AFC 260/AFC 261 - MHz Electronics, Inc

AFC 260/AFC 261 - MHz Electronics, Inc
AFC 260/AFC 261
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
1
D 10-017 V01
QUALIFLOW Montpellier (headquaters)
350, rue A. Nobel
BP7- 34935 MONTPELLIER
CEDEX 9
France
tel: +33 4 67 99 47 47
fax: +33 4 67 99 47 48
QUALIFLOW Inc,
24 Goose Lane
TOLLAND CT-06084
CALIFORNIA - USA
tel: +1 860.871.92.33
fax: +1 860.871.92.33
QUALIFLOW Technology Center
909 Boggs Terrace
Fremont, CA-94539
CALIFORNIA - USA
tel: +1 510 440 93 74
fax: +1 510 440 93 75
QUALIFLOW NRT Korea
10 Block-17 Lot, Namdong Ind.
CLX. #623-16n Namchon-Dong, Namdong-Ku
KOREA
tel: +82 (0)2 3401 6491
fax: +82 (0)2 3401 6493
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
2
D 10-017 V01
Reference D-10-017
Document Name
File Name
Author
Visa
Date
Olivier Léonel 07/02/01
Author
Olivier Léonel
Olivier Léonel
Date
24/08/00
07/02/00
Identification
Revision
01
User's Manual AFC 260/AFC 261
AFC260&261 Manual.doc
Control
Verified
Visa
Date
Pierre Navratil
07/02/01
History
Description
Initial Version
Exploded View added
Date
07/02/01
Approved
Visa
Date
Pascal Rudent
07/02/01
Revision
00
01
Status
Issued
Issued
2000 QUALIFLOW Montpellier, France. This document contains information proprietary to
QUALIFLOW and shall not be used for engineering, design, procurement or manufacture in
whole or in part without consent of QUALIFLOW.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................5
1.1.SURVEY OF TYPES AND GAS RANGES......................................................................5
1.2. SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................................................5
SECTION 2 - INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................7
2.1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................7
2.2
UNPACKING ...............................................................................................................7
2.3
MECHANICAL INSTALLATION..............................................................................7
2.2.0
GENERAL............................................................................................................7
2.2.1
INSTALLATION .................................................................................................8
2.4
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ..............................................................................10
2.3.0
GENERAL..........................................................................................................10
2.3.1
CONNECTIONS ................................................................................................10
2.3.2
SOFTSTART COMMAND................................................................................12
2.3.3
PRESSURE CONTROL.....................................................................................13
2.3.7
RATIO CONTROL ............................................................................................13
2.3.4
READ OUT USING A DIGITAL VOLTMETER.............................................13
2.5
CHECKS BEFORE START UP.................................................................................14
SECTION 3 - OPERATION.......................................................................................................15
3.1
SENSOR AND BYPASS ...........................................................................................15
3.2
CONTROL VALVE ...................................................................................................15
3.3
ELECTRONICS .........................................................................................................15
3.4
CONVERSION DATA...............................................................................................15
SECTION 4 - ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE ..........................................................................19
4.1.REQUIRED FACILITIES ................................................................................................19
4.2.POTENTIOMETERS ADJUSTMENT............................................................................19
4.3. VALVE ADJUSTMENT.................................................................................................19
4.4. CHANGE OF CALIBRATION.......................................................................................20
4.5. DYNAMIC RESPONSE ADJUSTMENT ......................................................................20
SECTION 5 - MAINTENANCE ................................................................................................21
5.1.GENERAL........................................................................................................................21
5.2.DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES....................................................21
5.3. SENSOR CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT .............................................................21
5.4. CONTROL VALVE CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT...........................................22
SECTION 6 - TROUBLESHOOTING ......................................................................................23
6.1.INITIAL CHECK .............................................................................................................23
6.2.SEVERAL SYMPTOMS .................................................................................................23
SECTION 7 – GENERAL MFC PRINCIPLES .........................................................................26
7.1.MFC & MFM PRINCIPLES ............................................................................................26
7.2.MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES.....................................................................................26
7.3.SENSORS PRINCIPLES .................................................................................................27
7.4.BYPASS PRINCIPLES ....................................................................................................29
7.5.CONTROL PRINCIPLES ................................................................................................30
SECTION 8 - WARRANTY AND SERVICES.........................................................................32
8.1.PRODUCT WARRANTY................................................................................................32
8.2.SERVICES........................................................................................................................33
SECTION 9 - PARTS LISTS AND DESCRIPTION.................................................................34
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.1.SURVEY OF TYPES AND GAS RANGES
This user’s manual covers the 260,261 models of QUALIFLOW mass flow meters and 360 &
361 mass flow controllers. Gas table and nomenclature are given in Table I.
Gas Range
Mass flow meters
Mass flow controllers
0 - 5000 sccm
AFM-360
AFC-260
5 - 20 slm
AFM-361
AFC-261
Table 1.1. Gas Ranges and nomenclature
Note : The figures related to the gases are with respect to nitrogen.
For other gases a conversion factor is given in relation to nitrogen (3.4.).
1.2. SPECIFICATIONS
Spec.
AFM-360-361
AFC-260
AFC-261
Input
+15VDC±5%, 25mA
±15VDC +5%, 25mA
±15VDC +5%, 25mA
-15VDC ±5%, 25mA
-15VDC ±5%,180mA
-15VDC ±5%,180mA
0.1 - 5 VDC
0.1 - 5 VDC
O - 5 VDC
O - 5 VDC
6s
6s
Setpoint Signal
Output Signal
O - 5 VDC
Respons time (typ)
Repeatability
0,3% of Full Scale
0,3% of Full Scale
0,3% of Full Scale
Accuracy
± l% of Full Scale
± 1% of Full Scale
± 1% of Full Scale
Gas T°. Range
5 - 40°C
5 - 40°C
5 - 40°C
T° coefficient
less than 0.1%/°C
less than 0.1%/°C
less than 0.1%/°C
Gas Pressure
10 bars max.
10 bars barr max.
10 bars max.
0.5-3 at dlff
1 0-3 at dlff
0.7-3 at diff for H2
1.2-3 at diff for H2
0.1%/atm (typ)
0.1%/atm (typ)
Pressure
0.1%/atm(typ)
*
Coefficient
Leak Rate
-9
-9
<2.10 scc/sec.
<2.10 scc/sec.
-9
<2.10 scc/sec.
Table 1.2. : Specifications values.
* For a differential pressure under 1.5 bar ( 22 psi ) it is recommended to use a QUALIFLOW ® mass-flow controller AFC 50.00
to control 20 slm full scale flow.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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Standard Gas table :
AFM-360 / AFC-260
AFM-361 / AFC-261
(SCCM)
(SLM)
0 2 - 10
0.2 - 10.0
0 4 - 20
0.4 - 20.0
0.6 - 30
1 - 50
2 - 100
4 - 200
6 - 300
10 - 500
20 - 1000
40 - 2000
60 - 3000
100 - 5000
Table 1.3 : Standard ranges values.
Standard
Moduline
SWG
(VCR 1/4" MM)
(VCR 1/4" FM)
(1/4" )
AFC 260 10-500sccm
628021120.00
628021220.00
628021020.00
AFC 260 500-2000sccm
628021130.00
628021230.00
628021030.00
AFC 260 2-5slm
628021140.00
628021240.00
628021040.00
AFC 260 5-10slm N2,H2,O2,Ar
628021150.00
628021250.00
628021050.00
AFC 261 5-20slm
628051110.00
628051210.00
628051010.00
AFM 360 10-5000sccm
628151110.00
628151210.00
628151010.00
AFM 361 5-20slm
628161110.00
628051210.00
628161010.00
Table 1-4 : Part numbers of AFC 260, 261 and AFM 360,361
Note : AFC and AFM are delivered with Viton seals except NH3 mass-flow which are
delivered with neoprene seals. Please contact your local representative for other kind of seal
material.
260/360 MM
260/360 Mod.
260/360 SWG
261/361 MM
261/361 Mod
261/361 SWG
Long
123 mm
141.6 mm
112 mm
157
212.6
146.7
Wide
25mm
25mm
25mm
31mm
31mm
31mm
High
110 mm
110 mm
110 mm
115 mm
115 mm
115 mm
500 gr
500 gr
500 gr
950 gr
950 gr
950 gr
Weight
Table 1-5 : dimensions of AFC 260, 261 and AFM 360,361
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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SECTION 2 - INSTALLATION
2.1
INTRODUCTION
This section is made of four parts and contains all the information necessary to install the AFC
260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 -361 mass-flow meter.
•
2.1 - unpacking;
•
2.2 - mechanical installation;
•
2.3 - electrical installation;
•
2.4 - checks before start-up.
2.2
UNPACKING
The AFC 260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 -361 mass-flow meter are manufactured
under cleanroom conditions, and has been packed accordingly. Upon receipt, the cardboard
packing should be checked for damage. If there is visible damage, please notify your local
QUALIFLOW sales office. In order to minimize contamination of cleanrooms, the unit has
been packed in two separately sealed plastic bags. The outside bag should be removed in the
entrance to the clean room. The second bag should be removed when you install the unit.
2.3
MECHANICAL INSTALLATION
2.2.0
GENERAL
Most applications will require a positive shutoff valve in line with the mass flow controller.
Pressurized gas trapped between the two devices can cause surge effects, and consideration
must be given to the sitting of the shutoff valve (upstream or downstream) in relation to the
process sequencing. As far as the process parameters permit, it is recommended that you
install an in-line filter upstream from the controller in order to prevent contamination.
The AFC 260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 -361 mass-flow meter can be mounted in
any position. The atmosphere should be clean and dry. The mounting should be free from
shock or vibration. Mounting dimensions are shown in figure 2-1. Prior to installation, ensure
that all the piping is thoroughly cleaned and dried. Do not remove the protective endcaps until
you are ready to install the controller.
25
109
MASS FLOW CONTROLLER
MODEL AFC 260
ADVANCED
SEMI CONDUCTOR
MATERIALS
MONTPELLIER FRANCE
B
12.5
FLOW
76.2
A
C
25
18
68
2 holes M4
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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Figure 2-1 Dimensions of the
Type
Modu C
AFC 260 - or AFM 360 mass-flow meter
Inlet
Female
VCR
Male VCR
Swagelok
Standard
Swagelok
Outlet
Male VCR
A
B
C
141.6 32.95 32.45
Male VCR
Swagelok
123
112
23.8
18.2
23
17.6
25
115.5
MASS FLOW CONTROLLER
MODEL AFC 260
ADVANCED
SEMI CONDUCTOR
MATERIALS
31.5
MONTPELLIER FRANCE
12
D
FLOW
76.2
A
B
C
31.5
25.1
90
2 holes M4
Figure 2-2 Dimensions of the
Type
Modu C
Standard
Swagelok
2.2.1
AFC 261 - or AFM 361 mass-flow meter
Inlet
Female VCR
Male VCR
Swagelok
Outlet
Male VCR
Male VCR
Swagelok
A
212.6
157
146.7
B
80.9
25.3
20.5
C
23.7
23.7
18.2
D
12
14.5
14.5
INSTALLATION
WARNING: Toxic, corrosive or explosive gases must be handledwith
extreme care. After installing the mass flow controller, the
system should be thoroughly checked to ensure it is leak
free. Purge the mass flow controller with a dry inert gas for
one hour before using corrosive gases.
Important: When installing the mass flow controller, ensure that the
arrow on the back of the unit points in the same direction
as the gas flow.
2.2.1.1.
VCR COMPATIBLE COUPLINGS
The AFC 260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 -361 mass-flow meter normally come with
1/4" male VCR compatible couplings on both sides. To install the AFC/AFM, follow the steps
listed below. Refer to figure 2-2.
1.
Check the gland to gland space, including the gaskets.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Remove the plastic gland protector caps.
a) When using loose VCR "original" style gaskets, insert the gasket into the female
nut.
b) For VCR retainer gaskets, snap the gasket onto the male coupling. See figure 22.
Tighten the nuts finger tight.
Scribe both nut and body in order to mark the position of the nut.
While holding the body with a wrench, tighten the nut:
a) 1/8 turn past finger tight for 316 stainless steel and nickel gaskets.
b) 1/4 turn past finger tight for copper, TFE and aluminium gaskets.
VCR original style gasket
VCR retainer gasket
Figure 2-2 VCR compatible couplings
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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2.2.1.2
SWAGELOK COMPATIBLE COUPLINGS
On request the AFC 260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 -361 mass-flow meter can be
supplied with 1/4" male Swagelok compatible couplings. In this case polished stainless steel
tubing must be used to ensure a leak tight system. The mounting instructions are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Insert the tubing to the shoulder inside the fitting.
Check that the ferrules are positioned as shown in figure 2-3.
Tighten the nuts finger tight.
Scribe both nut and body in order to mark the position of the nut.
Tighten the nuts 1 and 1/4 turn, while holding the body with a wrench.
ferrules
Figure 2-3 Orientation of Swagelok compatible couplings
2.4
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
2.3.0
GENERAL
It is important to read section 2.3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION before connecting the AFC
260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 -361 mass-flow meter, so that you understand the
electrical configurations that are possible. Within this section, there are the following subsections:
•
•
•
•
•
2.3.1
connections
softstart command
pressure control
ratio control
read out using a digital voltmeter
CONNECTIONS
The standard AFC 260 -261 mass flow controller or AFM 360 - 361 mass flow meter has a
cardedge connector. The pin arrangement is shown in figure 2-4.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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1
2
3
4
5
A
Figure 2-4 cardedge
6
B
7
C
8
9
D
E
10
F
G
H
J
K
connector pin arrangement
Table1 gives a more detailed explanation about the functions available on every pins :
Cardedge connector
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 Case Ground
A Control Input 0.1 - 5 VDC
2 Common
B Common valve ****
3 Output O - 5 VDC
C Common
4 +15 VDC
D Valve test point; Soft start connection **
6 Zener Test Point
F -15 VDC
7
J Sensor Up-stream ***
8
K Sensor Common ***
9
L Sensor Downstream ***
10
Extra Output *
Notes: *
**
***
****
1. For vacuum pressure control applications. See 2.3.3.
2. Soft start connection. See 2.3.2.
3. Not available in earlier PC boards.
4. Valve common is jumpered to C. Remove this jumper and use seperate
common is advise everytime it is possible.
5. Any DC voltmeter or recorder can be used to visualize the output signal.
Input impedance should be at least 5000 ohms.
6. The control lnput signal should be from any voltage source with maximum
impedance 2500 ohms.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Table 1 Description of D-connector pin functions
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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2.3.2
SOFTSTART COMMAND
flow
If you have a non-zero setpoint and the flow is stopped by a shutoff valve, the mass flow
controller will open fully to try and achieve the setpoint. When the flow is restored the mass
flow controller will be fully open and there will be a substantial overshoot - see figure 2-6.
setpoint
without softstart
with softstart
time
Figure 2-6 Effect of the soft start mode
This can be avoided by using the softstart feature. Externally connecting pins 10 and 12 will
cause the mass flow controller to shut completely, regardless of the actual setpoint. The
controller will close almost instantaneously. The connection can be made by the same switch
that operates the shutoff valve. A typical arrangement is shown in figure 2-7. When the shutoff
valve is reopened, pins 10 and 12 will be disconnected and the controller will open to control
at the setpoint.
NO shutoff valve
AFC
C
D
power supply
shutoff valve
Figure 2-7 Softstart circuit
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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D 10-017 V01
2.3.3
PRESSURE CONTROL
The mass flow controller can be modified to work as a pressure controller. Pin 3 is normally
connected to pin 10 by jumper J2 (see PC-board layout in section 4.2). Desoldering this pad
disconnects the sensor output signal from the control circuit. A pressure transducer output
signal (0-5 VDC) can now be connected to pin 3, which makes the mass flow controller work
as a pressure controller. The mass flow can still be monitored through pin 10.
2.3.7
RATIO CONTROL
For processes that require accurate blending of two or more different gases, ratio control can
be obtained by a master-slave arrangement as shown in figure 2-9. The output signal of the
master mass flow controller is used as an input (setpoint) signal by the slave mass flow
controller.
slave
AFC
master
AFC
A 3 2
A 3
2
5 kOhm poteniometer
setpoint to
master AFC
read out box
Figure 2-9 Ratio control
2.3.4
READ OUT USING A DIGITAL VOLTMETER
For testing, laboratory, or R&D applications, any DC voltmeter or recorder with an impedance
of at least 5000 Ohms may be used to monitor the mass flow controller's performance.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
13
D 10-017 V01
AFC
or
AFM
3 2
R2
R1=1 kOhm (0.1%)
digital
voltmeter
1999 mV full scale
Figure 2-11 Voltage divider arrangement
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1999
1500
1000
750
600
500
400
300
250
Full scale
read-out [mv]
R2 [kOhm]
1.50
2.33
4.00
5.67
7.33
9.00
11.50
15.70
19.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Table 2 Selection of R2.
2.5
CHECKS BEFORE START UP
Before operating the mass flow controller the following checks should be completed:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Check all tubing is leak proof.
Check the process sequence and proper function of all other gas components
involved.
Check the voltage of command signals and power supply to the mass flow
controller.
Check the appropriate gas type is being supplied at the rated pressure.
Allow the mass flow controller to warm up for 20 minutes, then check the zero level
output.
Use dry inert gas for test runs.
Prior to using the mass flow controller for extremely corrosive gases, purge with a
dry inert gas for one hour.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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SECTION 3 - OPERATION
3.1
SENSOR AND BYPASS
The massflow sensor is a laminar-flow device, which forms together with the bypass the
flowpath. The splitting up of the flow is additive and independent of gas pressure and
temperature. The flow rate through the sensor capillary tube is measured by resistance
thermometers, wound on the outside of the tube.
These thermal sensitive resistors are part of a bridge circuit. With no flow through the tube, the
bridge is balanced and the differential amplifier, that follows the bridge, gives zero volt output.
With flow, the internal heat exchange is altered and consequently the temperature profile
along the tube, which causes a bridge output signal.
A linearity circuit corrects the possible inherent non linearity of the sensor. The output signal is
amplified to give 5.00 VDC at the required flowrate. By means of bypass-substitution the flow
through the sensor is made almost the same for all the flow ranges.
3.2
CONTROL VALVE
AFC-260 and AFC-261 flow controllers are equipped with a completely interchangeable
control valve. The valve housing contains the shut-off plunger and the actuator whereas the
orifice is situated in the base-block. In case of contamination or clogging, the valve can be
taken out, giving access to the seat and the shut-off plunger. The critical places can be
cleaned, even polished and the valve can be reinstalled. (See cleaning instructions 5.4.).
3.3
ELECTRONICS
In the schematic (see last page), the sensor elements are shown between u, c and d. R1 and
R2 complete the bridge together with potentiometer R3 (ZERO), for balancing of the bridge.
OpAmp C amplifies the differential voltage. Potentiometer R9 (GAIN), together with R8, R10
and R5 determine the D.C. gain. R11 with C4 give the differentiating action; a sudden change
in the bridge voltage causes an extra gain (AC gain). The time constant of this transient is
determined by R11. At the factory this resistor is selected during transient tests for every
individual meter or controller.
Z1 and R14, R12 and R13 determine the current through the sensor. As not every
sensor/bypass pair is completely linear, linearizing circuit (Op. Amp. B, R15 until R20) varies
the sensor current as a function of the output voltage. The influence of R19 (LlNEARITY) is
maximal at half of full scale output and almost zero at zero and full scale output.
Output voltage and setpoint voltage are compared by Op Amp A. If flow is too low, T2 closes
further to decrease the current through the control valve and vice versa.
R25 forms a current limiter, as all valves close at different voltages. R25 is to be selected in
shut-off tests.
C6 and R24 reduce the gain of C during a flow and/or setpoint transient, providing a slowly
changing valve control voltage, which in turn gives a gradual change in flow rate.
D2 and D3 protect the electronics from damage in case + and -15 V power is reversed.
Op Amps .A, B and C are parts of a quad i.c., 14 pins DIL. The commercial available i.c.
enhances field service and reduces down-time, as replacement hardly effects accuracy.
3.4
CONVERSION DATA
If a mass flow meter or -controller, calibrated e.g. for N2, 200 sccm, has to be used for working
with another gas, say X, conversion data can be used to calculate the actual flow of gas X.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
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D 10-017 V01
The achieved accuracy is less than ±1% (standard calibration) but always better than 4%. The
formula for calculating the flow of gas X is in this example.
Ac tua l f lo w o f gas X C(X)
=
Ac tua l f lo w o f N 2
C(N 2 )
Where the flow are in sccm or slm, and C(X) and C(N2) are the tabulated values of the
conversion factors. In this example, when X is say CO2 (C = 0,746) :
Ac tua l f lo w o f CO 2 0,746
=
Ac tua l f lo w o f N 2
1,000
So the actual flow of C02, if measured with a unit, that was originally calibrated for N2 is
obtained by multiplying the output by 0,746.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
16
D 10-017 V01
#
Name
1*
Acetone
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
Acetylene
Air
Allene
Ammonia
Argon
Arsine
Boron trichloride
Boron trifluoride
Butane
l-Butene
Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Carbonyl fluoride
Carbonyl sulphide
Chlorine
Chlorine trifluoride
Chloroform
Cyanogen
Cyclopropane
Deuterium
Diborane
Dichlorosilane
Dichlorodimethylsilane
Dimethylamine
Dimethylether
Ethane
Ethyl chloride
Ethylene
Ethylene oxide
Fluorine
Fluoroform
Freon-11
Freon-12
Freon-13
Freon-13Br
Freon-14
Freon-22
Freon-114
Genetron-21
Genetron-115
Germane
Helium
3-Helium
Hydrogen
Hydrogen bromide
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen iodide
Hydrogen selenide
Hydrogen sulphide
Isobutane
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
Formula
C3H6O
C2H2
C3H4
NH3
Ar
AsH3
BCl3
BF3
C4H10
C4H8
CO2
CO
CCl4
COF2
COS
Cl2
ClF3
CHCl3
C2N2
C3H6
D2
B2H6
SiH2Cl2
Si(CH3)2Cl2
(CH3)2NH3
(CH3)2O
C2H6
C2H5Cl
C2H4
C2H4O
F2
CHF3
CCl3F
CCl2F2
CClF3
CBrF3
CF4
CHClF2
C2Cl2F4
CHCl2F
C2ClF5
GeH4
He
3He
H2
HBr
HCl
HF
HI
H2Se
H2 S
C4H10
17
Density
Sp. Heat[g/l]
C[cal/g/degC]
2.59
0.310
0.340
1.169
1.2929
1.81
0.7710
1.7842
3.481
5.26
3.1
2.65
2.54
1.977
1.2500
6.86
2.96
2.70
3.209
4.14
5.33
2.34
1.878
0.1800
1.24
4.54
5.754
2.03
2.08
1.352
2.90
1.258
1.95
1.094
3.125
6.3
5.5
4.8
6.8
3.96
4.05
7.7
4.64
7.1
3.423
0.1788
0.135
0.0899
3.60
1.635
0.90
5.71
3.613
1.534
2.63
0.40
0.2401
0.358
0.519
0.1246
0.1178
0.130
0.158
0.404
0.368
0.201
0.249
0.129
0.170
0.169
0.116
0.164
0.32
0.264
0.316
1.728
0.495
0.141
0.2029
0.362
0.3367
0.415
0.234
0.366
0.259
0.1974
0.173
0.1415
0.149
0.156
0.1124
0.167
0.156
0.163
0.144
0.1636
0.138
1.242
1.65
3.400
0.085
0.1937
0.348
0.057
0.103
0.244
0.395
0.58
1.000
0.42
0.68
1.453
0.666
0.40
0.56
0.26
0.29
0.74
1.000
0.309
0.544
0.64
0.83
0.403
0.388
0.44
0.460
0.999
0.44
0.43
0.234
0.370
0.390
0.49
0.40
0.59
0.54
0.929
0.506
0.34
0.34
0.37
0.36
0.41
0.43
0.22
0.41
0.24
0.58
1.454
1.45
1.016
1.01
0.981
0.99
0.95
0.78
0.78
0.26
D 10-017 V01
#
Name
Formula
Density
Sp. Heat[g/l]
C[cal/g/degC]
0.339
0.0596
0.528
0.3277
0.400
0.113
0.321
1.45
0.722
0.583
0.491
0.56
0.60
54
55
56
57
58
59
Isobutylene
Krypton
Methane
Methanol
Methylamine
Methyl bromide
C4H4
Kr
CH4
CH3OH
CH3NH2
CH3Br
2.51
3.73
0.7166
1.430
1.392
4.29
60
Methyl chloride
0.200
Methyl fluoride
1.53
0.267
0.67
62
Methyl mercaptan
CH3Cl
CH3F
CH3SH
2.28
61
2.146
0.2506
0.508
6.670
0.164
0.250
0.900
1.3402
1.2503
0.2460
0.236
0.2484
1.460
0.98
1.000
63
Methyl trichlorosilane
64
65
66
Neon
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen
SiCH3Cl3
Ne
NO
N2
67*
Nitrogen dioxide
NO2
3.675
0.194
0.41
68*
Dinitrogen tetroxide
3.675
0.200
0.37
69
Nitrogen trifluoride
N2O4
NF3
70
Nitrous oxide
3.173
0.178
0.434
1.98
0.206
0.72
71
Oxygen
N2O
O2
1.429
0.2183
0.996
72
Pentaborane
B5H9
2.9
0.565
0.17
73
n-Pentane
3.4
0.38
0.21
74
Perfluoroethylene
C5H12
C2F4
4.3
0.192
0.33
75
Phosgene
COCl2
4.45
0.140
0.44
76
Phosphine
PH3
C3H8
1.523
0.2607
0.688
77
Propane
78
Propylene
1.98
0.392
0.35
1.89
0.357
0.405
Silane
C3H6
SiH4
79
80
1.438
0.3188
0.596
Silicon tetrachloride
SiCl4
7.58
0.125
81
0.228
Silicon tetrafluoride
4.68
0.168
0.35
0.67
82
Sulphur dioxide
SiF4
SO2
2.91
0.149
83
Sulphur hexafluoride
SF6
6.5
0.1590
0.27
84
Trichlorosilane
SiHCl3
6.047
0.130
0.348
85
Trimethylamine
0.367
0.27
Tungsten hexafluoride
(CH3)3N
WF6
2.7
86
13.2
0.0951
0.22
87
Uranium hexafluoride
UF6
15.76
0.079
0.22
88
Vinyl bromide
4.83
0.123
0.46
89
Vinyl chloride
C2H3Br
C2H3Cl
2.82
0.202
0.48
0.551
90
Vinyl fluoride
0.241
Water vapour
C2H3F
H2O
2.060
91
0.804
0.445
0.817
92
93
Xenon
Hexafluoroethane
Xe
C2F6
5.88
6.16
0.039
0.185
1.41
0.24
B(OCH3)3
P(OCH3)3
TiCl4
4.64
0.13
0.5
5.54
0.11
0.5
8.465
0.122
0.30
94*
Trimethyl borate
95*
Trimethyl phosphite
96*
Titanium tetrachloride
Table 3.1 Conversion factors (continued on next page)
NOTE:
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
When using gases marked with an asterisk (*), use "low pressure" AFC 50.00.
18
D 10-017 V01
SECTION 4 - ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE
4.1.REQUIRED FACILITIES
To perform any adjustment, cleaning or replacement on massflow equipment, appropriate
tools and facilities must be present, as these are high accuracy transducers.
The facilities are:
1.
An accurate reference massflowmeasuring system or a flow meter.(note the
pressure and temperature corrections). Normal rotameters are not accurate
enough. The only suffice when relative rough measurements or flow monitoring
are necessary.
2.
A clean room, clean tools.
3.
A voltmeter (at least 1000 Ω/V).
4.
Supply of gas, preferably N2 for safe working.
4.2.POTENTIOMETERS ADJUSTMENT
To gain access to the p.c. board, carefully remove the cover from the body. Every flowmeter
and -controller is calibrated at the factory for a particular gas and flow range, as indicated on
the top sticker, within ±1%. If any adjustment is necessary, a reference measuring system with
at least the same accuracy should be used. (c.f. 4.1.1.).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
To remove containment's, the unit must be flushed and dried with nitrogen.
Apply power to the unit and monitor the output signal. Obey a warm-up time of
about 10 minutes.
With no flow (caps on in- and outlet fittings) adjust the ZERO potentiometer R3
to give zero output.
Apply gas to the inlet fitting and put the reference flowmeter in series.
Disconnect the valve lead wires. The valve will fully open. Now the
flowcontroller works essentially the same as a flowmeter.
Adjust the flow to exactly the full scale value. Adjust the GAIN potentiometer R9
to give 5.00 VDC output.
Recheck ZERO (step 3).
At half of the full scale flow, the meter should give 2.50 VDC output. If not,
adjust the LINEARITY potentiometer R29. After this, ZERO and GAIN should
be checked and readjusted of necessary (ZERO and GAIN should normally be
independent of LINEARITY). Continue these steps until all points are within
desired calibration.
Flowcontrollers can also be calibrated while working as flowcontrollers. First,
calibrate ZERO as per step 3. Then, with 5.00 VDC setpoint, adjust GAIN, until
the actual flow is equal to the required flow rate. Next, with 2.50 VDC setting,
adjust LINEARITY. (Note that output stays at the setpoint value now, while flow
varies).
4.3. VALVE ADJUSTMENT
1.
2.
Plumb the inlet side of the controller to a regulated supply of the correct gas.
Connect the reference flowmeter in series or monitor the flow as measured by
the controller.
Bring the lnlet pressure to 0.3 -- 0.4 bar (AFC-260) or 0.6 -- 0.8 bar (AFC-261)
and disconnect the valve lead wire. While gently turning the adjustment nut on
top of the valve, bring the flow to 100% of the required value. Reconnect the
lead wires.
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19
D 10-017 V01
3.
4.
Check that the valve will shut off to less than 2% of F.S. flow at all 0.3 and 3
bar.
If the valve does not close adequately, check the valve heater voltage; this may
be increased to a maximum of approximately 10 VDC (AFC-260 or 15 VDC
(AFC-261) by reducing the current limiting Resistor R25. If valve still will not
close, the seat may be contaminated. For further repair, see 5.4.
4.4. CHANGE OF CALIBRATION
1.
2.
If it is desired to calibrate the unit for a gas other than the original calibration,
there may not be sufficient adjustment in the GAIN potentiometer to obtain 5.0
VDC at full flow. In such case, center the GAIN potentiometer and replace R10
the unit, following the instructions 4.2.
If it is necessary to change the range of a flowmeter or -controller beyond the
electronics adjustment capabilities, one has to replace the bypass assembly to
produce the nominal sensor output at full scale flow. In addition, the valve may
have to be replaced.
The bypass is a preadjusted assembly which can be removed and reinstalled
with the use of a screwdriver.
Also bypass washers may be added or removed, in such a way that the number
of grooves that is added or removed is proportional to the shift in flow range.
There are three types of washers, with one, with ten and with forty grooves after
such replacements, recalibration as per instructions 4.2. is absolutely
necessary.
4.5. DYNAMIC RESPONSE ADJUSTMENT
After replacement of a valve, recalibration of a unit to a different range of gas, it may be
necessary to readjust the feedback control circuit in order to optimise the dynamic response
and stability performance of a controller.
This entails reselecting R11 and R24 during transient tests. This is best accomplished by
setting the inlet pressure to 20psi (or the known operating pressure), while switching the
setpoint from 50% to 100% of full scale and vice versa and noting the response. The
flowmeter section, valve and maximum valve voltage must have been previously set.
1.
After calibrating the flowmeter section and selecting R25, install C6 (22ΩF, 25
VDC) and R24 (20k) and R11 (1k) with resistance substitution boxes.
2.
Alternately give 100% and 50% setpoint and observe the output and response.
Best performance is when about 5% overshoot is observed. Reducing R11
reduces the time constant and overshoot but increases output ripple.
3.
Once R11 has been selected and installed increase R24 to the highest possible
value. Increasing R24 increases the dynamic gain of the controller, thereby
improving the dynamic response to changes in upstream pressure and/or
setpoint.
Too high a value will result in output oscillation and instability.
Typical values are for Hydrogen and Helium:
R11 about 400 to 700 Ω, R24 30 kΩ to 100 kΩ
For nitrogen and other gases :
R11 about 400 to 700 Ω, R24 60 kΩ to 360 kΩ.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
20
D 10-017 V01
SECTION 5 - MAINTENANCE
5.1.GENERAL
No routine maintenance is required to be performed on the meters or controllers, other than
occasional cleaning and recalibration :
After 3 or 4 years when the unit is run with a ultra-clean and non corrosive gas.
After 1 or 2 years when the unit is run with a low purity gas and/or a corrosive gas.
Cleaning can be performed by removing the unit from the system, cleaning in- and outletfittings separately and pumping alternately reverse and forward for 5 minutes in each direction
with a solvent system (one micron maximum absolute filtration).
Next, the unit must be blown with N2 for 30 minutes minimum.
Reinstall cleaned fittings.
In extreme cases of contamination, it may be necessary to separately clean the sensor, the
bypass and the valve.
5.2.DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES
Refer to exploded views.
1.
Unscrew in- and outlet-fittings
2.
Remove the sensor-screws, after having the lead wires unsoldered from the
p.c. board. Handle the sensor with care.
3.
Remove the screws which hold the valve print plate to the base block after
unsoldering the valve leads wires.
4.
Carefully remove the valve body from the base block. Remove the two o-rings.
5.
Unscrew the bypass. Do not damage the thread or the bypass washers.
6.
The valve can be further take apart, by unscrewing the adjustment not
completely in pulling the tube-holder with actuator tube and heater element
carefully out of the valve housing.
Note: If o-rings are dirty, cut or cracked, they have to be exchanged with appropriate
new ones.
The sequence of assembling is following above instructions in the reverse direction.
Caution :
The sensor capillary sometimes extends beyond the seals o-rings. When
positioned on the base without verifying that capillary ends fit in the holes in the
base, the capillary can be bend or damaged. Therefore, center the sensor by
means of the mounting screws, hold it up and then fasten the screws.
Reassembling of the valve assembly into the base block should always be done
with the adjustment not fully opened. (Fully turned anticlockwise).
Afterwards, follow-up valve adjustment procedure 4.3.
5.3. SENSOR CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT
If it is determined that the sensor is contaminated, flush with a solvent in hypodermicneedle,
while running a small wire (0.15 mm diameter, available on request).
Do not immerse the entire sensor assembly in a solvent; the solvent will keep under the cover
and destroy or at least change the sensor characteristics. Slow dry with nitrogen.
If the sensor resistance has changed or even open circuit is measured, the assembly should
be replaced. The measured resistance between red and green (R1) and between red and
yellow (R2) must be between 160 and 190 Ω and ∆R = R2-R1 must be less than ±1 Ω. Check
also that there is no short-circuit between the tube and the red wire.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
21
D 10-017 V01
Examine the sensor seals, and replace when damaged.
5.4. CONTROL VALVE CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT
After having taken the valve out of the base, the status of the shut-off ball and the seat in the
base block can be examined. The shut-off ball can be cleaned with alcohol, freon or even a
HF solution (5% HF, 95% deionised water).
Do not completely immerse the assembled valve housing in a solvent, as the heater element
can be destroyed. To get access to the inside, proceed as indicated in 5.2.6.
The conical seat in the ball can be treated with solvent and a felt tip. If appropriate polishing
equipment is available, the seat and shut-off ball can be polished.
After polishing, the parts must be cleaned.
If the critical parts are unfortunately corroded or attacked too much, replace.
Afterwards, follow assembling instruction 5.2. and adjustment instruction 4.3.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
22
D 10-017 V01
SECTION 6 - TROUBLESHOOTING
6.1.INITIAL CHECK
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check set-up and procedure against connection instructions 2.1. and 2.2.
Permanent damage to the unit may result if purging procedures are not
followed, or if line power is accidentally applied to the signal leads.
Test line cord for compliance with pinassignment, and continuity from all wires
to correct pins. Use hipot tester to check for any pin-to-pin shorts; during this
test, flex the cable coming out of the connector to find intermittent shorts.
Check insulation resistance from pins to base- All except pin 1 should exceed
50 MΩ at 5O VDC.
Pin 1 to base should measure less than 1 Ω.
Proceed as indicated in 4.2., points 1,2 and 4.
6.2.SEVERAL SYMPTOMS
Symptom
No output
Possible Cause
Faulty meter
No actual Flow
Sensor clogged
Valve closed
Electronics failure
Faulty power supply
Remedy
Read output at pins 3 and 2 directly
with alternate meter.
Check pressure, valve positions line
or filter blockage.
Follow 5.3.
Follow 5.4
See below
Check input / output voltages
(±15VDC, +5VDC).
Maximum signal
(between 150% and
200% of full scale
Check valve voltage as measured
across valve lead wires. Valve should
close when voltage rises to 6-10 VDC
(AFC-260), 11-15 VDC (AFC-261).
a) Indication correct: flow Valve defective
Lower voltage indicates lack of
is high
closing command or electronic failure;
repair electronics. 14 - 15 VDC
indicates open circuit on valve heater
(AFC-260). Measure DC resistance
Open resistance on sensor on AFC-261; Replace Valve.
b) Indication erroneous
Replace sensor
element
Electronics failure
See below
Electronics not adjusted
Signal offset at zero flow Contamination
Follow 4.2.
Valve will not close
Follow 5.1. or 5.4.
Open valve heater
Check d.c. resistance :
+ 100 ohms (AFC-260)
+ 125 ohms (AFC-261)
Electronic failure
See below
Mechanical damage from
Adjust valve (4.3.) or replace valve
overpressure or other
(4.4.)
cause
Operation on wrong
Test on proper gas
gas(often the case when
tested with H2, He or Ar).
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
23
D 10-017 V01
Valve will not open
Valve controls at higher
flow rates, but not at
minimum
Valve oscillate or hunts
General failure or
miscalibration
Contamination
Electrically commanded
closed or potentiometer
shorted.
Clogged inlet fitting screen,
appearing as closed valve.
Contamination
Erosion or corrosion,
improper adjustment or
inadequate drive
Follow 5.l. or 5.4.
Check command signal (pins A and
B) and pot. Check for electronics
failure
Clean filter screen.
Follow 5.l. or 5.4.
Follow 5.4.
Adjust 4.3.
Reduce R25
Jumpy pressure regulator Replace
Improper system dynamics Reduce upstream pressure regulator
due to excessive inlet
setting
pressure.
Improper dynamics in
See 4.5.
electronics.
Power supply voltage not
Check +15 VDC, -15 VDC and +5.00
nominal
VDC
Flow indication saturated Bridge or sensor failure
(0.7 or +12 VDC)
regardless of flow
Component Failure
Check sensor resistance
Voltage Yellow to common (8 to 10
VDC)
Pin 6 to common should read
-6.2 ±.2 VDC.
Valve drive open or
TS2 open or short, IC LMsaturated (0 or 6-10 VDC 324 failed.
AFC-260) (0 or 11-15
VDC AFC-261)
Check R3, R9, other- components
and solder joints.
Check TS2, LM-324 and other
components.
All circuit functional but
out of calibration
Contamination, or as a
result of cleaning or
repairing.
Adjust.( see 4.)
Unit controls but output
voltage does not agree
with potentiometer
setting
+ 5.00 VDC not nominal
Check supply. Adjust if necessary.
Large input voltage offset
in Op Amp A.
C6 leaks
Check and replace if necessary.
Replace.
Table 6.1. symptoms, causes and solutions
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
24
D 10-017 V01
Model
AFC 260
AFC 261
Valve closing
voltage
Up to 6 VDC
6 to 7 VDC
7 to 8 VDC
8 to 9 VDC
9 to 10 VDC
10 to 12 VDC
13 to 14 VDC
15 VDC
R25 (1 W, 5%)
100 Ω
75 Ω
62 Ω
39 Ω
30 Ω
30 to 60 Ω
20 to 10 Ω
jumper
Table 6.2. Values of the valve resistance R25
Note :
Do not exceed 10 VDC on AFC-260 valve. R25 must be 30 Ω or greater to
prevent severe damage (distortion or burn-out). Overpowering the valve unnecessarily may
reduce its life and reliability.
CAUTION : When the gas supply has been shut off or when purging a hydrogen controller
with another gag such as Nitrogen, do not command less than 10% of Full scale as severe
damage to the control valve may result.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
25
D 10-017 V01
SECTION 7 – GENERAL MFC PRINCIPLES
7.1.MFC & MFM PRINCIPLES
Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs) are used wherever accurate measurement and control of a
mass flow of gas is required independently of flow pressure change and temperature change
in a given range.
Mass Flow Meters (MFMs) are used wherever accurate measurement of gas is required
without control of the flow which is done by another device.
To help understand how an MFC works, it can be separated into 4 main components: a
bypass, a sensor, an electronic board and a regulating valve :
The bypass, the sensor, and one part of the electronic board are the measurement side of the
mass-flow controller and makes a Mass Flow Meter.
The regulating valve and the other part of the electronic board are the controlling side of the
mass-flow controller and exist only on a Mass-Flow Controller.
So every Mass-Flow Controller includes a Mass-Flow Meter.
7.2.MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES
The flow is divided between a heated sensing tube (the sensor), where the mass flow is
actually measured, and a flow restriction or bypass, where the majority of flow passes.
The bypass is designed in a way that flow thru the sensor and thru the bypass is always
proportional to the flow range for which the mass-flow is build.
The sensor is designed to deliver an output voltage almost proportional to the gas flow
circulating thru it which is due to the bypass design proportional to the total flow circulating
thru the mass-flow meter or controller.
The electronics board amplifies and linearizes the sensor signal so the output of the
electronics board named “readout” gives a signal proportional to the total flow circulating thru
the mass-flow meter or controller. Most of the time this signal is a 0-5 V voltage signal. 0
means “no flow” and 5 V means Full scale of the mass-flow. The full scale is the maximum
flow for which the mass-flow is designed and calibrated to work with a good accuracy. It is
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
26
D 10-017 V01
always written on the stickers which are on the top of the cover and the side of the mass-flow
stainless steel base. Also written on the sticker is the gas for which the mass-flow is calibrated
to work with.
Why using a bypass ? Because the sensor element can only measure small flow (typically 5
sccm). So the bypass allow to measure greater amount of flow. On a 5 sccm full scale massflow, there is no bypass, all the gas flows thru the sensor. On a 100 sccm full scale mass-flow,
the bypass is adjusted as when 100 sccm flow thru the mass-flow 5 sccm will flow thru the
sensor and 95 sccm will flow thru the bypass.
7.3.SENSORS PRINCIPLES
Basically, the sensor uses the thermal properties of a gas to directly measure the mass flow
rate. The sensor uses the basic principle that each gas molecule has a specific ability to pick
up heat. This property, called the "specific heat" (Cp), directly relates to the mass and physical
structure of the molecule and can be determined experimentally. The specific heat is well
known for many gases and is generally insensitive to changes in temperature or pressure.
By adding heat to a gas and monitoring the change in temperature, the mass flow rate can be
determined. To illustrate this concept, take the case of cool gas flowing through a heated tube.
Mathematically, the heat loss can be described by the First Law of Thermodynamics,
q = F. Cp ∆T
Where
q is the heat lost to the gas flow,
F is the mass flow,
Cp is the specific heat for a constant pressure,
∆T is the net change in gas temperature as it traverses the tube.
It is important to realize that both the specific heat and the flow rate determine the amplitude
of the heat flux. As the mass and physical structure of molecules vary widely from gas to gas,
so does the specific heat Cp. For the same molar flow rate, the heat flux can differ significantly
for different gases. If this heat flux is monitored, the amplitude can be converted into an
electrical signal. Given that the specific heat is known for the gas, then the mass flow rate can
be determined directly from the electrical signal.
Now the MFC sensor includes capillary tube wound with two heated resistance and
thermometers, measuring the change in temperature distribution created by the gas flowing
inside this tube :
heating current
Sensor schematic
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
27
D 10-017 V01
For zero flow, the upstream and downstream temperature will be equal. The windings are
heated electrically to 80°C above the ambient temperature. When the gas is flowing, the
upstream region cools down whereas the downstream region heats up causing a temperature
gradient along, the length of the tube(see the sensor temperature profile figure).
2 Winded
HEATING
Sensor tube : Flow in
TEMPERATURE
NO FLOW
WITH
FLOW
Sensor tube : Flow in
R-δR
R+δR
δR = 1 Ω/sccm
2 Winded
Sensor temperature profile
Sensor m easurm ent
The coils of the heating resistances are made with a thermal sensitive wire so that the
temperature differences due to the flow are directly converted into resistances change. Those
resistance change are convert in voltage by a simple wheatston bridge.
working
zone
. 1
Cp
F
ρ
ρ .Cp .F
N
5 sccm
Gaz Flow
sensor response
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
28
D 10-017 V01
For flow under 5 sccm the measurement is proportional to the flow with a coefficient which
depends on :
ρ : Volumic mass of the gas
Cp : specific heat for a constant pressure,
N : “spin factor” Constant which depend of the molecular structure of the gas and
compensates for the temperature dependence of Cp.
Value of N :
Monoatomic gas 1.04
Diatomic gas 1.00
Triatomic gas .94
Polyatomic gas .88
For flow higher then 5 sccm the sensor is first non linear then the measurement starts to
decrease with flow because the gas flow is too fast and cool the 2 winded resistances instead
of cooling the first one and heating the second one. This is the reason why bypass is
necessary for higher full scale than 5 sccm.
Also the fact that the coefficients N and Cp are different from one gas to another explains why
mass-flow can NOT be changed from one gas to another without using a special coefficient to
converter the measurement or recalibrate the mass-flow.
Because of sensor saturation, if flow is ten time the full scale, output will be almost “no flow”!
This will never happen on a mass-flow controller as the valve of the mass-flow will act as a
restriction and will not allow the gas to flow ten times the full scale. But it can easily happened
on a mass-flow meter, as, if there is no restriction on the gas line nothing in the mass-flow
meter will limit the gas flow.
7.4.BYPASS PRINCIPLES
Acting as a restrictive element, the bypass is composed of a series of capillary tubes (or
washers) held in a special bypass ring. The ring fits around the body and may hold up to 24
tubes. The number of tubes and their diameter depend on the customer’s specifications of gas
type and flow range. For high flow rates the bypass tubes are replaced by a screen bypass.
Bypass tubes
Bypass ring
Bypass tubes
Bypass tubes
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
29
D 10-017 V01
Bypass washers (equivalent to several thin tubes)
The bypass principles are based on the laminar flow theory : When flow is laminar, the flow is
proportional to the differential pressure between inlet and outlet of the tube :
π..R4
Fm = ρ..
.(Pup − Pdown )
8.η..l
ρ : Volumic mass of the gas
η : Viscosity of the gas
l : length of the tube
R : radius of the tube
So when a sensor tube (radius Rs, length ls) and a bypass tube are in parallel (radius Rb,
length lb), the flow in the sensor tube is proportional to the flow in the bypass :
4
Fs = Rs4.ls .Fb
Rb .lb
However this is true only if the flow is laminar so if the tube are small enough. This is way
bypass are made by several thin tube instead of only one tube.
It is important to notice that a mass-flow meter or controller measure the flow thru the sensor
which is not the total flow but only one part of the flow split by the bypass according to last
equation. In this equation radius of the sensor tube and bypass tube is at power 4.
Consequently any deposition in one of the tube changing the diameter will change the
accuracy of the measurement. Also because of the need to have a laminar flow, bypass tube
and sensor tube may have clogging. This why mass-flow meter and controller must be used
with clean, filtered gases.
7.5.CONTROL PRINCIPLES
The electronic compares the amplified mass flow rate value (measured by the sensor) to the
desired set point. This comparison generates an error signal that "feeds" the regulating valve.
The difference is used to drive the control valve. The control valve will proportionally open or
close until the output is equal to the setpoint.
Note that valve can be normally open or normally close. This is the position that will have the
valve when the mass-flow is not connected on power supply.
The valve can be actuated by a magnetic solenoid. Then it can be normally open or normally
close and response time of the valve itself is almost instantaneous. In practise response time
of the mass-flow controller is limited by the response time of the sensor. As sensor is based
on thermal exchange it takes 1 to 5 s for the sensor to measure a gas change. Several
techniques allows to increase this response time and allow to get on the best mass-flow
response time bellow 5s.
The valve can be also made by a heating wire which heat a small tube then dilation will move
a ball at the end of the tube. This kind of valve can be only normally open and is quite slow.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
30
D 10-017 V01
Mass-flow controller using such valve will have response time around 5 to 6 s for flow bellow 5
slm and up to 10 s for flow up to 5 slm !! However this technology is simple and reliable and
can be recommend for many low cost application when response time is not critical.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
31
D 10-017 V01
SECTION 8 - WARRANTY AND SERVICES
8.1.PRODUCT WARRANTY
1. Qualiflow products are guaranteed against defects in materials and workmanship for a
period of one year from the date of shipment, if used in accordance with specifications
and not subject to physical damage, contamination, alteration or retrofit.
2. Buyers undertake to check and inspect the goods and to notify Qualiflow of shipment
incidents by fax, phone or e-mail as soon as possible after receipting the goods.
3. During the warranty period, products must only be repaired by authorized Qualiflow
service centers; otherwise, the Qualiflow product warranty will be invalidated.
4. Repairs will be performed free of charge during the one-year warranty period. If MFCs
are out of warranty, Qualiflow will notify the owner of replacement or repair costs
before proceeding. Factory service and repairs are guaranteed 90 days. The warranty
excludes consumable materials and wear parts (in teflon, viton, etc.).
5. No MFC will be accepted for repair or warranty without a decontamination and purge
certificate.
6. Each MFC is individually checked (visual inspection of fittings, helium leak test and
flow calibration). Qualiflow shall not be responsible for any damage caused by gas
leakage or the use of a dangerous gas. Users are responsible for following the safety
rules applicable to each gas they use. Improper use of a Qualiflow MFC will void the
warranty, and MFCs that have been damaged as a result of improper use will not be
replaced by Qualiflow.
7. Specific warranty requirements are as follows :
a. Gas must be clean and particle-free, which means a filter must be fitted in the
gas line upstream of the MFC.
b. Gas must comply with the following pressure specifications:
i. Gas pressure must never exceed 10 bars.
ii. Differential pressure must be more than 500 mbar for full-scale flow
through the MFC valve.
iii. Differential pressure must be less than 3 bars for the MFC valve to
regulate without gas-flow oscillation.
iv. Pressure at the mass-flow inlet must be regulated by an accurate
pressure regulator to prevent gas-flow oscillation.
c. Electrical connection requirements are as follows:
i. The system must be wired carefully: non-observance of the pinout may
irreversibly damage the electronic board inside the MFC, in which case
the warranty will be invalidated.
ii. A stable power supply is required, with ripple below 5mV.
d. Gas connections: the VCR gland must be handled carefully. Qualiflow
guarantees that all glands have been individually inspected and are scratchfree.
e. Fitting procedure: the fitting procedure set out in the manual must be followed
meticulously. Specifically, the purge procedure is very important if corrosive
gases or toxic gases are used.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
32
D 10-017 V01
f.
The mass-flow must not be dismounted: the MFC warranty will be invalidated if
the seal between the MFC block and cover is torn.
8.2.SERVICES
QUALIFLOW Products Engineers will help you to solve your problems regarding operation,
calibration, connection, gas flows, gas mixture, etc…
We deliver technical support or maintenance within 24 hours.
Visit www.qualiflow.com and find your nearest repair and calibration center.
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
33
D 10-017 V01
SECTION 9 - PARTS LISTS AND DESCRIPTION
AFC 260/261 User’s Manual
34
D 10-017 V01
8
69,90
13
10
0
1
3,50
3,50
121,10
17
1
3
8
5
16
9
1 2 , 5 0
1
9
76,40
22,75
22,20
14
2
11
25
2
1
4
5
11,20
ITEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
70
QUANTITY
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
PN
DESCRIPTION
Q2017989-01
BODY
Q2017997-01
BYPASS
Q535830010.00 BOARD
Q580110211.11 BYPASSING 40
Q580110220.11 BYPASS WASHER
Q580110230.11 BYPASS WASHER 1-GROVE
Q580110240.11 BYPASS WASHER 10-GROVE
Q580210040.00 VALVE ASSY 4.7mm
Q580211183.11 PLATE VALVE PRINT
Q580213020.11 AFC CAP
Q600274100 INLET FITTING
Q600274200 OUTLET FITTING
Q808071012 SCREW CHC M3*10
Q808092030 O-RING 15.6*1.78
Q808092031 O-RING 8.92*1.83
Q808092032 O-RING 11.90*1.98
Q997200000 SENSOR ASSY (VITON)
6
7
1
12
15
DATE
REV DESCRIPTION
Tolerance:
Finish:
Finition:
FL
Des:
Chk:
Vérif.:
Aprvd:
Approuvé:
SCALE:
Echelle:
NOT BE USED FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN OR MANUFACTURE IN WHOLE OR IN PART
THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION PROPRIETARY TO QUALIFLOW S.A. AND SHALL
WITHOUT WRITTEN CONSENT OF QUALIFLOW S.A.
Material:
Matiere:
All dimensions are in mm
DES.
Ra:
QUALIFLOW ®
ADVANCED FLOW CONTROL
Date:
25/8/98
DESIGNATION:
AFC 260
Date:
Date:
Format
SIZE
260OVFM010L007H
A3 FOLIO
REV
1
1/1
D Sensor
C Sensor
U Sensor
L
K
J
Extra outp
10
Readout
0-5 VD C
3
+15 VDC
4
J2
R13
1MΩ
5%
D6
1N4148
D5
R26
3k 3
5%
2k
C10
10µ
35 v
B
Signal
Common
Signal
Common
C
R9
C4
100µ
10 v
R11
R10 C5
470 Ω
1%
+
470Ω
1%
10k
1%
2
-
1
C
R5
200k
0,1%
R1
zer o
200Ω
R3
3
C2
4n7
100v
5k 6 150µ 1N4148
1% 100 v
R4
10k-1%
20 k
0,1%
9
-
A
R23
8
A
Valve testp
D
-15 VD C
F
R22
10
10k
1%
D2
R12
10 k
1%
6
R20
49 k9 R19
1%
2k
-
lin
4
B
7
+
5
1
1
R18
12 k4
1%
T2
1k
1%
R24
10 k
1%
R16
Z1
6v2
1N 823
+
Setpoint
0-5 VD C
R15
D
J1
C7
150n
100v
R17
10k
1%
C
R2
R6
205k
0,1%
2
1
U
20 k
0,1%
+
D1
BD136
+
Ground
R7
+
R21
Power
Common
gain
T1
BC 107b
n
1N4007
C1
4n7
100v
o
R8
s
D3
C6
Select in
22µ
te st
35 v
par def 320k
Actuator
Vanne
V3
V2
Select in
te st
R25
C9
10µ
35 v
+
R14
300Ω
1%
1N4007
Zener Testp
6
Proprietary of ASM F. reproduction forbidden.
ELECTRONIC SCHEMATI C
AFC 260
R12 must be 412 Ω, but may be 390 Ω or adjusted values in older versions.
Jan. 1996
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