68008 CPU card for the APPLE

68008 CPU card for the APPLE
Paul Rojas, Frank Darius, Jürgen Drepper
68008 CPU card
for the APPLE - II
The following project is again evidence for the flexibility of the Apple-II,
that is resulting from its concept of providing slots. A card with the 68008
CPU that is internal compatible with the 68000 CPU. The card operates
similar to the common Z80 CPU cards but provides internal full 32-bit
structure of the 68008.
One of the most popular processorfamilies is the 68000 among the 16/32
bit CPUs. The success of the product
from Motorola is the internal
architecture that provides a very
comfortable set of commands and
twelve kinds of addressing the memory.
The advanced 68010 can address up
to 16 megabyte by using a virtualisation
technic and supports this with a very
intelligent prefetch-queue, that itself
speeds up small loops within the
programs. The 68000 provides internal
8 data- and 8 adressregisters with 32
bit size allthough the databus itself only
consists with 16 lines.
So it just was a question of time until a
true 32bit version entered the
market when in June 1984 the 68020
was introduced in the USA and it was
compatible to the 68000 and the
68010. Motorola offers a chip the is
able to execute 2,5 MIPS( million
instructions per second ) and that can
address up to 4 Gigabyte of logic
From the 68000 CPU there is also a
"small brother" available with an
external Databus with 8 lines - the
68008. By that the cpu is compatible
to other 8-bit CPUs and
can thereby access their memory
and peripherials. So there is a good
path to integrate the 68008 in old
By this attempt the user gets the
chance to use a cpu from the 68000family without the need to buy
separate data-memory and separate
peripherials. This is exactly the target
of this project and the circuitary
fullfills the goals by making a card for
the Apple slot.
The 6502 cpu of the Apple-II is
switched off and the rest of the
computer is ruled by the 68008 cpu
similar to the handling by the Z80
The control can be given back to the
6502 by software to control the
monitor - routines to display for
example the results of the program
to the user at the display. Both cpu´s
can share the same RAM and
interchange with operation.
The Hardware Problems
The Apple provides the user with
eight slots on the mainboard that
permit the attachment of additional
CPU-cards. Besides the databus and
the adressbus also several timing
and control-lines are provided that
can be used by the inserted cards.
For example the line 22 in the slot is
the DMA-line that controls the Direct
Memory Access. If this line is pulled
down to low ( i.e. 0 Volt ) the
address- and datebuslines are
triggered to the tristate-status and
the 6502 is stopped. Alternating
CPUs or peripherials are then
enabled to access the address- and
datalines and are permitted to
perform read - or write-cycles to the
logic memory ( RAM, ROM or IO
addresses ).
For the clueless handover to the
alternating cpu the accesses of the
6502 must be completed before and
for the handover of the control to the
68008 the following tasks must be
1) DMA must be set during Φ1
( videophase ) to low.
2) 30 ns thereafter the adressbus of
the 68008 is permitted to
become active.
For the return of the control to the
6502 the following must be
1) The address and databuffers
must be set back to tristatestatus.
2) the DMA-line must be dragged
up to high within 178ns after the
positive rise of the Φ1 in oder to
give the 6502 the possibility to
set his own adressbus within
proper time ( see picture 1 ).
It must be kept sure that only one of
both cpu´s has access to the
memory or the peripherials and that
the correct protocol of the DMA is
the picture displays the timing of the read- and write-cycles at the Apple II
Plus - but carefull: at the Apple IIe the timing slightly shifted !
One of the difficulties results from the
length of the period of DMA access.
The NMOS 6502 cpu is a dynamic
processor and it must be avoided to
shut off the processor for more than
40 microseconds ( Rockwell only 17
microseconds ).
Otherwise the cpu will loose
the contents of its registers
and then will jump to an
unpredicted address after the
end of the DMA-accesses.
Therefor DMA accesses must
be limited to a maximum of less
than 40 microseconds. To keep
the registers of the 6502
preserved the DMA must be
limited within this limits
periodically by short
intermediate shutdowns..
This card realizes the task by
using a hardware counter
driving the timing: each 16
microseconds the 6502
performs a wait-cycle. While
the 68008 controls the system
every 16 microseconds a waitcycle for the 6502 occurs
( picture 2 ).
The circuitplan of the 68008
The introduced circuit (picture
3 ) contains from single blocks
that consist as individual
function-blocks. In the part 5 of
the circuit the adresslines are
buffered from the Apple and
the adresslines above A12 the
74LS283 adds a 1 to them. By
this trick the 68008 adresses
as 0 the Apple-adress $1000
and all other addresses are
shifted the same way 4 kByte
upwards and that mapping
protects the zeropage of the
6502 and the trap-vectors of
the 68008 are relocated to
another place. By this trick both
cpu´s can be switched without
conflict to each other. The
flipflop in part 1 takes control of
the switching of the card. By a
write-access to the address
$Cx00 ( x represents the slot
no. ) the IOSEL and R/W lines
are set to low and the Q-line of
the flipflop switches to low too.
By an OR-gates and 4 Inverters the address-buffers are
activated and DMA is set to
The arrangement of the
inverters causes a shifting in
the timing needed for the
switching of the buffers and
Qinvert of the flipflop drives
the activation of the 68008.
Another access to the same address
- but from the 68008 switches the
card off and passes the control back
to the 6502. The buffers of the card
are switched to tristate-mode and
the HALT-line is drawn down to low.
The HALT is also drawn down to low
by reset as needed for the 68008.
The architecture of the Apple request
the DMA and RDY-line to be driven
with open-collector and same is
requested for the HALT and the RES
of the 68008 cpu.
Both cpu´s can only use half of the
time the memory and for the rest of
the cycles the memory receives
refresh by the video-access - but
already during the video-phase the
cpu must set the address for the next
access. If you want to keep within the
permitted timeframe the preparation
of the access must start preparation
300ns after the starting of the videophase.
For a RAM-read-access the data is
available 468 ns after the positive
rise at the Φ0 on the databus to the
cpu. The access to the ROM and
Keyboard the delay is smaller till the
data is available at the databus.
For write-access the data must be
latest 210 ns after the rise at the Φ0
availianle at the databus and must be
for the period of at least minimum of
55 ns accessable.
The two chips 74LS373 and 74LS244 in
part 3 of the circuitplan drive the databus
in both directions. It also probably might
be possible to use a transceiver but due to
the fact that the data from the keyboard
only has a short hold-time after the
positive rise at the Φ0 on the databus it is
more secure to use a latch that is opened
and closed with Φ0 ( Pin 11 ). It is the
same technic as used by the Z80 cards.
the three flipflops in a row ( part 2 of the
circuitplan ) are used to control the timing
of the read- and write-cycles. At the end of
a cpu-cycle the DTACK pin of the 68008
( which is a indicator of a successful reador write-cycle ) if at the address-bus a
address was available - this must be true
not later than 300 ns after the beginning of
the preleading video-phase.
At the same time the flipflops secure that
no access to the databus can be
performed within the video-phase at the
The counter ( 74LS393 ) is responsible for
the refresh of the 6502. Every 16 µs it
generates a signal that deactivates the
address-buffer of the card at the
beginning of a videophase and pulls up
the DMA-line to high for the period of one
The RDY-line remains low and therefore a
wait-cycle is performed with the 6502.
After the 6502 has performed the waitcycle and the registers of the 6502 have
been refreshed by this action, the control
is given back to the 68008 cpu at the next
video-phase. A line from the refresh-signal
to the row of flipflops keeps sure that at
the card the DTACK pin of the 68008 cant
be pulled down to low.
The CLK-line of the 68008 is
connected to the 7MHz-line of the
Apple. Allthough the cpu can operate
up to 8 MHz it is fixed by this line to
operate asyncronous to the Φ0 and
the Φ1 signals.
This opes a "time-window" of 15
microseconds to the data-bus and
closes that window for 1 microsecond
for the refresh of the 6502 cpu.
This is a difference to the usual Z80
cards that are syncronized with the
video- and cpu-phases of the Apple.
The 68008 has at 94% of the
CPU-phase the possibility to
access the addressing and
But the speed of the cpu is not
really limited by the remaining 6%
- its more limited by the slow
access and speed of the AppleRAM chips.
This is compensated a little by the
prefetch-queue of the 68008:
Each time the cpu is executing
internal operation and no
instructions to the bus are done
the next instruction is read by it.
Two important details at the end:
This card must be placed at the
beginning of the DMA-chain in
the computer ( i.e. slots ) with the
highest priority ! The Card is
designed for the use in an Apple
II or II+ and / or compatibles. For
use in the IIe the timing of the
card must probably be changed
slightly. The 74LS393 chip has an
additional counter that might be
used for this purpose.
Picture 4 shows the card at the
soldering side, picture 5 shows
the card at the side where it is
populated and picture 6 shows
where the IC´s and other
components are to be placed.
The Testprogram
The picture 7 displays a small
Testprogram that writes
alternating a A or B to the display.
The Programm is loaded to the
address $1000 of the Apple ( the
address 0 for the 68008 ). To end
the cycles a reset puts back the
computer to the regular Applemode. The program can be
written with the monitor in the
Apple-memory ( for slot 3 ) and
the command C300 ( return )
starts it.
If you want the program to
terminate by itself and hand back
control to the Apple you just must
write a zero in the address $Cx00
( $Bx00 for the 68008 ), where x
represents the slotnumber ( picture 8 ).
If the user wants to write larger
programs for the card it is usefull
to use one of the available
crossassemblers for DOS and the
[1] Starnes T.W.: Design Philosophy behind
Motorola´s M6800, Byte April, May and
June 1983
[2] Baum P.: DMA Protocol - Call A.P.P.L.E ,
April 1984
[3] Gayler W.D.: the Apple II Circuit
description, Howard W. Sams Co.
Indianapolis 1983
[4] Hilf W.; Nausch A.: M68000 Family Part 1
Te-Wi publishing, Munich 1984
[5] Apple II User Manual
[6] Microsoft Z80 Card User Manual
Addendum / Corrections
68008 card for the APPLE-II
mc 1985, Issue 9, Side 46
In the circuitplan ( picture 3 ) is the pin 11 of
the IC 1 ( 74LS373 ) connected with Φ1 of
the Slotconnector ( connection 38 ) - in facr the
pin of the 74LS373 must be connected ( as
displayed in the layout of the PCB ) to the Φ0
( the connection 40 at the slot ).
68008 card for the APPLE-II
mc 1985, Issue 9, Side 46
It turned out that with some compatible
computers the 68008 card faced timingproblems. In the most cases this issue was
just simply solved by swapping the 74LS74
to standard 7474 chips.
In very rare cases it happened that the
contents of the memory-cells changed
when switching the control from 6502 to
68008 or backwards.This problem was
related in that specific cases to problems
with temperature and was solved by adding
a capacitor with a value between 100 pF
and 300 pF between pin 36 ( HALT ) of the
68008 and ground - that delays the HALTsignal a very little bit and avoids conflict
with the DMA-access. Another advice would
be to swap the ICs 10 and 11 ( 74LS05 and
74LS20 ) against faster versions ( i.e.
74ALS05 and 74ALS29 ). In case that all
these steps did not solve an existing
problem the LS-typ chips should be
swapped again back to the LS-versions and
remove the capacitor. But instead solder a
resistor with 1 kilo Ohm between pin 8 and
pin 10 at IC10 ( the 74LS05 ). With this
solution the trouble will be solved surely but
at the trade that the 68008 cpu will operate
at less speed.
The card should not be used at the same
time in a system as the Z80 card. It
should be avoided - unless the card has
been altered like in the correction
description of the issue 2 of this year.
Remark from me:
Unfortunately I don´t have that issue….
So the only sure solution is to pull the Z80
card out of the computer, when working
with the 68008 card !
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