Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Maintenance and
Troubleshooting
19
In This Chapter. . . .
— Hardware Maintenance
— Diagnostics
— CPU Indicators
— I/O Module Troubleshooting
— Noise Troubleshooting
— Machine Startup and Program Troubleshooting
9--2
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Hardware Maintenance
Standard
Maintenance
A routine maintenance check (about every one or two months) or your PLC and
control system is good practice, an should include the following items:
S Air Temperature -- Check the ambient air temperature in the control
cabinet, so the operating temperature range of any component is not
exceeded.
S Air Filter -- If the control cabinet has an air filter, clean or replace it
periodically as required.
S Memory Backup Battery -- Make sure the CPU memory backup battery
does not become completely discharged. The CPU uses the same
battery indicator to signal a low CPU battery and if applicable a low
memory cartridge battery. Make sure you have correctly diagnosed
which battery is requiring replacement.
S Fuses or breakers -- verify that all fuses and breakers are intact.
S DL405 Module Air Vents -- verify that all air vents of the CPU and all
I/O modules are clear, allowing air to circulate for cooling.
CPU Battery
Replacement
The CPU battery is used to retain program V-memory and the system parameters.
The life expectancy of this battery is five years.
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
NOTE: Before replacing your CPU battery you should back-up your V-memory and
system parameters. This can be done by saving the V-memory and system
parameters to either a Memory Cartridge or to cassette tape or by using
DirectSOFT to save the program to hard/floppy disk on a personal computer.
To prevent memory loss the CPU battery can be changed while the system is
powered up. If the CPU has been powered off you should power-up the CPU for at
least 5 seconds prior to changing the battery. This is done to ensure the capacitor
used to maintain the proper voltage levels necessary to retain memory is fully
charged.
Replace battery with
part #D3--D4--BAT
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
To replace the CPU battery:
S Pull the battery out from the battery retaining clip.
S Lift the clip on the two wire battery connector.
S Slide the battery connector apart.
To install the CPU battery:
S Join the (keyed) battery connector so the red wires
match.
S Push gently till the connector snaps closed
S Slide the battery into the battery retaining clip till the
battery lies flush in the opening.
S Note the date the battery was changed.
WARNING: Do not attempt to recharge the battery or
dispose of it by fire. The battery may explode or
release hazardous materials.
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
CMOS RAM
Memory Cartridge
Battery
Replacement
9--3
The CMOS RAM Memory Cartridge battery is used to maintain the contents of the
Memory Cartridge RAM when the power is turned off. The life expectancy of this
battery is three years.
NOTE: For added security you will want to save the contents of the memory
cartridge to either another memory cartridge, cassette tape, or computer disk,to
avoid losing the contents of the memory cartridge when the battery is removed. The
memory cartridge does however have a built in capacitor to retain the memory for
several minutes while the battery is being replaced. If the system has been powered
off, you should power-up the CPU with the memory cartridge installed for at least 5
seconds prior to changing the battery. This is done to ensure the capacitor used to
maintain the proper voltage levels necessary to retain memory is fully charged.
WARNING: Never remove the Memory Cartridge from the CPU when the CPU
is powered-up. If the memory cartridge is removed while under power the
memory cartridge may become unreliable. Do not attempt to recharge the
battery or dispose of it by fire. The battery may explode or release hazardous
materials.
Replace battery with
part # D4--MC--BAT
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
To remove the CMOS RAM Memory Cartridge battery:
1. Power down the CPU.
2. Remove the memory cartridge from the CPU by gently pulling the lever
down till the cartridge is loosened, then pull the lever straight out .
3. Remove the cover retaining screw.
4. Lift top cover off ( lifting at a slight tilt to avoid breaking the guides beside the
connector).
5. Grasp battery and lift straight up.
To install the CMOS RAM Memory Cartridge battery:
1. Align the battery leads to the (keyed) holes in the circuit board.
2. Press the battery flush with the circuit board.
3. Place cover back on module (using a slight tilt to catch the guides beside
the connector).
4. Install the cover retaining screw.
5. Note the date the battery was changed.
9--4
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
Diagnostics
DL405 performs over 90 pre-defined diagnostic routines with every CPU scan. The
diagnostics have been designed to detect failures for the CPU local base and local
expansion bases. These detected errors cover the following: CPUs, expansion
units, I/O, bases, communication modules, memory cartridges and batteries. There
are two primary error classes: fatal and non-fatal.
Fatal Errors
Fatal errors are errors the CPU has detected that offer a risk of the system not
functioning safely or properly. They will either cause the CPU to change from RUN
mode to PROGRAM or will disallow changing from PROGRAM mode to RUN mode.
If the fatal error is detected while in PROGRAM mode the CPU will not enter the RUN
mode until the error has been corrected.
Examples of fatal errors:
S Power supply failure on the CPU base
S Parity error or CPU malfunction
S Certain programming errors
Non-fatal Errors
Non-fatal errors are errors that are flagged by the CPU as requiring attention. They
can neither cause the CPU to change from RUN mode to PROGRAM nor do they
prevent entering RUN mode. There are special relays the application program can
use to detect if a non-fatal error has occurred. The application program can then be
used to take the system to an orderly shutdown or switch the PLC out of RUN mode if
needed.
Example of non-fatal errors are:
S Battery backup battery voltage low
S All I/O module errors
S Certain programming errors
Finding Diagnostic Diagnostic information can be found in several places with varying levels of
message detail.
Information
S The CPU automatically logs error codes and any FAULT messages into
two separate tables which can be viewed with the Handheld or
DirectSOFT.
S The handheld programmer displays error numbers and short
descriptions of the error.
S DirectSOFT provides the error number and an error message.
S Appendix B in this manual has a complete list of error messages sorted
by error number.
Many of these messages point to supplemental memory locations which can be
referenced for additional related information. These memory references are in the
form of V-memory and SPs (special relays).
The following two tables name the specific memory locations that correspond to
certain types of error messages. The special relay table also includes status
indicators which can be used in programming. For a more detailed description of
each of these special relays refer to Appendix D.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
V-memory Error
Code Locations
9--5
The following table names the specific memory locations that correspond to certain
types of error messages.
Error Class
Error Category
Diagnostic
V-memory
Minor
Battery Voltage (DL450)
V7746
System
10ms calender timer (DL440/450)
V7747
User-defined
Fault message error code
V7751
I/O configuration
Current module ID code
V7752
I/O configuration
Correct module ID code
V7753
I/O configuration
Base number/Slot number
V7754
Fatal
Error code
V7755
Major
Error code
V7756
Minor
Communications Error code
V7757
Module
Base number/Slot number
V7760
Module
Error code
V7762
Grammatical
Address
V7763
Grammatical
Error Code
V7764
Special Relays (SP) The special relay table also includes status indicators which can indicate errors. For
Corresponding to a more detailed description of each of these special relays refer to Appendix D.
Error Codes
Startup and
Real-time Relays
CPU Status Relays
System Monitoring
Relays
Accumulator
Status Relays
Communication
Monitoring Relays
First scan relay
SP11
Forced run mode
relay
SP40
Critical error relay
SP60
Value less than relay
SP120
Module busy relay
Slot 0
SP1
Always ON relay
SP12
Terminal run mode
relay
SP41
Warning relay
SP61
Value equal to relay
SP121
Communication error
relay Slot 0
SP3
1 minute relay
SP13
Test run mode relay
SP43
Battery low relay
SP62
Value greater than
relay
SP122
Module busy relay
Slot 1
SP4
1 second relay
SP14
Break relay 1
SP44
Program memory
error relay
SP63
Zero relay
SP123
Communication error
relay Slot 1
SP5
100 millisecond relay
SP15
Test program mode
relay
SP45
I/O error relay
SP64
Half borrow relay
SP124
Module busy relay
Slot 2
SP6
50 millisecond relay
SP16
Terminal program
mode relay
SP46
Communications error
relay
SP65
Borrow relay
SP125
Communication error
relay Slot 2
SP7
Alternate scan relay
SP17
Forced stop mode
relay
SP47
I/O configuration error
relay
SP66
Half carry relay
SP126
Module busy relay
Slot 3
SP21
Break relay 2
SP50
FAULT instruction
relay
SP67
Carry relay
SP127
Communication error
relay Slot 3
SP22
Interrupt enabled
relay
SP51
Math timeout relay
SP70
Sign relay
SP130
Module busy relay
Slot 4
SP25
CPU battery disabled
relay
SP52
Grammatical error
relay
SP71
Pointer reference
error
SP131
Communication error
relay Slot 4
SP26
I/O update disable
relay (DL440)
SP53
Math/Table pointer
error
SP73
Overflow relay
SP132
Module busy relay
Slot 5
SP27
Selective I/O update
disable relay (DL440)
SP54
Communication error
SP75
Data error relay
SP133
Communication error
relay Slot 5
SP30
Dipswitch 1 status
relay
SP56
Table instruction
overrun relay
SP76
Load zero relay
SP134
Module busy relay
Slot 6
SP31
Dipswitch 2 status
relay
SP135
Communication error
relay Slot 6
SP32
Dipswitch 3 status
relay
SP136
Module busy relay
Slot 7
SP33
Dipswitch 4 status
relay
SP137
Communication error
relay
Slot 7
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
SP0
9--6
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
I/O Module Codes
Each system component has a code identifier. This code identifier is used in some of
the error messages related to the I/O modules. The following table list these codes.
Code
(Hex)
Component Type
Code
(Hex)
Component Type
01
CPU
21
8 pt. Input
02
Expansion Unit
28
16 pt. Output,
FL series Analog Output
03
I/O Base
2B
16 pt. Input,
FL series Analog Input,
Interrupt
11
DCM, All CoProcessor
Modules
30
32 pt. Output,
DL series Analog Output
12
Remote Master,
Slice Master
3F
32 pt. Input,
DL series Analog Input
18
High Speed Counter,
Magnetic Pulse Input
7F
Abnormal
20
8 pt. Output
FF
No module detected
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
The following diagram shows an example of how the I/O module codes are used:
Incorrect module
Program Control Information
V7752 0028 Current module ID code
V7753 0026 Current module ID code
V7754 0002 Location of conflict
V7756 0252 Module Error Code
SP45
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
I/O abnormality
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Error Message
Tables
X 430 440 450
9--7
The DL440 and DL450 CPUs will automatically log any system error codes and any
custom messages you have created in your application program with the Fault
instructions. (See Chapter 11 for details on the Fault instruction.) The CPU logs the
error code, the date, and the time the error occurred. There are two separate tables
that store this information.
S System Error Table -- stores up to 32 errors in the table.
S Fault Message Table -- stores up to 16 messages in the table.
When an error or message is triggered, it is put into the first available table location.
Therefore, the most recent error message may not appear in the first row of the table.
If the table is full when an error occurs, the oldest error is pushed (erased) from the
table and the new error is inserted in the row.
The following diagram shows an example of a the Fault Message table as shown in
DirectSOFT. You can access the error code table and the message table through
DirectSOFT’s PLC Diagnostic sub-menus. Details on how to access these logs are
provided in the DirectSOFT manual.
Error Msg. Example
Most recent message
appears here, not at
the top of the table.
Next message will
show up in this row,
which is now the
oldest message.
Use AUX 5C to view the tables
CLR
AUX
5
SHFT
C
ENT
AUX 5C SHOW ERR/MSG
ERR OR MSG
Arrow key selects Errors or Messages
SHFT
ENT
Example of a message display
AUX 5C SHOW ERR/MSG
ERR OR MSG
PUMP 3 FAILED
04/22/93 17:30:00
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
You cannot view the entire table at one time with the handheld programmer. Instead,
the messages automatically appear on the handheld programmer display as they
occur. The message will remain on the display as long as the Fault instruction is being
executed. The following examples show you how to use the Handheld and AUX
Function 5C to show the error codes. The most recent error or message is always
displayed. You can use the PREV and NXT keys to scroll through the messages.
9--8
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
System Error
Codes
X 430 440 450
The System error log contains 32 of the most recent errors that have been detected.
The errors that are trapped in the error log are a subset of all the error messages
which the DL405 systems generate.
The following errors are captured in the System error log upon first detection or
reoccurrence.
Error
Code
Description
Error
Code
Description
E003
Software time-out
E155
RAM failure
E004
Invalid instruction
(RAM parity error in the CPU)
E201
Terminal block missing
E041
CPU battery low
E202
Missing I/O module
E043
Memory cartridge battery low
E203
Blown fuse
E099
Program memory exceeded
E206
User 24V power supply failure
E101
CPU memory cartridge missing
E250
Communication failure in the I/O
chain
E104
Write fail
E251
I/O parity error
E151
Invalid Command
E252
New I/O configuration
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
These errors are captured in the System error log if they exist when the CPU
attempts to transition to RUN mode.
Error
Code
Description
Error
Code
Description
E401
Missing END statement
E431
Invalid ISG/SG address
E402
Missing LBL
E432
Invalid jump (GOTO) address
E403
Missing RET
E433
Invalid SBR address
E404
Missing FOR
E434
Invalid RTC address
E405
Missing NEXT
E435
Invalid RT address
E406
Missing IRT
E436
Invalid INT address
E412
SBR/LBL > 64
E437
Invalid IRTC address
E413
FOR/NEXT > 64
E438
Invalid IRT address
E421
Duplicate stage reference
E440
Invalid Data Address
E422
Duplicate SBR/LBL reference
E441
ACON/NCON
E423
Nested loops
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
9--9
CPU Status Indicators
The DL405 CPUs have indicators on the
front to help you diagnose problems with
the system. The table below gives a quick
reference
of
potential
problems
associated with each status indicator.
Following the table is a detailed
description of each indicator.
Status
Potential Causes
PWR
OFF
1. Power input voltage is incorrect for selected operating mode, 110/220
VAC select jumper incorrect on CPU terminal strip
2. External power is off or disconnected (check fuses, breakers)
3. Power supply/CPU is faulty
4. Other component such an I/O module has power supply shorted
5. Power budget exceeded for the CPU being used
RUN
OFF
1. CPU programming error
2. Key switch in STOP position
Flashing
CPU is in firmware upgrade mode
CPU
ON
1. Electrical noise interference
2. CPU defective
BATT
ON, or
flashing
1. Flashing at 2 Hz: CPU battery low
2. Flashing at 0.5 Hz: Memory cartridge battery low (DL440/DL450 only)
3. On constantly: Both the CPU and MC batteries are low
4. CPU or Memory cartridge battery missing, or disconnected
DIAG
(DL450)
ON
1. The CPU internal diagnostics has failed
2. The local bus on the backplane has had a communications error
I/O
ON
1. I/O module failure
2. External power supply failure
3. Configuration error
4. Base expansion unit failure
COM
(DL430/
DL440)
ON
1. Device port setup incorrect
2. Cabling error
3. Grounding problem
4. Electrical noise
5. Device port faulty
TXD
(DL450)
OFF
1. The CPU is not transmitting data on the secondary ports (ports 1, 2,
and 3), due to programming error
2. The CPU is not in Run mode
RXD
(DL450)
OFF
1. External device is not transmitting to CPU secondary ports
(ports 1, 2, and 3)
2. Communications cable is defective, or not connected
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Indicator
9--10
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
PWR Indicator
430 440 450
In general there are four reasons for the CPU or expansion unit power status LED
(PWR) to be OFF:
1. Power to the CPU is an improper voltage, or the power range jumper
(110/220 select) does not match the power input voltage.
2. CPU power supply is faulty.
3. Other component(s) have the power supply shut down. An I/O module in
the base which has shorted is a possibility.
4. Power budget (+5V)for the CPU has been exceeded.
If the voltage to the power supply is not correct, the PLC may not operate properly or
may not operate at all. Use the following guidelines to correct the problem.
WARNING: To minimize the risk of electrical shock, always disconnect the
system power before inspecting the physical wiring.
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
1. First, disconnect the external power.
2. Verify that all external circuit breakers or fuses are still intact.
3. Check all incoming wiring for loose connections. If you’re using a separate
termination block, check those connections for accuracy and integrity.
4. If the connections are acceptable, reconnect the system power and verify
the voltage at the CPU power input is within specification. If the voltage is
not correct, shut down the system and correct the problem.
5. If all wiring is connected correctly and the incoming power is within the
specifications, the PLC internal supply may be faulty.
If the voltage to the power supply is not correct, the CPU may not operate properly, if
at all. For a new installation on AC-powered CPU versions, first check the 110/220
VAC select jumper on the terminal strip of the CPU. If the 110 VAC selection shunt is
not installed while using 110 VAC, you will see the following symptoms:
S The communication ports will not function
S The CPU will only operate when no modules are installed.
If the 110 VAC selection shunt is installed while using 220 VAC, the power supply in
the CPU will be damaged. If this has happened, you will need to replace the CPU.
The best way to check for a faulty CPU power supply is to substitute a known good
one to see if this corrects the problem.
If the jumper is correctly installed for the AC or DC version you are using, then
measure the voltage at the terminal strip to ensure it is within the CPU input specs.
It is possible a faulty module or external device using the system 5V can shut down
the power supply. This 5V can be coming from the base or from the top port on the
CPU. To test for a device causing this problem:
S Turn off power to the CPU.
S Disconnect all external devices (example communication cables) from
the CPU.
S Reapply power to the system.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
9--11
If the power supply operates normally, you probably have either a shorted device or
a shorted cable. If the power supply does not operate normally, then test for a module
causing the problem by following the steps below:
S Turn off power to the CPU.
S Remove the CPU from the base, leaving its power cord attached.
S Reapply power to the CPU.
If the PWR LED operates normally, the problem is most likely in one of the modules in
the local CPU base. To isolate which module is causing the problem, remove one
module at a time until the PWR LED operates normally. Put the CPU back in the base
prior to testing for a bad module. Follow the procedure below:
S Turn off power to the CPU.
S Remove a module from the base.
S Reapply power to the CPU.
Bent base connector pins on the module can cause this problem, so check the
connector. Remember that exceeding the power budget is a common error that will
cause the PWR indicator to not come on or to come on intermittently.
Power budgeting problems usually appear during system start-up, rather than after
a long period of operation. If there is any doubt, it’s a good idea to recheck this.
WARNING: The PLC may reset if the power budget is exceeded. If there is any
doubt about the system power budget please check it at this time. Exceeding
the power budget can cause unpredictable results which can cause damage
and injury. Verify the modules in the base operate within the power budget for
the chosen base. You can find these tables in Chapter 4, System Design and
Configuration.
430 440 450
If the CPU will not enter the run mode (the RUN indicator is off), the problem is
usually in the application program unless the CPU has a fatal error, in which case the
CPU LED should be on.
S If you are attempting to enter the run mode by a programming device
and the CPU will not enter the run mode, first make sure the key switch
is in the TERM position and then try to enter the run mode.
S If you are using the keyswitch to change to RUN mode and the CPU
does not respond, attach a programming device to diagnose what error
is being returned.
S If the indicator is flashing, the CPU is in firmware upgrade mode.
Both of the programming devices, handheld programmer and DirectSOFT, will
return a error message and depending on the error may also recommend an AUX
function to run that will aid in further diagnosing the problem. The most common
programming error is “Missing END Statement”. All application programs require an
END statement for proper termination. Appendix B lists all the error codes.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Run Indicator
9--12
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
CPU Indicator
430 440 450
BATT Indicator
430 440 450
If the CPU indicator is on, a fatal error has occurred in the CPU. Generally, this is not
a programming problem but an actual hardware failure. You can power cycle the
system to clear the error. If the error clears, the system should be closely monitored
and every effort should be made to try to determine the cause of the problem. You will
find this problem is sometimes caused by high frequency electrical noise introduced
into the CPU from a outside source. Check your system grounding and install
electrical noise filters if the grounding is suspected. If power cycling the system does
not reset the error or if the problem returns, replace the CPU.
If the BATT indicator is on or flashing, either or both the CPU/Memory Cartridge
batteries are low (2.5V or less). The DL430 does not have a memory cartridge. The
battery voltage is continuously monitored while the system voltage is being supplied.
BATT LED Status
Error Condition
Flashing at 2Hz
Flashing at 0.5
0 5 Hz
CPU battery is low
Memory Cartridge battery is low
ON constantly
Both the CPU and Memory Cartridge batteries are low
Procedures for how to replace either of the batteries can be found in the Hardware
Maintenance section earlier in this chapter.
DIAG Indicator
X X 430 440 450
I/O Indicator
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
430 440 450
The diagnostics indicator is normally off. It turns on if the CPU detects a failure of its
run-time diagnostics. Extreme electrical noise may cause a diagnostics failure, so
power cycle the CPU first. If the DIAG indicator still turns on, the CPU is probably
faulty. Replace it with a known good one to be sure.
If this indicator is on, a problem in the local, expansion, or remote I/O chain has been
detected. Any of the problems listed below could be the cause of the I/O LED being
on:
S A blown fuse inside an I/O module
S A loose terminal block
S The 24 VDC supply has failed
S The module or Expansion unit has failed
S The I/O configuration check detects a change in the I/O configuration
I/O error detection for remote I/O will be covered in the DL405 Remote and Slice I/O
manual.
To aid you in further diagnosing where the I/O error is, each I/O module has LEDs to
indicate if an error is present. The discrete I/O modules covered in this manual may
have a combination of the following I/O indicators:
Indicator
Error condition
TB
Loose or missing terminal block
24V
External 24V power supply not providing the correct voltage
FU
Module fuse has blown, (check the I/O modules specification sheets to
see if the fuse is replaceable)
Many other specialty modules also have indicators. The manuals for those products
contain information on the indicators and status LEDs.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
9--13
If the modules are not providing any clues to the problem, run AUX 42 from the
handheld programmer or I/O diagnostics in DirectSOFT. Both options will provide
the base number, the slot number and the problem with the module. Once the
problem is corrected the indicators will reset.
An I/O error will not cause the CPU to switch from the run to program mode, however
there are special relays (SPs) available in the CPU which will allow this error to be
read in ladder logic. The application program can then take the required action such
as entering the program mode or initiating an orderly shutdown. The following figure
shows a example of the failure indicators.
Loose terminal block
LED indicator
Internal diagnostics
V7756 0201 Major Error Code
V7760 0003 Error Location
(Base 00, Slot 03)
V7762 0201 Module Error Code
SP45
I/O Error
Loose terminal block
COM Indicator
X
430 440 450
The COM indicator on DL430 and DL440 CPU turns ON when the CPU has detected
a communication error on one of the two communication ports built into the CPU.
The most common causes for this error are:
TXD and RXD
Indicators
X X 430 440 450
The TXD and RXD indications on the DL450 CPU work like the identically-named
LED indicators found on modem devices. The TXD and/or RXD indicators turn ON
whenever the CPU either transmits or receives data, respectively. If the indicator(s)
remain off when you are expecting communications, there is a problem.
The TXD and RXD indicators turn on when data is transmitted on any of the four
ports on the DL450. Therefore, when DirectSOFT, or a HPP, or an operator interface
such as the DV-1000 is connected, the TXD and RXD are on constantly. If you are
trying to detect communications originated by the ladder program itself, it may be
useful to disconnect the programing device or operator interface. In this way, only
the cable for the communications you are debugging is connected.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
The cable is disconnected.
The cable has a broken wire or has been wired incorrectly.
The cable is improperly terminated or grounded.
The device connected to the port is sending data incorrectly.
A grounding difference exists between the two devices.
Electrical noise is causing intermittent errors
The CPU has a bad communication port and the CPU should be
replaced
If an error occurs the indicator will come on and stay on until a successful
communication has been completed. If the cable and its connections are OK, try
doing a power cycle on the devices at both ends of the communications cable.
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
9--14
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
I/O Module Troubleshooting
Possible Causes
If you suspect an I/O error, there are several things that could be causing the
problem.
S I/O configuration error on modules such as analog I/O, high-speed
counting, specialized communications, and so on
S A blown fuse in your machine or panel (the DL105 does not have
internal I/O fuses)
S A loose terminal block
S The auxiliary 24 VDC supply has failed
S An Input or Output point has failed
Some Quick Steps
When troubleshooting the DL series I/O modules there are a few facts you should be
aware of. These facts may assist you in quickly correcting an I/O problem.
S The output modules cannot detect shorted or open output points. If you
suspect one or more points on a output module to be faulty, measure
the voltage drop from the common to the suspect point. Remember
when using a Digital Volt Meter, leakage current from an output device
such as a triac or a transistor must be considered. A point which is off
may appear to be on if no load is connected to the point.
S The I/O point status indicators on the modules are logic side indicators.
This means the LED which indicates the on or off status reflects the
status of the point with respect to the CPU. On a output module the
status indicators could be operating normally while the actual output
device (transistor, triac etc.) could be damaged. With an input module if
the indicator LED is on, the input circuitry should be operating properly.
Verify the LED goes off when the input signal is removed.
S Leakage current can be a problem when connecting field devices to I/O
modules. False input signals can be generated when the leakage
current of an output device is great enough to turn on the connected
input device. To correct this install a resistor in parallel with the input or
output of the circuit. The value of this resistor will depend on the amount
of leakage current and the voltage applied but usually a 10K to 20K ohm
resistor will work. Verify the wattage rating of the resistor is correct for
your application.
S The fuse blown indicator on a output module will indicate a problem only
if an output point is connected to a load and the point is turned on. This
indicator works by sensing a voltage drop across the fuse so there must
be a voltage applied to the fuse and a load applied to the output to
create the voltage drop before it can be reported by the module.
S The easiest method to determine if a module has failed is to replace it if
you have a spare. However, if you suspect another device to have
caused the failure in the module, that device may cause the same
failure in the replacement module as well. As a point of caution, you
may want to check devices or power supplies connected to the failed
module before replacing it with a spare module.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Testing Output
Points
9--15
Output points can be set on or off in the DL405 series CPUs but they cannot be
forced in such a way to override ladder logic. If you want to do an I/O check out
independent of the application program, follow the procedure below:
Step
Action
1
Change the CPU keyswitch to TERM.
2
Use a handheld programmer or DirectSOFT to communicate online to
the PLC.
3
Change to Program mode.
4
Go to address 0.
5
Insert an ”END” statement at address 0. (This will cause program execution to occur only at address 0 and prevent the application program from
running and turning I/O points on or off).
6
Change to Run mode using the handheld programmer or DirectSOFT.
We must do this to enable the outputs.
7
Use the programming device to set (turn) on or off the points you wish to
test.
8
When you finish testing I/O points delete the “END” statement at address
0.
WARNING: Depending on your application, forcing I/O points may cause
unpredictable machine operation that can result in a risk of personal injury or
equipment damage. Make sure you have taken all appropriate safety
precautions prior to testing any I/O points.
Handheld
Programmer
Keystrokes Used
to Test an Output
Point
END
X0
X2
X1
X3
X5
X7
X4
Y1
X10
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Insert an END statement
at the beginning of the
Program. This disables
the remainder of the
program.
Y0
END
From a clear display, use the following keystrokes
Y(OUT)
0
BIT ST
Y
10
Y
0
Y
0
16P MON
Turn the output on (or off)
Y(OUT)
0
SHFT
Y0 is now on
ON
Y
10
16P MON
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
9--16
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Noise Troubleshooting
Electrical Noise
Problems
Noise is one of the most difficult problems to diagnose. Electrical noise can enter a
system in many ways, which are divided into two categories, conducted or radiated:
S Conducted noise is when the electrical interference is introduced into
the system by way of an attached wire, panel connection, etc. It may
enter through an I/O module, a power supply connection, the
communication ground connection, or the chassis ground connection.
S Radiated noise is electrical interference introduced into the system
through the air as radio waves, without a direct electrical connection.
Reducing
Electrical Noise
The following tips can help reduce electrical noise enough for normal operation.
S Most noise problems result from improper grounding of the system. A
good earth ground can be the single most effective way to correct noise
problems. If a ground is not available, install a ground rod as close to
the system as possible. Ensure all ground wires are single point
grounds and are not daisy chained from one device to another. Ground
metal enclosures around the system. A loose wire is no more than a
large antenna waiting to introduce noise into the system; therefore, you
should tighten all connections in your system. Loose ground wires are
more susceptible to noise than the other wires in your system. Review
Chapter 2 Installation and Safety Guidelines if you have questions
regarding how to ground your system.
S Electrical noise can enter the system through the power source for the
CPU and I/O. Installing an isolation transformer for all AC sources can
correct this problem. DC sources should be well grounded, good quality
supplies. Switching DC power supplies commonly generate more noise
than linear supplies.
S Separate input wiring from output wiring. Never run analog I/O wiring or
low voltage discrete I/O wiring close to high voltage wiring.
S
S
To improve noise immunity, you may optionally install the factory
provided shunt between logic ground (LG) and chassis ground (G) on
the CPU terminal strip shown to the left.
In rare instances you may want to isolate logic ground from chassis
ground. There is a single jumper on the 4 slot base and two jumpers on
the 6 and 8 slot bases for this purpose. Isolation can be obtained by
removing these jumper(s), shown below.
Spring loaded
securing screw
Optional CPU jumper connects logic
ground and chassis ground
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Base jumper(s) connect logic
ground and chasis ground
on CPU terminal strip
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
9--17
Machine Startup and Program Troubleshooting
The DL405 CPUs provide several features that can help you debug your program
before and during machine startup. This section discusses the following topics
which can be very helpful.
S Program Syntax Check
S Duplicate Reference Check
S Test Modes
S Run Time Edits
S Special Instructions
Syntax Check
Even though the Handheld Programmer and DirectSOFT provide error checking
during program entry, you may want to check a program that has been modified.
Both programming devices offer a way to check the program syntax. For example,
you can use AUX 21, CHECK PROGRAM to check the program syntax from a
Handheld Programmer, or you can use the PLC Diagnostics menu option within
DirectSOFT. This check will find a wide variety of programming errors. The following
example shows how to use the syntax check with a Handheld Programmer.
Use AUX 21 to perform syntax check
CLR
AUX
2
1
ENT
ENT
Select syntax check
1
ENT (This may take a minute or so.)
AUX 21 CHECK PROGRAM
1:SYN 2:DUP REF
BUSY
Error Display (example)
$ 8 E401 MISSING END
TMRA
T 002
K00050
(shows location in question)
Syntax OK display
NO SYNTAX ERROR
?
If you get an error, see the Error Codes Section for a complete listing of programming
error codes. Correct the problem and continue running the Syntax check until the
NO SYNTAX ERROR message appears.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
One of two displays will appear
9--18
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Duplicate
Reference Check
You can also check for multiple uses of the same output coil. Both programming
devices offer a way to check for this condition. For example, you can AUX 21,
CHECK PROGRAM to check for duplicate references from a Handheld
Programmer, or you can use the PLC Diagnostics menu option within DirectSOFT.
The following example shows how to perform the duplicate reference check with a
Handheld Programmer.
Use AUX 21 to perform syntax check
AUX
2
1
ENT
ENT
Select Duplicate Reference check
2
ENT (This may take a minute or so.)
AUX 21 CHECK PROGRAM
1:SYN 2:DUP REF
BUSY
One of two displays will appear
Error Display (example)
$ 12 E471 DUP COIL REF
OUT
Y 0000
(shows location in question)
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Syntax OK display
NO DUP REFS
?
If you get a Duplicate Reference error, correct the problem and continue running the
Duplicate Reference check until no duplicate references are found.
NOTE: You can use the same coil in more than one location, especially in programs
that use the Stage instructions and / or the OROUT instructions. The Duplicate
Reference check will find these outputs even though they may be used in an
acceptable fashion.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
TEST-PGM and
TEST-RUN Modes
9--19
Test Mode allows the CPU to start in TEST-PGM mode, enter TEST-RUN mode, run
a fixed number of scans, and then return to TEST-PGM mode. You can select from 1
to 65,535 scans. You can select this operation from either the Handheld
Programmer (AUX 12) or DirectSOFT via a PLC Modes menu option.
With the Handheld, the actual mode entered when you first select Test Mode
depends on the mode of operation at the time you make the request. If the CPU is in
RUN mode, then TEST-RUN is entered. If the mode is PGM, then TEST-PGM is
entered. DirectSOFT provides more flexibility in selecting the various modes with
different menu options. The following example shows how you can use the
Handheld to select the Test Modes
Use AUX 12 to enter Test Mode
AUX
1
2
ENT
ENT
MODE = TEST-PGM
To specify the number of scans. . .
CLR
1
SHFT TEST
NO. OF SCANS?
(CPU runs scans and returns to Test-PGM )
To switch to TEST-PGM mode . . .
CLR
ENT
2
SHFT TEST
STOP SCAN?
(to confirm the return to TEST-PGM)
To switch to TEST-RUN mode . . .
ENT
3
SHFT TEST
START SCAN?
(to confirm the entry of TEST-RUN)
With the Handheld Programmer you gain some advantages by using Test Mode.
S The Handheld Programmer status displays are more detailed.
S You can enable the CPU to hold output states.
Test Mode Displays: For some instructions, the TEST-RUN mode display is more
detailed than the status displays shown in RUN mode. The following diagram shows
an example of a Timer instruction display during TEST-RUN mode.
RUN Mode
$
TMR
TEST-RUN Mode
3
T 000
K0500
$
TMR
3
T=510
T 000
K0500
Current Value
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
CLR
9--20
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Holding Output States: In normal RUN mode, the outputs are turned off when you
return to PGM mode. In TEST-RUN mode you can set each individual output to
either turn off or hold its last output state on the transition to TEST-PGM mode. The
ability to hold the output states is especially useful, since It allows you to maintain key
system I/O points for examination. The following diagram shows the differences
between RUN and TEST-RUN modes.
RUN Mode to PGM Mode
X0
X2
X1
X3
Y0
X4
X10
Outputs are
OFF
Y1
Status on final scan
X0
X2
X1
X3
X10
END
Y0
X4
Y1
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
END
TEST-RUN to TEST-PGM
X0
X2
X1
X3
Y0
X4
Hold Y0 ON
Y1
X10
Let Y1 turn
OFF
END
You can use AUX 58 on the Handheld Programmer to select the action for each
individual output.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Run Time Edits
X 430 440 450
9--21
The DL440 and DL450 CPUs allow you to make changes to the application program
during Run Mode. These edits are not “bumpless.” Instead, CPU scan is
momentarily interrupted (and the outputs are maintained in their current state) until
the program change is complete. This means if the output is off, it will remain off until
the program change is complete. If the output was on, it will remain on.
WARNING: Only authorized personnel fully familiar with all aspects of the
application should make changes to the program. Changes during Run Mode
become effective immediately. Make sure you thoroughly consider the impact
of any changes to minimize the risk of personal injury or damage to
equipment. There are some important operations sequence changes during
Run Time Edits.
1. If there is a syntax error in the new instruction, the CPU will not enter the
Run Mode.
2. If you delete an output coil reference and the output was on at the time, the
output will remain on until it is forced off with a programming device.
3. Input point changes are not acknowledged during Run Time Edits. So, if
you’re using a high-speed operation and a critical input comes on, the CPU
may not see the change.
You can use either the Handheld Programmer or DirectSOFT to edit the program
during Run Mode. The following pages show a brief example of how to do this with
the Handheld Programmer. You use AUX 14 to edit the program during Run Mode.
We’ve already shown you how to select the various AUX functions, but a few things
are different with AUX 14.
S Once you select AUX 14 the Handheld RUN LED starts blinking. This
indicates the a Run Mode edit is in progress.
S If you had displayed an address just before selecting AUX 14, that
address will automatically appear. So, you can search for an address or
instruction before you select AUX 14 or after you select AUX 14.
Select AUX 14, Run Time Edit
1
4
ENT
AUX 1* OPERATING MODE
AUX 14 RUN TIME EDIT
Press ENT to select AUX 14 and display the address
ENT
$xxxxx
STR
X 0001
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
AUX
9--22
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Changing an
Instruction During
Run Mode
Once you’ve found the instruction you can change it very easily. The following
example shows you how to change the X5 contact to X10.
Ladder Representation
X0
X2
X5
Y0
OUT
X1
X3
X4
Change X5
X6
END
Identify the Instruction
ADDRESS
INSTRUCTION
0
1
—
—
6
—
—
10
STR X0
OR X1
—
—
AND X5
—
—
END
DESCRIPTION
Starts branch 1 with X0
Joins X1 in parallel with X0
—
—
Starts branch 4 with X5
—
—
Ends the program
FIND the Address
AND
X(IN)
5
FIND
SEARCHING
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
AND X5
$
AND
6
X 0005
Change the Instruction
AND
X(IN)
10
ENT
$
6
WANT TO ALTER?
Press CLR to abort the edit or ENT to accept
ENT
(If you press ENT, the change is accepted
and the next address is displayed. If you
pressed CLR, the current address is
displayed.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
$
ORN
7
X 0006
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Inserting an
Instruction During
Run Mode
9--23
Inserting an instruction during Run Mode works almost exactly the same as it does
during Program Mode. Remember, INSERT adds an instruction before the
instruction that is being displayed and the remaining addresses increment.
Ladder Representation
X0
X2
X5
X7
Y0
OUT
X1
X3
X4
Add X7
X6
END
Identify the Instruction
ADDRESS
INSTRUCTION
0
1
—
6
STR X0
OR X1
—
AND X5
AND X7
ORN X6
—
END
Insert before
7
—
10
DESCRIPTION
Starts branch 1 with X0
Joins X1 in parallel with X0
—
Starts branch 4 with X5
Adds X7 in series with X5
Joins X6 (NOT) in parallel
—
Ends the program
FIND the Address
OR
NOT
X(IN)
6
FIND
SEARCHING
ORN X6
7
X 0006
Insert the New Instruction
AND
X(IN)
7
SHFT
INS
$
7
WANT TO INSERT?
Press CLR to abort the edit or ENT to accept
ENT
(If you press ENT, the change is accepted
and the next address is displayed. If you
pressed CLR, the current address is
displayed.
$
ORN
8
X 0006
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
$
ORN
9--24
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Deleting an
Instruction During
Run Mode
Deleting an instruction during Run Mode works almost exactly the same as it does
during Program Mode. Remember, this operation deletes the instruction that is
currently being displayed and the remaining addresses decrement.
Ladder Representation
X0
X2
X5
X7
Y0
OUT
X1
X3
X4
Delete X7
X6
END
Identify the Instruction
ADDRESS
INSTRUCTION
0
1
—
6
7
—
11
STR X0
OR X1
—
AND X5
AND X7
—
END
Delete
DESCRIPTION
Starts branch 1 with X0
Joins X1 in parallel with X0
—
Starts branch 4 with X5
Adds X7 in series with X5
—
Ends the program
FIND the Address
AND
X(IN)
7
FIND
SEARCHING
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
AND X7
$
AND
7
X 0007
Delete the Instruction
SHFT
DEL
$
7
WANT TO DELETE?
Press CLR to abort the edit or ENT to accept
ENT
(If you press ENT, the change is accepted
and the next address is displayed. If you
pressed CLR, the current address is
displayed.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
$
ORN
7
X 0006
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Special Debug
Instructions
9--25
There are several instructions that can be used to help you debug your program
during machine startup operations: END, PAUSE, STOP, and BREAK.
END Instruction: You can quickly disable part of the program by inserting an END
statement prior to the portion that should be disabled. The CPU assumes that is the
end of the program. The following diagram shows an example.
New END disables X10 and Y1
Normal Program
X0
X2
X1
X3
Y0
X4
X0
X2
X1
X3
Y0
X4
Y1
X10
END
END
Y1
X10
END
PAUSE Instruction: This instruction provides a quick way to allow the inputs (or
other logic) to operate while disabling selected outputs. The output image register is
still updated, but the output status is not written to the modules. For example, you
could make this conditional by adding an input contact or CR to control the
instruction with a switch or a programming device. Or, you could just add the
instruction without any conditions so the selected outputs are always disabled.
PAUSE disables Y0 and Y1
Normal Program
X0
X2
X1
X3
Y0
Y0 -- Y1
PAUSE
X4
Y1
X10
X2
X1
X3
Y0
X4
Y1
X10
END
STOP Instruction: Sometimes during machine startup you need a quick way to turn
off all the outputs and return to Program Mode. In addition to the Test Modes, you can
also use the STOP instruction. When executed, a STOP causes the CPU to exit Run
Mode and enter Program Mode. The following program does this. Remember, all
outputs are turned off during Program Mode.
STOP puts CPU in Program Mode
Normal Program
X0
X2
X1
X3
Y0
X20
STOP
X10
X4
Y1
END
X0
X2
X1
X3
X10
Y0
X4
Y1
END
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
END
X0
9--26
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
BREAK Instruction: If you have a DL440 CPU you can also use the BREAK
instruction to stop the program scan. As long as the BREAK instruction is active the
scan is stopped and the CPU enters a special mode, TEST-HALT. You have to use
either the Handheld Programmer or DirectSOFT to restart the scan by placing the
CPU back in Run Mode. When the CPU returns to Run Mode the scan resumes at
the point of the break. For example, if you are using several data instructions it may
be helpful to stop the scan and examine the accumulator and accumulator stack.
The following diagram shows an example.
X1
Constant
LD
K3245
3
2
4
5
2
4
5
Current Acc. value
Acc. 0
Load the value 3245
into the accumulator
0
0
0
3
V701
V700
Previous Acc. value
Acc. X
LD
K5151
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Constant
5
1
5
1
Current Acc. value
Load the value 5151 into the
accumulator, pushing the value
1234 onto the stack
Acc. 0
0
0
0
5
V701
1
5
1
V700
Previous Acc. value
Acc. 0
X10
BREAK
0
0
3
2
4
5
0
0
0
0
3
2
4
5
V703 -- V702
Level 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V705 -- V704
Level 3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V707 -- V706
Level 4
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V711 -- V710
Level 5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V713 -- V712
Level 6
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V715 -- V714
Level 7
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V717 -- V716
Level 8
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V721 -- V720
Stops Scan Here
Y0
X2
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
0
Y0
X2
Accumulator Stack
Level 1
Restarts Scan Here
In the example, input X10 triggers the BREAK instruction. The CPU will stop
scanning the program at this point. Now you could easily see how the program
instructions have affected the accumulator or accumulator stack. The following
diagram shows how you could use the Handheld to examine the accumulator stack.
Select the location to monitor
CLR
V
2
5
0
0
WD ST
V MON
V 0703
xxxx
V 0702
3245
Value is displayed
When you use the Handheld to return to Run Mode, the CPU starts scanning the
program at the rung following the BREAK.
DL405 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. A
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