AVR-GCC.
• Uros Platise for developing the AVR programmer tool, uisp.
• Joerg Wunsch [ [email protected] ] for adding all the AVR development
tools to the FreeBSD [ http://www.freebsd.org ] ports tree and for providing the basics for the demo project.
• Brian Dean [ [email protected] ] for developing avrdude (an alternative to
uisp) and for contributing documentation which describes how to use it. Avrdude was previously called avrprog.
• Eric Weddington [ [email protected] ] for maintaining the
WinAVR package and thus making the continued improvements to the open
source AVR toolchain available to many users.
• Rich Neswold for writing the original avr-tools document (which he graciously
allowed to be merged into this document) and his improvements to the demo
project.
• Theodore A. Roth for having been a long-time maintainer of many of the tools
(AVR-Libc, the AVR port of GDB, AVaRICE, uisp, avrdude).
• All the people who currently maintain the tools, and/or have submitted suggestions, patches and bug reports. (See the AUTHORS files of the various tools.)
• And lastly, all the users who use the software. If nobody used the software, we
would probably not be very motivated to continue to develop it. Keep those bug
reports coming. ;-)
17
Todo List
Group avr_boot From email with Marek: On smaller devices (all except ATmega64/128), __SPM_REG is in the I/O space, accessible with the shorter "in"
and "out" instructions - since the boot loader has a limited size, this could be an
important optimization.
18
Deprecated List
Global SIGNAL Do not use SIGNAL() in new code. Use ISR() instead.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
19 Module Index
123
Global ISR_ALIAS For new code, the use of ISR(..., ISR_ALIASOF(...)) is recommended.
Global timer_enable_int
Global enable_external_int
Global INTERRUPT
Global inp
Global outp
Global inb
Global outb
Global sbi
Global cbi
19
19.1
Module Index
Modules
Here is a list of all modules:
<alloca.h>: Allocate space in the stack
129
<assert.h>: Diagnostics
130
<ctype.h>: Character Operations
131
<errno.h>: System Errors
133
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
19.1
Modules
124
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
134
<math.h>: Mathematics
146
<setjmp.h>: Non-local goto
153
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
155
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
167
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
186
<string.h>: Strings
197
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
209
<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling
216
<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support
219
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
222
<avr/io.h>: AVR device-specific IO definitions
245
<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support
246
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
249
<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management
262
<avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers
267
Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h>
265
<avr/sleep.h>: Power Management and Sleep Modes
269
<avr/version.h>: avr-libc version macros
271
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling
272
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed Code Blocks
276
<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations
280
<util/delay.h>: Convenience functions for busy-wait delay loops
283
<util/delay_basic.h>: Basic busy-wait delay loops
284
<util/parity.h>: Parity bit generation
285
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
20 Data Structure Index
125
<util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for baud rate calculations
286
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
288
<compat/deprecated.h>: Deprecated items
293
<compat/ina90.h>: Compatibility with IAR EWB 3.x
296
Demo projects
296
20
20.1
Combining C and assembly source files
298
A simple project
301
A more sophisticated project
317
Using the standard IO facilities
325
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
332
Data Structure Index
Data Structures
Here are the data structures with brief descriptions:
div_t
337
ldiv_t
338
21
21.1
File Index
File List
Here is a list of all documented files with brief descriptions:
assert.h
338
atoi.S
339
atol.S
339
atomic.h
339
boot.h
339
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
21.1
File List
126
crc16.h
346
ctype.h
346
delay.h
347
delay_basic.h
347
errno.h
347
fdevopen.c
348
ffs.S
348
ffsl.S
348
ffsll.S
348
fuse.h
348
interrupt.h
348
inttypes.h
349
io.h
352
lock.h
352
math.h
352
memccpy.S
355
memchr.S
355
memchr_P.S
355
memcmp.S
355
memcmp_P.S
355
memcpy.S
355
memcpy_P.S
355
memmem.S
355
memmove.S
355
memrchr.S
355
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
21.1
File List
127
memrchr_P.S
355
memset.S
355
parity.h
355
pgmspace.h
356
power.h
366
setbaud.h
367
setjmp.h
367
sleep.h
367
stdint.h
368
stdio.h
371
stdlib.h
373
strcasecmp.S
376
strcasecmp_P.S
376
strcasestr.S
376
strcat.S
376
strcat_P.S
376
strchr.S
376
strchr_P.S
376
strchrnul.S
376
strchrnul_P.S
376
strcmp.S
376
strcmp_P.S
376
strcpy.S
376
strcpy_P.S
376
strcspn.S
376
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
21.1
File List
128
strcspn_P.S
376
strdup.c
376
string.h
377
strlcat.S
380
strlcat_P.S
380
strlcpy.S
380
strlcpy_P.S
380
strlen.S
380
strlen_P.S
380
strlwr.S
380
strncasecmp.S
380
strncasecmp_P.S
380
strncat.S
380
strncat_P.S
380
strncmp.S
380
strncmp_P.S
380
strncpy.S
380
strncpy_P.S
380
strnlen.S
380
strnlen_P.S
380
strpbrk.S
380
strpbrk_P.S
380
strrchr.S
380
strrchr_P.S
380
strrev.S
380
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22 Module Documentation
129
strsep.S
380
strsep_P.S
380
strspn.S
380
strspn_P.S
380
strstr.S
380
strstr_P.S
380
strtok.c
380
strtok_r.S
381
strupr.S
381
util/twi.h
381
wdt.h
382
22
Module Documentation
22.1
<alloca.h>: Allocate space in the stack
22.1.1
Detailed Description
Functions
• void ∗ alloca (size_t __size)
22.1.2
22.1.2.1
Function Documentation
void∗ alloca (size_t __size)
Allocate __size bytes of space in the stack frame of the caller.
This temporary space is automatically freed when the function that called alloca() returns to its caller. Avr-libc defines the alloca() as a macro, which is translated into the
inlined __builtin_alloca() function. The fact that the code is inlined, means
that it is impossible to take the address of this function, or to change its behaviour by
linking with a different library.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<assert.h>: Diagnostics
22.2
130
Returns:
alloca() returns a pointer to the beginning of the allocated space. If the allocation
causes stack overflow, program behaviour is undefined.
Warning:
Avoid use alloca() inside the list of arguments of a function call.
22.2
<assert.h>: Diagnostics
22.2.1
Detailed Description
#include <assert.h>
This header file defines a debugging aid.
As there is no standard error output stream available for many applications using this
library, the generation of a printable error message is not enabled by default. These
messages will only be generated if the application defines the macro
__ASSERT_USE_STDERR
before including the <assert.h> header file. By default, only abort() will be called
to halt the application.
Defines
• #define assert(expression)
22.2.2
22.2.2.1
Define Documentation
#define assert(expression)
Parameters:
expression Expression to test for.
The assert() macro tests the given expression and if it is false, the calling process is
terminated. A diagnostic message is written to stderr and the function abort() is called,
effectively terminating the program.
If expression is true, the assert() macro does nothing.
The assert() macro may be removed at compile time by defining NDEBUG as a macro
(e.g., by using the compiler option -DNDEBUG).
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.3
<ctype.h>: Character Operations
131
22.3
<ctype.h>: Character Operations
22.3.1
Detailed Description
These functions perform various operations on characters.
#include <ctype.h>
Character classification routines
These functions perform character classification. They return true or false status depending whether the character passed to the function falls into the function’s classification (i.e. isdigit() returns true if its argument is any value ’0’ though ’9’, inclusive).
If the input is not an unsigned char value, all of this function return false.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
int isalnum (int __c)
int isalpha (int __c)
int isascii (int __c)
int isblank (int __c)
int iscntrl (int __c)
int isdigit (int __c)
int isgraph (int __c)
int islower (int __c)
int isprint (int __c)
int ispunct (int __c)
int isspace (int __c)
int isupper (int __c)
int isxdigit (int __c)
Character convertion routines
This realization permits all possible values of integer argument. The toascii() function
clears all highest bits. The tolower() and toupper() functions return an input argument
as is, if it is not an unsigned char value.
• int toascii (int __c)
• int tolower (int __c)
• int toupper (int __c)
22.3.2
22.3.2.1
Function Documentation
int isalnum (int __c)
Checks for an alphanumeric character.
isdigit(c)).
It is equivalent to (isalpha(c) ||
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.3
<ctype.h>: Character Operations
22.3.2.2
int isalpha (int __c)
Checks for an alphabetic character.
islower(c)).
22.3.2.3
132
It is equivalent to (isupper(c) ||
int isascii (int __c)
Checks whether c is a 7-bit unsigned char value that fits into the ASCII character set.
22.3.2.4
int isblank (int __c)
Checks for a blank character, that is, a space or a tab.
22.3.2.5
int iscntrl (int __c)
Checks for a control character.
22.3.2.6
int isdigit (int __c)
Checks for a digit (0 through 9).
22.3.2.7
int isgraph (int __c)
Checks for any printable character except space.
22.3.2.8
int islower (int __c)
Checks for a lower-case character.
22.3.2.9
int isprint (int __c)
Checks for any printable character including space.
22.3.2.10
int ispunct (int __c)
Checks for any printable character which is not a space or an alphanumeric character.
22.3.2.11
int isspace (int __c)
Checks for white-space characters. For the avr-libc library, these are: space, formfeed (’\f’), newline (’\n’), carriage return (’\r’), horizontal tab (’\t’), and vertical tab
(’\v’).
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<errno.h>: System Errors
22.4
22.3.2.12
133
int isupper (int __c)
Checks for an uppercase letter.
22.3.2.13
int isxdigit (int __c)
Checks for a hexadecimal digits, i.e. one of 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f A B C D E F.
22.3.2.14
int toascii (int __c)
Converts c to a 7-bit unsigned char value that fits into the ASCII character set, by
clearing the high-order bits.
Warning:
Many people will be unhappy if you use this function. This function will convert
accented letters into random characters.
22.3.2.15
int tolower (int __c)
Converts the letter c to lower case, if possible.
22.3.2.16
int toupper (int __c)
Converts the letter c to upper case, if possible.
22.4
<errno.h>: System Errors
22.4.1
Detailed Description
#include <errno.h>
Some functions in the library set the global variable errno when an error occurs. The
file, <errno.h>, provides symbolic names for various error codes.
Warning:
The errno global variable is not safe to use in a threaded or multi-task system. A
race condition can occur if a task is interrupted between the call which sets error
and when the task examines errno. If another task changes errno during this
time, the result will be incorrect for the interrupted task.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5
134
Defines
• #define EDOM 33
• #define ERANGE 34
22.4.2
22.4.2.1
Define Documentation
#define EDOM 33
Domain error.
22.4.2.2
#define ERANGE 34
Range error.
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.1
Detailed Description
#include <inttypes.h>
This header file includes the exact-width integer definitions from <stdint.h>, and
extends them with additional facilities provided by the implementation.
Currently, the extensions include two additional integer types that could hold a "far"
pointer (i.e. a code pointer that can address more than 64 KB), as well as standard
names for all printf and scanf formatting options that are supported by the <stdio.h>:
Standard IO facilities. As the library does not support the full range of conversion
specifiers from ISO 9899:1999, only those conversions that are actually implemented
will be listed here.
The idea behind these conversion macros is that, for each of the types defined by
<stdint.h>, a macro will be supplied that portably allows formatting an object of that
type in printf() or scanf() operations. Example:
#include <inttypes.h>
uint8_t smallval;
int32_t longval;
...
printf("The hexadecimal value of smallval is %" PRIx8
", the decimal value of longval is %" PRId32 ".\n",
smallval, longval);
Far pointers for memory access >64K
• typedef int32_t int_farptr_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
135
• typedef uint32_t uint_farptr_t
macros for printf and scanf format specifiers
For C++, these are only included if __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS is defined before including <inttypes.h>.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define PRId8 "d"
#define PRIdLEAST8 "d"
#define PRIdFAST8 "d"
#define PRIi8 "i"
#define PRIiLEAST8 "i"
#define PRIiFAST8 "i"
#define PRId16 "d"
#define PRIdLEAST16 "d"
#define PRIdFAST16 "d"
#define PRIi16 "i"
#define PRIiLEAST16 "i"
#define PRIiFAST16 "i"
#define PRId32 "ld"
#define PRIdLEAST32 "ld"
#define PRIdFAST32 "ld"
#define PRIi32 "li"
#define PRIiLEAST32 "li"
#define PRIiFAST32 "li"
#define PRIdPTR PRId16
#define PRIiPTR PRIi16
#define PRIo8 "o"
#define PRIoLEAST8 "o"
#define PRIoFAST8 "o"
#define PRIu8 "u"
#define PRIuLEAST8 "u"
#define PRIuFAST8 "u"
#define PRIx8 "x"
#define PRIxLEAST8 "x"
#define PRIxFAST8 "x"
#define PRIX8 "X"
#define PRIXLEAST8 "X"
#define PRIXFAST8 "X"
#define PRIo16 "o"
#define PRIoLEAST16 "o"
#define PRIoFAST16 "o"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.5
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
#define PRIu16 "u"
#define PRIuLEAST16 "u"
#define PRIuFAST16 "u"
#define PRIx16 "x"
#define PRIxLEAST16 "x"
#define PRIxFAST16 "x"
#define PRIX16 "X"
#define PRIXLEAST16 "X"
#define PRIXFAST16 "X"
#define PRIo32 "lo"
#define PRIoLEAST32 "lo"
#define PRIoFAST32 "lo"
#define PRIu32 "lu"
#define PRIuLEAST32 "lu"
#define PRIuFAST32 "lu"
#define PRIx32 "lx"
#define PRIxLEAST32 "lx"
#define PRIxFAST32 "lx"
#define PRIX32 "lX"
#define PRIXLEAST32 "lX"
#define PRIXFAST32 "lX"
#define PRIoPTR PRIo16
#define PRIuPTR PRIu16
#define PRIxPTR PRIx16
#define PRIXPTR PRIX16
#define SCNd16 "d"
#define SCNdLEAST16 "d"
#define SCNdFAST16 "d"
#define SCNi16 "i"
#define SCNiLEAST16 "i"
#define SCNiFAST16 "i"
#define SCNd32 "ld"
#define SCNdLEAST32 "ld"
#define SCNdFAST32 "ld"
#define SCNi32 "li"
#define SCNiLEAST32 "li"
#define SCNiFAST32 "li"
#define SCNdPTR SCNd16
#define SCNiPTR SCNi16
#define SCNo16 "o"
#define SCNoLEAST16 "o"
#define SCNoFAST16 "o"
#define SCNu16 "u"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
136
22.5
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
#define SCNuLEAST16 "u"
#define SCNuFAST16 "u"
#define SCNx16 "x"
#define SCNxLEAST16 "x"
#define SCNxFAST16 "x"
#define SCNo32 "lo"
#define SCNoLEAST32 "lo"
#define SCNoFAST32 "lo"
#define SCNu32 "lu"
#define SCNuLEAST32 "lu"
#define SCNuFAST32 "lu"
#define SCNx32 "lx"
#define SCNxLEAST32 "lx"
#define SCNxFAST32 "lx"
#define SCNoPTR SCNo16
#define SCNuPTR SCNu16
#define SCNxPTR SCNx16
22.5.2
22.5.2.1
Define Documentation
#define PRId16 "d"
decimal printf format for int16_t
22.5.2.2
#define PRId32 "ld"
decimal printf format for int32_t
22.5.2.3
#define PRId8 "d"
decimal printf format for int8_t
22.5.2.4
#define PRIdFAST16 "d"
decimal printf format for int_fast16_t
22.5.2.5
#define PRIdFAST32 "ld"
decimal printf format for int_fast32_t
22.5.2.6
#define PRIdFAST8 "d"
decimal printf format for int_fast8_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
137
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.7
#define PRIdLEAST16 "d"
decimal printf format for int_least16_t
22.5.2.8
#define PRIdLEAST32 "ld"
decimal printf format for int_least32_t
22.5.2.9
#define PRIdLEAST8 "d"
decimal printf format for int_least8_t
22.5.2.10
#define PRIdPTR PRId16
decimal printf format for intptr_t
22.5.2.11
#define PRIi16 "i"
integer printf format for int16_t
22.5.2.12
#define PRIi32 "li"
integer printf format for int32_t
22.5.2.13
#define PRIi8 "i"
integer printf format for int8_t
22.5.2.14
#define PRIiFAST16 "i"
integer printf format for int_fast16_t
22.5.2.15
#define PRIiFAST32 "li"
integer printf format for int_fast32_t
22.5.2.16
#define PRIiFAST8 "i"
integer printf format for int_fast8_t
22.5.2.17
#define PRIiLEAST16 "i"
integer printf format for int_least16_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
138
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.18
#define PRIiLEAST32 "li"
integer printf format for int_least32_t
22.5.2.19
#define PRIiLEAST8 "i"
integer printf format for int_least8_t
22.5.2.20
#define PRIiPTR PRIi16
integer printf format for intptr_t
22.5.2.21
#define PRIo16 "o"
octal printf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.22
#define PRIo32 "lo"
octal printf format for uint32_t
22.5.2.23
#define PRIo8 "o"
octal printf format for uint8_t
22.5.2.24
#define PRIoFAST16 "o"
octal printf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.25
#define PRIoFAST32 "lo"
octal printf format for uint_fast32_t
22.5.2.26
#define PRIoFAST8 "o"
octal printf format for uint_fast8_t
22.5.2.27
#define PRIoLEAST16 "o"
octal printf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.28
#define PRIoLEAST32 "lo"
octal printf format for uint_least32_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
139
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.29
#define PRIoLEAST8 "o"
octal printf format for uint_least8_t
22.5.2.30
#define PRIoPTR PRIo16
octal printf format for uintptr_t
22.5.2.31
#define PRIu16 "u"
decimal printf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.32
#define PRIu32 "lu"
decimal printf format for uint32_t
22.5.2.33
#define PRIu8 "u"
decimal printf format for uint8_t
22.5.2.34
#define PRIuFAST16 "u"
decimal printf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.35
#define PRIuFAST32 "lu"
decimal printf format for uint_fast32_t
22.5.2.36
#define PRIuFAST8 "u"
decimal printf format for uint_fast8_t
22.5.2.37
#define PRIuLEAST16 "u"
decimal printf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.38
#define PRIuLEAST32 "lu"
decimal printf format for uint_least32_t
22.5.2.39
#define PRIuLEAST8 "u"
decimal printf format for uint_least8_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
140
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.40
#define PRIuPTR PRIu16
decimal printf format for uintptr_t
22.5.2.41
#define PRIX16 "X"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.42
#define PRIx16 "x"
hexadecimal printf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.43
#define PRIX32 "lX"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint32_t
22.5.2.44
#define PRIx32 "lx"
hexadecimal printf format for uint32_t
22.5.2.45
#define PRIX8 "X"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint8_t
22.5.2.46
#define PRIx8 "x"
hexadecimal printf format for uint8_t
22.5.2.47
#define PRIXFAST16 "X"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.48
#define PRIxFAST16 "x"
hexadecimal printf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.49
#define PRIXFAST32 "lX"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint_fast32_t
22.5.2.50
#define PRIxFAST32 "lx"
hexadecimal printf format for uint_fast32_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
141
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.51
#define PRIXFAST8 "X"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint_fast8_t
22.5.2.52
#define PRIxFAST8 "x"
hexadecimal printf format for uint_fast8_t
22.5.2.53
#define PRIXLEAST16 "X"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.54
#define PRIxLEAST16 "x"
hexadecimal printf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.55
#define PRIXLEAST32 "lX"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint_least32_t
22.5.2.56
#define PRIxLEAST32 "lx"
hexadecimal printf format for uint_least32_t
22.5.2.57
#define PRIXLEAST8 "X"
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uint_least8_t
22.5.2.58
#define PRIxLEAST8 "x"
hexadecimal printf format for uint_least8_t
22.5.2.59
#define PRIXPTR PRIX16
uppercase hexadecimal printf format for uintptr_t
22.5.2.60
#define PRIxPTR PRIx16
hexadecimal printf format for uintptr_t
22.5.2.61
#define SCNd16 "d"
decimal scanf format for int16_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
142
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.62
#define SCNd32 "ld"
decimal scanf format for int32_t
22.5.2.63
#define SCNdFAST16 "d"
decimal scanf format for int_fast16_t
22.5.2.64
#define SCNdFAST32 "ld"
decimal scanf format for int_fast32_t
22.5.2.65
#define SCNdLEAST16 "d"
decimal scanf format for int_least16_t
22.5.2.66
#define SCNdLEAST32 "ld"
decimal scanf format for int_least32_t
22.5.2.67
#define SCNdPTR SCNd16
decimal scanf format for intptr_t
22.5.2.68
#define SCNi16 "i"
generic-integer scanf format for int16_t
22.5.2.69
#define SCNi32 "li"
generic-integer scanf format for int32_t
22.5.2.70
#define SCNiFAST16 "i"
generic-integer scanf format for int_fast16_t
22.5.2.71
#define SCNiFAST32 "li"
generic-integer scanf format for int_fast32_t
22.5.2.72
#define SCNiLEAST16 "i"
generic-integer scanf format for int_least16_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
143
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.73
#define SCNiLEAST32 "li"
generic-integer scanf format for int_least32_t
22.5.2.74
#define SCNiPTR SCNi16
generic-integer scanf format for intptr_t
22.5.2.75
#define SCNo16 "o"
octal scanf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.76
#define SCNo32 "lo"
octal scanf format for uint32_t
22.5.2.77
#define SCNoFAST16 "o"
octal scanf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.78
#define SCNoFAST32 "lo"
octal scanf format for uint_fast32_t
22.5.2.79
#define SCNoLEAST16 "o"
octal scanf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.80
#define SCNoLEAST32 "lo"
octal scanf format for uint_least32_t
22.5.2.81
#define SCNoPTR SCNo16
octal scanf format for uintptr_t
22.5.2.82
#define SCNu16 "u"
decimal scanf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.83
#define SCNu32 "lu"
decimal scanf format for uint32_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
144
22.5
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions
22.5.2.84
#define SCNuFAST16 "u"
decimal scanf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.85
#define SCNuFAST32 "lu"
decimal scanf format for uint_fast32_t
22.5.2.86
#define SCNuLEAST16 "u"
decimal scanf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.87
#define SCNuLEAST32 "lu"
decimal scanf format for uint_least32_t
22.5.2.88
#define SCNuPTR SCNu16
decimal scanf format for uintptr_t
22.5.2.89
#define SCNx16 "x"
hexadecimal scanf format for uint16_t
22.5.2.90
#define SCNx32 "lx"
hexadecimal scanf format for uint32_t
22.5.2.91
#define SCNxFAST16 "x"
hexadecimal scanf format for uint_fast16_t
22.5.2.92
#define SCNxFAST32 "lx"
hexadecimal scanf format for uint_fast32_t
22.5.2.93
#define SCNxLEAST16 "x"
hexadecimal scanf format for uint_least16_t
22.5.2.94
#define SCNxLEAST32 "lx"
hexadecimal scanf format for uint_least32_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
145
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6
22.5.2.95
146
#define SCNxPTR SCNx16
hexadecimal scanf format for uintptr_t
22.5.3
Typedef Documentation
22.5.3.1
typedef int32_t int_farptr_t
signed integer type that can hold a pointer > 64 KB
22.5.3.2
typedef uint32_t uint_farptr_t
unsigned integer type that can hold a pointer > 64 KB
22.6
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6.1
Detailed Description
#include <math.h>
This header file declares basic mathematics constants and functions.
Notes:
• In order to access the functions delcared herein, it is usually also required to
additionally link against the library libm.a. See also the related FAQ entry.
• Math functions do not raise exceptions and do not change the errno variable. Therefore the majority of them are declared with const attribute, for
better optimization by GCC.
Defines
•
•
•
•
#define M_PI 3.141592653589793238462643
#define M_SQRT2 1.4142135623730950488016887
#define NAN __builtin_nan("")
#define INFINITY __builtin_inf()
Functions
•
•
•
•
double cos (double __x)
double fabs (double __x)
double fmod (double __x, double __y)
double modf (double __x, double ∗__iptr)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.6
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
<math.h>: Mathematics
double sin (double __x)
double sqrt (double __x)
double tan (double __x)
double floor (double __x)
double ceil (double __x)
double frexp (double __x, int ∗__pexp)
double ldexp (double __x, int __exp)
double exp (double __x)
double cosh (double __x)
double sinh (double __x)
double tanh (double __x)
double acos (double __x)
double asin (double __x)
double atan (double __x)
double atan2 (double __y, double __x)
double log (double __x)
double log10 (double __x)
double pow (double __x, double __y)
int isnan (double __x)
int isinf (double __x)
double square (double __x)
static double copysign (double __x, double __y)
double fdim (double __x, double __y)
double fma (double __x, double __y, double __z)
double fmax (double __x, double __y)
double fmin (double __x, double __y)
int signbit (double __x)
double trunc (double __x)
static int isfinite (double __x)
double hypot (double __x, double __y)
double round (double __x)
long lround (double __x)
long lrint (double __x)
22.6.2
22.6.2.1
Define Documentation
#define INFINITY __builtin_inf()
INFINITY constant.
22.6.2.2
#define M_PI 3.141592653589793238462643
The constant pi.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
147
22.6
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6.2.3
148
#define M_SQRT2 1.4142135623730950488016887
The square root of 2.
22.6.2.4
#define NAN __builtin_nan("")
NAN constant.
22.6.3
22.6.3.1
Function Documentation
double acos (double __x)
The acos() function computes the principal value of the arc cosine of __x. The returned
value is in the range [0, pi] radians. A domain error occurs for arguments not in the
range [-1, +1].
22.6.3.2
double asin (double __x)
The asin() function computes the principal value of the arc sine of __x. The returned
value is in the range [-pi/2, pi/2] radians. A domain error occurs for arguments not in
the range [-1, +1].
22.6.3.3
double atan (double __x)
The atan() function computes the principal value of the arc tangent of __x. The returned
value is in the range [-pi/2, pi/2] radians.
22.6.3.4
double atan2 (double __y, double __x)
The atan2() function computes the principal value of the arc tangent of __y / __x, using
the signs of both arguments to determine the quadrant of the return value. The returned
value is in the range [-pi, +pi] radians.
22.6.3.5
double ceil (double __x)
The ceil() function returns the smallest integral value greater than or equal to __x,
expressed as a floating-point number.
22.6.3.6
static double copysign (double __x, double __y) [static]
The copysign() function returns __x but with the sign of __y. They work even if __x or
__y are NaN or zero.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.6
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6.3.7
149
double cos (double __x)
The cos() function returns the cosine of __x, measured in radians.
22.6.3.8
double cosh (double __x)
The cosh() function returns the hyperbolic cosine of __x.
22.6.3.9
double exp (double __x)
The exp() function returns the exponential value of __x.
22.6.3.10
double fabs (double __x)
The fabs() function computes the absolute value of a floating-point number __x.
22.6.3.11
double fdim (double __x, double __y)
The fdim() function returns max(__x - __y, 0). If __x or __y or both are NaN, NaN is
returned.
22.6.3.12
double floor (double __x)
The floor() function returns the largest integral value less than or equal to __x, expressed as a floating-point number.
22.6.3.13
double fma (double __x, double __y, double __z)
The fma() function performs floating-point multiply-add. This is the operation (__x ∗
__y) + __z, but the intermediate result is not rounded to the destination type. This can
sometimes improve the precision of a calculation.
22.6.3.14
double fmax (double __x, double __y)
The fmax() function returns the greater of the two values __x and __y. If an argument
is NaN, the other argument is returned. If both arguments are NaN, NaN is returned.
22.6.3.15
double fmin (double __x, double __y)
The fmin() function returns the lesser of the two values __x and __y. If an argument is
NaN, the other argument is returned. If both arguments are NaN, NaN is returned.
22.6.3.16
double fmod (double __x, double __y)
The function fmod() returns the floating-point remainder of __x / __y.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6
22.6.3.17
150
double frexp (double __x, int ∗ __pexp)
The frexp() function breaks a floating-point number into a normalized fraction and an
integral power of 2. It stores the integer in the int object pointed to by __pexp.
If __x is a normal float point number, the frexp() function returns the value v, such that
v has a magnitude in the interval [1/2, 1) or zero, and __x equals v times 2 raised to
the power __pexp. If __x is zero, both parts of the result are zero. If __x is not a finite
number, the frexp() returns __x as is and stores 0 by __pexp.
Note:
This implementation permits a zero pointer as a directive to skip a storing the
exponent.
22.6.3.18
double hypot (double __x, double __y)
The hypot() function returns sqrt(__x∗__x + __y∗__y). This is the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with sides of length __x and __y, or the distance of the point
(__x, __y) from the origin. Using this function instead of the direct formula is wise,
since the error is much smaller. No underflow with small __x and __y. No overflow if
result is in range.
22.6.3.19
static int isfinite (double __x) [static]
The isfinite() function returns a nonzero value if __x is finite: not plus or minus infinity,
and not NaN.
22.6.3.20
int isinf (double __x)
The function isinf() returns 1 if the argument __x is positive infinity, -1 if __x is negative
infinity, and 0 otherwise.
Note:
The GCC 4.3 can replace this function with inline code that returns the 1 value for
both infinities (gcc bug #35509).
22.6.3.21
int isnan (double __x)
The function isnan() returns 1 if the argument __x represents a "not-a-number" (NaN)
object, otherwise 0.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.6
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6.3.22
151
double ldexp (double __x, int __exp)
The ldexp() function multiplies a floating-point number by an integral power of 2.
The ldexp() function returns the value of __x times 2 raised to the power __exp.
22.6.3.23
double log (double __x)
The log() function returns the natural logarithm of argument __x.
22.6.3.24
double log10 (double __x)
The log10() function returns the logarithm of argument __x to base 10.
22.6.3.25
long lrint (double __x)
The lrint() function rounds __x to the nearest integer, rounding the halfway cases to the
even integer direction. (That is both 1.5 and 2.5 values are rounded to 2). This function
is similar to rint() function, but it differs in type of return value and in that an overflow
is possible.
Returns:
The rounded long integer value. If __x is not a finite number or an overflow was,
this realization returns the LONG_MIN value (0x80000000).
22.6.3.26
long lround (double __x)
The lround() function rounds __x to the nearest integer, but rounds halfway cases away
from zero (instead of to the nearest even integer). This function is similar to round()
function, but it differs in type of return value and in that an overflow is possible.
Returns:
The rounded long integer value. If __x is not a finite number or an overflow was,
this realization returns the LONG_MIN value (0x80000000).
22.6.3.27
double modf (double __x, double ∗ __iptr)
The modf() function breaks the argument __x into integral and fractional parts, each of
which has the same sign as the argument. It stores the integral part as a double in the
object pointed to by __iptr.
The modf() function returns the signed fractional part of __x.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<math.h>: Mathematics
22.6
152
Note:
This implementation skips writing by zero pointer. However, the GCC 4.3 can
replace this function with inline code that does not permit to use NULL address
for the avoiding of storing.
22.6.3.28
double pow (double __x, double __y)
The function pow() returns the value of __x to the exponent __y.
22.6.3.29
double round (double __x)
The round() function rounds __x to the nearest integer, but rounds halfway cases away
from zero (instead of to the nearest even integer). Overflow is impossible.
Returns:
The rounded value. If __x is an integral or infinite, __x itself is returned. If __x is
NaN, then NaN is returned.
22.6.3.30
int signbit (double __x)
The signbit() function returns a nonzero value if the value of __x has its sign bit set.
This is not the same as ‘__x < 0.0’, because IEEE 754 floating point allows zero to be
signed. The comparison ‘-0.0 < 0.0’ is false, but ‘signbit (-0.0)’ will return a nonzero
value.
22.6.3.31
double sin (double __x)
The sin() function returns the sine of __x, measured in radians.
22.6.3.32
double sinh (double __x)
The sinh() function returns the hyperbolic sine of __x.
22.6.3.33
double sqrt (double __x)
The sqrt() function returns the non-negative square root of __x.
22.6.3.34
double square (double __x)
The function square() returns __x ∗ __x.
Note:
This function does not belong to the C standard definition.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<setjmp.h>: Non-local goto
22.7
22.6.3.35
153
double tan (double __x)
The tan() function returns the tangent of __x, measured in radians.
22.6.3.36
double tanh (double __x)
The tanh() function returns the hyperbolic tangent of __x.
22.6.3.37
double trunc (double __x)
The trunc() function rounds __x to the nearest integer not larger in absolute value.
22.7
<setjmp.h>: Non-local goto
22.7.1
Detailed Description
While the C language has the dreaded goto statement, it can only be used to jump to
a label in the same (local) function. In order to jump directly to another (non-local)
function, the C library provides the setjmp() and longjmp() functions. setjmp() and
longjmp() are useful for dealing with errors and interrupts encountered in a low-level
subroutine of a program.
Note:
setjmp() and longjmp() make programs hard to understand and maintain. If possible, an alternative should be used.
longjmp() can destroy changes made to global register variables (see How to permanently bind a variable to a register?).
For a very detailed discussion of setjmp()/longjmp(), see Chapter 7 of Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment, by W. Richard Stevens.
Example:
#include <setjmp.h>
jmp_buf env;
int main (void)
{
if (setjmp (env))
{
... handle error ...
}
while (1)
{
... main processing loop which calls foo() some where ...
}
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<setjmp.h>: Non-local goto
22.7
154
}
...
void foo (void)
{
... blah, blah, blah ...
if (err)
{
longjmp (env, 1);
}
}
Functions
• int setjmp (jmp_buf __jmpb)
• void longjmp (jmp_buf __jmpb, int __ret) __ATTR_NORETURN__
22.7.2
Function Documentation
22.7.2.1
void longjmp (jmp_buf __jmpb, int __ret)
Non-local jump to a saved stack context.
#include <setjmp.h>
longjmp() restores the environment saved by the last call of setjmp() with the corresponding __jmpb argument. After longjmp() is completed, program execution continues as if the corresponding call of setjmp() had just returned the value __ret.
Note:
longjmp() cannot cause 0 to be returned. If longjmp() is invoked with a second
argument of 0, 1 will be returned instead.
Parameters:
__jmpb Information saved by a previous call to setjmp().
__ret Value to return to the caller of setjmp().
Returns:
This function never returns.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8
22.7.2.2
155
int setjmp (jmp_buf __jmpb)
Save stack context for non-local goto.
#include <setjmp.h>
setjmp() saves the stack context/environment in __jmpb for later use by longjmp(). The
stack context will be invalidated if the function which called setjmp() returns.
Parameters:
__jmpb Variable of type jmp_buf which holds the stack information such that
the environment can be restored.
Returns:
setjmp() returns 0 if returning directly, and non-zero when returning from
longjmp() using the saved context.
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8.1
Detailed Description
#include <stdint.h>
Use [u]intN_t if you need exactly N bits.
Since these typedefs are mandated by the C99 standard, they are preferred over rolling
your own typedefs.
Exact-width integer types
Integer types having exactly the specified width
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
typedef signed char int8_t
typedef unsigned char uint8_t
typedef signed int int16_t
typedef unsigned int uint16_t
typedef signed long int int32_t
typedef unsigned long int uint32_t
typedef signed long long int int64_t
typedef unsigned long long int uint64_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
156
Integer types capable of holding object pointers
These allow you to declare variables of the same size as a pointer.
• typedef int16_t intptr_t
• typedef uint16_t uintptr_t
Minimum-width integer types
Integer types having at least the specified width
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
typedef int8_t int_least8_t
typedef uint8_t uint_least8_t
typedef int16_t int_least16_t
typedef uint16_t uint_least16_t
typedef int32_t int_least32_t
typedef uint32_t uint_least32_t
typedef int64_t int_least64_t
typedef uint64_t uint_least64_t
Fastest minimum-width integer types
Integer types being usually fastest having at least the specified width
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
typedef int8_t int_fast8_t
typedef uint8_t uint_fast8_t
typedef int16_t int_fast16_t
typedef uint16_t uint_fast16_t
typedef int32_t int_fast32_t
typedef uint32_t uint_fast32_t
typedef int64_t int_fast64_t
typedef uint64_t uint_fast64_t
Greatest-width integer types
Types designating integer data capable of representing any value of any integer type in
the corresponding signed or unsigned category
• typedef int64_t intmax_t
• typedef uint64_t uintmax_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
157
Limits of specified-width integer types
C++ implementations should define these macros only when __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS is defined before <stdint.h> is included
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT8_MAX 0x7f
#define INT8_MIN (-INT8_MAX - 1)
#define UINT8_MAX (__CONCAT(INT8_MAX, U) ∗ 2U + 1U)
#define INT16_MAX 0x7fff
#define INT16_MIN (-INT16_MAX - 1)
#define UINT16_MAX (__CONCAT(INT16_MAX, U) ∗ 2U + 1U)
#define INT32_MAX 0x7fffffffL
#define INT32_MIN (-INT32_MAX - 1L)
#define UINT32_MAX (__CONCAT(INT32_MAX, U) ∗ 2UL + 1UL)
#define INT64_MAX 0x7fffffffffffffffLL
#define INT64_MIN (-INT64_MAX - 1LL)
#define UINT64_MAX (__CONCAT(INT64_MAX, U) ∗ 2ULL + 1ULL)
Limits of minimum-width integer types
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT_LEAST8_MAX INT8_MAX
#define INT_LEAST8_MIN INT8_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST8_MAX UINT8_MAX
#define INT_LEAST16_MAX INT16_MAX
#define INT_LEAST16_MIN INT16_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST16_MAX UINT16_MAX
#define INT_LEAST32_MAX INT32_MAX
#define INT_LEAST32_MIN INT32_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST32_MAX UINT32_MAX
#define INT_LEAST64_MAX INT64_MAX
#define INT_LEAST64_MIN INT64_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST64_MAX UINT64_MAX
Limits of fastest minimum-width integer types
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT_FAST8_MAX INT8_MAX
#define INT_FAST8_MIN INT8_MIN
#define UINT_FAST8_MAX UINT8_MAX
#define INT_FAST16_MAX INT16_MAX
#define INT_FAST16_MIN INT16_MIN
#define UINT_FAST16_MAX UINT16_MAX
#define INT_FAST32_MAX INT32_MAX
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.8
•
•
•
•
•
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
158
#define INT_FAST32_MIN INT32_MIN
#define UINT_FAST32_MAX UINT32_MAX
#define INT_FAST64_MAX INT64_MAX
#define INT_FAST64_MIN INT64_MIN
#define UINT_FAST64_MAX UINT64_MAX
Limits of integer types capable of holding object pointers
• #define INTPTR_MAX INT16_MAX
• #define INTPTR_MIN INT16_MIN
• #define UINTPTR_MAX UINT16_MAX
Limits of greatest-width integer types
• #define INTMAX_MAX INT64_MAX
• #define INTMAX_MIN INT64_MIN
• #define UINTMAX_MAX UINT64_MAX
Limits of other integer types
C++ implementations should define these macros only when __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS is defined before <stdint.h> is included
•
•
•
•
•
#define PTRDIFF_MAX INT16_MAX
#define PTRDIFF_MIN INT16_MIN
#define SIG_ATOMIC_MAX INT8_MAX
#define SIG_ATOMIC_MIN INT8_MIN
#define SIZE_MAX (__CONCAT(INT16_MAX, U))
Macros for integer constants
C++ implementations should define these macros only when __STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS is defined before <stdint.h> is included.
These definitions are valid for integer constants without suffix and for macros defined
as integer constant without suffix
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT8_C(value) ((int8_t) value)
#define UINT8_C(value) ((uint8_t) __CONCAT(value, U))
#define INT16_C(value) value
#define UINT16_C(value) __CONCAT(value, U)
#define INT32_C(value) __CONCAT(value, L)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.8
•
•
•
•
•
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
#define UINT32_C(value) __CONCAT(value, UL)
#define INT64_C(value) __CONCAT(value, LL)
#define UINT64_C(value) __CONCAT(value, ULL)
#define INTMAX_C(value) __CONCAT(value, LL)
#define UINTMAX_C(value) __CONCAT(value, ULL)
22.8.2
22.8.2.1
Define Documentation
#define INT16_C(value) value
define a constant of type int16_t
22.8.2.2
#define INT16_MAX 0x7fff
largest positive value an int16_t can hold.
22.8.2.3
#define INT16_MIN (-INT16_MAX - 1)
smallest negative value an int16_t can hold.
22.8.2.4
#define INT32_C(value) __CONCAT(value, L)
define a constant of type int32_t
22.8.2.5
#define INT32_MAX 0x7fffffffL
largest positive value an int32_t can hold.
22.8.2.6
#define INT32_MIN (-INT32_MAX - 1L)
smallest negative value an int32_t can hold.
22.8.2.7
#define INT64_C(value) __CONCAT(value, LL)
define a constant of type int64_t
22.8.2.8
#define INT64_MAX 0x7fffffffffffffffLL
largest positive value an int64_t can hold.
22.8.2.9
#define INT64_MIN (-INT64_MAX - 1LL)
smallest negative value an int64_t can hold.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
159
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8.2.10
#define INT8_C(value) ((int8_t) value)
define a constant of type int8_t
22.8.2.11
#define INT8_MAX 0x7f
largest positive value an int8_t can hold.
22.8.2.12
#define INT8_MIN (-INT8_MAX - 1)
smallest negative value an int8_t can hold.
22.8.2.13
#define INT_FAST16_MAX INT16_MAX
largest positive value an int_fast16_t can hold.
22.8.2.14
#define INT_FAST16_MIN INT16_MIN
smallest negative value an int_fast16_t can hold.
22.8.2.15
#define INT_FAST32_MAX INT32_MAX
largest positive value an int_fast32_t can hold.
22.8.2.16
#define INT_FAST32_MIN INT32_MIN
smallest negative value an int_fast32_t can hold.
22.8.2.17
#define INT_FAST64_MAX INT64_MAX
largest positive value an int_fast64_t can hold.
22.8.2.18
#define INT_FAST64_MIN INT64_MIN
smallest negative value an int_fast64_t can hold.
22.8.2.19
#define INT_FAST8_MAX INT8_MAX
largest positive value an int_fast8_t can hold.
22.8.2.20
#define INT_FAST8_MIN INT8_MIN
smallest negative value an int_fast8_t can hold.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
160
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8.2.21
#define INT_LEAST16_MAX INT16_MAX
largest positive value an int_least16_t can hold.
22.8.2.22
#define INT_LEAST16_MIN INT16_MIN
smallest negative value an int_least16_t can hold.
22.8.2.23
#define INT_LEAST32_MAX INT32_MAX
largest positive value an int_least32_t can hold.
22.8.2.24
#define INT_LEAST32_MIN INT32_MIN
smallest negative value an int_least32_t can hold.
22.8.2.25
#define INT_LEAST64_MAX INT64_MAX
largest positive value an int_least64_t can hold.
22.8.2.26
#define INT_LEAST64_MIN INT64_MIN
smallest negative value an int_least64_t can hold.
22.8.2.27
#define INT_LEAST8_MAX INT8_MAX
largest positive value an int_least8_t can hold.
22.8.2.28
#define INT_LEAST8_MIN INT8_MIN
smallest negative value an int_least8_t can hold.
22.8.2.29
#define INTMAX_C(value) __CONCAT(value, LL)
define a constant of type intmax_t
22.8.2.30
#define INTMAX_MAX INT64_MAX
largest positive value an intmax_t can hold.
22.8.2.31
#define INTMAX_MIN INT64_MIN
smallest negative value an intmax_t can hold.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
161
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8.2.32
162
#define INTPTR_MAX INT16_MAX
largest positive value an intptr_t can hold.
22.8.2.33
#define INTPTR_MIN INT16_MIN
smallest negative value an intptr_t can hold.
22.8.2.34
#define PTRDIFF_MAX INT16_MAX
largest positive value a ptrdiff_t can hold.
22.8.2.35
#define PTRDIFF_MIN INT16_MIN
smallest negative value a ptrdiff_t can hold.
22.8.2.36
#define SIG_ATOMIC_MAX INT8_MAX
largest positive value a sig_atomic_t can hold.
22.8.2.37
#define SIG_ATOMIC_MIN INT8_MIN
smallest negative value a sig_atomic_t can hold.
22.8.2.38
#define SIZE_MAX (__CONCAT(INT16_MAX, U))
largest value a size_t can hold.
22.8.2.39
#define UINT16_C(value) __CONCAT(value, U)
define a constant of type uint16_t
22.8.2.40
#define UINT16_MAX (__CONCAT(INT16_MAX, U) ∗ 2U + 1U)
largest value an uint16_t can hold.
22.8.2.41
#define UINT32_C(value) __CONCAT(value, UL)
define a constant of type uint32_t
22.8.2.42
#define UINT32_MAX (__CONCAT(INT32_MAX, U) ∗ 2UL + 1UL)
largest value an uint32_t can hold.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.8
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8.2.43
163
#define UINT64_C(value) __CONCAT(value, ULL)
define a constant of type uint64_t
22.8.2.44
1ULL)
#define UINT64_MAX (__CONCAT(INT64_MAX, U) ∗ 2ULL +
largest value an uint64_t can hold.
22.8.2.45
#define UINT8_C(value) ((uint8_t) __CONCAT(value, U))
define a constant of type uint8_t
22.8.2.46
#define UINT8_MAX (__CONCAT(INT8_MAX, U) ∗ 2U + 1U)
largest value an uint8_t can hold.
22.8.2.47
#define UINT_FAST16_MAX UINT16_MAX
largest value an uint_fast16_t can hold.
22.8.2.48
#define UINT_FAST32_MAX UINT32_MAX
largest value an uint_fast32_t can hold.
22.8.2.49
#define UINT_FAST64_MAX UINT64_MAX
largest value an uint_fast64_t can hold.
22.8.2.50
#define UINT_FAST8_MAX UINT8_MAX
largest value an uint_fast8_t can hold.
22.8.2.51
#define UINT_LEAST16_MAX UINT16_MAX
largest value an uint_least16_t can hold.
22.8.2.52
#define UINT_LEAST32_MAX UINT32_MAX
largest value an uint_least32_t can hold.
22.8.2.53
#define UINT_LEAST64_MAX UINT64_MAX
largest value an uint_least64_t can hold.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8
22.8.2.54
#define UINT_LEAST8_MAX UINT8_MAX
largest value an uint_least8_t can hold.
22.8.2.55
#define UINTMAX_C(value) __CONCAT(value, ULL)
define a constant of type uintmax_t
22.8.2.56
#define UINTMAX_MAX UINT64_MAX
largest value an uintmax_t can hold.
22.8.2.57
#define UINTPTR_MAX UINT16_MAX
largest value an uintptr_t can hold.
22.8.3
22.8.3.1
Typedef Documentation
typedef signed int int16_t
16-bit signed type.
22.8.3.2
typedef signed long int int32_t
32-bit signed type.
22.8.3.3
typedef signed long long int int64_t
64-bit signed type.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.8.3.4
typedef signed char int8_t
8-bit signed type.
22.8.3.5
typedef int16_t int_fast16_t
fastest signed int with at least 16 bits.
22.8.3.6
typedef int32_t int_fast32_t
fastest signed int with at least 32 bits.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
164
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8
22.8.3.7
typedef int64_t int_fast64_t
fastest signed int with at least 64 bits.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.8.3.8
typedef int8_t int_fast8_t
fastest signed int with at least 8 bits.
22.8.3.9
typedef int16_t int_least16_t
signed int with at least 16 bits.
22.8.3.10
typedef int32_t int_least32_t
signed int with at least 32 bits.
22.8.3.11
typedef int64_t int_least64_t
signed int with at least 64 bits.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.8.3.12
typedef int8_t int_least8_t
signed int with at least 8 bits.
22.8.3.13
typedef int64_t intmax_t
largest signed int available.
22.8.3.14
typedef int16_t intptr_t
Signed pointer compatible type.
22.8.3.15
typedef unsigned int uint16_t
16-bit unsigned type.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
165
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types
22.8
22.8.3.16
typedef unsigned long int uint32_t
32-bit unsigned type.
22.8.3.17
typedef unsigned long long int uint64_t
64-bit unsigned type.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.8.3.18
typedef unsigned char uint8_t
8-bit unsigned type.
22.8.3.19
typedef uint16_t uint_fast16_t
fastest unsigned int with at least 16 bits.
22.8.3.20
typedef uint32_t uint_fast32_t
fastest unsigned int with at least 32 bits.
22.8.3.21
typedef uint64_t uint_fast64_t
fastest unsigned int with at least 64 bits.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.8.3.22
typedef uint8_t uint_fast8_t
fastest unsigned int with at least 8 bits.
22.8.3.23
typedef uint16_t uint_least16_t
unsigned int with at least 16 bits.
22.8.3.24
typedef uint32_t uint_least32_t
unsigned int with at least 32 bits.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
166
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9
22.8.3.25
167
typedef uint64_t uint_least64_t
unsigned int with at least 64 bits.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.8.3.26
typedef uint8_t uint_least8_t
unsigned int with at least 8 bits.
22.8.3.27
typedef uint64_t uintmax_t
largest unsigned int available.
22.8.3.28
typedef uint16_t uintptr_t
Unsigned pointer compatible type.
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9.1
Detailed Description
#include <stdio.h>
Introduction to the Standard IO facilities This file declares the standard IO facilities that are implemented in avr-libc. Due to the nature of the underlying hardware,
only a limited subset of standard IO is implemented. There is no actual file implementation available, so only device IO can be performed. Since there’s no operating system,
the application needs to provide enough details about their devices in order to make
them usable by the standard IO facilities.
Due to space constraints, some functionality has not been implemented at all (like some
of the printf conversions that have been left out). Nevertheless, potential users of
this implementation should be warned: the printf and scanf families of functions,
although usually associated with presumably simple things like the famous "Hello,
world!" program, are actually fairly complex which causes their inclusion to eat up
a fair amount of code space. Also, they are not fast due to the nature of interpreting
the format string at run-time. Whenever possible, resorting to the (sometimes nonstandard) predetermined conversion facilities that are offered by avr-libc will usually
cost much less in terms of speed and code size.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
168
Tunable options for code size vs. feature set In order to allow programmers a code
size vs. functionality tradeoff, the function vfprintf() which is the heart of the printf
family can be selected in different flavours using linker options. See the documentation
of vfprintf() for a detailed description. The same applies to vfscanf() and the scanf
family of functions.
Outline of the chosen API The standard streams stdin, stdout, and stderr are
provided, but contrary to the C standard, since avr-libc has no knowledge about applicable devices, these streams are not already pre-initialized at application startup. Also,
since there is no notion of "file" whatsoever to avr-libc, there is no function fopen()
that could be used to associate a stream to some device. (See note 1.) Instead, the
function fdevopen() is provided to associate a stream to a device, where the device
needs to provide a function to send a character, to receive a character, or both. There
is no differentiation between "text" and "binary" streams inside avr-libc. Character \n
is sent literally down to the device’s put() function. If the device requires a carriage
return (\r) character to be sent before the linefeed, its put() routine must implement
this (see note 2).
As an alternative method to fdevopen(), the macro fdev_setup_stream() might be used
to setup a user-supplied FILE structure.
It should be noted that the automatic conversion of a newline character into a carriage
return - newline sequence breaks binary transfers. If binary transfers are desired, no
automatic conversion should be performed, but instead any string that aims to issue a
CR-LF sequence must use "\r\n" explicitly.
For convenience, the first call to fdevopen() that opens a stream for reading
will cause the resulting stream to be aliased to stdin. Likewise, the first call to
fdevopen() that opens a stream for writing will cause the resulting stream to be
aliased to both, stdout, and stderr. Thus, if the open was done with both, read
and write intent, all three standard streams will be identical. Note that these aliases are
indistinguishable from each other, thus calling fclose() on such a stream will also
effectively close all of its aliases (note 3).
It is possible to tie additional user data to a stream, using fdev_set_udata(). The backend put and get functions can then extract this user data using fdev_get_udata(), and act
appropriately. For example, a single put function could be used to talk to two different
UARTs that way, or the put and get functions could keep internal state between calls
there.
Format strings in flash ROM All the printf and scanf family functions come
in two flavours: the standard name, where the format string is expected to be in SRAM,
as well as a version with the suffix "_P" where the format string is expected to reside
in the flash ROM. The macro PSTR (explained in <avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space
Utilities) becomes very handy for declaring these format strings.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9
169
Running stdio without malloc() By default, fdevopen() requires malloc(). As this is
often not desired in the limited environment of a microcontroller, an alternative option
is provided to run completely without malloc().
The macro fdev_setup_stream() is provided to prepare a user-supplied FILE buffer for
operation with stdio.
Example
#include <stdio.h>
static int uart_putchar(char c, FILE *stream);
static FILE mystdout = FDEV_SETUP_STREAM(uart_putchar, NULL,
_FDEV_SETUP_WRITE);
static int
uart_putchar(char c, FILE *stream)
{
if (c == ’\n’)
uart_putchar(’\r’, stream);
loop_until_bit_is_set(UCSRA, UDRE);
UDR = c;
return 0;
}
int
main(void)
{
init_uart();
stdout = &mystdout;
printf("Hello, world!\n");
return 0;
}
This example uses the initializer form FDEV_SETUP_STREAM() rather than the
function-like fdev_setup_stream(), so all data initialization happens during C start-up.
If streams initialized that way are no longer needed, they can be destroyed by first
calling the macro fdev_close(), and then destroying the object itself. No call to fclose()
should be issued for these streams. While calling fclose() itself is harmless, it will cause
an undefined reference to free() and thus cause the linker to link the malloc module into
the application.
Notes
Note 1:
It might have been possible to implement a device abstraction that is compatible
with fopen() but since this would have required to parse a string, and to take all
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9
170
the information needed either out of this string, or out of an additional table that
would need to be provided by the application, this approach was not taken.
Note 2:
This basically follows the Unix approach: if a device such as a terminal needs
special handling, it is in the domain of the terminal device driver to provide this
functionality. Thus, a simple function suitable as put() for fdevopen() that
talks to a UART interface might look like this:
int
uart_putchar(char c, FILE *stream)
{
if (c == ’\n’)
uart_putchar(’\r’);
loop_until_bit_is_set(UCSRA, UDRE);
UDR = c;
return 0;
}
Note 3:
This implementation has been chosen because the cost of maintaining an alias
is considerably smaller than the cost of maintaining full copies of each stream.
Yet, providing an implementation that offers the complete set of standard
streams was deemed to be useful. Not only that writing printf() instead of
fprintf(mystream, ...) saves typing work, but since avr-gcc needs to resort to pass all arguments of variadic functions on the stack (as opposed to passing
them in registers for functions that take a fixed number of parameters), the ability
to pass one parameter less by implying stdin will also save some execution time.
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define FILE struct __file
#define stdin (__iob[0])
#define stdout (__iob[1])
#define stderr (__iob[2])
#define EOF (-1)
#define fdev_set_udata(stream, u) do { (stream) → udata = u; } while(0)
#define fdev_get_udata(stream) ((stream) → udata)
#define fdev_setup_stream(stream, put, get, rwflag)
#define _FDEV_SETUP_READ __SRD
#define _FDEV_SETUP_WRITE __SWR
#define _FDEV_SETUP_RW (__SRD|__SWR)
#define _FDEV_ERR (-1)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
171
#define _FDEV_EOF (-2)
#define FDEV_SETUP_STREAM(put, get, rwflag)
#define fdev_close()
#define putc(__c, __stream) fputc(__c, __stream)
#define putchar(__c) fputc(__c, stdout)
#define getc(__stream) fgetc(__stream)
#define getchar() fgetc(stdin)
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
int fclose (FILE ∗__stream)
int vfprintf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int vfprintf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int fputc (int __c, FILE ∗__stream)
int printf (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int printf_P (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int vprintf (const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int sprintf (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int sprintf_P (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int snprintf (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int snprintf_P (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int vsprintf (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int vsprintf_P (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int vsnprintf (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int vsnprintf_P (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int fprintf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fprintf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fputs (const char ∗__str, FILE ∗__stream)
int fputs_P (const char ∗__str, FILE ∗__stream)
int puts (const char ∗__str)
int puts_P (const char ∗__str)
size_t fwrite (const void ∗__ptr, size_t __size, size_t __nmemb, FILE ∗__stream)
int fgetc (FILE ∗__stream)
int ungetc (int __c, FILE ∗__stream)
char ∗ fgets (char ∗__str, int __size, FILE ∗__stream)
char ∗ gets (char ∗__str)
size_t fread (void ∗__ptr, size_t __size, size_t __nmemb, FILE ∗__stream)
void clearerr (FILE ∗__stream)
int feof (FILE ∗__stream)
int ferror (FILE ∗__stream)
int vfscanf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
172
int vfscanf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int fscanf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fscanf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int scanf (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int scanf_P (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int vscanf (const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int sscanf (const char ∗__buf, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int sscanf_P (const char ∗__buf, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fflush (FILE ∗stream)
FILE ∗ fdevopen (int(∗put)(char, FILE ∗), int(∗get)(FILE ∗))
22.9.2
22.9.2.1
Define Documentation
#define _FDEV_EOF (-2)
Return code for an end-of-file condition during device read.
To be used in the get function of fdevopen().
22.9.2.2
#define _FDEV_ERR (-1)
Return code for an error condition during device read.
To be used in the get function of fdevopen().
22.9.2.3
#define _FDEV_SETUP_READ __SRD
fdev_setup_stream() with read intent
22.9.2.4
#define _FDEV_SETUP_RW (__SRD|__SWR)
fdev_setup_stream() with read/write intent
22.9.2.5
#define _FDEV_SETUP_WRITE __SWR
fdev_setup_stream() with write intent
22.9.2.6
#define EOF (-1)
EOF declares the value that is returned by various standard IO functions in case of an
error. Since the AVR platform (currently) doesn’t contain an abstraction for actual files,
its origin as "end of file" is somewhat meaningless here.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9
22.9.2.7
173
#define fdev_close()
This macro frees up any library resources that might be associated with stream. It
should be called if stream is no longer needed, right before the application is going
to destroy the stream object itself.
(Currently, this macro evaluates to nothing, but this might change in future versions of
the library.)
22.9.2.8
#define fdev_get_udata(stream) ((stream) → udata)
This macro retrieves a pointer to user defined data from a FILE stream object.
22.9.2.9
#define fdev_set_udata(stream, u) do { (stream) → udata = u; } while(0)
This macro inserts a pointer to user defined data into a FILE stream object.
The user data can be useful for tracking state in the put and get functions supplied to
the fdevopen() function.
22.9.2.10
#define FDEV_SETUP_STREAM(put, get, rwflag)
Initializer for a user-supplied stdio stream.
This macro acts similar to fdev_setup_stream(), but it is to be used as the initializer of
a variable of type FILE.
The remaining arguments are to be used as explained in fdev_setup_stream().
22.9.2.11
#define fdev_setup_stream(stream, put, get, rwflag)
Setup a user-supplied buffer as an stdio stream.
This macro takes a user-supplied buffer stream, and sets it up as a stream that is valid
for stdio operations, similar to one that has been obtained dynamically from fdevopen().
The buffer to setup must be of type FILE.
The arguments put and get are identical to those that need to be passed to fdevopen().
The rwflag argument can take one of the values _FDEV_SETUP_READ, _FDEV_SETUP_WRITE, or _FDEV_SETUP_RW, for read, write, or read/write intent, respectively.
Note:
No assignments to the standard streams will be performed by fdev_setup_stream().
If standard streams are to be used, these need to be assigned by the user. See also
under Running stdio without malloc().
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9.2.12
174
#define FILE struct __file
FILE is the opaque structure that is passed around between the various standard IO
functions.
22.9.2.13
#define getc(__stream) fgetc(__stream)
The macro getc used to be a "fast" macro implementation with a functionality identical to fgetc(). For space constraints, in avr-libc, it is just an alias for fgetc.
22.9.2.14
#define getchar(void) fgetc(stdin)
The macro getchar reads a character from stdin. Return values and error handling
is identical to fgetc().
22.9.2.15
#define putc(__c, __stream) fputc(__c, __stream)
The macro putc used to be a "fast" macro implementation with a functionality identical to fputc(). For space constraints, in avr-libc, it is just an alias for fputc.
22.9.2.16
#define putchar(__c) fputc(__c, stdout)
The macro putchar sends character c to stdout.
22.9.2.17
#define stderr (__iob[2])
Stream destined for error output. Unless specifically assigned, identical to stdout.
If stderr should point to another stream, the result of another fdevopen() must
be explicitly assigned to it without closing the previous stderr (since this would also
close stdout).
22.9.2.18
#define stdin (__iob[0])
Stream that will be used as an input stream by the simplified functions that don’t take
a stream argument.
The first stream opened with read intent using fdevopen() will be assigned to
stdin.
22.9.2.19
#define stdout (__iob[1])
Stream that will be used as an output stream by the simplified functions that don’t take
a stream argument.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
175
The first stream opened with write intent using fdevopen() will be assigned to both,
stdin, and stderr.
22.9.3
22.9.3.1
Function Documentation
void clearerr (FILE ∗ __stream)
Clear the error and end-of-file flags of stream.
22.9.3.2
int fclose (FILE ∗ __stream)
This function closes stream, and disallows and further IO to and from it.
When using fdevopen() to setup the stream, a call to fclose() is needed in order to free
the internal resources allocated.
If the stream has been set up using fdev_setup_stream() or FDEV_SETUP_STREAM(), use fdev_close() instead.
It currently always returns 0 (for success).
22.9.3.3
FILE∗ fdevopen (int(∗)(char, FILE ∗) put, int(∗)(FILE ∗) get)
This function is a replacement for fopen().
It opens a stream for a device where the actual device implementation needs to be
provided by the application. If successful, a pointer to the structure for the opened
stream is returned. Reasons for a possible failure currently include that neither the
put nor the get argument have been provided, thus attempting to open a stream with
no IO intent at all, or that insufficient dynamic memory is available to establish a new
stream.
If the put function pointer is provided, the stream is opened with write intent. The
function passed as put shall take two arguments, the first a character to write to the
device, and the second a pointer to FILE, and shall return 0 if the output was successful,
and a nonzero value if the character could not be sent to the device.
If the get function pointer is provided, the stream is opened with read intent. The
function passed as get shall take a pointer to FILE as its single argument, and return
one character from the device, passed as an int type. If an error occurs when trying
to read from the device, it shall return _FDEV_ERR. If an end-of-file condition was
reached while reading from the device, _FDEV_EOF shall be returned.
If both functions are provided, the stream is opened with read and write intent.
The first stream opened with read intent is assigned to stdin, and the first one opened
with write intent is assigned to both, stdout and stderr.
fdevopen() uses calloc() (und thus malloc()) in order to allocate the storage for the new
stream.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9
176
Note:
If the macro __STDIO_FDEVOPEN_COMPAT_12 is declared before including
<stdio.h>, a function prototype for fdevopen() will be chosen that is backwards
compatible with avr-libc version 1.2 and before. This is solely intented for providing a simple migration path without the need to immediately change all source
code. Do not use for new code.
22.9.3.4
int feof (FILE ∗ __stream)
Test the end-of-file flag of stream. This flag can only be cleared by a call to clearerr().
22.9.3.5
int ferror (FILE ∗ __stream)
Test the error flag of stream. This flag can only be cleared by a call to clearerr().
22.9.3.6
int fflush (FILE ∗ stream)
Flush stream.
This is a null operation provided for source-code compatibility only, as the standard IO
implementation currently does not perform any buffering.
22.9.3.7
int fgetc (FILE ∗ __stream)
The function fgetc reads a character from stream. It returns the character, or EOF
in case end-of-file was encountered or an error occurred. The routines feof() or ferror()
must be used to distinguish between both situations.
22.9.3.8
char∗ fgets (char ∗ __str, int __size, FILE ∗ __stream)
Read at most size - 1 bytes from stream, until a newline character was encountered, and store the characters in the buffer pointed to by str. Unless an error was
encountered while reading, the string will then be terminated with a NUL character.
If an error was encountered, the function returns NULL and sets the error flag of
stream, which can be tested using ferror(). Otherwise, a pointer to the string will
be returned.
22.9.3.9
int fprintf (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
The function fprintf performs formatted output to stream. See vfprintf()
for details.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9.3.10
177
int fprintf_P (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of fprintf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
22.9.3.11
int fputc (int __c, FILE ∗ __stream)
The function fputc sends the character c (though given as type int) to stream. It
returns the character, or EOF in case an error occurred.
22.9.3.12
int fputs (const char ∗ __str, FILE ∗ __stream)
Write the string pointed to by str to stream stream.
Returns 0 on success and EOF on error.
22.9.3.13
int fputs_P (const char ∗ __str, FILE ∗ __stream)
Variant of fputs() where str resides in program memory.
22.9.3.14
stream)
size_t fread (void ∗ __ptr, size_t __size, size_t __nmemb, FILE ∗ __-
Read nmemb objects, size bytes each, from stream, to the buffer pointed to by
ptr.
Returns the number of objects successfully read, i. e. nmemb unless an input error
occured or end-of-file was encountered. feof() and ferror() must be used to distinguish
between these two conditions.
22.9.3.15
int fscanf (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
The function fscanf performs formatted input, reading the input data from stream.
See vfscanf() for details.
22.9.3.16
int fscanf_P (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of fscanf() using a fmt string in program memory.
22.9.3.17 size_t fwrite (const void ∗ __ptr, size_t __size, size_t __nmemb, FILE
∗ __stream)
Write nmemb objects, size bytes each, to stream. The first byte of the first object
is referenced by ptr.
Returns the number of objects successfully written, i. e. nmemb unless an output error
occured.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9.3.18
178
char∗ gets (char ∗ __str)
Similar to fgets() except that it will operate on stream stdin, and the trailing newline
(if any) will not be stored in the string. It is the caller’s responsibility to provide enough
storage to hold the characters read.
22.9.3.19
int printf (const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
The function printf performs formatted output to stream stderr.
vfprintf() for details.
22.9.3.20
See
int printf_P (const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of printf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
22.9.3.21
int puts (const char ∗ __str)
Write the string pointed to by str, and a trailing newline character, to stdout.
22.9.3.22
int puts_P (const char ∗ __str)
Variant of puts() where str resides in program memory.
22.9.3.23
int scanf (const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
The function scanf performs formatted input from stream stdin.
See vfscanf() for details.
22.9.3.24
int scanf_P (const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of scanf() where fmt resides in program memory.
22.9.3.25
int snprintf (char ∗ __s, size_t __n, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Like sprintf(), but instead of assuming s to be of infinite size, no more than n
characters (including the trailing NUL character) will be converted to s.
Returns the number of characters that would have been written to s if there were
enough space.
22.9.3.26
int snprintf_P (char ∗ __s, size_t __n, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of snprintf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
22.9.3.27
179
int sprintf (char ∗ __s, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of printf() that sends the formatted characters to string s.
22.9.3.28
int sprintf_P (char ∗ __s, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of sprintf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
22.9.3.29
int sscanf (const char ∗ __buf, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
The function sscanf performs formatted input, reading the input data from the buffer
pointed to by buf.
See vfscanf() for details.
22.9.3.30
int sscanf_P (const char ∗ __buf, const char ∗ __fmt, ...)
Variant of sscanf() using a fmt string in program memory.
22.9.3.31
int ungetc (int __c, FILE ∗ __stream)
The ungetc() function pushes the character c (converted to an unsigned char) back onto
the input stream pointed to by stream. The pushed-back character will be returned
by a subsequent read on the stream.
Currently, only a single character can be pushed back onto the stream.
The ungetc() function returns the character pushed back after the conversion, or EOF if
the operation fails. If the value of the argument c character equals EOF, the operation
will fail and the stream will remain unchanged.
22.9.3.32
int vfprintf (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list __ap)
vfprintf is the central facility of the printf family of functions. It outputs values
to stream under control of a format string passed in fmt. The actual values to print
are passed as a variable argument list ap.
vfprintf returns the number of characters written to stream, or EOF in case of
an error. Currently, this will only happen if stream has not been opened with write
intent.
The format string is composed of zero or more directives: ordinary characters (not
%), which are copied unchanged to the output stream; and conversion specifications,
each of which results in fetching zero or more subsequent arguments. Each conversion
specification is introduced by the % character. The arguments must properly correspond
(after type promotion) with the conversion specifier. After the %, the following appear
in sequence:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
180
• Zero or more of the following flags:
– # The value should be converted to an "alternate form". For c, d, i, s, and
u conversions, this option has no effect. For o conversions, the precision of
the number is increased to force the first character of the output string to
a zero (except if a zero value is printed with an explicit precision of zero).
For x and X conversions, a non-zero result has the string ‘0x’ (or ‘0X’ for
X conversions) prepended to it.
– 0 (zero) Zero padding. For all conversions, the converted value is padded
on the left with zeros rather than blanks. If a precision is given with a
numeric conversion (d, i, o, u, i, x, and X), the 0 flag is ignored.
– - A negative field width flag; the converted value is to be left adjusted on
the field boundary. The converted value is padded on the right with blanks,
rather than on the left with blanks or zeros. A - overrides a 0 if both are
given.
– ’ ’ (space) A blank should be left before a positive number produced by a
signed conversion (d, or i).
– + A sign must always be placed before a number produced by a signed
conversion. A + overrides a space if both are used.
• An optional decimal digit string specifying a minimum field width. If the converted value has fewer characters than the field width, it will be padded with
spaces on the left (or right, if the left-adjustment flag has been given) to fill out
the field width.
• An optional precision, in the form of a period . followed by an optional digit
string. If the digit string is omitted, the precision is taken as zero. This gives the
minimum number of digits to appear for d, i, o, u, x, and X conversions, or the
maximum number of characters to be printed from a string for s conversions.
• An optional l or h length modifier, that specifies that the argument for the d, i,
o, u, x, or X conversion is a "long int" rather than int. The h is ignored,
as "short int" is equivalent to int.
• A character that specifies the type of conversion to be applied.
The conversion specifiers and their meanings are:
• diouxX The int (or appropriate variant) argument is converted to signed decimal
(d and i), unsigned octal (o), unsigned decimal (u), or unsigned hexadecimal
(x and X) notation. The letters "abcdef" are used for x conversions; the letters
"ABCDEF" are used for X conversions. The precision, if any, gives the minimum
number of digits that must appear; if the converted value requires fewer digits, it
is padded on the left with zeros.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
181
• p The void ∗ argument is taken as an unsigned integer, and converted similarly
as a %#x command would do.
• c The int argument is converted to an "unsigned char", and the resulting
character is written.
• s The "char ∗" argument is expected to be a pointer to an array of character
type (pointer to a string). Characters from the array are written up to (but not
including) a terminating NUL character; if a precision is specified, no more than
the number specified are written. If a precision is given, no null character need
be present; if the precision is not specified, or is greater than the size of the array,
the array must contain a terminating NUL character.
• % A % is written. No argument is converted. The complete conversion specification is "%%".
• eE The double argument is rounded and converted in the format
"[-]d.ddde±dd" where there is one digit before the decimal-point character and the number of digits after it is equal to the precision; if the precision
is missing, it is taken as 6; if the precision is zero, no decimal-point character
appears. An E conversion uses the letter ’E’ (rather than ’e’) to introduce
the exponent. The exponent always contains two digits; if the value is zero, the
exponent is 00.
• fF The double argument is rounded and converted to decimal notation in the
format "[-]ddd.ddd", where the number of digits after the decimal-point
character is equal to the precision specification. If the precision is missing, it is
taken as 6; if the precision is explicitly zero, no decimal-point character appears.
If a decimal point appears, at least one digit appears before it.
• gG The double argument is converted in style f or e (or F or E for G conversions). The precision specifies the number of significant digits. If the precision
is missing, 6 digits are given; if the precision is zero, it is treated as 1. Style e is
used if the exponent from its conversion is less than -4 or greater than or equal to
the precision. Trailing zeros are removed from the fractional part of the result; a
decimal point appears only if it is followed by at least one digit.
• S Similar to the s format, except the pointer is expected to point to a programmemory (ROM) string instead of a RAM string.
In no case does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of a numeric field;
if the result of a conversion is wider than the field width, the field is expanded to contain
the conversion result.
Since the full implementation of all the mentioned features becomes fairly large, three
different flavours of vfprintf() can be selected using linker options. The default vfprintf() implements all the mentioned functionality except floating point conversions.
A minimized version of vfprintf() is available that only implements the very basic integer and string conversion facilities, but only the # additional option can be specified
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
182
using conversion flags (these flags are parsed correctly from the format specification,
but then simply ignored). This version can be requested using the following compiler
options:
-Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min
If the full functionality including the floating point conversions is required, the following options should be used:
-Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt -lm
Limitations:
• The specified width and precision can be at most 255.
Notes:
• For floating-point conversions, if you link default or minimized version of
vfprintf(), the symbol ? will be output and double argument will be skiped.
So you output below will not be crashed. For default version the width field
and the "pad to left" ( symbol minus ) option will work in this case.
• The hh length modifier is ignored (char argument is promouted to int).
More exactly, this realization does not check the number of h symbols.
• But the ll length modifier will to abort the output, as this realization does
not operate long long arguments.
• The variable width or precision field (an asterisk ∗ symbol) is not realized
and will to abort the output.
22.9.3.33
int vfprintf_P (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list __ap)
Variant of vfprintf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
22.9.3.34
int vfscanf (FILE ∗ stream, const char ∗ fmt, va_list ap)
Formatted input. This function is the heart of the scanf family of functions.
Characters are read from stream and processed in a way described by fmt. Conversion
results will be assigned to the parameters passed via ap.
The format string fmt is scanned for conversion specifications. Anything that doesn’t
comprise a conversion specification is taken as text that is matched literally against
the input. White space in the format string will match any white space in the data
(including none), all other characters match only itself. Processing is aborted as soon as
the data and format string no longer match, or there is an error or end-of-file condition
on stream.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
183
Most conversions skip leading white space before starting the actual conversion.
Conversions are introduced with the character %. Possible options can follow the %:
• a ∗ indicating that the conversion should be performed but the conversion result
is to be discarded; no parameters will be processed from ap,
• the character h indicating that the argument is a pointer to short int (rather
than int),
• the 2 characters hh indicating that the argument is a pointer to char (rather than
int).
• the character l indicating that the argument is a pointer to long int (rather
than int, for integer type conversions), or a pointer to double (for floating
point conversions),
In addition, a maximal field width may be specified as a nonzero positive decimal
integer, which will restrict the conversion to at most this many characters from the
input stream. This field width is limited to at most 255 characters which is also the
default value (except for the c conversion that defaults to 1).
The following conversion flags are supported:
• % Matches a literal % character. This is not a conversion.
• d Matches an optionally signed decimal integer; the next pointer must be a
pointer to int.
• i Matches an optionally signed integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to
int. The integer is read in base 16 if it begins with 0x or 0X, in base 8 if it
begins with 0, and in base 10 otherwise. Only characters that correspond to the
base are used.
• o Matches an octal integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to unsigned
int.
• u Matches an optionally signed decimal integer; the next pointer must be a
pointer to unsigned int.
• x Matches an optionally signed hexadecimal integer; the next pointer must be a
pointer to unsigned int.
• f Matches an optionally signed floating-point number; the next pointer must be
a pointer to float.
• e, g, F, E, G Equivalent to f.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
184
• s Matches a sequence of non-white-space characters; the next pointer must be a
pointer to char, and the array must be large enough to accept all the sequence
and the terminating NUL character. The input string stops at white space or at the
maximum field width, whichever occurs first.
• c Matches a sequence of width count characters (default 1); the next pointer must
be a pointer to char, and there must be enough room for all the characters (no
terminating NUL is added). The usual skip of leading white space is suppressed.
To skip white space first, use an explicit space in the format.
• [ Matches a nonempty sequence of characters from the specified set of accepted
characters; the next pointer must be a pointer to char, and there must be enough
room for all the characters in the string, plus a terminating NUL character. The
usual skip of leading white space is suppressed. The string is to be made up
of characters in (or not in) a particular set; the set is defined by the characters
between the open bracket [ character and a close bracket ] character. The set
excludes those characters if the first character after the open bracket is a circumflex ∧ . To include a close bracket in the set, make it the first character after the
open bracket or the circumflex; any other position will end the set. The hyphen
character - is also special; when placed between two other characters, it adds all
intervening characters to the set. To include a hyphen, make it the last character
before the final close bracket. For instance, [∧ ]0-9-] means the set of everything except close bracket, zero through nine, and hyphen. The string ends with
the appearance of a character not in the (or, with a circumflex, in) set or when
the field width runs out. Note that usage of this conversion enlarges the stack
expense.
• p Matches a pointer value (as printed by p in printf()); the next pointer must be
a pointer to void.
• n Nothing is expected; instead, the number of characters consumed thus far from
the input is stored through the next pointer, which must be a pointer to int. This
is not a conversion, although it can be suppressed with the ∗ flag.
These functions return the number of input items assigned, which can be fewer than
provided for, or even zero, in the event of a matching failure. Zero indicates that, while
there was input available, no conversions were assigned; typically this is due to an
invalid input character, such as an alphabetic character for a d conversion. The value
EOF is returned if an input failure occurs before any conversion such as an end-of-file
occurs. If an error or end-of-file occurs after conversion has begun, the number of
conversions which were successfully completed is returned.
By default, all the conversions described above are available except the floating-point
conversions and the width is limited to 255 characters. The float-point conversion will
be available in the extended version provided by the library libscanf_flt.a. Also
in this case the width is not limited (exactly, it is limited to 65535 characters). To link
a program against the extended version, use the following compiler flags in the link
stage:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.9
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities
185
-Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt -lm
A third version is available for environments that are tight on space. In addition to
the restrictions of the standard one, this version implements no %[ specification. This
version is provided in the library libscanf_min.a, and can be requested using the
following options in the link stage:
-Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min -lm
22.9.3.35
int vfscanf_P (FILE ∗ __stream, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list __ap)
Variant of vfscanf() using a fmt string in program memory.
22.9.3.36
int vprintf (const char ∗ __fmt, va_list __ap)
The function vprintf performs formatted output to stream stdout, taking a variable argument list as in vfprintf().
See vfprintf() for details.
22.9.3.37
int vscanf (const char ∗ __fmt, va_list __ap)
The function vscanf performs formatted input from stream stdin, taking a variable
argument list as in vfscanf().
See vfscanf() for details.
22.9.3.38
int vsnprintf (char ∗ __s, size_t __n, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list ap)
Like vsprintf(), but instead of assuming s to be of infinite size, no more than n
characters (including the trailing NUL character) will be converted to s.
Returns the number of characters that would have been written to s if there were
enough space.
22.9.3.39
int vsnprintf_P (char ∗ __s, size_t __n, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list ap)
Variant of vsnprintf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
22.9.3.40
int vsprintf (char ∗ __s, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list ap)
Like sprintf() but takes a variable argument list for the arguments.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10
22.9.3.41
186
int vsprintf_P (char ∗ __s, const char ∗ __fmt, va_list ap)
Variant of vsprintf() that uses a fmt string that resides in program memory.
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10.1
Detailed Description
#include <stdlib.h>
This file declares some basic C macros and functions as defined by the ISO standard,
plus some AVR-specific extensions.
Data Structures
• struct div_t
• struct ldiv_t
Non-standard (i.e. non-ISO C) functions.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
char ∗ ltoa (long int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
char ∗ utoa (unsigned int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
char ∗ ultoa (unsigned long int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
long random (void)
void srandom (unsigned long __seed)
long random_r (unsigned long ∗__ctx)
char ∗ itoa (int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
#define RANDOM_MAX 0x7FFFFFFF
Conversion functions for double arguments.
Note that these functions are not located in the default library, libc.a, but in the
mathematical library, libm.a. So when linking the application, the -lm option needs
to be specified.
• char ∗ dtostre (double __val, char ∗__s, unsigned char __prec, unsigned char
__flags)
• char ∗ dtostrf (double __val, signed char __width, unsigned char __prec, char
∗__s)
• #define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN 0x01
• #define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN 0x02
• #define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE 0x04
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10
187
Defines
• #define RAND_MAX 0x7FFF
Typedefs
• typedef int(∗ __compar_fn_t )(const void ∗, const void ∗)
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
void abort (void) __ATTR_NORETURN__
int abs (int __i)
long labs (long __i)
void ∗ bsearch (const void ∗__key, const void ∗__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t
__size, int(∗__compar)(const void ∗, const void ∗))
div_t div (int __num, int __denom) __asm__("__divmodhi4")
ldiv_t ldiv (long __num, long __denom) __asm__("__divmodsi4")
void qsort (void ∗__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, __compar_fn_t __compar)
long strtol (const char ∗__nptr, char ∗∗__endptr, int __base)
unsigned long strtoul (const char ∗__nptr, char ∗∗__endptr, int __base)
long atol (const char ∗__s) __ATTR_PURE__
int atoi (const char ∗__s) __ATTR_PURE__
void exit (int __status) __ATTR_NORETURN__
void ∗ malloc (size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
void free (void ∗__ptr)
void ∗ calloc (size_t __nele, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
void ∗ realloc (void ∗__ptr, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
double strtod (const char ∗__nptr, char ∗∗__endptr)
double atof (const char ∗__nptr)
int rand (void)
void srand (unsigned int __seed)
int rand_r (unsigned long ∗__ctx)
Variables
• size_t __malloc_margin
• char ∗ __malloc_heap_start
• char ∗ __malloc_heap_end
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10.2
22.10.2.1
188
Define Documentation
#define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN 0x01
Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().
22.10.2.2
#define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN 0x02
Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().
22.10.2.3
#define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE 0x04
Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().
22.10.2.4
#define RAND_MAX 0x7FFF
Highest number that can be generated by rand().
22.10.2.5
#define RANDOM_MAX 0x7FFFFFFF
Highest number that can be generated by random().
22.10.3
22.10.3.1
Typedef Documentation
typedef int(∗ __compar_fn_t)(const void ∗, const void ∗)
Comparision function type for qsort(), just for convenience.
22.10.4
22.10.4.1
Function Documentation
void abort (void)
The abort() function causes abnormal program termination to occur. This realization
disables interrupts and jumps to _exit() function with argument equal to 1. In the
limited AVR environment, execution is effectively halted by entering an infinite loop.
22.10.4.2
int abs (int __i)
The abs() function computes the absolute value of the integer i.
Note:
The abs() and labs() functions are builtins of gcc.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10.4.3
189
double atof (const char ∗ nptr)
The atof() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by nptr to double
representation.
It is equivalent to calling
strtod(nptr, (char **)0);
22.10.4.4
int atoi (const char ∗ s)
Convert a string to an integer.
The atoi() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by s to integer
representation. In contrast to
(int)strtol(s, (char **)NULL, 10);
this function does not detect overflow (errno is not changed and the result value is
not predictable), uses smaller memory (flash and stack) and works more quickly.
22.10.4.5
long atol (const char ∗ s)
Convert a string to a long integer.
The atol() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by s to long
integer representation. In contrast to
strtol(s, (char **)NULL, 10);
this function does not detect overflow (errno is not changed and the result value is
not predictable), uses smaller memory (flash and stack) and works more quickly.
22.10.4.6 void∗ bsearch (const void ∗ __key, const void ∗ __base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, int(∗)(const void ∗, const void ∗) __compar)
The bsearch() function searches an array of nmemb objects, the initial member of
which is pointed to by base, for a member that matches the object pointed to by
key. The size of each member of the array is specified by size.
The contents of the array should be in ascending sorted order according to the comparison function referenced by compar. The compar routine is expected to have two
arguments which point to the key object and to an array member, in that order, and
should return an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the key object is
found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than the array member.
The bsearch() function returns a pointer to a matching member of the array, or a null
pointer if no match is found. If two members compare as equal, which member is
matched is unspecified.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10.4.7
190
void∗ calloc (size_t __nele, size_t __size)
Allocate nele elements of size each. Identical to calling malloc() using nele
∗ size as argument, except the allocated memory will be cleared to zero.
22.10.4.8
div_t div (int __num, int __denom)
The div() function computes the value num/denom and returns the quotient and remainder in a structure named div_t that contains two int members named quot and
rem.
22.10.4.9 char∗ dtostre (double __val, char ∗ __s, unsigned char __prec, unsigned char __flags)
The dtostre() function converts the double value passed in val into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient
storage in s.
Conversion is done in the format "[-]d.ddde±dd" where there is one digit before
the decimal-point character and the number of digits after it is equal to the precision
prec; if the precision is zero, no decimal-point character appears. If flags has the
DTOSTRE_UPPERCASE bit set, the letter ’E’ (rather than ’e’ ) will be used to
introduce the exponent. The exponent always contains two digits; if the value is zero,
the exponent is "00".
If flags has the DTOSTRE_ALWAYS_SIGN bit set, a space character will be placed
into the leading position for positive numbers.
If flags has the DTOSTRE_PLUS_SIGN bit set, a plus sign will be used instead of
a space character in this case.
The dtostre() function returns the pointer to the converted string s.
22.10.4.10 char∗ dtostrf (double __val, signed char __width, unsigned char __prec, char ∗ __s)
The dtostrf() function converts the double value passed in val into an ASCII representationthat will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient
storage in s.
Conversion is done in the format "[-]d.ddd". The minimum field width of the
output string (including the ’.’ and the possible sign for negative values) is given in
width, and prec determines the number of digits after the decimal sign. width is
signed value, negative for left adjustment.
The dtostrf() function returns the pointer to the converted string s.
22.10.4.11
void exit (int __status)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
191
The exit() function terminates the application. Since there is no environment to return to, status is ignored, and code execution will eventually reach an infinite loop,
thereby effectively halting all code processing. Before entering the infinite loop, interrupts are globally disabled.
In a C++ context, global destructors will be called before halting execution.
22.10.4.12
void free (void ∗ __ptr)
The free() function causes the allocated memory referenced by ptr to be made available for future allocations. If ptr is NULL, no action occurs.
22.10.4.13
char∗ itoa (int __val, char ∗ __s, int __radix)
Convert an integer to a string.
The function itoa() converts the integer value from val into an ASCII representation
that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient storage in
s.
Note:
The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if
the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 ∗
sizeof (int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.
Warning:
If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.
Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2
(binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after
’9’ will be the letter ’a’.
If radix is 10 and val is negative, a minus sign will be prepended.
The itoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.
22.10.4.14
long labs (long __i)
The labs() function computes the absolute value of the long integer i.
Note:
The abs() and labs() functions are builtins of gcc.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10.4.15
192
ldiv_t ldiv (long __num, long __denom)
The ldiv() function computes the value num/denom and returns the quotient and remainder in a structure named ldiv_t that contains two long integer members named
quot and rem.
22.10.4.16
char∗ ltoa (long int __val, char ∗ __s, int __radix)
Convert a long integer to a string.
The function ltoa() converts the long integer value from val into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient
storage in s.
Note:
The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example,
if the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8
∗ sizeof (long int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the
string terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.
Warning:
If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.
Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2
(binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after
’9’ will be the letter ’a’.
If radix is 10 and val is negative, a minus sign will be prepended.
The ltoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.
22.10.4.17
void∗ malloc (size_t __size)
The malloc() function allocates size bytes of memory. If malloc() fails, a NULL
pointer is returned.
Note that malloc() does not initialize the returned memory to zero bytes.
See the chapter about malloc() usage for implementation details.
22.10.4.18 void qsort (void ∗ __base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, __compar_fn_t __compar)
The qsort() function is a modified partition-exchange sort, or quicksort.
The qsort() function sorts an array of nmemb objects, the initial member of which is
pointed to by base. The size of each object is specified by size. The contents of the
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
193
array base are sorted in ascending order according to a comparison function pointed to
by compar, which requires two arguments pointing to the objects being compared.
The comparison function must return an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
if the first argument is considered to be respectively less than, equal to, or greater than
the second.
22.10.4.19
int rand (void)
The rand() function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in the range of 0
to RAND_MAX (as defined by the header file <stdlib.h>).
The srand() function sets its argument seed as the seed for a new sequence of pseudorandom numbers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling
srand() with the same seed value.
If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically seeded with a value of 1.
In compliance with the C standard, these functions operate on int arguments. Since
the underlying algorithm already uses 32-bit calculations, this causes a loss of precision. See random() for an alternate set of functions that retains full 32-bit precision.
22.10.4.20
int rand_r (unsigned long ∗ __ctx)
Variant of rand() that stores the context in the user-supplied variable located at ctx
instead of a static library variable so the function becomes re-entrant.
22.10.4.21
long random (void)
The random() function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in the range of
0 to RANDOM_MAX (as defined by the header file <stdlib.h>).
The srandom() function sets its argument seed as the seed for a new sequence of
pseudo-random numbers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by
calling srandom() with the same seed value.
If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically seeded with a value of 1.
22.10.4.22
long random_r (unsigned long ∗ __ctx)
Variant of random() that stores the context in the user-supplied variable located at ctx
instead of a static library variable so the function becomes re-entrant.
22.10.4.23
void∗ realloc (void ∗ __ptr, size_t __size)
The realloc() function tries to change the size of the region allocated at ptr to the new
size value. It returns a pointer to the new region. The returned pointer might be the
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
194
same as the old pointer, or a pointer to a completely different region.
The contents of the returned region up to either the old or the new size value (whatever
is less) will be identical to the contents of the old region, even in case a new region had
to be allocated.
It is acceptable to pass ptr as NULL, in which case realloc() will behave identical to
malloc().
If the new memory cannot be allocated, realloc() returns NULL, and the region at ptr
will not be changed.
22.10.4.24
void srand (unsigned int __seed)
Pseudo-random number generator seeding; see rand().
22.10.4.25
void srandom (unsigned long __seed)
Pseudo-random number generator seeding; see random().
22.10.4.26
double strtod (const char ∗ nptr, char ∗∗ endptr)
The strtod() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by nptr to
double representation.
The expected form of the string is an optional plus ( ’+’ ) or minus sign ( ’-’ )
followed by a sequence of digits optionally containing a decimal-point character, optionally followed by an exponent. An exponent consists of an ’E’ or ’e’, followed
by an optional plus or minus sign, followed by a sequence of digits.
Leading white-space characters in the string are skipped.
The strtod() function returns the converted value, if any.
If endptr is not NULL, a pointer to the character after the last character used in the
conversion is stored in the location referenced by endptr.
If no conversion is performed, zero is returned and the value of nptr is stored in the
location referenced by endptr.
If the correct value would cause overflow, plus or minus INFINITY is returned (according to the sign of the value), and ERANGE is stored in errno. If the correct value
would cause underflow, zero is returned and ERANGE is stored in errno.
22.10.4.27
long strtol (const char ∗ __nptr, char ∗∗ __endptr, int __base)
The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long value. The conversion is
done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the
special value 0.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
195
The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace()) followed by a single optional ’+’ or ’-’ sign. If base is zero or 16, the string
may then include a "0x" prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a
zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is ’0’, in which case it is
taken as 8 (octal).
The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping
at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the
letter ’A’ in either upper or lower case represents 10, ’B’ represents 11, and so forth,
with ’Z’ representing 35.)
If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid character in
∗endptr. If there were no digits at all, however, strtol() stores the original value of
nptr in endptr. (Thus, if ∗nptr is not ’\0’ but ∗∗endptr is ’\0’ on return, the
entire string was valid.)
The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would underflow or overflow. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned. If an overflow or
underflow occurs, errno is set to ERANGE and the function return value is clamped
to LONG_MIN or LONG_MAX, respectively.
22.10.4.28
__base)
unsigned long strtoul (const char ∗ __nptr, char ∗∗ __endptr, int
The strtoul() function converts the string in nptr to an unsigned long value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive,
or be the special value 0.
The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace()) followed by a single optional ’+’ or ’-’ sign. If base is zero or 16, the string
may then include a "0x" prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a
zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is ’0’, in which case it is
taken as 8 (octal).
The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in the obvious
manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base.
(In bases above 10, the letter ’A’ in either upper or lower case represents 10, ’B’
represents 11, and so forth, with ’Z’ representing 35.)
If endptr is not NULL, strtoul() stores the address of the first invalid character in
∗endptr. If there were no digits at all, however, strtoul() stores the original value of
nptr in endptr. (Thus, if ∗nptr is not ’\0’ but ∗∗endptr is ’\0’ on return, the
entire string was valid.)
The strtoul() function return either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (nonnegated) value would overflow; in the latter case, strtoul() returns ULONG_MAX, and
errno is set to ERANGE. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.10
<stdlib.h>: General utilities
22.10.4.29
196
char∗ ultoa (unsigned long int __val, char ∗ __s, int __radix)
Convert an unsigned long integer to a string.
The function ultoa() converts the unsigned long integer value from val into an ASCII
representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient storage in s.
Note:
The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if
the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 ∗
sizeof (unsigned long int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one
for the string terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer
size.
Warning:
If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.
Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2
(binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after
’9’ will be the letter ’a’.
The ultoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.
22.10.4.30
char∗ utoa (unsigned int __val, char ∗ __s, int __radix)
Convert an unsigned integer to a string.
The function utoa() converts the unsigned integer value from val into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient
storage in s.
Note:
The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if
the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 ∗
sizeof (unsigned int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the
string terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.
Warning:
If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.
Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2
(binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after
’9’ will be the letter ’a’.
The utoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<string.h>: Strings
22.11
22.10.5
197
Variable Documentation
22.10.5.1
char∗ __malloc_heap_end
malloc() tunable.
22.10.5.2
char∗ __malloc_heap_start
malloc() tunable.
22.10.5.3
size_t __malloc_margin
malloc() tunable.
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.1
Detailed Description
#include <string.h>
The string functions perform string operations on NULL terminated strings.
Note:
If the strings you are working on resident in program space (flash), you will need to
use the string functions described in <avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities.
Defines
• #define _FFS(x)
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
int ffs (int __val)
int ffsl (long __val)
int ffsll (long long __val)
void ∗ memccpy (void ∗, const void ∗, int, size_t)
void ∗ memchr (const void ∗, int, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
int memcmp (const void ∗, const void ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memcpy (void ∗, const void ∗, size_t)
void ∗ memmem (const void ∗, size_t, const void ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memmove (void ∗, const void ∗, size_t)
void ∗ memrchr (const void ∗, int, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<string.h>: Strings
22.11
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
198
void ∗ memset (void ∗, int, size_t)
int strcasecmp (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcasestr (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcat (char ∗, const char ∗)
char ∗ strchr (const char ∗, int) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strchrnul (const char ∗, int) __ATTR_PURE__
int strcmp (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcpy (char ∗, const char ∗)
size_t strcspn (const char ∗__s, const char ∗__reject) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strdup (const char ∗s1)
size_t strlcat (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
size_t strlcpy (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
size_t strlen (const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strlwr (char ∗)
int strncasecmp (const char ∗, const char ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strncat (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
int strncmp (const char ∗, const char ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strncpy (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
size_t strnlen (const char ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strpbrk (const char ∗__s, const char ∗__accept) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strrchr (const char ∗, int) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strrev (char ∗)
char ∗ strsep (char ∗∗, const char ∗)
size_t strspn (const char ∗__s, const char ∗__accept) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strstr (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strtok (char ∗, const char ∗)
char ∗ strtok_r (char ∗, const char ∗, char ∗∗)
char ∗ strupr (char ∗)
22.11.2
22.11.2.1
Define Documentation
#define _FFS(x)
This macro finds the first (least significant) bit set in the input value.
This macro is very similar to the function ffs() except that it evaluates its argument at
compile-time, so it should only be applied to compile-time constant expressions where
it will reduce to a constant itself. Application of this macro to expressions that are not
constant at compile-time is not recommended, and might result in a huge amount of
code generated.
Returns:
The _FFS() macro returns the position of the first (least significant) bit set in the
word val, or 0 if no bits are set. The least significant bit is position 1. Only 16 bits
of argument are evaluted.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3
22.11.3.1
199
Function Documentation
int ffs (int val)
This function finds the first (least significant) bit set in the input value.
Returns:
The ffs() function returns the position of the first (least significant) bit set in the
word val, or 0 if no bits are set. The least significant bit is position 1.
Note:
For expressions that are constant at compile time, consider using the _FFS macro
instead.
22.11.3.2
int ffsl (long __val)
Same as ffs(), for an argument of type long.
22.11.3.3
int ffsll (long long __val)
Same as ffs(), for an argument of type long long.
22.11.3.4
void ∗ memccpy (void ∗ dest, const void ∗ src, int val, size_t len)
Copy memory area.
The memccpy() function copies no more than len bytes from memory area src to memory area dest, stopping when the character val is found.
Returns:
The memccpy() function returns a pointer to the next character in dest after val, or
NULL if val was not found in the first len characters of src.
22.11.3.5
void ∗ memchr (const void ∗ src, int val, size_t len)
Scan memory for a character.
The memchr() function scans the first len bytes of the memory area pointed to by src
for the character val. The first byte to match val (interpreted as an unsigned character)
stops the operation.
Returns:
The memchr() function returns a pointer to the matching byte or NULL if the
character does not occur in the given memory area.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.6
200
int memcmp (const void ∗ s1, const void ∗ s2, size_t len)
Compare memory areas.
The memcmp() function compares the first len bytes of the memory areas s1 and s2.
The comparision is performed using unsigned char operations.
Returns:
The memcmp() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
if the first len bytes of s1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be
greater than the first len bytes of s2.
Note:
Be sure to store the result in a 16 bit variable since you may get incorrect results if
you use an unsigned char or char due to truncation.
Warning:
This function is not -mint8 compatible, although if you only care about testing for
equality, this function should be safe to use.
22.11.3.7
void ∗ memcpy (void ∗ dest, const void ∗ src, size_t len)
Copy a memory area.
The memcpy() function copies len bytes from memory area src to memory area dest.
The memory areas may not overlap. Use memmove() if the memory areas do overlap.
Returns:
The memcpy() function returns a pointer to dest.
22.11.3.8
len2)
void ∗ memmem (const void ∗ s1, size_t len1, const void ∗ s2, size_t
The memmem() function finds the start of the first occurrence of the substring s2 of
length len2 in the memory area s1 of length len1.
Returns:
The memmem() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or
NULL if the substring is not found. If len2 is zero, the function returns s1.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.9
201
void ∗ memmove (void ∗ dest, const void ∗ src, size_t len)
Copy memory area.
The memmove() function copies len bytes from memory area src to memory area dest.
The memory areas may overlap.
Returns:
The memmove() function returns a pointer to dest.
22.11.3.10
void ∗ memrchr (const void ∗ src, int val, size_t len)
The memrchr() function is like the memchr() function, except that it searches backwards from the end of the len bytes pointed to by src instead of forwards from the
front. (Glibc, GNU extension.)
Returns:
The memrchr() function returns a pointer to the matching byte or NULL if the
character does not occur in the given memory area.
22.11.3.11
void ∗ memset (void ∗ dest, int val, size_t len)
Fill memory with a constant byte.
The memset() function fills the first len bytes of the memory area pointed to by dest
with the constant byte val.
Returns:
The memset() function returns a pointer to the memory area dest.
22.11.3.12
int strcasecmp (const char ∗ s1, const char ∗ s2)
Compare two strings ignoring case.
The strcasecmp() function compares the two strings s1 and s2, ignoring the case of
the characters.
Returns:
The strcasecmp() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than
zero if s1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than
s2. A consequence of the ordering used by strcasecmp() is that if s1 is an initial
substring of s2, then s1 is considered to be "less than" s2.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.13
202
char ∗ strcasestr (const char ∗ s1, const char ∗ s2)
The strcasestr() function finds the first occurrence of the substring s2 in the string s1.
This is like strstr(), except that it ignores case of alphabetic symbols in searching for
the substring. (Glibc, GNU extension.)
Returns:
The strcasestr() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or
NULL if the substring is not found. If s2 points to a string of zero length, the
function returns s1.
22.11.3.14
char ∗ strcat (char ∗ dest, const char ∗ src)
Concatenate two strings.
The strcat() function appends the src string to the dest string overwriting the ’\0’ character at the end of dest, and then adds a terminating ’\0’ character. The strings may not
overlap, and the dest string must have enough space for the result.
Returns:
The strcat() function returns a pointer to the resulting string dest.
22.11.3.15
char ∗ strchr (const char ∗ src, int val)
Locate character in string.
The strchr() function returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the character val in
the string src.
Here "character" means "byte" - these functions do not work with wide or multi-byte
characters.
Returns:
The strchr() function returns a pointer to the matched character or NULL if the
character is not found.
22.11.3.16
char ∗ strchrnul (const char ∗ s, int c)
The strchrnul() function is like strchr() except that if c is not found in s, then it returns
a pointer to the null byte at the end of s, rather than NULL. (Glibc, GNU extension.)
Returns:
The strchrnul() function returns a pointer to the matched character, or a pointer to
the null byte at the end of s (i.e., s+strlen(s)) if the character is not found.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.17
203
int strcmp (const char ∗ s1, const char ∗ s2)
Compare two strings.
The strcmp() function compares the two strings s1 and s2.
Returns:
The strcmp() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
if s1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than s2. A
consequence of the ordering used by strcmp() is that if s1 is an initial substring of
s2, then s1 is considered to be "less than" s2.
22.11.3.18
char ∗ strcpy (char ∗ dest, const char ∗ src)
Copy a string.
The strcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating
’\0’ character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the
destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.
Returns:
The strcpy() function returns a pointer to the destination string dest.
Note:
If the destination string of a strcpy() is not large enough (that is, if the programmer
was stupid/lazy, and failed to check the size before copying) then anything might
happen. Overflowing fixed length strings is a favourite cracker technique.
22.11.3.19
size_t strcspn (const char ∗ s, const char ∗ reject)
The strcspn() function calculates the length of the initial segment of s which consists
entirely of characters not in reject.
Returns:
The strcspn() function returns the number of characters in the initial segment of s
which are not in the string reject. The terminating zero is not considered as a
part of string.
22.11.3.20
char ∗ strdup (const char ∗ s1)
Duplicate a string.
The strdup() function allocates memory and copies into it the string addressed by s1,
including the terminating null character.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
204
Warning:
The strdup() function calls malloc() to allocate the memory for the duplicated
string! The user is responsible for freeing the memory by calling free().
Returns:
The strdup() function returns a pointer to the resulting string dest. If malloc()
cannot allocate enough storage for the string, strdup() will return NULL.
Warning:
Be sure to check the return value of the strdup() function to make sure that the
function has succeeded in allocating the memory!
22.11.3.21
size_t strlcat (char ∗ dst, const char ∗ src, size_t siz)
Concatenate two strings.
Appends src to string dst of size siz (unlike strncat(), siz is the full size of dst, not space
left). At most siz-1 characters will be copied. Always NULL terminates (unless siz <=
strlen(dst)).
Returns:
The strlcat() function returns strlen(src) + MIN(siz, strlen(initial dst)). If retval >=
siz, truncation occurred.
22.11.3.22
size_t strlcpy (char ∗ dst, const char ∗ src, size_t siz)
Copy a string.
Copy src to string dst of size siz. At most siz-1 characters will be copied. Always
NULL terminates (unless siz == 0).
Returns:
The strlcpy() function returns strlen(src). If retval >= siz, truncation occurred.
22.11.3.23
size_t strlen (const char ∗ src)
Calculate the length of a string.
The strlen() function calculates the length of the string src, not including the terminating ’\0’ character.
Returns:
The strlen() function returns the number of characters in src.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.24
205
char ∗ strlwr (char ∗ s)
Convert a string to lower case.
The strlwr() function will convert a string to lower case. Only the upper case alphabetic
characters [A .. Z] are converted. Non-alphabetic characters will not be changed.
Returns:
The strlwr() function returns a pointer to the converted string.
22.11.3.25
int strncasecmp (const char ∗ s1, const char ∗ s2, size_t len)
Compare two strings ignoring case.
The strncasecmp() function is similar to strcasecmp(), except it only compares the first
len characters of s1.
Returns:
The strncasecmp() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than
zero if s1 (or the first len bytes thereof) is found, respectively, to be less than, to
match, or be greater than s2. A consequence of the ordering used by strncasecmp()
is that if s1 is an initial substring of s2, then s1 is considered to be "less than"
s2.
22.11.3.26
char ∗ strncat (char ∗ dest, const char ∗ src, size_t len)
Concatenate two strings.
The strncat() function is similar to strcat(), except that only the first n characters of src
are appended to dest.
Returns:
The strncat() function returns a pointer to the resulting string dest.
22.11.3.27
int strncmp (const char ∗ s1, const char ∗ s2, size_t len)
Compare two strings.
The strncmp() function is similar to strcmp(), except it only compares the first (at most)
n characters of s1 and s2.
Returns:
The strncmp() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
if s1 (or the first n bytes thereof) is found, respectively, to be less than, to match,
or be greater than s2.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.28
206
char ∗ strncpy (char ∗ dest, const char ∗ src, size_t len)
Copy a string.
The strncpy() function is similar to strcpy(), except that not more than n bytes of src
are copied. Thus, if there is no null byte among the first n bytes of src, the result will
not be null-terminated.
In the case where the length of src is less than that of n, the remainder of dest will be
padded with nulls.
Returns:
The strncpy() function returns a pointer to the destination string dest.
22.11.3.29
size_t strnlen (const char ∗ src, size_t len)
Determine the length of a fixed-size string.
The strnlen function returns the number of characters in the string pointed to by src, not
including the terminating ’\0’ character, but at most len. In doing this, strnlen looks
only at the first len characters at src and never beyond src+len.
Returns:
The strnlen function returns strlen(src), if that is less than len, or len if there is no
’\0’ character among the first len characters pointed to by src.
22.11.3.30
char ∗ strpbrk (const char ∗ s, const char ∗ accept)
The strpbrk() function locates the first occurrence in the string s of any of the characters
in the string accept.
Returns:
The strpbrk() function returns a pointer to the character in s that matches one of
the characters in accept, or NULL if no such character is found. The terminating
zero is not considered as a part of string: if one or both args are empty, the result
will NULL.
22.11.3.31
char ∗ strrchr (const char ∗ src, int val)
Locate character in string.
The strrchr() function returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the character val in the
string src.
Here "character" means "byte" - these functions do not work with wide or multi-byte
characters.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
207
Returns:
The strrchr() function returns a pointer to the matched character or NULL if the
character is not found.
22.11.3.32
char ∗ strrev (char ∗ s)
Reverse a string.
The strrev() function reverses the order of the string.
Returns:
The strrev() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the reversed string.
22.11.3.33
char ∗ strsep (char ∗∗ sp, const char ∗ delim)
Parse a string into tokens.
The strsep() function locates, in the string referenced by ∗sp, the first occurrence of
any character in the string delim (or the terminating ’\0’ character) and replaces it
with a ’\0’. The location of the next character after the delimiter character (or NULL,
if the end of the string was reached) is stored in ∗sp. An “empty” field, i.e. one
caused by two adjacent delimiter characters, can be detected by comparing the location
referenced by the pointer returned in ∗sp to ’\0’.
Returns:
The strsep() function returns a pointer to the original value of ∗sp. If ∗sp is
initially NULL, strsep() returns NULL.
22.11.3.34
size_t strspn (const char ∗ s, const char ∗ accept)
The strspn() function calculates the length of the initial segment of s which consists
entirely of characters in accept.
Returns:
The strspn() function returns the number of characters in the initial segment of
s which consist only of characters from accept. The terminating zero is not
considered as a part of string.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.11
<string.h>: Strings
22.11.3.35
208
char ∗ strstr (const char ∗ s1, const char ∗ s2)
Locate a substring.
The strstr() function finds the first occurrence of the substring s2 in the string s1. The
terminating ’\0’ characters are not compared.
Returns:
The strstr() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or NULL
if the substring is not found. If s2 points to a string of zero length, the function
returns s1.
22.11.3.36
char ∗ strtok (char ∗ s, const char ∗ delim)
Parses the string s into tokens.
strtok parses the string s into tokens. The first call to strtok should have s as its first
argument. Subsequent calls should have the first argument set to NULL. If a token
ends with a delimiter, this delimiting character is overwritten with a ’\0’ and a pointer
to the next character is saved for the next call to strtok. The delimiter string delim may
be different for each call.
Returns:
The strtok() function returns a pointer to the next token or NULL when no more
tokens are found.
Note:
strtok() is NOT reentrant. For a reentrant version of this function see strtok_r().
22.11.3.37
char ∗ strtok_r (char ∗ string, const char ∗ delim, char ∗∗ last)
Parses string into tokens.
strtok_r parses string into tokens. The first call to strtok_r should have string as its first
argument. Subsequent calls should have the first argument set to NULL. If a token ends
with a delimiter, this delimiting character is overwritten with a ’\0’ and a pointer to the
next character is saved for the next call to strtok_r. The delimiter string delim may be
different for each call. last is a user allocated char∗ pointer. It must be the same while
parsing the same string. strtok_r is a reentrant version of strtok().
Returns:
The strtok_r() function returns a pointer to the next token or NULL when no more
tokens are found.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
22.11.3.38
209
char ∗ strupr (char ∗ s)
Convert a string to upper case.
The strupr() function will convert a string to upper case. Only the lower case alphabetic
characters [a .. z] are converted. Non-alphabetic characters will not be changed.
Returns:
The strupr() function returns a pointer to the converted string. The pointer is the
same as that passed in since the operation is perform in place.
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
22.12.1
Detailed Description
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/boot.h>
The macros in this module provide a C language interface to the bootloader support
functionality of certain AVR processors. These macros are designed to work with all
sizes of flash memory.
Global interrupts are not automatically disabled for these macros. It is left up to the
programmer to do this. See the code example below. Also see the processor datasheet
for caveats on having global interrupts enabled during writing of the Flash.
Note:
Not all AVR processors provide bootloader support. See your processor datasheet
to see if it provides bootloader support.
Todo
From email with Marek: On smaller devices (all except ATmega64/128), __SPM_REG is in the I/O space, accessible with the shorter "in" and "out" instructions since the boot loader has a limited size, this could be an important optimization.
API Usage Example
The following code shows typical usage of the boot API.
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
void boot_program_page (uint32_t page, uint8_t *buf)
{
uint16_t i;
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
210
uint8_t sreg;
// Disable interrupts.
sreg = SREG;
cli();
eeprom_busy_wait ();
boot_page_erase (page);
boot_spm_busy_wait ();
// Wait until the memory is erased.
for (i=0; i<SPM_PAGESIZE; i+=2)
{
// Set up little-endian word.
uint16_t w = *buf++;
w += (*buf++) << 8;
boot_page_fill (page + i, w);
}
boot_page_write (page);
boot_spm_busy_wait();
// Store buffer in flash page.
// Wait until the memory is written.
// Reenable RWW-section again. We need this if we want to jump back
// to the application after bootloading.
boot_rww_enable ();
// Re-enable interrupts (if they were ever enabled).
SREG = sreg;
}
Defines
• #define BOOTLOADER_SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".bootloader")))
• #define boot_spm_interrupt_enable() (__SPM_REG |= (uint8_t)_BV(SPMIE))
• #define boot_spm_interrupt_disable() (__SPM_REG &= (uint8_t)∼_BV(SPMIE))
• #define boot_is_spm_interrupt() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(SPMIE))
• #define boot_rww_busy() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(__COMMON_ASB))
• #define boot_spm_busy() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(__SPM_ENABLE))
• #define boot_spm_busy_wait() do{}while(boot_spm_busy())
• #define GET_LOW_FUSE_BITS (0x0000)
• #define GET_LOCK_BITS (0x0001)
• #define GET_EXTENDED_FUSE_BITS (0x0002)
• #define GET_HIGH_FUSE_BITS (0x0003)
• #define boot_lock_fuse_bits_get(address)
• #define boot_signature_byte_get(addr)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
22.12
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
211
#define boot_page_fill(address, data) __boot_page_fill_normal(address, data)
#define boot_page_erase(address) __boot_page_erase_normal(address)
#define boot_page_write(address) __boot_page_write_normal(address)
#define boot_rww_enable() __boot_rww_enable()
#define boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits) __boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits)
#define boot_page_fill_safe(address, data)
#define boot_page_erase_safe(address)
#define boot_page_write_safe(address)
#define boot_rww_enable_safe()
#define boot_lock_bits_set_safe(lock_bits)
22.12.2
Define Documentation
22.12.2.1 #define
BV(SPMIE))
boot_is_spm_interrupt()
(__SPM_REG
&
(uint8_t)_-
Check if the SPM interrupt is enabled.
22.12.2.2
#define boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits) __boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits)
Set the bootloader lock bits.
Parameters:
lock_bits A mask of which Boot Loader Lock Bits to set.
Note:
In this context, a ’set bit’ will be written to a zero value. Note also that only BLBxx
bits can be programmed by this command.
For example, to disallow the SPM instruction from writing to the Boot Loader memory
section of flash, you would use this macro as such:
boot_lock_bits_set (_BV (BLB11));
Note:
Like any lock bits, the Boot Loader Lock Bits, once set, cannot be cleared again
except by a chip erase which will in turn also erase the boot loader itself.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
22.12.2.3
212
#define boot_lock_bits_set_safe(lock_bits)
Value:
do { \
boot_spm_busy_wait();
eeprom_busy_wait();
boot_lock_bits_set (lock_bits);
} while (0)
\
\
\
Same as boot_lock_bits_set() except waits for eeprom and spm operations to complete
before setting the lock bits.
22.12.2.4
#define boot_lock_fuse_bits_get(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint8_t __result;
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"ldi r30, %3\n\t"
"ldi r31, 0\n\t"
"sts %1, %2\n\t"
"lpm %0, Z\n\t"
: "=r" (__result)
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_LOCK_BITS_SET),
"M" (address)
: "r0", "r30", "r31"
);
__result;
}))
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
Read the lock or fuse bits at address.
Parameter address can be any of GET_LOW_FUSE_BITS, GET_LOCK_BITS,
GET_EXTENDED_FUSE_BITS, or GET_HIGH_FUSE_BITS.
Note:
The lock and fuse bits returned are the physical values, i.e. a bit returned as 0
means the corresponding fuse or lock bit is programmed.
22.12.2.5 #define
normal(address)
boot_page_erase(address)
Erase the flash page that contains address.
Note:
address is a byte address in flash, not a word address.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
__boot_page_erase_-
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
22.12.2.6
213
#define boot_page_erase_safe(address)
Value:
do { \
boot_spm_busy_wait();
eeprom_busy_wait();
boot_page_erase (address);
} while (0)
\
\
\
Same as boot_page_erase() except it waits for eeprom and spm operations to complete
before erasing the page.
22.12.2.7 #define
boot_page_fill(address,
normal(address, data)
data)
__boot_page_fill_-
Fill the bootloader temporary page buffer for flash address with data word.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The data is a word. The AVR writes data to the
buffer a word at a time, but addresses the buffer per byte! So, increment your
address by 2 between calls, and send 2 data bytes in a word format! The LSB of
the data is written to the lower address; the MSB of the data is written to the higher
address.
22.12.2.8
#define boot_page_fill_safe(address, data)
Value:
do { \
boot_spm_busy_wait();
eeprom_busy_wait();
boot_page_fill(address, data);
} while (0)
\
\
\
Same as boot_page_fill() except it waits for eeprom and spm operations to complete
before filling the page.
22.12.2.9 #define
normal(address)
boot_page_write(address)
__boot_page_write_-
Write the bootloader temporary page buffer to flash page that contains address.
Note:
address is a byte address in flash, not a word address.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
22.12.2.10
214
#define boot_page_write_safe(address)
Value:
do { \
boot_spm_busy_wait();
eeprom_busy_wait();
boot_page_write (address);
} while (0)
\
\
\
Same as boot_page_write() except it waits for eeprom and spm operations to complete
before writing the page.
22.12.2.11 #define
COMMON_ASB))
boot_rww_busy()
(__SPM_REG
&
(uint8_t)_BV(__-
Check if the RWW section is busy.
22.12.2.12
#define boot_rww_enable() __boot_rww_enable()
Enable the Read-While-Write memory section.
22.12.2.13
#define boot_rww_enable_safe()
Value:
do { \
boot_spm_busy_wait();
eeprom_busy_wait();
boot_rww_enable();
} while (0)
\
\
\
Same as boot_rww_enable() except waits for eeprom and spm operations to complete
before enabling the RWW mameory.
22.12.2.14
#define boot_signature_byte_get(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
uint8_t __result;
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %1, %2\n\t"
"lpm %0, Z" "\n\t"
: "=r" (__result)
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
22.12
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities
"r" ((uint8_t) __BOOT_SIGROW_READ),
"z" (__addr16)
);
__result;
215
\
\
\
\
}))
Read the Signature Row byte at address. For some MCU types, this function can
also retrieve the factory-stored oscillator calibration bytes.
Parameter address can be 0-0x1f as documented by the datasheet.
Note:
The values are MCU type dependent.
22.12.2.15 #define boot_spm_busy() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(__SPM_ENABLE))
Check if the SPM instruction is busy.
22.12.2.16
#define boot_spm_busy_wait() do{}while(boot_spm_busy())
Wait while the SPM instruction is busy.
22.12.2.17 #define boot_spm_interrupt_disable() (__SPM_REG &= (uint8_t)∼_BV(SPMIE))
Disable the SPM interrupt.
22.12.2.18 #define boot_spm_interrupt_enable() (__SPM_REG |= (uint8_t)_BV(SPMIE))
Enable the SPM interrupt.
22.12.2.19 #define BOOTLOADER_SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".bootloader")))
Used to declare a function or variable to be placed into a new section called .bootloader. This section and its contents can then be relocated to any address (such as the
bootloader NRWW area) at link-time.
22.12.2.20
#define GET_EXTENDED_FUSE_BITS (0x0002)
address to read the extended fuse bits, using boot_lock_fuse_bits_get
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.13
<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling
22.12.2.21
216
#define GET_HIGH_FUSE_BITS (0x0003)
address to read the high fuse bits, using boot_lock_fuse_bits_get
22.12.2.22
#define GET_LOCK_BITS (0x0001)
address to read the lock bits, using boot_lock_fuse_bits_get
22.12.2.23
#define GET_LOW_FUSE_BITS (0x0000)
address to read the low fuse bits, using boot_lock_fuse_bits_get
22.13
<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling
22.13.1
Detailed Description
#include <avr/eeprom.h>
This header file declares the interface to some simple library routines suitable for handling the data EEPROM contained in the AVR microcontrollers. The implementation
uses a simple polled mode interface. Applications that require interrupt-controlled
EEPROM access to ensure that no time will be wasted in spinloops will have to deploy
their own implementation.
Note:
All of the read/write functions first make sure the EEPROM is ready to be accessed. Since this may cause long delays if a write operation is still pending,
time-critical applications should first poll the EEPROM e. g. using eeprom_is_ready() before attempting any actual I/O. But this functions are not wait until
SELFPRGEN in SPMCSR becomes zero. Do this manually, if your softwate contains the Flash burning.
As these functions modify IO registers, they are known to be non-reentrant. If any
of these functions are used from both, standard and interrupt context, the applications must ensure proper protection (e.g. by disabling interrupts before accessing
them).
All write functions force erase_and_write programming mode.
IAR C compatibility defines
• #define _EEPUT(addr, val) eeprom_write_byte ((uint8_t ∗)(addr), (uint8_t)(val))
• #define _EEGET(var, addr) (var) = eeprom_read_byte ((const uint8_t ∗)(addr))
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.13
<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling
217
Defines
• #define EEMEM __attribute__((section(".eeprom")))
• #define eeprom_is_ready()
• #define eeprom_busy_wait() do {} while (!eeprom_is_ready())
Functions
• static __ATTR_PURE__ __inline__ uint8_t eeprom_read_byte (const uint8_t
∗__p)
• static __ATTR_PURE__ __inline__ uint16_t eeprom_read_word (const
uint16_t ∗__p)
• static __ATTR_PURE__ __inline__ uint32_t eeprom_read_dword (const
uint32_t ∗__p)
• static __inline__ void eeprom_read_block (void ∗__dst, const void ∗__src,
size_t __n)
• static __inline__ void eeprom_write_byte (uint8_t ∗__p, uint8_t __value)
• static __inline__ void eeprom_write_word (uint16_t ∗__p, uint16_t __value)
• static __inline__ void eeprom_write_dword (uint32_t ∗__p, uint32_t __value)
• static __inline__ void eeprom_write_block (const void ∗__src, void ∗__dst,
size_t __n)
22.13.2
Define Documentation
22.13.2.1 #define _EEGET(var, addr) (var) = eeprom_read_byte ((const uint8_t
∗)(addr))
Read a byte from EEPROM. Compatibility define for IAR C.
22.13.2.2 #define _EEPUT(addr,
(uint8_t)(val))
val) eeprom_write_byte ((uint8_t ∗)(addr),
Write a byte to EEPROM. Compatibility define for IAR C.
22.13.2.3
#define EEMEM __attribute__((section(".eeprom")))
Attribute expression causing a variable to be allocated within the .eeprom section.
22.13.2.4
#define eeprom_busy_wait() do {} while (!eeprom_is_ready())
Loops until the eeprom is no longer busy.
Returns:
Nothing.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.13
<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling
22.13.2.5
218
#define eeprom_is_ready()
Returns:
1 if EEPROM is ready for a new read/write operation, 0 if not.
22.13.3
Function Documentation
22.13.3.1 static __inline__ void eeprom_read_block (void ∗ __dst, const void ∗
__src, size_t __n) [static]
Read a block of __n bytes from EEPROM address __src to SRAM __dst.
22.13.3.2 static __ATTR_PURE__ __inline__ uint8_t eeprom_read_byte (const
uint8_t ∗ __p) [static]
Read one byte from EEPROM address __p.
22.13.3.3 static __ATTR_PURE__ __inline__ uint32_t eeprom_read_dword
(const uint32_t ∗ __p) [static]
Read one 32-bit double word (little endian) from EEPROM address __p.
22.13.3.4 static __ATTR_PURE__ __inline__ uint16_t eeprom_read_word
(const uint16_t ∗ __p) [static]
Read one 16-bit word (little endian) from EEPROM address __p.
22.13.3.5 static __inline__ void eeprom_write_block (const void ∗ __src, void ∗
__dst, size_t __n) [static]
Write a block of __n bytes to EEPROM address __dst from __src.
Note:
The argument order is mismatch with common functions like strcpy().
22.13.3.6 static __inline__ void eeprom_write_byte (uint8_t ∗ __p, uint8_t __value) [static]
Write a byte __value to EEPROM address __p.
22.13.3.7 static __inline__ void eeprom_write_dword (uint32_t ∗ __p, uint32_t
__value) [static]
Write a 32-bit double word __value to EEPROM address __p.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.14
<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support
219
22.13.3.8 static __inline__ void eeprom_write_word (uint16_t ∗ __p, uint16_t
__value) [static]
Write a word __value to EEPROM address __p.
22.14
<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support
Introduction
The Fuse API allows a user to specify the fuse settings for the specific AVR device they
are compiling for. These fuse settings will be placed in a special section in the ELF
output file, after linking.
Programming tools can take advantage of the fuse information embedded in the ELF
file, by extracting this information and determining if the fuses need to be programmed
before programming the Flash and EEPROM memories. This also allows a single ELF
file to contain all the information needed to program an AVR.
To use the Fuse API, include the <avr/io.h> header file, which in turn automatically
includes the individual I/O header file and the <avr/fuse.h> file. These other two files
provides everything necessary to set the AVR fuses.
Fuse API
Each I/O header file must define the FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE macro which is defined
to the number of fuse bytes that exist in the AVR device.
A new type, __fuse_t, is defined as a structure. The number of fields in this structure
are determined by the number of fuse bytes in the FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE macro.
If FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE == 1, there is only a single field: byte, of type unsigned
char.
If FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE == 2, there are two fields: low, and high, of type unsigned
char.
If FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE == 3, there are three fields: low, high, and extended, of
type unsigned char.
If FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE > 3, there is a single field: byte, which is an array of
unsigned char with the size of the array being FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE.
A convenience macro, FUSEMEM, is defined as a GCC attribute for a custom-named
section of ".fuse".
A convenience macro, FUSES, is defined that declares a variable, __fuse, of type __fuse_t with the attribute defined by FUSEMEM. This variable allows the end user to
easily set the fuse data.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.14
<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support
220
Note:
If a device-specific I/O header file has previously defined FUSEMEM, then FUSEMEM is not redefined. If a device-specific I/O header file has previously defined
FUSES, then FUSES is not redefined.
Each AVR device I/O header file has a set of defined macros which specify the actual
fuse bits available on that device. The AVR fuses have inverted values, logical 1 for
an unprogrammed (disabled) bit and logical 0 for a programmed (enabled) bit. The
defined macros for each individual fuse bit represent this in their definition by a bitwise inversion of a mask. For example, the FUSE_EESAVE fuse in the ATmega128 is
defined as:
#define FUSE_EESAVE
~_BV(3)
Note:
The _BV macro creates a bit mask from a bit number. It is then inverted to represent logical values for a fuse memory byte.
To combine the fuse bits macros together to represent a whole fuse byte, use the bitwise
AND operator, like so:
(FUSE_BOOTSZ0 & FUSE_BOOTSZ1 & FUSE_EESAVE & FUSE_SPIEN & FUSE_JTAGEN)
Each device I/O header file also defines macros that provide default values for each fuse
byte that is available. LFUSE_DEFAULT is defined for a Low Fuse byte. HFUSE_DEFAULT is defined for a High Fuse byte. EFUSE_DEFAULT is defined for an Extended Fuse byte.
If FUSE_MEMORY_SIZE > 3, then the I/O header file defines macros that provide default values for each fuse byte like so: FUSE0_DEFAULT FUSE1_DEFAULT
FUSE2_DEFAULT FUSE3_DEFAULT FUSE4_DEFAULT ....
API Usage Example
Putting all of this together is easy. Using C99’s designated initializers:
#include <avr/io.h>
FUSES =
{
.low = LFUSE_DEFAULT,
.high = (FUSE_BOOTSZ0 & FUSE_BOOTSZ1 & FUSE_EESAVE & FUSE_SPIEN & FUSE_JTAGEN),
.extended = EFUSE_DEFAULT,
};
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.14
<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support
221
int main(void)
{
return 0;
}
Or, using the variable directly instead of the FUSES macro,
#include <avr/io.h>
__fuse_t __fuse __attribute__((section (".fuse"))) =
{
.low = LFUSE_DEFAULT,
.high = (FUSE_BOOTSZ0 & FUSE_BOOTSZ1 & FUSE_EESAVE & FUSE_SPIEN & FUSE_JTAGEN),
.extended = EFUSE_DEFAULT,
};
int main(void)
{
return 0;
}
If you are compiling in C++, you cannot use the designated intializers so you must do:
#include <avr/io.h>
FUSES =
{
LFUSE_DEFAULT, // .low
(FUSE_BOOTSZ0 & FUSE_BOOTSZ1 & FUSE_EESAVE & FUSE_SPIEN & FUSE_JTAGEN), // .high
EFUSE_DEFAULT, // .extended
};
int main(void)
{
return 0;
}
However there are a number of caveats that you need to be aware of to use this API
properly.
Be sure to include <avr/io.h> to get all of the definitions for the API. The FUSES
macro defines a global variable to store the fuse data. This variable is assigned to its
own linker section. Assign the desired fuse values immediately in the variable initialization.
The .fuse section in the ELF file will get its values from the initial variable assignment
ONLY. This means that you can NOT assign values to this variable in functions and the
new values will not be put into the ELF .fuse section.
The global variable is declared in the FUSES macro has two leading underscores,
which means that it is reserved for the "implementation", meaning the library, so it
will not conflict with a user-named variable.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
222
You must initialize ALL fields in the __fuse_t structure. This is because the fuse bits
in all bytes default to a logical 1, meaning unprogrammed. Normal uninitialized data
defaults to all locgial zeros. So it is vital that all fuse bytes are initialized, even with
default data. If they are not, then the fuse bits may not programmed to the desired
settings.
Be sure to have the -mmcu=device flag in your compile command line and your linker
command line to have the correct device selected and to have the correct I/O header
file included when you include <avr/io.h>.
You can print out the contents of the .fuse section in the ELF file by using this command
line:
avr-objdump -s -j .fuse <ELF file>
The section contents shows the address on the left, then the data going from lower
address to a higher address, left to right.
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
22.15.1
Detailed Description
Note:
This discussion of interrupts was originally taken from Rich Neswold’s document.
See Acknowledgments.
Introduction to avr-libc’s interrupt handling It’s nearly impossible to find compilers that agree on how to handle interrupt code. Since the C language tries to stay away
from machine dependent details, each compiler writer is forced to design their method
of support.
In the AVR-GCC environment, the vector table is predefined to point to interrupt routines with predetermined names. By using the appropriate name, your routine will be
called when the corresponding interrupt occurs. The device library provides a set of
default interrupt routines, which will get used if you don’t define your own.
Patching into the vector table is only one part of the problem. The compiler uses, by
convention, a set of registers when it’s normally executing compiler-generated code.
It’s important that these registers, as well as the status register, get saved and restored.
The extra code needed to do this is enabled by tagging the interrupt function with __attribute__((signal)).
These details seem to make interrupt routines a little messy, but all these details are
handled by the Interrupt API. An interrupt routine is defined with ISR(). This macro
register and mark the routine as an interrupt handler for the specified peripheral. The
following is an example definition of a handler for the ADC interrupt.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
223
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
ISR(ADC_vect)
{
// user code here
}
Refer to the chapter explaining assembler programming for an explanation about interrupt routines written solely in assembler language.
Catch-all interrupt vector If an unexpected interrupt occurs (interrupt is enabled
and no handler is installed, which usually indicates a bug), then the default action is
to reset the device by jumping to the reset vector. You can override this by supplying
a function named BADISR_vect which should be defined with ISR() as such. (The
name BADISR_vect is actually an alias for __vector_default. The latter must be used
inside assembly code in case <avr/interrupt.h> is not included.)
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
ISR(BADISR_vect)
{
// user code here
}
Nested interrupts The AVR hardware clears the global interrupt flag in SREG before entering an interrupt vector. Thus, normally interrupts will remain disabled inside
the handler until the handler exits, where the RETI instruction (that is emitted by the
compiler as part of the normal function epilogue for an interrupt handler) will eventually re-enable further interrupts. For that reason, interrupt handlers normally do not
nest. For most interrupt handlers, this is the desired behaviour, for some it is even
required in order to prevent infinitely recursive interrupts (like UART interrupts, or
level-triggered external interrupts). In rare circumstances though it might be desired to
re-enable the global interrupt flag as early as possible in the interrupt handler, in order
to not defer any other interrupt more than absolutely needed. This could be done using
an sei() instruction right at the beginning of the interrupt handler, but this still leaves
few instructions inside the compiler-generated function prologue to run with global interrupts disabled. The compiler can be instructed to insert an SEI instruction right at
the beginning of an interrupt handler by declaring the handler the following way:
ISR(XXX_vect, ISR_NOBLOCK)
{
...
}
where XXX_vect is the name of a valid interrupt vector for the MCU type in question,
as explained below.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
224
Two vectors sharing the same code In some circumstances, the actions to be taken
upon two different interrupts might be completely identical so a single implementation for the ISR would suffice. For example, pin-change interrupts arriving from two
different ports could logically signal an event that is independent from the actual port
(and thus interrupt vector) where it happened. Sharing interrupt vector code can be
accomplished using the ISR_ALIASOF() attribute to the ISR macro:
ISR(PCINT0_vect)
{
...
// Code to handle the event.
}
ISR(PCINT1_vect, ISR_ALIASOF(PCINT0_vect));
Note:
There is no body to the aliased ISR.
Note that the ISR_ALIASOF() feature requires GCC 4.2 or above (or a patched version
of GCC 4.1.x). See the documentation of the ISR_ALIAS() macro for an implementation which is less elegant but could be applied to all compiler versions.
Empty interrupt service routines In rare circumstances, in interrupt vector does not
need any code to be implemented at all. The vector must be declared anyway, so when
the interrupt triggers it won’t execute the BADISR_vect code (which by default restarts
the application).
This could for example be the case for interrupts that are solely enabled for the purpose
of getting the controller out of sleep_mode().
A handler for such an interrupt vector can be declared using the EMPTY_INTERRUPT() macro:
EMPTY_INTERRUPT(ADC_vect);
Note:
There is no body to this macro.
Manually defined ISRs In some circumstances, the compiler-generated prologue
and epilogue of the ISR might not be optimal for the job, and a manually defined ISR
could be considered particularly to speedup the interrupt handling.
One solution to this could be to implement the entire ISR as manual assembly code in
a separate (assembly) file. See Combining C and assembly source files for an example
of how to implement it that way.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
225
Another solution is to still implement the ISR in C language but take over the compiler’s job of generating the prologue and epilogue. This can be done using the ISR_NAKED attribute to the ISR() macro. Note that the compiler does not generate anything as prologue or epilogue, so the final reti() must be provided by the actual implementation. SREG must be manually saved if the ISR code modifies it, and the
compiler-implied assumption of __zero_reg__ always being 0 could be wrong (e.
g. when interrupting right after of a MUL instruction).
ISR(TIMER1_OVF_vect, ISR_NAKED)
{
PORTB |= _BV(0); // results in SBI which does not affect SREG
reti();
}
Choosing the vector: Interrupt vector names
one of the symbols in following table.
The interrupt is chosen by supplying
There are currently two different styles present for naming the vectors. One form uses
names starting with SIG_, followed by a relatively verbose but arbitrarily chosen name
describing the interrupt vector. This has been the only available style in avr-libc up to
version 1.2.x.
Starting with avr-libc version 1.4.0, a second style of interrupt vector names has been
added, where a short phrase for the vector description is followed by _vect. The
short phrase matches the vector name as described in the datasheet of the respective
device (and in Atmel’s XML files), with spaces replaced by an underscore and other
non-alphanumeric characters dropped. Using the suffix _vect is intented to improve
portability to other C compilers available for the AVR that use a similar naming convention.
The historical naming style might become deprecated in a future release, so it is not
recommended for new projects.
Note:
The ISR() macro cannot really spell-check the argument passed to them. Thus, by
misspelling one of the names below in a call to ISR(), a function will be created
that, while possibly being usable as an interrupt function, is not actually wired into
the interrupt vector table. The compiler will generate a warning if it detects a suspiciously looking name of a ISR() function (i.e. one that after macro replacement
does not start with "__vector_").
Vector name
Old
name
vector
Description
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
Applicable for device
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
226
Description
Applicable for device
ADC_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_ADC
ADC Conversion
Complete
ANALOG_COMP_0_vect
ANALOG_COMP_1_vect
ANALOG_COMP_2_vect
ANALOG_COMP_vect
SIG_COMPARATOR0
SIG_COMPARATOR1
SIG_COMPARATOR2
SIG_COMPARATOR
Analog
parator 0
Analog
parator 1
Analog
parator 2
Analog
parator
Com-
AT90S2333, AT90S4433, AT90S4434,
AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM1, AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32,
AT90CAN64, ATmega103, ATmega128,
ATmega1284P, ATmega16, ATmega163,
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega168P,
ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega32,
ATmega323, ATmega325, ATmega3250,
ATmega3250P, ATmega328P, ATmega329,
ATmega3290, ATmega3290P, ATmega48P,
ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450,
ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATmega8,
ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P,
ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATtiny13, ATtiny15, ATtiny26, ATtiny43U, ATtiny48,
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45,
ATtiny25, ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
Com-
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
Com-
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
Com-
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega1284P,
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega168P,
ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega325,
ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega328P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega48P, ATmega64,
ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
ANA_COMP_vect
Old
vector
Description
name
SIG_Analog
ComCOMPARATOR parator
CANIT_vect
SIG_CAN_INTERRUPT1
EEPROM_READY_vect
SIG_EEPROM_READY,
SIG_EE_READY
SIG_EEPROM_READY
EE_RDY_vect
CAN
Transfer
Complete
or
Error
227
Applicable for device
AT90S1200, AT90S2313, AT90S2333,
AT90S4414, AT90S4433, AT90S4434,
AT90S8515,
AT90S8535,
ATmega16,
ATmega161, ATmega162, ATmega163,
ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega8, ATmega8515,
ATmega8535,
ATtiny11,
ATtiny12, ATtiny13, ATtiny15, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny26, ATtiny28, ATtiny43U, ATtiny48,
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45,
ATtiny25, ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64
ATtiny2313
EEPROM Ready
EE_READY_vect
SIG_EEPROM_READY
EEPROM Ready
EXT_INT0_vect
SIG_INTERRUPT0
External Interrupt
Request 0
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
AT90S2333, AT90S4433, AT90S4434,
AT90S8535,
ATmega16,
ATmega161,
ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega32,
ATmega323, ATmega8, ATmega8515,
ATmega8535, ATtiny12, ATtiny13, ATtiny15, ATtiny26, ATtiny43U, ATtiny48,
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45,
ATtiny25, ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega1284P,
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega168P,
ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega325,
ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega328P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB, ATmega406, ATmega48P,
ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450,
ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATmega88P,
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
INT0_vect
INT1_vect
228
Old
vector
name
SIG_INTERRUPT0
Description
Applicable for device
External Interrupt
0
SIG_INTERRUPT1
External Interrupt
Request 1
AT90S1200, AT90S2313, AT90S2323,
AT90S2333, AT90S2343, AT90S4414,
AT90S4433, AT90S4434, AT90S8515,
AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM1, AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32,
AT90CAN64, ATmega103, ATmega128,
ATmega1284P, ATmega16, ATmega161,
ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega168P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406, ATmega48P, ATmega64, ATmega645,
ATmega6450,
ATmega649,
ATmega6490, ATmega8, ATmega8515,
ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P,
ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATmega16HVA,
ATtiny11, ATtiny12, ATtiny13, ATtiny15,
ATtiny22, ATtiny2313, ATtiny26, ATtiny28,
ATtiny43U, ATtiny48, ATtiny45, ATtiny25,
ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90S2313, AT90S2333, AT90S4414,
AT90S4433, AT90S4434, AT90S8515,
AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM1, AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32,
AT90CAN64, ATmega103, ATmega128,
ATmega1284P, ATmega16, ATmega161,
ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega168P,
ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega328P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406,
ATmega48P, ATmega64, ATmega8, ATmega8515, ATmega8535, ATmega88P,
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P,
ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644,
ATmega16HVA, ATtiny2313, ATtiny28,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
229
Old
vector
name
SIG_INTERRUPT2
Description
Applicable for device
External Interrupt
Request 2
INT3_vect
SIG_INTERRUPT3
External Interrupt
Request 3
INT4_vect
SIG_INTERRUPT4
External Interrupt
Request 4
INT5_vect
SIG_INTERRUPT5
External Interrupt
Request 5
INT6_vect
SIG_INTERRUPT6
External Interrupt
Request 6
INT7_vect
SIG_INTERRUPT7
External Interrupt
Request 7
IO_PINS_vect
SIG_PIN,
SIG_PIN_CHANGE
SIG_LCD
External Interrupt
Request 0
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega1284P,
ATmega16, ATmega161, ATmega162,
ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406, ATmega64, ATmega8515, ATmega8535, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P,
ATmega644P,
ATmega644,
ATmega16HVA, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406, ATmega64, ATmega640,
ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103,
ATmega128,
ATmega64,
ATmega640,
ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103,
ATmega128,
ATmega64,
ATmega640,
ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103,
ATmega128,
ATmega64,
ATmega640,
ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103,
ATmega128,
ATmega64,
ATmega640,
ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATtiny11, ATtiny12, ATtiny15, ATtiny26
INT2_vect
LCD_vect
LCD Start
Frame
of
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega329,
ATmega3290, ATmega3290P, ATmega649,
ATmega6490
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
Description
Applicable for device
ATtiny28
SIG_CAN_OVERFLOW1
SIG_PIN_CHANGE0
Low-level Input
on Port B
CAN
Timer
Overrun
Pin Change Interrupt Request 0
PCINT1_vect
SIG_PIN_CHANGE1
Pin Change Interrupt Request 1
PCINT2_vect
SIG_PIN_CHANGE2
Pin Change Interrupt Request 2
PCINT3_vect
SIG_PIN_CHANGE3
Pin Change Interrupt Request 3
PCINT_vect
SIG_PIN_CHANGE,
SIG_PCINT
SIG_PSC0_CAPTURE
SIG_PSC0_END_CYCLE
LOWLEVEL_IO_PINS_vect
OVRIT_vect
PCINT0_vect
PSC0_CAPT_vect
PSC0_EC_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_PIN
230
PSC0
Capture
Event
PSC0 End Cycle
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64
ATmega162, ATmega165, ATmega165P,
ATmega168P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406,
ATmega48P,
ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P,
ATmega644P, ATmega644,
ATtiny13,
ATtiny43U, ATtiny48, ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45, ATtiny25,
ATtiny85, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATmega162, ATmega165, ATmega165P,
ATmega168P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406,
ATmega48P,
ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATtiny43U, ATtiny48, ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, AT90USB162,
AT90USB82
ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega328P,
ATmega3290, ATmega3290P, ATmega48P,
ATmega6450, ATmega6490, ATmega88P,
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATtiny48
ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P, ATmega6450, ATmega6490,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATtiny48
ATtiny2313, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
231
Description
Applicable for device
PSC1_CAPT_vect
PSC1_EC_vect
PSC2_CAPT_vect
PSC2_EC_vect
SPI_STC_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_PSC1_CAPTURE
SIG_PSC1_END_CYCLE
SIG_PSC2_CAPTURE
SIG_PSC2_END_CYCLE
SIG_SPI
PSC1
Capture
Event
PSC1 End Cycle
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
PSC2
Capture
Event
PSC2 End Cycle
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
Serial Transfer
Complete
SPM_RDY_vect
SIG_SPM_READY
Store
Program
Memory Ready
SPM_READY_vect
SIG_SPM_READY
Store
Program
Memory Read
TIM0_COMPA_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0A
Timer/Counter
Compare Match
A
AT90S2333, AT90S4414, AT90S4433,
AT90S4434, AT90S8515, AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B,
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega1284P,
ATmega16, ATmega161, ATmega162,
ATmega163, ATmega165, ATmega165P,
ATmega168P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega325,
ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega328P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB, ATmega48P, ATmega64,
ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649,
ATmega6490, ATmega8, ATmega8515,
ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P,
ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATmega16HVA,
ATtiny48, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATmega16, ATmega162, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega8, ATmega8515, ATmega8535
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega168P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega325, ATmega3250,
ATmega3250P, ATmega328P, ATmega329,
ATmega3290, ATmega3290P, ATmega406,
ATmega48P, ATmega64,
ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATtiny13, ATtiny43U, ATtiny24, ATtiny44,
ATtiny84, ATtiny45, ATtiny25, ATtiny85
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
232
Old
vector
name
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0B
SIG_OVERFLOW0
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE1
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1A
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1B
SIG_OVERFLOW1
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE0
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0A
Description
Applicable for device
Timer/Counter
Compare Match
B
Timer/Counter0
Overflow
Timer/Counter1
Capture Event
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
A
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
B
Timer/Counter1
Overflow
ADC Conversion
Complete
TimerCounter0
Compare Match
A
ATtiny13, ATtiny43U, ATtiny24, ATtiny44,
ATtiny84, ATtiny45, ATtiny25, ATtiny85
TIMER0_COMPB_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0B,
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0_B
Timer Counter 0
Compare Match
B
TIMER0_COMP_A_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0A,
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0_A
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0
Timer/Counter0
Compare Match
A
TIM0_COMPB_vect
TIM0_OVF_vect
TIM1_CAPT_vect
TIM1_COMPA_vect
TIM1_COMPB_vect
TIM1_OVF_vect
TIMER0_CAPT_vect
TIMER0_COMPA_vect
TIMER0_COMP_vect
Timer/Counter0
Compare Match
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
ATtiny13, ATtiny43U, ATtiny24, ATtiny44,
ATtiny84, ATtiny45, ATtiny25, ATtiny85
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45,
ATtiny25, ATtiny85
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45,
ATtiny25, ATtiny85
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny45,
ATtiny25, ATtiny85
ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
ATmega1284P, ATmega168P, ATmega328P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega48P,
ATmega88P, ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88,
ATmega640,
ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega16, ATmega161, ATmega162, ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P, ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATmega8515, ATmega8535
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
233
Description
Applicable for device
TIMER0_OVF0_vect
TIMER0_OVF_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_OVERFLOW0
SIG_OVERFLOW0
Timer/Counter0
Overflow
Timer/Counter0
Overflow
TIMER1_CAPT1_vect
TIMER1_CAPT_vect
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE1
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE1
Timer/Counter1
Capture Event
Timer/Counter
Capture Event
AT90S2313, AT90S2323, AT90S2343, ATtiny22, ATtiny26
AT90S1200, AT90S2333, AT90S4414,
AT90S4433, AT90S4434, AT90S8515,
AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM1, AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32,
AT90CAN64, ATmega103, ATmega128,
ATmega1284P, ATmega16, ATmega161,
ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega168P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega48P, ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega8, ATmega8515, ATmega8535,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, ATtiny11,
ATtiny12, ATtiny15, ATtiny2313, ATtiny28,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90S2313
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
AT90S2333, AT90S4414, AT90S4433,
AT90S4434, AT90S8515, AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B,
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega1284P,
ATmega16, ATmega161, ATmega162,
ATmega163, ATmega165, ATmega165P,
ATmega168P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega325,
ATmega3250,
ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P, ATmega48P, ATmega64,
ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649,
ATmega6490, ATmega8, ATmega8515,
ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P,
ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny48, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
TIMER1_CMPA_vect
TIMER1_CMPB_vect
TIMER1_COMP1_vect
TIMER1_COMPA_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1A
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1B
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1A
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1A
234
Description
Applicable for device
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
1A
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
1B
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
ATtiny26
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
A
AT90S4414, AT90S4434, AT90S8515,
AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM1, AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32,
AT90CAN64, ATmega103, ATmega128,
ATmega1284P, ATmega16, ATmega161,
ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega168P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega48P, ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega8, ATmega8515, ATmega8535,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
ATtiny26
AT90S2313
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
235
Old
vector
name
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1B
Description
Applicable for device
Timer/Counter1
Compare MatchB
TIMER1_COMPC_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1C
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
C
TIMER1_COMPD_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE0D
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1A
SIG_OVERFLOW1
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
D
Timer/Counter1
Compare Match
AT90S4414, AT90S4434, AT90S8515,
AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM1, AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32,
AT90CAN64, ATmega103, ATmega128,
ATmega1284P, ATmega16, ATmega161,
ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega168P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega48P, ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega8, ATmega8515, ATmega8535,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega64, ATmega640,
ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861
TIMER1_COMPB_vect
TIMER1_COMP_vect
TIMER1_OVF1_vect
Timer/Counter1
Overflow
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
AT90S2333, AT90S4433, ATtiny15
AT90S2313, ATtiny26
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
236
Old
vector
name
SIG_OVERFLOW1
Description
Applicable for device
Timer/Counter1
Overflow
TIMER2_COMPA_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE2A
Timer/Counter2
Compare Match
A
TIMER2_COMPB_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE2B
Timer/Counter2
Compare Match
A
TIMER2_COMP_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE2
Timer/Counter2
Compare Match
AT90S2333, AT90S4414, AT90S4433,
AT90S4434, AT90S8515, AT90S8535,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM316,
AT90PWM3B,
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega103, ATmega128, ATmega1284P,
ATmega16, ATmega161, ATmega162,
ATmega163, ATmega165, ATmega165P,
ATmega168P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega325,
ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega328P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega32HVB,
ATmega48P,
ATmega64,
ATmega645,
ATmega6450,
ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATmega8,
ATmega8515, ATmega8535, ATmega88P,
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P,
ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644,
ATmega16HVA, ATtiny15, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny48, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90S4434, AT90S8535, AT90CAN128,
AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64, ATmega103,
ATmega128, ATmega16, ATmega161, ATmega162, ATmega163, ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P, ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATmega8, ATmega8535
TIMER1_OVF_vect
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
237
Description
Applicable for device
TIMER2_OVF_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_OVERFLOW2
Timer/Counter2
Overflow
TIMER3_CAPT_vect
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE3
Timer/Counter3
Capture Event
TIMER3_COMPA_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE3A
Timer/Counter3
Compare Match
A
TIMER3_COMPB_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE3B
Timer/Counter3
Compare Match
B
TIMER3_COMPC_vect
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE3C
Timer/Counter3
Compare Match
C
TIMER3_OVF_vect
SIG_OVERFLOW3
Timer/Counter3
Overflow
TIMER4_CAPT_vect
TIMER4_COMPA_vect
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE4
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE4A
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE4B
Timer/Counter4
Capture Event
Timer/Counter4
Compare Match
A
Timer/Counter4
Compare Match
B
AT90S4434, AT90S8535, AT90CAN128,
AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64, ATmega103,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega16,
ATmega161, ATmega162, ATmega163,
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega168P,
ATmega169, ATmega169P, ATmega32, ATmega323,
ATmega325,
ATmega3250,
ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega48P, ATmega64,
ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490,
ATmega8, ATmega8535, ATmega88P,
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega162,
ATmega64, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega162,
ATmega64, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega162,
ATmega64, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega64, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega162,
ATmega64, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
TIMER4_COMPB_vect
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
238
Old
vector
name
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE4C
SIG_OVERFLOW4
SIG_INPUT_CAPTURE5
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE5A
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE5B
SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE5C
SIG_OVERFLOW5
SIG_2WIRE_SERIAL
Description
Applicable for device
Timer/Counter4
Compare Match
C
Timer/Counter4
Overflow
Timer/Counter5
Capture Event
Timer/Counter5
Compare Match
A
Timer/Counter5
Compare Match
B
Timer/Counter5
Compare Match
C
Timer/Counter5
Overflow
2-wire Serial Interface
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
TXDONE_vect
SIG_TXDONE
TXEMPTY_vect
SIG_TXBE
UART0_RX_vect
SIG_UART0_RECV
SIG_UART0_TRANS
SIG_UART0_DATA
SIG_UART1_RECV
SIG_UART1_TRANS
SIG_UART1_DATA
Transmission
Done, Bit Timer
Flag 2 Interrupt
Transmit Buffer
Empty, Bit Itmer
Flag 0 Interrupt
UART0,
Rx
Complete
TIMER4_COMPC_vect
TIMER4_OVF_vect
TIMER5_CAPT_vect
TIMER5_COMPA_vect
TIMER5_COMPB_vect
TIMER5_COMPC_vect
TIMER5_OVF_vect
TWI_vect
UART0_TX_vect
UART0_UDRE_vect
UART1_RX_vect
UART1_TX_vect
UART1_UDRE_vect
UART0,
Complete
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega16,
ATmega163, ATmega168P, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega328P, ATmega32HVB,
ATmega406,
ATmega48P, ATmega64,
ATmega8, ATmega8535, ATmega88P,
ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P,
ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644,
ATtiny48, AT90USB1287, AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT86RF401
AT86RF401
ATmega161
Tx
ATmega161
UART0
Data
Register Empty
ATmega161
UART1,
Complete
Rx
ATmega161
UART1,
Complete
Tx
ATmega161
UART1
Data
Register Empty
ATmega161
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
239
Description
Applicable for device
UART_RX_vect
Old
vector
name
SIG_UART_RECV
UART, Rx Complete
UART_TX_vect
SIG_UART_TRANS
UART, Tx Complete
UART_UDRE_vect
SIG_UART_DATA
UART Data Register Empty
USART0_RXC_vect
SIG_USART0_RECV
SIG_UART0_RECV
USART0,
Complete
Rx
AT90S2313, AT90S2333,
AT90S4433, AT90S4434,
AT90S8535, ATmega103,
ATmega8515
AT90S2313, AT90S2333,
AT90S4433, AT90S4434,
AT90S8535, ATmega103,
ATmega8515
AT90S2313, AT90S2333,
AT90S4433, AT90S4434,
AT90S8535, ATmega103,
ATmega8515
ATmega162
USART0,
Complete
Rx
SIG_USART0_TRANS
SIG_UART0_TRANS
USART0,
Complete
Tx
USART0,
Complete
Tx
USART0_UDRE_vect
SIG_UART0_DATA
USART0
Data
Register Empty
USART1_RXC_vect
SIG_USART1_RECV
SIG_UART1_RECV
USART1,
Complete
Rx
USART1,
Complete
Rx
USART0_RX_vect
USART0_TXC_vect
USART0_TX_vect
USART1_RX_vect
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
AT90S4414,
AT90S8515,
ATmega163,
AT90S4414,
AT90S8515,
ATmega163,
AT90S4414,
AT90S8515,
ATmega163,
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega325, ATmega329, ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega649, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644
ATmega162
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega325, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega6450, ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega162,
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega325, ATmega329,
ATmega64, ATmega645, ATmega649,
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega324P,
ATmega164P, ATmega644P, ATmega644
ATmega162
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega64,
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
240
Old
vector
name
SIG_USART1_TRANS
SIG_UART1_TRANS
Description
USART1_UDRE_vect
SIG_UART1_DATA
USART1, Data
Register Empty
USART2_RX_vect
SIG_USART2_RECV
SIG_USART2_TRANS
SIG_USART2_DATA
SIG_USART3_RECV
SIG_USART3_TRANS
SIG_USART3_DATA
SIG_USART_RECV, SIG_UART_RECV
SIG_USART_RECV, SIG_UART_RECV
USART2,
Complete
Rx
USART2,
Complete
Tx
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
USART2
Data
register Empty
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
USART3,
Complete
Rx
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
USART3,
Complete
Tx
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
USART3
Data
register Empty
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
USART,
Complete
Rx
ATmega16, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega8
USART,
Complete
Rx
SIG_USART_TRANS,
SIG_UART_TRANS
USART,
Complete
Tx
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
ATmega168P, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P,
ATmega328P, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega48P, ATmega6450, ATmega6490,
ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48, ATmega88, ATtiny2313
ATmega16, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega8
USART1_TXC_vect
USART1_TX_vect
USART2_TX_vect
USART2_UDRE_vect
USART3_RX_vect
USART3_TX_vect
USART3_UDRE_vect
USART_RXC_vect
USART_RX_vect
USART_TXC_vect
Applicable for device
USART1,
Complete
Tx
ATmega162
USART1,
Complete
Tx
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega64,
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560,
ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
AT90CAN128, AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64,
ATmega128, ATmega1284P, ATmega162,
ATmega64, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, AT90USB162, AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
Vector name
241
Old
vector
name
SIG_USART_TRANS,
SIG_UART_TRANS
SIG_USART_DATA, SIG_UART_DATA
Description
USI_OVERFLOW_vect
SIG_USI_OVERFLOW
USI Overflow
USI_OVF_vect
SIG_USI_OVERFLOW
USI Overflow
USI_START_vect
SIG_USI_START
USI Start Condition
USI_STRT_vect
USI_STR_vect
WATCHDOG_vect
SIG_USI_START
SIG_USI_START
SIG_WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT
SIG_WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT,
SIG_WDT_OVERFLOW
SIG_WDT,
SIG_WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT
USART_TX_vect
USART_UDRE_vect
WDT_OVERFLOW_vect
WDT_vect
USART,
Complete
Applicable for device
Tx
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
ATmega168P, ATmega328P, ATmega48P,
ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48, ATmega88, ATtiny2313
USART
Data
Register Empty
USI Start
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
ATmega16, ATmega168P, ATmega32, ATmega323, ATmega3250, ATmega3250P, ATmega328P, ATmega3290, ATmega3290P,
ATmega48P, ATmega6450, ATmega6490,
ATmega8, ATmega8535, ATmega88P, ATmega168, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATtiny2313
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega325, ATmega3250,
ATmega3250P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P, ATmega645, ATmega6450,
ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATtiny2313
ATtiny26, ATtiny43U, ATtiny24, ATtiny44,
ATtiny84, ATtiny45, ATtiny25, ATtiny85,
ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861
ATmega165, ATmega165P, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega325, ATmega3250,
ATmega3250P, ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega3290P, ATmega645, ATmega6450,
ATmega649, ATmega6490, ATtiny2313,
ATtiny43U, ATtiny45, ATtiny25, ATtiny85,
ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861
ATtiny26
USI START
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84
Watchdog Timeout
ATtiny24, ATtiny44, ATtiny84
Watchdog Timer
Overflow
ATtiny2313
Watchdog Timeout Interrupt
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM2, AT90PWM1,
ATmega1284P, ATmega168P, ATmega328P,
ATmega32HVB, ATmega406, ATmega48P,
ATmega88P, ATmega168,
ATmega48,
ATmega88, ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
ATmega324P, ATmega164P, ATmega644P,
ATmega644, ATmega16HVA, ATtiny13,
ATtiny43U, ATtiny48, ATtiny45, ATtiny25,
ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461, ATtiny861,
AT90USB162,
AT90USB82,
AT90USB1287,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB647, AT90USB646
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
22.15
242
Global manipulation of the interrupt flag
The global interrupt flag is maintained in the I bit of the status register (SREG).
• #define sei()
• #define cli()
Macros for writing interrupt handler functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define ISR(vector, attributes)
#define SIGNAL(vector)
#define EMPTY_INTERRUPT(vector)
#define ISR_ALIAS(vector, target_vector)
#define reti()
#define BADISR_vect
ISR attributes
•
•
•
•
#define ISR_BLOCK
#define ISR_NOBLOCK
#define ISR_NAKED
#define ISR_ALIASOF(target_vector)
22.15.2
22.15.2.1
Define Documentation
#define BADISR_vect
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
This is a vector which is aliased to __vector_default, the vector executed when an ISR
fires with no accompanying ISR handler. This may be used along with the ISR() macro
to create a catch-all for undefined but used ISRs for debugging purposes.
22.15.2.2
#define cli()
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Disables all interrupts by clearing the global interrupt mask. This function actually
compiles into a single line of assembly, so there is no function call overhead.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
22.15.2.3
243
#define EMPTY_INTERRUPT(vector)
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Defines an empty interrupt handler function. This will not generate any prolog or
epilog code and will only return from the ISR. Do not define a function body as this
will define it for you. Example:
EMPTY_INTERRUPT(ADC_vect);
22.15.2.4
#define ISR(vector, attributes)
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Introduces an interrupt handler function (interrupt service routine) that runs with global
interrupts initially disabled by default with no attributes specified.
The attributes are optional and alter the behaviour and resultant generated code of the
interrupt routine. Multiple attributes may be used for a single function, with a space
seperating each attribute.
Valid attributes are ISR_BLOCK, ISR_NOBLOCK, ISR_NAKED and ISR_ALIASOF(vect).
vector must be one of the interrupt vector names that are valid for the particular
MCU type.
22.15.2.5
#define ISR_ALIAS(vector, target_vector)
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Aliases a given vector to another one in the same manner as the ISR_ALIASOF attribute for the ISR() macro. Unlike the ISR_ALIASOF attribute macro however, this is
compatible for all versions of GCC rather than just GCC version 4.2 onwards.
Note:
This macro creates a trampoline function for the aliased macro. This will result in
a two cycle penalty for the aliased vector compared to the ISR the vector is aliased
to, due to the JMP/RJMP opcode used.
Deprecated
For new code, the use of ISR(..., ISR_ALIASOF(...)) is recommended.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.15
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts
244
Example:
ISR(INT0_vect)
{
PORTB = 42;
}
ISR_ALIAS(INT1_vect, INT0_vect);
22.15.2.6
#define ISR_ALIASOF(target_vector)
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
The ISR is linked to another ISR, specified by the vect parameter. This is compatible
with GCC 4.2 and greater only.
Use this attribute in the attributes parameter of the ISR macro.
22.15.2.7
#define ISR_BLOCK
# include <avr/interrupt.h>
Identical to an ISR with no attributes specified. Global interrupts are initially disabled
by the AVR hardware when entering the ISR, without the compiler modifying this state.
Use this attribute in the attributes parameter of the ISR macro.
22.15.2.8
#define ISR_NAKED
# include <avr/interrupt.h>
ISR is created with no prologue or epilogue code. The user code is responsible for
preservation of the machine state including the SREG register, as well as placing a
reti() at the end of the interrupt routine.
Use this attribute in the attributes parameter of the ISR macro.
22.15.2.9
#define ISR_NOBLOCK
# include <avr/interrupt.h>
ISR runs with global interrupts initially enabled. The interrupt enable flag is activated
by the compiler as early as possible within the ISR to ensure minimal processing delay
for nested interrupts.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.16
<avr/io.h>: AVR device-specific IO definitions
245
This may be used to create nested ISRs, however care should be taken to avoid stack
overflows, or to avoid infinitely entering the ISR for those cases where the AVR hardware does not clear the respective interrupt flag before entering the ISR.
Use this attribute in the attributes parameter of the ISR macro.
22.15.2.10
#define reti()
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Returns from an interrupt routine, enabling global interrupts. This should be the last
command executed before leaving an ISR defined with the ISR_NAKED attribute.
This macro actually compiles into a single line of assembly, so there is no function call
overhead.
22.15.2.11
#define sei()
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Enables interrupts by setting the global interrupt mask. This function actually compiles
into a single line of assembly, so there is no function call overhead.
22.15.2.12
#define SIGNAL(vector)
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
Introduces an interrupt handler function that runs with global interrupts initially disabled.
This is the same as the ISR macro without optional attributes.
Deprecated
Do not use SIGNAL() in new code. Use ISR() instead.
22.16
<avr/io.h>: AVR device-specific IO definitions
#include <avr/io.h>
This header file includes the apropriate IO definitions for the device that has been
specified by the -mmcu= compiler command-line switch. This is done by diverting to the appropriate file <avr/ioXXXX.h> which should never be included directly. Some register names common to all AVR devices are defined directly within
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support
22.17
246
<avr/common.h>, which is included in <avr/io.h>, but most of the details
come from the respective include file.
Note that this file always includes the following files:
#include
#include
#include
#include
<avr/sfr_defs.h>
<avr/portpins.h>
<avr/common.h>
<avr/version.h>
See <avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers for more details about that header file.
Included are definitions of the IO register set and their respective bit values as specified
in the Atmel documentation. Note that inconsistencies in naming conventions, so even
identical functions sometimes get different names on different devices.
Also included are the specific names useable for interrupt function definitions as documented here.
Finally, the following macros are defined:
• RAMEND
The last on-chip RAM address.
• XRAMEND
The last possible RAM location that is addressable. This is equal to RAMEND
for devices that do not allow for external RAM. For devices that allow external
RAM, this will be larger than RAMEND.
• E2END
The last EEPROM address.
• FLASHEND
The last byte address in the Flash program space.
• SPM_PAGESIZE
For devices with bootloader support, the flash pagesize (in bytes) to be used for
the SPM instruction.
• E2PAGESIZE
The size of the EEPROM page.
22.17
<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support
Introduction
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.17
<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support
247
The Lockbit API allows a user to specify the lockbit settings for the specific AVR
device they are compiling for. These lockbit settings will be placed in a special section
in the ELF output file, after linking.
Programming tools can take advantage of the lockbit information embedded in the
ELF file, by extracting this information and determining if the lockbits need to be
programmed after programming the Flash and EEPROM memories. This also allows a
single ELF file to contain all the information needed to program an AVR.
To use the Lockbit API, include the <avr/io.h> header file, which in turn automatically
includes the individual I/O header file and the <avr/lock.h> file. These other two files
provides everything necessary to set the AVR lockbits.
Lockbit API
Each I/O header file may define up to 3 macros that controls what kinds of lockbits are
available to the user.
If __LOCK_BITS_EXIST is defined, then two lock bits are available to the user and 3
mode settings are defined for these two bits.
If __BOOT_LOCK_BITS_0_EXIST is defined, then the two BLB0 lock bits are available to the user and 4 mode settings are defined for these two bits.
If __BOOT_LOCK_BITS_1_EXIST is defined, then the two BLB1 lock bits are available to the user and 4 mode settings are defined for these two bits.
If __BOOT_LOCK_APPLICATION_TABLE_BITS_EXIST is defined then two lock
bits are available to set the locking mode for the Application Table Section (which is
used in the XMEGA family).
If __BOOT_LOCK_APPLICATION_BITS_EXIST is defined then two lock bits are
available to set the locking mode for the Application Section (which is used in the
XMEGA family).
If __BOOT_LOCK_BOOT_BITS_EXIST is defined then two lock bits are available
to set the locking mode for the Boot Loader Section (which is used in the XMEGA
family).
The AVR lockbit modes have inverted values, logical 1 for an unprogrammed (disabled) bit and logical 0 for a programmed (enabled) bit. The defined macros for each
individual lock bit represent this in their definition by a bit-wise inversion of a mask.
For example, the LB_MODE_3 macro is defined as:
#define LB_MODE_3
(0xFC)
‘
To combine the lockbit mode macros together to represent a whole byte, use the bitwise
AND operator, like so:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.17
<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support
248
(LB_MODE_3 & BLB0_MODE_2)
<avr/lock.h> also defines a macro that provides a default lockbit value: LOCKBITS_DEFAULT which is defined to be 0xFF.
See the AVR device specific datasheet for more details about these lock bits and the
available mode settings.
A convenience macro, LOCKMEM, is defined as a GCC attribute for a custom-named
section of ".lock".
A convenience macro, LOCKBITS, is defined that declares a variable, __lock, of type
unsigned char with the attribute defined by LOCKMEM. This variable allows the end
user to easily set the lockbit data.
Note:
If a device-specific I/O header file has previously defined LOCKMEM, then
LOCKMEM is not redefined. If a device-specific I/O header file has previously
defined LOCKBITS, then LOCKBITS is not redefined. LOCKBITS is currently
known to be defined in the I/O header files for the XMEGA devices.
API Usage Example
Putting all of this together is easy:
#include <avr/io.h>
LOCKBITS = (LB_MODE_1 & BLB0_MODE_3 & BLB1_MODE_4);
int main(void)
{
return 0;
}
Or:
#include <avr/io.h>
unsigned char __lock __attribute__((section (".lock"))) =
(LB_MODE_1 & BLB0_MODE_3 & BLB1_MODE_4);
int main(void)
{
return 0;
}
However there are a number of caveats that you need to be aware of to use this API
properly.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
249
Be sure to include <avr/io.h> to get all of the definitions for the API. The LOCKBITS
macro defines a global variable to store the lockbit data. This variable is assigned to
its own linker section. Assign the desired lockbit values immediately in the variable
initialization.
The .lock section in the ELF file will get its values from the initial variable assignment
ONLY. This means that you can NOT assign values to this variable in functions and the
new values will not be put into the ELF .lock section.
The global variable is declared in the LOCKBITS macro has two leading underscores,
which means that it is reserved for the "implementation", meaning the library, so it will
not conflict with a user-named variable.
You must initialize the lockbit variable to some meaningful value, even if it is the default value. This is because the lockbits default to a logical 1, meaning unprogrammed.
Normal uninitialized data defaults to all locgial zeros. So it is vital that all lockbits
are initialized, even with default data. If they are not, then the lockbits may not programmed to the desired settings and can possibly put your device into an unrecoverable
state.
Be sure to have the -mmcu=device flag in your compile command line and your linker
command line to have the correct device selected and to have the correct I/O header
file included when you include <avr/io.h>.
You can print out the contents of the .lock section in the ELF file by using this command
line:
avr-objdump -s -j .lock <ELF file>
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.1
Detailed Description
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
The functions in this module provide interfaces for a program to access data stored in
program space (flash memory) of the device. In order to use these functions, the target
device must support either the LPM or ELPM instructions.
Note:
These functions are an attempt to provide some compatibility with header files
that come with IAR C, to make porting applications between different compilers
easier. This is not 100% compatibility though (GCC does not have full support for
multiple address spaces yet).
If you are working with strings which are completely based in ram, use the standard string functions described in <string.h>: Strings.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18
250
If possible, put your constant tables in the lower 64 KB and use pgm_read_byte_near() or pgm_read_word_near() instead of pgm_read_byte_far() or pgm_read_word_far() since it is more efficient that way, and you can still use the upper 64K
for executable code. All functions that are suffixed with a _P require their arguments to be in the lower 64 KB of the flash ROM, as they do not use ELPM
instructions. This is normally not a big concern as the linker setup arranges any
program space constants declared using the macros from this header file so they
are placed right after the interrupt vectors, and in front of any executable code.
However, it can become a problem if there are too many of these constants, or for
bootloaders on devices with more than 64 KB of ROM. All these functions will not
work in that situation.
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define PROGMEM __ATTR_PROGMEM__
#define PSTR(s) ((const PROGMEM char ∗)(s))
#define pgm_read_byte_near(address_short) __LPM((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define
pgm_read_word_near(address_short)
__LPM_word((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define
pgm_read_dword_near(address_short)
__LPM_dword((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define pgm_read_float_near(address_short) __LPM_float((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define pgm_read_byte_far(address_long) __ELPM((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define
pgm_read_word_far(address_long)
__ELPM_word((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define
pgm_read_dword_far(address_long)
__ELPM_dword((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define pgm_read_float_far(address_long) __ELPM_float((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define pgm_read_byte(address_short) pgm_read_byte_near(address_short)
#define pgm_read_word(address_short) pgm_read_word_near(address_short)
#define pgm_read_dword(address_short) pgm_read_dword_near(address_short)
#define pgm_read_float(address_short) pgm_read_float_near(address_short)
#define PGM_P const prog_char ∗
#define PGM_VOID_P const prog_void ∗
Typedefs
•
•
•
•
typedef void PROGMEM prog_void
typedef char PROGMEM prog_char
typedef unsigned char PROGMEM prog_uchar
typedef int8_t PROGMEM prog_int8_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
251
typedef uint8_t PROGMEM prog_uint8_t
typedef int16_t PROGMEM prog_int16_t
typedef uint16_t PROGMEM prog_uint16_t
typedef int32_t PROGMEM prog_int32_t
typedef uint32_t PROGMEM prog_uint32_t
typedef int64_t PROGMEM prog_int64_t
typedef uint64_t PROGMEM prog_uint64_t
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PGM_VOID_P memchr_P (PGM_VOID_P, int __val, size_t __len)
int memcmp_P (const void ∗, PGM_VOID_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memcpy_P (void ∗, PGM_VOID_P, size_t)
PGM_VOID_P memrchr_P (PGM_VOID_P, int __val, size_t __len)
int strcasecmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcat_P (char ∗, PGM_P)
PGM_P strchr_P (PGM_P, int __val)
PGM_P strchrnul_P (PGM_P, int __val)
int strcmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcpy_P (char ∗, PGM_P)
size_t strcspn_P (const char ∗__s, PGM_P __reject) __ATTR_PURE__
size_t strlcat_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
size_t strlcpy_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
size_t strlen_P (PGM_P)
int strncasecmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strncat_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
int strncmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strncpy_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
size_t strnlen_P (PGM_P, size_t)
char ∗ strpbrk_P (const char ∗__s, PGM_P __accept) __ATTR_PURE__
PGM_P strrchr_P (PGM_P, int __val)
char ∗ strsep_P (char ∗∗__sp, PGM_P __delim)
size_t strspn_P (const char ∗__s, PGM_P __accept) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strstr_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memmem_P (const void ∗, size_t, PGM_VOID_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
• char ∗ strcasestr_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
22.18.2
22.18.2.1
Define Documentation
#define PGM_P const prog_char ∗
Used to declare a variable that is a pointer to a string in program space.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.2.2 #define
near(address_short)
252
pgm_read_byte(address_short)
pgm_read_byte_-
Read a byte from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.3 #define
t)(address_long))
pgm_read_byte_far(address_long)
__ELPM((uint32_-
Read a byte from the program space with a 32-bit (far) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.4 #define
t)(address_short))
pgm_read_byte_near(address_short)
__LPM((uint16_-
Read a byte from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.5 #define
near(address_short)
pgm_read_dword(address_short)
pgm_read_dword_-
Read a double word from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.6 #define
pgm_read_dword_far(address_long)
dword((uint32_t)(address_long))
Read a double word from the program space with a 32-bit (far) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
__ELPM_-
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
253
22.18.2.7 #define
pgm_read_dword_near(address_short)
dword((uint16_t)(address_short))
__LPM_-
Read a double word from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.8 #define
near(address_short)
pgm_read_float(address_short)
pgm_read_float_-
Read a float from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.9 #define pgm_read_float_far(address_long) __ELPM_float((uint32_t)(address_long))
Read a float from the program space with a 32-bit (far) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.10 #define pgm_read_float_near(address_short) __LPM_float((uint16_t)(address_short))
Read a float from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.11 #define
near(address_short)
pgm_read_word(address_short)
pgm_read_word_-
Read a word from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.2.12 #define
pgm_read_word_far(address_long)
word((uint32_t)(address_long))
254
__ELPM_-
Read a word from the program space with a 32-bit (far) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.13 #define
pgm_read_word_near(address_short)
word((uint16_t)(address_short))
Read a word from the program space with a 16-bit (near) address.
Note:
The address is a byte address. The address is in the program space.
22.18.2.14
#define PGM_VOID_P const prog_void ∗
Used to declare a generic pointer to an object in program space.
22.18.2.15
#define PROGMEM __ATTR_PROGMEM__
Attribute to use in order to declare an object being located in flash ROM.
22.18.2.16
#define PSTR(s) ((const PROGMEM char ∗)(s))
Used to declare a static pointer to a string in program space.
22.18.3
22.18.3.1
Typedef Documentation
prog_char
Type of a "char" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.2
prog_int16_t
Type of an "int16_t" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.3
prog_int32_t
Type of an "int32_t" object located in flash ROM.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
__LPM_-
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.3.4
255
prog_int64_t
Type of an "int64_t" object located in flash ROM.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.18.3.5
prog_int8_t
Type of an "int8_t" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.6
prog_uchar
Type of an "unsigned char" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.7
prog_uint16_t
Type of an "uint16_t" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.8
prog_uint32_t
Type of an "uint32_t" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.9
prog_uint64_t
Type of an "uint64_t" object located in flash ROM.
Note:
This type is not available when the compiler option -mint8 is in effect.
22.18.3.10
prog_uint8_t
Type of an "uint8_t" object located in flash ROM.
22.18.3.11
prog_void
Type of a "void" object located in flash ROM. Does not make much sense by itself, but
can be used to declare a "void ∗" object in flash ROM.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.4
22.18.4.1
256
Function Documentation
PGM_VOID_P memchr_P (PGM_VOID_P s, int val, size_t len)
Scan flash memory for a character.
The memchr_P() function scans the first len bytes of the flash memory area pointed
to by s for the character val. The first byte to match val (interpreted as an unsigned
character) stops the operation.
Returns:
The memchr_P() function returns a pointer to the matching byte or NULL if the
character does not occur in the given memory area.
22.18.4.2
int memcmp_P (const void ∗ s1, PGM_VOID_P s2, size_t len)
Compare memory areas.
The memcmp_P() function compares the first len bytes of the memory areas s1 and
flash s2. The comparision is performed using unsigned char operations.
Returns:
The memcmp_P() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than
zero if the first len bytes of s1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or
be greater than the first len bytes of s2.
22.18.4.3
void ∗ memcpy_P (void ∗ dest, PGM_VOID_P src, size_t n)
The memcpy_P() function is similar to memcpy(), except the src string resides in program space.
Returns:
The memcpy_P() function returns a pointer to dest.
22.18.4.4 void ∗ memmem_P (const void ∗ s1, size_t len1, PGM_VOID_P s2,
size_t len2)
The memmem_P() function is similar to memmem() except that s2 is pointer to a
string in program space.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.4.5
257
PGM_VOID_P memrchr_P (PGM_VOID_P src, int val, size_t len)
The memrchr_P() function is like the memchr_P() function, except that it searches
backwards from the end of the len bytes pointed to by src instead of forwards from
the front. (Glibc, GNU extension.)
Returns:
The memrchr_P() function returns a pointer to the matching byte or NULL if the
character does not occur in the given memory area.
22.18.4.6
int strcasecmp_P (const char ∗ s1, PGM_P s2)
Compare two strings ignoring case.
The strcasecmp_P() function compares the two strings s1 and s2, ignoring the case of
the characters.
Parameters:
s1 A pointer to a string in the devices SRAM.
s2 A pointer to a string in the devices Flash.
Returns:
The strcasecmp_P() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than
zero if s1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than s2.
A consequence of the ordering used by strcasecmp_P() is that if s1 is an initial
substring of s2, then s1 is considered to be "less than" s2.
22.18.4.7
char ∗ strcasestr_P (const char ∗ s1, PGM_P s2)
This funtion is similar to strcasestr() except that s2 is pointer to a string in program
space.
22.18.4.8
char ∗ strcat_P (char ∗ dest, PGM_P src)
The strcat_P() function is similar to strcat() except that the src string must be located
in program space (flash).
Returns:
The strcat() function returns a pointer to the resulting string dest.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.4.9
258
PGM_P strchr_P (PGM_P s, int val)
Locate character in program space string.
The strchr_P() function locates the first occurrence of val (converted to a char) in the
string pointed to by s in program space. The terminating null character is considered
to be part of the string.
The strchr_P() function is similar to strchr() except that s is pointer to a string in
program space.
Returns:
The strchr_P() function returns a pointer to the matched character or NULL if the
character is not found.
22.18.4.10
PGM_P strchrnul_P (PGM_P s, int c)
The strchrnul_P() function is like strchr_P() except that if c is not found in s, then
it returns a pointer to the null byte at the end of s, rather than NULL. (Glibc, GNU
extension.)
Returns:
The strchrnul_P() function returns a pointer to the matched character, or a pointer
to the null byte at the end of s (i.e., s+strlen(s)) if the character is not found.
22.18.4.11
int strcmp_P (const char ∗ s1, PGM_P s2)
The strcmp_P() function is similar to strcmp() except that s2 is pointer to a string in
program space.
Returns:
The strcmp_P() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
if s1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than s2. A
consequence of the ordering used by strcmp_P() is that if s1 is an initial substring
of s2, then s1 is considered to be "less than" s2.
22.18.4.12
char ∗ strcpy_P (char ∗ dest, PGM_P src)
The strcpy_P() function is similar to strcpy() except that src is a pointer to a string in
program space.
Returns:
The strcpy_P() function returns a pointer to the destination string dest.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.4.13
259
size_t strcspn_P (const char ∗ s, PGM_P reject)
The strcspn_P() function calculates the length of the initial segment of s which consists
entirely of characters not in reject. This function is similar to strcspn() except that
reject is a pointer to a string in program space.
Returns:
The strcspn_P() function returns the number of characters in the initial segment of
s which are not in the string reject. The terminating zero is not considered as a
part of string.
22.18.4.14
size_t strlcat_P (char ∗ dst, PGM_P, size_t siz)
Concatenate two strings.
The strlcat_P() function is similar to strlcat(), except that the src string must be located
in program space (flash).
Appends src to string dst of size siz (unlike strncat(), siz is the full size of dst, not space
left). At most siz-1 characters will be copied. Always NULL terminates (unless siz <=
strlen(dst)).
Returns:
The strlcat_P() function returns strlen(src) + MIN(siz, strlen(initial dst)). If retval
>= siz, truncation occurred.
22.18.4.15
size_t strlcpy_P (char ∗ dst, PGM_P, size_t siz)
Copy a string from progmem to RAM.
Copy src to string dst of size siz. At most siz-1 characters will be copied. Always
NULL terminates (unless siz == 0).
Returns:
The strlcpy_P() function returns strlen(src). If retval >= siz, truncation occurred.
22.18.4.16
size_t strlen_P (PGM_P src)
The strlen_P() function is similar to strlen(), except that src is a pointer to a string in
program space.
Returns:
The strlen() function returns the number of characters in src.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.4.17
260
int strncasecmp_P (const char ∗ s1, PGM_P s2, size_t n)
Compare two strings ignoring case.
The strncasecmp_P() function is similar to strcasecmp_P(), except it only compares the
first n characters of s1.
Parameters:
s1 A pointer to a string in the devices SRAM.
s2 A pointer to a string in the devices Flash.
n The maximum number of bytes to compare.
Returns:
The strncasecmp_P() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater
than zero if s1 (or the first n bytes thereof) is found, respectively, to be less
than, to match, or be greater than s2. A consequence of the ordering used by
strncasecmp_P() is that if s1 is an initial substring of s2, then s1 is considered to
be "less than" s2.
22.18.4.18
char ∗ strncat_P (char ∗ dest, PGM_P src, size_t len)
Concatenate two strings.
The strncat_P() function is similar to strncat(), except that the src string must be located
in program space (flash).
Returns:
The strncat_P() function returns a pointer to the resulting string dest.
22.18.4.19
int strncmp_P (const char ∗ s1, PGM_P s2, size_t n)
The strncmp_P() function is similar to strcmp_P() except it only compares the first (at
most) n characters of s1 and s2.
Returns:
The strncmp_P() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
if s1 (or the first n bytes thereof) is found, respectively, to be less than, to match,
or be greater than s2.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.18
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities
22.18.4.20
261
char ∗ strncpy_P (char ∗ dest, PGM_P src, size_t n)
The strncpy_P() function is similar to strcpy_P() except that not more than n bytes of
src are copied. Thus, if there is no null byte among the first n bytes of src, the result
will not be null-terminated.
In the case where the length of src is less than that of n, the remainder of dest will be
padded with nulls.
Returns:
The strncpy_P() function returns a pointer to the destination string dest.
22.18.4.21
size_t strnlen_P (PGM_P src, size_t len)
Determine the length of a fixed-size string.
The strnlen_P() function is similar to strnlen(), except that src is a pointer to a string
in program space.
Returns:
The strnlen_P function returns strlen_P(src), if that is less than len, or len if
there is no ’\0’ character among the first len characters pointed to by src.
22.18.4.22
char ∗ strpbrk_P (const char ∗ s, PGM_P accept)
The strpbrk_P() function locates the first occurrence in the string s of any of the characters in the flash string accept. This function is similar to strpbrk() except that
accept is a pointer to a string in program space.
Returns:
The strpbrk_P() function returns a pointer to the character in s that matches one of
the characters in accept, or NULL if no such character is found. The terminating
zero is not considered as a part of string: if one or both args are empty, the result
will NULL.
22.18.4.23
PGM_P strrchr_P (PGM_P s, int val)
Locate character in string.
The strrchr_P() function returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the character val
in the flash string s.
Returns:
The strrchr_P() function returns a pointer to the matched character or NULL if the
character is not found.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.19
<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management
22.18.4.24
262
char ∗ strsep_P (char ∗∗ sp, PGM_P delim)
Parse a string into tokens.
The strsep_P() function locates, in the string referenced by ∗sp, the first occurrence of
any character in the string delim (or the terminating ’\0’ character) and replaces it
with a ’\0’. The location of the next character after the delimiter character (or NULL,
if the end of the string was reached) is stored in ∗sp. An “empty” field, i.e. one
caused by two adjacent delimiter characters, can be detected by comparing the location
referenced by the pointer returned in ∗sp to ’\0’. This function is similar to strsep()
except that delim is a pointer to a string in program space.
Returns:
The strsep_P() function returns a pointer to the original value of ∗sp. If ∗sp is
initially NULL, strsep_P() returns NULL.
22.18.4.25
size_t strspn_P (const char ∗ s, PGM_P accept)
The strspn_P() function calculates the length of the initial segment of s which consists entirely of characters in accept. This function is similar to strspn() except that
accept is a pointer to a string in program space.
Returns:
The strspn_P() function returns the number of characters in the initial segment of
s which consist only of characters from accept. The terminating zero is not
considered as a part of string.
22.18.4.26
char ∗ strstr_P (const char ∗ s1, PGM_P s2)
Locate a substring.
The strstr_P() function finds the first occurrence of the substring s2 in the string s1.
The terminating ’\0’ characters are not compared. The strstr_P() function is similar to
strstr() except that s2 is pointer to a string in program space.
Returns:
The strstr_P() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or NULL
if the substring is not found. If s2 points to a string of zero length, the function
returns s1.
22.19
<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management
#include <avr/power.h>
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.19
<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management
263
Many AVRs contain a Power Reduction Register (PRR) or Registers (PRRx) that allow
you to reduce power consumption by disabling or enabling various on-board peripherals as needed.
There are many macros in this header file that provide an easy interface to enable or
disable on-board peripherals to reduce power. See the table below.
Note:
Not all AVR devices have a Power Reduction Register (for example the ATmega128). On those devices without a Power Reduction Register, these macros
are not available.
Not all AVR devices contain the same peripherals (for example, the LCD interface), or they will be named differently (for example, USART and USART0).
Please consult your device’s datasheet, or the header file, to find out which macros
are applicable to your device.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.19
<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management
264
Power Macro
Description
Applicable for device
power_adc_enable()
Enable the Analog to Digital
Converter module.
ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega128RFA1,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
AT90USB646, AT90USB647,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB1287, AT90PWM1,
AT90PWM2, AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM3B,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM316, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega325,
ATmega3250, ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega329,
ATmega3290, ATmega649,
ATmega6490, ATmega164P,
ATmega324P, ATmega644,
ATmega48, ATmega88,
ATmega168, ATtiny24,
ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny25,
ATtiny45, ATtiny85,
ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861
power_adc_disable()
Disable the Analog to Digital
Converter module.
ATmega640, ATmega1280,
ATmega1281,
ATmega128RFA1,
ATmega2560, ATmega2561,
AT90USB646, AT90USB647,
AT90USB1286,
AT90USB1287, AT90PWM1,
AT90PWM2, AT90PWM2B,
AT90PWM3, AT90PWM3B,
AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM316, ATmega165,
ATmega165P, ATmega325,
ATmega3250, ATmega645,
ATmega6450, ATmega169,
ATmega169P, ATmega329,
ATmega3290, ATmega649,
ATmega6490, ATmega164P,
ATmega324P, ATmega644,
ATmega48, ATmega88,
ATmega168, ATtiny24,
ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny25,
ATtiny45, ATtiny85,
ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861
power_lcd_enable()
Enable the LCD module.
ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega649, ATmega6490
power_lcd_disable().
Disable the LCD module.
ATmega169, ATmega169P,
ATmega329, ATmega3290,
ATmega649, ATmega6490
power_psc0_enable()
Enable
the by
Power
Stage
Generated
on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for
avr-libc
Doxygen
Controller 0 module.
AT90PWM1, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM2B, AT90PWM3,
AT90PWM3B
power_psc0_disable()
Disable the Power Stage
Controller 0 module.
AT90PWM1, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM2B, AT90PWM3,
AT90PWM3B
power_psc1_enable()
Enable the Power Stage
Controller 1 module.
AT90PWM1, AT90PWM2,
AT90PWM2B, AT90PWM3,
22.20
Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h>
265
Some of the newer AVRs contain a System Clock Prescale Register (CLKPR) that
allows you to decrease the system clock frequency and the power consumption when
the need for processing power is low. Below are two macros and an enumerated type
that can be used to interface to the Clock Prescale Register.
Note:
Not all AVR devices have a Clock Prescale Register. On those devices without a
Clock Prescale Register, these macros are not available.
typedef enum
{
clock_div_1 = 0,
clock_div_2 = 1,
clock_div_4 = 2,
clock_div_8 = 3,
clock_div_16 = 4,
clock_div_32 = 5,
clock_div_64 = 6,
clock_div_128 = 7,
clock_div_256 = 8
} clock_div_t;
Clock prescaler setting enumerations.
clock_prescale_set(x)
Set the clock prescaler register select bits, selecting a system clock division setting.
They type of x is clock_div_t.
clock_prescale_get()
Gets and returns the clock prescaler register setting. The return type is clock_div_t.
22.20
Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h>
The <avr/sfr_defs.h> file is included by all of the <avr/ioXXXX.h> files,
which use macros defined here to make the special function register definitions look
like C variables or simple constants, depending on the _SFR_ASM_COMPAT define.
Some examples from <avr/iocanxx.h> to show how to define such macros:
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
PORTA
EEAR
UDR0
TCNT3
CANIDT
_SFR_IO8(0x02)
_SFR_IO16(0x21)
_SFR_MEM8(0xC6)
_SFR_MEM16(0x94)
_SFR_MEM32(0xF0)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.20
Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h>
266
If _SFR_ASM_COMPAT is not defined, C programs can use names like PORTA directly
in C expressions (also on the left side of assignment operators) and GCC will do the
right thing (use short I/O instructions if possible). The __SFR_OFFSET definition is
not used in any way in this case.
Define _SFR_ASM_COMPAT as 1 to make these names work as simple constants (addresses of the I/O registers). This is necessary when included in preprocessed assembler (∗.S) source files, so it is done automatically if __ASSEMBLER__ is defined. By
default, all addresses are defined as if they were memory addresses (used in lds/sts
instructions). To use these addresses in in/out instructions, you must subtract 0x20
from them.
For more backwards compatibility, insert the following at the start of your old assembler source file:
#define __SFR_OFFSET 0
This automatically subtracts 0x20 from I/O space addresses, but it’s a hack, so it is
recommended to change your source: wrap such addresses in macros defined here, as
shown below. After this is done, the __SFR_OFFSET definition is no longer necessary
and can be removed.
Real example - this code could be used in a boot loader that is portable between devices
with SPMCR at different addresses.
<avr/iom163.h>: #define SPMCR _SFR_IO8(0x37)
<avr/iom128.h>: #define SPMCR _SFR_MEM8(0x68)
#if _SFR_IO_REG_P(SPMCR)
out
_SFR_IO_ADDR(SPMCR), r24
#else
sts
_SFR_MEM_ADDR(SPMCR), r24
#endif
You can use the in/out/cbi/sbi/sbic/sbis instructions, without the _SFR_IO_REG_P test, if you know that the register is in the I/O space (as with SREG, for
example). If it isn’t, the assembler will complain (I/O address out of range 0...0x3f),
so this should be fairly safe.
If you do not define __SFR_OFFSET (so it will be 0x20 by default), all special register
addresses are defined as memory addresses (so SREG is 0x5f), and (if code size and
speed are not important, and you don’t like the ugly #if above) you can always use
lds/sts to access them. But, this will not work if __SFR_OFFSET != 0x20, so use a
different macro (defined only if __SFR_OFFSET == 0x20) for safety:
sts
_SFR_ADDR(SPMCR), r24
In C programs, all 3 combinations of _SFR_ASM_COMPAT and __SFR_OFFSET are
supported - the _SFR_ADDR(SPMCR) macro can be used to get the address of the
SPMCR register (0x57 or 0x68 depending on device).
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.21
<avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers
22.21
<avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers
22.21.1
Detailed Description
267
When working with microcontrollers, many tasks usually consist of controlling internal
peripherals, or external peripherals that are connected to the device. The entire IO
address space is made available as memory-mapped IO, i.e. it can be accessed using
all the MCU instructions that are applicable to normal data memory. For most AVR
devices, the IO register space is mapped into the data memory address space with an
offset of 0x20 since the bottom of this space is reserved for direct access to the MCU
registers. (Actual SRAM is available only behind the IO register area, starting at some
specific address depending on the device.)
For example the user can access memory-mapped IO registers as if they were globally
defined variables like this:
PORTA = 0x33;
unsigned char foo = PINA;
The compiler will choose the correct instruction sequence to generate based on the
address of the register being accessed.
The advantage of using the memory-mapped registers in C programs is that it makes
the programs more portable to other C compilers for the AVR platform.
Note that special care must be taken when accessing some of the 16-bit timer IO registers where access from both the main program and within an interrupt context can
happen. See Why do some 16-bit timer registers sometimes get trashed?.
Porting programs that use the deprecated sbi/cbi macros
Access to the AVR single bit set and clear instructions are provided via the standard C
bit manipulation commands. The sbi and cbi macros are no longer directly supported.
sbi (sfr,bit) can be replaced by sfr |= _BV(bit) .
i.e.: sbi(PORTB, PB1); is now PORTB |= _BV(PB1);
This actually is more flexible than having sbi directly, as the optimizer will use a hardware sbi if appropriate, or a read/or/write operation if not appropriate. You do not need
to keep track of which registers sbi/cbi will operate on.
Likewise, cbi (sfr,bit) is now sfr &= ∼(_BV(bit));
Modules
• Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h>
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers
22.21
268
Bit manipulation
• #define _BV(bit) (1 << (bit))
IO register bit manipulation
•
•
•
•
#define bit_is_set(sfr, bit) (_SFR_BYTE(sfr) & _BV(bit))
#define bit_is_clear(sfr, bit) (!(_SFR_BYTE(sfr) & _BV(bit)))
#define loop_until_bit_is_set(sfr, bit) do { } while (bit_is_clear(sfr, bit))
#define loop_until_bit_is_clear(sfr, bit) do { } while (bit_is_set(sfr, bit))
22.21.2
22.21.2.1
Define Documentation
#define _BV(bit) (1 << (bit))
#include <avr/io.h>
Converts a bit number into a byte value.
Note:
The bit shift is performed by the compiler which then inserts the result into the
code. Thus, there is no run-time overhead when using _BV().
22.21.2.2
#define bit_is_clear(sfr, bit) (!(_SFR_BYTE(sfr) & _BV(bit)))
#include <avr/io.h>
Test whether bit bit in IO register sfr is clear. This will return non-zero if the bit is
clear, and a 0 if the bit is set.
22.21.2.3
#define bit_is_set(sfr, bit) (_SFR_BYTE(sfr) & _BV(bit))
#include <avr/io.h>
Test whether bit bit in IO register sfr is set. This will return a 0 if the bit is clear,
and non-zero if the bit is set.
22.21.2.4
#define loop_until_bit_is_clear(sfr, bit) do { } while (bit_is_set(sfr, bit))
#include <avr/io.h>
Wait until bit bit in IO register sfr is clear.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.22
<avr/sleep.h>: Power Management and Sleep Modes
22.21.2.5
269
#define loop_until_bit_is_set(sfr, bit) do { } while (bit_is_clear(sfr, bit))
#include <avr/io.h>
Wait until bit bit in IO register sfr is set.
22.22
<avr/sleep.h>: Power Management and Sleep Modes
22.22.1
Detailed Description
#include <avr/sleep.h>
Use of the SLEEP instruction can allow an application to reduce its power comsumption considerably. AVR devices can be put into different sleep modes. Refer to the
datasheet for the details relating to the device you are using.
There are several macros provided in this header file to actually put the device into
sleep mode. The simplest way is to optionally set the desired sleep mode using set_sleep_mode() (it usually defaults to idle mode where the CPU is put on sleep but
all peripheral clocks are still running), and then call sleep_mode(). This macro
automatically sets the sleep enable bit, goes to sleep, and clears the sleep enable bit.
Example:
#include <avr/sleep.h>
...
set_sleep_mode(<mode>);
sleep_mode();
Note that unless your purpose is to completely lock the CPU (until a hardware reset),
interrupts need to be enabled before going to sleep.
As the sleep_mode() macro might cause race conditions in some situations,
the individual steps of manipulating the sleep enable (SE) bit, and actually issuing
the SLEEP instruction, are provided in the macros sleep_enable(), sleep_disable(), and sleep_cpu(). This also allows for test-and-sleep scenarios that
take care of not missing the interrupt that will awake the device from sleep.
Example:
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <avr/sleep.h>
...
set_sleep_mode(<mode>);
cli();
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/sleep.h>: Power Management and Sleep Modes
22.22
270
if (some_condition)
{
sleep_enable();
sei();
sleep_cpu();
sleep_disable();
}
sei();
This sequence ensures an atomic test of some_condition with interrupts being disabled. If the condition is met, sleep mode will be prepared, and the SLEEP instruction
will be scheduled immediately after an SEI instruction. As the intruction right after
the SEI is guaranteed to be executed before an interrupt could trigger, it is sure the
device will really be put to sleep.
Some devices have the ability to disable the Brown Out Detector (BOD) before going
to sleep. This will also reduce power while sleeping. If the specific AVR device has this
ability then an additional macro is defined: sleep_bod_disable(). This macro
generates inlined assembly code that will correctly implement the timed sequence for
disabling the BOD before sleeping. However, there is a limited number of cycles after the BOD has been disabled that the device can be put into sleep mode, otherwise
the BOD will not truly be disabled. Recommended practice is to disable the BOD
(sleep_bod_disable()), set the interrupts (sei()), and then put the device to
sleep (sleep_cpu()), like so:
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <avr/sleep.h>
...
set_sleep_mode(<mode>);
cli();
if (some_condition)
{
sleep_enable();
sleep_bod_disable();
sei();
sleep_cpu();
sleep_disable();
}
sei();
Functions
• void sleep_enable (void)
• void sleep_disable (void)
• void sleep_cpu (void)
22.22.2
22.22.2.1
Function Documentation
void sleep_cpu (void)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/version.h>: avr-libc version macros
22.23
271
Put the device into sleep mode. The SE bit must be set beforehand, and it is recommended to clear it afterwards.
22.22.2.2
void sleep_disable (void)
Clear the SE (sleep enable) bit.
22.22.2.3
void sleep_enable (void)
Put the device in sleep mode. How the device is brought out of sleep mode depends on
the specific mode selected with the set_sleep_mode() function. See the data sheet for
your device for more details.
Set the SE (sleep enable) bit.
22.23
<avr/version.h>: avr-libc version macros
22.23.1
Detailed Description
#include <avr/version.h>
This header file defines macros that contain version numbers and strings describing the
current version of avr-libc.
The version number itself basically consists of three pieces that are separated by a
dot: the major number, the minor number, and the revision number. For development
versions (which use an odd minor number), the string representation additionally gets
the date code (YYYYMMDD) appended.
This file will also be included by <avr/io.h>. That way, portable tests can be
implemented using <avr/io.h> that can be used in code that wants to remain
backwards-compatible to library versions prior to the date when the library version
API had been added, as referenced but undefined C preprocessor macros automatically
evaluate to 0.
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define __AVR_LIBC_VERSION_STRING__ "1.6.6"
#define __AVR_LIBC_VERSION__ 10606UL
#define __AVR_LIBC_DATE_STRING__ "20090309"
#define __AVR_LIBC_DATE_ 20090309UL
#define __AVR_LIBC_MAJOR__ 1
#define __AVR_LIBC_MINOR__ 6
#define __AVR_LIBC_REVISION__ 6
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.24
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling
22.23.2
22.23.2.1
272
Define Documentation
#define __AVR_LIBC_DATE_ 20090309UL
Numerical representation of the release date.
22.23.2.2
#define __AVR_LIBC_DATE_STRING__ "20090309"
String literal representation of the release date.
22.23.2.3
#define __AVR_LIBC_MAJOR__ 1
Library major version number.
22.23.2.4
#define __AVR_LIBC_MINOR__ 6
Library minor version number.
22.23.2.5
#define __AVR_LIBC_REVISION__ 6
Library revision number.
22.23.2.6
#define __AVR_LIBC_VERSION__ 10606UL
Numerical representation of the current library version.
In the numerical representation, the major number is multiplied by 10000, the minor
number by 100, and all three parts are then added. It is intented to provide a monotonically increasing numerical value that can easily be used in numerical checks.
22.23.2.7
#define __AVR_LIBC_VERSION_STRING__ "1.6.6"
String literal representation of the current library version.
22.24
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling
22.24.1
Detailed Description
#include <avr/wdt.h>
This header file declares the interface to some inline macros handling the watchdog
timer present in many AVR devices. In order to prevent the watchdog timer configuration from being accidentally altered by a crashing application, a special timed sequence
is required in order to change it. The macros within this header file handle the required
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling
22.24
273
sequence automatically before changing any value. Interrupts will be disabled during
the manipulation.
Note:
Depending on the fuse configuration of the particular device, further restrictions
might apply, in particular it might be disallowed to turn off the watchdog timer.
Note that for newer devices (ATmega88 and newer, effectively any AVR that has the option to also generate interrupts), the watchdog timer remains active even after a system
reset (except a power-on condition), using the fastest prescaler value (approximately
15 ms). It is therefore required to turn off the watchdog early during program startup,
the datasheet recommends a sequence like the following:
#include <stdint.h>
#include <avr/wdt.h>
uint8_t mcusr_mirror __attribute__ ((section (".noinit")));
void get_mcusr(void) \
__attribute__((naked)) \
__attribute__((section(".init3")));
void get_mcusr(void)
{
mcusr_mirror = MCUSR;
MCUSR = 0;
wdt_disable();
}
Saving the value of MCUSR in mcusr_mirror is only needed if the application
later wants to examine the reset source, but in particular, clearing the watchdog reset
flag before disabling the watchdog is required, according to the datasheet.
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define wdt_reset() __asm__ __volatile__ ("wdr")
#define wdt_enable(value)
#define wdt_disable()
#define WDTO_15MS 0
#define WDTO_30MS 1
#define WDTO_60MS 2
#define WDTO_120MS 3
#define WDTO_250MS 4
#define WDTO_500MS 5
#define WDTO_1S 6
#define WDTO_2S 7
#define WDTO_4S 8
#define WDTO_8S 9
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.24
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling
22.24.2
22.24.2.1
274
Define Documentation
#define wdt_disable()
Value:
__asm__ __volatile__ ( \
"in __tmp_reg__, __SREG__" "\n\t" \
"cli" "\n\t" \
"out %0, %1" "\n\t" \
"out %0, __zero_reg__" "\n\t" \
"out __SREG__,__tmp_reg__" "\n\t" \
: /* no outputs */ \
: "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(_WD_CONTROL_REG)), \
"r" ((uint8_t)(_BV(_WD_CHANGE_BIT) | _BV(WDE))) \
: "r0" \
)
Disable the watchdog timer, if possible. This attempts to turn off the Enable bit in the
watchdog control register. See the datasheet for details.
22.24.2.2
#define wdt_enable(value)
Value:
__asm__ __volatile__ ( \
"in __tmp_reg__,__SREG__" "\n\t"
\
"cli" "\n\t"
\
"wdr" "\n\t"
\
"out %0,%1" "\n\t" \
"out __SREG__,__tmp_reg__" "\n\t"
\
"out %0,%2" \
: /* no outputs */ \
: "I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(_WD_CONTROL_REG)), \
"r" (_BV(_WD_CHANGE_BIT) | _BV(WDE)),
\
"r" ((uint8_t) ((value & 0x08 ? _WD_PS3_MASK : 0x00) | \
_BV(WDE) | (value & 0x07)) ) \
: "r0" \
)
Enable the watchdog timer, configuring it for expiry after timeout (which is a combination of the WDP0 through WDP2 bits to write into the WDTCR register; For those
devices that have a WDTCSR register, it uses the combination of the WDP0 through
WDP3 bits).
See also the symbolic constants WDTO_15MS et al.
22.24.2.3
#define wdt_reset() __asm__ __volatile__ ("wdr")
Reset the watchdog timer. When the watchdog timer is enabled, a call to this instruction
is required before the timer expires, otherwise a watchdog-initiated device reset will
occur.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.24
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling
22.24.2.4
275
#define WDTO_120MS 3
See WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.5
#define WDTO_15MS 0
Symbolic constants for the watchdog timeout. Since the watchdog timer is based on
a free-running RC oscillator, the times are approximate only and apply to a supply
voltage of 5 V. At lower supply voltages, the times will increase. For older devices,
the times will be as large as three times when operating at Vcc = 3 V, while the newer
devices (e. g. ATmega128, ATmega8) only experience a negligible change.
Possible timeout values are: 15 ms, 30 ms, 60 ms, 120 ms, 250 ms, 500 ms, 1 s, 2 s.
(Some devices also allow for 4 s and 8 s.) Symbolic constants are formed by the prefix
WDTO_, followed by the time.
Example that would select a watchdog timer expiry of approximately 500 ms:
wdt_enable(WDTO_500MS);
22.24.2.6
#define WDTO_1S 6
See WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.7
#define WDTO_250MS 4
See WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.8
#define WDTO_2S 7
See WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.9
#define WDTO_30MS 1
See WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.10
#define WDTO_4S 8
See WDT0_15MS Note: This is only available on the ATtiny2313, ATtiny24,
ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny25, ATtiny45, ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega168, ATmega48P, ATmega88P, ATmega168P, ATmega328P, ATmega164P, ATmega324P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega8HVA,
ATmega16HVA, ATmega32HVB, ATmega406, ATmega1284P, AT90PWM1,
AT90PWM2, AT90PWM2B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM216,
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.25
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed Code Blocks
276
AT90PWM316, AT90PWM81, AT90USB82, AT90USB162, AT90USB646,
AT90USB647, AT90USB1286, AT90USB1287, ATtiny48, ATtiny88.
22.24.2.11
#define WDTO_500MS 5
See WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.12
#define WDTO_60MS 2
WDT0_15MS
22.24.2.13
#define WDTO_8S 9
See WDT0_15MS Note: This is only available on the ATtiny2313, ATtiny24,
ATtiny44, ATtiny84, ATtiny25, ATtiny45, ATtiny85, ATtiny261, ATtiny461,
ATtiny861, ATmega48, ATmega88, ATmega168, ATmega48P, ATmega88P, ATmega168P, ATmega328P, ATmega164P, ATmega324P, ATmega644P, ATmega644, ATmega640, ATmega1280, ATmega1281, ATmega2560, ATmega2561, ATmega8HVA,
ATmega16HVA, ATmega32HVB, ATmega406, ATmega1284P, AT90PWM1,
AT90PWM2, AT90PWM2B, AT90PWM3, AT90PWM3B, AT90PWM216,
AT90PWM316, AT90PWM81, AT90USB82, AT90USB162, AT90USB646,
AT90USB647, AT90USB1286, AT90USB1287, ATtiny48, ATtiny88.
22.25
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed
Code Blocks
22.25.1
Detailed Description
#include <util/atomic.h>
Note:
The macros in this header file require the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 ("ISO C99") feature
of for loop variables that are declared inside the for loop itself. For that reason, this
header file can only be used if the standard level of the compiler (option –std=) is
set to either c99 or gnu99.
The macros in this header file deal with code blocks that are guaranteed to be excuted
Atomically or Non-Atmomically. The term "Atomic" in this context refers to the unability of the respective code to be interrupted.
These macros operate via automatic manipulation of the Global Interrupt Status (I) bit
of the SREG register. Exit paths from both block types are all managed automatically
without the need for special considerations, i. e. the interrupt status will be restored to
the same value it has been when entering the respective block.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.25
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed Code Blocks
277
A typical example that requires atomic access is a 16 (or more) bit variable that is
shared between the main execution path and an ISR. While declaring such a variable
as volatile ensures that the compiler will not optimize accesses to it away, it does not
guarantee atomic access to it. Assuming the following example:
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
volatile uint16_t ctr;
ISR(TIMER1_OVF_vect)
{
ctr--;
}
...
int
main(void)
{
...
ctr = 0x200;
start_timer();
while (ctr != 0)
// wait
;
...
}
There is a chance where the main context will exit its wait loop when the variable ctr
just reached the value 0xFF. This happens because the compiler cannot natively access
a 16-bit variable atomically in an 8-bit CPU. So the variable is for example at 0x100,
the compiler then tests the low byte for 0, which succeeds. It then proceeds to test the
high byte, but that moment the ISR triggers, and the main context is interrupted. The
ISR will decrement the variable from 0x100 to 0xFF, and the main context proceeds.
It now tests the high byte of the variable which is (now) also 0, so it concludes the
variable has reached 0, and terminates the loop.
Using the macros from this header file, the above code can be rewritten like:
#include
#include
#include
#include
<inttypes.h>
<avr/interrupt.h>
<avr/io.h>
<util/atomic.h>
volatile uint16_t ctr;
ISR(TIMER1_OVF_vect)
{
ctr--;
}
...
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed Code Blocks
278
22.25
int
main(void)
{
...
ctr = 0x200;
start_timer();
sei();
uint16_t ctr_copy;
do
{
ATOMIC_BLOCK(ATOMIC_FORCEON)
{
ctr_copy = ctr;
}
}
while (ctr_copy != 0);
...
}
This will install the appropriate interrupt protection before accessing variable ctr,
so it is guaranteed to be consistently tested. If the global interrupt state were uncertain before entering the ATOMIC_BLOCK, it should be executed with the parameter
ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE rather than ATOMIC_FORCEON.
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define ATOMIC_BLOCK(type)
#define NONATOMIC_BLOCK(type)
#define ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
#define ATOMIC_FORCEON
#define NONATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
#define NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF
22.25.2
22.25.2.1
Define Documentation
#define ATOMIC_BLOCK(type)
Creates a block of code that is guaranteed to be executed atomically. Upon entering the
block the Global Interrupt Status flag in SREG is disabled, and re-enabled upon exiting
the block from any exit path.
Two possible macro parameters are permitted, ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE and
ATOMIC_FORCEON.
22.25.2.2
#define ATOMIC_FORCEON
This is a possible parameter for ATOMIC_BLOCK. When used, it will cause the
ATOMIC_BLOCK to force the state of the SREG register on exit, enabling the Global
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.25
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and Non-Atomically Executed Code Blocks
279
Interrupt Status flag bit. This saves on flash space as the previous value of the SREG
register does not need to be saved at the start of the block.
Care should be taken that ATOMIC_FORCEON is only used when it is known that
interrupts are enabled before the block’s execution or when the side effects of enabling
global interrupts at the block’s completion are known and understood.
22.25.2.3
#define ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
This is a possible parameter for ATOMIC_BLOCK. When used, it will cause the
ATOMIC_BLOCK to restore the previous state of the SREG register, saved before
the Global Interrupt Status flag bit was disabled. The net effect of this is to make
the ATOMIC_BLOCK’s contents guaranteed atomic, without changing the state of the
Global Interrupt Status flag when execution of the block completes.
22.25.2.4
#define NONATOMIC_BLOCK(type)
Creates a block of code that is executed non-atomically. Upon entering the block the
Global Interrupt Status flag in SREG is enabled, and disabled upon exiting the block
from any exit path. This is useful when nested inside ATOMIC_BLOCK sections, allowing for non-atomic execution of small blocks of code while maintaining the atomic
access of the other sections of the parent ATOMIC_BLOCK.
Two possible macro parameters are permitted, NONATOMIC_RESTORESTATE and
NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF.
22.25.2.5
#define NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF
This is a possible parameter for NONATOMIC_BLOCK. When used, it will cause the
NONATOMIC_BLOCK to force the state of the SREG register on exit, disabling the
Global Interrupt Status flag bit. This saves on flash space as the previous value of the
SREG register does not need to be saved at the start of the block.
Care should be taken that NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF is only used when it is known
that interrupts are disabled before the block’s execution or when the side effects of
disabling global interrupts at the block’s completion are known and understood.
22.25.2.6
#define NONATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
This is a possible parameter for NONATOMIC_BLOCK. When used, it will cause
the NONATOMIC_BLOCK to restore the previous state of the SREG register, saved
before the Global Interrupt Status flag bit was enabled. The net effect of this is to make
the NONATOMIC_BLOCK’s contents guaranteed non-atomic, without changing the
state of the Global Interrupt Status flag when execution of the block completes.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations
22.26
22.26
<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations
22.26.1
Detailed Description
280
#include <util/crc16.h>
This header file provides a optimized inline functions for calculating cyclic redundancy
checks (CRC) using common polynomials.
References:
See the Dallas Semiconductor app note 27 for 8051 assembler example and general
CRC optimization suggestions. The table on the last page of the app note is the key to
understanding these implementations.
Jack Crenshaw’s "Implementing CRCs" article in the January 1992 isue of Embedded
Systems Programming. This may be difficult to find, but it explains CRC’s in very clear
and concise terms. Well worth the effort to obtain a copy.
A typical application would look like:
// Dallas iButton test vector.
uint8_t serno[] = { 0x02, 0x1c, 0xb8, 0x01, 0, 0, 0, 0xa2 };
int
checkcrc(void)
{
uint8_t crc = 0, i;
for (i = 0; i < sizeof serno / sizeof serno[0]; i++)
crc = _crc_ibutton_update(crc, serno[i]);
return crc; // must be 0
}
Functions
•
•
•
•
static __inline__ uint16_t _crc16_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
static __inline__ uint16_t _crc_xmodem_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
static __inline__ uint16_t _crc_ccitt_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
static __inline__ uint8_t _crc_ibutton_update (uint8_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.26
22.26.2
<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations
281
Function Documentation
22.26.2.1 static __inline__ uint16_t _crc16_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data) [static]
Optimized CRC-16 calculation.
Polynomial: x∧ 16 + x∧ 15 + x∧ 2 + 1 (0xa001)
Initial value: 0xffff
This CRC is normally used in disk-drive controllers.
The following is the equivalent functionality written in C.
uint16_t
crc16_update(uint16_t crc, uint8_t a)
{
int i;
crc ^= a;
for (i = 0;
{
if (crc
crc
else
crc
}
i < 8; ++i)
& 1)
= (crc >> 1) ^ 0xA001;
= (crc >> 1);
return crc;
}
22.26.2.2 static __inline__ uint16_t _crc_ccitt_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t
__data) [static]
Optimized CRC-CCITT calculation.
Polynomial: x∧ 16 + x∧ 12 + x∧ 5 + 1 (0x8408)
Initial value: 0xffff
This is the CRC used by PPP and IrDA.
See RFC1171 (PPP protocol) and IrDA IrLAP 1.1
Note:
Although the CCITT polynomial is the same as that used by the Xmodem protocol,
they are quite different. The difference is in how the bits are shifted through the
alorgithm. Xmodem shifts the MSB of the CRC and the input first, while CCITT
shifts the LSB of the CRC and the input first.
The following is the equivalent functionality written in C.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.26
<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations
282
uint16_t
crc_ccitt_update (uint16_t crc, uint8_t data)
{
data ^= lo8 (crc);
data ^= data << 4;
return ((((uint16_t)data << 8) | hi8 (crc)) ^ (uint8_t)(data >> 4)
^ ((uint16_t)data << 3));
}
22.26.2.3 static __inline__ uint8_t _crc_ibutton_update (uint8_t __crc, uint8_t
__data) [static]
Optimized Dallas (now Maxim) iButton 8-bit CRC calculation.
Polynomial: x∧ 8 + x∧ 5 + x∧ 4 + 1 (0x8C)
Initial value: 0x0
See http://www.maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/27
The following is the equivalent functionality written in C.
uint8_t
_crc_ibutton_update(uint8_t crc, uint8_t data)
{
uint8_t i;
crc = crc ^
for (i = 0;
{
if (crc
crc
else
crc
}
data;
i < 8; i++)
& 0x01)
= (crc >> 1) ^ 0x8C;
>>= 1;
return crc;
}
22.26.2.4 static __inline__ uint16_t _crc_xmodem_update (uint16_t __crc,
uint8_t __data) [static]
Optimized CRC-XMODEM calculation.
Polynomial: x∧ 16 + x∧ 12 + x∧ 5 + 1 (0x1021)
Initial value: 0x0
This is the CRC used by the Xmodem-CRC protocol.
The following is the equivalent functionality written in C.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.27
<util/delay.h>: Convenience functions for busy-wait delay loops
283
uint16_t
crc_xmodem_update (uint16_t crc, uint8_t data)
{
int i;
crc = crc ^ ((uint16_t)data << 8);
for (i=0; i<8; i++)
{
if (crc & 0x8000)
crc = (crc << 1) ^ 0x1021;
else
crc <<= 1;
}
return crc;
}
22.27
<util/delay.h>: Convenience functions for busy-wait delay
loops
22.27.1
Detailed Description
#define F_CPU 1000000UL // 1 MHz
//#define F_CPU 14.7456E6
#include <util/delay.h>
Note:
As an alternative method, it is possible to pass the F_CPU macro down to the compiler from the Makefile. Obviously, in that case, no #define statement should
be used.
The functions in this header file are wrappers around the basic busy-wait functions from
<util/delay_basic.h>. They are meant as convenience functions where actual time
values can be specified rather than a number of cycles to wait for. The idea behind is
that compile-time constant expressions will be eliminated by compiler optimization so
floating-point expressions can be used to calculate the number of delay cycles needed
based on the CPU frequency passed by the macro F_CPU.
Note:
In order for these functions to work as intended, compiler optimizations must be
enabled, and the delay time must be an expression that is a known constant at
compile-time. If these requirements are not met, the resulting delay will be much
longer (and basically unpredictable), and applications that otherwise do not use
floating-point calculations will experience severe code bloat by the floating-point
library routines linked into the application.
The functions available allow the specification of microsecond, and millisecond delays
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.28
<util/delay_basic.h>: Basic busy-wait delay loops
284
directly, using the application-supplied macro F_CPU as the CPU clock frequency (in
Hertz).
Functions
• void _delay_ms (double __ms)
• void _delay_us (double __us)
22.27.2
22.27.2.1
Function Documentation
void _delay_ms (double __ms)
Perform a delay of __ms milliseconds, using _delay_loop_2().
The macro F_CPU is supposed to be defined to a constant defining the CPU clock
frequency (in Hertz).
The maximal possible delay is 262.14 ms / F_CPU in MHz.
When the user request delay which exceed the maximum possible one, _delay_ms()
provides a decreased resolution functionality. In this mode _delay_ms() will work with
a resolution of 1/10 ms, providing delays up to 6.5535 seconds (independent from CPU
frequency). The user will not be informed about decreased resolution.
22.27.2.2
void _delay_us (double __us)
Perform a delay of __us microseconds, using _delay_loop_1().
The macro F_CPU is supposed to be defined to a constant defining the CPU clock
frequency (in Hertz).
The maximal possible delay is 768 us / F_CPU in MHz.
If the user requests a delay greater than the maximal possible one, _delay_us() will
automatically call _delay_ms() instead. The user will not be informed about this case.
22.28
<util/delay_basic.h>: Basic busy-wait delay loops
22.28.1
Detailed Description
#include <util/delay_basic.h>
The functions in this header file implement simple delay loops that perform a busywaiting. They are typically used to facilitate short delays in the program execution.
They are implemented as count-down loops with a well-known CPU cycle count per
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.29
<util/parity.h>: Parity bit generation
285
loop iteration. As such, no other processing can occur simultaneously. It should be
kept in mind that the functions described here do not disable interrupts.
In general, for long delays, the use of hardware timers is much preferrable, as they
free the CPU, and allow for concurrent processing of other events while the timer is
running. However, in particular for very short delays, the overhead of setting up a
hardware timer is too much compared to the overall delay time.
Two inline functions are provided for the actual delay algorithms.
Functions
• void _delay_loop_1 (uint8_t __count)
• void _delay_loop_2 (uint16_t __count)
22.28.2
22.28.2.1
Function Documentation
void _delay_loop_1 (uint8_t __count)
Delay loop using an 8-bit counter __count, so up to 256 iterations are possible. (The
value 256 would have to be passed as 0.) The loop executes three CPU cycles per
iteration, not including the overhead the compiler needs to setup the counter register.
Thus, at a CPU speed of 1 MHz, delays of up to 768 microseconds can be achieved.
22.28.2.2
void _delay_loop_2 (uint16_t __count)
Delay loop using a 16-bit counter __count, so up to 65536 iterations are possible.
(The value 65536 would have to be passed as 0.) The loop executes four CPU cycles
per iteration, not including the overhead the compiler requires to setup the counter
register pair.
Thus, at a CPU speed of 1 MHz, delays of up to about 262.1 milliseconds can be
achieved.
22.29
<util/parity.h>: Parity bit generation
22.29.1
Detailed Description
#include <util/parity.h>
This header file contains optimized assembler code to calculate the parity bit for a byte.
Defines
• #define parity_even_bit(val)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.30
<util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for baud rate calculations
22.29.2
22.29.2.1
286
Define Documentation
#define parity_even_bit(val)
Value:
(__extension__({
unsigned char __t;
__asm__ (
"mov __tmp_reg__,%0" "\n\t"
"swap %0" "\n\t"
"eor %0,__tmp_reg__" "\n\t"
"mov __tmp_reg__,%0" "\n\t"
"lsr %0" "\n\t"
"lsr %0" "\n\t"
"eor %0,__tmp_reg__"
: "=r" (__t)
: "0" ((unsigned char)(val))
: "r0"
);
(((__t + 1) >> 1) & 1);
}))
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
Returns:
1 if val has an odd number of bits set.
22.30
<util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for baud rate calculations
22.30.1
Detailed Description
#define F_CPU 11059200
#define BAUD 38400
#include <util/setbaud.h>
This header file requires that on entry values are already defined for F_CPU and BAUD.
In addition, the macro BAUD_TOL will define the baud rate tolerance (in percent) that
is acceptable during the calculations. The value of BAUD_TOL will default to 2 %.
This header file defines macros suitable to setup the UART baud rate prescaler registers
of an AVR. All calculations are done using the C preprocessor. Including this header
file causes no other side effects so it is possible to include this file more than once
(supposedly, with different values for the BAUD parameter), possibly even within the
same function.
Assuming that the requested BAUD is valid for the given F_CPU then the macro
UBRR_VALUE is set to the required prescaler value. Two additional macros are provided for the low and high bytes of the prescaler, respectively: UBRRL_VALUE is set
to the lower byte of the UBRR_VALUE and UBRRH_VALUE is set to the upper byte.
An additional macro USE_2X will be defined. Its value is set to 1 if the desired BAUD
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for baud rate calculations
22.30
287
rate within the given tolerance could only be achieved by setting the U2X bit in the
UART configuration. It will be defined to 0 if U2X is not needed.
Example usage:
#include <avr/io.h>
#define F_CPU 4000000
static void
uart_9600(void)
{
#define BAUD 9600
#include <util/setbaud.h>
UBRRH = UBRRH_VALUE;
UBRRL = UBRRL_VALUE;
#if USE_2X
UCSRA |= (1 << U2X);
#else
UCSRA &= ~(1 << U2X);
#endif
}
static void
uart_38400(void)
{
#undef BAUD // avoid compiler warning
#define BAUD 38400
#include <util/setbaud.h>
UBRRH = UBRRH_VALUE;
UBRRL = UBRRL_VALUE;
#if USE_2X
UCSRA |= (1 << U2X);
#else
UCSRA &= ~(1 << U2X);
#endif
}
In this example, two functions are defined to setup the UART to run at 9600 Bd, and
38400 Bd, respectively. Using a CPU clock of 4 MHz, 9600 Bd can be achieved with
an acceptable tolerance without setting U2X (prescaler 25), while 38400 Bd require
U2X to be set (prescaler 12).
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
#define BAUD_TOL 2
#define UBRR_VALUE
#define UBRRL_VALUE
#define UBRRH_VALUE
#define USE_2X 0
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.31
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
22.30.2
22.30.2.1
288
Define Documentation
#define BAUD_TOL 2
Input and output macro for <util/setbaud.h>
Define the acceptable baud rate tolerance in percent. If not set on entry, it will be set to
its default value of 2.
22.30.2.2
#define UBRR_VALUE
Output macro from <util/setbaud.h>
Contains the calculated baud rate prescaler value for the UBRR register.
22.30.2.3
#define UBRRH_VALUE
Output macro from <util/setbaud.h>
Contains the upper byte of the calculated prescaler value (UBRR_VALUE).
22.30.2.4
#define UBRRL_VALUE
Output macro from <util/setbaud.h>
Contains the lower byte of the calculated prescaler value (UBRR_VALUE).
22.30.2.5
#define USE_2X 0
Output bacro from <util/setbaud.h>
Contains the value 1 if the desired baud rate tolerance could only be achieved by setting
the U2X bit in the UART configuration. Contains 0 otherwise.
22.31
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
22.31.1
Detailed Description
#include <util/twi.h>
This header file contains bit mask definitions for use with the AVR TWI interface.
TWSR values
Mnemonics:
TW_MT_xxx - master transmitter
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.31
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
TW_MR_xxx - master receiver
TW_ST_xxx - slave transmitter
TW_SR_xxx - slave receiver
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define TW_START 0x08
#define TW_REP_START 0x10
#define TW_MT_SLA_ACK 0x18
#define TW_MT_SLA_NACK 0x20
#define TW_MT_DATA_ACK 0x28
#define TW_MT_DATA_NACK 0x30
#define TW_MT_ARB_LOST 0x38
#define TW_MR_ARB_LOST 0x38
#define TW_MR_SLA_ACK 0x40
#define TW_MR_SLA_NACK 0x48
#define TW_MR_DATA_ACK 0x50
#define TW_MR_DATA_NACK 0x58
#define TW_ST_SLA_ACK 0xA8
#define TW_ST_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK 0xB0
#define TW_ST_DATA_ACK 0xB8
#define TW_ST_DATA_NACK 0xC0
#define TW_ST_LAST_DATA 0xC8
#define TW_SR_SLA_ACK 0x60
#define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK 0x68
#define TW_SR_GCALL_ACK 0x70
#define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_GCALL_ACK 0x78
#define TW_SR_DATA_ACK 0x80
#define TW_SR_DATA_NACK 0x88
#define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_ACK 0x90
#define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_NACK 0x98
#define TW_SR_STOP 0xA0
#define TW_NO_INFO 0xF8
#define TW_BUS_ERROR 0x00
#define TW_STATUS_MASK
#define TW_STATUS (TWSR & TW_STATUS_MASK)
R/∼W bit in SLA+R/W address field.
• #define TW_READ 1
• #define TW_WRITE 0
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
289
22.31
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
22.31.2
Define Documentation
22.31.2.1
#define TW_BUS_ERROR 0x00
illegal start or stop condition
22.31.2.2
#define TW_MR_ARB_LOST 0x38
arbitration lost in SLA+R or NACK
22.31.2.3
#define TW_MR_DATA_ACK 0x50
data received, ACK returned
22.31.2.4
#define TW_MR_DATA_NACK 0x58
data received, NACK returned
22.31.2.5
#define TW_MR_SLA_ACK 0x40
SLA+R transmitted, ACK received
22.31.2.6
#define TW_MR_SLA_NACK 0x48
SLA+R transmitted, NACK received
22.31.2.7
#define TW_MT_ARB_LOST 0x38
arbitration lost in SLA+W or data
22.31.2.8
#define TW_MT_DATA_ACK 0x28
data transmitted, ACK received
22.31.2.9
#define TW_MT_DATA_NACK 0x30
data transmitted, NACK received
22.31.2.10
#define TW_MT_SLA_ACK 0x18
SLA+W transmitted, ACK received
22.31.2.11
#define TW_MT_SLA_NACK 0x20
SLA+W transmitted, NACK received
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
290
22.31
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
22.31.2.12
#define TW_NO_INFO 0xF8
no state information available
22.31.2.13
#define TW_READ 1
SLA+R address
22.31.2.14
#define TW_REP_START 0x10
repeated start condition transmitted
22.31.2.15
#define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_GCALL_ACK 0x78
arbitration lost in SLA+RW, general call received, ACK returned
22.31.2.16
#define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK 0x68
arbitration lost in SLA+RW, SLA+W received, ACK returned
22.31.2.17
#define TW_SR_DATA_ACK 0x80
data received, ACK returned
22.31.2.18
#define TW_SR_DATA_NACK 0x88
data received, NACK returned
22.31.2.19
#define TW_SR_GCALL_ACK 0x70
general call received, ACK returned
22.31.2.20
#define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_ACK 0x90
general call data received, ACK returned
22.31.2.21
#define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_NACK 0x98
general call data received, NACK returned
22.31.2.22
#define TW_SR_SLA_ACK 0x60
SLA+W received, ACK returned
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
291
22.31
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions
22.31.2.23
292
#define TW_SR_STOP 0xA0
stop or repeated start condition received while selected
22.31.2.24
#define TW_ST_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK 0xB0
arbitration lost in SLA+RW, SLA+R received, ACK returned
22.31.2.25
#define TW_ST_DATA_ACK 0xB8
data transmitted, ACK received
22.31.2.26
#define TW_ST_DATA_NACK 0xC0
data transmitted, NACK received
22.31.2.27
#define TW_ST_LAST_DATA 0xC8
last data byte transmitted, ACK received
22.31.2.28
#define TW_ST_SLA_ACK 0xA8
SLA+R received, ACK returned
22.31.2.29
#define TW_START 0x08
start condition transmitted
22.31.2.30
#define TW_STATUS (TWSR & TW_STATUS_MASK)
TWSR, masked by TW_STATUS_MASK
22.31.2.31
#define TW_STATUS_MASK
Value:
(_BV(TWS7)|_BV(TWS6)|_BV(TWS5)|_BV(TWS4)|\
_BV(TWS3))
The lower 3 bits of TWSR are reserved on the ATmega163. The 2 LSB carry the
prescaler bits on the newer ATmegas.
22.31.2.32
#define TW_WRITE 0
SLA+W address
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<compat/deprecated.h>: Deprecated items
22.32
22.32
<compat/deprecated.h>: Deprecated items
22.32.1
Detailed Description
293
This header file contains several items that used to be available in previous versions of
this library, but have eventually been deprecated over time.
#include <compat/deprecated.h>
These items are supplied within that header file for backward compatibility reasons
only, so old source code that has been written for previous library versions could easily
be maintained until its end-of-life. Use of any of these items in new code is strongly
discouraged.
Allowing specific system-wide interrupts
In addition to globally enabling interrupts, each device’s particular interrupt needs to
be enabled separately if interrupts for this device are desired. While some devices
maintain their interrupt enable bit inside the device’s register set, external and timer
interrupts have system-wide configuration registers.
Example:
// Enable timer 1 overflow interrupts.
timer_enable_int(_BV(TOIE1));
// Do some work...
// Disable all timer interrupts.
timer_enable_int(0);
Note:
Be careful when you use these functions. If you already have a different interrupt
enabled, you could inadvertantly disable it by enabling another intterupt.
•
•
•
•
static __inline__ void timer_enable_int (unsigned char ints)
#define enable_external_int(mask) (__EICR = mask)
#define INTERRUPT(signame)
#define __INTR_ATTRS used
Obsolete IO macros
Back in a time when AVR-GCC and avr-libc could not handle IO port access in the direct assignment form as they are handled now, all IO port access had to be done through
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
<compat/deprecated.h>: Deprecated items
22.32
294
specific macros that eventually resulted in inline assembly instructions performing the
desired action.
These macros became obsolete, as reading and writing IO ports can be done by simply
using the IO port name in an expression, and all bit manipulation (including those on
IO ports) can be done using generic C bit manipulation operators.
The macros in this group simulate the historical behaviour. While they are supposed to
be applied to IO ports, the emulation actually uses standard C methods, so they could
be applied to arbitrary memory locations as well.
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define inp(port) (port)
#define outp(val, port) (port) = (val)
#define inb(port) (port)
#define outb(port, val) (port) = (val)
#define sbi(port, bit) (port) |= (1 << (bit))
#define cbi(port, bit) (port) &= ∼(1 << (bit))
22.32.2
22.32.2.1
Define Documentation
#define cbi(port, bit) (port) &= ∼(1 << (bit))
Deprecated
Clear bit in IO port port.
22.32.2.2
#define enable_external_int(mask) (__EICR = mask)
Deprecated
This macro gives access to the GIMSK register (or EIMSK register if using an AVR
Mega device or GICR register for others). Although this macro is essentially the same
as assigning to the register, it does adapt slightly to the type of device being used. This
macro is unavailable if none of the registers listed above are defined.
22.32.2.3
#define inb(port) (port)
Deprecated
Read a value from an IO port port.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.32
<compat/deprecated.h>: Deprecated items
22.32.2.4
295
#define inp(port) (port)
Deprecated
Read a value from an IO port port.
22.32.2.5
#define INTERRUPT(signame)
Value:
void signame (void) __attribute__ ((interrupt,__INTR_ATTRS));
void signame (void)
\
Deprecated
Introduces an interrupt handler function that runs with global interrupts initially enabled. This allows interrupt handlers to be interrupted.
As this macro has been used by too many unsuspecting people in the past, it has been
deprecated, and will be removed in a future version of the library. Users who want to
legitimately re-enable interrupts in their interrupt handlers as quickly as possible are
encouraged to explicitly declare their handlers as described above.
22.32.2.6
#define outb(port, val) (port) = (val)
Deprecated
Write val to IO port port.
22.32.2.7
#define outp(val, port) (port) = (val)
Deprecated
Write val to IO port port.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.33
<compat/ina90.h>: Compatibility with IAR EWB 3.x
22.32.2.8
296
#define sbi(port, bit) (port) |= (1 << (bit))
Deprecated
Set bit in IO port port.
22.32.3
Function Documentation
22.32.3.1 static
[static]
__inline__
void
timer_enable_int
(unsigned
char
ints)
Deprecated
This function modifies the timsk register. The value you pass via ints is device
specific.
22.33
<compat/ina90.h>: Compatibility with IAR EWB 3.x
#include <compat/ina90.h>
This is an attempt to provide some compatibility with header files that come with IAR
C, to make porting applications between different compilers easier. No 100% compatibility though.
Note:
For actual documentation, please see the IAR manual.
22.34
Demo projects
22.34.1
Detailed Description
Various small demo projects are provided to illustrate several aspects of using the opensource utilities for the AVR controller series. It should be kept in mind that these demos serve mainly educational purposes, and are normally not directly suitable for use
in any production environment. Usually, they have been kept as simple as sufficient to
demonstrate one particular feature.
The simple project is somewhat like the "Hello world!" application for a microcontroller, about the most simple project that can be done. It is explained in good detail,
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.34
Demo projects
297
to allow the reader to understand the basic concepts behind using the tools on an AVR
microcontroller.
The more sophisticated demo project builds on top of that simple project, and adds
some controls to it. It touches a number of avr-libc’s basic concepts on its way.
A comprehensive example on using the standard IO facilities intends to explain that
complex topic, using a practical microcontroller peripheral setup with one RS-232 connection, and an HD44780-compatible industry-standard LCD display.
The Example using the two-wire interface (TWI) project explains the use of the twowire hardware interface (also known as "I2C") that is present on many AVR controllers.
Finally, the Combining C and assembly source files demo shows how C and assembly language source files can collaborate within one project. While the overall project
is managed by a C program part for easy maintenance, time-critical parts are written
directly in manually optimized assembly language for shortest execution times possible. Naturally, this kind of project is very closely tied to the hardware design, thus it is
custom-tailored to a particular controller type and peripheral setup. As an alternative to
the assembly-language solution, this project also offers a C-only implementation (deploying the exact same peripheral setup) based on a more sophisticated (and thus more
expensive) but pin-compatible controller.
While the simple demo is meant to run on about any AVR setup possible where a
LED could be connected to the OCR1[A] output, the large and stdio demos are mainly
targeted to the Atmel STK500 starter kit, and the TWI example requires a controller
where some 24Cxx two-wire EEPPROM can be connected to. For the STK500 demos,
the default CPU (either an AT90S8515 or an ATmega8515) should be removed from
its socket, and the ATmega16 that ships with the kit should be inserted into socket
SCKT3100A3. The ATmega16 offers an on-board ADC that is used in the large demo,
and all AVRs with an ADC feature a different pinout than the industry-standard compatible devices.
In order to fully utilize the large demo, a female 10-pin header with cable, connecting
to a 10 kOhm potentiometer will be useful.
For the stdio demo, an industry-standard HD44780-compatible LCD display of at least
16x1 characters will be needed. Among other things, the LCD4Linux project page
describes many things around these displays, including common pinouts.
Modules
•
•
•
•
•
Combining C and assembly source files
A simple project
A more sophisticated project
Using the standard IO facilities
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.35
22.35
Combining C and assembly source files
298
Combining C and assembly source files
For time- or space-critical applications, it can often be desirable to combine C code
(for easy maintenance) and assembly code (for maximal speed or minimal code size)
together. This demo provides an example of how to do that.
The objective of the demo is to decode radio-controlled model PWM signals, and control an output PWM based on the current input signal’s value. The incoming PWM
pulses follow a standard encoding scheme where a pulse width of 920 microseconds
denotes one end of the scale (represented as 0 % pulse width on output), and 2120
microseconds mark the other end (100 % output PWM). Normally, multiple channels
would be encoded that way in subsequent pulses, followed by a larger gap, so the entire frame will repeat each 14 through 20 ms, but this is ignored for the purpose of the
demo, so only a single input PWM channel is assumed.
The basic challenge is to use the cheapest controller available for the task, an ATtiny13
that has only a single timer channel. As this timer channel is required to run the outgoing PWM signal generation, the incoming PWM decoding had to be adjusted to the
constraints set by the outgoing PWM.
As PWM generation toggles the counting direction of timer 0 between up and down
after each 256 timer cycles, the current time cannot be deduced by reading TCNT0
only, but the current counting direction of the timer needs to be considered as well.
This requires servicing interrupts whenever the timer hits TOP (255) and BOTTOM (0)
to learn about each change of the counting direction. For PWM generation, it is usually
desired to run it at the highest possible speed so filtering the PWM frequency from the
modulated output signal is made easy. Thus, the PWM timer runs at full CPU speed.
This causes the overflow and compare match interrupts to be triggered each 256 CPU
clocks, so they must run with the minimal number of processor cycles possible in order
to not impose a too high CPU load by these interrupt service routines. This is the main
reason to implement the entire interrupt handling in fine-tuned assembly code rather
than in C.
In order to verify parts of the algorithm, and the underlying hardware, the demo has
been set up in a way so the pin-compatible but more expensive ATtiny45 (or its siblings
ATtiny25 and ATtiny85) could be used as well. In that case, no separate assembly code
is required, as two timer channels are avaible.
22.35.1
Hardware setup
The incoming PWM pulse train is fed into PB4. It will generate a pin change interrupt
there on eache edge of the incoming signal.
The outgoing PWM is generated through OC0B of timer channel 0 (PB1). For demonstration purposes, a LED should be connected to that pin (like, one of the LEDs of an
STK500).
The controllers run on their internal calibrated RC oscillators, 1.2 MHz on the AT-
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.35
Combining C and assembly source files
299
tiny13, and 1.0 MHz on the ATtiny45.
22.35.2
A code walkthrough
22.35.2.1 asmdemo.c After the usual include files, two variables are defined. The
first one, pwm_incoming is used to communicate the most recent pulse width detected by the incoming PWM decoder up to the main loop.
The second variable actually only constitutes of a single bit, intbits.pwm_received. This bit will be set whenever the incoming PWM decoder has updated
pwm_incoming.
Both variables are marked volatile to ensure their readers will always pick up an updated value, as both variables will be set by interrupt service routines.
The function ioinit() initializes the microcontroller peripheral devices. In particular, it starts timer 0 to generate the outgoing PWM signal on OC0B. Setting OCR0A
to 255 (which is the TOP value of timer 0) is used to generate a timer 0 overflow A
interrupt on the ATtiny13. This interrupt is used to inform the incoming PWM decoder
that the counting direction of channel 0 is just changing from up to down. Likewise, an
overflow interrupt will be generated whenever the countdown reached BOTTOM (value
0), where the counter will again alter its counting direction to upwards. This information is needed in order to know whether the current counter value of TCNT0 is to be
evaluated from bottom or top.
Further, ioinit() activates the pin-change interrupt PCINT0 on any edge of PB4.
Finally, PB1 (OC0B) will be activated as an output pin, and global interrupts are being
enabled.
In the ATtiny45 setup, the C code contains an ISR for PCINT0. At each pin-change
interrupt, it will first be analyzed whether the interrupt was caused by a rising or a
falling edge. In case of the rising edge, timer 1 will be started with a prescaler of 16
after clearing the current timer value. Then, at the falling edge, the current timer value
will be recorded (and timer 1 stopped), the pin-change interrupt will be suspended, and
the upper layer will be notified that the incoming PWM measurement data is available.
Function main() first initializes the hardware by calling ioinit(), and then waits
until some incoming PWM value is available. If it is, the output PWM will be adjusted
by computing the relative value of the incoming PWM. Finally, the pin-change interrupt
is re-enabled, and the CPU is put to sleep.
22.35.2.2 project.h In order for the interrupt service routines to be as fast as possible, some of the CPU registers are set aside completely for use by these routines, so
the compiler would not use them for C code. This is arranged for in project.h.
The file is divided into one section that will be used by the assembly source code, and
another one to be used by C code. The assembly part is distinguished by the preprocessing macro __ASSEMBLER__ (which will be automatically set by the compiler
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.35
Combining C and assembly source files
300
front-end when preprocessing an assembly-language file), and it contains just macros
that give symbolic names to a number of CPU registers. The preprocessor will then
replace the symbolic names by their right-hand side definitions before calling the assembler.
In C code, the compiler needs to see variable declarations for these objects. This is
done by using declarations that bind a variable permanently to a CPU register (see
How to permanently bind a variable to a register?). Even in case the C code never
has a need to access these variables, declaring the register binding that way causes the
compiler to not use these registers in C code at all.
The flags variable needs to be in the range of r16 through r31 as it is the target of a
load immediate (or SER) instruction that is not applicable to the entire register file.
22.35.2.3 isrs.S This file is a preprocessed assembly source file. The C preprocessor will be run by the compiler front-end first, resolving all #include, #define
etc. directives. The resulting program text will then be passed on to the assembler.
As the C preprocessor strips all C-style comments, preprocessed assembly source files
can have both, C-style (/∗ ... ∗/, // ...) as well as assembly-style (; ...)
comments.
At the top, the IO register definition file avr/io.h and the project declaration file
project.h are included. The remainder of the file is conditionally assembled only if
the target MCU type is an ATtiny13, so it will be completely ignored for the ATtiny45
option.
Next are the two interrupt service routines for timer 0 compare A match (timer 0 hits
TOP, as OCR0A is set to 255) and timer 0 overflow (timer 0 hits BOTTOM). As discussed above, these are kept as short as possible. They only save SREG (as the flags
will be modified by the INC instruction), increment the counter_hi variable which
forms the high part of the current time counter (the low part is formed by querying
TCNT0 directly), and clear or set the variable flags, respectively, in order to note
the current counting direction. The RETI instruction terminates these interrupt service
routines. Total cycle count is 8 CPU cycles, so together with the 4 CPU cycles needed
for interrupt setup, and the 2 cycles for the RJMP from the interrupt vector to the handler, these routines will require 14 out of each 256 CPU cycles, or about 5 % of the
overall CPU time.
The pin-change interrupt PCINT0 will be handled in the final part of this file. The
basic algorithm is to quickly evaluate the current system time by fetching the current
timer value of TCNT0, and combining it with the overflow part in counter_hi. If
the counter is currently counting down rather than up, the value fetched from TCNT0
must be negated. Finally, if this pin-change interrupt was triggered by a rising edge,
the time computed will be recorded as the start time only. Then, at the falling edge,
this start time will be subracted from the current time to compute the actual pulse width
seen (left in pwm_incoming), and the upper layers are informed of the new value by
setting bit 0 in the intbits flags. At the same time, this pin-change interrupt will be
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
301
disabled so no new measurement can be performed until the upper layer had a chance
to process the current value.
22.35.3
The source code
The source code is installed under
$prefix/share/doc/avr-libc/examples/asmdemo/,
where $prefix is a configuration option. For Unix systems, it is usually set to either
/usr or /usr/local.
22.36
A simple project
At this point, you should have the GNU tools configured, built, and installed on your
system. In this chapter, we present a simple example of using the GNU tools in an AVR
project. After reading this chapter, you should have a better feel as to how the tools are
used and how a Makefile can be configured.
22.36.1
The Project
This project will use the pulse-width modulator (PWM) to ramp an LED on and off every
two seconds. An AT90S2313 processor will be used as the controller. The circuit for
this demonstration is shown in the schematic diagram. If you have a development kit,
you should be able to use it, rather than build the circuit, for this project.
Note:
Meanwhile, the AT90S2313 became obsolete. Either use its successor, the (pincompatible) ATtiny2313 for the project, or perhaps the ATmega8 or one of its
successors (ATmega48/88/168) which have become quite popular since the original demo project had been established. For all these more modern devices, it is no
longer necessary to use an external crystal for clocking as they ship with the internal 1 MHz oscillator enabled, so C1, C2, and Q1 can be omitted. Normally, for
this experiment, the external circuitry on /RESET (R1, C3) can be omitted as well,
leaving only the AVR, the LED, the bypass capacitor C4, and perhaps R2. For the
ATmega8/48/88/168, use PB1 (pin 15 at the DIP-28 package) to connect the LED
to. Additionally, this demo has been ported to many different other AVRs. The location of the respective OC pin varies between different AVRs, and it is mandated
by the AVR hardware.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
302
VCC
IC1
4mhz
C2
Q1
C3
20K
.01uf
R1
C4
.1uf
18pf
GND
GND
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
(ICP)PD6
(T1)PD5
(T0)PD4
(INT1)PD3
(INT0)PD2
(TXD)PD1
(RXD)PD0
AT90S2313P
11
9
8
7
6
3
2
RESET
4
XTAL2
5
XTAL1
C1
18pf
(SCK)PB7
(MISO)PB6
(MOSI)PB5
PB4
(OCI)PB3
PB2
(AIN1)PB1
(AIN0)PB0
1
20 VCC
10 GND
R2*
LED5MM
D1
See note [8]
GND
Figure 5: Schematic of circuit for demo project
The source code is given in demo.c. For the sake of this example, create a file called
demo.c containing this source code. Some of the more important parts of the code
are:
Note [1]:
As the AVR microcontroller series has been developed during the past years,
new features have been added over time. Even though the basic concepts of
the timer/counter1 are still the same as they used to be back in early 2001 when
this simple demo was written initially, the names of registers and bits have been
changed slightly to reflect the new features. Also, the port and pin mapping of
the output compare match 1A (or 1 for older devices) pin which is used to control
the LED varies between different AVRs. The file iocompat.h tries to abstract
between all this differences using some preprocessor #ifdef statements, so the
actual program itself can operate on a common set of symbolic names. The macros
defined by that file are:
• OCR the name of the OCR register used to control the PWM (usually either
OCR1 or OCR1A)
• DDROC the name of the DDR (data direction register) for the OC output
• OC1 the pin number of the OC1[A] output within its port
• TIMER1_TOP the TOP value of the timer used for the PWM (1023 for 10-bit
PWMs, 255 for devices that can only handle an 8-bit PWM)
• TIMER1_PWM_INIT the initialization bits to be set into control register 1A in
order to setup 10-bit (or 8-bit) phase and frequency correct PWM mode
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
303
• TIMER1_CLOCKSOURCE the clock bits to set in the respective control register to start the PWM timer; usually the timer runs at full CPU clock for 10-bit
PWMs, while it runs on a prescaled clock for 8-bit PWMs
Note [2]:
ISR() is a macro that marks the function as an interrupt routine. In this case, the
function will get called when timer 1 overflows. Setting up interrupts is explained
in greater detail in <avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts.
Note [3]:
The PWM is being used in 10-bit mode, so we need a 16-bit variable to remember
the current value.
Note [4]:
This section determines the new value of the PWM.
Note [5]:
Here’s where the newly computed value is loaded into the PWM register. Since
we are in an interrupt routine, it is safe to use a 16-bit assignment to the register.
Outside of an interrupt, the assignment should only be performed with interrupts
disabled if there’s a chance that an interrupt routine could also access this register
(or another register that uses TEMP), see the appropriate FAQ entry.
Note [6]:
This routine gets called after a reset. It initializes the PWM and enables interrupts.
Note [7]:
The main loop of the program does nothing – all the work is done by the interrupt
routine! The sleep_mode() puts the processor on sleep until the next interrupt,
to conserve power. Of course, that probably won’t be noticable as we are still
driving a LED, it is merely mentioned here to demonstrate the basic principle.
Note [8]:
Early AVR devices saturate their outputs at rather low currents when sourcing current, so the LED can be connected directly, the resulting current through the LED
will be about 15 mA. For modern parts (at least for the ATmega 128), however
Atmel has drastically increased the IO source capability, so when operating at 5
V Vcc, R2 is needed. Its value should be about 150 Ohms. When operating the
circuit at 3 V, it can still be omitted though.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
22.36.2
304
The Source Code
/*
* ---------------------------------------------------------------------------* "THE BEER-WARE LICENSE" (Revision 42):
* <[email protected]> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you
* can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think
Joerg Wunsch
* this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return.
* ---------------------------------------------------------------------------*
* Simple AVR demonstration. Controls a LED that can be directly
* connected from OC1/OC1A to GND. The brightness of the LED is
* controlled with the PWM. After each period of the PWM, the PWM
* value is either incremented or decremented, that’s all.
*
* $Id: demo.c,v 1.9 2006/01/05 21:30:10 joerg_wunsch Exp $
*/
#include
#include
#include
#include
<inttypes.h>
<avr/io.h>
<avr/interrupt.h>
<avr/sleep.h>
#include "iocompat.h"
/* Note [1] */
enum { UP, DOWN };
ISR (TIMER1_OVF_vect)
{
static uint16_t pwm;
static uint8_t direction;
/* Note [2] */
/* Note [3] */
switch (direction)
/* Note [4] */
{
case UP:
if (++pwm == TIMER1_TOP)
direction = DOWN;
break;
case DOWN:
if (--pwm == 0)
direction = UP;
break;
}
OCR = pwm;
/* Note [5] */
}
void
ioinit (void)
/* Note [6] */
{
/* Timer 1 is 10-bit PWM (8-bit PWM on some ATtinys). */
TCCR1A = TIMER1_PWM_INIT;
/*
* Start timer 1.
*
* NB: TCCR1A and TCCR1B could actually be the same register, so
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
305
* take care to not clobber it.
*/
TCCR1B |= TIMER1_CLOCKSOURCE;
/*
* Run any device-dependent timer 1 setup hook if present.
*/
#if defined(TIMER1_SETUP_HOOK)
TIMER1_SETUP_HOOK();
#endif
/* Set PWM value to 0. */
OCR = 0;
/* Enable OC1 as output. */
DDROC = _BV (OC1);
/* Enable timer 1 overflow interrupt. */
TIMSK = _BV (TOIE1);
sei ();
}
int
main (void)
{
ioinit ();
/* loop forever, the interrupts are doing the rest */
for (;;)
sleep_mode();
/* Note [7] */
return (0);
}
22.36.3
Compiling and Linking
This first thing that needs to be done is compile the source. When compiling, the
compiler needs to know the processor type so the -mmcu option is specified. The
-Os option will tell the compiler to optimize the code for efficient space usage (at the
possible expense of code execution speed). The -g is used to embed debug info. The
debug info is useful for disassemblies and doesn’t end up in the .hex files, so I usually
specify it. Finally, the -c tells the compiler to compile and stop – don’t link. This
demo is small enough that we could compile and link in one step. However, real-world
projects will have several modules and will typically need to break up the building of
the project into several compiles and one link.
$ avr-gcc -g -Os -mmcu=atmega8 -c demo.c
The compilation will create a demo.o file. Next we link it into a binary called
demo.elf.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
306
$ avr-gcc -g -mmcu=atmega8 -o demo.elf demo.o
It is important to specify the MCU type when linking. The compiler uses the -mmcu
option to choose start-up files and run-time libraries that get linked together. If this
option isn’t specified, the compiler defaults to the 8515 processor environment, which
is most certainly what you didn’t want.
22.36.4
Examining the Object File
Now we have a binary file. Can we do anything useful with it (besides put it into the
processor?) The GNU Binutils suite is made up of many useful tools for manipulating
object files that get generated. One tool is avr-objdump, which takes information
from the object file and displays it in many useful ways. Typing the command by itself
will cause it to list out its options.
For instance, to get a feel of the application’s size, the -h option can be used. The
output of this option shows how much space is used in each of the sections (the .stab
and .stabstr sections hold the debugging information and won’t make it into the ROM
file).
An even more useful option is -S. This option disassembles the binary file and intersperses the source code in the output! This method is much better, in my opinion, than
using the -S with the compiler because this listing includes routines from the libraries
and the vector table contents. Also, all the "fix-ups" have been satisfied. In other words,
the listing generated by this option reflects the actual code that the processor will run.
$ avr-objdump -h -S demo.elf > demo.lst
Here’s the output as saved in the demo.lst file:
demo.elf:
file format elf32-avr
Sections:
Idx Name
0 .text
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Size
VMA
LMA
File off Algn
00000110 00000000 00000000 00000074 2**1
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE
.bss
00000003 00800060 00800060 00000184 2**0
ALLOC
.debug_aranges 00000020 00000000 00000000 00000184 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
.debug_pubnames 00000035 00000000 00000000 000001a4 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
.debug_info
00000105 00000000 00000000 000001d9 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
.debug_abbrev 000000cf 00000000 00000000 000002de 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
.debug_line
0000014d 00000000 00000000 000003ad 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
.debug_frame 00000040 00000000 00000000 000004fc 2**2
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
8 .debug_str
307
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
000000b1 00000000 00000000 0000053c
CONTENTS, READONLY, DEBUGGING
2**0
Disassembly of section .text:
00000000
0: 12
2: 81
4: 80
6: 7f
8: 7e
a: 7d
c: 7c
e: 7b
10: 1a
12: 79
14: 78
16: 77
18: 76
1a: 75
1c: 74
1e: 73
20: 72
22: 71
24: 70
<__vectors>:
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
c0
rjmp
00000026
26: 11
28: 1f
2a: cf
2c: d4
2e: de
30: cd
<__ctors_end>:
24
eor r1, r1
be
out 0x3f, r1 ; 63
e5
ldi r28, 0x5F ; 95
e0
ldi r29, 0x04 ; 4
bf
out 0x3e, r29 ; 62
bf
out 0x3d, r28 ; 61
00000032
32: 10
34: a0
36: b0
38: 01
<__do_clear_bss>:
e0
ldi r17, 0x00 ; 0
e6
ldi r26, 0x60 ; 96
e0
ldi r27, 0x00 ; 0
c0
rjmp .+2
; 0x3c <.do_clear_bss_start>
.+36
.+258
.+256
.+254
.+252
.+250
.+248
.+246
.+52
.+242
.+240
.+238
.+236
.+234
.+232
.+230
.+228
.+226
.+224
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
0x26 <__ctors_end>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x46 <__vector_8>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0x106 <__bad_interrupt>
0000003a <.do_clear_bss_loop>:
3a: 1d 92
st X+, r1
0000003c
3c: a3
3e: b1
40: e1
42: 4d
44: 61
<.do_clear_bss_start>:
36
cpi r26, 0x63 ; 99
07
cpc r27, r17
f7
brne .-8
; 0x3a <.do_clear_bss_loop>
d0
rcall .+154
; 0xde <main>
c0
rjmp .+194
; 0x108 <exit>
00000046 <__vector_8>:
#include "iocompat.h" /* Note [1] */
enum { UP, DOWN };
ISR (TIMER1_OVF_vect) /* Note [2] */
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
{
46: 1f 92
push r1
48: 0f 92
push r0
4a: 0f b6
in r0, 0x3f ; 63
4c: 0f 92
push r0
4e: 11 24
eor r1, r1
50: 2f 93
push r18
52: 3f 93
push r19
54: 8f 93
push r24
static uint16_t pwm; /* Note [3] */
static uint8_t direction;
switch (direction) /* Note [4] */
56: 80 91 60 00 lds r24, 0x0060
5a: 88 23
and r24, r24
5c: c1 f4
brne .+48
; 0x8e <__vector_8+0x48>
{
case UP:
if (++pwm == TIMER1_TOP)
5e: 20 91 61 00 lds r18, 0x0061
62: 30 91 62 00 lds r19, 0x0062
66: 2f 5f
subi r18, 0xFF ; 255
68: 3f 4f
sbci r19, 0xFF ; 255
6a: 30 93 62 00 sts 0x0062, r19
6e: 20 93 61 00 sts 0x0061, r18
72: 83 e0
ldi r24, 0x03 ; 3
74: 2f 3f
cpi r18, 0xFF ; 255
76: 38 07
cpc r19, r24
78: 09 f1
breq .+66
; 0xbc <__vector_8+0x76>
if (--pwm == 0)
direction = UP;
break;
}
OCR = pwm; /* Note [5] */
7a: 3b bd
out 0x2b, r19 ; 43
7c: 2a bd
out 0x2a, r18 ; 42
}
7e: 8f 91
pop r24
80: 3f 91
pop r19
82: 2f 91
pop r18
84: 0f 90
pop r0
86: 0f be
out 0x3f, r0 ; 63
88: 0f 90
pop r0
8a: 1f 90
pop r1
8c: 18 95
reti
ISR (TIMER1_OVF_vect) /* Note [2] */
{
static uint16_t pwm; /* Note [3] */
static uint8_t direction;
switch (direction) /* Note [4] */
8e: 81 30
cpi r24, 0x01 ; 1
90: 29 f0
breq .+10
; 0x9c <__vector_8+0x56>
92: 20 91 61 00 lds r18, 0x0061
96: 30 91 62 00 lds r19, 0x0062
9a: ef cf
rjmp .-34
; 0x7a <__vector_8+0x34>
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
308
22.36
A simple project
309
if (++pwm == TIMER1_TOP)
direction = DOWN;
break;
9c:
a0:
a4:
a6:
a8:
ac:
b0:
b2:
b4:
b6:
ba:
case DOWN:
if (--pwm == 0)
20 91 61 00 lds r18, 0x0061
30 91 62 00 lds r19, 0x0062
21 50
subi r18, 0x01 ;
30 40
sbci r19, 0x00 ;
30 93 62 00 sts 0x0062, r19
20 93 61 00 sts 0x0061, r18
21 15
cp r18, r1
31 05
cpc r19, r1
11 f7
brne .-60
;
direction = UP;
10 92 60 00 sts 0x0060, r1
df cf
rjmp .-66
;
1
0
0x7a <__vector_8+0x34>
0x7a <__vector_8+0x34>
switch (direction) /* Note [4] */
{
case UP:
if (++pwm == TIMER1_TOP)
direction = DOWN;
bc: 81 e0
ldi r24, 0x01 ; 1
be: 80 93 60 00 sts 0x0060, r24
c2: db cf
rjmp .-74
; 0x7a <__vector_8+0x34>
000000c4 <ioinit>:
void
ioinit (void) /* Note [6] */
{
/* Timer 1 is 10-bit PWM (8-bit PWM on some ATtinys). */
TCCR1A = TIMER1_PWM_INIT;
c4: 83 e8
ldi r24, 0x83 ; 131
c6: 8f bd
out 0x2f, r24 ; 47
* Start timer 1.
*
* NB: TCCR1A and TCCR1B could actually be the same register, so
* take care to not clobber it.
*/
TCCR1B |= TIMER1_CLOCKSOURCE;
c8: 8e b5
in r24, 0x2e ; 46
ca: 81 60
ori r24, 0x01 ; 1
cc: 8e bd
out 0x2e, r24 ; 46
#if defined(TIMER1_SETUP_HOOK)
TIMER1_SETUP_HOOK();
#endif
/* Set PWM value to 0. */
OCR = 0;
ce: 1b bc
out 0x2b, r1 ; 43
d0: 1a bc
out 0x2a, r1 ; 42
/* Enable OC1 as output. */
DDROC = _BV (OC1);
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
d2: 82 e0
d4: 87 bb
ldi r24, 0x02 ; 2
out 0x17, r24 ; 23
/* Enable timer 1 overflow interrupt. */
TIMSK = _BV (TOIE1);
d6: 84 e0
ldi r24, 0x04 ; 4
d8: 89 bf
out 0x39, r24 ; 57
sei ();
da: 78 94
sei
}
dc: 08 95
ret
000000de <main>:
void
ioinit (void) /* Note [6] */
{
/* Timer 1 is 10-bit PWM (8-bit PWM on some ATtinys). */
TCCR1A = TIMER1_PWM_INIT;
de: 83 e8
ldi r24, 0x83 ; 131
e0: 8f bd
out 0x2f, r24 ; 47
* Start timer 1.
*
* NB: TCCR1A and TCCR1B could actually be the same register, so
* take care to not clobber it.
*/
TCCR1B |= TIMER1_CLOCKSOURCE;
e2: 8e b5
in r24, 0x2e ; 46
e4: 81 60
ori r24, 0x01 ; 1
e6: 8e bd
out 0x2e, r24 ; 46
#if defined(TIMER1_SETUP_HOOK)
TIMER1_SETUP_HOOK();
#endif
/* Set PWM value to 0. */
OCR = 0;
e8: 1b bc
out 0x2b, r1 ; 43
ea: 1a bc
out 0x2a, r1 ; 42
/* Enable OC1 as output. */
DDROC = _BV (OC1);
ec: 82 e0
ldi r24, 0x02 ; 2
ee: 87 bb
out 0x17, r24 ; 23
/* Enable timer 1 overflow interrupt. */
TIMSK = _BV (TOIE1);
f0: 84 e0
ldi r24, 0x04 ; 4
f2: 89 bf
out 0x39, r24 ; 57
sei ();
f4: 78 94
sei
ioinit ();
/* loop forever, the interrupts are doing the rest */
for (;;) /* Note [7] */
sleep_mode();
f6: 85 b7
in r24, 0x35 ; 53
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
310
22.36
f8:
fa:
fc:
fe:
100:
102:
104:
A simple project
80
85
88
85
8f
85
f8
68
bf
95
b7
77
bf
cf
311
ori r24, 0x80 ; 128
out 0x35, r24 ; 53
sleep
in r24, 0x35 ; 53
andi r24, 0x7F ; 127
out 0x35, r24 ; 53
rjmp .-16
; 0xf6 <main+0x18>
00000106 <__bad_interrupt>:
106: 7c cf
rjmp .-264
; 0x0 <__vectors>
00000108 <exit>:
108: f8 94
10a: 00 c0
cli
rjmp .+0
; 0x10c <_exit>
0000010c <_exit>:
10c: f8 94
cli
0000010e <__stop_program>:
10e: ff cf
rjmp .-2
22.36.5
; 0x10e <__stop_program>
Linker Map Files
avr-objdump is very useful, but sometimes it’s necessary to see information about
the link that can only be generated by the linker. A map file contains this information.
A map file is useful for monitoring the sizes of your code and data. It also shows where
modules are loaded and which modules were loaded from libraries. It is yet another
view of your application. To get a map file, I usually add -Wl,-Map,demo.map to
my link command. Relink the application using the following command to generate
demo.map (a portion of which is shown below).
$ avr-gcc -g -mmcu=atmega8 -Wl,-Map,demo.map -o demo.elf demo.o
Some points of interest in the demo.map file are:
.rela.plt
*(.rela.plt)
.text
*(.vectors)
.vectors
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
*(.vectors)
*(.progmem.gcc*)
*(.progmem*)
0x00000026
0x00000026
*(.trampolines)
.trampolines
0x00000026
*(.trampolines*)
0x00000026
0x110
0x26 c:/avrdev/avr-libc/avr-libc-1.6.6/avr/lib/avr4/atmega8/crtm8.o
__vectors
__vector_default
. = ALIGN (0x2)
__trampolines_start = .
0x0 linker stubs
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
__trampolines_end = .
22.36
A simple project
312
*(.jumptables)
*(.jumptables*)
*(.lowtext)
*(.lowtext*)
0x00000026
__ctors_start = .
The .text segment (where program instructions are stored) starts at location 0x0.
*(.fini2)
*(.fini2)
*(.fini1)
*(.fini1)
*(.fini0)
.fini0
*(.fini0)
0x0000010c
0x4 c:/winavr/bin/../lib/gcc/avr/4.3.2/avr4\libgcc.a(_exit.o)
0x00000110
.data
0x00800060
0x00800060
*(.data)
.data
0x00800060
.data
0x00800060
.data
0x00800060
.data
0x00800060
.data
0x00800060
*(.data*)
*(.rodata)
*(.rodata*)
*(.gnu.linkonce.d*)
0x00800060
0x00800060
0x00800060
.bss
*(.bss)
.bss
.bss
.bss
.bss
.bss
*(.bss*)
*(COMMON)
_etext = .
0x0 load address 0x00000110
PROVIDE (__data_start, .)
0x0
0x0
0x0
0x0
0x0
demo.o
c:/avrdev/avr-libc/avr-libc-1.6.6/avr/lib/avr4/atmega8/crtm8.o
c:/avrdev/avr-libc/avr-libc-1.6.6/avr/lib/avr4/exit.o
c:/winavr/bin/../lib/gcc/avr/4.3.2/avr4\libgcc.a(_exit.o)
c:/winavr/bin/../lib/gcc/avr/4.3.2/avr4\libgcc.a(_clear_bss.o)
. = ALIGN (0x2)
_edata = .
PROVIDE (__data_end, .)
0x00800060
0x00800060
0x3
0x00800060
0x00800063
0x00800063
0x00800063
0x00800063
0x3
0x0
0x0
0x0
0x0
PROVIDE (__bss_start, .)
demo.o
c:/avrdev/avr-libc/avr-libc-1.6.6/avr/lib/avr4/atmega8/crtm8.o
c:/avrdev/avr-libc/avr-libc-1.6.6/avr/lib/avr4/exit.o
c:/winavr/bin/../lib/gcc/avr/4.3.2/avr4\libgcc.a(_exit.o)
c:/winavr/bin/../lib/gcc/avr/4.3.2/avr4\libgcc.a(_clear_bss.o)
0x00800063
0x00000110
0x00000110
.noinit
0x00800063
0x00800063
PROVIDE (__bss_end, .)
__data_load_start = LOADADDR (.data)
__data_load_end = (__data_load_start + SIZEOF (.data))
0x0
PROVIDE (__noinit_start, .)
*(.noinit*)
0x00800063
0x00800063
0x00800063
.eeprom
*(.eeprom*)
0x00810000
PROVIDE (__noinit_end, .)
_end = .
PROVIDE (__heap_start, .)
0x0
0x00810000
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
__eeprom_end = .
22.36
A simple project
313
The last address in the .text segment is location 0x114 ( denoted by _etext ), so the
instructions use up 276 bytes of FLASH.
The .data segment (where initialized static variables are stored) starts at location 0x60,
which is the first address after the register bank on an ATmega8 processor.
The next available address in the .data segment is also location 0x60, so the application
has no initialized data.
The .bss segment (where uninitialized data is stored) starts at location 0x60.
The next available address in the .bss segment is location 0x63, so the application uses
3 bytes of uninitialized data.
The .eeprom segment (where EEPROM variables are stored) starts at location 0x0.
The next available address in the .eeprom segment is also location 0x0, so there aren’t
any EEPROM variables.
22.36.6
Generating Intel Hex Files
We have a binary of the application, but how do we get it into the processor? Most (if
not all) programmers will not accept a GNU executable as an input file, so we need to
do a little more processing. The next step is to extract portions of the binary and save
the information into .hex files. The GNU utility that does this is called avr-objcopy.
The ROM contents can be pulled from our project’s binary and put into the file
demo.hex using the following command:
$ avr-objcopy -j .text -j .data -O ihex demo.elf demo.hex
The resulting demo.hex file contains:
:1000000012C081C080C07FC07EC07DC07CC07BC06C
:100010001AC079C078C077C076C075C074C073C08C
:1000200072C071C070C011241FBECFE5D4E0DEBF26
:10003000CDBF10E0A0E6B0E001C01D92A336B1072D
:10004000E1F74DD061C01F920F920FB60F921124AD
:100050002F933F938F93809160008823C1F4209168
:100060006100309162002F5F3F4F30936200209318
:10007000610083E02F3F380709F13BBD2ABD8F9116
:100080003F912F910F900FBE0F901F9018958130C8
:1000900029F02091610030916200EFCF2091610042
:1000A0003091620021503040309362002093610013
:1000B0002115310511F710926000DFCF81E08093A8
:1000C0006000DBCF83E88FBD8EB581608EBD1BBC29
:1000D0001ABC82E087BB84E089BF7894089583E8E6
:1000E0008FBD8EB581608EBD1BBC1ABC82E087BB04
:1000F00084E089BF789485B7806885BF889585B787
:100100008F7785BFF8CF7CCFF89400C0F894FFCFED
:00000001FF
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
314
The -j option indicates that we want the information from the .text and .data segment
extracted. If we specify the EEPROM segment, we can generate a .hex file that can be
used to program the EEPROM:
$ avr-objcopy -j .eeprom --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O ihex demo.elf demo_eeprom.hex
There is no demo_eeprom.hex file written, as that file would be empty.
Starting with version 2.17 of the GNU binutils, the avr-objcopy command that used
to generate the empty EEPROM files now aborts because of the empty input section
.eeprom, so these empty files are not generated. It also signals an error to the Makefile
which will be caught there, and makes it print a message about the empty file not being
generated.
22.36.7
Letting Make Build the Project
Rather than type these commands over and over, they can all be placed in a make file.
To build the demo project using make, save the following in a file called Makefile.
Note:
This Makefile can only be used as input for the GNU version of make.
PRG
OBJ
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
= demo
= demo.o
= at90s2313
= at90s2333
= at90s4414
= at90s4433
= at90s4434
= at90s8515
= at90s8535
= atmega128
= atmega1280
= atmega1281
= atmega1284p
= atmega16
= atmega163
= atmega164p
= atmega165
= atmega165p
= atmega168
= atmega169
= atmega169p
= atmega2560
= atmega2561
= atmega32
= atmega324p
= atmega325
= atmega3250
= atmega329
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
315
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
#MCU_TARGET
OPTIMIZE
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
atmega3290
atmega48
atmega64
atmega640
atmega644
atmega644p
atmega645
atmega6450
atmega649
atmega6490
= atmega8
= atmega8515
= atmega8535
= atmega88
= attiny2313
= attiny24
= attiny25
= attiny26
= attiny261
= attiny44
= attiny45
= attiny461
= attiny84
= attiny85
= attiny861
= -O2
DEFS
LIBS
=
=
# You should not have to change anything below here.
CC
= avr-gcc
# Override is only needed by avr-lib build system.
override CFLAGS
override LDFLAGS
OBJCOPY
OBJDUMP
= -g -Wall $(OPTIMIZE) -mmcu=$(MCU_TARGET) $(DEFS)
= -Wl,-Map,$(PRG).map
= avr-objcopy
= avr-objdump
all: $(PRG).elf lst text eeprom
$(PRG).elf: $(OBJ)
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) -o [email protected] $^ $(LIBS)
# dependency:
demo.o: demo.c iocompat.h
clean:
rm -rf *.o $(PRG).elf *.eps *.png *.pdf *.bak
rm -rf *.lst *.map $(EXTRA_CLEAN_FILES)
lst:
$(PRG).lst
%.lst: %.elf
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.36
A simple project
316
$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > [email protected]
# Rules for building the .text rom images
text: hex bin srec
hex: $(PRG).hex
bin: $(PRG).bin
srec: $(PRG).srec
%.hex: %.elf
$(OBJCOPY) -j .text -j .data -O ihex $< [email protected]
%.srec: %.elf
$(OBJCOPY) -j .text -j .data -O srec $< [email protected]
%.bin: %.elf
$(OBJCOPY) -j .text -j .data -O binary $< [email protected]
# Rules for building the .eeprom rom images
eeprom: ehex ebin esrec
ehex: $(PRG)_eeprom.hex
ebin: $(PRG)_eeprom.bin
esrec: $(PRG)_eeprom.srec
%_eeprom.hex: %.elf
$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O ihex $< [email protected] \
|| { echo empty [email protected] not generated; exit 0; }
%_eeprom.srec: %.elf
$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O srec $< [email protected] \
|| { echo empty [email protected] not generated; exit 0; }
%_eeprom.bin: %.elf
$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O binary $< [email protected] \
|| { echo empty [email protected] not generated; exit 0; }
# Every thing below here is used by avr-libc’s build system and can be ignored
# by the casual user.
FIG2DEV
EXTRA_CLEAN_FILES
= fig2dev
= *.hex *.bin *.srec
dox: eps png pdf
eps: $(PRG).eps
png: $(PRG).png
pdf: $(PRG).pdf
%.eps: %.fig
$(FIG2DEV) -L eps $< [email protected]
%.pdf: %.fig
$(FIG2DEV) -L pdf $< [email protected]
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
317
%.png: %.fig
$(FIG2DEV) -L png $< [email protected]
22.36.8
Reference to the source code
The source code is installed under
$prefix/share/doc/avr-libc/examples/demo/,
where $prefix is a configuration option. For Unix systems, it is usually set to either
/usr or /usr/local.
22.37
A more sophisticated project
This project extends the basic idea of the simple project to control a LED with a PWM
output, but adds methods to adjust the LED brightness. It employs a lot of the basic
concepts of avr-libc to achieve that goal.
Understanding this project assumes the simple project has been understood in full, as
well as being acquainted with the basic hardware concepts of an AVR microcontroller.
22.37.1
Hardware setup
The demo is set up in a way so it can be run on the ATmega16 that ships with the
STK500 development kit. The only external part needed is a potentiometer attached to
the ADC. It is connected to a 10-pin ribbon cable for port A, both ends of the potentiometer to pins 9 (GND) and 10 (VCC), and the wiper to pin 1 (port A0). A bypass
capacitor from pin 1 to pin 9 (like 47 nF) is recommendable.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
318
Figure 6: Setup of the STK500
The coloured patch cables are used to provide various interconnections. As there are
only four of them in the STK500, there are two options to connect them for this demo.
The second option for the yellow-green cable is shown in parenthesis in the table.
Alternatively, the "squid" cable from the JTAG ICE kit can be used if available.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
319
Port
D0
Header
1
Color
brown
Function
RxD
D1
2
grey
TxD
D2
3
black
button
"down"
D3
4
red
button "up"
D4
5
green
button
"ADC"
D5
6
blue
LED
D6
7
(green)
clock out
D7
8
white
GND
VCC
9
10
1-second
flash
unused
unused
Figure 7: Wiring of the STK500
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
Connect to
RXD of the
RS-232
header
TXD of the
RS-232
header
SW0 (pin 1
switches
header)
SW1 (pin 2
switches
header)
SW2 (pin 3
switches
header)
LED0 (pin 1
LEDs header)
LED1 (pin 2
LEDs header)
LED2 (pin 3
LEDs header)
22.37
A more sophisticated project
320
The following picture shows the alternate wiring where LED1 is connected but SW2 is
not:
Figure 8: Wiring option #2 of the STK500
As an alternative, this demo can also be run on the popular ATmega8 controller, or its
successor ATmega88 as well as the ATmega48 and ATmega168 variants of the latter.
These controllers do not have a port named "A", so their ADC inputs are located on
port C instead, thus the potentiometer needs to be attached to port C. Likewise, the
OC1A output is not on port D pin 5 but on port B pin 1 (PB1). Thus, the above
cabling scheme needs to be changed so that PB1 connects to the LED0 pin. (PD6
remains unconnected.) When using the STK500, use one of the jumper cables for this
connection. All other port D pins should be connected the same way as described for
the ATmega16 above.
When not using an STK500 starter kit, attach the LEDs through some resistor to Vcc
(low-active LEDs), and attach pushbuttons from the respective input pins to GND. The
internal pull-up resistors are enabled for the pushbutton pins, so no external resistors
are needed.
Finally, the demo has been ported to the ATtiny2313 as well. As this AVR does not
offer an ADC, everything related to handling the ADC is disabled in the code for that
MCU type. Also, port D of this controller type only features 6 pins, so the 1-second
flash LED had to be moved from PD6 to PD4. (PD4 is used as the ADC control button
on the other MCU types, but that is not needed here.) OC1A is located at PB3 on this
device.
The MCU_TARGET macro in the Makefile needs to be adjusted appropriately for the
alternative controller types.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
321
The flash ROM and RAM consumption of this demo are way below the resources
of even an ATmega48, and still well within the capabilities of an ATtiny2313. The
major advantage of experimenting with the ATmega16 (in addition that it ships together
with an STK500 anyway) is that it can be debugged online via JTAG. Likewise, the
ATmega48/88/168 and ATtiny2313 devices can be debugged through debugWire, using
the Atmel JTAG ICE mkII or the low-cost AVR Dragon.
Note that in the explanation below, all port/pin names are applicable to the ATmega16
setup.
22.37.2
Functional overview
PD6 will be toggled with each internal clock tick (approx. 10 ms). PD7 will flash once
per second.
PD0 and PD1 are configured as UART IO, and can be used to connect the demo kit to
a PC (9600 Bd, 8N1 frame format). The demo application talks to the serial port, and
it can be controlled from the serial port.
PD2 through PD4 are configured as inputs, and control the application unless control
has been taken over by the serial port. Shorting PD2 to GND will decrease the current
PWM value, shorting PD3 to GND will increase it.
While PD4 is shorted to GND, one ADC conversion for channel 0 (ADC input is on
PA0) will be triggered each internal clock tick, and the resulting value will be used as
the PWM value. So the brightness of the LED follows the analog input value on PC0.
VAREF on the STK500 should be set to the same value as VCC.
When running in serial control mode, the function of the watchdog timer can be demonstrated by typing an ‘r’. This will make the demo application run in a tight loop without
retriggering the watchdog so after some seconds, the watchdog will reset the MCU.
This situation can be figured out on startup by reading the MCUCSR register.
The current value of the PWM is backed up in an EEPROM cell after about 3 seconds
of idle time after the last change. If that EEPROM cell contains a reasonable (i. e.
non-erased) value at startup, it is taken as the initial value for the PWM. This virtually
preserves the last value across power cycles. By not updating the EEPROM immmediately but only after a timeout, EEPROM wear is reduced considerably compared to
immediately writing the value at each change.
22.37.3
A code walkthrough
This section explains the ideas behind individual parts of the code. The source code
has been divided into numbered parts, and the following subsections explain each of
these parts.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
322
22.37.3.1 Part 1: Macro definitions A number of preprocessor macros are defined
to improve readability and/or portability of the application.
The first macros describe the IO pins our LEDs and pushbuttons are connected to. This
provides some kind of mini-HAL (hardware abstraction layer) so should some of the
connections be changed, they don’t need to be changed inside the code but only on
top. Note that the location of the PWM output itself is mandated by the hardware, so it
cannot be easily changed. As the ATmega48/88/168 controllers belong to a more recent
generation of AVRs, a number of register and bit names have been changed there, so
they are mapped back to their ATmega8/16 equivalents to keep the actual program code
portable.
The name F_CPU is the conventional name to describe the CPU clock frequency of
the controller. This demo project just uses the internal calibrated 1 MHz RC oscillator
that is enabled by default. Note that when using the <util/delay.h> functions,
F_CPU needs to be defined before including that file.
The remaining macros have their own comments in the source code. The macro
TMR1_SCALE shows how to use the preprocessor and the compiler’s constant expression computation to calculate the value of timer 1’s post-scaler in a way so it only
depends on F_CPU and the desired software clock frequency. While the formula looks
a bit complicated, using a macro offers the advantage that the application will automatically scale to new target softclock or master CPU frequencies without having to
manually re-calculate hardcoded constants.
22.37.3.2 Part 2: Variable definitions The intflags structure demonstrates a
way to allocate bit variables in memory. Each of the interrupt service routines just sets
one bit within that structure, and the application’s main loop then monitors the bits in
order to act appropriately.
Like all variables that are used to communicate values between an interrupt service
routine and the main application, it is declared volatile.
The variable ee_pwm is not a variable in the classical C sense that could be used as an
lvalue or within an expression to obtain its value. Instead, the
__attribute__((section(".eeprom")))
marks it as belonging to the EEPROM section. This section is merely used as a placeholder so the compiler can arrange for each individual variable’s location in EEPROM.
The compiler will also keep track of initial values assigned, and usually the Makefile
is arranged to extract these initial values into a separate load file (largedemo_eeprom.∗ in this case) that can be used to initialize the EEPROM.
The actual EEPROM IO must be performed manually.
Similarly, the variable mcucsr is kept in the .noinit section in order to prevent it from
being cleared upon application startup.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
323
22.37.3.3 Part 3: Interrupt service routines The ISR to handle timer 1’s overflow
interrupt arranges for the software clock. While timer 1 runs the PWM, it calls its
overflow handler rather frequently, so the TMR1_SCALE value is used as a postscaler
to reduce the internal software clock frequency further. If the software clock triggers,
it sets the tmr_int bitfield, and defers all further tasks to the main loop.
The ADC ISR just fetches the value from the ADC conversion, disables the ADC
interrupt again, and announces the presence of the new value in the adc_int bitfield.
The interrupt is kept disabled while not needed, because the ADC will also be triggered
by executing the SLEEP instruction in idle mode (which is the default sleep mode).
Another option would be to turn off the ADC completely here, but that increases the
ADC’s startup time (not that it would matter much for this application).
22.37.3.4 Part 4: Auxiliary functions The function handle_mcucsr() uses
two __attribute__ declarators to achieve specific goals. First, it will instruct the
compiler to place the generated code into the .init3 section of the output. Thus, it will
become part of the application initialization sequence. This is done in order to fetch
(and clear) the reason of the last hardware reset from MCUCSR as early as possible.
There is a short period of time where the next reset could already trigger before the
current reason has been evaluated. This also explains why the variable mcucsr that
mirrors the register’s value needs to be placed into the .noinit section, because otherwise the default initialization (which happens after .init3) would blank the value again.
As the initialization code is not called using CALL/RET instructions but rather concatenated together, the compiler needs to be instructed to omit the entire function prologue and epilogue. This is performed by the naked attribute. So while syntactically,
handle_mcucsr() is a function to the compiler, the compiler will just emit the instructions for it without setting up any stack frame, and not even a RET instruction at
the end.
Function ioinit() centralizes all hardware setup. The very last part of that function
demonstrates the use of the EEPROM variable ee_pwm to obtain an EEPROM address
that can in turn be applied as an argument to eeprom_read_word().
The following functions handle UART character and string output. (UART input
is handled by an ISR.) There are two string output functions, printstr() and
printstr_p(). The latter function fetches the string from program memory. Both
functions translate a newline character into a carriage return/newline sequence, so a
simple \n can be used in the source code.
The function set_pwm() propagates the new PWM value to the PWM, performing
range checking. When the value has been changed, the new percentage will be announced on the serial link. The current value is mirrored in the variable pwm so others
can use it in calculations. In order to allow for a simple calculation of a percentage
value without requiring floating-point mathematics, the maximal value of the PWM is
restricted to 1000 rather than 1023, so a simple division by 10 can be used. Due to the
nature of the human eye, the difference in LED brightness between 1000 and 1023 is
not noticable anyway.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.37
A more sophisticated project
324
22.37.3.5 Part 5: main() At the start of main(), a variable mode is declared to
keep the current mode of operation. An enumeration is used to improve the readability.
By default, the compiler would allocate a variable of type int for an enumeration. The
packed attribute declarator instructs the compiler to use the smallest possible integer
type (which would be an 8-bit type here).
After some initialization actions, the application’s main loop follows. In an embedded
application, this is normally an infinite loop as there is nothing an application could
"exit" into anyway.
At the beginning of the loop, the watchdog timer will be retriggered. If that timer is
not triggered for about 2 seconds, it will issue a hardware reset. Care needs to be taken
that no code path blocks longer than this, or it needs to frequently perform watchdog
resets of its own. An example of such a code path would be the string IO functions: for
an overly large string to print (about 2000 characters at 9600 Bd), they might block for
too long.
The loop itself then acts on the interrupt indication bitfields as appropriate, and will
eventually put the CPU on sleep at its end to conserve power.
The first interrupt bit that is handled is the (software) timer, at a frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The CLOCKOUT pin will be toggled here, so e. g. an oscilloscope
can be used on that pin to measure the accuracy of our software clock. Then, the LED
flasher for LED2 ("We are alive"-LED) is built. It will flash that LED for about 50
ms, and pause it for another 950 ms. Various actions depending on the operation mode
follow. Finally, the 3-second backup timer is implemented that will write the PWM
value back to EEPROM once it is not changing anymore.
The ADC interrupt will just adjust the PWM value only.
Finally, the UART Rx interrupt will dispatch on the last character received from the
UART.
All the string literals that are used as informational messages within main() are
placed in program memory so no SRAM needs to be allocated for them. This is done
by using the PSTR macro, and passing the string to printstr_p().
22.37.4
The source code
The source code is installed under
$prefix/share/doc/avr-libc/examples/largedemo/largedemo.c,
where $prefix is a configuration option. For Unix systems, it is usually set to either
/usr or /usr/local.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.38
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
325
Using the standard IO facilities
This project illustrates how to use the standard IO facilities (stdio) provided by this
library. It assumes a basic knowledge of how the stdio subsystem is used in standard C
applications, and concentrates on the differences in this library’s implementation that
mainly result from the differences of the microcontroller environment, compared to a
hosted environment of a standard computer.
This demo is meant to supplement the documentation, not to replace it.
22.38.1
Hardware setup
The demo is set up in a way so it can be run on the ATmega16 that ships with the
STK500 development kit. The UART port needs to be connected to the RS-232 "spare"
port by a jumper cable that connects PD0 to RxD and PD1 to TxD. The RS-232 channel
is set up as standard input (stdin) and standard output (stdout), respectively.
In order to have a different device available for a standard error channel (stderr), an
industry-standard LCD display with an HD44780-compatible LCD controller has been
chosen. This display needs to be connected to port A of the STK500 in the following
way:
Port
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
GND
VCC
Header
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
Function
LCD D4
LCD D5
LCD D6
LCD D7
LCD R/∼W
LCD E
LCD RS
unused
GND
Vcc
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
326
Figure 9: Wiring of the STK500
The LCD controller is used in 4-bit mode, including polling the "busy" flag so the
R/∼W line from the LCD controller needs to be connected. Note that the LCD controller has yet another supply pin that is used to adjust the LCD’s contrast (V5). Typically, that pin connects to a potentiometer between Vcc and GND. Often, it might
work to just connect that pin to GND, while leaving it unconnected usually yields an
unreadable display.
Port A has been chosen as 7 pins on a single port are needed to connect the LCD, yet all
other ports are already partially in use: port B has the pins for in-system programming
(ISP), port C has the ports for JTAG (can be used for debugging), and port D is used
for the UART connection.
22.38.2
Functional overview
The project consists of the following files:
• stdiodemo.c This is the main example file.
• defines.h Contains some global defines, like the LCD wiring
• hd44780.c Implementation of an HD44780 LCD display driver
• hd44780.h Interface declarations for the HD44780 driver
• lcd.c Implementation of LCD character IO on top of the HD44780 driver
• lcd.h Interface declarations for the LCD driver
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
327
• uart.c Implementation of a character IO driver for the internal UART
• uart.h Interface declarations for the UART driver
22.38.3
A code walkthrough
22.38.3.1 stdiodemo.c As usual, include files go first. While conventionally, system header files (those in angular brackets < ... >) go before application-specific
header files (in double quotes), defines.h comes as the first header file here. The
main reason is that this file defines the value of F_CPU which needs to be known before
including <utils/delay.h>.
The function ioinit() summarizes all hardware initialization tasks. As this function
is declared to be module-internal only (static), the compiler will notice its simplicity, and with a reasonable optimization level in effect, it will inline that function. That
needs to be kept in mind when debugging, because the inlining might cause the debugger to "jump around wildly" at a first glance when single-stepping.
The definitions of uart_str and lcd_str set up two stdio streams. The initialization is done using the FDEV_SETUP_STREAM() initializer template macro, so a
static object can be constructed that can be used for IO purposes. This initializer macro
takes three arguments, two function macros to connect the corresponding output and
input functions, respectively, the third one describes the intent of the stream (read,
write, or both). Those functions that are not required by the specified intent (like the
input function for lcd_str which is specified to only perform output operations) can
be given as NULL.
The stream uart_str corresponds to input and output operations performed over the
RS-232 connection to a terminal (e.g. from/to a PC running a terminal program), while
the lcd_str stream provides a method to display character data on the LCD text
display.
The function delay_1s() suspends program execution for approximately one second. This is done using the _delay_ms() function from <util/delay.h>
which in turn needs the F_CPU macro in order to adjust the cycle counts. As the
_delay_ms() function has a limited range of allowable argument values (depending
on F_CPU), a value of 10 ms has been chosen as the base delay which would be safe
for CPU frequencies of up to about 26 MHz. This function is then called 100 times to
accomodate for the actual one-second delay.
In a practical application, long delays like this one were better be handled by a hardware
timer, so the main CPU would be free for other tasks while waiting, or could be put on
sleep.
At the beginning of main(), after initializing the peripheral devices, the default stdio
streams stdin, stdout, and stderr are set up by using the existing static FILE
stream objects. While this is not mandatory, the availability of stdin and stdout
allows to use the shorthand functions (e.g. printf() instead of fprintf()), and
stderr can mnemonically be referred to when sending out diagnostic messages.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
328
Just for demonstration purposes, stdin and stdout are connected to a stream that
will perform UART IO, while stderr is arranged to output its data to the LCD text
display.
Finally, a main loop follows that accepts simple "commands" entered via the RS-232
connection, and performs a few simple actions based on the commands.
First, a prompt is sent out using printf_P() (which takes a program space string).
The string is read into an internal buffer as one line of input, using fgets(). While it
would be also possible to use gets() (which implicitly reads from stdin), gets()
has no control that the user’s input does not overflow the input buffer provided so it
should never be used at all.
If fgets() fails to read anything, the main loop is left. Of course, normally the main
loop of a microcontroller application is supposed to never finish, but again, for demonstrational purposes, this explains the error handling of stdio. fgets() will return
NULL in case of an input error or end-of-file condition on input. Both these conditions are in the domain of the function that is used to establish the stream, uart_putchar() in this case. In short, this function returns EOF in case of a serial line
"break" condition (extended start condition) has been recognized on the serial line.
Common PC terminal programs allow to assert this condition as some kind of out-ofband signalling on an RS-232 connection.
When leaving the main loop, a goodbye message is sent to standard error output (i.e. to
the LCD), followed by three dots in one-second spacing, followed by a sequence that
will clear the LCD. Finally, main() will be terminated, and the library will add an
infinite loop, so only a CPU reset will be able to restart the application.
There are three "commands" recognized, each determined by the first letter of the line
entered (converted to lower case):
• The ’q’ (quit) command has the same effect of leaving the main loop.
• The ’l’ (LCD) command takes its second argument, and sends it to the LCD.
• The ’u’ (UART) command takes its second argument, and sends it back to the
UART connection.
Command recognition is done using sscanf() where the first format in the format
string just skips over the command itself (as the assignment suppression modifier ∗ is
given).
22.38.3.2
defines.h
This file just contains a few peripheral definitions.
The F_CPU macro defines the CPU clock frequency, to be used in delay loops, as well
as in the UART baud rate calculation.
The macro UART_BAUD defines the RS-232 baud rate. Depending on the actual CPU
frequency, only a limited range of baud rates can be supported.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
329
The remaining macros customize the IO port and pins used for the HD44780 LCD
driver.
22.38.3.3 hd44780.h This file describes the public interface of the low-level LCD
driver that interfaces to the HD44780 LCD controller. Public functions are available to
initialize the controller into 4-bit mode, to wait for the controller’s busy bit to be clear,
and to read or write one byte from or to the controller.
As there are two different forms of controller IO, one to send a command or receive
the controller status (RS signal clear), and one to send or receive data to/from the
controller’s SRAM (RS asserted), macros are provided that build on the mentioned
function primitives.
Finally, macros are provided for all the controller commands to allow them to be used
symbolically. The HD44780 datasheet explains these basic functions of the controller
in more detail.
22.38.3.4 hd44780.c
controller driver.
This is the implementation of the low-level HD44780 LCD
On top, a few preprocessor glueing tricks are used to establish symbolic access to
the hardware port pins the LCD controller is attached to, based on the application’s
definitions made in defines.h.
The hd44780_pulse_e() function asserts a short pulse to the controller’s E (enable) pin. Since reading back the data asserted by the LCD controller needs to be
performed while E is active, this function reads and returns the input data if the parameter readback is true. When called with a compile-time constant parameter that is
false, the compiler will completely eliminate the unused readback operation, as well as
the return value as part of its optimizations.
As the controller is used in 4-bit interface mode, all byte IO to/from the controller
needs to be handled as two nibble IOs. The functions hd44780_outnibble() and
hd44780_innibble() implement this. They do not belong to the public interface,
so they are declared static.
Building upon these, the public functions hd44780_outbyte() and hd44780_inbyte() transfer one byte to/from the controller.
The function hd44780_wait_ready() waits for the controller to become ready,
by continuously polling the controller’s status (which is read by performing a byte read
with the RS signal cleard), and examining the BUSY flag within the status byte. This
function needs to be called before performing any controller IO.
Finally, hd44780_init() initializes the LCD controller into 4-bit mode, based on
the initialization sequence mandated by the datasheet. As the BUSY flag cannot be
examined yet at this point, this is the only part of this code where timed delays are
used. While the controller can perform a power-on reset when certain constraints on
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
330
the power supply rise time are met, always calling the software initialization routine
at startup ensures the controller will be in a known state. This function also puts the
interface into 4-bit mode (which would not be done automatically after a power-on
reset).
22.38.3.5 lcd.h This function declares the public interface of the higher-level (character IO) LCD driver.
22.38.3.6 lcd.c The implementation of the higher-level LCD driver. This driver
builds on top of the HD44780 low-level LCD controller driver, and offers a character
IO interface suitable for direct use by the standard IO facilities. Where the low-level
HD44780 driver deals with setting up controller SRAM addresses, writing data to the
controller’s SRAM, and controlling display functions like clearing the display, or moving the cursor, this high-level driver allows to just write a character to the LCD, in the
assumption this will somehow show up on the display.
Control characters can be handled at this level, and used to perform specific actions
on the LCD. Currently, there is only one control character that is being dealt with: a
newline character (\n) is taken as an indication to clear the display and set the cursor
into its initial position upon reception of the next character, so a "new line" of text
can be displayed. Therefore, a received newline character is remembered until more
characters have been sent by the application, and will only then cause the display to be
cleared before continuing. This provides a convenient abstraction where full lines of
text can be sent to the driver, and will remain visible at the LCD until the next line is
to be displayed.
Further control characters could be implemented, e. g. using a set of escape sequences.
That way, it would be possible to implement self-scrolling display lines etc.
The public function lcd_init() first calls the initialization entry point of the lowerlevel HD44780 driver, and then sets up the LCD in a way we’d like to (display cleared,
non-blinking cursor enabled, SRAM addresses are increasing so characters will be
written left to right).
The public function lcd_putchar() takes arguments that make it suitable for being passed as a put() function pointer to the stdio stream initialization functions and
macros (fdevopen(), FDEV_SETUP_STREAM() etc.). Thus, it takes two arguments, the character to display itself, and a reference to the underlying stream object,
and it is expected to return 0 upon success.
This function remembers the last unprocessed newline character seen in the functionlocal static variable nl_seen. If a newline character is encountered, it will simply set
this variable to a true value, and return to the caller. As soon as the first non-newline
character is to be displayed with nl_seen still true, the LCD controller is told to clear
the display, put the cursor home, and restart at SRAM address 0. All other characters
are sent to the display.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.38
Using the standard IO facilities
331
The single static function-internal variable nl_seen works for this purpose. If multiple LCDs should be controlled using the same set of driver functions, that would not
work anymore, as a way is needed to distinguish between the various displays. This is
where the second parameter can be used, the reference to the stream itself: instead of
keeping the state inside a private variable of the function, it can be kept inside a private
object that is attached to the stream itself. A reference to that private object can be attached to the stream (e.g. inside the function lcd_init() that then also needs to be
passed a reference to the stream) using fdev_set_udata(), and can be accessed
inside lcd_putchar() using fdev_get_udata().
22.38.3.7 uart.h Public interface definition for the RS-232 UART driver, much like
in lcd.h except there is now also a character input function available.
As the RS-232 input is line-buffered in this example, the macro RX_BUFSIZE determines the size of that buffer.
22.38.3.8 uart.c This implements an stdio-compatible RS-232 driver using an
AVR’s standard UART (or USART in asynchronous operation mode). Both, character output as well as character input operations are implemented. Character output
takes care of converting the internal newline \n into its external representation carriage
return/line feed (\r\n).
Character input is organized as a line-buffered operation that allows to minimally edit
the current line until it is "sent" to the application when either a carriage return (\r)
or newline (\n) character is received from the terminal. The line editing functions
implemented are:
• \b (back space) or \177 (delete) deletes the previous character
•
∧
•
∧
•
∧
u (control-U, ASCII NAK) deletes the entire input buffer
w (control-W, ASCII ETB) deletes the previous input word, delimited by white
space
r (control-R, ASCII DC2) sends a \r, then reprints the buffer (refresh)
• \t (tabulator) will be replaced by a single space
The function uart_init() takes care of all hardware initialization that is required to
put the UART into a mode with 8 data bits, no parity, one stop bit (commonly referred
to as 8N1) at the baud rate configured in defines.h. At low CPU clock frequencies, the
U2X bit in the UART is set, reducing the oversampling from 16x to 8x, which allows
for a 9600 Bd rate to be achieved with tolerable error using the default 1 MHz RC
oscillator.
The public function uart_putchar() again has suitable arguments for direct use
by the stdio stream interface. It performs the \n into \r\n translation by recursively
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.39
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
332
calling itself when it sees a \n character. Just for demonstration purposes, the \a
(audible bell, ASCII BEL) character is implemented by sending a string to stderr,
so it will be displayed on the LCD.
The public function uart_getchar() implements the line editor. If there are characters available in the line buffer (variable rxp is not NULL), the next character will
be returned from the buffer without any UART interaction.
If there are no characters inside the line buffer, the input loop will be entered. Characters will be read from the UART, and processed accordingly. If the UART signalled a
framing error (FE bit set), typically caused by the terminal sending a line break condition (start condition held much longer than one character period), the function will
return an end-of-file condition using _FDEV_EOF. If there was a data overrun condition on input (DOR bit set), an error condition will be returned as _FDEV_ERR.
Line editing characters are handled inside the loop, potentially modifying the buffer
status. If characters are attempted to be entered beyond the size of the line buffer, their
reception is refused, and a \a character is sent to the terminal. If a \r or \n character is
seen, the variable rxp (receive pointer) is set to the beginning of the buffer, the loop is
left, and the first character of the buffer will be returned to the application. (If no other
characters have been entered, this will just be the newline character, and the buffer is
marked as being exhausted immediately again.)
22.38.4
The source code
The source code is installed under
$prefix/share/doc/avr-libc/examples/stdiodemo/,
where $prefix is a configuration option. For Unix systems, it is usually set to either
/usr or /usr/local.
22.39
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
Some newer devices of the ATmega series contain builtin support for interfacing the
microcontroller to a two-wire bus, called TWI. This is essentially the same called I2C
by Philips, but that term is avoided in Atmel’s documentation due to patenting issues.
For the original Philips documentation, see
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/buses/i2c/index.html
22.39.1
Introduction into TWI
The two-wire interface consists of two signal lines named SDA (serial data) and SCL
(serial clock) (plus a ground line, of course). All devices participating in the bus are
connected together, using open-drain driver circuitry, so the wires must be terminated
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.39
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
333
using appropriate pullup resistors. The pullups must be small enough to recharge
the line capacity in short enough time compared to the desired maximal clock frequency, yet large enough so all drivers will not be overloaded. There are formulas in
the datasheet that help selecting the pullups.
Devices can either act as a master to the bus (i. e., they initiate a transfer), or as a
slave (they only act when being called by a master). The bus is multi-master capable,
and a particular device implementation can act as either master or slave at different
times. Devices are addressed using a 7-bit address (coordinated by Philips) transfered
as the first byte after the so-called start condition. The LSB of that byte is R/∼W, i. e.
it determines whether the request to the slave is to read or write data during the next
cycles. (There is also an option to have devices using 10-bit addresses but that is not
covered by this example.)
22.39.2
The TWI example project
The ATmega TWI hardware supports both, master and slave operation. This example
will only demonstrate how to use an AVR microcontroller as TWI master. The implementation is kept simple in order to concentrate on the steps that are required to talk to
a TWI slave, so all processing is done in polled-mode, waiting for the TWI interface to
indicate that the next processing step is due (by setting the TWINT interrupt bit). If it
is desired to have the entire TWI communication happen in "background", all this can
be implemented in an interrupt-controlled way, where only the start condition needs to
be triggered from outside the interrupt routine.
There is a variety of slave devices available that can be connected to a TWI bus. For the
purpose of this example, an EEPROM device out of the industry-standard 24Cxx series
has been chosen (where xx can be one of 01, 02, 04, 08, or 16) which are available from
various vendors. The choice was almost arbitrary, mainly triggered by the fact that an
EEPROM device is being talked to in both directions, reading and writing the slave
device, so the example will demonstrate the details of both.
Usually, there is probably not much need to add more EEPROM to an ATmega system
that way: the smallest possible AVR device that offers hardware TWI support is the
ATmega8 which comes with 512 bytes of EEPROM, which is equivalent to an 24C04
device. The ATmega128 already comes with twice as much EEPROM as the 24C16
would offer. One exception might be to use an externally connected EEPROM device
that is removable; e. g. SDRAM PC memory comes with an integrated TWI EEPROM
that carries the RAM configuration information.
22.39.3
The Source Code
The source code is installed under
$prefix/share/doc/avr-libc/examples/twitest/twitest.c,
where $prefix is a configuration option. For Unix systems, it is usually set to either
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.39
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
334
/usr or /usr/local.
Note [1]
The header file <util/twi.h> contains some macro definitions for symbolic constants used in the TWI status register. These definitions match the names used in the
Atmel datasheet except that all names have been prefixed with TW_.
Note [2]
The clock is used in timer calculations done by the compiler, for the UART baud rate
and the TWI clock rate.
Note [3]
The address assigned for the 24Cxx EEPROM consists of 1010 in the upper four bits.
The following three bits are normally available as slave sub-addresses, allowing to
operate more than one device of the same type on a single bus, where the actual subaddress used for each device is configured by hardware strapping. However, since the
next data packet following the device selection only allows for 8 bits that are used as
an EEPROM address, devices that require more than 8 address bits (24C04 and above)
"steal" subaddress bits and use them for the EEPROM cell address bits 9 to 11 as required. This example simply assumes all subaddress bits are 0 for the smaller devices,
so the E0, E1, and E2 inputs of the 24Cxx must be grounded.
Note [4]
For slow clocks, enable the 2 x U[S]ART clock multiplier, to improve the baud rate
error. This will allow a 9600 Bd communication using the standard 1 MHz calibrated
RC oscillator. See also the Baud rate tables in the datasheets.
Note [5]
The datasheet explains why a minimum TWBR value of 10 should be maintained when
running in master mode. Thus, for system clocks below 3.6 MHz, we cannot run the
bus at the intented clock rate of 100 kHz but have to slow down accordingly.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.39
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
335
Note [6]
This function is used by the standard output facilities that are utilized in this example
for debugging and demonstration purposes.
Note [7]
In order to shorten the data to be sent over the TWI bus, the 24Cxx EEPROMs support
multiple data bytes transfered within a single request, maintaining an internal address
counter that is updated after each data byte transfered successfully. When reading
data, one request can read the entire device memory if desired (the counter would wrap
around and start back from 0 when reaching the end of the device).
Note [8]
When reading the EEPROM, a first device selection must be made with write intent
(R/∼W bit set to 0 indicating a write operation) in order to transfer the EEPROM address to start reading from. This is called master transmitter mode. Each completion
of a particular step in TWI communication is indicated by an asserted TWINT bit in
TWCR. (An interrupt would be generated if allowed.) After performing any actions
that are needed for the next communication step, the interrupt condition must be manually cleared by setting the TWINT bit. Unlike with many other interrupt sources, this
would even be required when using a true interrupt routine, since as soon as TWINT is
re-asserted, the next bus transaction will start.
Note [9]
Since the TWI bus is multi-master capable, there is potential for a bus contention when
one master starts to access the bus. Normally, the TWI bus interface unit will detect this
situation, and will not initiate a start condition while the bus is busy. However, in case
two masters were starting at exactly the same time, the way bus arbitration works, there
is always a chance that one master could lose arbitration of the bus during any transmit
operation. A master that has lost arbitration is required by the protocol to immediately
cease talking on the bus; in particular it must not initiate a stop condition in order to not
corrupt the ongoing transfer from the active master. In this example, upon detecting a
lost arbitration condition, the entire transfer is going to be restarted. This will cause a
new start condition to be initiated, which will normally be delayed until the currently
active master has released the bus.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
22.39
Example using the two-wire interface (TWI)
336
Note [10]
Next, the device slave is going to be reselected (using a so-called repeated start condition which is meant to guarantee that the bus arbitration will remain at the current
master) using the same slave address (SLA), but this time with read intent (R/∼W bit
set to 1) in order to request the device slave to start transfering data from the slave to
the master in the next packet.
Note [11]
If the EEPROM device is still busy writing one or more cells after a previous write
request, it will simply leave its bus interface drivers at high impedance, and does not
respond to a selection in any way at all. The master selecting the device will see the
high level at SDA after transfering the SLA+R/W packet as a NACK to its selection
request. Thus, the select process is simply started over (effectively causing a repeated
start condition), until the device will eventually respond. This polling procedure is
recommended in the 24Cxx datasheet in order to minimize the busy wait time when
writing. Note that in case a device is broken and never responds to a selection (e. g.
since it is no longer present at all), this will cause an infinite loop. Thus the maximal
number of iterations made until the device is declared to be not responding at all, and
an error is returned, will be limited to MAX_ITER.
Note [12]
This is called master receiver mode: the bus master still supplies the SCL clock, but the
device slave drives the SDA line with the appropriate data. After 8 data bits, the master
responds with an ACK bit (SDA driven low) in order to request another data transfer
from the slave, or it can leave the SDA line high (NACK), indicating to the slave that
it is going to stop the transfer now. Assertion of ACK is handled by setting the TWEA
bit in TWCR when starting the current transfer.
Note [13]
The control word sent out in order to initiate the transfer of the next data packet is
initially set up to assert the TWEA bit. During the last loop iteration, TWEA is deasserted so the client will get informed that no further transfer is desired.
Note [14]
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
23 Data Structure Documentation
337
Except in the case of lost arbitration, all bus transactions must properly be terminated
by the master initiating a stop condition.
Note [15]
Writing to the EEPROM device is simpler than reading, since only a master transmitter
mode transfer is needed. Note that the first packet after the SLA+W selection is always
considered to be the EEPROM address for the next operation. (This packet is exactly
the same as the one above sent before starting to read the device.) In case a master
transmitter mode transfer is going to send more than one data packet, all following
packets will be considered data bytes to write at the indicated address. The internal
address pointer will be incremented after each write operation.
Note [16]
24Cxx devices can become write-protected by strapping their ∼WC pin to logic high.
(Leaving it unconnected is explicitly allowed, and constitutes logic low level, i. e. no
write protection.) In case of a write protected device, all data transfer attempts will be
NACKed by the device. Note that some devices might not implement this.
23
Data Structure Documentation
23.1
div_t Struct Reference
23.1.1
Detailed Description
Result type for function div().
Data Fields
• int quot
• int rem
23.1.2
23.1.2.1
Field Documentation
int div_t::quot
The Quotient.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
23.2
ldiv_t Struct Reference
23.1.2.2
int div_t::rem
The Remainder.
The documentation for this struct was generated from the following file:
• stdlib.h
23.2
ldiv_t Struct Reference
23.2.1
Detailed Description
Result type for function ldiv().
Data Fields
• long quot
• long rem
23.2.2
Field Documentation
23.2.2.1
long ldiv_t::quot
The Quotient.
23.2.2.2
long ldiv_t::rem
The Remainder.
The documentation for this struct was generated from the following file:
• stdlib.h
24
File Documentation
24.1
assert.h File Reference
24.1.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define assert(expression)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
338
24.2
atoi.S File Reference
24.2
atoi.S File Reference
24.2.1
Detailed Description
24.3
atol.S File Reference
24.3.1
Detailed Description
24.4
atomic.h File Reference
24.4.1
Detailed Description
339
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define _UTIL_ATOMIC_H_ 1
#define ATOMIC_BLOCK(type)
#define NONATOMIC_BLOCK(type)
#define ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
#define ATOMIC_FORCEON
#define NONATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
#define NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF
24.5
boot.h File Reference
24.5.1
Detailed Description
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define _AVR_BOOT_H_ 1
#define BOOTLOADER_SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".bootloader")))
#define __COMMON_ASB RWWSB
#define __COMMON_ASRE RWWSRE
#define BLB12 5
#define BLB11 4
#define BLB02 3
#define BLB01 2
#define boot_spm_interrupt_enable() (__SPM_REG |= (uint8_t)_BV(SPMIE))
#define boot_spm_interrupt_disable() (__SPM_REG &= (uint8_t)∼_BV(SPMIE))
#define boot_is_spm_interrupt() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(SPMIE))
#define boot_rww_busy() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(__COMMON_ASB))
#define boot_spm_busy() (__SPM_REG & (uint8_t)_BV(__SPM_ENABLE))
#define boot_spm_busy_wait() do{}while(boot_spm_busy())
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.5
boot.h File Reference
340
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define __BOOT_PAGE_ERASE (_BV(__SPM_ENABLE) | _BV(PGERS))
#define __BOOT_PAGE_WRITE (_BV(__SPM_ENABLE) | _BV(PGWRT))
#define __BOOT_PAGE_FILL _BV(__SPM_ENABLE)
#define __BOOT_RWW_ENABLE (_BV(__SPM_ENABLE) | _BV(__COMMON_ASRE))
#define __BOOT_LOCK_BITS_SET (_BV(__SPM_ENABLE) | _BV(BLBSET))
#define __boot_page_fill_normal(address, data)
#define __boot_page_fill_alternate(address, data)
#define __boot_page_fill_extended(address, data)
#define __boot_page_erase_normal(address)
#define __boot_page_erase_alternate(address)
#define __boot_page_erase_extended(address)
#define __boot_page_write_normal(address)
#define __boot_page_write_alternate(address)
#define __boot_page_write_extended(address)
#define __boot_rww_enable()
#define __boot_rww_enable_alternate()
#define __boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits)
#define __boot_lock_bits_set_alternate(lock_bits)
#define GET_LOW_FUSE_BITS (0x0000)
#define GET_LOCK_BITS (0x0001)
#define GET_EXTENDED_FUSE_BITS (0x0002)
#define GET_HIGH_FUSE_BITS (0x0003)
#define boot_lock_fuse_bits_get(address)
#define __BOOT_SIGROW_READ (_BV(__SPM_ENABLE) | _BV(SIGRD))
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define boot_signature_byte_get(addr)
#define boot_page_fill(address, data) __boot_page_fill_normal(address, data)
#define boot_page_erase(address) __boot_page_erase_normal(address)
#define boot_page_write(address) __boot_page_write_normal(address)
#define boot_rww_enable() __boot_rww_enable()
#define boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits) __boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits)
#define boot_page_fill_safe(address, data)
#define boot_page_erase_safe(address)
#define boot_page_write_safe(address)
#define boot_rww_enable_safe()
#define boot_lock_bits_set_safe(lock_bits)
•
•
•
•
•
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.5
boot.h File Reference
24.5.2
24.5.2.1
341
Define Documentation
#define __boot_lock_bits_set(lock_bits)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint8_t value = (uint8_t)(~(lock_bits));
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"ldi r30, 1\n\t"
"ldi r31, 0\n\t"
"mov r0, %2\n\t"
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_LOCK_BITS_SET),
"r" (value)
: "r0", "r30", "r31"
);
}))
24.5.2.2
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_lock_bits_set_alternate(lock_bits)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint8_t value = (uint8_t)(~(lock_bits));
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"ldi r30, 1\n\t"
"ldi r31, 0\n\t"
"mov r0, %2\n\t"
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
".word 0xffff\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_LOCK_BITS_SET),
"r" (value)
: "r0", "r30", "r31"
);
}))
24.5.2.3
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_page_erase_alternate(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
24.5
boot.h File Reference
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
".word 0xffff\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_ERASE),
"z" ((uint16_t)address)
);
342
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
}))
24.5.2.4
#define __boot_page_erase_extended(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"movw r30, %A3\n\t"
"sts %1, %C3\n\t"
"sts %0, %2\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(RAMPZ)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_ERASE),
"r" ((uint32_t)address)
: "r30", "r31"
);
}))
24.5.2.5
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_page_erase_normal(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_ERASE),
"z" ((uint16_t)address)
);
}))
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
24.5
boot.h File Reference
24.5.2.6
343
#define __boot_page_fill_alternate(address, data)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"movw r0, %3\n\t"
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
".word 0xffff\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
"clr r1\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_FILL),
"z" ((uint16_t)address),
"r" ((uint16_t)data)
: "r0"
);
}))
24.5.2.7
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_page_fill_extended(address, data)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"movw r0, %4\n\t"
"movw r30, %A3\n\t"
"sts %1, %C3\n\t"
"sts %0, %2\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
"clr r1\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(RAMPZ)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_FILL),
"r" ((uint32_t)address),
"r" ((uint16_t)data)
: "r0", "r30", "r31"
);
}))
24.5.2.8
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_page_fill_normal(address, data)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
24.5
boot.h File Reference
(
"movw r0, %3\n\t"
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
"clr r1\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_FILL),
"z" ((uint16_t)address),
"r" ((uint16_t)data)
: "r0"
);
344
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
}))
24.5.2.9
#define __boot_page_write_alternate(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
".word 0xffff\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_WRITE),
"z" ((uint16_t)address)
);
}))
24.5.2.10
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_page_write_extended(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"movw r30, %A3\n\t"
"sts %1, %C3\n\t"
"sts %0, %2\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(RAMPZ)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_WRITE),
"r" ((uint32_t)address)
: "r30", "r31"
);
}))
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
24.5
boot.h File Reference
24.5.2.11
345
#define __boot_page_write_normal(address)
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_PAGE_WRITE),
"z" ((uint16_t)address)
);
}))
24.5.2.12
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_rww_enable()
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_RWW_ENABLE)
);
}))
24.5.2.13
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __boot_rww_enable_alternate()
Value:
(__extension__({
__asm__ __volatile__
(
"sts %0, %1\n\t"
"spm\n\t"
".word 0xffff\n\t"
"nop\n\t"
:
: "i" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(__SPM_REG)),
"r" ((uint8_t)__BOOT_RWW_ENABLE)
);
}))
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
24.6
crc16.h File Reference
24.6
crc16.h File Reference
24.6.1
Detailed Description
346
Functions
•
•
•
•
static __inline__ uint16_t _crc16_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
static __inline__ uint16_t _crc_xmodem_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
static __inline__ uint16_t _crc_ccitt_update (uint16_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
static __inline__ uint8_t _crc_ibutton_update (uint8_t __crc, uint8_t __data)
24.7
ctype.h File Reference
24.7.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define __CTYPE_H_ 1
Functions
Character classification routines
These functions perform character classification. They return true or false status
depending whether the character passed to the function falls into the function’s
classification (i.e. isdigit() returns true if its argument is any value ’0’ though ’9’,
inclusive). If the input is not an unsigned char value, all of this function return
false.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
int isalnum (int __c)
int isalpha (int __c)
int isascii (int __c)
int isblank (int __c)
int iscntrl (int __c)
int isdigit (int __c)
int isgraph (int __c)
int islower (int __c)
int isprint (int __c)
int ispunct (int __c)
int isspace (int __c)
int isupper (int __c)
int isxdigit (int __c)
Character convertion routines
This realization permits all possible values of integer argument. The toascii() function clears all highest bits. The tolower() and toupper() functions return an input
argument as is, if it is not an unsigned char value.
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.8
delay.h File Reference
• int toascii (int __c)
• int tolower (int __c)
• int toupper (int __c)
24.8
delay.h File Reference
24.8.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define _UTIL_DELAY_H_ 1
• #define F_CPU 1000000UL
Functions
• void _delay_ms (double __ms)
• void _delay_us (double __us)
24.9
delay_basic.h File Reference
24.9.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define _UTIL_DELAY_BASIC_H_ 1
Functions
• void _delay_loop_1 (uint8_t __count)
• void _delay_loop_2 (uint16_t __count)
24.10
errno.h File Reference
24.10.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define __ERRNO_H_ 1
• #define EDOM 33
• #define ERANGE 34
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
347
24.11
fdevopen.c File Reference
Variables
• int errno
24.11
fdevopen.c File Reference
24.11.1
Detailed Description
Functions
• FILE ∗ fdevopen (int(∗put)(char, FILE ∗), int(∗get)(FILE ∗))
24.12
ffs.S File Reference
24.12.1
Detailed Description
24.13
ffsl.S File Reference
24.13.1
Detailed Description
24.14
ffsll.S File Reference
24.14.1
Detailed Description
24.15
fuse.h File Reference
24.15.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define _AVR_FUSE_H_ 1
• #define FUSEMEM __attribute__((section (".fuse")))
• #define FUSES __fuse_t __fuse FUSEMEM
24.16
interrupt.h File Reference
24.16.1
Detailed Description
@{
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
348
24.17
inttypes.h File Reference
349
Defines
Global manipulation of the interrupt flag
The global interrupt flag is maintained in the I bit of the status register (SREG).
• #define sei()
• #define cli()
Macros for writing interrupt handler functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define ISR(vector, attributes)
#define SIGNAL(vector)
#define EMPTY_INTERRUPT(vector)
#define ISR_ALIAS(vector, target_vector)
#define reti()
#define BADISR_vect
ISR attributes
•
•
•
•
#define ISR_BLOCK
#define ISR_NOBLOCK
#define ISR_NAKED
#define ISR_ALIASOF(target_vector)
24.17
inttypes.h File Reference
24.17.1
Detailed Description
Defines
macros for printf and scanf format specifiers
For C++, these are only included if __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS is defined before
including <inttypes.h>.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define PRId8 "d"
#define PRIdLEAST8 "d"
#define PRIdFAST8 "d"
#define PRIi8 "i"
#define PRIiLEAST8 "i"
#define PRIiFAST8 "i"
#define PRId16 "d"
#define PRIdLEAST16 "d"
#define PRIdFAST16 "d"
#define PRIi16 "i"
#define PRIiLEAST16 "i"
#define PRIiFAST16 "i"
#define PRId32 "ld"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.17
inttypes.h File Reference
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define PRIdLEAST32 "ld"
#define PRIdFAST32 "ld"
#define PRIi32 "li"
#define PRIiLEAST32 "li"
#define PRIiFAST32 "li"
#define PRIdPTR PRId16
#define PRIiPTR PRIi16
#define PRIo8 "o"
#define PRIoLEAST8 "o"
#define PRIoFAST8 "o"
#define PRIu8 "u"
#define PRIuLEAST8 "u"
#define PRIuFAST8 "u"
#define PRIx8 "x"
#define PRIxLEAST8 "x"
#define PRIxFAST8 "x"
#define PRIX8 "X"
#define PRIXLEAST8 "X"
#define PRIXFAST8 "X"
#define PRIo16 "o"
#define PRIoLEAST16 "o"
#define PRIoFAST16 "o"
#define PRIu16 "u"
#define PRIuLEAST16 "u"
#define PRIuFAST16 "u"
#define PRIx16 "x"
#define PRIxLEAST16 "x"
#define PRIxFAST16 "x"
#define PRIX16 "X"
#define PRIXLEAST16 "X"
#define PRIXFAST16 "X"
#define PRIo32 "lo"
#define PRIoLEAST32 "lo"
#define PRIoFAST32 "lo"
#define PRIu32 "lu"
#define PRIuLEAST32 "lu"
#define PRIuFAST32 "lu"
#define PRIx32 "lx"
#define PRIxLEAST32 "lx"
#define PRIxFAST32 "lx"
#define PRIX32 "lX"
#define PRIXLEAST32 "lX"
#define PRIXFAST32 "lX"
#define PRIoPTR PRIo16
#define PRIuPTR PRIu16
#define PRIxPTR PRIx16
#define PRIXPTR PRIX16
#define SCNd16 "d"
#define SCNdLEAST16 "d"
#define SCNdFAST16 "d"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
350
24.17
inttypes.h File Reference
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define SCNi16 "i"
#define SCNiLEAST16 "i"
#define SCNiFAST16 "i"
#define SCNd32 "ld"
#define SCNdLEAST32 "ld"
#define SCNdFAST32 "ld"
#define SCNi32 "li"
#define SCNiLEAST32 "li"
#define SCNiFAST32 "li"
#define SCNdPTR SCNd16
#define SCNiPTR SCNi16
#define SCNo16 "o"
#define SCNoLEAST16 "o"
#define SCNoFAST16 "o"
#define SCNu16 "u"
#define SCNuLEAST16 "u"
#define SCNuFAST16 "u"
#define SCNx16 "x"
#define SCNxLEAST16 "x"
#define SCNxFAST16 "x"
#define SCNo32 "lo"
#define SCNoLEAST32 "lo"
#define SCNoFAST32 "lo"
#define SCNu32 "lu"
#define SCNuLEAST32 "lu"
#define SCNuFAST32 "lu"
#define SCNx32 "lx"
#define SCNxLEAST32 "lx"
#define SCNxFAST32 "lx"
#define SCNoPTR SCNo16
#define SCNuPTR SCNu16
#define SCNxPTR SCNx16
Typedefs
Far pointers for memory access >64K
• typedef int32_t int_farptr_t
• typedef uint32_t uint_farptr_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
351
24.18
io.h File Reference
24.18
io.h File Reference
24.18.1
Detailed Description
24.19
lock.h File Reference
24.19.1
Detailed Description
Defines
•
•
•
•
#define _AVR_LOCK_H_ 1
#define LOCKMEM __attribute__((section (".lock")))
#define LOCKBITS unsigned char __lock LOCKMEM
#define LOCKBITS_DEFAULT (0xFF)
24.20
math.h File Reference
24.20.1
Detailed Description
Defines
•
•
•
•
#define M_PI 3.141592653589793238462643
#define M_SQRT2 1.4142135623730950488016887
#define NAN __builtin_nan("")
#define INFINITY __builtin_inf()
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
double cos (double __x)
double fabs (double __x)
double fmod (double __x, double __y)
double modf (double __x, double ∗__iptr)
double sin (double __x)
double sqrt (double __x)
double tan (double __x)
double floor (double __x)
double ceil (double __x)
double frexp (double __x, int ∗__pexp)
double ldexp (double __x, int __exp)
double exp (double __x)
double cosh (double __x)
double sinh (double __x)
double tanh (double __x)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
352
24.20
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
math.h File Reference
double acos (double __x)
double asin (double __x)
double atan (double __x)
double atan2 (double __y, double __x)
double log (double __x)
double log10 (double __x)
double pow (double __x, double __y)
int isnan (double __x)
int isinf (double __x)
double square (double __x)
static double copysign (double __x, double __y)
double fdim (double __x, double __y)
double fma (double __x, double __y, double __z)
double fmax (double __x, double __y)
double fmin (double __x, double __y)
int signbit (double __x)
double trunc (double __x)
static int isfinite (double __x)
double hypot (double __x, double __y)
double round (double __x)
long lround (double __x)
long lrint (double __x)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
353
24.20
math.h File Reference
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
354
24.21
memccpy.S File Reference
24.21
memccpy.S File Reference
24.21.1
Detailed Description
24.22
memchr.S File Reference
24.22.1
Detailed Description
24.23
memchr_P.S File Reference
24.23.1
Detailed Description
24.24
memcmp.S File Reference
24.24.1
Detailed Description
24.25
memcmp_P.S File Reference
24.25.1
Detailed Description
24.26
memcpy.S File Reference
24.26.1
Detailed Description
24.27
memcpy_P.S File Reference
24.27.1
Detailed Description
24.28
memmem.S File Reference
24.28.1
Detailed Description
24.29
memmove.S File Reference
24.29.1
Detailed Description
24.30
memrchr.S File Reference
24.30.1
Detailed Description
24.31
memrchr_P.S File Reference
24.31.1
Detailed Description
24.32
memset.S File Reference
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.32.1
Detailed Description
24.33
parity.h File Reference
24.33.1
Detailed Description
Defines
355
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
24.34.1
Detailed Description
356
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define __PGMSPACE_H_ 1
#define __need_size_t
#define __ATTR_PROGMEM__ __attribute__((__progmem__))
#define __ATTR_PURE__ __attribute__((__pure__))
#define PROGMEM __ATTR_PROGMEM__
#define PSTR(s) ((const PROGMEM char ∗)(s))
#define __LPM_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_enhanced__(addr)
#define __LPM_word_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_word_enhanced__(addr)
#define __LPM_dword_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_dword_enhanced__(addr)
#define __LPM_float_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_float_enhanced__(addr)
#define __LPM(addr) __LPM_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_word(addr) __LPM_word_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_dword(addr) __LPM_dword_classic__(addr)
#define __LPM_float(addr) __LPM_float_classic__(addr)
#define pgm_read_byte_near(address_short) __LPM((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define
pgm_read_word_near(address_short)
__LPM_word((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define
pgm_read_dword_near(address_short)
__LPM_dword((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define pgm_read_float_near(address_short) __LPM_float((uint16_t)(address_short))
#define __ELPM_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_enhanced__(addr)
#define __ELPM_xmega__(addr)
#define __ELPM_word_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_word_enhanced__(addr)
#define __ELPM_word_xmega__(addr)
#define __ELPM_dword_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_dword_enhanced__(addr)
#define __ELPM_dword_xmega__(addr)
#define __ELPM_float_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_float_enhanced__(addr)
#define __ELPM_float_xmega__(addr)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.34
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
pgmspace.h File Reference
357
#define __ELPM(addr) __ELPM_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_word(addr) __ELPM_word_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_dword(addr) __ELPM_dword_classic__(addr)
#define __ELPM_float(addr) __ELPM_float_classic__(addr)
#define pgm_read_byte_far(address_long) __ELPM((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define
pgm_read_word_far(address_long)
__ELPM_word((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define
pgm_read_dword_far(address_long)
__ELPM_dword((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define pgm_read_float_far(address_long) __ELPM_float((uint32_t)(address_long))
#define pgm_read_byte(address_short) pgm_read_byte_near(address_short)
#define pgm_read_word(address_short) pgm_read_word_near(address_short)
#define pgm_read_dword(address_short) pgm_read_dword_near(address_short)
#define pgm_read_float(address_short) pgm_read_float_near(address_short)
#define PGM_P const prog_char ∗
#define PGM_VOID_P const prog_void ∗
Typedefs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
typedef void PROGMEM prog_void
typedef char PROGMEM prog_char
typedef unsigned char PROGMEM prog_uchar
typedef int8_t PROGMEM prog_int8_t
typedef uint8_t PROGMEM prog_uint8_t
typedef int16_t PROGMEM prog_int16_t
typedef uint16_t PROGMEM prog_uint16_t
typedef int32_t PROGMEM prog_int32_t
typedef uint32_t PROGMEM prog_uint32_t
typedef int64_t PROGMEM prog_int64_t
typedef uint64_t PROGMEM prog_uint64_t
Functions
•
•
•
•
PGM_VOID_P memchr_P (PGM_VOID_P, int __val, size_t __len)
int memcmp_P (const void ∗, PGM_VOID_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memcpy_P (void ∗, PGM_VOID_P, size_t)
void ∗ memmem_P (const void ∗, size_t, PGM_VOID_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
• PGM_VOID_P memrchr_P (PGM_VOID_P, int __val, size_t __len)
• char ∗ strcat_P (char ∗, PGM_P)
• PGM_P strchr_P (PGM_P, int __val)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.34
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
pgmspace.h File Reference
PGM_P strchrnul_P (PGM_P, int __val)
int strcmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcpy_P (char ∗, PGM_P)
int strcasecmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcasestr_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
size_t strcspn_P (const char ∗__s, PGM_P __reject) __ATTR_PURE__
size_t strlcat_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
size_t strlcpy_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
size_t strlen_P (PGM_P)
size_t strnlen_P (PGM_P, size_t)
int strncmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
int strncasecmp_P (const char ∗, PGM_P, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strncat_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
char ∗ strncpy_P (char ∗, PGM_P, size_t)
char ∗ strpbrk_P (const char ∗__s, PGM_P __accept) __ATTR_PURE__
PGM_P strrchr_P (PGM_P, int __val)
char ∗ strsep_P (char ∗∗__sp, PGM_P __delim)
size_t strspn_P (const char ∗__s, PGM_P __accept) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strstr_P (const char ∗, PGM_P) __ATTR_PURE__
24.34.2
24.34.2.1
Define Documentation
#define __ELPM_classic__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr); \
uint8_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"out %2, %C1" "\n\t"
\
"mov r31, %B1" "\n\t"
\
"mov r30, %A1" "\n\t"
\
"elpm" "\n\t"
\
"mov %0, r0" "\n\t"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "r" (__addr32),
\
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ)) \
: "r0", "r30", "r31"
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
358
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
24.34.2.2
359
#define __ELPM_dword_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr);
uint32_t __result;
__asm__
(
"out %2, %C1"
"\n\t"
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
"elpm %A0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %B0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %C0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %D0, Z"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result)
: "r" (__addr32),
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
: "r30", "r31"
);
__result;
}))
24.34.2.3
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __ELPM_dword_xmega__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr);
uint32_t __result;
__asm__
(
"in __tmp_reg__, %2" "\n\t"
"out %2, %C1"
"\n\t"
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
"elpm %A0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %B0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %C0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %D0, Z"
"\n\t"
"out %2, __tmp_reg__"
: "=r" (__result)
: "r" (__addr32),
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
: "r30", "r31"
);
__result;
}))
24.34.2.4
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __ELPM_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
360
(__extension__({
\
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr); \
uint8_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"out %2, %C1" "\n\t"
\
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
\
"elpm %0, Z+" "\n\t"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "r" (__addr32),
\
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ)) \
: "r30", "r31"
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
24.34.2.5
#define __ELPM_float_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr);
float __result;
__asm__
(
"out %2, %C1"
"\n\t"
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
"elpm %A0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %B0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %C0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %D0, Z"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result)
: "r" (__addr32),
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
: "r30", "r31"
);
__result;
}))
24.34.2.6
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __ELPM_float_xmega__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr);
float __result;
__asm__
(
"in __tmp_reg__, %2" "\n\t"
"out %2, %C1"
"\n\t"
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
"elpm %A0, Z+" "\n\t"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
"elpm %B0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %C0, Z+" "\n\t"
"elpm %D0, Z"
"\n\t"
"out %2, __tmp_reg__"
: "=r" (__result)
: "r" (__addr32),
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
: "r30", "r31"
);
__result;
361
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
}))
24.34.2.7
#define __ELPM_word_classic__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr); \
uint16_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"out %2, %C1"
"\n\t"
\
"mov r31, %B1" "\n\t"
\
"mov r30, %A1" "\n\t"
\
"elpm"
"\n\t"
\
"mov %A0, r0"
"\n\t"
\
"in r0, %2"
"\n\t"
\
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
\
"adc r0, __zero_reg__" "\n\t"
\
"out %2, r0"
"\n\t"
\
"elpm"
"\n\t"
\
"mov %B0, r0"
"\n\t"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "r" (__addr32),
\
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
\
: "r0", "r30", "r31"
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
24.34.2.8
#define __ELPM_word_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint32_t __addr32 =
uint16_t __result;
__asm__
(
"out %2, %C1"
"movw r30, %1"
"elpm %A0, Z+"
\
(uint32_t)(addr); \
\
\
\
"\n\t"
\
"\n\t"
\
"\n\t"
\
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
"elpm %B0, Z"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result)
: "r" (__addr32),
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
: "r30", "r31"
);
__result;
362
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
}))
24.34.2.9
#define __ELPM_word_xmega__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr); \
uint16_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"in __tmp_reg__, %2" "\n\t"
\
"out %2, %C1"
"\n\t"
\
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
\
"elpm %A0, Z+" "\n\t"
\
"elpm %B0, Z"
"\n\t"
\
"out %2, __tmp_reg__"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "r" (__addr32),
\
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ))
\
: "r30", "r31"
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
24.34.2.10
#define __ELPM_xmega__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint32_t __addr32 = (uint32_t)(addr); \
uint8_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"in __tmp_reg__, %2" "\n\t" \
"out %2, %C1" "\n\t"
\
"movw r30, %1" "\n\t"
\
"elpm %0, Z+" "\n\t"
\
"out %2, __tmp_reg__"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "r" (__addr32),
\
"I" (_SFR_IO_ADDR(RAMPZ)) \
: "r30", "r31"
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
24.34.2.11
363
#define __LPM_classic__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr); \
uint8_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"lpm" "\n\t"
\
"mov %0, r0" "\n\t"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "z" (__addr16)
\
: "r0"
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
24.34.2.12
#define __LPM_dword_classic__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
uint32_t __result;
__asm__
(
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %A0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %B0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %C0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %D0, r0"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result), "=z" (__addr16)
: "1" (__addr16)
: "r0"
);
__result;
}))
24.34.2.13
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __LPM_dword_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
uint32_t __result;
__asm__
(
"lpm %A0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %B0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %C0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %D0, Z"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result), "=z" (__addr16)
: "1" (__addr16)
);
__result;
364
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
}))
24.34.2.14
#define __LPM_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
\
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr); \
uint8_t __result;
\
__asm__
\
(
\
"lpm %0, Z" "\n\t"
\
: "=r" (__result)
\
: "z" (__addr16)
\
);
\
__result;
\
}))
24.34.2.15
#define __LPM_float_classic__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
float __result;
__asm__
(
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %A0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %B0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %C0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %D0, r0"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result), "=z" (__addr16)
: "1" (__addr16)
: "r0"
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
24.34
pgmspace.h File Reference
);
__result;
365
\
\
}))
24.34.2.16
#define __LPM_float_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
float __result;
__asm__
(
"lpm %A0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %B0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %C0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %D0, Z"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result), "=z" (__addr16)
: "1" (__addr16)
);
__result;
}))
24.34.2.17
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __LPM_word_classic__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
uint16_t __result;
__asm__
(
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %A0, r0"
"\n\t"
"adiw r30, 1"
"\n\t"
"lpm"
"\n\t"
"mov %B0, r0"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result), "=z" (__addr16)
: "1" (__addr16)
: "r0"
);
__result;
}))
24.34.2.18
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
#define __LPM_word_enhanced__(addr)
Value:
(__extension__({
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
\
24.35
power.h File Reference
uint16_t __addr16 = (uint16_t)(addr);
uint16_t __result;
__asm__
(
"lpm %A0, Z+"
"\n\t"
"lpm %B0, Z"
"\n\t"
: "=r" (__result), "=z" (__addr16)
: "1" (__addr16)
);
__result;
366
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
}))
24.35
power.h File Reference
24.35.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define _AVR_POWER_H_ 1
• #define clock_prescale_set(x)
• #define
clock_prescale_get()
(clock_div_t)(CLKPR
&
t)((1<<CLKPS0)|(1<<CLKPS1)|(1<<CLKPS2)|(1<<CLKPS3)))
(uint8_-
Enumerations
• enum clock_div_t {
clock_div_1 = 0, clock_div_2 = 1, clock_div_4 = 2, clock_div_8 = 3,
clock_div_16 = 4, clock_div_32 = 5, clock_div_64 = 6, clock_div_128 = 7,
clock_div_256 = 8 }
24.35.2
24.35.2.1
Define Documentation
#define clock_prescale_set(x)
Value:
{ \
uint8_t tmp = _BV(CLKPCE); \
__asm__ __volatile__ ( \
"in __tmp_reg__,__SREG__" "\n\t" \
"cli" "\n\t" \
"sts %1, %0" "\n\t" \
"sts %1, %2" "\n\t" \
"out __SREG__, __tmp_reg__" \
: /* no outputs */ \
: "d" (tmp), \
"M" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(CLKPR)), \
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.36
setbaud.h File Reference
"d" (x) \
: "r0"); \
}
24.36
setbaud.h File Reference
24.36.1
Detailed Description
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
#define BAUD_TOL 2
#define UBRR_VALUE
#define UBRRL_VALUE
#define UBRRH_VALUE
#define USE_2X 0
24.37
setjmp.h File Reference
24.37.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define __SETJMP_H_ 1
• #define __ATTR_NORETURN__ __attribute__((__noreturn__))
Functions
• int setjmp (jmp_buf __jmpb)
• void longjmp (jmp_buf __jmpb, int __ret) __ATTR_NORETURN__
24.38
sleep.h File Reference
24.38.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define _AVR_SLEEP_H_ 1
• #define _SLEEP_CONTROL_REG MCUCR
• #define _SLEEP_ENABLE_MASK _BV(SE)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
367
24.39
stdint.h File Reference
368
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
void sleep_enable (void)
void sleep_disable (void)
void sleep_cpu (void)
void sleep_mode (void)
void sleep_bod_disable (void)
24.39
stdint.h File Reference
24.39.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define __USING_MINT8 0
• #define __CONCATenate(left, right) left ## right
• #define __CONCAT(left, right) __CONCATenate(left, right)
Limits of specified-width integer types
C++ implementations should define these macros only when __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS is defined before <stdint.h> is included
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT8_MAX 0x7f
#define INT8_MIN (-INT8_MAX - 1)
#define UINT8_MAX (__CONCAT(INT8_MAX, U) ∗ 2U + 1U)
#define INT16_MAX 0x7fff
#define INT16_MIN (-INT16_MAX - 1)
#define UINT16_MAX (__CONCAT(INT16_MAX, U) ∗ 2U + 1U)
#define INT32_MAX 0x7fffffffL
#define INT32_MIN (-INT32_MAX - 1L)
#define UINT32_MAX (__CONCAT(INT32_MAX, U) ∗ 2UL + 1UL)
#define INT64_MAX 0x7fffffffffffffffLL
#define INT64_MIN (-INT64_MAX - 1LL)
#define UINT64_MAX (__CONCAT(INT64_MAX, U) ∗ 2ULL + 1ULL)
Limits of minimum-width integer types
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT_LEAST8_MAX INT8_MAX
#define INT_LEAST8_MIN INT8_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST8_MAX UINT8_MAX
#define INT_LEAST16_MAX INT16_MAX
#define INT_LEAST16_MIN INT16_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST16_MAX UINT16_MAX
#define INT_LEAST32_MAX INT32_MAX
#define INT_LEAST32_MIN INT32_MIN
#define UINT_LEAST32_MAX UINT32_MAX
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.39
stdint.h File Reference
369
• #define INT_LEAST64_MAX INT64_MAX
• #define INT_LEAST64_MIN INT64_MIN
• #define UINT_LEAST64_MAX UINT64_MAX
Limits of fastest minimum-width integer types
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT_FAST8_MAX INT8_MAX
#define INT_FAST8_MIN INT8_MIN
#define UINT_FAST8_MAX UINT8_MAX
#define INT_FAST16_MAX INT16_MAX
#define INT_FAST16_MIN INT16_MIN
#define UINT_FAST16_MAX UINT16_MAX
#define INT_FAST32_MAX INT32_MAX
#define INT_FAST32_MIN INT32_MIN
#define UINT_FAST32_MAX UINT32_MAX
#define INT_FAST64_MAX INT64_MAX
#define INT_FAST64_MIN INT64_MIN
#define UINT_FAST64_MAX UINT64_MAX
Limits of integer types capable of holding object pointers
• #define INTPTR_MAX INT16_MAX
• #define INTPTR_MIN INT16_MIN
• #define UINTPTR_MAX UINT16_MAX
Limits of greatest-width integer types
• #define INTMAX_MAX INT64_MAX
• #define INTMAX_MIN INT64_MIN
• #define UINTMAX_MAX UINT64_MAX
Limits of other integer types
C++ implementations should define these macros only when __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS is defined before <stdint.h> is included
•
•
•
•
•
#define PTRDIFF_MAX INT16_MAX
#define PTRDIFF_MIN INT16_MIN
#define SIG_ATOMIC_MAX INT8_MAX
#define SIG_ATOMIC_MIN INT8_MIN
#define SIZE_MAX (__CONCAT(INT16_MAX, U))
Macros for integer constants
C++ implementations should define these macros only when __STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS is defined before <stdint.h> is included.
These definitions are valid for integer constants without suffix and for macros defined as integer constant without suffix
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.39
stdint.h File Reference
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define INT8_C(value) ((int8_t) value)
#define UINT8_C(value) ((uint8_t) __CONCAT(value, U))
#define INT16_C(value) value
#define UINT16_C(value) __CONCAT(value, U)
#define INT32_C(value) __CONCAT(value, L)
#define UINT32_C(value) __CONCAT(value, UL)
#define INT64_C(value) __CONCAT(value, LL)
#define UINT64_C(value) __CONCAT(value, ULL)
#define INTMAX_C(value) __CONCAT(value, LL)
#define UINTMAX_C(value) __CONCAT(value, ULL)
Typedefs
Exact-width integer types
Integer types having exactly the specified width
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
typedef signed char int8_t
typedef unsigned char uint8_t
typedef signed int int16_t
typedef unsigned int uint16_t
typedef signed long int int32_t
typedef unsigned long int uint32_t
typedef signed long long int int64_t
typedef unsigned long long int uint64_t
Integer types capable of holding object pointers
These allow you to declare variables of the same size as a pointer.
• typedef int16_t intptr_t
• typedef uint16_t uintptr_t
Minimum-width integer types
Integer types having at least the specified width
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
typedef int8_t int_least8_t
typedef uint8_t uint_least8_t
typedef int16_t int_least16_t
typedef uint16_t uint_least16_t
typedef int32_t int_least32_t
typedef uint32_t uint_least32_t
typedef int64_t int_least64_t
typedef uint64_t uint_least64_t
Fastest minimum-width integer types
Integer types being usually fastest having at least the specified width
• typedef int8_t int_fast8_t
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
370
24.40
stdio.h File Reference
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
371
typedef uint8_t uint_fast8_t
typedef int16_t int_fast16_t
typedef uint16_t uint_fast16_t
typedef int32_t int_fast32_t
typedef uint32_t uint_fast32_t
typedef int64_t int_fast64_t
typedef uint64_t uint_fast64_t
Greatest-width integer types
Types designating integer data capable of representing any value of any integer
type in the corresponding signed or unsigned category
• typedef int64_t intmax_t
• typedef uint64_t uintmax_t
24.40
stdio.h File Reference
24.40.1
Detailed Description
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define _STDIO_H_ 1
#define __need_NULL
#define __need_size_t
#define FILE struct __file
#define stdin (__iob[0])
#define stdout (__iob[1])
#define stderr (__iob[2])
#define EOF (-1)
#define fdev_set_udata(stream, u) do { (stream) → udata = u; } while(0)
#define fdev_get_udata(stream) ((stream) → udata)
#define fdev_setup_stream(stream, put, get, rwflag)
#define _FDEV_SETUP_READ __SRD
#define _FDEV_SETUP_WRITE __SWR
#define _FDEV_SETUP_RW (__SRD|__SWR)
#define _FDEV_ERR (-1)
#define _FDEV_EOF (-2)
#define FDEV_SETUP_STREAM(put, get, rwflag)
#define fdev_close()
#define putc(__c, __stream) fputc(__c, __stream)
#define putchar(__c) fputc(__c, stdout)
#define getc(__stream) fgetc(__stream)
#define getchar() fgetc(stdin)
#define SEEK_SET 0
#define SEEK_CUR 1
#define SEEK_END 2
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.40
stdio.h File Reference
372
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
int fclose (FILE ∗__stream)
int vfprintf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int vfprintf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int fputc (int __c, FILE ∗__stream)
int printf (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int printf_P (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int vprintf (const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int sprintf (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int sprintf_P (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int snprintf (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int snprintf_P (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int vsprintf (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int vsprintf_P (char ∗__s, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int vsnprintf (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int vsnprintf_P (char ∗__s, size_t __n, const char ∗__fmt, va_list ap)
int fprintf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fprintf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fputs (const char ∗__str, FILE ∗__stream)
int fputs_P (const char ∗__str, FILE ∗__stream)
int puts (const char ∗__str)
int puts_P (const char ∗__str)
size_t fwrite (const void ∗__ptr, size_t __size, size_t __nmemb, FILE ∗__stream)
int fgetc (FILE ∗__stream)
int ungetc (int __c, FILE ∗__stream)
char ∗ fgets (char ∗__str, int __size, FILE ∗__stream)
char ∗ gets (char ∗__str)
size_t fread (void ∗__ptr, size_t __size, size_t __nmemb, FILE ∗__stream)
void clearerr (FILE ∗__stream)
int feof (FILE ∗__stream)
int ferror (FILE ∗__stream)
int vfscanf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int vfscanf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int fscanf (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fscanf_P (FILE ∗__stream, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int scanf (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int scanf_P (const char ∗__fmt,...)
int vscanf (const char ∗__fmt, va_list __ap)
int sscanf (const char ∗__buf, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int sscanf_P (const char ∗__buf, const char ∗__fmt,...)
int fflush (FILE ∗stream)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.41
stdlib.h File Reference
24.41
stdlib.h File Reference
24.41.1
Detailed Description
373
Data Structures
• struct div_t
• struct ldiv_t
Non-standard (i.e. non-ISO C) functions.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define RANDOM_MAX 0x7FFFFFFF
char ∗ itoa (int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
char ∗ ltoa (long int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
char ∗ utoa (unsigned int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
char ∗ ultoa (unsigned long int __val, char ∗__s, int __radix)
long random (void)
void srandom (unsigned long __seed)
long random_r (unsigned long ∗__ctx)
Conversion functions for double arguments.
Note that these functions are not located in the default library, libc.a, but in the
mathematical library, libm.a. So when linking the application, the -lm option needs
to be specified.
•
•
•
•
#define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN 0x01
#define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN 0x02
#define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE 0x04
char ∗ dtostre (double __val, char ∗__s, unsigned char __prec, unsigned char
__flags)
• char ∗ dtostrf (double __val, signed char __width, unsigned char __prec, char
∗__s)
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define _STDLIB_H_ 1
#define __need_NULL
#define __need_size_t
#define __need_wchar_t
#define __ptr_t void ∗
#define RAND_MAX 0x7FFF
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.41
stdlib.h File Reference
374
Typedefs
• typedef int(∗ __compar_fn_t )(const void ∗, const void ∗)
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
void abort (void) __ATTR_NORETURN__
int abs (int __i)
long labs (long __i)
void ∗ bsearch (const void ∗__key, const void ∗__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t
__size, int(∗__compar)(const void ∗, const void ∗))
div_t div (int __num, int __denom) __asm__("__divmodhi4")
ldiv_t ldiv (long __num, long __denom) __asm__("__divmodsi4")
void qsort (void ∗__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, __compar_fn_t __compar)
long strtol (const char ∗__nptr, char ∗∗__endptr, int __base)
unsigned long strtoul (const char ∗__nptr, char ∗∗__endptr, int __base)
long atol (const char ∗__s) __ATTR_PURE__
int atoi (const char ∗__s) __ATTR_PURE__
void exit (int __status) __ATTR_NORETURN__
void ∗ malloc (size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
void free (void ∗__ptr)
void ∗ calloc (size_t __nele, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
void ∗ realloc (void ∗__ptr, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
double strtod (const char ∗__nptr, char ∗∗__endptr)
double atof (const char ∗__nptr)
int rand (void)
void srand (unsigned int __seed)
int rand_r (unsigned long ∗__ctx)
Variables
• size_t __malloc_margin
• char ∗ __malloc_heap_start
• char ∗ __malloc_heap_end
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.41
stdlib.h File Reference
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
375
24.42
strcasecmp.S File Reference
24.42
strcasecmp.S File Reference
24.42.1
Detailed Description
24.43
strcasecmp_P.S File Reference
24.43.1
Detailed Description
24.44
strcasestr.S File Reference
24.44.1
Detailed Description
24.45
strcat.S File Reference
24.45.1
Detailed Description
24.46
strcat_P.S File Reference
24.46.1
Detailed Description
24.47
strchr.S File Reference
24.47.1
Detailed Description
24.48
strchr_P.S File Reference
24.48.1
Detailed Description
24.49
strchrnul.S File Reference
24.49.1
Detailed Description
24.50
strchrnul_P.S File Reference
24.50.1
Detailed Description
24.51
strcmp.S File Reference
24.51.1
Detailed Description
24.52
strcmp_P.S File Reference
24.52.1
Detailed Description
24.53
strcpy.S File Reference
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.53.1
Detailed Description
24.54
strcpy_P.S File Reference
24.54.1
Detailed Description
376
24.58
string.h File Reference
24.58
string.h File Reference
24.58.1
Detailed Description
377
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
#define _STRING_H_ 1
#define __need_NULL
#define __need_size_t
#define __ATTR_PURE__ __attribute__((__pure__))
#define _FFS(x)
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
int ffs (int __val)
int ffsl (long __val)
int ffsll (long long __val)
void ∗ memccpy (void ∗, const void ∗, int, size_t)
void ∗ memchr (const void ∗, int, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
int memcmp (const void ∗, const void ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memcpy (void ∗, const void ∗, size_t)
void ∗ memmem (const void ∗, size_t, const void ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memmove (void ∗, const void ∗, size_t)
void ∗ memrchr (const void ∗, int, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
void ∗ memset (void ∗, int, size_t)
char ∗ strcat (char ∗, const char ∗)
char ∗ strchr (const char ∗, int) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strchrnul (const char ∗, int) __ATTR_PURE__
int strcmp (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcpy (char ∗, const char ∗)
int strcasecmp (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strcasestr (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
size_t strcspn (const char ∗__s, const char ∗__reject) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strdup (const char ∗s1)
size_t strlcat (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
size_t strlcpy (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
size_t strlen (const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strlwr (char ∗)
char ∗ strncat (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
int strncmp (const char ∗, const char ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strncpy (char ∗, const char ∗, size_t)
int strncasecmp (const char ∗, const char ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
size_t strnlen (const char ∗, size_t) __ATTR_PURE__
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.58
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
string.h File Reference
char ∗ strpbrk (const char ∗__s, const char ∗__accept) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strrchr (const char ∗, int) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strrev (char ∗)
char ∗ strsep (char ∗∗, const char ∗)
size_t strspn (const char ∗__s, const char ∗__accept) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strstr (const char ∗, const char ∗) __ATTR_PURE__
char ∗ strtok (char ∗, const char ∗)
char ∗ strtok_r (char ∗, const char ∗, char ∗∗)
char ∗ strupr (char ∗)
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
378
24.58
string.h File Reference
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
379
24.59
strlcat.S File Reference
24.59
strlcat.S File Reference
24.59.1
Detailed Description
24.60
strlcat_P.S File Reference
24.60.1
Detailed Description
24.61
strlcpy.S File Reference
24.61.1
Detailed Description
24.62
strlcpy_P.S File Reference
24.62.1
Detailed Description
24.63
strlen.S File Reference
24.63.1
Detailed Description
24.64
strlen_P.S File Reference
24.64.1
Detailed Description
24.65
strlwr.S File Reference
24.65.1
Detailed Description
24.66
strncasecmp.S File Reference
24.66.1
Detailed Description
24.67
strncasecmp_P.S File Reference
24.67.1
Detailed Description
24.68
strncat.S File Reference
24.68.1
Detailed Description
24.69
strncat_P.S File Reference
24.69.1
Detailed Description
24.70
strncmp.S File Reference
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
24.70.1
Detailed Description
24.71
strncmp_P.S File Reference
24.71.1
Detailed Description
380
24.88
strtok_r.S File Reference
Variables
• static char ∗ p
24.88
strtok_r.S File Reference
24.88.1
Detailed Description
24.89
strupr.S File Reference
24.89.1
Detailed Description
24.90
twi.h File Reference
24.90.1
Detailed Description
Defines
• #define _UTIL_TWI_H_ 1
TWSR values
Mnemonics:
TW_MT_xxx - master transmitter
TW_MR_xxx - master receiver
TW_ST_xxx - slave transmitter
TW_SR_xxx - slave receiver
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define TW_START 0x08
#define TW_REP_START 0x10
#define TW_MT_SLA_ACK 0x18
#define TW_MT_SLA_NACK 0x20
#define TW_MT_DATA_ACK 0x28
#define TW_MT_DATA_NACK 0x30
#define TW_MT_ARB_LOST 0x38
#define TW_MR_ARB_LOST 0x38
#define TW_MR_SLA_ACK 0x40
#define TW_MR_SLA_NACK 0x48
#define TW_MR_DATA_ACK 0x50
#define TW_MR_DATA_NACK 0x58
#define TW_ST_SLA_ACK 0xA8
#define TW_ST_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK 0xB0
#define TW_ST_DATA_ACK 0xB8
#define TW_ST_DATA_NACK 0xC0
#define TW_ST_LAST_DATA 0xC8
#define TW_SR_SLA_ACK 0x60
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
381
24.91
wdt.h File Reference
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK 0x68
#define TW_SR_GCALL_ACK 0x70
#define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_GCALL_ACK 0x78
#define TW_SR_DATA_ACK 0x80
#define TW_SR_DATA_NACK 0x88
#define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_ACK 0x90
#define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_NACK 0x98
#define TW_SR_STOP 0xA0
#define TW_NO_INFO 0xF8
#define TW_BUS_ERROR 0x00
#define TW_STATUS_MASK
#define TW_STATUS (TWSR & TW_STATUS_MASK)
R/∼W bit in SLA+R/W address field.
• #define TW_READ 1
• #define TW_WRITE 0
24.91
wdt.h File Reference
24.91.1
Detailed Description
Defines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#define wdt_reset() __asm__ __volatile__ ("wdr")
#define _WD_PS3_MASK 0x00
#define _WD_CONTROL_REG WDTCR
#define _WD_CHANGE_BIT WDCE
#define wdt_enable(value)
#define wdt_disable()
#define WDTO_15MS 0
#define WDTO_30MS 1
#define WDTO_60MS 2
#define WDTO_120MS 3
#define WDTO_250MS 4
#define WDTO_500MS 5
#define WDTO_1S 6
#define WDTO_2S 7
#define WDTO_4S 8
#define WDTO_8S 9
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
382
Index
<alloca.h>: Allocate space in the stack,
128
<assert.h>: Diagnostics, 129
<avr/boot.h>: Bootloader Support Utilities, 208
<avr/eeprom.h>: EEPROM handling,
215
<avr/fuse.h>: Fuse Support, 218
<avr/interrupt.h>: Interrupts, 221
<avr/io.h>: AVR device-specific IO definitions, 244
<avr/lock.h>: Lockbit Support, 245
<avr/pgmspace.h>: Program Space Utilities, 248
<avr/power.h>: Power Reduction Management, 261
<avr/sfr_defs.h>: Special function registers, 266
<avr/sleep.h>: Power Management and
Sleep Modes, 268
<avr/version.h>:
avr-libc version
macros, 270
<avr/wdt.h>: Watchdog timer handling,
271
<compat/deprecated.h>:
Deprecated
items, 292
<compat/ina90.h>: Compatibility with
IAR EWB 3.x, 295
<ctype.h>: Character Operations, 130
<errno.h>: System Errors, 132
<inttypes.h>: Integer Type conversions,
133
<math.h>: Mathematics, 145
<setjmp.h>: Non-local goto, 152
<stdint.h>: Standard Integer Types, 154
<stdio.h>: Standard IO facilities, 166
<stdlib.h>: General utilities, 185
<string.h>: Strings, 196
<util/atomic.h> Atomically and NonAtomically Executed Code
Blocks, 275
<util/crc16.h>: CRC Computations, 279
<util/delay.h>: Convenience functions
for busy-wait delay loops, 282
<util/delay_basic.h>: Basic busy-wait
delay loops, 283
<util/parity.h>: Parity bit generation, 284
<util/setbaud.h>: Helper macros for
baud rate calculations, 285
<util/twi.h>: TWI bit mask definitions,
287
$PATH, 88
$PREFIX, 88
–prefix, 88
_BV
avr_sfr, 267
_EEGET
avr_eeprom, 216
_EEPUT
avr_eeprom, 216
_FDEV_EOF
avr_stdio, 171
_FDEV_ERR
avr_stdio, 171
_FDEV_SETUP_READ
avr_stdio, 171
_FDEV_SETUP_RW
avr_stdio, 171
_FDEV_SETUP_WRITE
avr_stdio, 171
_FFS
avr_string, 197
__AVR_LIBC_DATE_
avr_version, 271
__AVR_LIBC_DATE_STRING__
avr_version, 271
__AVR_LIBC_MAJOR__
avr_version, 271
__AVR_LIBC_MINOR__
avr_version, 271
__AVR_LIBC_REVISION__
avr_version, 271
__AVR_LIBC_VERSION_STRING__
avr_version, 271
INDEX
__AVR_LIBC_VERSION__
avr_version, 271
__ELPM_classic__
pgmspace.h, 357
__ELPM_dword_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 357
__ELPM_dword_xmega__
pgmspace.h, 358
__ELPM_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 358
__ELPM_float_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 359
__ELPM_float_xmega__
pgmspace.h, 359
__ELPM_word_classic__
pgmspace.h, 360
__ELPM_word_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 360
__ELPM_word_xmega__
pgmspace.h, 361
__ELPM_xmega__
pgmspace.h, 361
__LPM_classic__
pgmspace.h, 361
__LPM_dword_classic__
pgmspace.h, 362
__LPM_dword_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 362
__LPM_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 363
__LPM_float_classic__
pgmspace.h, 363
__LPM_float_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 364
__LPM_word_classic__
pgmspace.h, 364
__LPM_word_enhanced__
pgmspace.h, 364
__boot_lock_bits_set
boot.h, 340
__boot_lock_bits_set_alternate
boot.h, 340
__boot_page_erase_alternate
boot.h, 340
__boot_page_erase_extended
boot.h, 341
384
__boot_page_erase_normal
boot.h, 341
__boot_page_fill_alternate
boot.h, 341
__boot_page_fill_extended
boot.h, 342
__boot_page_fill_normal
boot.h, 342
__boot_page_write_alternate
boot.h, 343
__boot_page_write_extended
boot.h, 343
__boot_page_write_normal
boot.h, 343
__boot_rww_enable
boot.h, 344
__boot_rww_enable_alternate
boot.h, 344
__compar_fn_t
avr_stdlib, 187
__malloc_heap_end
avr_stdlib, 196
__malloc_heap_start
avr_stdlib, 196
__malloc_margin
avr_stdlib, 196
_crc16_update
util_crc, 280
_crc_ccitt_update
util_crc, 280
_crc_ibutton_update
util_crc, 281
_crc_xmodem_update
util_crc, 281
_delay_loop_1
util_delay_basic, 284
_delay_loop_2
util_delay_basic, 284
_delay_ms
util_delay, 283
_delay_us
util_delay, 283
A more sophisticated project, 316
A simple project, 300
abort
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
avr_stdlib, 187
385
boot_rww_busy, 213
boot_rww_enable, 213
avr_stdlib, 187
boot_rww_enable_safe, 213
acos
boot_signature_byte_get, 213
avr_math, 147
boot_spm_busy, 214
Additional notes from <avr/sfr_defs.h>,
boot_spm_busy_wait, 214
264
boot_spm_interrupt_disable, 214
alloca
boot_spm_interrupt_enable, 214
alloca, 128
BOOTLOADER_SECTION, 214
asin
GET_EXTENDED_FUSE_BITS,
avr_math, 147
214
assert
GET_HIGH_FUSE_BITS, 214
avr_assert, 129
GET_LOCK_BITS, 215
assert.h, 337
GET_LOW_FUSE_BITS, 215
atan
avr_eeprom
avr_math, 147
_EEGET, 216
atan2
_EEPUT, 216
avr_math, 147
EEMEM, 216
atof
eeprom_busy_wait, 216
avr_stdlib, 187
eeprom_is_ready, 216
atoi
eeprom_read_block, 217
avr_stdlib, 188
eeprom_read_byte, 217
atoi.S, 338
eeprom_read_dword, 217
atol
eeprom_read_word, 217
avr_stdlib, 188
eeprom_write_block, 217
atol.S, 338
eeprom_write_byte, 217
atomic.h, 338
eeprom_write_dword, 217
ATOMIC_BLOCK
eeprom_write_word, 217
util_atomic, 277
avr_errno
ATOMIC_FORCEON
EDOM, 133
util_atomic, 277
ERANGE, 133
ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
avr_interrupts
util_atomic, 278
BADISR_vect, 241
avr_assert
cli, 241
assert, 129
EMPTY_INTERRUPT, 241
avr_boot
ISR, 242
boot_is_spm_interrupt, 210
ISR_ALIAS, 242
boot_lock_bits_set, 210
ISR_ALIASOF, 243
boot_lock_bits_set_safe, 210
ISR_BLOCK, 243
boot_lock_fuse_bits_get, 211
ISR_NAKED, 243
boot_page_erase, 211
ISR_NOBLOCK, 243
boot_page_erase_safe, 211
reti, 244
boot_page_fill, 212
sei, 244
boot_page_fill_safe, 212
SIGNAL, 244
boot_page_write, 212
avr_inttypes
boot_page_write_safe, 212
int_farptr_t, 145
abs
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
PRId16, 136
PRId32, 136
PRId8, 136
PRIdFAST16, 136
PRIdFAST32, 136
PRIdFAST8, 136
PRIdLEAST16, 136
PRIdLEAST32, 137
PRIdLEAST8, 137
PRIdPTR, 137
PRIi16, 137
PRIi32, 137
PRIi8, 137
PRIiFAST16, 137
PRIiFAST32, 137
PRIiFAST8, 137
PRIiLEAST16, 137
PRIiLEAST32, 137
PRIiLEAST8, 138
PRIiPTR, 138
PRIo16, 138
PRIo32, 138
PRIo8, 138
PRIoFAST16, 138
PRIoFAST32, 138
PRIoFAST8, 138
PRIoLEAST16, 138
PRIoLEAST32, 138
PRIoLEAST8, 138
PRIoPTR, 139
PRIu16, 139
PRIu32, 139
PRIu8, 139
PRIuFAST16, 139
PRIuFAST32, 139
PRIuFAST8, 139
PRIuLEAST16, 139
PRIuLEAST32, 139
PRIuLEAST8, 139
PRIuPTR, 139
PRIX16, 140
PRIx16, 140
PRIX32, 140
PRIx32, 140
PRIX8, 140
PRIx8, 140
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
386
PRIXFAST16, 140
PRIxFAST16, 140
PRIXFAST32, 140
PRIxFAST32, 140
PRIXFAST8, 140
PRIxFAST8, 141
PRIXLEAST16, 141
PRIxLEAST16, 141
PRIXLEAST32, 141
PRIxLEAST32, 141
PRIXLEAST8, 141
PRIxLEAST8, 141
PRIXPTR, 141
PRIxPTR, 141
SCNd16, 141
SCNd32, 141
SCNdFAST16, 142
SCNdFAST32, 142
SCNdLEAST16, 142
SCNdLEAST32, 142
SCNdPTR, 142
SCNi16, 142
SCNi32, 142
SCNiFAST16, 142
SCNiFAST32, 142
SCNiLEAST16, 142
SCNiLEAST32, 142
SCNiPTR, 143
SCNo16, 143
SCNo32, 143
SCNoFAST16, 143
SCNoFAST32, 143
SCNoLEAST16, 143
SCNoLEAST32, 143
SCNoPTR, 143
SCNu16, 143
SCNu32, 143
SCNuFAST16, 143
SCNuFAST32, 144
SCNuLEAST16, 144
SCNuLEAST32, 144
SCNuPTR, 144
SCNx16, 144
SCNx32, 144
SCNxFAST16, 144
SCNxFAST32, 144
INDEX
SCNxLEAST16, 144
SCNxLEAST32, 144
SCNxPTR, 144
uint_farptr_t, 145
avr_math
acos, 147
asin, 147
atan, 147
atan2, 147
ceil, 147
copysign, 147
cos, 147
cosh, 148
exp, 148
fabs, 148
fdim, 148
floor, 148
fma, 148
fmax, 148
fmin, 148
fmod, 148
frexp, 148
hypot, 149
INFINITY, 146
isfinite, 149
isinf, 149
isnan, 149
ldexp, 149
log, 150
log10, 150
lrint, 150
lround, 150
M_PI, 146
M_SQRT2, 146
modf, 150
NAN, 147
pow, 151
round, 151
signbit, 151
sin, 151
sinh, 151
sqrt, 151
square, 151
tan, 151
tanh, 152
trunc, 152
387
avr_pgmspace
memchr_P, 255
memcmp_P, 255
memcpy_P, 255
memmem_P, 255
memrchr_P, 255
PGM_P, 250
pgm_read_byte, 250
pgm_read_byte_far, 251
pgm_read_byte_near, 251
pgm_read_dword, 251
pgm_read_dword_far, 251
pgm_read_dword_near, 251
pgm_read_float, 252
pgm_read_float_far, 252
pgm_read_float_near, 252
pgm_read_word, 252
pgm_read_word_far, 252
pgm_read_word_near, 253
PGM_VOID_P, 253
prog_char, 253
prog_int16_t, 253
prog_int32_t, 253
prog_int64_t, 253
prog_int8_t, 254
prog_uchar, 254
prog_uint16_t, 254
prog_uint32_t, 254
prog_uint64_t, 254
prog_uint8_t, 254
prog_void, 254
PROGMEM, 253
PSTR, 253
strcasecmp_P, 256
strcasestr_P, 256
strcat_P, 256
strchr_P, 256
strchrnul_P, 257
strcmp_P, 257
strcpy_P, 257
strcspn_P, 257
strlcat_P, 258
strlcpy_P, 258
strlen_P, 258
strncasecmp_P, 258
strncat_P, 259
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
strncmp_P, 259
strncpy_P, 259
strnlen_P, 260
strpbrk_P, 260
strrchr_P, 260
strsep_P, 260
strspn_P, 261
strstr_P, 261
avr_sfr
_BV, 267
bit_is_clear, 267
bit_is_set, 267
loop_until_bit_is_clear, 267
loop_until_bit_is_set, 267
avr_sleep
sleep_cpu, 269
sleep_disable, 270
sleep_enable, 270
avr_stdint
INT16_C, 158
INT16_MAX, 158
INT16_MIN, 158
int16_t, 163
INT32_C, 158
INT32_MAX, 158
INT32_MIN, 158
int32_t, 163
INT64_C, 158
INT64_MAX, 158
INT64_MIN, 158
int64_t, 163
INT8_C, 158
INT8_MAX, 159
INT8_MIN, 159
int8_t, 163
INT_FAST16_MAX, 159
INT_FAST16_MIN, 159
int_fast16_t, 163
INT_FAST32_MAX, 159
INT_FAST32_MIN, 159
int_fast32_t, 163
INT_FAST64_MAX, 159
INT_FAST64_MIN, 159
int_fast64_t, 163
INT_FAST8_MAX, 159
INT_FAST8_MIN, 159
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
388
int_fast8_t, 164
INT_LEAST16_MAX, 159
INT_LEAST16_MIN, 160
int_least16_t, 164
INT_LEAST32_MAX, 160
INT_LEAST32_MIN, 160
int_least32_t, 164
INT_LEAST64_MAX, 160
INT_LEAST64_MIN, 160
int_least64_t, 164
INT_LEAST8_MAX, 160
INT_LEAST8_MIN, 160
int_least8_t, 164
INTMAX_C, 160
INTMAX_MAX, 160
INTMAX_MIN, 160
intmax_t, 164
INTPTR_MAX, 160
INTPTR_MIN, 161
intptr_t, 164
PTRDIFF_MAX, 161
PTRDIFF_MIN, 161
SIG_ATOMIC_MAX, 161
SIG_ATOMIC_MIN, 161
SIZE_MAX, 161
UINT16_C, 161
UINT16_MAX, 161
uint16_t, 164
UINT32_C, 161
UINT32_MAX, 161
uint32_t, 164
UINT64_C, 161
UINT64_MAX, 162
uint64_t, 165
UINT8_C, 162
UINT8_MAX, 162
uint8_t, 165
UINT_FAST16_MAX, 162
uint_fast16_t, 165
UINT_FAST32_MAX, 162
uint_fast32_t, 165
UINT_FAST64_MAX, 162
uint_fast64_t, 165
UINT_FAST8_MAX, 162
uint_fast8_t, 165
UINT_LEAST16_MAX, 162
INDEX
uint_least16_t, 165
UINT_LEAST32_MAX, 162
uint_least32_t, 165
UINT_LEAST64_MAX, 162
uint_least64_t, 165
UINT_LEAST8_MAX, 162
uint_least8_t, 166
UINTMAX_C, 163
UINTMAX_MAX, 163
uintmax_t, 166
UINTPTR_MAX, 163
uintptr_t, 166
avr_stdio
_FDEV_EOF, 171
_FDEV_ERR, 171
_FDEV_SETUP_READ, 171
_FDEV_SETUP_RW, 171
_FDEV_SETUP_WRITE, 171
clearerr, 174
EOF, 171
fclose, 174
fdev_close, 171
fdev_get_udata, 172
fdev_set_udata, 172
FDEV_SETUP_STREAM, 172
fdev_setup_stream, 172
fdevopen, 174
feof, 175
ferror, 175
fflush, 175
fgetc, 175
fgets, 175
FILE, 172
fprintf, 175
fprintf_P, 175
fputc, 176
fputs, 176
fputs_P, 176
fread, 176
fscanf, 176
fscanf_P, 176
fwrite, 176
getc, 173
getchar, 173
gets, 176
printf, 177
389
printf_P, 177
putc, 173
putchar, 173
puts, 177
puts_P, 177
scanf, 177
scanf_P, 177
snprintf, 177
snprintf_P, 177
sprintf, 177
sprintf_P, 178
sscanf, 178
sscanf_P, 178
stderr, 173
stdin, 173
stdout, 173
ungetc, 178
vfprintf, 178
vfprintf_P, 181
vfscanf, 181
vfscanf_P, 184
vprintf, 184
vscanf, 184
vsnprintf, 184
vsnprintf_P, 184
vsprintf, 184
vsprintf_P, 184
avr_stdlib
__compar_fn_t, 187
__malloc_heap_end, 196
__malloc_heap_start, 196
__malloc_margin, 196
abort, 187
abs, 187
atof, 187
atoi, 188
atol, 188
bsearch, 188
calloc, 188
div, 189
DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN, 187
DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN, 187
DTOSTR_UPPERCASE, 187
dtostre, 189
dtostrf, 189
exit, 189
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
free, 190
itoa, 190
labs, 190
ldiv, 190
ltoa, 191
malloc, 191
qsort, 191
rand, 192
RAND_MAX, 187
rand_r, 192
random, 192
RANDOM_MAX, 187
random_r, 192
realloc, 192
srand, 193
srandom, 193
strtod, 193
strtol, 193
strtoul, 194
ultoa, 194
utoa, 195
avr_string
_FFS, 197
ffs, 198
ffsl, 198
ffsll, 198
memccpy, 198
memchr, 198
memcmp, 198
memcpy, 199
memmem, 199
memmove, 199
memrchr, 200
memset, 200
strcasecmp, 200
strcasestr, 200
strcat, 201
strchr, 201
strchrnul, 201
strcmp, 201
strcpy, 202
strcspn, 202
strdup, 202
strlcat, 203
strlcpy, 203
strlen, 203
390
strlwr, 203
strncasecmp, 204
strncat, 204
strncmp, 204
strncpy, 204
strnlen, 205
strpbrk, 205
strrchr, 205
strrev, 206
strsep, 206
strspn, 206
strstr, 206
strtok, 207
strtok_r, 207
strupr, 207
avr_version
__AVR_LIBC_DATE_, 271
__AVR_LIBC_DATE_STRING__,
271
__AVR_LIBC_MAJOR__, 271
__AVR_LIBC_MINOR__, 271
__AVR_LIBC_REVISION__, 271
__AVR_LIBC_VERSION_STRING__, 271
__AVR_LIBC_VERSION__, 271
avr_watchdog
wdt_disable, 273
wdt_enable, 273
wdt_reset, 273
WDTO_120MS, 273
WDTO_15MS, 274
WDTO_1S, 274
WDTO_250MS, 274
WDTO_2S, 274
WDTO_30MS, 274
WDTO_4S, 274
WDTO_500MS, 275
WDTO_60MS, 275
WDTO_8S, 275
avrdude, usage, 115
avrprog, usage, 115
BADISR_vect
avr_interrupts, 241
BAUD_TOL
util_setbaud, 287
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
bit_is_clear
avr_sfr, 267
bit_is_set
avr_sfr, 267
boot.h, 338
__boot_lock_bits_set, 340
__boot_lock_bits_set_alternate, 340
__boot_page_erase_alternate, 340
__boot_page_erase_extended, 341
__boot_page_erase_normal, 341
__boot_page_fill_alternate, 341
__boot_page_fill_extended, 342
__boot_page_fill_normal, 342
__boot_page_write_alternate, 343
__boot_page_write_extended, 343
__boot_page_write_normal, 343
__boot_rww_enable, 344
__boot_rww_enable_alternate, 344
boot_is_spm_interrupt
avr_boot, 210
boot_lock_bits_set
avr_boot, 210
boot_lock_bits_set_safe
avr_boot, 210
boot_lock_fuse_bits_get
avr_boot, 211
boot_page_erase
avr_boot, 211
boot_page_erase_safe
avr_boot, 211
boot_page_fill
avr_boot, 212
boot_page_fill_safe
avr_boot, 212
boot_page_write
avr_boot, 212
boot_page_write_safe
avr_boot, 212
boot_rww_busy
avr_boot, 213
boot_rww_enable
avr_boot, 213
boot_rww_enable_safe
avr_boot, 213
boot_signature_byte_get
avr_boot, 213
391
boot_spm_busy
avr_boot, 214
boot_spm_busy_wait
avr_boot, 214
boot_spm_interrupt_disable
avr_boot, 214
boot_spm_interrupt_enable
avr_boot, 214
BOOTLOADER_SECTION
avr_boot, 214
bsearch
avr_stdlib, 188
calloc
avr_stdlib, 188
cbi
deprecated_items, 293
ceil
avr_math, 147
clearerr
avr_stdio, 174
cli
avr_interrupts, 241
clock_prescale_set
power.h, 365
Combining C and assembly source files,
297
copysign
avr_math, 147
cos
avr_math, 147
cosh
avr_math, 148
crc16.h, 345
ctype
isalnum, 130
isalpha, 130
isascii, 131
isblank, 131
iscntrl, 131
isdigit, 131
isgraph, 131
islower, 131
isprint, 131
ispunct, 131
isspace, 131
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
isupper, 131
isxdigit, 132
toascii, 132
tolower, 132
toupper, 132
ctype.h, 345
delay.h, 346
delay_basic.h, 346
Demo projects, 295
deprecated_items
cbi, 293
enable_external_int, 293
inb, 293
inp, 293
INTERRUPT, 294
outb, 294
outp, 294
sbi, 294
timer_enable_int, 295
disassembling, 305
div
avr_stdlib, 189
div_t, 336
quot, 336
rem, 336
DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN
avr_stdlib, 187
DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN
avr_stdlib, 187
DTOSTR_UPPERCASE
avr_stdlib, 187
dtostre
avr_stdlib, 189
dtostrf
avr_stdlib, 189
EDOM
avr_errno, 133
EEMEM
avr_eeprom, 216
eeprom_busy_wait
avr_eeprom, 216
eeprom_is_ready
avr_eeprom, 216
eeprom_read_block
392
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_read_byte
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_read_dword
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_read_word
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_write_block
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_write_byte
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_write_dword
avr_eeprom, 217
eeprom_write_word
avr_eeprom, 217
EMPTY_INTERRUPT
avr_interrupts, 241
enable_external_int
deprecated_items, 293
EOF
avr_stdio, 171
ERANGE
avr_errno, 133
errno.h, 346
Example using the two-wire interface
(TWI), 331
exit
avr_stdlib, 189
exp
avr_math, 148
fabs
avr_math, 148
FAQ, 58
fclose
avr_stdio, 174
fdev_close
avr_stdio, 171
fdev_get_udata
avr_stdio, 172
fdev_set_udata
avr_stdio, 172
FDEV_SETUP_STREAM
avr_stdio, 172
fdev_setup_stream
avr_stdio, 172
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
fdevopen
avr_stdio, 174
fdevopen.c, 347
fdim
avr_math, 148
feof
avr_stdio, 175
ferror
avr_stdio, 175
fflush
avr_stdio, 175
ffs
avr_string, 198
ffs.S, 347
ffsl
avr_string, 198
ffsl.S, 347
ffsll
avr_string, 198
ffsll.S, 347
fgetc
avr_stdio, 175
fgets
avr_stdio, 175
FILE
avr_stdio, 172
floor
avr_math, 148
fma
avr_math, 148
fmax
avr_math, 148
fmin
avr_math, 148
fmod
avr_math, 148
fprintf
avr_stdio, 175
fprintf_P
avr_stdio, 175
fputc
avr_stdio, 176
fputs
avr_stdio, 176
fputs_P
avr_stdio, 176
393
fread
avr_stdio, 176
free
avr_stdlib, 190
frexp
avr_math, 148
fscanf
avr_stdio, 176
fscanf_P
avr_stdio, 176
fuse.h, 347
fwrite
avr_stdio, 176
GET_EXTENDED_FUSE_BITS
avr_boot, 214
GET_HIGH_FUSE_BITS
avr_boot, 214
GET_LOCK_BITS
avr_boot, 215
GET_LOW_FUSE_BITS
avr_boot, 215
getc
avr_stdio, 173
getchar
avr_stdio, 173
gets
avr_stdio, 176
hypot
avr_math, 149
inb
deprecated_items, 293
INFINITY
avr_math, 146
inp
deprecated_items, 293
installation, 87
installation, avarice, 93
installation, avr-libc, 91
installation, avrdude, 92
installation, avrprog, 92
installation, binutils, 89
installation, gcc, 91
Installation, gdb, 92
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
installation, simulavr, 93
INT16_C
avr_stdint, 158
INT16_MAX
avr_stdint, 158
INT16_MIN
avr_stdint, 158
int16_t
avr_stdint, 163
INT32_C
avr_stdint, 158
INT32_MAX
avr_stdint, 158
INT32_MIN
avr_stdint, 158
int32_t
avr_stdint, 163
INT64_C
avr_stdint, 158
INT64_MAX
avr_stdint, 158
INT64_MIN
avr_stdint, 158
int64_t
avr_stdint, 163
INT8_C
avr_stdint, 158
INT8_MAX
avr_stdint, 159
INT8_MIN
avr_stdint, 159
int8_t
avr_stdint, 163
int_farptr_t
avr_inttypes, 145
INT_FAST16_MAX
avr_stdint, 159
INT_FAST16_MIN
avr_stdint, 159
int_fast16_t
avr_stdint, 163
INT_FAST32_MAX
avr_stdint, 159
INT_FAST32_MIN
avr_stdint, 159
int_fast32_t
394
avr_stdint, 163
INT_FAST64_MAX
avr_stdint, 159
INT_FAST64_MIN
avr_stdint, 159
int_fast64_t
avr_stdint, 163
INT_FAST8_MAX
avr_stdint, 159
INT_FAST8_MIN
avr_stdint, 159
int_fast8_t
avr_stdint, 164
INT_LEAST16_MAX
avr_stdint, 159
INT_LEAST16_MIN
avr_stdint, 160
int_least16_t
avr_stdint, 164
INT_LEAST32_MAX
avr_stdint, 160
INT_LEAST32_MIN
avr_stdint, 160
int_least32_t
avr_stdint, 164
INT_LEAST64_MAX
avr_stdint, 160
INT_LEAST64_MIN
avr_stdint, 160
int_least64_t
avr_stdint, 164
INT_LEAST8_MAX
avr_stdint, 160
INT_LEAST8_MIN
avr_stdint, 160
int_least8_t
avr_stdint, 164
INTERRUPT
deprecated_items, 294
interrupt.h, 347
INTMAX_C
avr_stdint, 160
INTMAX_MAX
avr_stdint, 160
INTMAX_MIN
avr_stdint, 160
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
intmax_t
avr_stdint, 164
INTPTR_MAX
avr_stdint, 160
INTPTR_MIN
avr_stdint, 161
intptr_t
avr_stdint, 164
inttypes.h, 348
io.h, 351
isalnum
ctype, 130
isalpha
ctype, 130
isascii
ctype, 131
isblank
ctype, 131
iscntrl
ctype, 131
isdigit
ctype, 131
isfinite
avr_math, 149
isgraph
ctype, 131
isinf
avr_math, 149
islower
ctype, 131
isnan
avr_math, 149
isprint
ctype, 131
ispunct
ctype, 131
ISR
avr_interrupts, 242
ISR_ALIAS
avr_interrupts, 242
ISR_ALIASOF
avr_interrupts, 243
ISR_BLOCK
avr_interrupts, 243
ISR_NAKED
avr_interrupts, 243
395
ISR_NOBLOCK
avr_interrupts, 243
isspace
ctype, 131
isupper
ctype, 131
isxdigit
ctype, 132
itoa
avr_stdlib, 190
labs
avr_stdlib, 190
ldexp
avr_math, 149
ldiv
avr_stdlib, 190
ldiv_t, 337
quot, 337
rem, 337
lock.h, 351
log
avr_math, 150
log10
avr_math, 150
longjmp
setjmp, 153
loop_until_bit_is_clear
avr_sfr, 267
loop_until_bit_is_set
avr_sfr, 267
lrint
avr_math, 150
lround
avr_math, 150
ltoa
avr_stdlib, 191
M_PI
avr_math, 146
M_SQRT2
avr_math, 146
malloc
avr_stdlib, 191
math.h, 351
memccpy
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
avr_string, 198
memccpy.S, 354
memchr
avr_string, 198
memchr.S, 354
memchr_P
avr_pgmspace, 255
memchr_P.S, 354
memcmp
avr_string, 198
memcmp.S, 354
memcmp_P
avr_pgmspace, 255
memcmp_P.S, 354
memcpy
avr_string, 199
memcpy.S, 354
memcpy_P
avr_pgmspace, 255
memcpy_P.S, 354
memmem
avr_string, 199
memmem.S, 354
memmem_P
avr_pgmspace, 255
memmove
avr_string, 199
memmove.S, 354
memrchr
avr_string, 200
memrchr.S, 354
memrchr_P
avr_pgmspace, 255
memrchr_P.S, 354
memset
avr_string, 200
memset.S, 354
modf
avr_math, 150
NAN
avr_math, 147
NONATOMIC_BLOCK
util_atomic, 278
NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF
util_atomic, 278
396
NONATOMIC_RESTORESTATE
util_atomic, 278
outb
deprecated_items, 294
outp
deprecated_items, 294
parity.h, 354
parity_even_bit
util_parity, 285
PGM_P
avr_pgmspace, 250
pgm_read_byte
avr_pgmspace, 250
pgm_read_byte_far
avr_pgmspace, 251
pgm_read_byte_near
avr_pgmspace, 251
pgm_read_dword
avr_pgmspace, 251
pgm_read_dword_far
avr_pgmspace, 251
pgm_read_dword_near
avr_pgmspace, 251
pgm_read_float
avr_pgmspace, 252
pgm_read_float_far
avr_pgmspace, 252
pgm_read_float_near
avr_pgmspace, 252
pgm_read_word
avr_pgmspace, 252
pgm_read_word_far
avr_pgmspace, 252
pgm_read_word_near
avr_pgmspace, 253
PGM_VOID_P
avr_pgmspace, 253
pgmspace.h, 355
__ELPM_classic__, 357
__ELPM_dword_enhanced__, 357
__ELPM_dword_xmega__, 358
__ELPM_enhanced__, 358
__ELPM_float_enhanced__, 359
__ELPM_float_xmega__, 359
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
__ELPM_word_classic__, 360
__ELPM_word_enhanced__, 360
__ELPM_word_xmega__, 361
__ELPM_xmega__, 361
__LPM_classic__, 361
__LPM_dword_classic__, 362
__LPM_dword_enhanced__, 362
__LPM_enhanced__, 363
__LPM_float_classic__, 363
__LPM_float_enhanced__, 364
__LPM_word_classic__, 364
__LPM_word_enhanced__, 364
pow
avr_math, 151
power.h, 365
clock_prescale_set, 365
PRId16
avr_inttypes, 136
PRId32
avr_inttypes, 136
PRId8
avr_inttypes, 136
PRIdFAST16
avr_inttypes, 136
PRIdFAST32
avr_inttypes, 136
PRIdFAST8
avr_inttypes, 136
PRIdLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 136
PRIdLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIdLEAST8
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIdPTR
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIi16
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIi32
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIi8
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIiFAST16
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIiFAST32
avr_inttypes, 137
397
PRIiFAST8
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIiLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIiLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 137
PRIiLEAST8
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIiPTR
avr_inttypes, 138
printf
avr_stdio, 177
printf_P
avr_stdio, 177
PRIo16
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIo32
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIo8
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoFAST16
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoFAST32
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoFAST8
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoLEAST8
avr_inttypes, 138
PRIoPTR
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIu16
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIu32
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIu8
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIuFAST16
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIuFAST32
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIuFAST8
avr_inttypes, 139
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
PRIuLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIuLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIuLEAST8
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIuPTR
avr_inttypes, 139
PRIX16
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIx16
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIX32
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIx32
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIX8
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIx8
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIXFAST16
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIxFAST16
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIXFAST32
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIxFAST32
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIXFAST8
avr_inttypes, 140
PRIxFAST8
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIXLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIxLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIXLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIxLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIXLEAST8
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIxLEAST8
avr_inttypes, 141
PRIXPTR
avr_inttypes, 141
398
PRIxPTR
avr_inttypes, 141
prog_char
avr_pgmspace, 253
prog_int16_t
avr_pgmspace, 253
prog_int32_t
avr_pgmspace, 253
prog_int64_t
avr_pgmspace, 253
prog_int8_t
avr_pgmspace, 254
prog_uchar
avr_pgmspace, 254
prog_uint16_t
avr_pgmspace, 254
prog_uint32_t
avr_pgmspace, 254
prog_uint64_t
avr_pgmspace, 254
prog_uint8_t
avr_pgmspace, 254
prog_void
avr_pgmspace, 254
PROGMEM
avr_pgmspace, 253
PSTR
avr_pgmspace, 253
PTRDIFF_MAX
avr_stdint, 161
PTRDIFF_MIN
avr_stdint, 161
putc
avr_stdio, 173
putchar
avr_stdio, 173
puts
avr_stdio, 177
puts_P
avr_stdio, 177
qsort
avr_stdlib, 191
quot
div_t, 336
ldiv_t, 337
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
rand
avr_stdlib, 192
RAND_MAX
avr_stdlib, 187
rand_r
avr_stdlib, 192
random
avr_stdlib, 192
RANDOM_MAX
avr_stdlib, 187
random_r
avr_stdlib, 192
realloc
avr_stdlib, 192
rem
div_t, 336
ldiv_t, 337
reti
avr_interrupts, 244
round
avr_math, 151
sbi
deprecated_items, 294
scanf
avr_stdio, 177
scanf_P
avr_stdio, 177
SCNd16
avr_inttypes, 141
SCNd32
avr_inttypes, 141
SCNdFAST16
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNdFAST32
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNdLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNdLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNdPTR
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNi16
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNi32
avr_inttypes, 142
399
SCNiFAST16
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNiFAST32
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNiLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNiLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 142
SCNiPTR
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNo16
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNo32
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNoFAST16
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNoFAST32
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNoLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNoLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNoPTR
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNu16
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNu32
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNuFAST16
avr_inttypes, 143
SCNuFAST32
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNuLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNuLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNuPTR
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNx16
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNx32
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNxFAST16
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNxFAST32
avr_inttypes, 144
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
SCNxLEAST16
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNxLEAST32
avr_inttypes, 144
SCNxPTR
avr_inttypes, 144
sei
avr_interrupts, 244
setbaud.h, 366
setjmp
longjmp, 153
setjmp, 153
setjmp.h, 366
SIG_ATOMIC_MAX
avr_stdint, 161
SIG_ATOMIC_MIN
avr_stdint, 161
SIGNAL
avr_interrupts, 244
signbit
avr_math, 151
sin
avr_math, 151
sinh
avr_math, 151
SIZE_MAX
avr_stdint, 161
sleep.h, 366
sleep_cpu
avr_sleep, 269
sleep_disable
avr_sleep, 270
sleep_enable
avr_sleep, 270
snprintf
avr_stdio, 177
snprintf_P
avr_stdio, 177
sprintf
avr_stdio, 177
sprintf_P
avr_stdio, 178
sqrt
avr_math, 151
square
avr_math, 151
400
srand
avr_stdlib, 193
srandom
avr_stdlib, 193
sscanf
avr_stdio, 178
sscanf_P
avr_stdio, 178
stderr
avr_stdio, 173
stdin
avr_stdio, 173
stdint.h, 367
stdio.h, 370
stdlib.h, 372
stdout
avr_stdio, 173
strcasecmp
avr_string, 200
strcasecmp.S, 375
strcasecmp_P
avr_pgmspace, 256
strcasecmp_P.S, 375
strcasestr
avr_string, 200
strcasestr.S, 375
strcasestr_P
avr_pgmspace, 256
strcat
avr_string, 201
strcat.S, 375
strcat_P
avr_pgmspace, 256
strcat_P.S, 375
strchr
avr_string, 201
strchr.S, 375
strchr_P
avr_pgmspace, 256
strchr_P.S, 375
strchrnul
avr_string, 201
strchrnul.S, 375
strchrnul_P
avr_pgmspace, 257
strchrnul_P.S, 375
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
strcmp
avr_string, 201
strcmp.S, 375
strcmp_P
avr_pgmspace, 257
strcmp_P.S, 375
strcpy
avr_string, 202
strcpy.S, 375
strcpy_P
avr_pgmspace, 257
strcpy_P.S, 375
strcspn
avr_string, 202
strcspn.S, 375
strcspn_P
avr_pgmspace, 257
strcspn_P.S, 375
strdup
avr_string, 202
strdup.c, 375
string.h, 376
strlcat
avr_string, 203
strlcat.S, 379
strlcat_P
avr_pgmspace, 258
strlcat_P.S, 379
strlcpy
avr_string, 203
strlcpy.S, 379
strlcpy_P
avr_pgmspace, 258
strlcpy_P.S, 379
strlen
avr_string, 203
strlen.S, 379
strlen_P
avr_pgmspace, 258
strlen_P.S, 379
strlwr
avr_string, 203
strlwr.S, 379
strncasecmp
avr_string, 204
strncasecmp.S, 379
401
strncasecmp_P
avr_pgmspace, 258
strncasecmp_P.S, 379
strncat
avr_string, 204
strncat.S, 379
strncat_P
avr_pgmspace, 259
strncat_P.S, 379
strncmp
avr_string, 204
strncmp.S, 379
strncmp_P
avr_pgmspace, 259
strncmp_P.S, 379
strncpy
avr_string, 204
strncpy.S, 379
strncpy_P
avr_pgmspace, 259
strncpy_P.S, 379
strnlen
avr_string, 205
strnlen.S, 379
strnlen_P
avr_pgmspace, 260
strnlen_P.S, 379
strpbrk
avr_string, 205
strpbrk.S, 379
strpbrk_P
avr_pgmspace, 260
strpbrk_P.S, 379
strrchr
avr_string, 205
strrchr.S, 379
strrchr_P
avr_pgmspace, 260
strrchr_P.S, 379
strrev
avr_string, 206
strrev.S, 379
strsep
avr_string, 206
strsep.S, 379
strsep_P
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
avr_pgmspace, 260
strsep_P.S, 379
strspn
avr_string, 206
strspn.S, 379
strspn_P
avr_pgmspace, 261
strspn_P.S, 379
strstr
avr_string, 206
strstr.S, 379
strstr_P
avr_pgmspace, 261
strstr_P.S, 379
strtod
avr_stdlib, 193
strtok
avr_string, 207
strtok.c, 379
strtok_r
avr_string, 207
strtok_r.S, 380
strtol
avr_stdlib, 193
strtoul
avr_stdlib, 194
strupr
avr_string, 207
strupr.S, 380
supported devices, 2
tan
avr_math, 151
tanh
avr_math, 152
timer_enable_int
deprecated_items, 295
toascii
ctype, 132
tolower
ctype, 132
tools, optional, 89
tools, required, 88
toupper
ctype, 132
trunc
402
avr_math, 152
TW_BUS_ERROR
util_twi, 289
TW_MR_ARB_LOST
util_twi, 289
TW_MR_DATA_ACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MR_DATA_NACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MR_SLA_ACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MR_SLA_NACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MT_ARB_LOST
util_twi, 289
TW_MT_DATA_ACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MT_DATA_NACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MT_SLA_ACK
util_twi, 289
TW_MT_SLA_NACK
util_twi, 289
TW_NO_INFO
util_twi, 289
TW_READ
util_twi, 290
TW_REP_START
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_ARB_LOST_GCALL_ACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_DATA_ACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_DATA_NACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_GCALL_ACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_ACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_NACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_SLA_ACK
util_twi, 290
TW_SR_STOP
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
util_twi, 290
TW_ST_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK
util_twi, 291
TW_ST_DATA_ACK
util_twi, 291
TW_ST_DATA_NACK
util_twi, 291
TW_ST_LAST_DATA
util_twi, 291
TW_ST_SLA_ACK
util_twi, 291
TW_START
util_twi, 291
TW_STATUS
util_twi, 291
TW_STATUS_MASK
util_twi, 291
TW_WRITE
util_twi, 291
twi.h, 380
UBRR_VALUE
util_setbaud, 287
UBRRH_VALUE
util_setbaud, 287
UBRRL_VALUE
util_setbaud, 287
UINT16_C
avr_stdint, 161
UINT16_MAX
avr_stdint, 161
uint16_t
avr_stdint, 164
UINT32_C
avr_stdint, 161
UINT32_MAX
avr_stdint, 161
uint32_t
avr_stdint, 164
UINT64_C
avr_stdint, 161
UINT64_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint64_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT8_C
403
avr_stdint, 162
UINT8_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint8_t
avr_stdint, 165
uint_farptr_t
avr_inttypes, 145
UINT_FAST16_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_fast16_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_FAST32_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_fast32_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_FAST64_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_fast64_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_FAST8_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_fast8_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_LEAST16_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_least16_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_LEAST32_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_least32_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_LEAST64_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_least64_t
avr_stdint, 165
UINT_LEAST8_MAX
avr_stdint, 162
uint_least8_t
avr_stdint, 166
UINTMAX_C
avr_stdint, 163
UINTMAX_MAX
avr_stdint, 163
uintmax_t
avr_stdint, 166
UINTPTR_MAX
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
avr_stdint, 163
uintptr_t
avr_stdint, 166
ultoa
avr_stdlib, 194
ungetc
avr_stdio, 178
USE_2X
util_setbaud, 287
Using the standard IO facilities, 324
util_atomic
ATOMIC_BLOCK, 277
ATOMIC_FORCEON, 277
ATOMIC_RESTORESTATE, 278
NONATOMIC_BLOCK, 278
NONATOMIC_FORCEOFF, 278
NONATOMIC_RESTORESTATE,
278
util_crc
_crc16_update, 280
_crc_ccitt_update, 280
_crc_ibutton_update, 281
_crc_xmodem_update, 281
util_delay
_delay_ms, 283
_delay_us, 283
util_delay_basic
_delay_loop_1, 284
_delay_loop_2, 284
util_parity
parity_even_bit, 285
util_setbaud
BAUD_TOL, 287
UBRR_VALUE, 287
UBRRH_VALUE, 287
UBRRL_VALUE, 287
USE_2X, 287
util_twi
TW_BUS_ERROR, 289
TW_MR_ARB_LOST, 289
TW_MR_DATA_ACK, 289
TW_MR_DATA_NACK, 289
TW_MR_SLA_ACK, 289
TW_MR_SLA_NACK, 289
TW_MT_ARB_LOST, 289
TW_MT_DATA_ACK, 289
404
TW_MT_DATA_NACK, 289
TW_MT_SLA_ACK, 289
TW_MT_SLA_NACK, 289
TW_NO_INFO, 289
TW_READ, 290
TW_REP_START, 290
TW_SR_ARB_LOST_GCALL_ACK, 290
TW_SR_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK,
290
TW_SR_DATA_ACK, 290
TW_SR_DATA_NACK, 290
TW_SR_GCALL_ACK, 290
TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_ACK, 290
TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_NACK,
290
TW_SR_SLA_ACK, 290
TW_SR_STOP, 290
TW_ST_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK,
291
TW_ST_DATA_ACK, 291
TW_ST_DATA_NACK, 291
TW_ST_LAST_DATA, 291
TW_ST_SLA_ACK, 291
TW_START, 291
TW_STATUS, 291
TW_STATUS_MASK, 291
TW_WRITE, 291
utoa
avr_stdlib, 195
vfprintf
avr_stdio, 178
vfprintf_P
avr_stdio, 181
vfscanf
avr_stdio, 181
vfscanf_P
avr_stdio, 184
vprintf
avr_stdio, 184
vscanf
avr_stdio, 184
vsnprintf
avr_stdio, 184
vsnprintf_P
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
INDEX
avr_stdio, 184
vsprintf
avr_stdio, 184
vsprintf_P
avr_stdio, 184
wdt.h, 381
wdt_disable
avr_watchdog, 273
wdt_enable
avr_watchdog, 273
wdt_reset
avr_watchdog, 273
WDTO_120MS
avr_watchdog, 273
WDTO_15MS
avr_watchdog, 274
WDTO_1S
avr_watchdog, 274
WDTO_250MS
avr_watchdog, 274
WDTO_2S
avr_watchdog, 274
WDTO_30MS
avr_watchdog, 274
WDTO_4S
avr_watchdog, 274
WDTO_500MS
avr_watchdog, 275
WDTO_60MS
avr_watchdog, 275
WDTO_8S
avr_watchdog, 275
Generated on Fri Mar 13 16:47:36 2009 for avr-libc by Doxygen
405
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement