"user manual"
www.finebook.ir
www.finebook.ir
Eclipse IDE
Pocket Guide
Ed Burnette
Beijing • Cambridge • Farnham • Köln • Paris • Sebastopol • Taipei • Tokyo
www.finebook.ir
Eclipse IDE Pocket Guide
by Ed Burnette
Copyright © 2005 O’Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North,
Sebastopol, CA 95472.
O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales
promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles
(safari.oreilly.com). For more information, contact our corporate/
institutional sales department: (800) 998-9938 or [email protected]eilly.com.
Editor:
Production Editor:
Cover Designer:
Interior Designer:
Brett McLaughlin
Marlowe Shaeffer
Ellie Volckhausen
David Futato
Printing History:
August 2005:
First Edition.
Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are
registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. The Pocket Guide series
designations, Eclipse IDE Pocket Guide, the images of ornate butterflyfish,
and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc.
Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc., in the United States and other
countries. O’Reilly Media, Inc. is independent of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish
their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear
in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc. was aware of a trademark claim, the
designations have been printed in caps or initial caps.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the
publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for
damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
0-596-10065-5
[C]
[3/06]
www.finebook.ir
Contents
Part I. Introduction
What Is Eclipse?
1
Conventions Used in This Book
2
System Requirements
2
Downloading Eclipse
3
Installing Eclipse
3, 2, 1, Launch!
Specify a Workspace
3
4
4
Exploring Eclipse
4
Getting Upgrades
5
Moving On
6
Part II. Workbench 101
Views
8
Editors
9
Menus
10
v
www.finebook.ir
Toolbars and Coolbars
12
Perspectives
13
Rearranging Views and Editors
14
Maximizing and Minimizing
16
Part III. Java Done Quick
Creating a Project
18
Creating a Package
20
Creating a Class
21
Entering Code
21
Running the Program
23
Part IV. Debugging
Running the Debugger
25
Setting Breakpoints
25
Single Stepping
28
Looking at Variables
28
Changing Code on the Fly
30
Part V. Unit Testing with JUnit
A Simple Factorial Demo
32
Creating Test Cases
33
vi |
Contents
www.finebook.ir
Running Tests
34
Test First
36
Part VI. Tips and Tricks
Code Assist
38
Templates
39
Automatic Typing
40
Refactoring
41
Hover Help
42
Hyperlinks
43
Quick Fixes
43
Searching
44
Scrapbook Pages
46
Java Build Path
47
Launch Configurations
48
Part VII. Views
Breakpoints View
50
Console View
52
Debug View
53
Declaration View
54
Display View
54
Contents |
www.finebook.ir
vii
Error Log View
55
Expressions View
56
Hierarchy View
58
Javadoc View
60
JUnit View
60
Navigator View
61
Outline View
62
Package Explorer View
62
Problems View
64
Search View
65
Tasks View
66
Variables View
67
Part VIII. Short Takes
CVS
68
Ant
69
Web Tools Platform
70
Testing and Performance
70
Visual Editor
71
C/C++ Development
71
AspectJ
71
viii |
Contents
www.finebook.ir
Plug-in Development
72
Rich Client Platform
73
Standard Widget Toolkit
73
Part IX. Help and Community
Online Help
Getting Help
Help Topics
75
75
76
Eclipse Web Site
76
Community Web Sites
78
Reporting Bugs
New Account
Searching
Adding an Entry
79
80
80
80
Newsgroups
81
Mailing Lists
82
Conclusion
82
Appendix. Commands
83
Index
113
Contents |
www.finebook.ir
ix
www.finebook.ir
PART
PARTI:I
Introduction
Welcome to the pocket guide for the Eclipse Integrated
Development Environment. This book is the ultimate “no
fluff” user’s manual for the Eclipse IDE, in particular, its Java
Development Toolkit (JDT). This book is designed to get
you up and running quickly in the environment even if
you’ve never used Eclipse before. Some Java™ programming
knowledge will be helpful when reading this guide, but even
if you’re new to Java, you can still find a good deal of useful
information within these pages. Let’s begin with an overview
of what Eclipse is and how to download and install it. If
you’re already using Eclipse, you can skip this section and
jump to Part II.
What Is Eclipse?
Eclipse is an IDE for “anything, and nothing at all,” meaning
that it can be used to develop software in any language, not
just Java. It started as a proprietary replacement for Visual Age
for Java from IBM, but was open sourced in November 2001.
Eclipse is now controlled by an independent nonprofit organization called the Eclipse Foundation. Since 2001, it has been
downloaded over 50 million times; it is now being used by
thousands of developers worldwide. It also has a sizable following in the university community, where it is used in classes
on programming and object-oriented design.
1
www.finebook.ir
Conventions Used in This Book
Italic
Used for filenames, directory names, URLs, and tools
from Unix such as vi. Also used for emphasis and to
introduce new terms.
Constant width
Used for names of Java packages, methods, etc.; commands; variables; and code excerpts.
Constant width bold
Used for keywords within code examples and for text
that the user should type literally.
System Requirements
Eclipse runs on today’s most popular operating systems,
including Windows XP, Linux, and Mac OS X. It requires Java
to run, so if you don’t already have Java installed on your
machine, you must first install a recent version. You can download Java for Windows and Linux from http://java.sun.com;
look for the J2SE SDK (Software Development Kit) package
without a NetBeans™ bundle. Mac OS X has Java preinstalled.
See Table 1 for the minimum and recommended system
requirements.
Table 1. System requirements for Eclipse
Requirement
Minimum
Recommended
Java version
1.4.0
5.0 or greater
Memory
512 MB
1 GB or more
Free disk space
300 MB
1 GB or more
Processor speed
800 Mhz
1.5 Ghz or faster
2 |
Part I: Introduction
www.finebook.ir
In order to unpack Eclipse’s download package, you will
need a standard archive program. Some versions of Windows have one built in; for other versions, you can use a program such as WinZip (http://www.winzip.com). The other
platforms come with an archive program preinstalled.
TIP
In the interests of space and simplicity, the rest of this
book will focus on the Windows version of Eclipse. Other platforms will be very similar, although you may notice slight platform-specific differences.
Downloading Eclipse
To download the Eclipse IDE, go to http://www.eclipse.org.
Click on “downloads” and then select the most recent stable
or release version of the Eclipse SDK for your platform. If
prompted for a mirror site, pick the one located closest to
you. If that one is slow or unavailable, simply return to the
download page and try a different mirror, or try the main
site.
TIP
You may see other download packages such as Runtime,
JDT, and RCP on the download page. You don’t need
those. Just get the one package called Eclipse SDK.
Installing Eclipse
First, install Java if you haven’t already. Then download the
Eclipse SDK to a temporary directory. Use your archive program to unpack Eclipse into a permanent directory. There
are no setup programs and no registry values to deal with.
Installing Eclipse |
www.finebook.ir
3
After you have unpacked the SDK, you should have a subdirectory called eclipse, which in turn has directories in it such
as plugins and features. If you don’t see these, check the settings on your archive program. A common mistake is to
unpack Eclipse in such a way that its directory structure is
not preserved. Eclipse won’t run unless you unpack it with
the exact directory paths that exist in the archive.
3, 2, 1, Launch!
You are now ready to launch Eclipse. Inside the eclipse directory, you’ll find a launcher program for the IDE called,
strangely enough, eclipse (or eclipse.exe). Invoke that program to bring up the IDE.
TIP
On Windows, you may find it convenient to create a
desktop shortcut to launch Eclipse.
Specify a Workspace
The first time you start Eclipse, you will be prompted for the
location of your workspace. The workspace is the location
where your source code and other files and settings will be
stored on your workstation. Specify a permanent location—
somewhere not in your install directory—preferably a location that will be backed up regularly.
Putting the workspace in a different place from where you
installed Eclipse makes upgrades easier. See the “Getting
Upgrades” section, later in Part I, for more information.
Exploring Eclipse
When Eclipse starts up, you will be greeted with the Welcome screen (see Figure 1). This screen provides an introduction for new users who don’t have the benefit of a pocket
guide to Eclipse; for now you can skip over it by closing the
4 |
Part I: Introduction
www.finebook.ir
Welcome view (click on the close icon—the × next to the
word “Welcome”). You can always come back to the Welcome screen later by selecting Welcome from the Help
menu.
Figure 1. The Welcome screen allows you to explore introductory
material, including examples and tutorials.
Getting Upgrades
Eclipse includes an automatic update facility that can handle
point releases (i.e., bug-fix versions) without any work on
your part. For example, Eclipse would install an upgrade from
3.1.0 to 3.1.1 automatically. However, for anything more substantial, the best practice is to do a manual clean install.
TIP
A clean install is especially important if you want to use
beta versions of Eclipse (called Stable or Milestone builds
on the download page). Milestone builds are sometimes
buggy, so you may need to temporarily go back and run
your previous version.
Getting Upgrades
www.finebook.ir
|
5
For example, let’s say you have been running Version 3.1 for
a while and now Version 3.2 has come out. You want to
upgrade right away because each new release contains a
number of important bug fixes and useful new features. Also,
if you have a problem with an older release and report it to
the developers, they will simply ask you to upgrade (see
“Reporting Bugs” in Part IX). So, you should upgrade, but
what’s the best way to do it?
First, rename your eclipse directory to something else, like
eclipse3.1. Then download the new SDK package and install
it normally, as if you had never installed Eclipse before. This
is called a clean install because you are not attempting to mix
new and old code together. Note that your workspace
doesn’t need to change at all, but you should back it up
before running the new version just in case. Now do you see
why I recommended you don’t keep your workspace in the
install directory?
TIP
Any additional plug-ins you have installed for Eclipse will
need to be reinstalled at this point unless you keep them
in an extension location separate from the Eclipse SDK.
Moving On
Congratulations—you’ve successfully downloaded, installed,
and started exploring Eclipse. In Part II, you’ll learn what all
the windows and buttons are for and how to set up the environment just the way you like it. If you want to skip ahead
and start writing a Java program, jump to Part III.
6 |
Part I: Introduction
www.finebook.ir
PART
PARTII:II
Workbench 101
Eclipse’s main window, called the workbench, is built with a
few common user interface elements (see Figure 2). Learn
how to use them and you can get the most out of the IDE.
The two most important elements are views and editors. If
you’re already familiar with the Eclipse workbench, you can
skim this section or skip to Part III to start programming.
3
4
5
1
6
4
6
2
1 Editor
2 Fast views
3 Menu bar
4 Tool bars
5 Perspectives
6 Views
Figure 2. The Eclipse workbench is made up of views, editors, and
other elements.
7
www.finebook.ir
Views
A view is a window that lets you examine something, such as
a list of files in your project. Eclipse comes with dozens of
different views; see Table 2 for a partial list. These views are
covered in more detail in Part VII.
Table 2. Commonly used Eclipse views
View name
Description
Package Explorer
Shows all your projects, Java packages, and files.
Hierarchy
Displays the class and interface relationships for the selected object.
Outline
Displays the structure of the currently open file.
Problems
Shows compiler errors and warnings in your code.
Console
Displays the output of your program.
Javadoc
Shows the description (from comments) of the selected object.
Declaration
Shows the source code where the selected object is declared.
To open a view, select Window ➝ Show View. The most
commonly used views are listed in that menu. To see the full
list, select Other....
Most views have a titlebar that includes the icon and name
for the view, a close icon, a toolbar, and an area for the content (see Figure 3 for an example showing the Outline view).
Note that if the view is too narrow, the toolbar will be
pushed to the next line. To discover what all the buttons do,
move your mouse over a button, and a little window called a
tool tip will appear that describes the item.
Figure 3. Views usually have titles, toolbars, and a content area. Let
the mouse pointer hover over an item to bring up a description.
8 |
Part II: Workbench 101
www.finebook.ir
Multiple views can be stacked together in the same rectangular area. The titlebar will show a tab for each view, but only
one view can be active at a time. Click on a tab to bring its
view to the front. If the window is too narrow to show all the
titles, a chevron menu will appear (see Figure 4; the number
below the >> shows how many views are hidden). Click on
the chevron menu to list the hidden views.
Figure 4. Views can be stacked on top of one another. If space is
short, some may be hidden in a chevron menu.
Editors
An editor in Eclipse is just like any other editor—it lets you
modify and save files. What sets editors in Eclipse apart is
their built-in language-specific knowledge. In particular, the
Java editor completely understands Java syntax; as you type,
the editor can provide assistance such as underlining syntax
errors and suggesting valid method and variable names (see
Figure 5). Most of your time will be spent in the Java editor,
but there are also editors for text, properties, and other types
of files.
Editors share many characteristics with views. But unlike
views, editors don’t have toolbars, and you will usually have
more than one of the same type of editor open (for example,
several Java editors). Also, you can save or revert an editor’s
contents, but not a view’s. An asterisk in the editor’s titlebar
indicates that the editor has unsaved data. Select File ➝ Save
or press Ctrl+S to write your changes to disk.
Editors
www.finebook.ir
|
9
Figure 5. The Java editor provides typing assistance and immediate
error detection.
Menus
Eclipse is filled with menus, yet it’s not always obvious how
to access them. So, let’s take a quick tour. The most prominent one is the main menu across the top of the Eclipse window. Click on a menu item to activate it or press Alt and the
shortcut key for the menu (for example Alt+F for the File
menu).
Some views have view menus that open when you click on
the downward-pointing triangle icon near the upper right of
the view (see Figure 6 for an example).
Figure 6. If you see a triangle in the toolbar, click on it for more
options.
Another menu is hidden in the titlebar under the icon to the
left of the title. Right-click on the icon to access the system
menu; this allows you to close the view or editor, move it
around, and so forth. The system menu is shown in Figure 7.
10 |
Part II: Workbench 101
www.finebook.ir
Figure 7. Right-click on the icon to the left of the title to get the
system menu.
TIP
Most commands in Eclipse can be performed in several different ways. For example, to close a view you can either
use the system menu or click on the close icon. Use whichever way is most convenient for you.
Finally, you can right-click on any item in the content area to
bring up the context menu (see Figure 8). Notice the keyboard shortcuts listed to the right of the menu description.
These shortcuts can be used instead of the menu to execute a
particular command. For example, instead of right-clicking
on main and selecting Open Type Hierarchy, you can just
select main and press the F4 key.
TIP
Starting in Eclipse 3.1, you can press Ctrl+Shift+L to see
a list of the current key definitions. To change them, go
to Window ➝ Preferences ➝ General ➝ Keys. By using
key definitions and shortcuts, you can work in Eclipse
without touching the mouse at all.
Menus
www.finebook.ir
|
11
Figure 8. Right-click in the content area for the context menu.
Toolbars and Coolbars
A toolbar is a set of buttons (and sometimes other controls)
that perform commonly used actions when you click on
them. Usually toolbars appear near the top of the window
that contains them. A collection of toolbars is called a coolbar (see Figure 9).
Figure 9. A coolbar is made up of toolbars. You reorder the
individual toolbars by clicking and dragging the separators between
them.
TIP
Most Eclipse documentation uses the term toolbar to refer to both toolbars and coolbars, so the rest of this book
will do the same unless it’s necessary to make a special
distinction between the two.
In the “Views” section, you saw some examples of toolbars
that were part of views. The toolbar at the top of the Workbench window is called the main toolbar (seen back in
12 |
Part II: Workbench 101
www.finebook.ir
Figure 2). As you edit different files, the main toolbar will
change to show tools that apply to the current editor.
Perspectives
A perspective is a set of views, editors, and toolbars, along
with their arrangement on your desktop. Think of a perspective as a way of looking at your work that is optimized for a
specific kind of task, such as writing programs.
As you perform a task, you may rearrange windows, open
new views, and so on. Your arrangement is saved under the
current perspective. The next time you have to perform the
same kind of task, simply switch to that perspective, and
Eclipse will put everything back the way you left it.
To switch perspectives, select Window ➝ Open Perspective
or click on the Open Perspective icon (to the right of the
main toolbar). This will bring up a list of the most commonly used perspectives; select Other... to see the full list.
Eclipse comes with several perspectives already defined;
these are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Built-in Eclipse perspectives
Perspective
Purpose
Resource
Arrange your files and projects.
Java
Develop programs in the Java language.
Debug
Diagnose and debug problems that occur at runtime.
Java Browsing
Explore your code in a Smalltalk-like environment.
Java Type Hierarchy
Explore your code based on class relationships.
Plug-in Development
Create add-ins to Eclipse.
CVS Repository Exploring
Browse a source code repository, including its files and
revision history.
Team Synchronizing
Merge changes you’ve made with those of your
teammates.
Perspectives
www.finebook.ir
|
13
Each perspective has a set of views associated with it that are
open by default. For example, the Java perspective starts
with the Package Explorer view open. If you don’t like the
default, close any views you don’t want and open others with
Window ➝ Show View.
TIP
Sometimes Eclipse will offer to switch perspectives for
you. For example, if you’re in the Resource perspective
and create a Java project, it will ask if you’d like to switch
to the Java perspective. Usually the best thing is to answer Yes and have it remember your decision so it won’t
ask you again.
Perspectives are there for your convenience. Feel free to customize them all you want. To restore a perspective to its factory default, select Window ➝ Reset Perspective. To save
your perspective under a different name, select Window ➝
Save Perspective As.... The new perspective will show up in
the Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Other... menu.
Rearranging Views and Editors
Views and editors can be shown side by side or stacked on
top of other views and editors. To move a view or editor,
simply click on its titlebar and drag it to a new location (see
Figure 10). The only restrictions are that editors have to stay
in their own rectangular area, and they can’t be mixed with
views. However, you can arrange the views around the editors, and you can even drag views outside of the main Eclipse
window (these are called tear-off views). You can also collapse a view to an icon on the edge of the window (this is
called a fast view).
Pay close attention to the changing cursor as you drag a window; the cursor shape indicates where the window will end
up when you let go of the mouse button. Table 4 shows the
cursor shapes and what they mean.
14 |
Part II: Workbench 101
www.finebook.ir
Figure 10. You can see how the Package Explorer is dragged from a
tab into the bottom of the window.
Table 4. Cursor shapes while dragging views and editors
Cursor shape Final position of the view/editor being dragged
Above the window under the cursor
Below the window under the cursor
To the left of the window under the cursor
To the right of the window under the cursor
On top of a stack of windows under the cursor
In the fast view area (it will slide out as needed or when manually
clicked)
Outside the main window
Rearranging Views and Editors |
www.finebook.ir
15
TIP
By dragging editors, you can show two files side by side.
Starting in Eclipse 3.1, you can also edit two portions of the
same file by using the Window ➝ New Editor command.
To change the relative size of side-by-side views or editors,
move the mouse cursor to the thin dividing line between two
of them. The cursor shape will change, indicating you can
move that divider by clicking it and dragging it to the desired
location.
Maximizing and Minimizing
Sometimes you need to focus temporarily on a single view or
editor. For example, you might want to hide all the views
and use the whole Eclipse window to look at one large file in
the editor. You could resize the editor manually by dragging
its edges, but an easier way is to maximize the editor.
Double-click on the view or editor’s titlebar (or click on the
maximize icon) to make it expand; double-click again (or use
the restore icon) to restore the window to its original size.
When a window is maximized, you won’t be able to see any
of the other views or editors outside of the current stack.
As an alternative, you can temporarily shrink the other stacks
of windows by clicking on the minimize icon (next to the
maximize icon at the top of the view or editor). This hides
the content area, showing only the titlebar. It works best on
horizontal views and editors.
16 |
Part II: Workbench 101
www.finebook.ir
TIP
Remember, you can save your favorite window arrangements as named perspectives.
You could spend hours exploring all the options to customize your Eclipse workbench, but that’s not what you’re here
for, right? Part III will get you started with Java development
in Eclipse.
Maximizing and Minimizing
www.finebook.ir
|
17
PART III
PART III:
Java Done Quick
Get your stopwatch ready because we’re going to create and
run some simple Java code as quickly as possible. Ready...
set...go!
Creating a Project
An Eclipse project is just a directory that holds your program’s resources (source code, icons, and so forth). Usually
projects are subdirectories in your workspace (see the “Specify a Workspace” section in Part I). You can import an existing project, but for this exercise, we’ll make one from
scratch.
To create a project, select File ➝ New ➝ Project... and then
double-click Java Project. This opens the New Java Project
wizard (see Figure 11).
For “Project name,” type in something original like Hello.
Under “Project layout,” enable the “Create separate source
and output folders” option.
TIP
As a best practice, always use separate directories for the
source and output folders.
18
www.finebook.ir
Figure 11. The New Java Project wizard configures a new directory
for your code.
Click Finish to accept the default options and let Eclipse create the project. If you see a dialog that says Confirm Perspective Switch, enable the “Remember my decision” option and
click Yes. Also, if you see a dialog about Java 5.0 compliance, enable compliance for the entire workspace (not just
the project).
Creating a Project
www.finebook.ir
|
19
After a moment, you should see your new empty project in
the Package Explorer view (see Figure 12).
Figure 12. A new Java project is born.
Creating a Package
A Java package is a standard way to organize your classes into
separate namespaces. Although you can create classes without packages, doing so is considered bad programming practice. To create a new package, select File ➝ New ➝ Package
or click on the New Package icon in the main toolbar ( ).
Enter the package name as org.eclipseguide and click Finish. You can see the results in the Package Explorer, as shown
in Figure 13.
Figure 13. The project has grown a package.
20 |
Part III: Java Done Quick
www.finebook.ir
TIP
If you looked at the project on disk, you would see the
Hello directory, a src directory under that, org under that,
and eclipseguide under that. A compact form is shown in
the Package Explorer as a convenience.
Creating a Class
With the org.eclipseguide package highlighted, select File ➝
New ➝ Class or click on the New Java Class icon ( ).
Enter the name of the class, starting with a capital letter. For
this example, enter Hello.
Under the section of the dialog that asks which method stubs
you would like to create, select the option to create public
static void main(String[] args).
Leave the rest of the options set to their default values and
click Finish. Eclipse will generate the code for the class for
you (this generated class is shown in Figure 14), and open
the Java editor with your new class in view.
TIP
Whenever Eclipse generates code, it inserts TODO comments to indicate the places you need to edit. Every place
in the code that has a TODO comment is listed in the Tasks
view (see Part VII).
Entering Code
You could run the program now, but it wouldn’t be very
interesting. So, let’s add a few lines to print something out.
Start by deleting the generated comment that says:
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
Entering Code |
www.finebook.ir
21
Figure 14. Now the package has a file in it. You can further expand
the file to see its classes.
Then replace it with this code:
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
System.out.println(
"Hello, world " + i);
}
When you’re done, the Java editor should look similar to
Figure 15.
Figure 15. This is 10 times better than the usual “Hello, world”
program.
22 |
Part III: Java Done Quick
www.finebook.ir
The editor looks innocent enough, but through its clever use
of colors and annotations, the window is quietly conveying a
great deal of information. A large number of options to control this information can be found under Window ➝ Preferences ➝ Java ➝ Editor.
TIP
Press Ctrl+Shift+F (or select Source ➝ Format) to reformat your code and fix any indentation and spacing problems. Do this early and often. If you’d like, you can
customize the formatting rules in the Java preferences.
Running the Program
Press Ctrl+S (or select File ➝ Save) to write the code to disk
and compile it. In the Package Explorer, right-click on
Hello.java and select Run As ➝ Java Application. The program will run, and the Console view will open to show the
output (see Figure 16).
Figure 16. Isn’t this exciting?
Running the Program
www.finebook.ir
|
23
That’s it! You’ve written, compiled, and run your first program in Eclipse in just a few minutes. Now, try it again and
see if you can do it in under a minute. My record is 35 seconds. Go ahead, I’ll wait.
TIP
After you have run the program once, you can press
Ctrl+F11 (Run ➝ Run Last Launched) or click on the
Run icon in the toolbar ( ) to run it again.
Now that you’re ready to write the next killer app, what’s the
rest of the book for? Part IV will introduce you to your new
best pal, the Java debugger. If your programs never have any
bugs (ahem), you can skip ahead to Part V to learn about unit
testing or Part VI to pick up a few tips about using the IDE.
24 |
Part III: Java Done Quick
www.finebook.ir
PART
PARTIV:
IV
Debugging
Let’s face it: all but the most trivial programs have bugs in
them. Eclipse provides a powerful debugger to help you find
and eliminate those bugs quickly. This part of the book will
give you a head start in understanding how to use the Eclipse
debugger.
Running the Debugger
Running your program under the control of the debugger is
similar to running it normally. Right-click on the file containing your main method (Hello.java) and select Debug As ➝
Java Application. Or, if you have run or debugged the program before, just press F11 (or select Run ➝ Debug Last
Launched), or click on the Debug button ( ) in the main
toolbar.
Go ahead and try that now. What happened? The program
ran to completion and sent its output to the Console view
just as if you had run the class normally. You have to set a
breakpoint to actually take advantage of the debugger.
Setting Breakpoints
A breakpoint is a marker you place on a line of code where you
want the debugger to pause execution. To set one, doubleclick in the gutter area to the left of the source line. For this
25
www.finebook.ir
example, we want to stop on the System.out.println( ) call, so
double-click in the gutter next to that line. A breakpoint indicator will appear, as shown in Figure 17.
Figure 17. Set a breakpoint by double-clicking to the left of the
source line.
Now, press F11 and Eclipse will run your program again in
debug mode. The breakpoint indicator will change when the
class is loaded, and the debugger will stop at the line where
you added the breakpoint.
TIP
One of the nice things about breakpoints in Eclipse is that
they stay with the line even if the line number changes (e.g.,
due to code being added or removed above it).
When the breakpoint is reached and the program stops,
you’ll notice several things. First, Eclipse will switch to the
Debug perspective. If you see a dialog asking to confirm the
perspective switch, select “Remember my decision” and click
Yes.
TIP
Using one perspective for coding and another for debugging is optional, but some people like being able to customize their window arrangement for each task. You can
disable this switching in the Run/Debug preferences
(Window ➝ Preferences ➝ Run/Debug).
26 |
Part IV: Debugging
www.finebook.ir
Next, several new views will open—most importantly, the
Debug view (see Figure 18). This view lets you control all the
threads of execution of all the programs being debugged.
Finally, the line of code where you put the breakpoint will be
highlighted to indicate which line will be executed next.
Figure 18. The Debug view lets you control and monitor execution
of multiple programs and threads.
To continue running after a breakpoint, click on the Resume
button in the Debug view’s toolbar ( ) or press F8 (Run ➝
Resume). Execution will continue until the next breakpoint
is hit or the program terminates.
TIP
If your program is in a long-running loop, click on the
Suspend button ( ) or select Run ➝ Suspend to make it
stop. Or, just add a new breakpoint at any time—the program does not have to be stopped.
You can see a list of all your breakpoints in the Breakpoints
view. Here you can enable and disable breakpoints, make
them conditional on certain program values, or set exception
breakpoints (i.e., to stop when a Java exception is thrown).
Setting Breakpoints
www.finebook.ir
|
27
Single Stepping
Like most debuggers, the one provided by the Eclipse IDE
lets you step line by line through your program with one of
two commands: step into ( ; F5; or Run ➝ Step Into) and
step over ( ; F6; or Run ➝ Step Over). The difference
between the two is apparent when the current line is a
method call. If you step into the current line, the debugger
will go to the first line of the method. If you step over the
current line, the debugger will run the method and stop on
the next line.
Try stepping now, by running until your breakpoint is hit
and then pressing F6 several times in a row. Watch the highlight bar move around as the current line changes.
If you step into a method call and then change your mind,
execute the step return command ( ; F7; or Run ➝ Step
Return). This lets the program run until the current method
returns. The debugger will stop at the line following the line
that called the method.
Looking at Variables
The Eclipse IDE provides many different ways to examine
and modify your program state. For example, as you single
step, you may have noticed that the Variables window shows
the current value of all the local variables, parameters, and
fields that are currently visible (see Figure 19). You can
quickly identify which variables are changing because Eclipse
draws them in a different color. If any of the variables are
nonprimitives (objects or arrays), you can expand them to
look at the individual elements.
To change the value of a variable, first select it in the Variables view. This will make its current value appear in the bottom half of the window, where you can change it. Save the
new value by pressing Ctrl+S (or right-click and select Assign
Value).
28 |
Part IV: Debugging
www.finebook.ir
Figure 19. The Variables view shows all the values in scope.
Changes since the last step or resume are highlighted in red.
TIP
When you are coding, try to use the smallest possible
scope for your local variables. For example, instead of declaring all your variables at the top of a function, declare
them inside the statement blocks (curly braces) where
they are actually used. Besides being a good programming practice, this will limit the number of items displayed in the Variables view.
Another way to see the value of a particular variable is to
move your cursor over it in the source editor. After a short
pause, a tool tip window will appear with the value. See
Figure 20 for an example.
Figure 20. Hover the mouse over a variable in the Java editor to see
its current value.
What if you need to see the value of a Java expression? No
problem: just use the mouse or keyboard to select the expression in the editor, then press Ctrl+Shift+D (or right-click and
Looking at Variables
www.finebook.ir
|
29
select Display). Eclipse will evaluate the expression (including any side effects) and show the results in a pop-up window (see Figure 21). The expression can be as simple or as
complicated as you like, as long as it’s valid.
Figure 21. Select an expression and press Ctrl+Shift+D to evaluate it.
For compound objects like class instances, you may want to
try the Inspect command (Ctrl+Shift+I, or right-click and
select Inspect) instead of Display. This will let you expand
items and collapse members as in the Variables view.
Changing Code on the Fly
Eclipse blurs the line between editing and debugging by
letting you modify a running program. You don’t have to
stop the program—just edit and save it. If possible, Eclipse
will compile just the class that was modified and insert it into
the running process. This handy feature is called hot code
replace.
TIP
If you modify a method that the program is currently executing, the debugger will have to drop to the previous
frame and begin that method again from its first line. This
doesn’t work on the main( ) method because there is no
caller.
30 |
Part IV: Debugging
www.finebook.ir
Some kinds of changes can be made on the fly and some cannot. Simple things (like fixing an expression formula, changing comments, adding new local variables, adding new
statements to an existing method, etc.) should work fine. If
for some reason execution cannot continue, you will get an
error dialog with the option to continue without making the
change, terminate the program, or terminate and restart it
from the beginning.
TIP
Hot code replace requires special support from the Java
virtual machine that is not present in all versions of Java.
It’s known to work in Sun’s Java Version 1.4.2 and later,
but not all vendors support it. If your Java version does
not support it, you’ll get an error dialog when you try to
save.
The debugger has so many features that it’s impossible to
cover them all here. Part VI covers more advanced topics that
impact running and debugging your program, especially in
the “Launch Configurations” section. But in your first pass
through this book, you may want to continue with Part V,
which covers unit testing. Later, you can go to Part VII to
find out what all those buttons in the Debug and Breakpoint
views do.
The Eclipse online help is also a good resource for information on running and debugging. See the following sections in
the User’s Guide (Help ➝ Help Contents ➝ Java Development
User Guide):
• Concepts ➝ Debugger
• Tasks ➝ Running and debugging
Changing Code on the Fly
www.finebook.ir
|
31
PART V
PART V:
Unit Testing with JUnit
JUnit is a regression testing framework written by Kent Beck
and Erich Gamma. Since Erich is the project leader for
Eclipse’s Java toolkit, it’s only natural that JUnit is well integrated into the IDE.
A Simple Factorial Demo
To try out unit testing in Eclipse, first create a project called
Factorial containing a class called Factorial. Inside that
class, create a factorial( ) method as follows:
public class Factorial {
public static double factorial(int x) {
if (x == 0)
return 1.0;
return x + factorial(x - 1);
}
}
TIP
If you notice the nasty little error in this code, ignore it
for now. That’s part of the demonstration!
32
www.finebook.ir
Creating Test Cases
To test this class, you’ll need to create a test case for it. A test
case is a class that extends the JUnit TestCase class and contains test methods that exercise your code. To create a test
case, right-click on Factorial.java in the Package Explorer
and select New ➝ JUnit Test Case.
TIP
If you get a dialog offering to add the JUnit library to the
build path, select Yes.
A dialog window will come up with the name of the test case
(FactorialTest) already filled in, along with the name of the
class being tested. Click Next to show the Test Methods dialog, select the factorial(int) method, and click Finish to
generate the test case. Eclipse will then generate some code
for you, similar to the following:
public class FactorialTest extends TestCase {
public void testFactorial( ) {
}
}
Now, all you need to do is supply the contents of the
testFactorial( ) method. JUnit provides a number of static
methods that you call in your tests to make assertions about
your program’s behavior. See Table 5 for a list.
Table 5. JUnit assertion methods
Method
Description
assertEquals( )
assertNotEquals( )
See if two objects or primitives have the same value.
assertSame( )
assertNotSame( )
See if two objects are the same object.
assertTrue()
assertFalse( )
Test a Boolean expression.
assertNull( )
assertNotNull( )
Test for a null object.
Creating Test Cases |
www.finebook.ir
33
To test the factorial( ) method, call the method with a few
sample values and make sure it returns the right results.
Now, insert a blank line and press Ctrl+Space (this brings up
the code assist feature, which is discussed in Part VI); you will
discover that JUnit supplies a version of assertEquals( ) that
takes three arguments. The first two are the values to compare, the last is a “fuzz factor;” assertEquals( ) will fail if the
difference between the supplied values is greater than the
fuzz factor. Supply the value you expect the method to return
as the first parameter; use the method call itself as the second. For example,
public void testFactorial( ) {
assertEquals(1.0,
Factorial.factorial(0), 0.0);
assertEquals(1.0,
Factorial.factorial(1), 0.0);
assertEquals(120.0,
Factorial.factorial(5), 0.0);
}
Feel free to insert a few more assertions in this method or
add additional test methods.
You can also override the setUp( ) and tearDown( ) methods,
respectively, to create and destroy any resources needed by
each test, such as a network connection or file handle.
TIP
All test methods must start with the word “test” so JUnit
can figure out which methods to run. JUnit will ignore
any methods in the test class that it doesn’t recognize.
Running Tests
To run the test case, right-click on FactorialTest.java and
select Run As ➝ JUnit Test. The JUnit view appears, and
your tests are off and running. In this case, a red progress bar
34 |
Part V: Unit Testing with JUnit
www.finebook.ir
and a special icon next to the view title indicate that something went wrong (see Figure 22).
Figure 22. The JUnit view shows a summary of the last test run.
If you double-click on the test class or method name in the
Failures list, Eclipse will open that test in the editor. Doubleclick on a line in the Failure Trace to go to a specific line
number.
TIP
The best practice if a test fails is to set a breakpoint on the
failing line and then use the debugger to diagnose the
problem. Just select Debug instead of Run to run the
debugger.
When you examine the test, you can see that the factorial
function is not being calculated correctly, due to an error in
the formula. To correct the error, replace the + with a *:
return x * factorial(x - 1);
Running Tests
www.finebook.ir
|
35
Now, rerun your tests (Ctrl+F11). You shouldn’t see any failures; instead, you should see a green bar, indicating success.
Test First
Having a good suite of tests is important—so important, that
many developers advocate writing the tests for new code
before a single line of the code itself! This is called test driven
development, or TDD for short. Such tests represent the
requirements that your code must satisfy in order to be considered correct.
To see how Eclipse makes TDD simple, keep the unit test
you just created, but delete the Factorial.java file (select it in
the Package Explorer and press Delete). The editor for the
FactorialTest class will shown an error immediately because
the Factorial class is not defined anymore. This simulates
the state you would be in if you had written your test class
first.
Put the text cursor on the first line that has an error and press
Ctrl+1 (Edit ➝ Quick Fix). Select the “Create class ‘Factorial’”
option and press Enter. When the New Java Class dialog
appears, press Enter to accept the defaults.
Now, go back to the FactorialTest editor and note that the
compiler complains that there is no factorial(int) method.
Press Ctrl+1 to create one.
Unfortunately, the current version of Eclipse is not always
smart enough to figure out the right return type, so you may
need to change the generated return type to be a double. Use a
dummy return value (0.0) for now. At this point, Factorial.
java should look something like this:
public static double factorial(int i) {
return 0.0;
}
36 |
Part V: Unit Testing with JUnit
www.finebook.ir
TIP
Of course, this is not the right way to calculate a factorial, but all you want to do at this point is get the program
to compile again.
Now you have a test case, a little bit of code, and no errors—
so try running the tests. Unsurprisingly, they fail. At this
point in actual TDD, you would go back to the code being
tested and fix it so that it passes the tests, then add another
test, make that work, and repeat the process until done.
Compare this technique with what most people typically do.
They write a bunch of code first, then write a trivial little test
program to exercise that code (maybe something with a
main( ) method and a few println( ) statements). Once that
test is working, they throw the test away and assume their
class will never break again.
Don’t ever throw tests away! Nurture them, slowly add to
them, and run them often, preferably as part of an automated build and test system. Techniques even exist to create
unit tests for user interfaces.
TIP
When you get a bug report from your users, your first impulse may be to fix the bug. Instead, stop and write a unit
test that fails because of the bug. Then, change the code
so the test works. This ensures your fix actually solves the
problem and helps improve your tests over time.
The JUnit view is covered in more detail in Part VII. If you
want to learn more about unit testing best practices, see:
http://www.junit.org
JUnit home page
http://www.testdriven.com
Resource for test driven development
Test First
www.finebook.ir
|
37
PART VI
PART VI:
Tips and Tricks
The Eclipse IDE has an incredibly rich set of features, but
many of them are hidden from view. With a little digging,
you can discover its secrets and get the most out of the environment. This part of the book gets you started with several
useful but less visible features.
Code Assist
The Java editor is always paying attention to what you type,
ready to offer helpful suggestions through a feature called
code assist (also called content assist). To use it, go to the Java
editor in the Hello example and start a new statement in the
main( ) method. Begin typing the following:
System.
Pause after the period. A code assist window (similar to that
shown in Figure 23) will appear. The window shows you all
the valid possibilities at this point. Type the letter o and the
choices will narrow down to out. Press Enter to accept this
choice. Given the long names most Java programs use, this
can be a real time-saver.
Besides reducing typing, code assist is especially handy when
you are exploring unfamiliar territory—for example, making
calls to a library you haven’t used before. Code assist is activated automatically by certain keystrokes—like the period in
the previous example—but you can also invoke it at any time
by pressing Ctrl+Space (Edit ➝ Content Assist). This feature
38
www.finebook.ir
Figure 23. Code assist tells you what comes next and displays any
Javadoc (if the source is available).
is fully configurable in the Java editor preferences (Window
➝ Preferences ➝ Java ➝ Editor).
Templates
Eclipse provides a shorthand way of entering text called templates. For example, in the Java editor, if you type for and
press Ctrl+Space, the code assist window will pop up as
before, but this time it will display a few templates that start
with the word “for” (see Figure 24).
Figure 24. Editor templates are shorthand for entering boilerplate
text (e.g., for loops).
Selecting the first one will cause code similar to this to
appear in the editor:
for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
}
Templates
www.finebook.ir
|
39
The cursor highlights the first variable i. If you start typing,
all three occurrences of that variable will be modified. Pressing Tab will cause the variable array to be selected; pressing
Tab again will put the cursor on the blank line between the
braces so you can supply the body of the loop.
TIP
If you try this, you may see different variable names.
Eclipse guesses which variables to use based on the surrounding code.
For a list of all predefined templates, and to create your own
or export them to an XML file, see Window ➝ Preferences ➝
Java ➝ Editor ➝ Templates.
Automatic Typing
Closely related to code assist is a feature called automatic
typing. If you’re following along with the earlier example
shown in Figure 23, the text cursor should be positioned
after System.out. Type .println( (that is, period, println,
opening parenthesis). The Java editor will type the closing
parenthesis for you automatically. Now, type a double quote,
and the closing quote appears. Type in some text and then
press the Tab key. Tab advances to the next valid place for
input, which is after the closing quote. Hit Tab again, and
the cursor advances to the end. Type a semicolon to finish
the statement.
TIP
Code assist and automatic typing take a little getting used
to. At first you may be tempted to turn them off, but I
suggest you give it time and try to learn to work with
them. After a while, you’ll wonder how you ever got by
without the extra support.
40 |
Part VI: Tips and Tricks
www.finebook.ir
Refactoring
Refactoring means transforming code without changing its
functionality. Consider renaming, which is the simplest form
of refactoring. If you rename a local variable from rose to
daisy, it would smell as sweet.
Much has been written on refactoring, such as Refactoring:
Improving the Design of Existing Code (Addison Wesley).
Before Eclipse and similar tools were available, programmers had to do refactoring manually or with simple text substitutions. For example, in the vi editor, running the
command :1,$s/rose/daisy/g will replace “rose” with “daisy”
everywhere in the current file.
If you’ve ever tried this, you know it’s usually a bad idea.
Your simple search-and-replace operation can change more
than just the variable you intended, even with a clever substitution string. Plus, if you need to change multiple files, you’ll
have to go to a scripting language such as Perl.
Here’s how it works in Eclipse. To rename a symbol (i.e., a
class, method, variable, etc.), select it in the editor and press
Alt+Shift+R (Refactor ➝ Rename). Type in the new name
and press Enter to perform the change. Done!
If you like, you can select the Preview button before performing the changes; this will show you what the modified source
will look like (see Figure 25). You can also undo the refactoring (Ctrl+Z or Edit ➝ Undo) if you change your mind.
Here’s another handy refactoring supported by Eclipse: to
move a class from one package to another, simply go to the
Package Explorer view and drag the file to where you want it.
Eclipse will take care of changing the package statement in the
file and in all the other class files that refer to it. Neat, huh?
Eclipse implements over a dozen different types of refactorings, and more are being added all the time. See the Java
Development User Guide (Window ➝ Help Contents ➝ Java
Refactoring
www.finebook.ir
|
41
Figure 25. You can preview the changes that any of Eclipse’s
refactorings would make.
Development User Guide) under Reference ➝ Refactoring for
more information.
Hover Help
You’ve seen that code assist is a good way to explore an
unfamiliar API. Another useful tool is hover help. To use
hover help, simply move the mouse cursor over a symbol you
want to know more about and pause for a moment. For
example, try hovering over println in System.out.println. A
little pop-up window will appear, giving you a short description of the method.
For best results, you need access to the source code of the
symbol you are examining. For Java library methods, the
source comes with the JDK (J2SE SDK) package. Eclipse can
usually figure out how to find this source code on its own,
but see Window ➝ Preferences ➝ Java ➝ Installed JREs to
configure the JDK’s location.
42 |
Part VI: Tips and Tricks
www.finebook.ir
If you are using code from a third-party JAR file, the source is
often provided in a separate file or a subdirectory. You can
tell Eclipse about this location by right-clicking on the JAR
file in the Package Explorer and selecting Properties ➝ Java
Source Attachment.
If you don’t have the source code, but you have the API documentation (Javadoc) in HTML form, select the symbol you
want information on and press Shift+F2 (Navigate ➝ Open
External Javadoc). To make this work, you have to configure
the Javadoc URL in the properties for the JAR file: right-click
on the JAR file and select Properties ➝ Javadoc Location.
Hyperlinks
Did you know there is a web browser built into the Java editor? Well, there is—sort of. The editor lets you navigate
around your program as if it were a web site. Hold down the
Ctrl key and move your mouse through your source code. An
underline will appear to indicate hyperlinked symbols. You
can leave the mouse cursor over the symbol to see its definition, or click on it to open the declaration in the editor.
Like a browser, Eclipse maintains a history of all the pages
you’ve visited. Use the Back command ( ; Alt+Left; or Navigate ➝ Left) to go to the previous location, and use Forward
( ; Alt+Right; or Navigate ➝ Right) to go to the next one.
Quick Fixes
Whenever you make a syntax error in your program,
Eclipse’s background compiler detects it immediately and
draws an error indicator (affectionately known as the red
squiggle) under the offending code. In addition to simply
detecting the problem, Eclipse can usually offer an automatic program correction, called a quick fix.
Quick Fixes
www.finebook.ir
|
43
For example, try misspelling the System.out method println
as printline. Press Ctrl+1 (Edit ➝ Quick Fix) to see several
possible fixes. One of them will be Change to println(..).
Press the down arrow to see a preview of each proposed
change; press Enter to accept the one you want.
The Quick Fix command can also make suggestions for small
source transformations on lines that don’t have errors. For
example, if you have code like this:
if (!(hail || thunder))
and you select the text (!(hail || thunder) and press Ctrl+1,
Eclipse will suggest some possible transformations, such as
“Push negation down.” Choosing that particular option
would change the code to:
if (!hail && !thunder)
Searching
The Eclipse IDE provides dozens of different ways to locate
things. Eclipse breaks these up into two major categories:
Find
Look for something in the current file.
Search
Look for something in multiple files.
The Find command (Ctrl+F or Edit ➝ Find/Replace) is just a
run-of-the-mill text locator like you would see in any editor.
You can look for plain strings or full regular expressions, and
you can optionally substitute the text you find with other
text. The shortcut to find the next occurrence is Ctrl+K.
A handy variant on Find is incremental find, a feature borrowed from the Emacs editor. Press Ctrl+J (Edit ➝ Incremental Find Next) and start typing the text you’re looking for.
The selection will move to the next occurrence as you type.
44 |
Part VI: Tips and Tricks
www.finebook.ir
Searches are much more interesting. To start with, Eclipse
supports locating strings and regular expressions in many
files at once. You can search the entire workspace, just the
current project, or any subset (called a working set) that you
define. To do this kind of search, select Search ➝ File....
Eclipse can also do a full language-aware search. Since
Eclipse has its own built-in Java compiler, it understands the
difference between, say, a method named fact and a field
named fact, or even between two methods that have the
same names but take different parameters, such as fact(int)
and fact(double). This kind of search is available by selecting Search ➝ Java....
These searches and more are accessible through the Search
dialog ( ; Ctrl+H; or Search ➝ Search). The most common
variations also have direct menus or shortcuts of their own.
For example, to find all references to a symbol, select the
symbol and press Ctrl+Shift+G (or Search ➝ References ➝
Workspace). To find the symbol’s declaration, press Ctrl+G
(Search ➝ Declarations ➝ Workspace). To find only those
places where the symbol is modified, try Search ➝ Write
Access ➝ Workspace.
TIP
Current versions of Eclipse don’t allow you to perform
searches on arbitrary files in the filesystem, but you can
use an advanced option under File ➝ New ➝ Folder to
link outside directories into your workspace and then
search them.
All search results will appear, naturally enough, in the Search
view. See Part VII for more details on that view.
Searching
www.finebook.ir
|
45
Scrapbook Pages
A scrapbook page is a way to create and test snippets of code
without all the trappings of normal Java code. In some ways,
it’s like working in a scripting language, but you have the full
expressiveness of Java in addition to being able to make calls
into any of your code or any of the system libraries.
To create a scrapbook page, select File ➝ New ➝ Other... ➝
Java ➝ Java Run/Debug ➝ Scrapbook Page. Enter the name
of the page—for example, test—and click Finish (or just
press Enter). A new editor page will open for test.jpage.
In the blank scrapbook page, try typing in an expression like
123/456, press Ctrl+A to select the expression, and press
Ctrl+Shift+D (Run ➝ Display) to run it and display the
result. (The answer in this case is (int) 0 because both num-
bers are integers and the result was truncated.) Note that the
result is selected, so you can copy it quickly (or press Backspace to remove it from the page).
Next, try entering Math.PI and displaying its result. This
works because the scrapbook page already has all the system
libraries imported, including the Math class. If you need a particular import, you can bring up the context menu and select
Set Imports....
Let’s try something a little more complicated. Type in this
snippet of code:
double d = 3.14;
System.out.println(d);
Now select the snippet and press Ctrl+U (Run ➝ Execute) to
execute it. The output will appear in the Console window.
Execute is exactly like Display except that Execute doesn’t
show the return value (if any).
You can execute loops or even call methods in your regular
programs from the scrapbook page. This is useful for trying
out new ideas or just for simple debugging.
46 |
Part VI: Tips and Tricks
www.finebook.ir
Java Build Path
If you’ve done any Java programming before, you’re familiar
with the Java classpath—a list of directories and JAR files
containing Java classes that make up the program. Usually
this is controlled by an environment variable (CLASSPATH) or a
command-line option (-cp).
In Eclipse, classpath details are a little more complicated.
The first thing to realize is that Eclipse doesn’t use the
CLASSPATH environment variable. It understands and controls
the location of all classes itself. Additionally, Eclipse makes a
distinction between runtime and build (compile) time. In
Eclipse terminology, classpath refers only to the runtime class
list, while build path refers to the compile-time list. These
two paths may be different, but, by default, they will both be
set to the list you specify in the build path.
To see the build path, right-click on your project and select
Properties ➝ Java Build Path. A dialog will appear, with the
tabs described in Table 6.
Table 6. Java Build Path tabs
Tab name
Description
Source
Tell the Java compiler where your source code is located. Each
source directory is the root of a package tree. You can also control
where generated output files (such as .class files) go.
Projects
Make the current project depend on other projects. Classes in the
other projects will be recognized at build time and runtime. The
other projects do not have to be built into a JAR file before
referring to them in Eclipse; this cuts down on development time.
Libraries
Pull in code that is not in Eclipse projects, such as JAR files. See
Table 7 for the kinds of locations you can access.
Order and Export
If other projects are dependent on this one, expose (or don’t
expose) symbols in the current project to the other projects.
In addition to going through the Java Build Path dialog, you
can right-click on directories and JAR files in the Package
Java Build Path
www.finebook.ir
|
47
Explorer view and select commands under the Build Path
menu to add and remove items from the build path.
The Libraries tab is very flexible about the locations it allows
you to specify for JARs and class files. Other features in
Eclipse use similar lists, so if you understand this tab, it will
help you understand those features as well. Table 7 explains
the buttons on the Libraries tab.
Table 7. JAR and class locations in the Java Build Path
Button name
Description
Add JARs...
Specify JAR files in the workspace (this project or other
projects).
Add External JARs...
Specify full pathnames for JAR files outside the workspace (not
recommended for team projects).
Add Variable...
Use a symbolic variable name (like JRE_LIB or ECLIPSE_
HOME) to refer to a JAR file outside the workspace.
Add Library...
Refer to a directory outside the workspace containing several
JAR files.
Add Class Folder...
Refer to a workspace directory containing individual class files.
Launch Configurations
How do you specify command-line parameters to your program or change the Java VM options that are used to invoke
your program? Every time you select Run As ➝ Java Application on a new class that has a main( ) method, Eclipse creates a launch configuration for you. A launch configuration is
the set of all the options used to run your program.
To change those options, select Run ➝ Run... and locate
your configuration in the dialog. Click on the configuration
to see all the options in a series of tabbed pages on the righthand side of the window (the tabs are described in Table 8).
You can also create new configurations in this dialog.
48 |
Part VI: Tips and Tricks
www.finebook.ir
Table 8. Launch configuration tabs
Tab name
Description
Main
Specify the project and the name of the Main class.
Arguments
Set the program arguments, the Java VM arguments, and the working
directory in which to start the program.
JRE
Specify the version of Java used to run the program (this can be
different than the one used to compile it).
Classpath
Set the list of JARs and classes available at runtime.
Source
Locate the source code inside or outside the workspace.
Environment Pass environment variables to the program.
Common
Miscellaneous options.
Many more features of Eclipse are waiting to be discovered,
and new ones are added in each release. The “Tips and
Tricks” section of the online help (Help ➝ Tips and Tricks)
is a good place to look for the kinds of little nuggets that can
save you time or let you do something new. You can also find
a useful command and keyboard shortcut listing in the
Appendix.
Launch Configurations
www.finebook.ir
|
49
PART VII
PART VII:
Views
Eclipse has so many different views and toolbars that it’s easy
to get overwhelmed trying to decipher them all. Consider
this part of the book to be your own personal secret decoder
ring.
Breakpoints View
The Breakpoints view (in the Debug perspective) shows a list
of all the breakpoints you have set in your projects. Use it to
enable and disable breakpoints, edit their properties, and set
exception breakpoints (which trigger a stop when a Java
exception occurs). Table 9 lists the commands on the Breakpoints view toolbar.
Table 9. Breakpoints view toolbar
Icon
Description
Remove the selected breakpoint(s).
Remove all breakpoints in all projects.
Show/hide breakpoints not valid in the selected remote debug target
(toggle).
Edit the source code at the breakpoint.
Temporarily disable all breakpoints (toggle).
Expand the breakpoint tree.
50
www.finebook.ir
Table 9. Breakpoints view toolbar (continued)
Icon
Description
Collapse the breakpoint tree.
When the program stops, highlight the breakpoint that caused it to stop
(toggle).
Create a breakpoint for a Java exception.
Double-click on a breakpoint to edit the code at that line. To
fine-tune when the breakpoint will be triggered, right-click
on the breakpoint and select Properties. Table 10 shows
some of the properties you can set. The exact options that
appear will vary depending on the breakpoint’s type.
Table 10. Breakpoint properties
Property
Description
Enabled
Indicates whether the breakpoint is currently in effect.
Hit Count
Specifies how many times the breakpoint must be hit before the
programs stops.
Condition
Stops only when the expression is true or changes value.
Suspend Policy
Pauses the whole program or just a single thread.
Filtering
Limits the breakpoint’s effect to the given thread(s).
In the Eclipse Java development environment, an expression
is anything you can put on the righthand side of a Java
assignment statement. This can include ordinary variables,
fields, method calls, arithmetic formulae, and so forth.
A conditional breakpoint is a breakpoint that doesn’t stop
every time. For example, if you’re debugging a crash that
occurs on the 100th time through a loop, you could put a
breakpoint at the top of the loop and use a conditional
expression like i == 99, or you could specify a hit count of
100—whichever is more convenient.
Breakpoints View
www.finebook.ir
|
51
Console View
The Console view displays the output of programs that are
run under the control of Eclipse. Use it to view standard output or error output from your Java programs, or from Ant,
CVS, or any other external program launched from Eclipse.
You can also type into the Console view to provide standard
input.
The Console view is closely tied to the Debug view. It keeps
a separate page for each program listed in the Debug view,
whether or not the program is currently running. Table 11
shows the commands on the Console view’s toolbar.
Table 11. Console view toolbar
Icon
Description
Terminate the current program.
Remove all record of previously terminated programs.
Clear all the lines in the current console page.
Keep the view from scrolling as new lines are added to the end (toggle).
Prevent the view from automatically switching to other pages (toggle).
Switch to an existing console page.
Open a new console page (for example, to see CVS output).
TIP
If your program prints a stack traceback, the Console
view turns each line into a hyperlink. Click on a link to go
to the location indicated in the traceback.
Options for the Console view can be found under Window ➝
Preferences ➝ Run/Debug ➝ Console.
52 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
Debug View
The Debug view (in the Debug perspective) lists all programs that were launched by Eclipse. Use it to pause program execution, view tracebacks, and locate the cause of
deadlocks (more on this shortly). Table 12 shows the commands on the Debug view’s toolbar.
Table 12. Debug view toolbar
Icon
Description
Continue running a program or thread that was previously paused.
Pause the current program or thread.
Terminate the current program.
Disconnect from a remote debugger.
Remove all record of previously terminated programs.
Single step into method calls.
Single step over method calls.
Continue execution until the current method returns.
Rewind execution to the beginning of the selected stack frame (requires VM
support).
Enable/disable step filters (toggle).
Step filters prevent you from having to stop in classes,
packages, initializers, or constructors that you don’t find
interesting. The list of filters is configured in Window ➝
Preferences ➝ Java ➝ Debug ➝ Step Filtering.
One option in the Debug view menu deserves a special mention: Show Monitors. Monitors are Java thread synchronization points. Deadlocks occur when one thread is waiting on a
monitor that will never be released. When you turn on the
Show Monitors option, the Debug view will display a list of
monitors owned or waited on by each thread. Any deadlocks will be highlighted.
Debug View
www.finebook.ir
|
53
Declaration View
The Declaration view (in the Java perspective) shows the
Java source code that defined the current selection. Use this
view to see the declaration of types and members as you
move around your code, without having to switch editors.
The toolbar for the Declaration view contains the single icon
shown in Table 13.
Table 13. Declaration view toolbar
Icon
Description
Open an editor on the input source code.
TIP
The declaration can also be seen by holding down the
Ctrl key and hovering the mouse pointer over the type or
member in the Java editor.
Display View
The Display view (in the Debug perspective) shows expression results in an unstructured format. Use it as a temporary
work area in which to place expressions and calculate their
values. Table 14 shows the commands on the Display view’s
toolbar.
Table 14. Display view toolbar
Icon
Description
Inspect the selected expression.
Display the selected expression.
Evaluate the selected expression.
Erase everything in the Display view.
54 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
There are four different ways to evaluate expressions in the
Eclipse debugger:
Inspect (Ctrl+Shift+I or Run ➝ Inspect)
Show the value of an expression in an expandable tree
format. Optionally, copy it into the Expressions view.
The value is never recalculated.
Display (Ctrl+Shift+D or Run ➝ Display)
Show the value of an expression in a simple string format. Optionally, copy it into the Display view. The value
is never recalculated.
Execute (Ctrl+U or Run ➝ Execute)
Evaluate the expression but don’t show its value.
Watch (Run ➝ Watch)
Copy an expression into the Expressions view. Its value
is recalculated every time you do a Step or Resume
command.
For example, in the Java editor, you could highlight an
expression such as array[i-1] and press Ctrl+Shift+D. A
pop-up window appears, showing the current value of that
array element. Press Ctrl+Shift+D again and the expression
is copied to the Display view.
If this view looks familiar to you, that’s because it’s essentially an unnamed scrapbook page.
TIP
See the “Scrapbook Pages” section in Part V for more information on scrapbook pages.
Error Log View
The Error Log view is not included by default in any perspective, but you can open it with Window ➝ Show View ➝
Error Log. Use it to view internal Eclipse errors and stack
Error Log View
www.finebook.ir
|
55
dumps when reporting problems to the developers. It can
also display warnings and informational messages logged by
Eclipse plug-ins. Table 15 shows the commands on the Error
Log view’s toolbar.
Table 15. Error Log view toolbar
Icon
Description
Export the error log to another file.
Import the error log from another file.
Clear the view without modifying the logfile.
Clear the view and erase the logfile.
Open the logfile in an external text editor.
Reload the view with the contents of the logfile.
TIP
See “Reporting Bugs” in Part IX for instructions on how
to report problems in Eclipse.
Expressions View
The Expressions view (in the Debug perspective) shows a list
of expressions and their values in the debugger. Use it to
examine program states persistently as you step through your
code, and to set breakpoints when fields are accessed or
modified. This view is similar to the Variables view
(described later in Part VII) except that the Expressions view
shows only expressions that you have explicitly added.
Table 16 describes the Expressions view’s toolbar.
Table 16. Expressions view toolbar
Icon
Description
Show full type names (toggle).
Show logical structure (toggle).
56 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
Table 16. Expressions view toolbar (continued)
Icon
Description
Collapse all the expanded trees in the view.
Remove the current expression from the view.
Remove all expressions in the view.
There are three ways of looking at any expression in the
Eclipse IDE; this is true for both the Expressions view and
the Variables view:
Literal mode
The fields, and nothing but the fields
Logical mode
The way you normally think about the object
Details pane
The string representation (as returned by the toString( )
method)
Consider a java.lang.LinkedList object. If you look at it literally (as in Figure 26), you’ll see it contains some internal
data structures, such as the number of items and a reference
to the first item. But if you look at it logically (Figure 27), it
simply contains a list of objects.
Figure 26. Literal mode shows an object’s internal data structures.
Expressions View |
www.finebook.ir
57
Figure 27. Logical mode shows what the object really means.
Additionally, the Expressions and Variables views support an
optional text area called the Details pane. This pane shows
the string representation of the selected item (see Figure 28).
Use the view menu to arrange the panes horizontally or vertically, or to disable the Details pane altogether.
Figure 28. The Details pane shows an object’s string representation.
TIP
You can create your own ways of looking at expressions
by defining new Logical Structures and Detail Formatters
in the debugger preferences (Window ➝ Preferences ➝
Java ➝ Debug).
Hierarchy View
The Hierarchy view (in the Java perspective) shows the
supertypes and subtypes for the selected Java object. Use it
to explore the type hierarchy, fields, and methods for a class
58 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
or interface by selecting the type in the Java editor or Package Explorer view and pressing F4 (Navigate ➝ Open Type
Hierarchy).
The Hierarchy view has two panes, each with its own toolbar. The top pane is the Type Hierarchy tree (see Table 17),
which lists the object’s supertypes and subtypes. The
optional bottom pane is the Member list (Table 18). It shows
fields and methods. Double-click on any type or member to
edit its source code.
Table 17. Type Hierarchy toolbar
Icon
Description
Show the type hierarchy from object down.
Show the supertype hierarchy from the current type up.
Show the subtype hierarchy from the current type down.
View a previous type in the history.
Table 18. Member list toolbar
Icon
Description
Lock the member list and show inherited members in the Type Hierarchy
pane (toggle).
Show all inherited members (toggle).
Sort members by defining type (toggle).
Show/hide fields (toggle).
Show/hide statics (toggle).
Show/hide nonpublic members (toggle).
TIP
Press Ctrl+T in the Java editor to show the type hierarchy in a searchable pop-up window.
Hierarchy View |
www.finebook.ir
59
Javadoc View
The Javadoc view (in the Java perspective) shows Java documentation from comments at the definition of the current
selection. Use it if you need a larger, permanent version of
the pop-up window you get when you hover the mouse
pointer over a type or member in the Java editor. The toolbar for the Javadoc view contains the single icon shown in
Table 19.
Table 19. Javadoc view toolbar
Icon
Description
Open the input source code.
Like Hover Help, the Javadoc view requires access to the
source code.
TIP
See “Hover Help” in Part VI for more information.
JUnit View
The JUnit view (in the Java perspective) shows the progress
and results of JUnit tests. Use it to see what tests failed and
why (see Part V for instructions on how to run unit tests).
The JUnit view has two panes, each with its own toolbar.
The JUnit tests pane (see Table 20 for toolbar commands)
lists the tests that failed (or a hierarchy of all tests). When
you select a failed test in this pane, the Failure trace pane (see
Table 21 for toolbar commands) shows a traceback pinpointing where the failure occurred. Double-click on any test
name, class name, or traceback line to edit the source code at
that point.
60 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
Table 20. JUnit tests toolbar
Icon
Description
Go to the next failed test.
Go to the previous failed test.
Stop the current test run.
Rerun all tests.
Rerun just the tests that failed.
Keep the test list from scrolling.
Table 21. Failure trace toolbar
Icon
Description
Filter unwanted stack frames from failure tracebacks.
Compare the expected and actual values on a JUnit assertion (string values
only).
Use the JUnit preference page (Window ➝ Preferences ➝
Java ➝ JUnit) to configure the list of stack frames to filter out.
Navigator View
The Navigator view (in the Resource perspective) shows all
projects in the workspace as they exist on disk. Use it to see
the literal directories and files. Contrast this with the Package Explorer view, which shows a Java-centric representation. Table 22 describes the Navigator view’s toolbar.
Table 22. Navigator view toolbar
Icon
Description
Go back in the navigator history.
Go forward in the navigator history.
Go up to the parent directory.
Collapse all the expanded trees in this view.
Link selections with the editor.
Navigator View
www.finebook.ir
|
61
Right-click on a directory and select Go Into to focus on that
directory. Then you can use the Back, Forward, and Up toolbar buttons to move around in the tree.
Outline View
The Outline view (in the Java and Debug perspectives) shows
a tree representation of the resource being edited. Use it to
quickly find the major elements of your class and study the
overall API you have designed. In order for the outline to
appear, the current editor must support it. Table 23
describes the Outline view’s toolbar.
Table 23. Outline toolbar
Icon
Description
Sort members alphabetically (toggle).
Show/hide fields (toggle).
Show/hide statics (toggle).
Show/hide nonpublic members (toggle).
Show/hide local types (toggle).
TIP
Press Ctrl+O in the Java editor to show the outline in a
searchable pop-up window.
Package Explorer View
The Package Explorer view (in the Java perspective) shows
all projects in the workspace using logical Java groupings.
Use it as your primary window into the world of your Java
source code. Table 24 shows the Package Explorer view’s
toolbar.
62 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
Table 24. Package Explorer toolbar
Icon
Description
Go back in the Package Explorer history.
Go forward in the Package Explorer history.
Go up to the parent directory.
Collapse all the expanded trees in this view.
Link selections with the editor.
The Package Explorer view is a much more powerful version
of the Navigator view, custom tailored for Java development. The main difference is that the Package Explorer
understands Java source directories and packages. For example, suppose your project has a package named a.b.c. You
will see the package a.b.c in the Package Explorer view,
while in the Navigator view, you will see the directory tree (a
containing b containing c).
Views such as the Package Explorer support thousands of icon
variations made from combining base icons (for simple objects
like packages and files) with decorator icons, also known as
decorations (for errors, warnings, accessibility, etc.). Tables 25
and 26 show a few of the common icons you should become
familiar with.
Table 25. Common base icons
Icon
Description
Project
Source folder
Plain folder
Java library
Java package
Java file
Scrapbook page
Class file
Package Explorer View
www.finebook.ir
|
63
Table 25. Common base icons (continued)
Icon
Description
JAR file
Plain file
Java class
Java interface
Public method
Private method
Protected method
Public field
Private field
Protected field
Table 26. Common decorations
Icon
Description
Error
Warning
Version controlled
Inherited
Deprecated
Abstract
Constructor
Final
Java related
Static
Problems View
The Problems view (in the Java perspective) shows all the
errors and warnings in the workspace. Double-click on a line
in this view to jump directly to the offending source line.
Table 27 describes the Problems view toolbar.
64 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
Table 27. Problems view toolbar
Icon
Description
Delete the selected problem(s).
Filter out some problems.
TIP
You’ll often want to use a filter to see just the problems
for the current project or perhaps just the currently selected resource.
Right-click on a problem to see a context menu. One of the
options there is Quick Fix (Ctrl+1). Use this to quickly repair
common errors.
TIP
See “Quick Fixes” in Part VI for more information.
Search View
The Search view (in the Java perspective) shows the results of
any search operation. Use it to filter and select just the
matches you’re interested in. Table 28 describes the Search
view toolbar.
Table 28. Search view toolbar
Icon
Description
Go to next match.
Go to previous match.
Remove selected match(es) from the view.
Remove all matches from the view.
Expand the search tree.
Collapse the search tree.
Search View
www.finebook.ir
|
65
Table 28. Search view toolbar (continued)
Icon
Description
Stop a running search.
Go back to a previous search in the history.
Group by project.
Group by package.
Group by file.
Group by type.
The Search view can show its results in either flat mode (a
plain listing) or hierarchical mode (an expandable tree). The
grouping actions in the toolbar are only available in hierarchical mode. Use the View menu to change modes.
Tasks View
The Tasks view (in the Java perspective) lists all the markers
placed in your source code. Markers are reminders that you
or Eclipse add to the code to indicate something that needs
your attention later. They can be added manually (Edit ➝
Add Bookmark... or Edit ➝ Add Task...), but more commonly the compiler adds them when it encounters a special
comment in your code like this:
// TODO: Revisit this later
The comment strings TODO, FIXME, and XXX are recognized by
default. Add any others that you commonly use in your code
to Window ➝ Preferences ➝ Java ➝ Compiler ➝ Task Tags.
66 |
Part VII: Views
www.finebook.ir
Table 29 describes the Tasks view toolbar.
Table 29. Tasks view toolbar
Icon
Description
Create a new task.
Delete the selected task(s).
Filter out some tasks.
Variables View
The Variables view (in the Debug perspective) shows all the
parameters and local variables in scope during a debugging
session. Use this view to keep an eye on your program’s state
as you step through it. The Variables view toolbar is
described in Table 30.
Table 30. Variables view toolbar
Icon
Description
Show full type names (toggle).
Show logical structure (toggle).
Collapse all the expanded trees in the view.
TIP
If you’re currently stopped in a nonstatic method, the
first item in the Variables view will be this. Expand it to
see your instance variables.
Variables View
www.finebook.ir
|
67
PART VIII
PART VIII:
Short Takes
This pocket guide wouldn’t fit in your pocket if it described
every nuance of Eclipse in detail. However, I want to briefly
mention a few more of Eclipse’s notable features in this part
of the book. Some of these are built into the Eclipse SDK;
some are plug-ins that you need to download and install
yourself.
TIP
The packaging of Eclipse is constantly evolving, so by the
time you read this, you may be able to find downloads
that combine parts of the Eclipse SDK with plug-ins for a
specific task—for example, web development.
In addition, you can find hundreds of plug-ins that extend
Eclipse by searching the community web sites listed in Part IX.
To find out more about any of these features, see the online
help topic or web sites listed in the following sections. Note
that when you install a plug-in, it will often add a new section to the Help Contents that explains how to use it.
CVS
CVS is a popular source management system for projects and
teams of any size. You use a CVS repository to hold the evolving versions of your code, tools, scripts, documentation, and
68
www.finebook.ir
so forth. The Eclipse IDE comes with excellent CVS integration—which makes sense, as CVS is currently used in the
development of all Eclipse projects.
Use the CVS Repository Exploring perspective to see the contents of a CVS repository. There you can define the server
location, and view or check out (make a local copy of) the
code. Eclipse provides a variety of options to keep your local
copy up to date with repository changes, including additional views in the Team Synchronizing perspective. A terrific compare and merge utility (one of my favorite features in
Eclipse) makes handling conflicts easy.
A history of all changes for a specific file (resource) can be
seen in the CVS Resource History view. Double-click on a
line in this view to open an editor on that revision, or select
two revisions, right-click, and select the Compare command
to see their differences. Another useful CVS command is
Show Annotation. This lets you scroll through a particular
file and see who touched each line, when, and why.
Online help
Help ➝ Help Contents ➝ Workbench User Guide ➝
Concepts ➝ Team programming with CVS
Web sites
http://www.cvshome.org
http://dev.eclipse.org
Ant
Ant is the Java-based successor to the venerable make tool.
You can use Ant for automating almost any development
task, from compiling to testing to packaging and deployment. Eclipse can import and export Ant-based projects, edit
Ant files, and run Ant tasks manually or as part of a build
process. Next to the Java editor, the Ant editor is one of the
most advanced editors available in the IDE, with support for
code assist, outlining, and formatting.
Ant
www.finebook.ir
|
69
Online help
Help ➝ Help Contents ➝ Workbench User Guide ➝
Concepts ➝ External tools ➝ Ant support
Web sites
http://ant.apache.org
http://cruisecontrol.sourceforge.net
Web Tools Platform
Do you write web pages, edit XML, develop Java servlets, or
dream about EJB? Then the Web Tools Platform (WTP)
project is for you. This is a separate download that—when
installed—integrates into your Eclipse SDK installation.
There are two parts to the WTP: web standard tools (covering HTML, XML, XSD, etc.) and Java standard tools (for
JSPs, EJBs, and so forth). This project supports web service
development, server management, debugging code on the
server, and more.
Web site
http://www.eclipse.org/webtools
Testing and Performance
The Test and Performance Tools Platform (TPTP—who
makes up these acronyms?) provides tools and technologies
that bring together traditional profiling, monitoring, tracing,
and testing. For example, you can use it to correlate CPU
usage on one machine with events logged by another.
Web site
http://www.eclipse.org/tptp
70 |
Part VIII: Short Takes
www.finebook.ir
Visual Editor
The Visual Editor project lets you create graphical user interfaces for your programs. It supports round-tripping, which
means you can edit your interface in visual mode (using dragand-drop), switch to source mode to make a few changes,
switch back, and continue seamlessly.
Web site
http://www.eclipse.org/ve
C/C++ Development
Java isn’t the only language that the Eclipse IDE supports.
The C/C++ Development Toolkit (CDT) comes with everything you need for C/C++ development except the tool chain
itself (i.e., the compiler, linker, and debugger). CDT works
with a variety of tools from various embedded systems vendors; for ordinary desktop applications, you can download
and use the free gcc compiler and gdb debugger from the
GNU project.
Web sites
http://www.eclipse.org/cdt
http://www.gnu.org
AspectJ
The Eclipse project is the home of AspectJ, an aspect-oriented
extension to the Java language, along with the AspectJ Development Toolkit (AJDT), which integrates the language into
the Eclipse IDE. AspectJ provides clean modularization of
crosscutting concerns such as error checking, monitoring,
and logging. A related project, the Concern Manipulation
Environment (CME), aims to bring some elements of aspect
programming to pure Java.
AspectJ
www.finebook.ir
|
71
Web sites
http://www.eclipse.org/aspectj
http://www.eclipse.org/cme
Plug-in Development
Under the covers, Eclipse is a completely modular system
with dozens—if not hundreds—of plug-ins working together
on top of a small dynamic runtime. Each plug-in defines
public extension points, which are like the sockets on a
power strip. Other plug-ins contribute extensions that, well,
plug into those sockets. Thus the system organically grows
functionality as more plug-ins are added. At the same time,
the runtime is scalable, so you never have to worry about
blowing a fuse.
The Plug-in Development Environment (PDE) bundled with
the Eclipse SDK lets you define your own plug-ins in order to
extend Eclipse. PDE supports defining and using extension
points, debugging your plug-ins, packaging, and more.
TIP
The source code for Eclipse is freely available; in fact, it’s
bundled with the SDK package you installed. This is a
great resource for learning plug-in programming. File ➝
Import ➝ External Plug-ins and Fragments brings parts of
the code into your workspace.
Online help
Help ➝ Help Contents ➝ Platform Plug-in Developer
Guide
Web sites
http://www.eclipse.org/articles
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks
72 |
Part VIII: Short Takes
www.finebook.ir
Rich Client Platform
Because of the flexible open source license under which
Eclipse is released, you can use Eclipse code and technologies in your own programs, even if they are not open source.
A subset of the Eclipse SDK called the Rich Client Platform
(RCP) provides basic functionality common to most desktop
applications, such as windowing and menu support, online
help, user preferences, and more. By building your own custom application on top of this framework, you can cut the
development time of your projects significantly.
Since Eclipse technology is all based on plug-ins, the PDE is
used to write RCP programs. You can brand your applications with custom icons, window titles, and a splash screen,
and you can deploy them via traditional zip files, professional installers, or even JNLP. A number of templates and
tutorials are available.
Online help
Help ➝ Help Contents ➝ Platform Plug-in Developer
Guide ➝ Building a Rich Client Platform application
Web sites
http://www.eclipse.org/rcp
http://www.eclipse.org/legal
http://www.eclipsepowered.org
Standard Widget Toolkit
The Eclipse user interface is written in Java using the Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT). SWT uses the native facilities of
your operating system to achieve high performance and fidelity indistinguishable from that of C-based applications. You
can use the same toolkit for your own applications.
Standard Widget Toolkit
www.finebook.ir
|
73
SWT is one of the three main GUI toolkits supported by
Java. The other two are AWT and Swing. SWT provides limited interoperability with these, allowing you to host AWT
and Swing controls inside a SWT application. On Windows,
SWT can even host ActiveX and .NET controls. SWT is
unique in its ability to bring these worlds together.
A framework called JFace is often used with SWT to provide
higher-level concepts, such as viewers, actions, and wizards.
Both SWT and JFace are included with the Eclipse SDK and
RCP packages.
Online help
Help ➝ Help Contents ➝ Platform Plug-in Developer
Guide ➝ Standard Widget Toolkit
Web site
http://www.eclipse.org/swt
74 |
Part VIII: Short Takes
www.finebook.ir
PART
PARTIX:
IX
Help and Community
Welcome to the Eclipse community. Membership is free, and
you’ve already taken the first steps by installing the software
and reading this guide. To help you go further, online help,
web sites, articles, and other resources are available to assist
you, as are thousands of Eclipse enthusiasts from around the
world.
Online Help
Eclipse provides an extensible online help system with details
about the version of Eclipse you’re using and any plug-ins
you have installed. It can be searched and viewed in several
different ways.
Getting Help
The most common way to view online help is to select Help ➝
Help Contents. A separate Help window will open, showing
several help topics. Expand the topics to hone in on the
information you need, or enter a keyword in the Search field
at the top of the window.
Another way to get help is with dynamic help. To use
dynamic help, simply press F1 (or select Help ➝ Dynamic
Help) and an embedded Help view will appear. As your
focus changes to different views and editors, the Help content is updated to show help for what you are doing at the
75
www.finebook.ir
moment. Select Help ➝ Search Help... to find help topics
relevant to the view you’re currently in.
Help Topics
If you install the Eclipse SDK as detailed in Part I, you will
find the following topics listed in the Help contents:
Workbench User Guide
Contains information on how to use the IDE in general,
independent of your programming language.
Java Development User Guide
Discusses how to use the Java language support (editors,
views, etc.) provided by Eclipse.
Platform Plug-in Developer Guide
Covers the concepts and programming interfaces used to
write Eclipse plug-ins.
JDT Plug-in Developer Guide
Covers writing plug-ins specifically for the Java Development Tools.
PDE Guide
Describes how to use the plug-in development environment included in the Eclipse SDK.
TIP
Depending on your options, some of these topics may be
hidden. Click the Show All Topics button to see them all.
Eclipse Web Site
The official Eclipse web site, http://www.eclipse.org, is your
best source of information on Eclipse: the platform, the IDE,
and the community. The design of this site may change over
time, but as of this writing, the major sections are:
76 |
Part IX: Help and Community
www.finebook.ir
About us
Learn about the Eclipse project, how it got started, who
is involved in it, how the governance works, legal questions, logo programs, and so forth.
Projects
Eclipse development is split into top-level projects, subprojects, and components. On the Projects page, you can
see how all this is organized. Drill down to get to FAQs,
documentation, source code, etc.
Download
This area should be familiar from Part I. It’s where you’ll
find the latest prebuilt versions of Eclipse.
Articles
The articles section is full of technical information for
developers using or extending Eclipse. Consider writing
an article yourself to add to the community knowledge
base.
Newsgroups
The main user forums are found here (see the “Newsgroups” section, later in this chapter).
Community
This is where you’ll find out about conferences, user
groups, web sites, books, courses, free and commercial
plug-ins, awards, and much more.
Search
Locate any page at eclipse.org, including newsgroup and
mailing list archives.
Bugs
Find or report bugs and enhancement requests.
Eclipse Web Site
www.finebook.ir
|
77
Community Web Sites
Many individuals and companies have created web sites to
address particular needs of the community. Here are a few of
the most popular ones. More can be found in the Community Resources area of the eclipse.org web site.
EclipseZone (http://www.eclipsezone.com)
An online community by and for Eclipse users everywhere.
Planet Eclipse (http://planeteclipse.org)
Planet Eclipse is a window into the world, work, and
lives of Eclipse users and contributors.
Plug-ins Registry (http://eclipse-plugins.info)
This is a nonprofit registry of Eclipse plug-ins, created
and maintained by Eclipse users.
Eclipse Plugin Central (http://eclipseplugincentral.com)
This site offers a plug-in directory, reviews, ratings,
news, forums, and listings for products and services.
Eclipse Wiki (http://eclipse-wiki.info)
This user-editable web site has FAQs, tips, tricks, and
other useful information.
IBM AlphaWorks (http://alphaworks.ibm.com/eclipse)
Part of IBM’s emerging technologies web site, this is dedicated to Eclipse and WebSphere-related projects and
plug-ins.
IBM developerWorks (http://ibm.com/developerworks/
opensource)
developerWorks hosts a variety of tutorials, articles, and
related information on Eclipse and other open source
projects.
Apache (http://www.apache.org)
Apache software is used throughout Eclipse, and the two
projects collaborate in many areas.
78 |
Part IX: Help and Community
www.finebook.ir
Source Forge (http://sf.net)
A large and growing number of Eclipse plug-ins are being
developed in this open source nexus.
O’Reilly Open Source (http://opensource.oreilly.com)
This O’Reilly Resource Center provides a broad range of
references and links to publications about open source.
Reporting Bugs
The single most important way you can contribute to the
Eclipse community is to report every bug you find, so they
can be fixed. All software has bugs, but too often users do
not take the time to report them. Your ideas for enhancements are also valuable.
Bug reports and enhancement requests are both stored at
eclipse.org in an open source tracking system called Bugzilla.
The only difference between the entries for the two is that all
enhancement requests are marked with a severity of
“enhancement” (in Bugzilla, “bug report” refers to both
types of entries).
TIP
Remember to always use the most recent milestone or
stable version of Eclipse you can find. Why? With a current release, you shorten the time between when a bug
slips in and when you report that bug, making it much
easier to diagnose and fix the problem.
To report a bug or request an enhancement, first go to the
Eclipse home page (http://www.eclipse.org) and select the
“bugs” link. The first time you use Bugzilla, you’ll need to
create an account.
Reporting Bugs
www.finebook.ir
|
79
New Account
Although you can search the database without a Bugzilla
account, you’ll need one to add or modify any entries. Click
the “Create a Bugzilla account” link, enter your email
address and name, and click the “submit” button. The system will create the account and send a confirmation by
email.
Searching
Before creating a new Bugzilla entry, take a moment to
search the database to see if someone else has beaten you to
it. From the main Bugs page, select the “Find a bug report”
link, then enter one or more words in either the Summary
field or the Comment field, and click Search.
If you find an entry that matches your problem or request,
add yourself to the cc list—a list of email addresses that get
copied on any modification to the entry. You may also wish
to vote for the issue in order to indicate your interest. Votes
don’t determine priority by themselves, but they sometimes
do factor in.
Adding an Entry
If you can’t find an existing Bugzilla entry, you’ll need to create a new one. From the main Bugs page, select “Report a
new bug” or “Enter an enhancement/feature request.”
Next, you’ll be prompted for the project. If you’re using the
Eclipse SDK, the choice is simple: for anything relating specifically to Java development, pick JDT; otherwise, pick Platform.
On the next page, select a component. If you’re not sure,
click on the “help” link or just take a guess. Enter a one-line
description of the issue in the Summary field and a more
detailed description in the Description field. When reporting
a bug, supply the steps that someone else will need to follow
to reproduce the problem.
80 |
Part IX: Help and Community
www.finebook.ir
Often when there’s a bug in Eclipse, the system will record
an event in the Eclipse error log. This record contains important information that can help the developers diagnose the
problem. Locate the event in the Error Log view (discussed in
Part VII) and paste it at the end of the Description field.
Click the Commit button to complete the report.
At the time of this writing, I’ve personally entered 367 bug
reports, including 106 enhancement requests; 268 of these
entries have been resolved. In addition, I’m cc’d on 437 bugs
and have commented on 659. While you might not become
that involved, I challenge you to play your part in improving
Eclipse.
Newsgroups
Eclipse user forums are hosted on eclipse.org using ordinary
newsgroups. All newsgroup content is protected by a password in order to control spam. To get the password, go to the
Eclipse home page and select the “newsgroups/user forum”
link; you should see a link to request a password. Submit
your information and the password will be mailed to you.
Although there is a web-based interface for the forums, the
best way to participate is to use a rich client news reader, such
as Thunderbird (http://www.mozilla.org/products/thunderbird).
Enter the news server name (news.eclipse.org), the userid, and
the password in the appropriate place for your reader.
Here are a few newsgroups that I recommend you start with:
eclipse.newcomer
Ask questions about downloading, installing, and getting started with Eclipse in this newsgroup.
eclipse.platform
Come here to participate in technical discussions about
how to use or extend Eclipse.
Newsgroups
www.finebook.ir
|
81
eclipse.platform.jdt
This group is for technical discussions about how to use
the Java Development Tools.
eclipse.foundation
This forum is for general discussions pertaining to the
Eclipse Foundation and its communities and governance.
eclipse.commercial
This group is intended to allow commercial vendors to
post product releases and information about commercial
products based on Eclipse.
Mailing Lists
For the most part, mailing lists at eclipse.org are intended for
use by developers working on day-to-day development of
Eclipse itself. The development mailing lists are the way
design and implementation issues are discussed and decisions voted on by the committers (developers who’ve earned
write access to the source repository).
Anyone can listen in, but questions and discussions about
using Eclipse and Eclipse-based tools or developing plug-ins
should be posted to one of the newsgroups listed previously.
Conclusion
Eclipse is not just an IDE for Java developers, though that’s
how most people are introduced to it. Eclipse technology is
used by everyone from office secretaries running custom RCP
applications to NASA scientists planning Mars Rover missions
(seriously!). From the hobbyist to the professional, from casual
users to committers, Eclipse appeals to all of us for different
reasons, but we’re all part of the community, and we all have
something important to contribute. See you online.
82 |
Part IX: Help and Community
www.finebook.ir
APPENDIX
Commands
Eclipse supports over 350 commands for all aspects of editing, running, and debugging programs. Most of these can be
found on a menu—or submenu—inside Eclipse, while some
are bound to keystrokes. Then there are the ones that are not
normally accessible at all. In order to run those, you must
first bind them to a key (Window ➝ Preferences ➝ General ➝
Keys).
TIP
Press Ctrl+Shift+L (Help ➝ Key Assist...) to see a quick
list of the currently defined keys.
This appendix lists most of the commands available in
Eclipse along with their key bindings and menu paths (if
any). Commands are organized into categories such as Edit
and File, just as you would see them listed in the Keys Preferences. Within each category, the commands are listed in
alphabetical order. The format used is:
Command [Default key bindings]
Main menu path
Some commands can be accessed by two or more equivalent
key sequences. For example, the Copy command’s key bindings are listed as “Ctrl+C | Ctrl+Insert.” The vertical bar
indicates that either Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Insert will work.
83
www.finebook.ir
Edit Commands
Other bindings are actually composed of two keys pressed in
sequence. For example, the key binding for “Quick Assist Rename in file” is shown as “Ctrl+2, R.” The comma indicates you should press Ctrl+2, release, and then press the R
key.
TIP
It sounds more complicated than it really is. If you press
the first key of a multikey sequence and pause, a window
will appear to remind you what to press next.
In the interest of space, only key bindings for the default configuration on Windows are listed. Keys for other platforms
are similar, and you should be able to infer these for yourself. An Emacs-like configuration is also selectable from the
Keys Preferences. Someone has even written a plug-in that
supports vi-style keystrokes (search for it on the plug-in sites
listed in the “Community Web Sites” section in Part IX).
Edit Commands
Add Bookmark [No key binding]
Edit ➝ Add Bookmark...
Add Task [No key binding]
Edit ➝ Add Task...
Content Assist [Ctrl+Space]
Edit ➝ Content Assist
Context Information [Ctrl+Shift+Space]
Edit ➝ Parameter Hints
Copy [Ctrl+C | Ctrl+Insert]
Edit ➝ Copy
84 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Edit Commands
Cut [Ctrl+X | Shift+Delete]
Edit ➝ Cut
Delete [Delete]
Edit ➝ Delete
Find and Replace [Ctrl+F]
Edit ➝ Find/Replace...
Find Next [Ctrl+K]
Edit ➝ Find Next
Find Previous [Ctrl+Shift+K]
Edit ➝ Find Previous
Incremental Find [Ctrl+J]
Edit ➝ Incremental Find Next
Incremental Find Reverse [Ctrl+Shift+J]
Edit ➝ Incremental Find Previous
Paste [Ctrl+V | Shift+Insert]
Edit ➝ Paste
Quick Diff Toggle [Ctrl+Shift+Q]
(No menu)
Quick Fix [Ctrl+1]
Edit ➝ Quick Fix
Redo [Ctrl+Y]
Edit ➝ Redo
Restore Last Selection [Alt+Shift+Down]
Edit ➝ Expand Selection To ➝ Restore Last Selection
Revert Line [No key binding]
(No menu)
Edit Commands
www.finebook.ir
|
85
Edit Commands
Revert Lines [No key binding]
(No menu)
Revert to Saved [No key binding]
File ➝ Revert
Select All [Ctrl+A]
Edit ➝ Select All
Select Enclosing Element [Alt+Shift+Up]
Edit ➝ Expand Selection To ➝ Enclosing Element
Select Next Element [Alt+Shift+Right]
Edit ➝ Expand Selection To ➝ Next Element
Select Previous Element [Alt+Shift+Left]
Edit ➝ Expand Selection To ➝ Previous Element
Shift Left [No key binding]
Source ➝ Shift Left
Shift Right [No key binding]
Source ➝ Shift Right
Show Line Numbers [No key binding]
(No menu)
Show Tooltip Description [F2]
Edit ➝ Show Tooltip Description
Toggle Insert Mode [Ctrl+Shift+Insert]
Edit ➝ Smart Insert Mode
Undo [Ctrl+Z]
Edit ➝ Undo
Word Completion [Alt+/]
Edit ➝ Word Completion
86 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
File Commands
File Commands
Close [Ctrl+F4 | Ctrl+W]
File ➝ Close
Close All [Ctrl+Shift+F4 | Ctrl+Shift+W]
File ➝ Close All
Convert Line Delimiters to Mac OS 9 [No key binding]
File ➝ Convert Line Delimiters To ➝ Mac OS 9
Convert Line Delimiters to Unix [No key binding]
File ➝ Convert Line Delimiters To ➝ Unix
Convert Line Delimiters to Windows [No key binding]
File ➝ Convert Line Delimiters To ➝ Windows
Exit [No key binding]
File ➝ Exit
Export [No key binding]
File ➝ Export...
Import [No key binding]
File ➝ Import...
Move [No key binding]
File ➝ Move...
New [Ctrl+N]
File ➝ New ➝ Other...
New menu [Alt+Shift+N]
File ➝ New
Open File... [No key binding]
File ➝ Open File...
File Commands
www.finebook.ir
|
87
Help Commands
Open Workspace [No key binding]
File ➝ Switch Workspace...
Print [Ctrl+P]
File ➝ Print...
Properties [Alt+Enter]
File ➝ Properties
Refresh [F5]
File ➝ Refresh
Remove Trailing Whitespace [No key binding]
(No menu)
Rename [F2]
File ➝ Rename...
Revert [No key binding]
File ➝ Revert
Save [Ctrl+S]
File ➝ Save
Save All [Ctrl+Shift+S]
File ➝ Save All
Save As [No key binding]
File ➝ Save As...
Help Commands
About [No key binding]
Help ➝ About
Dynamic Help [F1]
Help ➝ Dynamic Help
88 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Navigate Commands
Help Contents [No key binding]
Help ➝ Help Contents
Help Search [No key binding]
Help ➝ Search Help...
Tips and Tricks [No key binding]
Help ➝ Tips and Tricks...
Welcome [No key binding]
Help ➝ Welcome...
Navigate Commands
Back [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Back
Backward History [Alt+Left]
Navigate ➝ Back
Forward [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Forward
Forward History [Alt+Right]
Navigate ➝ Forward
Go Into [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go Into
Go to Line [Ctrl+L]
Navigate ➝ Go to Line...
Go to Matching Bracket [Ctrl+Shift+P]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Matching Bracket
Go to Next Member [Ctrl+Shift+Down]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Next Member
Navigate Commands
www.finebook.ir
|
89
Navigate Commands
Go to Package [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Package...
Go to Previous Member [Ctrl+Shift+Up]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Previous Member
Go to Resource [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Resource...
Go to Type [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Type...
Last Edit Location [Ctrl+Q]
Navigate ➝ Last Edit Location
Next [Ctrl+.]
Navigate ➝ Next
Open Call Hierarchy [Ctrl+Alt+H]
Navigate ➝ Open Call Hierarchy
Open Declaration [F3]
Navigate ➝ Open Declaration
Open External Javadoc [Shift+F2]
Navigate ➝ Open External Javadoc
Open Resource [Ctrl+Shift+R]
Navigate ➝ Open Resource...
Open Structure [Ctrl+F3]
(No menu)
Open Super Implementation [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Open Super Implementation
Open Type [Ctrl+Shift+T]
Navigate ➝ Open Type...
90 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Perspective Commands
Open Type Hierarchy [F4]
Navigate ➝ Open Type Hierarchy
Open Type in Hierarchy [Ctrl+Shift+H]
Navigate ➝ Open Type in Hierarchy...
Previous [Ctrl+,]
Navigate ➝ Previous
Quick Hierarchy [Ctrl+T]
Navigate ➝ Quick Type Hierarchy
Quick Outline [Ctrl+O]
Navigate ➝ Quick Outline
Show in Menu [Alt+Shift+W]
Navigate ➝ Show In
Show in Package Explorer [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Show In ➝ Package Explorer
Up [No key binding]
Navigate ➝ Go To ➝ Up One [Level
Perspective Commands
CVS Repository Exploring [No key binding]
Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Other... ➝ CVS Repository
Exploring
Debug [No key binding]
Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Debug
Java [No key binding]
Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Java
Perspective Commands |
www.finebook.ir
91
Project Commands
Java Browsing [No key binding]
Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Java Browsing
Java Type Hierarchy [No key binding]
Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Other... ➝ Java Type Hierarchy
Team Synchronizing [No key binding]
Window ➝ Open Perspective ➝ Other... ➝ Team Synchronizing
Project Commands
Build All [Ctrl+B]
Project ➝ Build All
Build Clean [No key binding]
Project ➝ Clean...
Build Project [No key binding]
Project ➝ Build Project
Close Project [No key binding]
Project ➝ Close Project
Generate Javadoc [No key binding]
Project ➝ Generate Javadoc...
Open Project [No key binding]
Project ➝ Open Project
Properties [No key binding]
Project ➝ Properties
Rebuild All [No key binding]
(No menu)
92 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Refactor Commands
Rebuild Project [No key binding]
(No menu)
Repeat Working Set Build [No key binding]
(No menu)
Refactor Commands
Change Method Signature [Alt+Shift+C]
Refactor ➝ Change Method Signature...
Convert Anonymous Class to Nested [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Convert Anonymous Class to Nested...
Convert Local Variable to Field [Alt+Shift+F]
Refactor ➝ Convert Local Variable to Field...
Encapsulate Field [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Encapsulate Field...
Extract Constant [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Extract Constant...
Extract Interface [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Extract Interface...
Extract Local Variable [Alt+Shift+L]
Refactor ➝ Extract Local Variable...
Extract Method [Alt+Shift+M]
Refactor ➝ Extract Method...
Generalize Type [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Generalize Type...
Infer Generic Type Arguments [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Infer Generic Type Arguments...
Refactor Commands
www.finebook.ir
|
93
Run/Debug Commands
Inline [Alt+Shift+I]
Refactor ➝ Inline...
Introduce Factory [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Introduce Factory...
Introduce Parameter [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Introduce Parameter...
Move - Refactoring [Alt+Shift+V]
Refactor ➝ Move...
Move Member Type to New File [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Move Member Type to New File...
Pull Up [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Pull Up...
Push Down [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Push Down...
Rename - Refactoring [Alt+Shift+R]
Refactor ➝ Rename...
Show Refactor Quick Menu [Alt+Shift+T]
(No menu)
Use Supertype Where Possible [No key binding]
Refactor ➝ Use Supertype Where Possible
Run/Debug Commands
Add Class Load Breakpoint [No key binding]
Run ➝ Add Class Load Breakpoint...
Add Java Exception Breakpoint [No key binding]
Run ➝ Add Java Exception Breakpoint...
94 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Run/Debug Commands
Debug Ant Build [Alt+Shift+D, Q]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug Eclipse Application [Alt+Shift+D, E]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug Java Applet [Alt+Shift+D, A]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug Java Application [Alt+Shift+D, J]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug JUnit Plug-in Test [Alt+Shift+D, P]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug JUnit Test [Alt+Shift+D, T]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug Last Launched [F11]
Run ➝ Debug Last Launched
Debug SWT Application [Alt+Shift+D, S]
Run ➝ Debug...
Debug... [No key binding]
Run ➝ Debug...
Display [Ctrl+Shift+D]
Run ➝ Display
EOF [Ctrl+Z]
(No menu)
(Console view only)
Execute [Ctrl+U]
Run ➝ Execute
Run/Debug Commands |
www.finebook.ir
95
Run/Debug Commands
External Tools... [No key binding]
Run ➝ External Tools ➝ External Tools...
Inspect [Ctrl+Shift+I]
Run ➝ Inspect
Profile Last Launched [No key binding]
Run ➝ Profile Last Launched
Profile... [No key binding]
Run ➝ Profile...
Remove All Breakpoints [No key binding]
Run ➝ Remove All Breakpoints
Resume [F8]
Run ➝ Resume
Run Ant Build [Alt+Shift+X, Q]
Run ➝ Run...
Run Eclipse Application [Alt+Shift+X, E]
Run ➝ Run...
Run Java Applet [Alt+Shift+X, A]
Run ➝ Run...
Run Java Application [Alt+Shift+X, J]
Run ➝ Run...
Run JUnit Plug-in Test [Alt+Shift+X, P]
Run ➝ Run...
Run JUnit Test [Alt+Shift+X, T]
Run ➝ Run...
Run Last Launched [Ctrl+F11]
Run ➝ Run Last Launched
96 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Run/Debug Commands
Run Last Launched External Tool [No key binding]
(No menu)
Run SWT Application [Alt+Shift+X, S]
Run ➝ Run...
Run to Line [Ctrl+R]
Run ➝ Run to Line
Run... [No key binding]
Run ➝ Run...
Skip All Breakpoints [No key binding]
Run ➝ Skip All Breakpoints
Step Into [F5]
Run ➝ Step Into
Step Into Selection [Ctrl+F5]
Run ➝ Step Into Selection
Step Over [F6]
Run ➝ Step Over
Step Return [F7]
Run ➝ Step Return
Suspend [No key binding]
Run ➝ Suspend
Terminate [No key binding]
Run ➝ Terminate
Terminate and Relaunch [No key binding]
(No menu)
Toggle Line Breakpoint [Ctrl+Shift+B]
Run ➝ Toggle Line Breakpoint
Run/Debug Commands |
www.finebook.ir
97
Search Commands
Toggle Method Breakpoint [No key binding]
Run ➝ Toggle Method Breakpoint
Toggle Step Filters [Shift+F5]
Run ➝ Use Step Filters
Toggle Watchpoint [No key binding]
Run ➝ Toggle Watchpoint
Search Commands
Declaration in Hierarchy [No key binding]
Search ➝ Declarations ➝ Hierarchy
Declaration in Project [No key binding]
Search ➝ Declarations ➝ Project
Declaration in Working Set [No key binding]
Search ➝ Declarations ➝ Working Set...
Declaration in Workspace [Ctrl+G]
Search ➝ Declarations ➝ Workspace
File Search [No key binding]
Search ➝ File...
Implementors in Project [No key binding]
Search ➝ Implementors ➝ Project
Implementors in Working Set [No key binding]
Search ➝ Implementors ➝ Working Set...
Implementors in Workspace [No key binding]
Search ➝ Implementors ➝ Workspace
Open Search Dialog [Ctrl+H]
Search ➝ Search...
98 |
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Search Commands
Read Access in Hierarchy [No key binding]
Search ➝ Read Access ➝ Hierarchy
Read Access in Project [No key binding]
Search ➝ Read Access ➝ Project
Read Access in Working Set [No key binding]
Search ➝ Read Access ➝ Working Set...
Read Access in Workspace [No key binding]
Search ➝ Read Access ➝ Workspace
References in Hierarchy [No key binding]
Search ➝ References ➝ Hierarchy
References in Project [No key binding]
Search ➝ References ➝ Project
References in Working Set [No key binding]
Search ➝ References ➝ Working Set...
References in Workspace [Ctrl+Shift+G]
Search ➝ References ➝ Workspace
Referring Tests [No key binding]
Search ➝ Referring Tests...
Search All Occurrences in File [No key binding]
Search ➝ Occurrences in File ➝ Identifier
Search Exception Occurrences in File [No key binding]
Search ➝ Occurrences in File ➝ Throwing Exception
Search Implement Occurrences in File [No key binding]
Search ➝ Occurrences in File ➝ Implementing Methods
Show Occurrences in File Quick Menu [Ctrl+Shift+U]
(No menu)
Search Commands
www.finebook.ir
|
99
Source Commands
Write Access in Hierarchy [No key binding]
Search ➝ Write Access ➝ Hierarchy
Write Access in Project [No key binding]
Search ➝ Write Access ➝ Project
Write Access in Working Set [No key binding]
Search ➝ Write Access ➝ Working Set...
Write Access in Workspace [No key binding]
Search ➝ Write Access ➝ Workspace
Source Commands
Add Block Comment [Ctrl+Shift+/]
Source ➝ Add Block Comment
Add Constructors from Superclass [No key binding]
Source ➝ Add Constructors from Superclass...
Add Import [Ctrl+Shift+M]
Source ➝ Add Import
Add Javadoc Comment [Alt+Shift+J]
Source ➝ Add Comment
Comment [No key binding]
(No menu)
Externalize Strings [No key binding]
Source ➝ Externalize Strings...
Find Strings to Externalize [No key binding]
Source ➝ Find Strings to Externalize...
Format [Ctrl+Shift+F]
Source ➝ Format
100
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Source Commands
Format Element [No key binding]
Source ➝ Format Element
Generate Constructor using Fields [No key binding]
Source ➝ Generate Constructor using Fields...
Generate Delegate Methods [No key binding]
Source ➝ Generate Delegate Methods...
Generate Getters and Setters [No key binding]
Source ➝ Generate Getters and Setters...
Indent Line [Ctrl+I]
Source ➝ Correct Indentation
Organize Imports [Ctrl+Shift+O]
Source ➝ Organize Imports
Override/Implement Methods [No key binding]
Source ➝ Override/Implement Methods...
Quick Assist - Assign parameter to field [No key binding]
(No menu)
Quick Assist - Assign to field [Ctrl+2, F]
(No menu)
Quick Assist - Assign to local variable [Ctrl+2, L]
(No menu)
Quick Assist - Rename in file [Ctrl+2, R]
(No menu)
Quick Assist - Replace statement with block [No key binding]
(No menu)
Quick Fix - Add cast [No key binding]
(No menu)
Source Commands |
www.finebook.ir
101
Source Commands
Quick Fix - Add import [No key binding]
(No menu)
Quick Fix - Add non-NLS tag [No key binding]
(No menu)
Quick Fix - Add throws declaration [No key binding]
(No menu)
Quick Fix - Change to static access [No key binding]
(No menu)
Quick Fix - Qualify field access [No key binding]
(No menu)
Remove Block Comment [Ctrl+Shift+\]
Source ➝ Remove Block Comment
Remove Occurrence Annotations [Alt+Shift+U]
(No menu)
Show Source Quick Menu [Alt+Shift+S]
(No menu)
Sort Members [No key binding]
Source ➝ Sort Members
Surround with try/catch Block [No key binding]
Source ➝ Surround with try/catch Block
Toggle Comment [Ctrl+/ | Ctrl+7 | Ctrl+Shift+C]
Source ➝ Toggle Comment
Toggle Mark Occurrences [Alt+Shift+O]
(No menu)
Uncomment [No key binding]
(No menu)
102
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Text-Editing Commands
Text-Editing Commands
Clear Mark [No key binding]
(No menu)
Collapse [Ctrl+Numpad_Subtract]
(No menu)
Copy Lines [Ctrl+Alt+Down]
(No menu)
Cut Line [No key binding]
(No menu)
Cut to Beginning of Line [No key binding]
(No menu)
Cut to End of Line [No key binding]
(No menu)
Delete Line [Ctrl+D]
(No menu)
Delete Next [Delete]
(No menu)
Delete Next Word [Ctrl+Delete]
(No menu)
Delete Previous [No key binding]
(No menu)
Delete Previous Word [Ctrl+Backspace]
(No menu)
Delete to Beginning of Line [No key binding]
(No menu)
Text-Editing Commands |
www.finebook.ir
103
Text-Editing Commands
Delete to End of Line [Ctrl+Shift+Delete]
(No menu)
Duplicate Lines [Ctrl+Alt+Up]
(No menu)
Expand [Ctrl+Numpad_Add]
(No menu)
Expand All [Ctrl+Numpad_Multiply]
(No menu)
Insert Line Above Current Line [Ctrl+Shift+Enter]
(No menu)
Insert Line Below Current Line [Shift+Enter]
(No menu)
Line Down [Down]
(No menu)
Line End [End]
(No menu)
Line Start [Home]
(No menu)
Line Up [Up]
(No menu)
Move Lines Down [Alt+Down]
(No menu)
Move Lines Up [Alt+Up]
(No menu)
Next Column [No key binding]
(No menu)
104
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Text-Editing Commands
Next Word [Ctrl+Right]
(No menu)
Page Down [Page Down]
(No menu)
Page Up [Page Up]
(No menu)
Previous Column [No key binding]
(No menu)
Previous Word [Ctrl+Left]
(No menu)
Scroll Line Down [Ctrl+Down]
(No menu)
Scroll Line Up [Ctrl+Up]
(No menu)
Select Line Down [Shift+Down]
(No menu)
Select Line End [Shift+End]
(No menu)
Select Line Start [Shift+Home]
(No menu)
Select Line Up [Shift+Up]
(No menu)
Select Next Column [No key binding]
(No menu)
Select Next Word [Ctrl+Shift+Right]
(No menu)
Text-Editing Commands |
www.finebook.ir
105
Text-Editing Commands
Select Page Down [Shift+Page Down]
(No menu)
Select Page Up [Shift+Page Up]
(No menu)
Select Previous Column [No key binding]
(No menu)
Select Previous Word [Ctrl+Shift+Left]
(No menu)
Select Text End [Ctrl+Shift+End]
(No menu)
Select Text Start [Ctrl+Shift+Home]
(No menu)
Select Window End [No key binding]
(No menu)
Select Window Start [No key binding]
(No menu)
Set Mark [No key binding]
(No menu)
Swap Mark [No key binding]
(No menu)
Text End [Ctrl+End]
(No menu)
Text Start [Ctrl+Home]
(No menu)
To Lower Case [Ctrl+Shift+Y]
(No menu)
106
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
View Commands
To Upper Case [Ctrl+Shift+X]
(No menu)
Toggle Folding [Ctrl+Numpad_Divide]
(No menu)
Toggle Overwrite [Insert]
(No menu)
Window End [No key binding]
(No menu)
Window Start [No key binding]
(No menu)
View Commands
Ant [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Ant
Breakpoints [Alt+Shift+Q, B]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Breakpoints
Cheat Sheets [Alt+Shift+Q, H]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Cheat Sheets ➝ Cheat
Sheets
Classic Search [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Basic ➝ Classic Search
Console [Alt+Shift+Q, C]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Console
CVS Annotate [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ CVS ➝ CVS Annotate
View Commands |
www.finebook.ir
107
View Commands
CVS Editors [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ CVS ➝ CVS Editors
CVS Repositories [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ CVS ➝ CVS Repositories
CVS Resource History [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ CVS ➝ CVS Resource
History
Debug [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Debug
Display [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Display
Error Log [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Error Log
Expressions [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Expressions
Java Call Hierarchy [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Java... ➝ Call Hierarchy
Java Declaration [Alt+Shift+Q, D]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Declaration
Java Members [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Java Browsing ➝
Members
Java Package Explorer [Alt+Shift+Q, P]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Package Explorer
Java Packages [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Java Browsing ➝ Packages
108
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
View Commands
Java Projects [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Java Browsing ➝
Projects
Java Type Hierarchy [Alt+Shift+Q, T]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Hierarchy
Java Types [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Java Browsing ➝ Types
Javadoc [Alt+Shift+Q, J]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Javadoc
JUnit [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Java ➝ JUnit
Memory [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Debug ➝ Memory
Outline [Alt+Shift+Q, O]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Outline
Plug-in Dependencies [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ PDE ➝ Plug-in Dependencies
Plug-in Registry [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ PDE Runtime ➝ Registry
Plug-ins [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ PDE ➝ Plug-ins
Problems [Alt+Shift+Q, X]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Problems
Registers [No key binding]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Debug ➝ Registers
View Commands |
www.finebook.ir
109
Window Commands
Search [Alt+Shift+Q, S]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Search
Synchronize [Alt+Shift+Q, Y]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Other... ➝ Team ➝ Synchronize
Variables [Alt+Shift+Q, V]
Window ➝ Show View ➝ Variables
Window Commands
Activate Editor [F12]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Activate Editor
Close All Perspectives [No key binding]
Window ➝ Close All Perspectives
Close Perspective [No key binding]
Window ➝ Close Perspective
Customize Perspective [No key binding]
Window ➝ Customize Perspective...
Hide Editors [No key binding]
(No menu)
Lock the Toolbars [No key binding]
(No menu)
Maximize Active View or Editor [Ctrl+M]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Maximize Active View or Editor
Minimize Active View or Editor [No key binding]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Minimize Active View or Editor
110
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Window Commands
New Editor [No key binding]
Window ➝ New Editor
New Window [No key binding]
Window ➝ New Window
Next Editor [Ctrl+F6]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Next Editor
Next Perspective [Ctrl+F8]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Next Perspective
Next View [Ctrl+F7]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Next View
Open Editor Drop Down [Ctrl+E]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Switch to Editor...
Pin Editor [No key binding]
(Available on editor system menu)
Preferences [No key binding]
Window ➝ Preferences...
Previous Editor [Ctrl+Shift+F6]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Previous Editor
Previous Perspective [Ctrl+Shift+F8]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Previous Perspective
Previous View [Ctrl+Shift+F7]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Previous View
Reset Perspective [No key binding]
Window ➝ Reset Perspective
Window Commands |
www.finebook.ir
111
Window Commands
Save Perspective As [No key binding]
Window ➝ Save Perspective As...
Show Key Assist [Ctrl+Shift+L]
Help ➝ Key Assist...
Show Ruler Context Menu [Ctrl+F10]
(No menu)
Show Selected Element Only [No key binding]
(No menu)
Show System Menu [Alt+–]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Show System Menu
Show View Menu [Ctrl+F10]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Show View Menu
Switch to Editor [Ctrl+Shift+E]
Window ➝ Navigation ➝ Switch to Editor...
112
|
Commands
www.finebook.ir
Chapter 1
Index
A
AJDT (AspectJ Development
Toolkit), 71
AlphaWorks web site (IBM), 78
Ant, using with Eclipse, 69
Apache web site, 78
AspectJ Development Toolkit
(AJDT), 71
assertion methods, 33
automatic typing, 40
B
base icons, 63
Beck, Kent, 32
breakpoints
Expressions view and, 56–58
setting, 25–27
Breakpoints view, 27, 50
bugs, reporting, 79–81
Bugzilla tracking system, 79
Build Path, Java, 47
C
C/C++ Development Toolkit
(CDT), 71
chevron menus, 9
classes, creating, 21
CLASSPATH environment
variable, 47
clean installs, 5
code
changing on the fly, 30
entering, 21–23
code assist feature, 34, 38
commands, 83–112
compiling code and running
programs, 23
Concern Manipulation
Environment (CME)
project, 71
conditional breakpoints, 51
Confirm Perspective Switch
dialog, 19
Console view, 8, 52
Content Assist command, 38
context menus, 11
coolbars in Eclipse, 12
cursor shapes, 14
CVS repositories, 69
CVS Repository Exploring
perspective, 13
We’d like to hear your suggestions for improving our indexes. Send email to
[email protected]
113
www.finebook.ir
CVS Resource History view, 69
CVS source management
system, 68
D
deadlocks and Show Monitors
option, 53
Debug perspective, 13, 26
Breakpoints view in, 50
Debug view in, 53
Display view in, 54
Expressions view in, 56–58
Outline view in, 62
Variables view in, 67
Debug view, 27, 53
debugging Eclipse, 25–31
Declaration view, 8, 54
decorator icons, 63
Detail Formatters, defining
new, 58
Details pane, looking at
expressions using, 57
developerWorks web site
(IBM), 78
Display command, 55
Display view, 54
documentation, showing, with
Javadoc view, 60
downloading Eclipse, 3
dynamic help, 75
E
Eclipse
commands, 83–112
debugging, 25–31
downloading, 3
installing, 3
official web site, 76
system requirements for, 2
upgrading, 5
Eclipse wiki web site, 78
114
|
EclipseZone web site, 78
eclipse.commercial
newsgroup, 82
eclipse.foundation
newsgroup, 82
eclipse.newcomer
newsgroup, 81
eclipse.platform newsgroup, 81
Edit commands, 84–86
editors in Eclipse, 9
maximizing/minimizing, 16
rearranging, 14–16
enhancements,
suggesting, 79–81
error indicators in code, 43
Error Log view, 55
reporting bugs and, 81
errors
Problems view and, 64
viewing internal errors, using
Error Log view, 55
exception breakpoints, 50
setting, 27
Execute command, 55
expressions
breakpoints and, 51
evaluating in debugger, 55
Expressions view, 56–58
F
Failure trace pane, 60
fast views, 14
File commands, 87
Find and Replace command, 44
flat mode, showing search results
in, 66
Format command, 23
G
Gamma, Erich, 32
Index
V413HAV
www.finebook.ir
H
Help commands, 88
help resources for
Eclipse, 75–82
help topics in Eclipse SDK, 76
Help window, 75
hierarchical mode, showing
search results in, 66
Hierarchy view, 8, 58
hot code replace feature, 30
Hover Help, 42
Javadoc view and, 60
hyperlinks, 43
Java Type Hierarchy
perspective, 13
Javadoc view, 8, 60
JDT Plug-in Developer
Guide, 76
JFace framework, used with
SWT, 74
JUnit, 32–37
JUnit view, 34, 60
K
key bindings for commands, 83
L
I
IBM AlphaWorks web site, 78
IBM developerWorks web
site, 78
icon variations, 63
Incremental Find command, 44
Inspect command, 30, 55
installing Eclipse, 3
launch configurations, 48
launching Eclipse, 4
Literal mode, looking at
expressions using, 57
Logical mode, looking at
expressions using, 57
Logical Structures, defining
new, 58
J
M
JAR files
Hover Help and, 43
Java Build Path and, 47
Java Browsing perspective, 13
Java Build Path, 47
Java Development User
Guide, 76
Java perspective, 13
Declaration view in, 54
Hierarchy view in, 58
Javadoc view in, 60
JUnit view in, 60
Outline view in, 62
Package Explorer view
in, 62–64
Problems view in, 64
Search view in, 65
Tasks view in, 66
mailing lists for Eclipse
development issues, 82
main menu, 10
main toolbar, 12
markers in source code, listing in
Tasks view, 66
maximizing views/editors, 16
Member list pane, 59
menus in Eclipse, 10
Milestone builds, 5
minimizing views/editors, 16
monitors and deadlocks, 53
N
Navigate commands, 89–91
Navigator view, 61
newsgroups about Eclipse, 81
Index |
www.finebook.ir
115
O
O’Reilly Open Source web
site, 79
online help system, 31, 75
Outline view, 8, 62
P
Package Explorer view, 8, 62–64
creating packages, 20
Java Build Path and, 48
PDE (Plug-in Development
Environment), 72
PDE Guide, 76
Perspective commands, 91
perspectives in Eclipse, 13
Planet Eclipse web site, 78
Platform Plug-in Developer
Guide, 76
Plug-in Development
Environment (PDE), 72
Plug-in Development
perspective, 13
Plug-ins Registry web site, 78
Problems view, 8, 64
Project commands, 92
projects, creating, 18
properties of breakpoints, 51
Q
Quick Fix command, 36, 44
R
RCP (Rich Client Platform), 73
rearranging views/editors, 14–16
red squiggles (error indicators) in
code, 43
Refactor - Java commands, 93
refactoring, 41
116
|
reformatting code, 23
regression testing framework
(JUnit), 32–37
Resource perspective, 13
Navigator view in, 61
Rich Client Platform (RCP), 73
round-tripping, supported by
Visual Editor project, 71
Run Last Launched
command, 24
Run/Debug commands, 26,
94–98
running programs, 23
changing code on the fly, 30
S
scrapbook pages, 46
Display view and, 55
Search command, 45
Search commands, 98–100
Search view, 65
setUp(), 34
Show Monitors option in Debug
view menu, 53
Source commands, 100–102
Source Forge web site, 79
stable builds, 5
stack tracebacks and Console
views, 52
Standard Widget Toolkit
(SWT), 73
Step Into command, 28
Step Over command, 28
Step Return command, 28
subtypes/supertypes of objects,
showing, 58
syntax errors, quick fixes for, 43
system menus, 10
system requirements for
Eclipse, 2
Index
www.finebook.ir
T
U
Tasks view, 66
TDD (test driven
development), 36
Team Synchronizing
perspective, 13, 69
tearDown(), 34
tear-off views, 14
templates, entering text
using, 39
Test and Performance Tools
Platform (TPTP)
project, 70
test cases
creating, 33
running, 34–36
test driven development
(TDD), 36
Text editing
commands, 103–107
text, entering, using
templates, 39
Tips and Tricks command, 49
TODO comments, 21
toolbars in Eclipse, 12
tool tip windows, 8
TPTP (Test and Performance
Tools Platform)
project, 70
Type Hierarchy tree pane, 59
unit assertion methods, 33
unit testing with JUnit, 32–37
unpacking Eclipse, 3
upgrading Eclipse, 5
user forums about Eclipse, 81
V
values of variables, viewing, 28
Variables view, 28–30, 67
View commands, 107–110
view menus, 10
views in Eclipse, 8, 50–67
maximizing/minimizing, 16
rearranging, 14–16
Visual Editor project, 71
W
warnings and Problems view, 64
Watch command, 55
web sites
community resources, 78
official Eclipse site, 76
Web Tools Platform (WTP)
project, 70
Welcome screen, 4
Window commands, 110–112
Workbench User Guide, 76
workbench, overview of, 7–17
workspace, specifying, 4
WTP (Web Tools Platform)
project, 70
Index |
www.finebook.ir
117
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement