Using Electricity

Using Electricity
Using Electricity
PICTURE CREDIT
page 64 © H. Schmid/zefa/Corbis
TEACHER GUIDE DEVELOPMENT
Morrison BookWorks, LLC
Produced through the worldwide resources of the National
Geographic Society, John M. Fahey, Jr., President and Chief
Executive Officer; Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Chairman of the Board.
Published by the National Geographic Society
Washington, D.C. 20036-4688
Program Overview
About the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Printed in Mexico
Program Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
PREPARED BY NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SCHOOL PUBLISHING
Sheron Long, Chief Executive Officer; Samuel Gesumaria,
President; Stephen Mico, Executive Vice President and Publisher;
Francis Downey, Editor in Chief; Richard Easby, Editorial
Manager; Margaret Sidlosky, Director of Design and Illustrations;
Jim Hiscott, Design Manager; Cynthia Olson,
Art Director; Matt Wascavage, Director of Publishing Services;
Lisa Pergolizzi, Production Manager.
Copyright © 2007 National Geographic Society. All Rights
Reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the
contents without written permission from the publisher is
prohibited. National Geographic, National Geographic School
Publishing, National Geographic Theme Sets, and the Yellow
Border are registered trademarks of the National Geographic
Society.
Developing Literacy Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
MANUFACTURING AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Christopher A. Liedel, Chief Financial Officer; Phillip L. Schlosser,
Vice President; Clifton M. Brown III, Director.
The purchasing education institution and its staff are permitted
to make copies of the activity masters and reproducibles. These
pages may be photocopied for noncommercial classroom use
only.
PROGRAM CONSULTANTS
Dr. Shirley V. Dickson, Ph.D. Educational Consultant; Margit E.
McGuire, Ph.D., Professor of Teacher Education and Social Studies,
Seattle University; James A. Shymansky, E Desmond Lee Professor
of Science Education, University of Missouri-St Louis.
PROGRAM REVIEWERS
Sylvia Roe Bath, Teacher, Lake Zurich, Illinois CUSD 95; Randee
Blair, Curriculum Coordinator, Evanston/Skokie, Illinois School
District 65; Patty Frank, Teacher, Creighton, Arizona School
District; Bonnie Goodrich, Learning Specialist, Plymouth-Canton,
Michigan Community School District; Mary Ann Groke, Teacher,
Jefferson County, Colorado Public Schools; Ann Hopkins, Literacy
Strategy Coach, Fairfield-Suisun, California Unified School
District; Joanne C. Letwinch, Teacher, Haddonfield, New Jersey
Public Schools; Lynn Levin, Reading Specialist, Fairfax County,
Virginia Public Schools; Kirk Robbins, Teacher, Renton,
Washington School District; Stephani Wise, Teacher, Richardson,
Texas Independent School District.
Product No. 4P1005192
Flexible Use
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Pacing Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Differentiated Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Research-Based Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Factors Affecting Readability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Placing Students in Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Supporting English Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Assessing Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Extend Your Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
ISBN-13: 978-1-4263-5185-3
12 11 10 09 08 07
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Theme Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Lesson 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Lesson 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Lesson 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Lesson 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Lesson 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Extend the Learning
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Activity and Assessment Masters
Activity Masters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Assessment Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Open-Book Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Test Answers
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
3
About the Program
“Making A Difference Means Making It Different.”
Program Goals
National Geographic School Publishing is committed to providing the highest
quality materials that meet the diverse needs of teachers and students.
From Position Statement of International Reading Association (March 2000)
The THEME SETS offer materials that
One size does not fit all
Today’s students come from a variety of cultural and language backgrounds,
socioeconomic levels, and academic levels. Educators realize one size does
not fit all, so no one book can meet the needs of all students.
The THEME SETS program provides differentiated resources for teachers to meet
the diverse needs of their students. Each Theme Set provides four books
crafted to match the wide range of reading levels within each classroom. All
books provide the same core concepts but within different contexts and at different reading levels. For students who struggle with content-area textbooks,
the THEME SETS provide core curriculum that is broken down, not
watered down. For students who are reading on grade level, the
THEME SETS provide literacy and core content curriculum with appropriate challenge and support. For students who need more challenging material, the THEME SETS provide literacy and core content in
ways that develop students’ critical thinking skills.
Equity in education is every child’s right
Equity in education is tied to students’ access to quality
curriculum, materials, and teaching. Yet students, especially
those who struggle with reading, are often denied access to core
content. It is essential that these students have access
to grade-level curriculum to prevent the knowledge gap from
widening as they proceed through the grades. The THEME SETS
offer grade-level curriculum to students across a wide range of
reading levels. The THEME SETS also support students as they
develop reading and writing strategies and skills.
• facilitate differentiated instruction.
• promote educational equity through access for all students.
• provide essential standards-based curriculum in science and social
studies.
• support the developmental needs of students at a variety of reading levels.
• provide explicit instruction in vocabulary and comprehension strategies.
Program Consultants
Shirley Dickson, Ph.D. is an educational consultant in literacy, kindergarten through
the secondary grades. Her expertise includes the design of effective and comprehensive
reading instruction for typical and struggling learners and research in improving reading
achievement. She also works with districts and teachers as they improve
the reading achievement of their students, particularly students in grades 4 and 5.
Dr. Dickson is a former Director of Literacy for the Education Commission of the States;
Director of Statewide Curriculum Initiatives for Texas, including the Reading and Math
Initiatives; Director of Reading for Texas; professor in literacy and special education at
Northern Illinois University; and special educator.
Margit E. McGuire, Ph.D. is Director and Professor of Teacher Education at Seattle
University and a former president of the National Council for the Social Studies. She
is the recipient of the Washington Award for Excellence in Teacher Preparation and
has presented nationally and internationally on topics related to social studies and
teacher preparation. She is the author of the Storypath Program and is engaged in a
number of research projects on the Storypath approach both in Seattle, Washington
and Sydney, Australia.
James A. Shymansky, Ph.D. is an E. Desmond Lee Professor of Science Education at
the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He currently directs the “Science Cooperatives
Project,” a five-year NSF systemic reform effort involving 1,200 elementary school
teachers from 36 school districts in rural Missouri and Iowa. He has authored an
elementary science textbook series and a K–12 science review series. He has also
authored more than 100 research publications, book chapters, and monographs on
teaching and learning elementary school science. He is the past editor of the Journal of
Research in Science Teaching and currently senior editor of the International Journal of
Science and Mathematics Education and President-Elect of the National Association for
Research in Science Teaching.
4
5
Program Components
Student Books
Each Theme Set includes four books on different
topics. Each book is written at a different reading
level and focuses on a specific topic
to explain and illustrate the central theme.
All four books are firmly connected together. They
all develop a common set of Key Concepts and
core vocabulary. The goal is that all
students acquire essential core content at
their own reading levels.
Level A
Level A
A Historical Look at
Native Americans
6
Level B
The Nez Perce: People The Pueblos: People
of the Northwest
of the Southwest
Level C
The Iroquois: People
of the Northeast
Level B
Level C
Level D
Cheyenne: People
of the Central Plains
Level A
Level D
Level B
Level C
Level D
Animals in Their Habitats
Forest Animals
Ocean Animals
Desert Animals
Rain Forest Animals
Cells at Work
Skin
Muscles
Blood
Bone
Energy
Energy in the Home
Energy in the Factory
Energy at the Airport
Energy at the
Sports Arena
Ancient Civilizations
Egypt
China
Greece
Rome
Colonial America
South Carolina
Virginia
Pennsylvania
Massachusetts
Communication Around the World
Telephone
Radio
Television
Internet
Extreme Weather
Droughts
Floods
Tornadoes
Hurricanes
Communities and Their Locations
Missoula, Montana
Boston, Massachusetts St. Louis, Missouri
Honolulu, Hawaii
Life Cycles
Giant Pandas
Monarch Butterflies
Poison Dart Frogs
Komodo Dragons
Cultures and Celebrations
Mexico
Italy
Japan
Egypt
Our Solar System
Mercury
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Immigration to the United States
Irish Immigration
Chinese Immigration
Mexican Immigration
German-Jewish
Immigration
Plants in Their Habitats
Tropical Rain Forests
Deserts
Temperate Forests
Wetlands
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Wind
Water
Ice
Earthquakes and
Volcanoes
Immigration Today
Ukraine
Guatemala
Jamaica
Vietnam
Inventions Bring Change
The Reaper
The Railroad
Water-Powered Mills
The Cotton Gin
Using Earth’s Resources
Indonesia’s
Rain Forests
Greenland’s
Ocean Region
Australia’s Deserts
Peru’s Mountains
Providing Goods
From Cotton to
Blue Jeans
From Trees to Paper
From Wheat to Bread
From Cows to Ice
Cream
Using Electricity
Electricity at Home
Electricity at Play
Electricity at School
Electricity at Work
Trade Across Time and Cultures
Silk
Spices
Salt
Fur
Using Simple Machines
Machines in
the Home
Machines in Sports
Machines in
Construction
Machines in Health
Westward Expansion
Ohio
Oregon
California
The Great Plains
Weather and Climate
Polar Climate
Temperate Climate
Desert Climate
Tropical Climate
7
Student Book Features
Teacher’s Guide Features
Visual Literacy
Each Theme Set includes explicit
instruction in one visual literacy
skill. Students are shown how
to read and use diagrams, maps,
graphs, and other examples of
visual information.
Each Theme Set has a separate Teacher’s Guide that provides clear instructional
guidelines and comprehensive instructional plans.
Genre Study
Each Theme Set focuses on one nonfiction writing genre
form. The genre is defined and explained to students. At
the same time, students see how the genre is connected
to the subject matter of the Theme Set. Genres covered
in the THEME SETS program include, biographies, how-to
books, compare and contrast article, news report,
reference sources, and others.
Planning Guides
Lesson Plans
Each guide contains planning guides
to help you effectively
manage instructional time.
Each guide contains comprehensive
lesson plans that help you
customize instruction.
Activity Masters
Assessment
Each guide contains Activity
Masters to reinforce core skills
and strategies.
Each guide contains book-level
assessments to help you measure
student progress.
Research and Write
Students have the opportunity to
practice their own researching and
writing skills by creating their own
work based on the genre study they
have learned about in the books.
8
9
Developing Literacy Skills
Flexible Use
The THEME SETS program supports developing readers and writers by providing
appropriate scaffolding and challenges that match the needs of a wide range
of students.
Flexibility is a critical factor in the differentiated classroom. The THEME SETS
program is designed to provide teachers with the flexibility needed to make sure that
every child succeeds and has access to core content.
Vocabulary
Flexible to Fit a Variety of Programs
Within each theme, essential content words are targeted as Key Vocabulary and
explicitly taught to all students before reading. As students read, they encounter
these words repeatedly within rich contexts and have opportunities to use the
words in oral and written activities. In addition to the Key Vocabulary covered in all
four books, specific book-level words are taught and used in small group and independent activities.
Core instruction: The THEME SETS are designed to be used as part of your core
Comprehension
Supplemental: The THEME SETS can also be used as a supplement to your
content-area texts and reading program. They provide extended opportunities for
students to explore core content in depth. Students will also learn more as they
read the content at their own reading level.
Each theme targets one specific comprehension strategy so that students learn
and apply that strategy as they read. These strategies include determining importance, making connections, visualizing, asking questions, making inferences, and
synthesizing. Teaching notes provide step-by-step help for explicit instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice.
as summer school or after school programs. Educators can select those themes
that fit their curriculum objectives. The THEME SETS program also offers
versatility. Each book in a theme is divided into several parts.
Visual Literacy
Flexible Grouping
Understanding how to read diagrams, maps, graphs, charts, and other visual aids
is critical to comprehending nonfiction. Each theme provides explicit instruction
and practice in one kind of visual aid so that students learn how to extract and
interpret information that is presented visually.
The THEME SETS program encourages the teacher to use flexible grouping in
the classroom.
Text Structure and Genres
For each theme, the characteristics of one nonfiction genre/text structure are
explicitly taught in the Genre Study. The second article in each Student Book
serves as a model of that genre. Students also apply their understanding of that
genre by writing a piece that uses that specific genre as an organizational pattern.
Research and Write
The Research and Write lesson that concludes each book in a theme provides students with an opportunity to show what they have learned. They research additional information about the topic covered in their book and then write in the specific
nonfiction form that is the focus of the Genre Study and modeled in the second
article.
10
curriculum. They provide essential and high interest content for many of the core
content areas in science and social studies. Use one or more Theme Sets instead
of content-area texts.
Tutorial: The THEME SETS program is ideally suited to special tutorial programs such
Whole Class
Small Groups
The teacher previews
the books with the whole class
and introduces the Key
Concepts and Key Vocabulary.
The teacher can assign books
based on reading ability or by
the student’s interest in the
topic. However, groups do not
necessarily have to be homogeneous. Students can also be
grouped across ability levels so
that they can help each other
learn. The THEME SETS Teacher’s
Guide provides lessons for both
homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping.
Whole Class
By bringing the whole class
together again the teacher
has the opportunity to check
students’ understanding of
the big ideas of the theme.
Students also have the
opportunity to share their
learning with others.
11
Pacing Guide
10 Days
The THEME SETS program includes easy-to-follow pacing. This provides the flexibility needed to custom fit instruction to scheduling needs. The following charts show two pacing
plans, one for five 90-minute lessons and one for ten 45-minute lessons.
5 Days
Teacher Guide Pages
Lesson 1
Day 1:
Introduce the Theme
Introduce the Books
Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
First Activity Block
page 34
page 34–35
pages 36–37
Day 2:
Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 36–37
Lesson 1
Day 1:
Introduce the Theme
Introduce the Books
Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 34
page 34–35
pages 36–37
page 38
Introduce Comprehension Strategy
Finish Reading: Pages 6-–16
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 39
pages 40–41
page 42
Day 3:
Introduce Comprehension Strategy
Finish Reading: Pages 6–16
First Activity Block
page 39
pages 40–41
Day 4:
Finish Reading: Pages 6–16
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 40–41
Share Learning
Think About Key Concept Questions
Visual Literacy
page 43
page 44–45
page 46
page 42
Lesson 3
Day 5:
Share Learning
page 43
Day 6:
Think About Key Concept Questions
Visual Literacy
page 44–45
page 46
Lesson 3
Day 3:
page 38
Lesson 2
Lesson 2
Day 2:
Teacher Guide Pages
Lesson 4
Day 7:
Introduce Genre Study
Begin Reading: pages 21–26
First Activity Block
page 47
pages 48–49
Day 8:
Begin Reading: pages 21–26
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 48–49
Lesson 4
Day 4:
Introduce Genre Study
Begin Reading: pages 21–26
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 47
pages 48–49
page 50
Lesson 5
Day 9:
Introduce Key Concept Activities
Finish Reading: Pages 21–26
First Activity Block
page 51
pages 52–53
Day 10:
Finish Reading: Pages 21–26
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 52–53
Lesson 5
Day 5:
Introduce Key Concept Activities
Finish Reading: Pages 21–26
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 51
pages 52–53
page 50
page 54
page 54
Extend the Learning
Extend the Learning
Day 1:
Day 2:
Day 3:
12
Research and Write
Research and Write
Sharing Your Work
Day 1:
page 55
page 56
page 57
Day 2:
Day 3:
Research and Write
Research and Write
Sharing Your Work
page 55
page 56
page 57
13
Differentiated Instruction
Although the concept of differentiation is simple, the implementation can be challenging. Differentiation is based on the fact that every child is unique and that
classroom instruction should adapt to meet student differences. Many
educators agree that instruction should have the flexibility and relevance to
address the various readiness levels and learning preferences that are present in
every classroom.
The THEME SETS program is designed to provide equal access to core
content for all students at varying reading levels. The detailed lesson plan encourages flexibility in grouping students. The content provides essential
core learning, and the four reading levels provide access for all. Materials are
designed so teachers have the tools and information they need to implement
a differentiated instructional model.
Essential Core Learning
Every student should have access to the essential literacy, science and social studies content outlined in standards based curriculum. Each of the four books that
make up a Theme Set Unit develops a common set of Key Concepts and core
vocabulary. The goal is that each student acquires the same essential information by
accessing core content at his or her own reading level.
• The same Key Concepts are developed across all levels.
• All students learn the same Key Vocabulary.
• All students learn the same visual literacy skills.
• All students can contribute to whole class discussions and activities.
• All students learn and apply the same comprehension strategy.
• All students extend their learning as they research and write.
• All students learn about a variety of genres and forms.
Flexible Grouping
By focusing on essential skills and knowledge, students will be able to recall and
understand the important elements of the subject they are learning about.
Students will benefit from a flexible working environment where the teacher
includes whole class, small group, and individual instruction that takes into
account the ability and readiness of each student in the class.
Differentiated Reading
All students should be given the opportunity to access the content at their own level of
readiness and ability. The four Student Books in each Theme Set provide the same critical core content at four different reading levels. The teacher now has materials for
struggling readers through fluent readers in her class. Each book presents the material
in a variety of ways. By using the text, pictures, and charts, students have several
access points to develop their understanding of the material.
Each Theme Set is accompanied by a comprehensive Teacher’s Guide that builds on
the best practices in education. The activities vary in complexity, allowing access to all students. Fluent readers are encouraged to work on their own. Readers that need extra help
are provided with more scaffolding. Examples of scaffolding used in the THEME SETS include
explicit instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice.
The THEME SETS vary across levels by
• increasing the text load and using more complex sentence structure as
levels become more challenging.
• including vocabulary that grows from simple language to increasingly
more difficult words.
• expanding concept load as the levels become more challenging.
• developing Key Concepts visually as well as verbally.
• providing additional picture support at the easier levels.
14
15
Research-Based Instruction
The THEME SETS program incorporates best practices that have been identified
through research. Practices critical to success in reading and comprehension are
highlighted below, as well as ways that the THEME SETS support these practices.
Comprehension
sion can be
“Text comprehen
s
ruction that help
improved by inst
ific comprehenreaders use spec
sion strategies.”
t p.49)
(Put Reading Firs
• Each Theme Set focuses on one
of these six reading comprehension
strategies: making connections,
asking questions, visualizing, making
inferences, determining importance,
and synthesizing.
Differentiation
e the same age
“Students who ar
adiness to learn,
differ in their re
their styles of
their interests,
periences and
learning, their ex
stances.”
their life circum
srences? Standard
(Reconcilable Diffe
d Differentiation.
Based Teaching an
n. Educational
Carol Ann Tomlinso
. 2000)
Leadership, Sept
• The THEME SETS program teaches
the same critical core content to
every student from struggling to
fluent readers.
• Each theme includes four
high-interest topics
allowing teachers to group their
students by reading ability or by
interest in the topic.
Vocabulary
vocabulary
“Students learn
ey are explicitly
directly when th
d
vidual words an
di
in
th
bo
ht
ug
ta
rategies. Direct
word-learning st
ction aids
vocabulary instru
ension.”
reading compreh
t p.35)
(Put Reading Firs
Appropriate Reading Level
rs provide their
“Effective teache
tice reading
readers with prac
r appropriate
materials at thei
reading level.”
• The THEME SETS program
provides equal access to
science and social studies
content for all students at
varying reading levels.
p.43)
(The Rand Report
Fluency
monitored oral
“Repeated and
reading fluency
reading improves
ing achieveand overall read
ment.”
• Each Theme Set has key words that
are explicitly taught to all students.
• Each Student Book contains booklevel vocabulary words. These words
are explicitly taught and
repeated often in the text.
• Students are encouraged to use
word learning strategies such as
context clues and using word parts
to determine meaning.
• The instructional design of the
THEME SETS program allows students to
repeat reading. The lessons give time
to the teacher to monitor her students’
progress.
t p.24)
(Put Reading Firs
Reading in the Content Area
ovide compre“Teachers who pr
instruction that is
hension strategy
d within the condeeply connecte
atter learning,
text of subject m
d science, fossuch as history an
”
on development.
ter comprehensi
p.39)
(The Rand Report
16
• Each Theme Set explores a core
area of science or social studies
content. Students learn strategies
to help them access and
comprehend the content as they
work through the lessons.
Genres and Forms
e aware of text
“Students who ar
ze the text as
structure organi
ey recognize
they read, and th
portant inforand retain the im
mation
it contains.”
• The THEME SETS program identifies
the characteristics of the major
nonfiction genres and forms.
These help students develop an
understanding of the framework, or
schema, for the genre so that new
information can be remembered.
17
Factors Affecting Readability
Teachers can choose from a variety of readability criteria to help make good
judgments in choosing appropriate books for students. Yet, as helpful as these criteria might be, no one variable can provide a complete picture of text difficulty.
from Level A, Forest Animals
from Level D, Rain Forest Animals
The four books in each Theme Set are designed to address the different reading levels within most classrooms. While the Key Concepts are the same across all levels,
the texts have been crafted to address the developmental reading needs
of a wide range of students.
In determining text difficulty, numerous variables were considered, including
nonfiction vocabulary, sentence complexity, concept density, concept complexity, and
text density.
Vocabulary
• Vocabulary growth moves from words that are easy, familiar, highly frequent,
and usually short, to words that are less common, less frequent,and more
abstract or technical.
• Multisyllabic words increase as texts become more challenging.
• The number of content words highlighted and included in the glossary increases across levels.
Sentence Complexity
• Sentence structure moves from simple, predictable language patterns to more
complex patterns with more embedded ideas.
• Sentence length increases as levels become more challenging.
Concept Density
• The three Key Concepts in each theme are developed in all levels.
• Additional related concepts expand the Key Concepts as the books become
more challenging.
Comparing
Comparing the
the Levels
Levels
•• Vocabulary
Vocabularybecomes
becomesmore
morechallenging.
challenging.
Concept Complexity
• Ideas are carefully developed across all levels, but greater prior knowledge is
assumed at the more challenging levels.
• Concept development at more challenging levels require more analysis and
critical abilities.
Text Density
• The amount of text per page and the length of paragraphs generally increase
as books become more challenging.
•• Sentences
Sentencesbecome
becomemore
morecomplex.
complex.
•• Same
SameKey
KeyConcepts
Conceptsbut
butadditional
additionalrelated
relatedconcepts
conceptsincluded
includedininmore
more
challenging
challenginglevels.
levels.
•• Concept
Conceptdevelopment
developmentat
atmore
morechallenging
challenginglevels
levelsrequires
requiresmore
morecritical
critical
thinking.
thinking.
•• Text
Textload
loadincreases.
increases.
• Easier, more familiar topics, such as animals, may include less text than
abstract, less familiar topics, such as energy.
18
19
Student Interest and Motivation
Placing Students in Levels
Matching books to readers is critical in any successful reading program. Selecting
books that students can read and want to read involves ongoing assessment of
students’ reading abilities, an awareness of students’
interests, and the ability to judge the difficulty levels of texts.
Student Reading Ability
Use the assessment tools and student records available in your school district
as one source of information to determine a student’s individual reading level.
Consider also students’ reading habits, self-selected reading books, and other information in students’ reading portfolios. If you are unsure of the Theme Set level a
student should be reading, you can have a student read the first 100 words to you
orally. If the student reads with less than 90% accuracy, place the student in an easier level. If the student reads with 95% or greater accuracy, place the student in a
more difficult level. Reassess student placement periodically.
Level A
Fry score 3.2
Use Level A with
Students who are particularly interested in a topic often bring rich background knowledge to that topic. They are motivated to read more about the topic. This prior knowledge and motivation can allow readers to stretch beyond their overall reading level. In
assigning books to students, consider special interest and knowledge. Some students
may be interested in reading about a topic in a Theme Set that is above their reading ability. Provide these students with additional scaffolding and support before,
during, and after reading.
Theme Set Reading Levels
The four books in each Theme Set provide a range of reading levels to facilitate
differentiated instruction. However, while Levels A and B are written for struggling readers, they do not look like typical easy-to-read texts. Because of the importance for students to read and learn critical content vocabulary, grade-level content
vocabulary was used in Levels A and B. This critical vocabulary was then surrounded
by easy-to-read text. Use these guidelines to match students with levels.
Level B
Fry score 4.5
Use Level B with
Use Level C with
• students who are reading well below
grade level.
• students who are reading at or below
grade level.
• students who are reading at or above grade
level.
• students who generally have limited
vocabulary and background knowledge.
• students who can read two-syllable words
that are easy to decode and within their oral
vocabulary.
• students who have a good grasp of common
vocabulary and are able to use context and
other resources to unlock the meaning of
technical content words.
• students who generally are most successful
with familiar words that are easy to decode
and within their oral vocabulary.
• students who are most successful with
text that uses short and simple sentence
structures with straightforward syntax.
• students who understand content best
when the text uses concrete examples to
explain concepts.
• students who best understand text that
uses mostly short, simple sentences with
straight-forward syntax.
• students who understand concepts that are
explained carefully and use some concrete
examples.
• students with reading levels that range from
3.5 to 4.5.
Level D
Fry score 6.0
Level C
Fry score 5.3
• students who can understand simple and
most complex sentence structures.
• students who, with appropriate support,
can understand abstract concepts.
• students with reading levels that range from
4.8 to 5.9.
Use Level D with
• students who are your strongest readers.
• students who have well-developed vocabularies and broad background knowledge about a
range of topics.
• students who are able to understand
most complex sentence structures used in
expository writing.
• students who can grasp abstract concepts
with appropriate support.
• students with reading levels that range
from
6.0 to 6.9.
• students with reading levels that range
from 2.6 to 3.5.
20
21
Supporting English Language Learners
To be successful in mainstream classrooms, students acquiring English need to learn
grade-level content as they learn language. The THEME SETS provide all students with
access to grade-level content in science and social studies while supporting the development of language and literacy skills. The unique instructional design of the THEME
SETS supports English Language Learners by providing the strategies and
scaffolding they need.
Scaffold the Content
Target Key Concepts
English Language Learners benefit from instruction that
isolates and makes explicit the big ideas of the lesson. Key
Concepts are highlighted on the pages and taught through
concrete examples and visuals.
Scaffold the Instruction
Build background
Background knowledge for Key Concepts is carefully
developed in the Student Books to ensure that
students understand the big ideas.
Activate prior knowledge
The lesson notes for each theme provide detailed
suggestions for connecting what students already
know to what they are learning.
Develop Key Vocabulary
English Language Learners need to build their academic vocabulary to access grade-level content. In the THEME SETS, Key
Vocabulary is highlighted in the text and defined on the page.
Key Vocabulary is repeated frequently.
Provide strong picture support
Striking National Geographic photos and illustrations
support the text and concepts in comprehensive ways.
Develop visual literacy skills
Lessons in visual literacy offer explicit instruction on
how to understand and interpret information presented
in diagrams, maps, charts, and other visuals.
22
23
Supporting English Language Learners
Scaffold the Instruction
Teach comprehension strategies
Provide for Different Proficiency Levels
The English Language Learners in your class may be at different stages of acquiring English. In
accommodating these stages, consider adjusting instruction to provide comprehensible input.
Vary student response modes to ensure that all students can participate.
The following descriptions of language acquisition stages are summarized from Sheltered
Content Instruction: Teaching English-Language Learners with Diverse Abilities
by Jane Echevarria and Anne Graves (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2003), pages 15–19.
The THEME SETS program helps students
develop those learning strategies that
empower students to become more
independent and self-directed in their
learning. Each theme provides explicit
instruction and practice in one comprehension strategy. Graphic organizers help
students use the strategy to understand
the content.
Preproduction Level
These students benefit from activities that build listening comprehension and receptive vocabulary while allowing them to respond through nonverbal means. They
know almost no vocabulary in English. They communicate with gestures, actions,
and a few words. They are building their receptive vocabulary and may experience a
“silent period” as they attempt to process the tremendous amount of new information about language, culture, and school.
Early Production
These students benefit from lessons that continue to build vocabulary while
encouraging them to produce previously learned language. Students can use
one-word and two-word responses and chunks of language, drawing upon an
English vocabulary of about 1,000 words. They can answer who, what, and
where questions with brief responses, and can label and categorize information in
English. They communicate more readily in English and may experience “adaptation fatigue” as their frustrations with the new language and culture come to a
peak.
Rapid vocabulary acquisition is critical to academic success
for English Language Learners. Not only do English Language
Learners need to close the initial vocabulary gap with native
speakers, but they must also keep pace with native speakers
by steadily expanding their vocabularies. The THEME SETS program offers a rich array of instructional opportunities for
English Language Learners to acquire
academic vocabulary. These include:
Speech Emergence
Students use language purposefully and produce complete sentences. They
can successfully participate in English in small-group activities. They may feel continued frustration or experience relief as their knowledge base in English expands.
They may actually make more errors as they experiment with more complex language patterns. They may feel conflicted about their cultural identity as they adjust
to a new language and cultural environment. They benefit from activities that
expand vocabulary and promote higher levels of language use.
Preteach Vocabulary Key Vocabulary is explicitly taught
before reading.
Intermediate Fluency
Students can read and write in English and have strong conversational skills. They
can produce connected narratives and respond to higher level questions, with errors
that are usually in style or usage. They may lag behind in academic tasks, however,
especially if they lack academic skills in the home language. They benefit from direct
instruction of study skills and learning strategies and from strong
contextual support for academic tasks.
Focus on vocabulary
Provide a Rich Context for Words New words are
embedded in rich context to ensure that students develop a
deeper understanding of these words.
24
Multiple Exposures and Opportunities to Use Words
The text of the THEME SETS is carefully crafted to ensure
repeated use of Key Vocabulary so students see words
used in different contexts. Throughout the lessons,
students are engaged in activities and games that provide rich
opportunities to explore and use new vocabulary words.
Advanced Fluency
These students have become fluent speakers, readers, and writers of English.
They can participate fully in classroom activities but may still have gaps in
certain academic areas. They will benefit from explicit strategy instruction
and continued affirmation of their home cultures.
25
Assessing Progress
Assessment provides teachers with valuable information to help plan instruction
and measure progress over time. An assessment program needs to be ongoing so
that changes over time in students’ learning can be noted. An assessment program needs to include both formal and informal tools so that evaluation of performance is reliable and useful.
The THEME SETS program helps you informally assess student progress in both content-area knowledge and literacy development. The following informal assessment
opportunities are built into each Theme Set.
Student Book Assessment Tools
Teacher’s Guide Assessment Tools
Open-Book Test In each Teacher’s Guide, an Open-Book Test is provided as a
blackline master. This test is constructed to help evaluate not only what students have
learned but also how effectively students can reread to find specific information. A full
answer key is provided for all four books in the theme. See pages 73, and 82–83.
Book Assessment Tests In each Teacher’s Guide, a two-page test is provided for each
title in the Theme Set. These tests, provided as blackline masters, help to evaluate the
content knowledge covered in the theme. The format of the test is similar to
the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test in that it includes
multiple-choice questions, short-constructed responses, and long-constructed response.
A Scoring Guide is provided for each test. See pages 74–81 and 84–87.
Think About Key Concept Questions At the end of the
first informational article in each Theme Set, a common set
of questions taps into the students’ knowledge of the three
Key Concepts. The Teacher’s Guide provides an Assessment
Check and sample answers for the four books in each
theme. See page 44–45.
Key Concept Activities At the end of the second article,
in each Theme Set, three activities provide opportunities
for students to demonstrate their understanding of the
Key Concepts. These activities tap into the various learning
styles. The Teacher’s Guide provides an Assessment Check
to evaluate student products. See page 54.
Research and Write The writing activity that concludes each
book allows students to demonstrate what they have learned
about the content as well as produce a specific nonfiction writing form. A rubric for evaluating the writing is provided in the
Assessment Check in the Teacher’s Guide. See page 56.
26
27
Extend Your Reading
For additional reading, National Geographic provides many related titles to
support Using Electricity. Students can use these books for independent reading,
for research, or to extend their interest in the subject matter.
Nonfiction Reading and Writing Workshops
This product focuses on teaching the essential
strategies students need to comprehend and write
nonfiction. These are the same strategies that are
taught in the THEME SETS program.
Related titles for Using Electricity
Windows on Literacy Fluent and Fluent
Plus
These nonfiction leveled readers are written at the
Grade 2–3 level and complement your
Theme Set Level A students.
For Research and Further Reading
Windows on Literacy Fluent and Fluent Plus
Reading Expeditions Language, Literacy,
and Vocabulary
Machines Make Fun Rides (Level 16)
Electricity (Fry 3.6, Guided Reading Level Q-R)
Superdome (Level 21)
For Reading and Writing Strategies Practice
Reading Expeditions
Nonfiction Reading and Writing Workshops
Understanding Electricity (Fry 6.8, Lexile 840,
Guided Reading Level X-Y)
The comprehension strategy of asking questions is
taught in Using Electricity. For additional instruction
and practice, use the Visualizing titles in the
Nonfiction Reading and Writing Workshops.
Introduction to Energy (Fry 3.8, Lexile 600,
Guided Reading Level Q-R)
The Mystery of Magnets (Fry 4.0, Lexile 630, Guided
Reading Level Q-R)
Building Tiny Transistors (Fry 6.1, Lexile 630, Guided
Reading Level W-X)
28
Reading Expeditions
This series combines science and social
studies content with literacy development.
Use the reading levels to match the books
to your students reading ability.
29
Key Concepts
Key Concept 1:
Key Concept 2:
Key Concept 3:
circuit, electricity, electrons
Key Vocabulary
Literacy Development
Electricity involves the movement of electrons.
An electric circuit is a path along which electrons can move.
Electric energy can change to heat, light, sound, and movement.
Comprehension
Strategy Visualizing
Visual Literacy Flow Diagram
Genre Study How-to Books
Writing Activity
Write Your Own User Manual
As text becomes more challenging:
Reading Levels
Book Vocabulary
30
Least Challenging
• Vocabulary and text load increase
• Sentence structure and concepts become more complex
Most Challenging
Electricity at Home
Electricity at Play
Electricity at School
Electricity at Work
atoms
conductors
electric current
electromagnet
filament
insulators
mechanical energy
resistance
atoms
conductors
electric current
electromagnet
element
filament
insulators
magnetism
mechanical energy
resistance
atoms
conductors
electric charge
electric current
electromagnet
element
filament
insulators
magnetism
mechanical energy
resistance
atoms
conductors
electric charge
electric current
electromagnet
element
filament
insulators
mechanical energy
resistance
semiconductor
31
Theme Background
Using Electricity explains the ways we use electricity in
four different places: at home, at play, at school, and
at work. While each book focuses on the specific ways
electricity is used in these places, the same key concepts are developed across books to help students
focus on the big ideas.
The theme explores how electricity is created through
the movement of electrons; how electrons move along
a path, or circuit; and how electrical energy can
change to other forms of energy as it
is used. Students use the specific content and
vocabulary within each book to discuss and examine
these big ideas, or key concepts.
Each book in this theme includes two articles.
Article 1
Genre: Informational Article Informational articles
present information that might be found in a report.
Informational articles use headings, subheadings, photographs with labels or captions, boldface words, and
diagrams.
Article 2
Genre: How-to Books How-to books give detailed
step-by-step instructions for how to do or make something. Books such as these often use titles, subheads,
labels, and diagrams to enhance the reader’s understanding of the subject matter. This genre enhances
students’ understanding of how to use a machine that
uses electricity.
Literacy Objectives
Correlation to National
Article 1
Comprehension
Strategy
Reading/Language
Arts
Visualizing
• Read to be informed
Genre: Informational
Article
Text features
• headings
Visual Literacy
Flow Diagram
• subheadings
• photographs
Genre Study
• captions
How-to Books
• diagrams
Article 2
Genre: How-to Books
Text features
• title
• subheads
• labels
• diagrams
32
At a Glance Planner
Research and Write
Write Your Own User
Manual
Science
• Light, heat, electricity,
and magnetism (K–4)
• Apply a wide range
of strategies to
comprehend and
interpret texts
• Transfer of energy
(K–4)
• Use visual and
written language
to communicate
effectively
• Scientific inquiry
(K–4, 5–8)
• Use a variety
of informational
resources
• Conduct research
• Science and
technology (K–4)
See Pacing Guide suggestions on pages 12–13.
Student Edition Pages
Lesson 1
• Activate prior knowledge
• Preview the theme and books
• Discuss Key Vocabulary
• Begin reading the first article
Lesson 2
• Teach and apply the comprehension
strategy
• Finish reading the first article
Activity Masters
Using Electricity,
pp. 4–5
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
TG p. 59
Informational Article,
pp. 6–16
Vocabulary: Concept Map
TG pp. 60–63
Informational Article,
pp. 6–16
Comprehension Model:
Visualizing TG p. 64
Comprehension Strategy:
Visualizing TG p. 65
Prereading: 3-Column Chart p. 59
Word Cards: Electricity at Home
TG p. 66
Word Cards: Electricity at Play
TG p. 67
Lesson 3
• Discuss and complete the Key Concept
questions
• Discuss Visual Literacy
Lesson 4
Think About the Key
Concepts, p. 17
Visual Literacy:
Flow Diagram, pp. 18–19
How-to Books
pp. 20–26
• Discuss the Genre Study
(How-to Books)
• Begin reading the second article
Lesson 5
• Finish reading the second article
• Begin Key Concept Activities
Key Concept Questions TG p. 69
Fluency Practice TG p. 70
Content Reading Guide TG p. 71
How-to Books,
pp. 20–26
Apply the Key Concepts,
p. 27
Extend the Learning
Research and Write,
pp. 28–29
Day 1 Research and Write
Day 2 Research and Write
Day 3 Sharing Your Work
Sharing Your Work, p. 30
Prewriting TG p. 72
33
Whole Class
Small Groups
Whole Class
•Introduce Theme and Books
•Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
•Check Understanding
Introduce the Theme
Introduce the Books
Activate Prior Knowledge
Preview the Books
Explain that everyone will be reading about a different
place where electricity is used. Some students will be
reading about the electricity at home, while others will
be reading about electricity at play, at school, or at
work. Ask:
Have students flip through their books, paying
attention to titles, headings, pictures, captions, and
diagrams. Invite students to identify photographs
or other parts of the book that seem interesting or
familiar to them.
What are some ways you use electricity every day?
Distribute the Prereading Master found in this Teacher’s
Guide, page 59. You may want to create a transparency
to model filling in the Master with students.
Explain that the first article starting on page 6 and
ending on page 16 is an informational article. It gives
the kind of information you might find in a report. The
headings and subheadings give clues about what the
text will describe and explain. Ask students to predict
what kind of information they might find out when
reading this article.
Write electricity on the board. Explain that we use
electricity in many ways every day. Ask students to
suggest some ways they use electricity.
Then have students turn to page 21. Have them
examine pages 21 to 26. Tell students that this is
a how-to book. Ask:
How does electricity help you do work?
How would you do these things differently without
electricity?
With the class, make a 3-column chart about
electricity. In column 1, students can list things they
use that run on electricity. In column 2, they can list
how they use each thing. In column 3, students can
tell where this thing is used (in the home, at school,
etc.). Students can add to each column as they learn
new information about the topics.
Thing that uses
electricity
34
How it works
Where it is used
How is the information in this article organized?
Does this kind of article remind you of other books or
materials you have read?
Point out that knowing how an article is organized
helps students better understand the information
in an article.
Discuss the Introduction
Teach Key Vocabulary
Have students turn to pages 4–5 in their books. Read
aloud the title and introductory text, including the Key
Concepts. Ask students to review their Prereading
Masters and ask questions about electricity and the
things they mentioned that might be answered by
reading this book.
Introduce the Key Vocabulary words:
Then ask for a show of hands for each book. Point out
that although not all students will be reading the same
book, they all will be reading information that explains
the Key Concepts. Explain that the Key Concepts are
the big ideas or most important ideas. Read each Key
Concept aloud and ask:
• Write circuit on the board. Show how the word
should be divided to pronounce it. Say each word
part and blend the parts to say the word. Have students repeat the word chorally.
What do you think this Key Concept means?
Then point out how the Key Concepts are used to
organize the first article. Read the first Key Concept
and have students turn to page 6 and find the Key
Concept on that page. Follow this routine for Key
Concept 2 on page 10 and Key Concept 3 on
page 12. Explain that the information they read
after each Key Concept explains the big idea of
the concept.
Discuss with students the pictures and captions
across the bottom of pages 4–5 and say:
The text on page 4 says people use electricity
everywhere. What do you think are some ways
electricity is used at home?
Accept students’ ideas, and review the other pictures
and captions in a similar way.
Then direct students’ attention to the large photograph
on page 5. Have students turn to a neighbor who has
a different book and have them share the photograph
and caption shown on page 5.
1. circuit
2. electricity
Definition
Definition
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
What it is
What it is not
What it is
What it is not
___________
___________
___________
___________
Descriptions
Descriptions
_________________________
_________________________
Sentences
Sentences
circuit, electricity, electrons
Explain that these words are important for
understanding the Key Concepts, or main ideas,
in the book. To introduce each word:
• Have students skim the first article to find the word
circuit in green print on page 10. Write circuit at the
top of the board.
• Next, ask students to look up the word in the
glossary on page 31 of their books and read the
definition. Write the definition beneath the word.
• Have students hunt through their books to find
words that are synonyms for the vocabulary word.
Write these words on the left, beneath the
definition. An example might be loop.
• Students can then look for examples of what the
word is not. Write these words on the right beneath
the definition. Some nonexample words might be
bulb, and light.
• Next, have students look for words that describe the
word circuit and write these words in the center
under the two lists of what the word is and is not.
Some describing words might be flowing, powering,
closed, and open.
• Ask students to look for pictures in their books that
help to show what the word means. Invite students
to point to or explain which pictures help them
understand the meaning of the word or relate to the
word.
• Then, students can think of a sentence using the
word circuit. Write this sentence at the bottom of
the board.
Continue in this way for the words electricity and electrons. Students will use this concept map for specific
book vocabulary words later in this Lesson.
35
First Activity Block
Begin Reading:
Pages 6–16
Pairs
Pairs
Pairs
Begin Reading
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
• Introduce words difficult
for students to read.
Definition Chart
Definition Chart
Definition Chart
To each student, distribute
the Electricity at Play
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
To each student, distribute
the Electricity at School
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
To each student, distribute
the Electricity at Work
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
• Introduce book vocabulary.
• Begin reading the article
in sections.
• Check comprehension
following each section.
Second Activity Block
36
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
Play
Introduce difficult words
Introduce difficult words
Identify four or five words in the section that may be
difficult for students to read. These might include the
Key Vocabulary words. Write the words and show students how to find parts of the words that they already
know. Sound out the parts they do not know, and
blend the parts together.
Identify four or five words in the section that may be
difficult for students to read. These might include the
Key Vocabulary words. Write the words and show students how to find parts of the words that they already
know. Sound out the parts they do not know, and
blend the parts together.
Introduce vocabulary
Introduce vocabulary
Introduce the book vocabulary words. (See the
Teaching Notes on the inside front cover of the
Student Books.) Use an approach similar to how you
introduced the Key Vocabulary words. Have students
read the word with you. Use the word in context and
briefly discuss its meaning. Confirm the meaning by
checking the glossary.
Introduce the book vocabulary words. (See the
Teaching Notes on the inside front cover of the
Student Books.) Use an approach similar to how you
introduced the Key Vocabulary words. Have students
read the word with you. Check the glossary for the
word’s meaning. Then have volunteers offer words that
describe the word and some nonexamples of the
word.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
Begin reading the article in sections
Pairs
Individuals
Individuals
Vocabulary
Begin Reading
Independent Reading
Independent Reading
Concept Map
• Introduce words difficult
for students to read.
Students begin reading Using
Electricity at School, Student
Book pages 6–16.
Students begin reading Using
Electricity at Work, Student
Book pages 6–16.
Students can use their
Prereading Master to add
information and cross off
misinformation. Students can
write questions they may have
on the back of the Master.
Students can use their
Prereading Master to add
information and cross off
misinformation. Students can
write questions they may have
on the back of the Master.
To each student, distribute
the Electricity at Home
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
Home
• Introduce book vocabulary.
• Begin reading the article
in sections.
• Check comprehension
following each section.
Point out that the article is divided into sections based on
the Key Concepts. Have students read each section
aloud. Students can read chorally or take turns. Be
sure each student follows along when others read. Spend
time reviewing the graphic elements (diagrams,
illustrations, photographs). After each section, discuss the
content and ask comprehension questions such as:
Key Concept 1
Begin reading the article in sections
Point out that the article is divided into sections based on
the Key Concepts. Have students read each section
aloud. Students can read chorally or take turns. Be
sure each student follows along when others read. Spend
time reviewing the graphic elements (diagrams, illustrations, photographs). After each section, discuss the
content and ask comprehension questions such as:
• What are the parts of an atom?
Key Concept 1
• What is the difference between a conductor and
an insulator?
• What are the parts of an atom?
Key Concept 2
• What is the difference between a conductor and
an insulator?
• How does a circuit work?
Key Concept 2
Key Concept 3
• How does a circuit work?
• What is one way electricity is used at home?
Key Concept 3
• Explain one way that electrical energy can change.
• What is one way electricity is used at play?
Encourage students to use vocabulary words in
their responses.
• Explain one way that electrical energy can change.
Encourage students to use vocabulary words in
their responses.
37
Check Understanding
Share Learning
By now, all students have read most of the
informational article, either independently or in
small groups with the teacher.
Bring the class together, and have students share
what they learned from the books in this theme. Ask:
Where is electricity used in the book you read?
How is electricity used there?
What are the big ideas in the article?
Discuss the Key Concepts
Students reading different books can explain how the
Key Concepts apply to the individual topics. With
examples about specific places where electricity is
used, students can begin to see how the same big
ideas apply to electricity in general.
Review the Key Concepts with the class using a
flow diagram graphic organizer. Ask a volunteer to say
what he or she knows about how electricity is used in
the place he or she read about in the informational
article. On the board, write the name of something
that uses electricity. Ask the class:
How does electricity make this thing work?
What has to happen for this thing to work?
Continue in this way until the questions are answered
for each of the four titles. Help students make connections to the big ideas among titles.
Lamp
switch is
turned
circuit is
completed
Whole Class
•Introduce the
Comprehension Strategy
light turns on
Whole Class
•Finish Reading: Pages 6–16
•Check Understanding
Sample diagram for Electricity at Home
Revisit the Prereading Master
Now that students have read most of Article 1, have
them revisit the Prereading Master they began at the
beginning of the Lesson. Students can work in pairs or
independently to compare what they have written and
to get new ideas to add to their charts.
Introduce
Comprehension Strategy
Visualizing
Introduce the strategy of visualizing. Explain that readers
can use this strategy to help them get a mental picture
of what they are reading. Visualizing the text will make
the reading easier to understand. Ask:
When you read something, do you get a picture in your
mind of what you are reading?
Read and discuss the steps of the strategy shown
at the bottom of the Comprehension Model Master,
TG p. 64.
“
This sentence helps me visualize
some of the electrical appliances I
use, such as an air conditioner and
a microwave.
”
The word ‘whizzing’ helps me
“
visualize the way the electrons are
moving in the atom.
”
I had imagined that electricity
“
went in one direction, but from
this sentence, I can visualize how a
circuit works. It is like a continuous circle with electricity flowing
around it.
”
38
Small Groups
Model the Strategy
Use the Comprehension Model to model the strategy
for visualizing. You might want to make a transparency
from this Model. This Model provides information about
electricity and builds common background for all students.
Say:
I am going to show you how to visualize what you are
reading. As I read, I am going to stop and think aloud
about the picture I see in my mind.
Apply the Strategy
After modeling the strategy, review the steps for
visualizing. Then explain to students that they
should use this strategy as they read and reread
Article 1. Discuss with students how to fill in the
Comprehension Strategy Master.
Second Activity Block
First Activity Block
Finish Reading:
40
Pages 6–16
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
School
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
Work
Review vocabulary
Review vocabulary
Before discussing the article, review any troublesome
words with students. First, have students identify words
they found difficult to pronounce or to understand.
Before discussing the article, review any troublesome
words with students. First, have students identify words
they found difficult to pronounce or to understand.
Then have students turn to the glossary on page 31.
Review these words with students, pronouncing them
and discussing meanings.
Then have students turn to the glossary on page 31.
Review these words with students, pronouncing them
and discussing meanings.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
Discuss the informational article
Discuss the informational article
Ask questions such as:
Ask questions such as:
What do you think this article is mostly about?
What do you think this article is mostly about?
What information was new or most interesting?
What information was new or most interesting?
Were you surprised by anything you learned?
Were you surprised by anything you learned?
Briefly discuss students’ responses to the article.
Briefly discuss students’ responses to the article.
Discuss comprehension questions
Discuss comprehension questions
After discussing students’ responses to the article,
discuss the following specific content questions. For
each question, have students support their answers by
reading relevant sections from the text.
After discussing students’ responses to the article,
discuss the following specific content questions. For
each question, have students support their answers by
reading relevant sections from the text.
Key Concept 1
Key Concept 1
• What are the parts of an atom?
• What are the parts of an atom?
• What is the difference between a conductor and
an insulator?
• What is the difference between a conductor and
an insulator?
Key Concept 2
Key Concept 2
• How does a circuit work?
• How does a circuit work?
• Discuss the article.
Key Concept 3
Key Concept 3
• Discuss comprehension
questions.
• What is one way electricity is used in school?
• What is one way electricity is used at work?
• Explain one way that electrical energy can change.
• Explain one way that electrical energy can change.
Pairs
Pairs
Word Card Activity
Finish Reading/Reread
Discuss Reading
Finish Reading/Reread
Pairs of students reading
Electricity at Home can use
the word cards found on
page 66 of this Teacher’s
Guide to play “Vocabulary
Go Fish” to practice reading
the words and saying the
definitions. Using these word
cards, students gain experience using Key Vocabulary
words and vocabulary words
from Electricity at Home.
Students can work with a
partner to finish reading
Using Electricity at Play,
Student Book pages 6–16.
• Review vocabulary.
Students finish reading Using
Electricity at Work, Student
Book pages 6–16.
Pairs
Pairs
Individuals
Finish Reading/Reread
Word Card Activity
Finish Reading/Reread
Discuss Reading
Students can work with a
partner to finish reading
Using Electricity at Home,
Student Book pages 6–16.
Pairs of students reading
Electricity at Play can use the
word cards found on page 67
of this Teacher’s Guide to play
“Vocabulary Go Fish” to
practice reading the words
and saying the definitions.
Using these word cards,
students gain experience
using Key Vocabulary words
and vocabulary words from
Electricity at Play.
Students finish reading Using
Electricity at School, Student
Book pages 6–16.
• Review vocabulary.
Students then reread the
article with a partner and
complete the Comprehension
Strategy Master.
Students then reread the
article with a partner and
complete the Comprehension
Strategy Master.
Individuals
• Discuss the article.
• Discuss comprehension
questions.
Students then reread the
article and complete the
Comprehension Strategy
Master.
Students then reread the
article and complete the
Comprehension Strategy
Master.
41
Check Understanding
Review the Comprehension
Strategy
Remind students that when they read, they use
different strategies to help them better understand
what they read. Review with them the strategy of visualizing.
• Look for describing words (sense words).
• Look for comparisons.
• Add what you already know to what you read.
• Make a mental movie and edit it as you get
new information.
Select a sample passage from one of the four books.
Model thinking aloud as you read the passage. You
could also reuse the Comprehension Model Master.
Then review with the class their completed
Comprehension Strategy Master. To begin, have
students work in pairs. Suggest that students review
their Comprehension Strategy Master notes and select
one example of a visualization they made. Ask them
to read aloud to their partners the passage that contains the text they used to visualize.
After students have practiced thinking aloud to
visualize, ask volunteers to model this process for the
class. Be sure to include students who are reading
each of the four books.
Comprehension Strategy Tips
Collect ideas about how students can use the comprehension strategy of visualizing in their reading.
Record their ideas on chart paper and post the chart
so that students can refer to it when they read other
informational articles of this kind. Leave some space
at the bottom for additional tips as they come up.
Here is a list of tips that the class might include.
Visualizing
• Look for describing words that let you know
how things look, feel, sound, smell, and
taste.
• Check out the illustrations and pictures to
get started with your own mental pictures.
• Think how you would feel if you were in the
book you are reading.
• Look for comparisons the author makes to
things you know.
• Keep changing the pictures in your mind as
Whole Class
•Share Learning
Whole Class
Share Learning
Review the Key Concepts with the class. Remind
students that they have all read an article about electricity and they have all read about the same Key
Concepts. Explain that now students can share what
they have learned from their books. Say:
First, we will work in small groups to discuss what we
learned about how electricity is used in different places.
Then we will come together again to share what we
learned with the class.
Next, distribute the Share Learning Master found
on page 68 of this Teacher’s Guide. Then organize
students into groups of four, with each student reading
a different book. Explain that each student is the
group’s “expert” on his or her book’s information.
Group members then complete this Master together,
as each student contributes ideas to complete
the chart.
After groups of students have completed their charts,
bring the class together to create a class chart on the
board. Students can share what they’ve learned from
their own books as well as from other students in their
group. Ask questions to help students make connections to the big ideas among titles.
Place where
electricity
is used
at home
at play
at school
Assessment Check
at work
Students should conclude that
✔ electricity is used in many places.
✔ there are many ways that electricity is used.
✔ electricity needs a circuit.
✔ electric energy can be changed to other types of energy.
42
Whole Class
•Think About Key
Concept Questions
•Visual Literacy
Ways
electricity is
used in
this place
Example of
electric circuit
in this place
How electric
energy changes
lamp: power
supply to
switch to
bulb to
power supply
becomes heat
energy in a
toaster, light
energy in a light
bulb, sound energy
in a doorbell,
mechanical energy
in a washing
machine
toy train:
power source
to switch to
motor to
power source
becomes heat
energy in a pool,
light energy in a
computer, sound
energy in a game
show buzzer,
mechanical energy
in a Ferris wheel
run an
overhead
projector,
fish tank,
computer
floodlights:
power source
to switch to
floodlights to
power source
becomes heat
energy in a hand
dryer, light
energy in an
overhead
projector, sound
energy in a school
bell, mechanical
energy in a fan
run
forklifts,
computers,
telephones
security
system: power
source to
electromagnet to
switch to
alarm to
power source
becomes heat
energy in a
furnace, light
energy in a
digital clock,
sound energy in a
telephone,
mechanical
energy in a
sewing machine
keep food
cold, cook
food, light
a room
run a
computer,
amusement
park rides,
video games
Sample answers for one group of students
43
Think About Key
Concept Questions
When we come together as a class to discuss the
completed Key Concept Questions Masters, you can
compare what you have learned to what others have
learned about how electricity is used in a place.
Have students turn to page 17 in their Student Books.
On this page, all students will find the
same four questions relating to the Key Concept
statements.
Review the Key Concept Questions Master with
students, answering any questions they may have.
Think About the Key Concepts
Assessment Check
Students should address these main ideas in their responses
to the Key Concept questions:
1. What is electricity? What do electrons have
to do with electricity?
1. Electricity is the energy of moving electrons. The movement
2. How are conductors and insulators used
together?
2. Conductors, such as wires, move electricity. Insulators
3. What does a switch do in an electric circuit?
4. What other forms of energy can electric
energy change to?
Read the questions to the class, making sure
that students understand each question. You
might ask volunteers to rephrase the questions
in their own words, or you might rephrase the
questions for students.
Share Learning
Possible Responses to Key Concept Questions
Electricity at Home
Electricity at Play
44
Electricity at Work
1. What is electricity? What do electrons have to do with electricity?
Electricity is the energy of
moving electrons. When
electrons move, they create
electric energy.
Electricity is the energy of
moving electrons. When
electrons move, they create an
electric current that carries
energy. This energy is
electricity.
Electricity is the energy of
moving electrons. Moving
electrons create an electric
current that carries the
energy of moving electrons.
This energy is electricity.
Electricity is the energy of
moving electrons. Moving
electrons create an electric
current that carries the
energy of moving electrons.
This energy is electricity.
of electrons is necessary for there to be electricity.
are used to cover the wires to protect people from the
electrical energy.
3. The switch controls the flow of electrical current. It makes
it possible to open and close an electrical circuit.
4. Electrical energy can change to heat, light, sound, or
2. How are conductors and insulators used together?
Electricity moves through
conductors. Insulators cover
the conductors to protect
people from the electrical
energy.
Electricity moves through
conductors, such as wires.
Insulators, such as plastic or
rubber, cover the conductors
to protect people from the
electrical energy.
Conductors allow the flow of
electricity. Insulators do not.
An electrical cord has a
metal wire covered in plastic.
The wire is a conductor, and
the plastic is an insulator.
mechanical energy.
Conductors let electrons move
easily in a current to conduct
electricity. Insulators do not
let electrons move easily. An
electrical cord has a metal
wire covered in plastic. The
wire is a conductor, and the
plastic is an insulator.
3. What does a switch do in an electric circuit?
A switch opens and closes an
electrical circuit.
A switch opens and closes an
electrical circuit.
Explain to students that they will complete the Key
Concept Questions Master independently. Then students
will come together as a class to share what they have
learned. Say:
You have each read an article about how electricity is
used in a place. Not everyone has read the same book,
but all books have the same Key Concepts. Now, as you
complete the Key Concept Questions Master, think
about what you’ve learned from reading.
Electricity at School
A switch controls the flow of
electrical current. It opens
and closes the circuit.
A switch controls the flow of
electrical current. It opens
and closes the circuit.
4. What other forms of energy can electric energy change to?
Electrical energy can change
to heat, light, sound, or
mechanical energy.
Electrical energy can change
to heat, light, sound, or
mechanical energy.
Electrical energy can change
to heat, light, sound, or
mechanical energy.
Electrical energy can change
to heat, light, sound, or
mechanical energy.
45
Visual Literacy
Flow Diagram
Have students turn to page 18 in their books. In all
books, this page contains the same information about
flow diagrams, except that the topic of each diagram
is specific to each book. Say:
I am going to read pages 18 and 19 from the Electricity
at Home book. This book shows a flow diagram of how
electricity moves from the power station to the home.
Since you are not all reading the same book, you do
not have the same flow diagram on this page. But the
information about flow diagrams is the same.
After reading the top half of page 18, review the
definition of a flow diagram.
Then read the four steps in the box at the bottom
of page 18. After reading the text in the box, have
students look back at the diagram on page 16 of their
books. Say:
While you are looking at the flow diagram in your
specific book, I’m going to look at page 16 in the
Electricity at Home book. We’ve all seen these flow
diagrams already, since we’ve all read this article. Let’s
look at these flow diagrams a little more closely now.
Model the process of reading the diagram on page 16
in the Electricity at Home book. Focus on the title, the
captions, and how the diagram shows the steps as
electrical energy changes to mechanical energy.
Discuss how using flow diagrams like these can help
students learn new ideas without having to read a lot
of words. Ask questions such as:
Next, have students turn back to pages 18 and 19 in
their books. Reread the four steps in the box at the
bottom of page 18. As you read each step to the
class, use the diagram on page 19 as a model.
Continue to use examples from the Electricity at Home
book, but ask volunteers reading other books to offer
similar information. For example:
1. Read the title.
Say: The title tells me what the diagram is about. The
title, From the Power Station to the Home, means this
diagram is mostly about how electricity gets from the
power station to the home.
2. Read the labels or captions.
Say: These labels give me information about the pictures. For example, the label for the factory tells me
what the building is.
3. Study the pictures.
Say: By carefully reviewing this diagram, I can learn
about the steps for carrying electricity to the home. For
example, I can see that electricity goes to a substation
before it gets to a home.
4. Think about what you learned.
Say: I learned many things I did not already know. For
example, I didn’t know that electricity is generated at a
power station.
Read the text at the bottom of page 19. Give students
five minutes to write ideas they have about the
diagram. Then have a brief class discussion about students’ ideas related to the diagram.
Whole Class
Small Groups
Whole Class
•Introduce Genre Study
•Begin Reading: Pages 20–26
•Check Understanding
Introduce the Genre
Study
How-to Books
Explain to students that authors have varied purposes for
writing. Authors can choose the writing form that best
suits their purpose for writing. These different forms of
writing are called genres. Say:
Then read and discuss the different labels shown on
page 21 that identify and describe some parts of a user
manual.
Remind students that how-to books are organized with
the title, subheads, labels, diagrams, and important information.
Writers use different forms, or genres, depending on their
purpose for writing. Today we are going to learn about a
genre, or type of writing, called how-to books.
Then have students turn to page 20 of their books. Read
page 20 to the class. Say:
Look at this diagram. It shows six different types of how-to
books. Each of these how-to books can be used for
different purposes. We may already know that a cookbook
can be used to find recipes. But why might you use a user
manual?
Next, have students turn to page 21. Explain to students
that they will be reading a how-to book called a user
manual.
What is one big idea you can learn from the diagram in
your book without reading the words?
Have at least one student reading each of the books
suggest answers.
46
47
First Activity Block
Begin Reading:
Pages 21–26
Pairs
Individuals
Pairs
Begin Reading
Fluency Practice
Independent Reading
Fluency Practice
• Review the genre.
Students reading Electricity at
Play pair up with students
reading Electricity at Work.
Students reread aloud parts
of Article 1 from their own
books to practice reading
fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
Students read Overhead
Projector User Manual,
Student Book pages 21–26.
Students reading Electricity
at Work pair up with students
reading Electricity at Play.
Students reread aloud parts
of Article 1 from their own
books to practice reading
fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
• Model using the
genre article.
• Read parts of the
genre article.
Second Activity Block
Pairs
48
To each student, distribute the
Content Reading Guide Master,
page 71 in this Teacher’s
Guide. Students should use the
Master to take notes as they
read for specific information.
Pairs
Individuals
Fluency Practice
Begin Reading
Fluency Practice
Independent Reading
Students reading Electricity at
Home pair up with students
reading Electricity at School.
Students reread aloud parts
of Article 1 from their own
books to practice reading
fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
• Review the genre.
Students reading Electricity at
School pair up with students
reading Electricity at Home.
Students reread aloud parts
of Article 1 from their own
books to practice reading
fluency. To each pair, distribute the Fluency Practice
Master on page 70 of this
Teacher’s Guide.
Students read Forklift User
Manual, Student Book pages
21–26.
• Model using the
genre article.
• Read parts of the
genre article.
To each student, distribute the
Content Reading Guide
Master, page 71 in this
Teacher’s Guide. Students
should use the Master to take
notes as they read for specific
information.
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
Home
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
Play
Model reading a how-to book
Model reading a how-to book
Ask students when they would use how-to books.
Discuss the parts of a how-to book. Model reading the
information on pages 21–22. Distribute the Content
Reading Guide Master, which students
can use to guide them through reading their user manual. Say:
Ask students when they would use how-to books.
Discuss the parts of a how-to book. Model reading the
information on pages 21–22. Distribute the Content
Reading Guide Master, which students
can use to guide them through reading their user manual. Say:
We’ve just learned about how people use electricity
at home. Now I’m going to read about how to use an
electrical appliance called a toaster.
We’ve just learned about how people use electricity
at play. Now I’m going to read about how to use an
electrical device called a DVD player.
Begin reading the user manual. Use the labels to
describe the parts. Also point out the important
features. For example:
Begin reading the user manual. Use the labels to
describe the parts. Also point out the important
features. For example:
The first picture of the toaster has numbered circles on
it. These numbers match the numbers listed on the left.
By matching the numbers, I can see the name of each
part.
The first picture of the DVD player has numbered circles
on it. These numbers match the numbers listed on the
left. By matching the numbers, I can see the name of
each part.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Read parts of the user manual
Read parts of the user manual
Have students flip through the user manual. Have them
notice the illustrations, subheads, and bulleted lists.
Say:
Have students flip through the user manual. Have them
notice the illustrations, subheads, and bulleted lists.
Say:
We are going to take turns reading information in this
user manual.
We are going to take turns reading information in this
user manual.
Before each student reads, reread the title and
introduction. Skim the text to point out any words
that may be unfamiliar to the reader. Pronounce
these words and discuss their meanings. Then have
students read chorally or take turns reading the user
manual. After students have finished reading, say:
Before each student reads, reread the title and
introduction. Skim the text to point out any words
that may be unfamiliar to the reader. Pronounce
these words and discuss their meanings. Then have
students read chorally or take turns reading the user
manual. After students have finished reading, say:
We’ve just read a user manual about how to use a
toaster. Now let’s reread to find the important features
of a user manual. This will help us make sure that we’ve
understood what we have read.
We’ve just read a user manual about how to use a DVD
player. Now let’s reread to find the important features of
a user manual. This will help us make sure that we’ve
understood what we have read.
Have students read the user manual again and point
out the important features of a user manual.
Have students read the user manual again and point
out the important features of a user manual.
49
Check Understanding
Discuss the Genre
Talk with students about how different types of
writing, or genres, have different purposes. Ask:
After completing the chart, ask questions about the
genre such as:
When reading the user manuals, was it easy to find
important information?
Content Reading Guide
Topic
Important features
Things to consider
What are the parts of a how-to book?
What does the title tell you?
Why are the diagrams important?
Ask volunteers to share one thing they learned
from the user manual they read. What was most interesting?
toaster
Share Learning
Have small groups of students share their books. Organize
students into groups of four, with each student reading a
different book.
Have each student walk through their user manual with
group members, pointing out the diagrams, subheads,
labels, and interesting content.
DVD player
parts of the toaster,
safety precautions,
setting up and using
the toaster
parts of the DVD
player, safety
precautions, using
and caring for the
DVD player
The browning
control can be set
lower or higher.
Do not put the
machine or the
cord in water.
overhead
projector
parts of an overhead
projector, safety
precautions, setting up
and using the
overhead projector
If the bulb burns
out, it can be
replaced.
forklift truck
parts of a forklift
truck, safety
precautions, operating
and caring for the
forklift truck
A forklift truck
should never be
left on a sloping
surface.
Read for Specific Information
50
Whole Class
•Check Understanding
Introduce Key
Concept Activities
Have students turn to page 27 in their books. Read
the title of the page and point out that there is one
activity for each Key Concept statement.
Summarize each activity, and make sure students
understand what the product of each activity should
be (a concept web, a drawing, and a paragraph). Use
the art next to each activity to aid in the discussion.
Remind students that they can use information from
the informational and genre articles to complete each
activity.
Assigning the Activities
Then each student should explain in his or her own words
something that was interesting from the user manuals.
Bring the class together to create a class chart, using
information from the user manuals and students’
Content Reading Guides. Students can suggest information found in their own books or from a classmate’s book. Use at least one example from each
user manual.
Small Groups
•Finish Reading: Pages 20–26
How are the user manuals similar? How are they
different?
What is the main reason you would read a how-to book?
(to get directions for how to do or make something)
Then review the parts of a how-to book. Ask questions
such as:
Whole Class
•Introduce Key
Concept Activities
During Lesson 5, students can work in pairs or small
groups as they begin working on the Key Concept
Activities. Students can complete as much as they
can during this Lesson, but they should be able to
complete at least one activity.
Activity summaries
Key Concept Activity 1
This activity asks students
to create a concept web
about electrons.
Key Concept Activity 2
This activity asks students
to draw an electrical
circuit.
move
Electrons
bulb
switch
power
source
Key Concept Activity 3
This activity asks students
to write a paragraph or two
about the appliances and
machines they use.
I turned on the TV. . . .
Partially completed class chart
51
Second Activity Block
First Activity Block
Finish Reading:
52
Pages 21–26
Pairs/Groups
Pairs/Groups
Key Concept Activities
Key Concept Activities
Discuss and Reread
Key Concept Activities
Students can work in pairs or
small groups to complete Key
Concept Activity 1. They can
also begin Key Concept
Activity 2 at this time.
Students can work in pairs or
small groups to complete Key
Concept Activity 1. They can
also begin Key Concept
Activity 2 at this time.
• Review the genre.
Students can work in pairs or
small groups to complete Key
Concept Activity 1. They can
also begin Key Concept
Activities 2 and 3 at this time.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Pairs/Groups
• Review using the
genre article.
• Reread parts of the
genre article.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Pairs/Groups
Pairs/Groups
Pairs/Groups
Continue Key Concept
Activities
Continue Key Concept
Activities
Key Concept Activities
Discuss and Reread
• Review the genre.
Students can continue working on Key Concept Activities
2 and 3. Time permitting,
the teacher can meet with
students reading Electricity at
Play to assess students’
progress on the Key Concept
activities.
Students can continue working on Key Concept Activities
2 and 3. Time permitting,
the teacher can meet with
students reading Electricity at
Play to assess students’
progress on the Key Concept
activities.
Students can work in pairs or
small groups to complete Key
Concept Activity 1. They can
also begin Key Concept
Activities 2 and 3 at this time.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
• Review using the
genre article.
• Reread parts of the
genre article.
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
School
Lesson Notes for Electricity at
Work
Review reading a how-to book
Review reading a how-to book
Have students bring their Content Reading Guide
Masters to the discussion. Have them turn to page 21
in their how-to book. Say:
Have students bring their Content Reading Guide
Masters to the discussion. Have them turn to page 21
in their how-to book. Say:
I’m going to read about how to use an overhead
projector. Here is the title of the how-to book: Overhead
Projector User Manual.
I’m going to read about how to use a forklift truck.
Here is the title of the how-to book: Forklift Truck User
Manual.
Read the introduction and list of parts; point out the
number labels on the illustration. Continue reading
and pointing out other important features of the user
manual. Say:
Read the introduction and list of parts; point out the
number labels on the illustration. Continue reading
and pointing out other important features of the user
manual. Say:
I see that the user manual gives a list of safety
precautions. It is very important to read through
these before using the overhead projector.
I see that the user manual gives a list of safety
precautions. It is very important to read through
these before using a forklift truck.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Reread parts of the user manual
Reread parts of the user manual
Have students flip through the how-to books. Have
them notice the diagrams and bulleted lists. Say:
Have students flip through the how-to books. Have
them notice the diagrams and bulleted lists. Say:
We are going to take turns rereading the user manual
for the overhead projector. The first time we read, we
will learn more about the topic.
We are going to take turns rereading the user manual
for the forklift truck. The first time we read, we will
learn more about the topic.
Have students take turns reading the user manual. As
needed, stop and explain any words or concepts students may need help understanding. After students
have finished reading, say:
Have students take turns reading the user manual. As
needed, stop and explain any words or concepts students may need help understanding. After students
have finished reading, say:
We’ve just read an overhead projector user manual.
Now let’s use your Content Reading Guide to
discuss the important features you found and
things to consider.
We’ve just read a forklift truck user manual. Now
let’s use your Content Reading Guide to discuss the
important features you found and things to consider.
Have students read the user manual and point out the
important features of a user manual.
Have students read the user manual and point out the
important features of a user manual.
53
Check Understanding
Assessment Check
Share Learning
Key Concept Activity 1
Concept webs should
By now, all students have read the first article and the
genre article in the Student Book. They have worked
together in mixed groups, in pairs, and as a class to
discuss the Key Concepts. They have worked independently on the Key Concept Activities found on page
27 of the Student Book.
Now students can come together in mixed groups
to share the Key Concept activities they have
completed. Organize students into groups of four, with
each student reading a different book. Explain that
each student should share his or her work on the Key
Concept Activities and compare how other members of
the group completed the same assignment. Students
should be able to explain another group member’s
activity, compared to his or her own.
✔ include at least four facts about electrons.
✔ be neatly completed.
Key Concept Activity 2
Drawings should
✔ include the parts of a circuit.
✔ be clearly labeled.
✔ be neatly completed.
Key Concept Activity 3
Paragraphs should
✔ explain about something that uses electricity.
Students can use questions like these to guide their
discussion:
✔ include information about how energy changed
How is this group member’s information similar to the
information I found?
✔ tell how the item was useful.
How is this information different?
How does this information relate to the Key Concepts?
After groups of students have finished discussing their
projects, bring the class together. Students can share
what they’ve learned by comparing a group member’s
project with their own.
Use the questions shown above as a guide for the
class discussion.
54
✔ have a label in the center.
while the item was being used.
✔ be neatly completed.
Introduce Research
and Write
Explain that students will write their own user manuals.
Have students turn to the Research and Write activity
beginning on page 28 in their books. Explain that students
will be working on steps 1 and 2 today and steps 3–5 in
the next writing lesson. Then say:
2. Choose an Appliance or
Machine
Read step 2 to the class. Remind students that they
should choose just one appliance or machine that is
used in the area that is the focus of their books: at
home, at play, at school, at work. They should take
notes and think of safety precautions for using this
appliance or machine. They can look in the library or
on the Internet to get ideas for their user manuals.
I am going to read the introduction from the Electricity
at Home book. This introduction is specific to this book,
but the introductions in your books will talk about the
information you have. Follow along silently as I read to
the class.
Distribute the Prewriting Master to students. Explain
that they will use this Master to organize their
research and take notes. Read the introduction on the
Master and discuss each part.
Read the introduction and allow time for students to ask
questions.
Students can work in pairs or independently to review
the model and conduct research. Students can ask a
classmate to help answer questions they may have.
As students conduct research, circulate around the
classroom to check that students are using the
Prewriting Master correctly.
1. Study the Model
Read step 1 to the class. Then have students turn to
page 21. Say:
On this page, you will find the beginning of a user
manual. We are going to use the user manuals on
pages 21–26 as a model for writing our own user
manuals.
Check Progress
Look at the title. Notice how the title is in large letters
and is easy to read. Titles should stand out from the
rest of the information. The user manuals you write
should have a title that is easy to read.
Has everyone chosen a topic and completed his or her
research?
Continue in this way with each of the important parts
of the user manuals. Then read the text in the blue
box on page 28. This box
lists the important parts of
writing a user manual.
Bring the class together to discuss students’ progress.
Ask questions such as:
Are you finding enough information about your topic?
Remind students that they will have time to write,
revise, and edit. They will then present their user manuals to the class.
55
Discuss the Writing
Briefly discuss students’ progress. Review pages 28–29
in the Student Book.
3. Write a User Manual
Read step 3 to the class while students follow along
silently. Remind students to use the user manual in
their books as a guide for writing their own user
manuals. Remind students that when writing their user
manuals, they should focus on getting their ideas on
paper. They can fix spelling and grammar mistakes as
they review and edit. Circulate around the room and
meet with students to help them work through questions they may have about their writing.
4. Draw Diagrams
Read step 4 to the class. Remind students that user
manuals include labeled diagrams that make the
steps and parts of the appliance or machine in the
user manual clearer.
5. Read over Your Work
Read step 5 to the class. Give students time to read
through their user manuals to make sure that it is
easy to follow, lists safety precautions, tells how to
care for the appliance or machine, and includes
diagrams. Remind students that they can also use
a peer editor during this step. Peer editors should
focus on spelling, grammar, and punctuation. They
should also comment on whether the writing makes
sense, is organized well, and is interesting.
Assessment Check
A well-written how-to book
✔ Subheads similar to the model are used to organize
the text.
✔ Important information is presented in bulleted lists.
✔ Instructions are easy to follow.
✔ Safety precautions are included and stated clearly.
✔ At least one labeled diagram is used to clarify the text.
✔ Writing is free of mechanical errors.
An average how-to book
✔ Some subheads similar to the model are used to organize
the text.
✔ Important information is presented in bulleted lists.
✔ Instructions are somewhat easy to follow.
✔ Safety precautions are included and somewhat clear.
✔ At least one labeled diagram is used to clarify the text.
✔ Writing has some mechanical errors.
A poorly-written how-to book
✔ Subheads similar to the model are not used to organize
the text.
✔ Important information is not presented in bulleted lists.
✔ Instructions are not easy to follow.
Present Your User
Manual
As a class, have students turn to page 30 in their
books. Read page 30 aloud to the class as students
follow along silently. Explain that students will work
independently to prepare their presentations.
Review the following steps with the class so that
students understand each step in the process. Each
student should participate in all the steps.
Individual Work
Step 1. Copy your labeled diagram onto an
overhead transparency. Make sure your diagram is
clearly drawn so the parts of your diagram are easy to
see.
Class Discussion
After each student has completed all four steps, have
students discuss the process of writing a user manual
and presenting an appliance or machine.
Students can work independently or in pairs to answer
the following questions in their notebooks.
What did you like most about writing a user manual?
Did you learn something new from someone else’s
presentation?
BLENDE
R
Step 2. Explain your appliance or machine to the
class. Using your transparency on an overhead
projector, show the class your appliance or machine
and point out the different parts. Explain what the
appliance or machine is used for and how it works.
Step 3. Explain the safety precautions. Explain
any possible dangers there are when using your appliance or machine. Tell the class how to use the
machine in the safest way possible.
USER M
ANUAL
Step 4. Show the class how to care for the
appliance or machine. Explain how to clean, store,
and care for parts of your machine.
✔ Safety precautions are not included or are not clear.
✔ Labeled diagrams do not apply to the text or are not
included.
✔ Writing has many mechanical errors.
56
57
Activity Master
Name
Book title
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
58
Provides a tool for recording students’ prior knowledge
about the topic before they read
Electricity
Electricity
Electricity
Electricity
Provides a tool for developing strategies for book-level
vocabulary
at
at
at
at
Home Vocabulary
Play Vocabulary
School Vocabulary
Work Vocabulary
Comprehension Model
Provides a Master that can be made into a transparency to
model the comprehension strategy
Comprehension Strategy
Provides a tool to help students practice the
comprehension strategy
Word Cards, Electricity at Home
Word Cards, Electricity at Play
Provides cards that can be cut out and used to develop
vocabulary
Share Learning
Provides a tool students can use in small groups to
compare content across all Student Books
Key Concept Questions
Provides a tool students can use in small groups to answer
the Key Concept questions shown on page 17
in the Student Book
Fluency Practice
Provides a tool for pairs of students as they reread the text
to improve fluency
Content Reading Guide
Provides a tool to help students record specific
information
Prewriting
Provides a tool for organizing students’ ideas before
they write
Open-Book Test
Provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate both
their understanding of the content and their ability to read
for specific information
Electricity
Electricity
Electricity
Electricity
Provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate
their understanding of the content with differentiated
multiple-choice and short-answer questions
at
at
at
at
Home Test
Play Test
School Test
Work Test
You will be reading about electricity. In the first column below, list some things that run on electricity. In the second column, explain how each thing is used. In the third column, write the
place where this thing is used. After reading your book, you can add to the chart.
Thing that uses electricity
How it works
Where it is used
© 2007 National Geographic Society
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
59
Activity Master
ELECTRICITY AT HOME
Activity Master
Name
Name
Vocabulary: Concept Map
Vocabulary: Concept Map
The words below are from Electricity at Home. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition on the first line. On the lines, write words that the vocabulary word
is and is not. Then write words that describe the word. Finally, write a sentence using the
vocabulary word.
The words below are from Electricity at Play. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition on the first line. On the lines, write words that the vocabulary word
is and is not. Then write words that describe the word. Finally, write a sentence using the
vocabulary word.
1. circuit
2. electricity
1. circuit
2. electricity
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
3. electron
60
ELECTRICITY AT PLAY
4. insulators
3. electron
4. conductors
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
© 2007 National Geographic Society
What it is not
________________
© 2007 National Geographic Society
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
61
Activity Master
ELECTRICITY AT SCHOOL
Activity Master
Name
Name
Vocabulary: Concept Map
Vocabulary: Concept Map
The words below are from Electricity at School. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition on the first line. On the lines, write words that the vocabulary word
is and is not. Then write words that describe the word. Finally, write a sentence using the
vocabulary word.
The words below are from Electricity at Work. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition on the first line. On the lines, write words that the vocabulary word
is and is not. Then write words that describe the word. Finally, write a sentence using the
vocabulary word.
1. circuit
2. electricity
1. circuit
2. electricity
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
3. electron
62
ELECTRICITY AT WORK
4. electric current
3. electron
4. resistance
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
Definition
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
What it is
________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
© 2007 National Geographic Society
What it is not
________________
© 2007 National Geographic Society
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
What it is not
________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Descriptions
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
Sentence
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
63
Activity Master
Name
Activity Master
Name
Book title
Comprehension Model: Visualizing
Book title
Comprehension Strategy: Visualizing
Use this chart as you read. Write words that help you visualize in column 1 and what you see in
your mind in column 2. Add your questions and responses in column 3.
Using Electricity
Of all the different types of energy we use in
our daily lives, electricity is one of the most
important. Electricity can be used to power many
different things. It can give us light. It can keep us
cool in the summer and warm in the winter. You
can use it to make popcorn or watch your favorite
movie. You can even use electricity to talk to your
friends.
Words that help me visualize
What I see in my mind
Questions and responses
Did you know that it is electrons that make
electric power possible? Everything on Earth is
made of very small particles called atoms. Atoms
are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The
protons and neutrons are packed together to form
what’s called the nucleus of the atom. Whizzing
around the outside of the nucleus are electrons
that can roam from atom to atom. The movement
of these tiny electrons is electricity.
• Look for describing words (sense words).
• Look for comparisons.
• Add what you already know to what you read.
• Make a mental movie and edit it as you get new information.
64
© 2007 National Geographic Society
Steps for Visualizing
We use electricity to wash and dry our clothes.
© 2007 National Geographic Society
All electrical devices, from simple flashlights to
the most complex computers, operate on the same
basic principle. It’s called a circuit. A circuit can
be thought of as a circle of electricity, which is
how it got its name. A circuit is nothing more than
a continuous loop or pathway through which
electricity can flow.
65
ELECTRICITY AT HOME
Activity Master
Activity Master
Name
Name
Word Cards: Electricity at Home
Word Cards: Electricity at Play
Cut along the dotted lines. Mix your cards with a partner’s. Deal 7 cards to each of you. Place
the rest in a pile in the center of the table. To find a match, ask for the card that goes with the
vocabulary word or definition you have on your card. If your partner does not have a match,
then “go fish” from the center pile.
Cut along the dotted lines. Mix your cards with a partner’s. Deal 7 cards to each of you. Place
the rest in a pile in the center of the table. To find a match, ask for the card that goes with the
vocabulary word or definition you have on your card. If your partner does not have a match,
then “go fish” from the center pile.
atoms
tiny particles that make up matter
atoms
tiny particles that make up matter
circuit
the path along which electricity moves
circuit
the path along which electricity moves
electrons
filament
insulators
resistance
conductors
current moves easily
electricity
the energy of moving electrons
particles that move around the
electrons
center of an atom
a wire that glows when heated by
filament
an electric current
materials through which an electric
current moves with difficulty
slowing down the flow of electrons
© 2007 National Geographic Society
electricity
materials through which an electric
© 2007 National Geographic Society
conductors
66
ELECTRICITY AT PLAY
insulators
magnetism
materials through which an electric
current moves easily
the energy of moving electrons
particles that move around the
center of an atom
a wire that glows when heated by
an electric current
materials through which an electric
current moves with difficulty
force that attracts or repels
67
Activity Master
Activity Master
Name
Name
Book title
Book title
Share Learning
Key Concept Questions
Work with students who have read books different from yours. Each group member is the expert
on the electricity used in one place. Each member should share information from his or her
book to complete a row on the chart.
Read the questions on page 17 of your book. Think about what you have learned from reading
your book. Then answer the questions below.
1. What is electricity? What do electrons have to do with electricity?
Place where electricity
is used
Ways electricity is used
in this place
Example of electric
circuit in this place
How electric
energy changes
2. How are conductors and insulators used together?
3. What does a switch do in an electric circuit?
68
© 2007 National Geographic Society
© 2007 National Geographic Society
4. What other forms of energy can electric energy change to?
69
Activity Master
Activity Master
Name
Name
Book title
Book title
Fluency Practice
Content Reading Guide: How-to Books
You will be reading parts of your book with a partner. You will take turns being the reader
and the listener.
You can read how-to books to find out how to do or make something. As you read pages
21–26 in your book, look for the important features of a user manual. Also look for any special
things to consider when using a machine.
Readers will read from their own books. You will pick a short section to read, and you will read
this same section three times.
Listeners will correct missed words. When you hear a missed word, say, STOP, and the word.
Have the reader repeat this word. Then, ask the reader to read that sentence again. After each
reading, tell the reader how to improve. Then fill out the checklist for the reader.
Topic:
Important features
Things to consider
Reading Checklist
Reader Name:
Reading #1:
great
good
so-so
not very good
Reading #2:
great
good
so-so
not very good
Reading #3:
great
good
so-so
not very good
Check how the reader improved
My partner read more smoothly.
My partner read with more expression.
70
© 2007 National Geographic Society
My partner stopped for more punctuation.
© 2007 National Geographic Society
My partner knew more words.
71
Activity Master
Name
Assessment Test
Name
Book title
Book title
Open-Book Test
Prewriting
You will be writing a user manual. Your manual should include information about how to use an
electrical machine that is found in the area your book is about. Use the user manual beginning
on page 21 as a model.
1.
Machine:
Subheads to use to organize my information:
move around the center of an atom.
2. The energy of moving electrons is called
.
3. Electricity moves along a path called a
.
4. Copper and iron make good
.
Plastic and rubber make good
.
5. The four types of energy that electric energy can change to are
How to use this machine:
6. How does a closed circuit work?
Safety precautions:
7. What are three examples of things that use electricity in the place you read about?
How to care for this machine:
8. Look at the diagram on page 21 of your book. What part or parts of this machine are
labeled number 3?
72
© 2007 National Geographic Society
Other important information to include:
© 2007 National Geographic Society
9. What is being shown in Figure B of the user manual in your book?
10. What part of a user manual uses pictures to show what the information means?
73
Assessment Test
ELECTRICITY AT HOME
ELECTRICITY AT HOME
Assessment Test
Name
Use the flow diagram to answer questions 7–8.
Test
How Electricity Gets to Your Home
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Where are electrons located in an atom?
A. around the nucleus
4. Which is the best example of something
that uses mechanical energy?
B. next to the protons
A. a lamp
C. next to the neutrons
B. a washing machine
D. in the nucleus
C. a power cord
2. What happens when electrons bump into
each other?
A. They stop moving.
B. They speed up.
C. They move through wires.
D. They produce heat.
D. a doorbell
5. All how-to books have
A. a title.
1. A power station
generates electricity.
B. labeled diagrams.
C. important information.
2. Power lines carry
electricity to many
substations where
electrical energy
is made.
3. Power lines
carry electricity
to your home.
4. Appliances and
machines in
your home use
electricity.
D. all of the above
3. A toaster is an appliance that changes
electrical energy into
7. Write two sentences that tell what this flow diagram is mostly about and what steps the dia-
gram shows.
A. sound energy.
B. mechanical energy.
C. heat energy.
D. none of the above
6. Explain the difference between a closed circuit and an open circuit.
74
8. Explain what is happening in the second step of this flow diagram.
75
Assessment Test
ELECTRICITY AT PLAY
ELECTRICITY AT PLAY
Assessment Test
Name
Use the flow diagram to answer questions 7–8.
Test
How Electricity Gets to an Amusement Park
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Where are electrons located in an atom?
A. around the nucleus
B. next to the protons
C. next to the neutrons
D. in the nucleus
4. Which is the best example of something
that uses mechanical energy?
A. a hot water heater
B. a motor
C. a power cord
D. a digital clock
2. When happens when electrons collide?
A. They stop moving.
B. They speed up.
5. All how-to books have
A. a title.
B. labeled diagrams.
1. A power station
generates electricity.
C. They move through wires.
C. important information.
D. They produce heat.
2. Power lines carry
electricity to many
substations where
electrical energy
is made.
3. Power lines carry
electricity to an
amusement park.
4. Rides at an
amusement park
use electricity.
D. all of the above
3. A game show buzzer is a machine that
changes electrical energy into
A. heat energy.
7. Write two sentences that tell what this flow diagram is mostly about and what steps the dia-
gram shows.
B. mechanical energy.
C. sound energy.
D. none of the above
6. Explain the difference between a closed circuit and an open circuit.
76
8. Explain what is happening in the second step of this flow diagram.
77
Assessment Test
ELECTRICITY AT SCHOOL
ELECTRICITY AT SCHOOL
Assessment Test
Name
Use the flow diagram to answer questions 7–8.
Test
How Electricity Gets to Your School
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Where are electrons located in an atom?
A. around the nucleus
B. next to the protons
C. next to the neutrons
D. in the nucleus
4. Which is the best example of something
that uses mechanical energy?
A. an overhead projector
B. a floor polisher
C. a power cord
D. a hot water heater
2. When happens when electrons collide?
A. They stop moving.
B. They speed up.
C. They move through wires.
5. All how-to books have
A. a title.
B. labeled diagrams.
1. A power station
generates electricity.
C. important information.
D. They produce heat.
2. Power lines carry
electricity to many
substations where
electrical energy
is made.
3. Power lines
carry electricity
to your school.
4. Equipment in
your school
uses electricity.
D. all of the above
3. A school bell is a machine that changes
electrical energy into
A. heat energy.
7. Write two sentences that tell what this flow diagram is mostly about and what steps the dia-
gram shows.
B. mechanical energy.
C. sound energy.
D. none of the above
6. Explain the difference between a closed circuit and an open circuit.
8. Explain what is happening in the second step of this flow diagram.
78
79
Assessment Test
ELECTRICITY AT WORK
ELECTRICITY AT WORK
Assessment Test
Name
Use the flow diagram to answer questions 7–8.
Test
How Electricity Gets to a Factory
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Where are electrons located in an atom?
A. around the nucleus
B. next to the protons
C. next to the neutrons
D. in the nucleus
4. Which is the best example of something
that uses mechanical energy?
A. a security system
B. a motor
C. a power cord
D. a soldering tool
2. When happens when electrons collide?
A. They stop moving.
B. They speed up.
C. They move through wires.
D. They produce heat.
5. All how-to books have
A. a title.
1. A power station
generates electricity.
B. labeled diagrams.
C. important information.
2. Power lines carry
electricity to many
substations where
electrical energy
is made.
3. Power lines
carry electricity
to a factory.
4. Machines in
a factory use
electricity.
D. all of the above
3. A telephone is a machine that changes
electrical energy into
7. Write two sentences that tell what this flow diagram is mostly about and what steps the dia-
gram shows.
A. heat energy.
B. mechanical energy.
C. sound energy.
D. none of the above
6. Explain the difference between a closed circuit and an open circuit.
80
8. Explain what is happening in the second step of this flow diagram.
81
OPEN-BOOK TEST
Distribute the Open-Book Test Master to students. This allows students to
demonstrate both their understanding of the content and their ability to read
for specific information. Students should work quietly and independently to
complete this test during this 20-minute period.
Test Questions
1. [Electrons] move around the center of an atom.
2. The energy of moving electrons is called [electricity].
3. Electricity moves along a path called a [circuit].
4. Copper and iron make good [conductors]. Plastic and rubber make good [insulators].
5. The four types of energy that electric energy can change to are [heat, light, sound, and mechanical].
6. How does a closed circuit work? [A closed circuit has wires in a complete loop that let electricity flow from a power source
to the appliance and back to the power source.]
7. What are three examples of things that use electricity in the place you read
about?
Answers will vary but may include lamps,
ovens, refrigerators, and toasters.
Answers will vary but may include
amusement park rides, video games,
televisions, computers, and toy trains.
Answers will vary but may include lights,
overhead projectors, fish tank filters,
computers, and floodlights.
Answers will vary but may include telephones, computers, cranes, forklifts,
motors, lights, and security systems.
8. Look at the diagram on page 21 of your book. What part or parts of this
machine are labeled number 3?
Power cord
Disc tray and Stop button
Head release button
Multifunction handle
9. What is being shown in Figure B of the user manual in your book?
The toaster should not be put in water.
Where the remote control buttons are.
The overhead projector should not be
exposed to direct sunlight.
How to read if the battery is charged.
diagrams
diagrams
diagrams
diagrams
10. What part of a user manual uses pictures to show what the information
means?
82
83
ELECTRICITY AT HOME
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. A
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. D
Scoring Guides
Struggling readers may provide responses that are less
complete than those provided by more advanced readers. You can take this into account when grading students’ responses.
Question 6
Complete The response is a complete sentence
explaining that a closed circuit is a loop that carries
electricity from a power source to the appliance and
back to the power source. An open circuit has a gap in
it that stops the flow of electricity.
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence explaining that a circuit is a loop but only
explains what a closed or open circuit is.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence and includes little or no
information about closed and open circuits.
84
Question 7
Complete The response includes two complete
sentences that identify the topic of the diagram as the
steps in getting electricity from a power station to a
home. The response includes information related to
the route that electricity takes, including leaving the
power station, traveling by wires to substations, and
traveling by wires to the home.
ELECTRICITY AT PLAY
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. A
2. D
3. C
Partial The response includes one complete sentence
that tells what the diagram is partly about. The
response includes some information related to the
route that electricity takes from the power station to
the home.
4. B
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to the route that
electricity takes from the power station to
the home.
Struggling readers may provide responses that are less
complete than those provided by more advanced readers. You can take this into account when grading students’ responses.
Question 8
Complete The response identifies the second step of
the diagram as traveling by wires to substations.
Partial The response includes identifying the second
step as wires or substations.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does not
identify the appropriate step.
5. D
Scoring Guides
Question 6
Complete The response is a complete sentence
explaining that a closed circuit is a loop that carries
electricity from a power source to the appliance and
back to the power source. An open circuit has a gap in
it that stops the flow of electricity.
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence explaining that a circuit is a loop but only
explains what a closed or open circuit is.
Question 7
Complete The response includes two complete
sentences that identify the topic of the diagram as the
steps in getting electricity from a power station
to an amusement park. The response includes
information related to the route that electricity takes,
including leaving the power station, traveling by wires
to substations, and traveling by wires to an
amusement park.
Partial The response includes one complete sentence
that tells what the diagram is partly about. The
response includes some information related to the
route that electricity takes from the power station to
an amusement park.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to the route that
electricity takes from the power station to an amusement park.
Question 8
Complete The response identifies the second step of
the diagram as traveling by wires to substations.
Partial The response includes identifying the second
step as wires or substations.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does not
identify the appropriate step.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence and includes little or no
information about closed and open circuits.
85
ELECTRICITY AT SCHOOL
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. A
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. D
Scoring Guides
Struggling readers may provide responses that are less
complete than those provided by more advanced readers. You can take this into account when grading students’ responses.
Question 6
Complete The response is a complete sentence
explaining that a closed circuit is a loop that carries
electricity from a power source to the appliance and
back to the power source. An open circuit has a gap in
it that stops the flow of electricity.
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence explaining that a circuit is a loop but only
explains what a closed or open circuit is.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence and includes little or no
information about closed and open circuits.
86
Question 7
Complete The response includes two complete
sentences that identify the topic of the diagram as the
steps in getting electricity from a power station to a
school. The response includes information related to
the route that electricity takes, including leaving the
power station, traveling by wires to substations, and
traveling by wires to a school.
ELECTRICITY AT WORK
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. A
2. D
3. C
Question 7
Complete The response includes two complete
sentences that identify the topic of the diagram as the
steps in getting electricity from a power station
to a factory. The response includes information related
to the route that electricity takes, including leaving the
power station, traveling by wires to substations, and
traveling by wires to a factory.
Partial The response includes one complete sentence
that tells what the diagram is partly about. The
response includes some information related to the
route that electricity takes from the power station to a
school.
4. B
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to the
route that electricity takes from the power station
to a school.
Struggling readers may provide responses that are less
complete than those provided by more advanced readers. You can take this into account when grading students’ responses.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to the route that
electricity takes from the power station to a factory.
Question 6
Question 8
Complete The response is a complete sentence
explaining that a closed circuit is a loop that carries
electricity from a power source to the appliance and
back to the power source. An open circuit has a gap in
it that stops the flow of electricity.
Complete The response identifies the second step of
the diagram as traveling by wires to substations.
Question 8
Complete The response identifies the second step of
the diagram as traveling by wires to substations.
Partial The response includes identifying the second
step as wires or substations.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does not
identify the appropriate step.
5. D
Scoring Guides
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete sentence explaining that a circuit is a loop but only
explains what a closed or open circuit is.
Partial The response includes one complete sentence
that tells what the diagram is partly about. The
response includes some information related to the
route that electricity takes from the power station to a
factory.
Partial The response includes identifying the second
step as wires or substations.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does not
identify the appropriate step.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence and includes little or no
information about closed and open circuits.
87
Notes
88
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Our Solar System
Immigration to the United States
Plants in Their Habitats
Immigration Today
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Inventions Bring Change
Using Earth’s Resources
Providing Goods
Using Electricity
Trade Across Time and Cultures
Using Simple Machines
Westward Expansion
Weather and Climate
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Using Electricity
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