OSP Hall A - Jefferson Lab

OSP Hall A - Jefferson Lab
TJNAF
Hall A Experimental Equipment
Safety Assessment
Info Level 0
The Hall A Collaboration
Editor: E. A. Chudakov1
June 6, 2003
1 Thomas
Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 The Personnel Safety System . . . . . .
1.2.1 Restricted Access . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3 Controlled Access . . . . . . . . .
1.2.4 RF Power Permit . . . . . . . . .
1.2.5 Beam Permit . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.6 Run Safe Boxes . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Hall A Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 Controlled Access Procedure . . .
1.3.2 Restricted Access Procedure . . .
1.3.3 Access Requirements . . . . . . .
1.3.4 The Hall A Safety Walk-through
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2 Beamline
2.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Additional Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4 Machine/Beamline protection system . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.5 Personnel Safety System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Beam Position Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Beam Current Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 System Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Arc Energy Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Computers and softwares used by scanners and integral:
2.4.2 Summary of ARC operations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 Preliminary details about MEDM . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.4 Details on pulser check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.5 Details on HV check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.6 Details on EPICS check (scanners) . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10
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12
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13
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14
14
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17
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21
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26
28
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30
31
31
32
33
33
33
33
CONTENTS
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.4.7 Details on ioc reboot (scanners) . . . . .
2.4.8 Details on disk space check (scanners) . .
2.4.9 Details on running a scan . . . . . . . . .
2.4.10 Details on MEDM window print . . . . .
2.4.11 Details on profile plot . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.12 Details on gain adjustment (scanners) . .
2.4.13 Details on file save (scanners) . . . . . . .
2.4.14 Details on trip handling . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.15 Detail on encoder change (scanner) . . . .
2.4.16 Detail on encoder re-mount (scanner) . .
2.4.17 De tails on scanner expert task . . . . . .
2.4.18 Detail on theodolite survey of a bench . .
2.4.19 More on the theodolite menu . . . . . . .
2.4.20 Summary of field integral . . . . . . . . .
2.4.21 Shed access and safety . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.22 Details on integral system check . . . . .
2.4.23 Details on NMR lock . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.24 Details on integral run . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.25 Details on integral error . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.26 Details on integral data save . . . . . . .
2.4.27 Integral ioc reboot . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.28 Details on temperatures . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.29 Details on AC power (integral) . . . . . .
2.4.30 Details on mechanics (integral) . . . . . .
2.4.31 Details on detailed field mapping . . . . .
Fast Raster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Chamber - Spectrometer Coupling
Stress Analysis of the Middle Ring . . . .
Vacuum Pumping System . . . . . . . . .
Bremsstrahlung Radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Safety Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.4 Special Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Møller Polarimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1 Purpose and Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vacuum System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.3 List of Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . .
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34
34
34
35
35
36
37
39
39
39
40
41
45
46
48
48
48
50
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51
52
53
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55
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59
60
60
61
62
62
62
62
64
65
65
66
66
66
66
67
67
CONTENTS
2.9
3
Compton Polarimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Targets
3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Cryogenic Hydrogen and Deuterium Targets
3.2.1 Flammable Gas . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Installation . . . . . . . .
Flammable Gas Detectors . . . . . .
3.2.2 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Relief . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scattering Chamber Vacuum Failure
3.2.3 Temperature Regulation . . . . . . .
Target Freezing . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 ODH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 The Waterfall Target . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 The hydraulic system . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 The gas system . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 The movement system . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 The slow-control system . . . . . . .
3.4.5 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . .
3.4.6 Safety Assessments . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.7 Operating procedure . . . . . . . . .
3.4.8 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Polarized 3 He Target . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
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69
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. 86
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. 96
. 100
4 High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS)
4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Safety with Regards to the Spectrometer .
4.1.2 Hall A Vacuum System . . . . . . . . . . .
Spectrometer Vacuum System . . . . . . .
Target Vacuum System . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnet Vacuum System . . . . . . . . . .
Beam Line Vacuum System . . . . . . . .
Beam Exit Vacuum System . . . . . . . .
Hazards of Vacuum Systems . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 The High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS)
Magnets and Power Supplies . . . . . . . .
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quadrupole Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cryogenic Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . .
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101
101
106
107
107
109
109
109
109
110
110
111
111
111
112
CONTENTS
4
First Time Startup Check List. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dipole Magnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Operation of the HRS Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Field Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Simple Spectrometer Field Setting (Autopilot Mode)
4.2.2 Dipole Field Monitoring Electron Arm . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 NMR Operating Procedure: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5 Powering Up Dipole Magnets: . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6 Starting Q1 Power Supply: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.7 Starting Q2/3 Power Supply: . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Collimators and Sieve Slits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Operating Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Spectrometer Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Personnel Responsible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 HRS Detectors
5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Geometry of the Spectrometer Detector Packages
5.2 Vertical Drift Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Operating Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Handling Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 Other Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6 Responsible Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Trigger Scintillator Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 PMT regime and time resolution . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 PMT operation monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 PMT replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5 2” PMT Bases for S1 and S2 Trigger Counters .
5.3.6 Handling Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.7 5” PMT Bases for S3 Counters . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.8 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.9 Responsible Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Lead Glass Shower Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Operating Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Handling Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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112
112
113
117
117
118
119
123
126
126
126
128
128
128
131
132
132
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133
133
134
135
135
138
142
142
143
143
144
144
145
145
145
145
149
152
153
155
156
156
157
157
162
CONTENTS
5.4.5 Authorized Personnel . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6 Software Algorithms . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Aerogel CherenkovCounter . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Responsible Personnel . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4 Operating Procedure . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.5 Handling Considerations . . . . . . . .
5.6 The Focal Plane Polarimeter . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.2 Operating Procedure . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.3 Carbon Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.4 Handling Considerations . . . . . . . .
5.6.5 Safety Assessment . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.6 Responsible Personnel . . . . . . . . .
5.7 The Hall A Gas System . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 Gas Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 HRS Gas Supply System for Wire Detectors .
5.8.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bulk Gas Supply . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.2 Gas Mixing Station . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Flow Control System . . . . . .
Alcohol Bubbler . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delivery Pressure Control . . . . . . .
5.8.3 Gas Delivery into Hall A . . . . . . . .
Distribution in the Shield Houses . . .
Waste Gas Collection and Venting . .
5.8.4 Autherized Personnel . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.5 Safety and Device Protection . . . . .
5.8.6 System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pre-Startup Checklist . . . . . . . . .
Startup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal Operation . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing gas bottles . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.7 Troubleshooting : Things to Check . .
Resetting a closed Excess Flow Valve .
Restarting flow after a power failure. .
5.8.8 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Periodic Inspections . . . . . . . . . .
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162
163
165
165
169
169
175
175
177
177
182
187
188
190
190
192
192
192
193
193
193
194
194
196
198
199
199
200
200
200
202
202
202
204
204
205
205
206
208
208
208
208
CONTENTS
6 Slow Controls
6.0.1 Hall A Slow Controls . . .
6.0.2 Introduction . . . . . . . .
6.0.3 Hall A Controls Overview
6.0.4 Personnel Responsible . .
6
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7 Data Acquisition and Trigger
7.1 Spectrometer Data Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 General Computer Information . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2 Beginning of Experiment Checkout . . . . . . .
7.1.3 Running CODA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some Frequently Asked Questions about DAQ
Cold Start of CODA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.4 Electronic Logbook and Beam Accounting . . .
7.1.5 Terminal Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Trigger Hardware and Software . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Online Analysis, Data Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scaler Display and Scaler Events . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 Analysis using ESPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 Dataspy and Dhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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210
210
210
210
213
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216
216
216
217
217
218
219
220
220
221
225
225
225
226
A Hall Checklist
227
A.1 Pre Beam and Cryo Target Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
A.2 Post Beam Checklist for Maintenance Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
A.3 Post Beam Checklist for an Extended Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
List of Tables
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Beamline: Hall A Beamline Elements . . . . . .
Beamline: Optics Requirements Target . . . . .
Beamline: Optics Requirements Other . . . . .
Bremsstrahlung Radiator: Raster Radius . . . .
Bremsstrahlung Radiator: Encoder Calibration
Moller Polarimeter: authorized personnel . . . .
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Cryotarget: Cell Pressure Test Data . . . .
Cryotarget: Relief Device Summary . . . .
Cryotarget: Gas Properties . . . . . . . . .
Cryotarget: Volumes and Geometry . . . .
Cryotarget: Relief Line Information . . . .
Contact Personel for the Cryogenic Targets
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25
25
25
63
63
67
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
and Scattering Chamber
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74
75
76
77
78
81
4.1 Spectrometers: Dipole Checklist . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Spectrometers: Q1 Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Spectrometers: Q2/Q3 Checklist . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Spectrometers: Dipole NMR Probe Field Ranges
4.5 NMR troubleshhoting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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114
115
115
119
125
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Detectors: Electron ARM Detector Locations
Detectors: Hadron Arm Detector Locations .
Aerogel:the number of photoelectrons . . . . .
Aerogel:photoelectrons . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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134
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176
176
7.1
Data Acquisition: Terminal Service for DAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
7
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List of Figures
1.1 Introduction: Location of Hall Safety Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Introduction: Location of Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
16
2.1 Beamline: Hall A Beamline Overview . .
2.2 Beamline: Hall A Beamline Overview . .
2.3 Beamline: Hall A Beamline Overview . .
2.4 Beamline: BPM Readout Electronics . .
2.5 Beam Current Measurement: Schematic
2.6 Møller: layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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18
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19
26
29
65
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
Waterfall
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82
84
84
85
85
87
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89
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4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Spectrometers:
Elevation View of Hall A HRS . . . . . . . . . .
Plan View of Hall A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electron Arm Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hadron Arm Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HRS Vacuum System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnet Controls Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NMR System Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NMR Gradient Compensation . . . . . . . . . .
Control Voltage Calibration for Electron Dipole
Control Voltage Calibration for Hadron Dipole .
NMR Probe DAC Calibration . . . . . . . . . .
Collimator Box Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sieve Slit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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102
103
104
105
108
117
118
119
120
121
122
129
130
5.1
Detectors: VDC Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Target System . . . . . . . . .
Target: Cutaway of Target Cell
Target: Three Foil Geometry .
Target: Target Container . . .
Target: Side View . . . . . . .
Target: Hydraulic Schematic .
Target: Schematic . . . . . . .
Target: Slow Controls . . . . .
Target: Signal Layout . . . . .
8
LIST OF FIGURES
9
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28
5.29
5.30
5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
Detectors: VDC Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Gas Flow Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: VDC Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: S1 Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: HV HRSR Summary Screen . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: HV Screen for Single Card . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Average Amplitudes of HA Trigger Counters
Detectors: 2” PMT Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: 2” PMT Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: 5” PMT Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: 5” PMT Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Pre-shower Counter HV . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Shower Counter HV . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Map of Pre-shower detector . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Map of shower detector . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel:layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel:mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel: structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel: middle PMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel: reflectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel: upper mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerogel: amplification chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: Hadron Arm detector . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: FPP HV Termination Board . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: FPP Readout Board . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: FPP Readout Board . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: FPP Level Shifter Receiver Board . . . . . .
Detectors: Hadron Arm Gas Panel . . . . . . . . . . .
Detectors: FPP Carbon Door GUI . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas: shed diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas: mass flow control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas: Vapor pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas: Hall A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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137
139
140
144
146
147
148
150
151
152
154
158
159
160
161
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
177
179
180
180
181
184
189
195
196
197
201
6.1
6.2
Controls: Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Controls: Hall A Main Control Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
7.1 Data Acquisition: Electron Arm Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
7.2 Data Acquisition: Hadron Arm Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
7.3 Data Acquisition: Coincidence Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1
General
1 2
This document contains the following information concerning the Hall A “base equipment”:
– safety assessment
It is assumed that the reader of this document has been through all the required
Jefferson Lab safety training. Hence, the material covered in those courses is for the most
part not repeated here. End-station specific safety items are covered in “The Experiment
Safety Assessment Document for the Hall A Base Equipment” which is required reading
for all shift personnel. This document also contains some safety information when deemed
appropriate.
1.2
The Personnel Safety System
Users and staff working on the accelerator site are protected from the dangers associated with the prompt ionizing radiation that the accelerator beam produces by the
Personnel Safety System or PSS. The PSS keeps ionizing radiation out of areas where
people are working, and keeps people out of areas where ionizing radiation is present.
There are a total of five states for the Hall A Personnel Safety System: Restricted
Access, Sweep, Controlled Access, RF Power Permit, and Beam Permit.
1.2.1
Restricted Access
Restricted Access is the PSS system state when delivery of beam and/or RF power
is not permitted, and entry to and exit from the hall is not controlled by the Personnel
Safety System. This is the normal state of the hall when the accelerator is off and no
experiments are running. Access is “restricted” only in the sense that the hall is not
10
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
11
open to the general public.
1.2.2
Sweep
Sweep is the state of the PSS when delivery of beam and/or RF power is not permitted and access is limited to the Jefferson Lab personnel conducting the sweep operation.
The hall’s entrance gates are closed from the inside to ensure that no one can enter behind the person conducting the sweep. During the sweep, an Assigned Radiation Monitor
or ARM systematically searches the hall to verify the absence of people and to arm the
run/safe boxes. The ARM posts a guard at the entrance to the hall as another method
of ensuring that no one enters after him.
When the Assigned Radiation Monitor is ready to perform a sweep, the Machine
Control Center or MCC must first place the hall in the Sweep state. The Personnel Safety
System will read “Sweep In Progress.” Once the hall is placed in the sweep state, the
sweep monitors enter the first gate to the hall, making sure it locks behind them. The
ARM then notifies the MCC that he is ready to begin the sweep. The MCC communicates
with the sweep monitors via intercom and video camera. Using the video camera, the
MCC makes sure both sweep monitors are wearing the proper dosimetry. At this point
the ARM also indicates that he is in possession of the key needed to arm the Run/Safe
boxes placed throughout the hall. Having confirmed that the dosimetry is adequate, the
MCC will unlock the second entrance gate allowing the sweep monitors to enter the hall.
Once the sweep monitors pass through the second gate, they close the gate and ensure
it is locked. The sweep monitors then proceed to the hall entrance where one sweep
monitor is left to guard the entrance and the other begins the sweep. During the actual
sweep, the ARM walks through every area and secluded workspace in the hall to ensure
that no one could be left inside when the Personnel Safety System moves from the sweep
state to controlled access, power permit, and finally beam permit state. Once he checks
an area, he arms the run/safe box in that area. After all areas of the hall have been
checked and the run/safe boxes armed, the sweep monitors will return to the entrance
where the sweep began. Before arming the last run/safe box, the ARM will contact the
MCC. Upon contact, the MCC will check to see if the sweep has “dropped”; if all is well
he will notify the ARM that it is okay to arm the box. Once the box is armed, the sweep
monitors have 30 seconds to exit both gates or the sweep will drop, and the entire sweep
process will have to be repeated. After exiting, the ARM must contact the MCC to let
them know the Hall can now be moved to the controlled access state.
1.2.3
Controlled Access
Controlled Access is the state of the PSS when delivery of beam and/or RF power
is not permitted but the hall is considered a controlled area. In this state, people are
“counted” both entering and leaving the hall to ensure that no one is left inside when the
Personnel Safety System advances to the RF Permit or Beam Permit states. Hall entry
during the controlled access state is permitted only to people authorized or qualified
1
2
CV S revision Id: a-intro.tex,v 1.1 2003/06/06 15:26:26 gen Exp
Authors: J.LeRose mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
12
by Jefferson Lab . Entry to and exit from the hall is controlled from the MCC. The
Hall cannot be placed in the “controlled access” state without having first been swept.
1.2.4
RF Power Permit
When the PSS is in RF Power Permit the hall is considered an “exclusion area”.
Delivery of RF power is permitted, but beam delivery is not. Reaching this state requires
that the hall has passed through the controlled access state and that no one is left inside
the hall. This is usually a temporary state bridging the transition from the Controlled
Access to the Beam Permit state. Once the Personnel Safety System reads “Power
Permit”, a steady klaxon sounds in the hall. If you are in the hall when this klaxon
sounds, press the emergency safe button on the nearest run/safe box and immediately
exit the hall. The hall entrance gates are locked at this time, but there is an emergency
exit button at each gate which will allow you to exit. A four-minute delay is built in
between the transition from RF Power Permit to Beam Permit.
1.2.5
Beam Permit
When delivery of beam and RF power is permitted to the exclusion area the PSS
state is Beam Permit. Reaching this state requires having passed through the RF Power
Permit state.
1.2.6
Run Safe Boxes
The Personnel Safety System includes Run/Safe boxes which are located throughout
Hall A, and approximately every 100 feet in the linac. A run/safe box has three positions:
Safe, Operational, and Unsafe. When the hall is in Restricted Access, the run/safe box
will be in the Safe position. While in this position, the PSS prevents delivery of beam
to the hall. Before beam can be delivered, the hall must be swept to ensure that no one
is left inside. During the Sweep, each run/safe box is moved to the Operational position
in preparation for Beam Permit. After the sweep has been completed and the hall is
placed in the RF Power Permit state, the run/safe box will show Unsafe. Each box has
an emergency stop button. If you see the box in the Unsafe position, you are in danger of
receiving high levels of ionizing radiation. Immediately press the emergency stop button,
exit the hall, and call the Machine Control Center Crew Chief at extension 7050.
1.3
Hall A Access
Access to Hall A is governed by the “Jefferson Lab Beam Containment Policy and
Implementation” document. This document can be found in the Jefferson Lab ES&H
Manual (Section 6310, Appendix T2). Work in designated radiation areas will be governed by the Jefferson Lab RadCon Manual. Access procedures during Research Operations depend on the number of individuals who will be entering the hall and the length
of time they are expected to be there. A controlled access is used when a few individuals
require entry for a short period of time. If the hall must be open for an extended period
and many people will enter, then you should use the restricted access procedure instead
of the controlled access procedure. Normally, when requesting a controlled access, the
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
13
hall will be in either the Beam Permit or RF Permit State - for example, if the beam has
been on or it could be shortly. If the hall is not already in the Controlled Access state
when you wish to access it, you must request a change to that state from the Machine
Control Center at extension 7050 and indicate that you intend to make a Controlled Access. The MCC will then send an Assigned Radiation Monitor to survey the hall. Before
anyone enters the hall, the ARM will carry out a radiation survey and post radiation
areas. Subsequent entry by individuals during the same Controlled Access period does
not require an ARM survey.
1.3.1
Controlled Access Procedure
To make a controlled access when the hall is in the controlled access state, first
contact the MCC. The MCC will unlock the first gate at the entrance to the hall. Once
inside, the MCC will release the master key. Remove the master key and insert it into
the right-most slot of the row of keys below it. Once the master key is in place, each
person wishing to gain access must remove a key from this row. The MCC will then
verify each person’s name, which key he has, and check that each person is wearing the
proper dosimetry. This key-release procedure allows the MCC to keep a “count” of who
has entered the hall. After the procedure is complete, the MCC will unlock the second
gate at the entrance to the hall. Please note: only one of the entrance gates can be open
at a time while in the controlled access state.
When your work is completed and you are ready to exit, return to the entrance gates
and press the intercom call switch to notify the MCC. Once you have entered and closed
the first gate, each person must replace his key in the appropriate slot, otherwise the
Personnel Safety System will not allow the master key to be released. When the master
key is released, place it in its slot, and the MCC will unlock the final gate. When you have
exited the final gate, make sure it has closed and locked behind you. If circumstances
dictate, request that the MCC return the hall to the beam permit state and that beam
be restored. It is important to note that if you need to work in the HRS shield house
during the controlled access, you must go to the control room in the MCC before the
access and get a special key which allows you to arm the run/safe box located in the
shield house. The run/safe box inside the shield house will drop from the operational
position to the safe position as soon as the door to the shield house opens. Unless this
box is rearmed with the special key, the beam cannot run.
1.3.2
Restricted Access Procedure
Restricted Access is used when the hall will be open for an extended period of time
or a large group will enter to work. To drop the hall to the Restricted Access state,
first notify the MCC that you wish to open the hall in the Restricted Access state. The
MCC will drop the hall status to Controlled Access and send an ARM to survey the hall.
Before anyone can enter the hall, the ARM will carry out a radiation survey and post
radiation areas. The hall is placed in Controlled Access during the survey to ensure that
no one enters before it has been completed. Upon completion of the survey and posting
of radiation areas, the ARM will leave the hall and notify the MCC that they can drop
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
14
the hall state to Restricted Access. With the hall in the Restricted Access state, anyone
with the appropriate training may enter and work. The key- release procedure is not
required.
To return the hall to Beam Permit from the Restricted Access state, a full inspection
must be carried out. This is begun by setting all equipment to its operating state (following the Hall A checklist) and then clearing all workers out of the hall. Next, a request
is made to the MCC to arrange a sweep of the hall and to restore the Beam Permit state.
The MCC will send over an ARM and set the hall status to Sweep. The ARM will then
sweep the hall, verifying that everyone is out. Following a successful sweep, the MCC can
move the hall through the Controlled Access and RF Permit states to the Beam Permit
state. While working in the hall you must observe all posted radiation areas. Remember,
work inside a radiation area requires that you obtain an approved radiation permit. You
must also observe the “two-man” rule, and pay attention to the alarms.
1.3.3
Access Requirements
.
Normally only registered experimenters, authorized contractors or sub-contractors
and Jefferson Lab employees may enter experimental areas. In addition, lab policy states
that no one under eighteen years of age is allowed access to the experimental halls.
Lab visitors may work in the halls provided they have completed the full complement
of training courses (EH&S Orientation, ODH, Rad Worker Training and any hall specific
training (the Hall A safety walk through). They must also read/sign any appropriate
documentation (typically the COO and ESAD for the current experiment and the Hall
RWP).
In addition to the above, undergraduate students must undergo a three month trial
period. During this period they may work in the hall provided that:
• Their work in the hall is directly supervised by a hall authorized “buddy” (who
CANNOT be an undergraduate)
• Either a JLab staff member or a fully trained user has supervisory responsibility
for and is fully cognizant of all their work
• The person with supervisory responsibility has approved the “buddy”.
After completion of the trial period undergraduates maybe approved for work in the
halls under the standard guidelines.
Physics Division EH&S personnel should be contacted to obtain the current policy
for conducting tours in the experimental areas.
1.3.4
The Hall A Safety Walk-through
In order to improve user awareness of the systems in the hall, users are required
to complete a self-guided safety walk-through the experimental area. Information about
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
15
Figure 1.1: Schematic of the Hall A showing the location of various safety system components. The abbreviations are: Radiation Monitor, RM, Run Safe Box, RS, Fire Alarm
Pull Box, PB.
the walk-through can be found on the web3 . John Lerose is the JLab staff member
responsible for the administration of the Hall A safety walk-through.
Figure 1.1 shows the location of many of the safety related items in Hall A while
figure 1.2 shows the location of all the circuit breaker boxes in the hall.
3
http://hallaweb.jlab.org/news/minutes/walkschd.html
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
16
Figure 1.2: Schematic of the Hall A showing the location of the circuit breaker panels.
Chapter 2
Beamline
2.1
2.1.1
General Description
1 2
Introduction
The control and measurement equipment along the Hall A beamline consists of various
elements necessary to transport beam with the required specifications onto the reaction
target and the dump and to simultaneously measure the properties of the beam relevant
to the successful implementation of the physics program in Hall A. The resolution and
accuracy requirements in Hall A are such that special attention is paid to the following:
1. Determination of the incident beam energy
2. Control of the beam position, direction, emittance and stability
3. Determination of the beam current, total charge and polarization.
Table 2.1 gives a listing of all the various elements along the Hall A beamline from
the switch yard to the dump. Figures 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 show a schematic of the Hall A line
starting at the shield wall.
The basic Hall A beamline consists of the following:
1. The Beam Entrance Channel
The beam entrance channel consists of stainless steel tubing connected with conflat
type flanges. The usual opening is 2.5 inches for better vacuum conductance except
through magnetic and beam diagnostic elements where it is usually 1 inch. Sections
are isolated by vacuum valves and these are listed in Table 2.1. Each section has a
roughing port and is pumped with an ion pump. The pressure is about 10−6 Torr. There
are several sections along the beamline where users interface their equipment. Their
individual systems are tested leak tight (to ≤ 10−9 Atm cm3 /sec).
1
2
CV S revision Id: beam.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 15:19:02 gen Exp
Authors: A.Saha mailto:[email protected]
17
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
18
Figure 2.1: Schematic of the Hall A beamline starting at the shield wall to end of alcove.
Figure 2.2: Schematic of the Hall A beamline from the end of the alcove to the target
chamber.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
19
Figure 2.3: Schematic of the Hall A beamline from the target chamber to the dump
diffuser.
2. The Beam Optics Channel
These consist of dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and beam correctors with their
standard girders and stands. Starting from the beam switchyard, there are eight dipoles
in the arc section which (along with five other smaller beam deflectors) bend the beam
37.5 degrees into the hall. Each dipole has a quadrupole and a pair of steering magnets
(correctors) associated with it. After the shield wall at the entrance to the tunnel into
the hall the beam is essentially undeflected onto the target and into the dump.
The beamline optics elements are designed to deliver various optical tunes of the
beam on to the physics target as well as simultaneously deliver various optical tunes at
other locations along the beamline. These requirements are listed in Table 2.2. For the
basic beamline we are able to deliver beam onto the hall A target in the achromatic
mode.
3. Beam Diagnostic Elements
These consist of beam position monitors (BPMs), beam current monitors, wire scanners (superharps) and beam loss monitors. The wire scanners are fabricated by Saclay
(French collaboration) and four have been installed along the beamline, two before the
arc section and two after the arc section. They are essential for the beam energy determination by the arc method. Another two wire scanners are installed on the bench just
before the target to determine the beam position and direction of the beam at the target
point with high precision and also measure the emmitance of the incident beam. They
are also used to absolutely calibrate the two associated beam position monitors located
in front of the target.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
20
4. Beam Exit Channel
After the target vacuum chamber, which was built by the University of Virginia,
there is an exit beam pipe which transfers the scattered beam onto the dump tunnel
under vacuum. This exit beam pipe is made of a thin walled aluminum spiral corrugated
pipe of welded construction. The largest diameter is 36 inches with a 0.164 inches wall
thickness and the smallest diameter is 6 inches with a 0.042 inches wall thickness. The
whole assembly is rather light (approximately 800 kg) and is supported by H shaped
adjustable stands. To prevent possible linear collapse of the larger diameter sections
under vacuum load, four aluminum channels of total cross-sectional area of 3” are welded
to its side. A vacuum of 10−5 Torr is maintained with a turbomolecular pump. The exit
face of this pipe has a 12” port and is connected to the diffuser with a Beryllium window.
2.1.2
Authorized Personnel
All magnets (dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, beam correctors) and beam diagnostic
devices (BPMs, scanners, Beam Loss Monitor, viewers) necessary for the transport of
the beam are controlled by Machine Control Center (MCC) through EPICS, except for
special elements which are addressed in the subsequent sections. The detailed safety
operational procedures for the Hall A beamline should be essentially the same as the one
for the CEBAF machine and beamline. The Hall A staff liaison with the MCC are:
Primary Contact A. Saha -x7605
Secondary Contact J.P. Chen -x7413
The Liaison between Accelerator Division and Physics Division is:
Liaison H. Areti -x7187
2.1.3
Additional Safety Information
Additional safety information is available in the following documents:
EH&S Manual
PSS Description Document (contact K. Mahoney for a copy)
Accelerator Operations Directive (contact T. Oren for a copy)
OSP - CEBAF Beam Operations (updated annually)
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.1.4
21
Machine/Beamline protection system
The MPS system is composed of the fast shutdown system (FSD), beam loss monitor
(BLM), and gun control system.
The FSD system is a network of permissive signals which terminate at the electron
gun and chopper 1. The permissive to the gun and chopper 1 may be inhibited by any
device connected to an FSD mode. Devices connected to the FSD system include vacuum valves, RF systems, Beam loss systems, beam current monitors, beam dumps, and
particular to Hall A, the target motion mechanism and the raster (value and derivative).
The gun control system includes software program which monitors beam operating
conditions and the state of the FSD and BLM systems. the program will warn the
operators if a potential for beam damage exists. Potential for damage exists when running
high average current beam, when FSD nodes are masked and when the beam power
approaches the operating envelope limits for a specific beam dump.
2.1.5
Personnel Safety System
Personnel safety system (PSS) console equipment is located in the main control room. It
includes:
• Access control
• Safety interlock
• ODH monitoring
• Radiation monitoring
• Public address system.
Girder
#
Diagnostic
Elements
Optics
Valves
Elements
& Pumps
Beam Switch Yard
TV Viewer
1CB2
ITV2C00
MLA1C02
Dipole (2.3m +
0.13m shim)
BD
1CB3
Valve
1C01
Element
#
Current
Beam Stopper
Beam Stopper
BPM
BC
Ion Pump
MBD1C00V
VBV1C00A
SBC1C00
SSS1C00
SSS1C00A
IPM1C01
MQA1C01
VIP1C01
Distance (m)
from target
148.12862
146.60000
144.18700
∼142.78686
∼136.99564
∼136.53844
∼136.08124
134.32465
133.95000
133.04195
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
1C02
BPM
BC
1C03
BPM
BC
1CB4
1C04
Dipole
BPM
Quad
BC
1C05
BPM
Quad
BC
1C06
BPM
Quad
BC
1C07
BPM
BC
1C08
BPM
Quad
BC
Sext
TV View
1CB5
1C09
1CB6
1C10
Dipole
Quad
BC
Sext
Dipole
BPM
Quad
BC
22
IPM1C02
MQA1C02
MBC1C02V
IPM1C03
MQA1C03
Ion Pump
VIP1C03
Rough Pump VRV1C03
Convectron
VTC1C03
(1m)
MBN1C04
IPM1C04
MQA1C04
MBC1C04H
Ion Pump
VIP1C04
IPM1C05
MQA1C05
MBC1C05V
Valve
VBV1C05A
Ion Pump
VIP1C05
Rough Pump VRV1C05
Convectron
VTC1C05
Valve
VBV1C06
IPM1C06
MQA1C06
MBC1C06H
Ion Pump
VIP1C06
IPM1C07
MBC1C07V
Ion Pump
VIP1C07
Arc Section ↓
IPM1C08
MQA1C08
MBC1C08H
MSA1C08
ITV1C08
Ion Pump
VIP1C08
(3m)
MBA1C05
MQA1C09
MBC1C09H
MSA1C09
(3m)
MBA1C06
IPM1C10
MQA1C10
MBC1C10H
132.02465
131.65000
131.30685
129.02465
129.35000
128.44195
116.70000
115.42465
115.05000
114.70685
114.14195
112.12465
111.75000
111.40685
110.84195
104.82465
104.45000
104.10685
103.54195
99.52465
98.61076
98.24195
93.42465
93.05000
92.70685
92.40500
92.21180
90.30000
87.85000
87.50685
87.20500
85.10000
83.02465
82.65000
82.30685
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
Sext
1CB7
1C11
Dipole (3m)
Quad
BC
Sext
1CB8
1C12
Dipole (3m)
BPM
Quad
BC
Sext
1CB9
1C13
1CB10
1C14
BPM
Dipole (3m)
Quad
BC
Sext
Dipole (3m)
Quad
BC
Sext
1CB11
1C15
Dipole (3m)
Quad
BC
Sect
Dipole (3m)
1CB12
1C16
BPM
Quad
BC
Shield
SHIELD WALL(entrance surface)
SHIELD WALL (exit surface)
1C17
TV Viewer
Quad
1C18
BPM
Quad
23
MSA1C10
Ion Pump
VIP1C10
MBA1C07
MQA1C11
MBC1C11V
MSA1C11
Covectron
VTC1C11
MBA1C08
IPM1C12
MQA1C12
MBC1C12H
MSA1C12
Ion Pump
VIP1C12
MBA1C09
MQA1C13
MBC1C13V
MSA1C13
MBA1C10
IPM1C14
MQA1C14
MBC1C14H
MSA1C14
Ion Pump
VIP1C14
MBA1C11
Valve
VBV1C15
Rough Pump VRV1C15
MQA1C15
MBC1C15V
MSA1C15
MBA1C12
Ion Pump
VIP1C16
Convectron
VTC1C16
IPM1C16
MQA1C16
MBC1C16H
Valve
VBV1C16
Wall → Hall A
ITV1C17
MQA1C17
IPM1C18
MQA1C18
82.00500
81.81180
79.90000
77.45000
77.10685
76.80500
76.61180
74.70000
72.62465
72.25000
71.90685
71.60500
71.41180
69.50000
67.05000
66.70685
66.40500
64.30000
62.22465
61.85000
61.50685
61.20500
61.01180
59.10000
56.65000
56.30685
56.00500
53.90000
51.82465
51.45000
51.10685
50.70700
49.651
49.411
49.100
48.650
48.300
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
24
BC
BC
French Scanner
Bench Scanner
1C19
1C20
BPM
Quad
Quad
BC
BC
Ion Pump
MBC1C18H
MBC1C18V
IHA1C18A
IHA1C18B
MQA1C19
IPM1C120
MQA1C20
MBC1C20H
MBC1C20V
VIP1C20
COMPTON Polarimeter Region
Ion Pump
Ion Pump
Current
Fast Raster
Valve
eP Energy Target
Ion Pump
Valve
1H01
TV View
BPM
Quad
BC
BC
Moller target
1H02
Quad
1H03
1H03
Moller
Quad
Quad
Dipole
Ion Pump
Bench
BD
BLM
Valve
BPM
Scanner
Ion Pump
VIP1C20A
VIP1C20B
IBC1H00
IUN1H00
IBC1H00A
MRA1H00H
MRA1H00H
VBV1H00
VTP1H00A
VIP1H00A
VBV1H01
ITV1H01
IPM1H01
MQA1H01
MBC1H01H
MBC1H01V
MQM1H02
VRV1H02A
VTC1H02A
MQO1H03
MQO1H03A
MMA1H01
VIP1H03A
MBD1H03H
IBC1H03A
VBV1H03A
IPM1H03A
IHA1H03A
VIP1H03B
VTC1H03A
47.957
47.761
47.381
43.673
43.000
42.550
42.200
41.857
41.661
41.450
41.000
25.500
34.500
29.500
24.500
23.000
22.053
21.650
20.000
19.020
18.938
18.650
18.300
17.957
17.761
17.5000
16.500
15.415
14.758
13.272
11.955
8.132
7.906
7.786
7.524
7.353
4.486
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
25
BPM
Scanner
IPM1H03B
IHA1H03B
VBV1H03B
ERR1H
ITV1H03A
Valve
Radiator
TARGET TV Viewer
DUMP Face
Table 2.1: Hall A beamline elements from switchyard to
Hall A beam dump (revised - 2/2/98)
1.286
1.122
0.953
0.726
0.000
-50.000
All distances are from the center of each element to the target (in meters).
Mode
Spot Size
4*σx,y
Achromat
140µm
Dispersive
∝ ηδ
Defocussed 0 to 3mm
Dispersion
η
0
4m to 12m
0
Position
Stability
50µm
50µm
±10%
Size
Stability
50µm
50µm
±10%
Table 2.2: Line A Optics and Beam Requirements at Target
Mode
Spot Size
4*σx,y
Energy-eP(d)
>100µm
Moller Pol. (d) >250µm
Compton Pol.
>80µm
*Energy-arc(d)
Dispersion
η
0
0
0
15m
Position
Stability
50µm
50µm
50µm
50µm
Size
Stability
50µm
50µm
50µm
50µm
Table 2.3: Line A Optics and Beam Requirements at Other Locations.
Notes:
* Build dispersion in arc section with all magnetic elements except dipoles turned off.
(d) Destructive measurements.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
26
[email protected] ESRUT
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Figure 2.4: Schematic of the BPM readout electronics
2.2
Beam Position Monitors
3 4
To determine the position and the direction of the beam on the experimental target point,
two Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) are located at distances 7.524 m (IPM1H03A) and
1.286 m (IPM1H03B) upstream of the target position. The BPMs consist of a 4-wire
antenna array of open ended thin wire striplines tuned to the fundamental RF frequency
of 1.497 GHz of the beam [1]. The standard difference-over-sum technique is then used
[2] to determine the relative position of the beam to within 100 microns for currents above
1 µA. The absolute position of the BPMs can be calibrated with respect to the scanners
(superharps) which are located adjacent to each of the BPMs (IHA1H03A at 7.353 m and
IHA1H03B at 1.122 m upstream of the target). The schematic of the readout electronics
is shown in Figure 2.4. The position information from the BPMs can be recorded in
three different ways:
3
4
CV S revision Id: bpms.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 15:19:02 gen Exp
Authors: A.Saha mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
27
1. The averaged position over 0.3 seconds is logged into the EPICS database (1 Hz
updating frequency) and injected into the datastream every 3-4 seconds, unsynchronized
but with an orientative timestamp. From these values we can consider that we know the
average position of the beam calculated in the EPICS coordinate system which is left
handed.
2. Approximately once a shift (or more often if requested by the experimenters) a
B-scope procedure [3] can be performed using the same EPICS electronics which then
gives the peak-to-peak variation of the beam.
3. Event-by-event information from the BPMs are recorded in the CODA datastream
from each of the 8 BPM antennas (2x4) from which the position of the beam can be
reconstructed. However, these raw values belong to a parallel electronics chain whose
constants have to be retrieved by calibrations to the EPICS or scanner data.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.3
Beam Current Measurement
28
5 6
The Beam Current Monitor (BCM) is designed for stable, low noise, non-intercepting
beam current measurements. It consists of an Unser monitor, two rf cavities, the electronics and a data acquisition system. The cavities and the Unser monitor are enclosed
in a box to improve magnetic shielding and temperature stabilization. The box is located
25 m upstream of the target. You can recognize it as a grey object on the stands, about
2 m downstream from where the beam enters the hall.
The DC 200 down-converters and the Unser front end electronics are located in Hall
A. The temperature controller, the Unser back end electronics and its calibration current
source, cavity’s RF unit (housing the RMS-to-DC converter board) and all multi-meters,
VME crate and computers are located in Hall A control room.
2.3.1
System Layout
The schematic diagram of the BCM system is presented in figure 2.5.
The Unser monitor is a Parametric Current Transformer designed for non-destructive
beam current measurement and providing an absolute reference. The monitor is calibrated by passing a known current through a wire inside the beam pipe and has a
nominal output of 4 mV/µA. It requires extensive magnetic shielding and temperature
stabilization to reduce noise and zero drift. As the Unser monitor’s output signal drifts
significantly on a time scale of several minutes, it cannot be used to continuously monitor the beam current. However, this drift is measured during the calibration runs (by
taking a zero current reading) and removed in calibrating the cavities. The more stable
cavities are then used to determine the beam current and charge for each run. We also
use the OLO2 Cavity Monitor and the Faraday Cup 2 at the Injector section to provide
an absolute reference during calibration runs.
The two resonant rf cavity monitors on either side of the Unser Monitor are stainless
steel cylindrical high Q (∼ 3000) waveguides which are tuned to the frequency of the
beam (1.497 GHz) resulting in voltage levels at their outputs which are proportional to
the beam current. Each of the rf output signals from the two cavities are split into two
parts. One part of the signal is converted to 10 kHz signals (by the “downconverters”)
and fed into an RMS-to-DC converter board consisting of a 50 kHz bandpass filter to
eliminate noise, amplified and split to two sets of outputs, which after further processing
are recorded in the data stream. These two paths to the data stream (leading to the
sampled and integrated data ) will now be described. (The other part of the split signal
is downconverted to 1 MHz signals and represents the old system (pre Jan 99). Only the
HAPPEX collaboration presently uses these signals.)
For the sampled (or EPICS or Slow) data, one of the amplifier outputs is sent to
a high precision digital AC voltmeter (HP 3458A). Each second this device provides a
digital output which represents the RMS average of the input signal during that second.
5
6
CV S revision Id: bcm.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 15:19:02 gen Exp
Authors: A.Saha mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
29
KEITHLY
I-Source
10 kHz
D.C.
PCT
front
10 kHz
D.C.
Downstream
BCM
UNSER
Upstream
BCM
1 MHz
D.C.
e- Beam
Hall A BCM System
1 MHz
D.C.
Gigatronics
Power Meter
Exp. Hall
PCT
back
DVM
10 kHz IF Out
DVM
DOWNSTREAM
+
RMS-DC
DCx1 to V2F
RMS-DC
DCx3 to V2F
RMS-DC
DCx10 to V2F
RMS-DC
DCx1 to V2F
RMS-DC
DCx3 to V2F
RMS-DC
DCx10 to V2F
f = 10 kHz
BW = 50 kHz VSB
UPSTREAM
+
f = 10 kHz
BW = 50 kHz VSB
10 kHz IF Out
DVM
10 kHz RMS-DC
DOWNSTREAM
+
RMS-DC
DCx1 to V2F
RMS-DC
DCx3 to V2F
f = 1 MHz
BW = 100 kHz DSB
UPSTREAM
RMS-DC
1 MHz IF
DCx10 to V2F
Out
DVM
+
RMS-DC
DCx1 to V2F
f = 1 MHz
BW = 100 kHz DSB
1 MHz IF
Out
1 MHz RMS-DC
Counting House
Figure 2.5: Schematic of the Hall A beam current measurement system.
DVM
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
30
The resulting number is proportional to the beam charge accumulated during the corresponding second (or, equivalently, the average beam current for that second). Signals
from both cavity’s multi-meters, as well as from the multi-meter connected to the Unser,
are transported through GPIB ports to the HAC computer where they are recorded every
1 to 2 seconds via the data-logging process which is described in the calibration procedure. They are also sent through EPICS to CODA and the data stream where they are
recorded at quasi-regular intervals, typically every two to five seconds.
For the integrated (or VTOF or Fast) data, the other amplifier output is sent to an
RMS-to-DC converter which produces an analog DC voltage level. This level drives a
Voltage-To-Frequency (VTOF) converter whose output frequency is proportional to the
input DC voltage level. These signals are then fed to Fastbus scalers and are finally
injected into the data stream along with the other scaler information. These scalers
simply accumulate during the run, resulting in a number which is proportional to the
time integrated voltage level and therefore more accurately represents the true integral
of the current and hence the total beam charge. The regular RMS to DC output is linear
for currents from about 5 µA to somewhere well above 200 µA. Since it is non-linear at
the lower currents, we have introduced a set of amplifiers with differing gains (x3 and
x10) allowing the non-linear region to be extended to lower currents at the expense of
saturation at the very high currents. Hence there are 3 signals coming from each BCM
(Upx1, Upx3, Upx10, Dnx1, Dnx3, Dnx10). All 6 signals are fed to scaler inputs of each
spectrometer (E-arm and H-arm) . Hence we have a redundancy of 12 scaler outputs for
determining the charge during a run. During calibration runs we calibrate each of these
scaler outputs.
2.3.2
Authorized Personnel
All Hall A members are authorized to take BCM calibration data using the Standard
Non-Invasive Hall A BCM Calibration Procedure. The extended calibration procedures
involving the Faraday Cup 2 and the OLO2 monitor at the Injector are presently performed by A. Saha.
The Accelerator AES group performs the maintenance of the BCM monitors. These
include:
1. The Unser calibration.
Every 3 months
2. Resonant Cavities Tuning.
Every Downtime
3. Multi-meters Autocalibration.
Every Downtime
4. Connectors Cleaning.
Every year
5. Unser Keithley Current Source.
Calibration Yearly
6. Digital Multi-meters HP3458A and HP 34401A. Calibration Yearly
System Contacts:
Arun Saha -x 7605
Jean-Claude Denard -x 7555
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.4
31
Arc Energy Measurement
7 8
The ARC energy measurement is under EPICS control through a MEDM display. Two
independent control systems are used: the beam bend angle measurement through the
arc (”scanners”) and the field integral of the arc (”integral”). To measure the energy:
• perform several angle measurements
• perform an integral measurement
• analyze the integral measurement and note the value of the arc field integral
• analyze the angle measurements, average the results (proposed by the software),
then ask for the energy calculation, enter the above arc field integral and you will
get the beam energy computed from the average angle.
2.4.1
Computers and softwares used by scanners and integral:
Computer:
type:
login under:
password:
Disk mounted on CUE?
.adl files directory:
standard .adl file:
SCANNERS
hac
hp
gougnaud
see Arun
yes (use cp for transfer)
∼/arc2/adl/
ARC6.adl
expert .adl file:
expert.adl
Directive files dir.:
standard directive file:
output file:
∼/arc2/ARC/
data1234 (data56)
∼/arc2/ARC/scan nnn.data
analysis code:
result file:
ioc name:
ioc login name:
ioc password:
ioc ”iam”:
ioc type and RAM size:
ioc boot file:
7
8
INTEGRAL
pascal1(IP=129.57.188.20)
sun
gougnaud
see Arun
no (use ftp or rcp)
∼/EPICS/adl/
arc integral.adl
(arc master.adl)
arc nmr.adl
(arc pdi.adl...)
∼/EPICS/ioc.mg/
magnet.dir
∼/EPICS/integral/
integral nnn.data
∼/pascal/arc-integral
∼/arc2/ARC/pascal/arc-scan.sun
∼/arc2/ARC/scan nnn.data.log
arcioc (IP=129.57.188.24)
arcioc2 (IP=129.57.188.21)
None
target
None
password
gougnaud
gougnaud
MVME162, 8Mo
MVME162, 8Mo
∼/arc2/ioc/up
∼/EPICS/ioc.mg/up
CV S revision Id: arc.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 15:19:02 gen Exp
Authors: A.Saha mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.4.2
32
Summary of ARC operations:
Six scanners of the same type, called ”ARC scanner” and labelled from scanner #1 to
#6, are installed on the Hall-A beamline. Scanners #1 to #4 are used for the ARC
energy measurement and they are located on the Hall-A arc: #1 and #2 just upstream
of the arc, in the BSY, and #3 and #4 in the Hall-A tunnel, just upstream the Compton
polarimeter. Scanners #5 and #6 are located between the Moller and the target to
control the beam geometry on the target and their use will not be discussed here.
Each scanner has a motor/ball-screw/shaft-encoder/vacuum-penetrator system moving accurately a set of 3 tungsten wires through the beam. Each time a wire crosses the
beam a PMT located a few meters downstream records a signal due to the electromagnetic shower induced by the beam in the wire. Both forward and backward passes are
recorded. The motion is a horizontal translation and, for a forward pass:
-the translation is from beam left to beam right,
-the two first wire crossing the beam are at 45deg from the vertical,
-the third wire, which is the only important for the ARC energy measurement, is
vertical.
Recording, during the scan, the scanner position and the PMT output voltage allows
us to determine the beam position at each scanner location. Then, using calibration
data not detailed here, we deduce the net beam bend angle through the arc. This result
measured in dispersive arc tuning, along with the field integral of the arc dipoles, provides
an accurate determination of the beam energy.
The list of the operations for an ARC energy measurement is given here and will be
detailed after:
1/check the pulser (scanners)
2/check the HV (scanners)
3/check EPICS (scanners)
4/check space on disk(scanners)
5/check the integral (see ”Details on integral system check” below)
6/ask for chicane off, put target in a safe position, ask ∼5µA (achromatic)
7/perform a scan test in achromatic at ∼5µA −− > solve the trips −− > final
adjustment of gains of scanners #1 and #2 −− > save the last (non saturated) scan
8/if everything is OK, ask for dispersive beam ∼5µA
9/check dispersive beam:
-CW ∼5µA
-Fast Feedback ON
-Energy Feedback ON ← important
-Kresting ON
-arc’s quads and steerers OFF
-beam stable at entrance and exit (Bscope) (see the test plane of the dispersive mode
in MCC)
10/perform a scan in dispersive at ∼5uA (see details below)
-solve the trips
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
33
-finish the 4 gains adjustment
-perform and save 3 good scans
11/perform a field integral (see details below)
12/restore beam for the experiment, unmask the diagnostics, restore achromatic
mode and chicane, quit MEDM and turn both HV channels OFF.
13/analyze scan data (dispersive only) and integral data.
2.4.3
Preliminary details about MEDM
To fill or update an input field of MEDM, put the mouse cursor in the field, do the edit
or change, and then PRESS CARRIAGE RETURN WHILE THE CURSOR IS STILL
INSIDE THE FIELD!!!
2.4.4
Details on pulser check
A pulser is used to trigger the scanner acquisition. The ARC scanner’s pulse generator
(middle counting room) must be adjusted on 1000Hz for CW beam (on ”external trigger”
in pulsed mode, for any scanner). Check the output with a scope.
Settings for CW mode:
-frequency: 1KHz
-delay: not important in CW, should be always 0.
-time width: 10µs
-level: 2.5V on 50 Ω load, 5V on 1 MΩ, polarity: + (TTL).
2.4.5
Details on HV check
The energy measurement uses scanners #1 to #4 with PMT read out. One PMT (PMT0)
is in the BSY reading scanners #1 and #2. One other is in the Compton region (PMT1),
reading scanners #3 and #4. They both are energized by the ”beam line HV module”,
card#1 channel#0 (PMT0) and channel#1 (PMT1), under EPICS control of the general
Hall A control. Both voltages must be -1200V, make sure that ”Meas. V” indicates this
voltage. If needed, push on ”enable/disable” or edit the ”SET V” field.
2.4.6
Details on EPICS check (scanners)
-login as ”gougnaud” on hac, you need to know the password, ask Arun Saha. If you
connect by ”cd ∼gougnaud”, you will not be able to edit the command file nor save the
data. hac> cd arc2/adl hac> medm&
-on the medm access window, click on ”file”, and then ”open”
-in the open file window, select ”ARC6.adl”; the ARC window must appear then
-on the medm access window, click on ”execute”
-if then the ARC window remains partly blank, or if you have some doubt about the
identity of the program running in the ioc, go to the ”reboot ioc” section below.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.4.7
34
Details on ioc reboot (scanners)
Reboot arcioc by pushing the ”Beamline Arc Measurement VME Reset” green button
(middle counting room): the arcioc is loaded from the ”up” file. If the ARC window (in
execute mode) was not blank, it becomes blank, then wait for 1 minute and it returns to
grey: the scanner is then operational. If the ioc is not dead, you can also reboot it by
software through the network:
hac>rlogin arcioc
− > reboot (the rlogin connection is then broken by the reboot)
10/98:The hard reboot (green button labelled ”ARC”) is temporarily connected also
to another VME crate (e,p energy measurement), use it only if e,p is not running.
2.4.8
Details on disk space check (scanners)
Run the ”quota -v” UNIX command under ∼gougnaud/arc2/ARC:
Filesystem usage quota limit timeleft files quota limit timeleft
/u/home 119308 512000 512000 924 -1 -1
Do it several times, sometimes the answer is crazy! In the above example you have
about 400Mo free, a scan file of scanners #1 to #4 (energy measurement) occupies about
1Mo when unzipped and 300Ko when zipped, so you have room for ∼400 unzipped files
or ∼1200 zipped files.
2.4.9
Details on running a scan
-On the MEDM screen load ”data1234” as Command File. Content of ”data1234”:
+1 P 5.
+2 P 5.
+3 P 5.
+4 P 5.
-1 P 5.
-2 P 5.
-3 P 5.
-4 P 5.
means: use scanners #1 to #4, do first the 4 forward pass and then the 4 backward
ones (to give the wires time to cool down) at 5 turns/s = 12.500 mm/s. Warning: lower
velocity may cause the wire to melt. An error message will be edited if the velocity is
outside ]0., 6.1 t/s[. P is for PMT readout (S for Secondary emission for scanners #5
and #6). The file is in ∼gougnaud/arc2/ARC. In pulsed mode (60Hz) use a velocity of
0.3 turn/s. You need to edit a special file setting this velocity. On the MEDM screen
update CW/60Hz, beam current and DISPersive/ACHROmatic (for the record).
-Push ”START” when ready, you can follow the operations by looking at:
-running command: the line of the ”Command file” currently executed
-the cursor position of the scanners
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
35
-voltage versus position plot. The location of the 6 scanners on the MEDM window
is the following:
#1 #2
#3 #4
#5 #6
The forward plot is green, the backward one is red. In case of saturation, redo the
scan with lower gain (see details below). The only peak used for energy measurement is
the rightmost one (H profile produced by the V wire): focus on this peak to adjust the
gain, the 2 other peaks may saturate.
-the names on the top of the plots are the CEBAF device names of the scanners.
WARNING: operating at too high a beam current or too small a velocity may cause
the wire to melt, with no opportunity to repare it before the next shutdown. The total
travel time is about 15 s per scanner. During the travel, have a look at the beam current.
If the beam trips, inquire why, correct if it was caused by the scan (set masks), and redo
the scan (see details on trips below).
-Save the data (see details below).
-Print the MEDM window (see details below).
-you can plot the profile (see details below).
After the scan, check the peak (rightmost) quality: it must be compact (Gauss
curve) with a good signal/noise ratio (>5) If scan #1 and #2 are not compact: report to
MCC and make sure that the fast feedback is ON. If scan #3 and #4 are not compact:
report also to MCC and make sure that the energy feedback and the kresting are ON.
If the scan seems OK: start a field integral measurement and report to
”[email protected]”
with as much details as possible (at least the file names) for data analysis and beam
energy determination. Record the mail in the e-logbook. Don’t forget to save the files.
2.4.10
Details on MEDM window print
To print the MEDM window: put the mouse cursor somewhere in the background part
of the ARC window (outside the plots), push the mouse right button, select print, release
the button. It should go on ”cha1hp” if you work from the counting house.
2.4.11
Details on profile plot
To plot the profile: use your favorite curve plotter (hvplot, xmgr...) The scan file is a
plain ASCII file with a line per acquisition (trigger) and two float per line: position in
encoder unit (4096.0 per 2.500 mm or turn) and voltage after gain in V. First the forward
profile with increasing ”x”, then the backward one, with decreasing ”x” (x=coordinate
transverse to the beam and horizontal. Towards beam right for scanners #1 to #4,
towards beam left for #5 and #6). Some lines are header lines. In this case the 1st
character is a ”!” seen as a comment line by hvplot (needs to be changed for other
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
36
plotters). The rightmost peak (high x values) was produced by the vertical wire (it is a
pure horizontal profile), the 2 other peaks by the +45deg. and -45deg. wires.
2.4.12
Details on gain adjustment (scanners)
Adjust the gain of the signal amplifier to get ]-10V, +10V[ at the input of the ADC,
range= 001, 002, 004,...128, 256.
Gain adjustment: in the ARC scanner MEDM window, click (right button for Arun
Saha, left one in general!) on the gain command button located close to the plot of the
profile of the scanner you want to adjust. Then select a gain and release the mouse.
After a scan:
-Select higher gain if the rightmost peak is < 3V (in absolute value)
-Select lower gain if the scanner saturates. To know if the scanner saturates, do not
believe the MEDM plot (on which several adjacent channels are averaged), trust the red
diode associated to each scanner (close to the plot). If you want to know what these
diodes look like, click on ”edit” on the MEDM access window: you will see the diodes.
Then return to ”execute”.
Start with the gains (dispersive case):
scanner gain
#1
4
#2
8
#3
32
#4
32
Note that in dispersive mode the beam is dispersed at scanners #3 and #4 locations,
so these scanners need a higher gain than #1 and #2.
To zoom on a peak, change the MEDM parameters of the window (”edit”):
-first determine the range (in mm) on which you want to zoom
-on the MEDM access window, push on ”edit”
-on the ARC window, click anywhere inside the plot you want to change
-on the ”Resource Palette”, go down to ”Axis Data”, select it
-on the ”Cartesian Plot Axis Data”, in the ”X Axis” part (X means horizontal),
change ”Axis Range” from ”auto-scale” to ”user-specified”, then edit ”Minimum Value”
and ”Maximum Value” to specify the horizontal range you want to look at, the unit is
mm. If you used the ”edit” facility of MEDM, it will suggest that you save the changes
when killing the window. Do not save the changes!
-on the MEDM access window, push on ”execute”
Short-cut: push on the right button while the cursor is inside the plot, you will
access directly to the MEDM axis data menu Other MEDM tricks (may depend on the
version of MEDM you are running):
-Control+middle button+vertical drag will scale the plot up or down
-Shift+middle button+drag will translate the plot.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.4.13
37
Details on file save (scanners)
To save the data in a disk file: push on ”Save”. The software builds automatically a
name of the type: ”scan nnn.data”, where nnn is the scan run number, incremented
automatically. The current run number is stored on disk, so unless a disk crashes, you
can reboot the VME or delete a data file without resetting this number. Read the run
number on the MEDM screen and record the file name in the e-logbook. The file will
be stored in ∼gougnaud/arc2/ARC. As the file is big (2*7000 channel histogram per
scanner), purge or compress your own data files. ∼gougnaud belongs both to hac and
the CUE, thanks to Javier. So you do not need ”ftp” to copy it inside the CUE; the cp
command works as far as you have the good file access. Write in the e-logbook the final
path of the file in the CUE.
Example of scan file: scan 159.data
!version:2
!THU MAY 27 12:55:25 1999
!CW ,CW 60Hz, beam time structure
! 5.000,Microamp, beam current in microamp
!ACHRO,DISPersif ACHROmatique, arc optics tuning
data1234,Command Filename
!
!+1 P 1 5. ,Current Command Line
!IHA1C07A a,p,TJ Device Name
!-1. p,Displacment X, dimensionless, X=beam left
!0. p,Displacment Y, dimensionless, Y=top vertical (Z=beam)
!1 ,Rod Serial Number
!235360 p,Fiducial To Beam Micron (at survey scanner position)
!1 ,Cartridge Serial Number
!81270 a?,p,Cartridge Range Micron
!20 ,Wire Diameter Micron
!W ,Wire Material
!3 p,Number Of Wire
!20 p,Survey Wire Diameter Micron (Wire used for above data)
!284375,257840,234730 p,Fidicial To Wire Micron
!.707,0.,-.5 p,Differential Fiducial To Wire (per micron of wire diam)
!44.97,-45.04,-0.06 p,Angle Degree (around Z axis, =0 when perp. to displ.)
!0.,0.00315,0. p,Differential Angle Degree Per Micron (of wire diam)
!4096 a,p,Encoder Home
!118405 p,Encoder Survey (Survey of 11 Aug 98)
!1 a?,p,Encoder Sign (+1 if increase at forward)
!4096 a?,p,Encoder unit per Turn
!10 a?,p,Motor Micro Step Per Step
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
38
!200 a?,p,Motor Step Per Turn
!2500 a?,p,Screw Pitch Micron
!1 a? ,Motor Polarity (used for forward displacment)
!begin forward 1 Time Stamp (s)=0
4093.0 -0.002
4093.0 0.007
4093.0 0.007
........
135163.0 -0.002
135163.0 0.002
!end forward 1 Time Stamp (s)=1305473
!-1 P 1 5. ,Current Command Line
!begin backward 1 Time Stamp (s)=1305498
135163.0 0.007
135163.0 0.007
........
4092.0 0.002
4092.0 0.002
!end backward 1 Time Stamp (s)=1305505
!+2 P 2 5. ,Current Command Line
!IHA1C07B a?,p,TJ Device Name
!-1. p,Displacment X, dimensionless, X=beam left
!0. p,Displacment Y, dimensionless, Y=top vertical (Z=beam)
!4 ,Rod Serial Number !235120 p,Fiducial To Beam Micron (at survey scanner position)
!4 ,Cartridge Serial Number
!81270 a?,p,Cartridge Range Micron
!20 ,Wire Diameter Micron
!W ,Wire Material
!3 p,Number Of Wire
!20 p,Survey Wire Diameter Micron (Wire used for above data)
!284310,257775,234665 p,Fidicial To Wire Micron
!.707,0.,-.5 p,Differential Fiducial To Wire (per micron of wire diam)
!45.08,-44.96,0. p,Angle Degree (around Z axis, =0 when perp. to displ.)
!0.,0.00315,0. p,Differential Angle Degree Per Micron (of wire diam)
!4096 a,p,Encoder Home
!118407 p,Encoder Survey (Survey of 11 Aug 98)
!1 a?,p,Encoder Sign (+1 if increase at forward)
!4096 a?,p,Encoder unit per Turn
!10 a?,p,Motor Micro Step Per Step !200 a?,p,Motor Step Per Turn
!2500 a?,p,Screw Pitch Micron
!1 a? ,Motor Polarity (used for forward displacment)
!begin forward 2 Time Stamp (s)=0
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
39
4092.0 -0.007
4092.0 0.017
......
......
4090.0 0.032
4090.0 0.129
!end backward 4 Time Stamp (s)=1305529
2.4.14
Details on trip handling
Trips are frequent at 5µA, caused by scanners #3 and #4 and triggered by the Compton
ion chamber or BLM, even with chicane OFF. They are invasive for the other halls. If a
trip occurs, write in the e-logbook which scanner, forward/backward (for this, you have
to monitor the beam current during the scan), beam current, arc tuning mode, which
diagnostic tripped (ask MCC), get a strip chart of this diagnostic (MCC). Contact the
beamline coordinator ( Arun Saha) or the hall leader (Kees de Jager) to allow MCC to
mask the diagnostic. But in any case start with unmasked diagnostics to have all safety
systems responding. If masking is impossible or not sufficient, reduce the beam current
down to 1µA but the quality of the energy measurement will then be affected by the
poor signal/noise ratio.
If the trip occurred from scanner #3 or #4 during the preliminary test in achromatic
mode, leave this step and ask for dispersive mode. In this mode, due to the dispersion
of the beam, the luminosity will be reduced and hopefully the trip will not occur. Nevertheless, the test in achromatic mode is useful to check the system (including the trip
protection!) and to anticipate a gain change for scanners #1 and #2.
2.4.15
Detail on encoder change (scanner)
The main screw shaft is coupled to the stepper motor by a bellow coupler (bellow #1)
and the motor to the encoder by a second bellow coupler (bellow #2). If for any reason
(encoder change, motor change, one of the bellows slept) the angular relationship between
the screw and the encoder is lost, then:
-these two objects must be linked again in good angular agreement (see detail)
-the theodolite survey of the bench must be redone (see detail)
2.4.16
Detail on encoder re-mount (scanner)
The procedure is based on 2 rules:
-the ”home” position is defined by an encoder reading=4096 enc. units
-this ”home” position must be at about 1/2 turn (∼2048=1.25mm) from the Low
Limit Switch (LLS) transition. So this transition must happen at encoder reading ∼2048.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
40
-if the Low Limit Switch was also changed, then the rule is that the external fiducial
must be at 230mm from the beam nominal axis when the encoder reading is 118407
(”survey” position). This rule needs the help of a survey.
The procedure is the following:
-by software (see ”scanner expert task detail”) or by hand (by acting on the bellow
#1), set the scanner in the convenient position (LLS or survey):
-decouple the bellow #2
-connect the encoder to the control box readout
-by hand turn the encoder shaft up to have a good reading
-strongly fasten the coupler #2 Note: the encoder is absolute over 64 turns with
4096 units per turn. So, starting from 0 and turning it clockwise, one should read:
-4096 after one turn
-8192 after two turns
-...
-up to 262143 just (one puls) before 64 turns
-0 again one puls after.
-4096 after one turn ....
2.4.17
De tails on scanner expert task
The path of the ”expert task” MEDM file is given in the first subsection. Use this task to
set the encoder in any position between the limit switches, to dismount the wire cartridge,
to set the encoder,...
-Call this task in MEDM.
-You get a small window with a blue button.
-Left click on it: it gives you a choice between the 4 ARC scanners.
-Select the scanner you are interested in, then release the left mouse button.
-An ”Expert-task” bigger window appears.
-In this new window, left click on the blue button ”click to initialize...”.
-Then the designated scanner name is displayed on the top of the window.
-Edit the motion you want in the ”First goal” input field. This is an ABSOLUTE
position (i.e. not an increment), from an origin which can be arbitrary, in unit of motor
micro-step. +2000 microstep= +1 turn= +4096 encoder units, so one has 2.048 encoder
units per microstep.
-push on ”Pos−− >0” to set to zero the ”Motor current position” register. The
current scanner position becomes the new origin of the motor positions. -once the motor
position is entered, push on ”1 WAY” to execute the motion
-If you want to move the scanner fron its current position by 10mm towards the beam,
and if the current position is 100000, then enter 100000.+(10./2.500)x2000.=108000., and
push on ”1 WAY”.
-If you want to go to the LLS position, enter a large negative value like -1000000,
and push on ”1WAY” Note: Limit switches will not stop the motor at a very reproducible
position.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.4.18
41
Detail on theodolite survey of a bench
The goal is to measure the H angle between the segment joining the fiducials of the 2
scanners of the bench in their ”survey” position, and the normal to the autocollimation
mirror associated with this bench. The procedure is the same for both benches, except
that: -the upstream one needs a BSY access, the downstream one just a Hall A access,
providing the light tubes were left in straight position.
-the upstream angle is ∼0, only affected by a change in the scanners; the downstream
one is ∼6 deg and it can be affected by a change in the scanners or by a motion of the
tunnel.
-the upstream autocollimation is at short distance, the downstream one is at long
distance, through the light tubes, and the line of sight is bent by a pair of mirrors, both
at forward and at backward pass.
The procedure is:
-using the ”expert task” (see detail), set both scanners in their ”survey” position
(encoder=118407+-2)
-install the theodolite on its support and level it carefully.
-mount the battery (2 autocollimation batteries and chargers are stored in the shed,
make sure the batteries are charged)
-push the ”ON/Enter” button, the bottom display prompts ”V zero 1”
-release the ”V” break (small knob of the top pair of knobs)
-initialize the V (Vertical angle) encoder by turning slowly and continuously the
optics around the horiz. axis in a direction, until you get a beep and ”V zero 2” displayed.
Then turn in the opposite direction, until you get a beep and ”A zero” displayed in the
top display.
-release the ”A” break (small knob of the bottom pair of knobs)
-initialize the A (Horizontal angle) encoder by turning slowly and continuously the
whole theodolite around its vertical axis, until you get a beep and ”Theo” displayed in
the top display. Push ”ON/Enter” button to accept the proposed ”theodolite” menu.
-from this point, ”V” and ”A” angles will be permanently displayed in their own
displays, in units of decimal degrees from 0.0000 to 359.9999 If the decimal part is not
displayed, correct the levelling.
Note: the origin of the A angles is arbitrary (this is not the case for the V angles), so
you may decide to set it to zero, for example at the first autocollimation measurement:
this way, the measured angles will be more intuitive. To do this:
-from the ”THEOD” menu push on ”+” (means go to the next menu called ”SET
A”)
-”SET A” menu is proposed: push ”enter” to accept, you have a ”WAIT” displayed,
after which the angles are displayed again, but with A=0.0000.
-push ”-” to proceed: the sub-menu ”MEAS P” is proposed, you must accept (”enter”), you have then the angles displayed, push ”-” to come back to the ”THEOD” menu,
then push ”enter” to accept it, you should still have A=0.0000: you have a new origin of
the A angles.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
42
-measure the autocollimation angle:
-open the light tube
-plug the autocollimation light cable
-turn ON the autocollimation power switch on the battery
-adjust the autocollimation power potentiometer to half range
-remove the theodolite handle, to let the cable go through.
-adjust the occular (small knob on the optics) to your vision, until you have the
cross hairs well focused
-adjust the main focusing (large knob on the optics) to infinity (turn counter clockwise up to the limit and come back by ∼1/4 turn)
-adjust the V angle to 90.00?? deg.: first move the optics, second fasten the V break
and use the V knob.
-adjust the A angle to point in the direction of the light tube: first move the theodolite, second fasten the A break and use the A knob.
-using the A knob, search for a light signal
-focus on it (main focusing): the autocollimation pattern is a yellow/green cross
-adjust A and V angles to get the cross hairs on the autocollimation cross, fine adjust
both focusings, then check if the pattern you have is the good one (there are 2 wrong
autocollimation patterns): when you change by a small amount the A/V angle, then
the A/V coincidence between both crosses must be destroyed. If it is not the case, you
are focusing on one of the two wrong patterns. Then change the main focusing towards
infinity (counter clockwise) to get another patern.
-fine adjust the autocollimation power potentiometer to get the best vertical line of
the autocollimation cross -fine adjust A and V angles, record their values in the Shed
logbook.
-change both angles by 180.000 deg., WITHOUT CHANGING THE MAIN FOCUSING, and redo the previous step.
-close the light tube
-turn OFF the autocollimation power switch on the battery, Note: the above measurement is easy from upstream, more tricky from downstream (long distance autocollimation). New operators should start with the upstream measurement.
-measure the scanner #2/#3 (the one which is on the autocollimation side)
-remove the scanner cover -unplug the connexion of the encoder to the VME -plug
the control box on the fiducial lamp and on the encoder
-record the encoder reading in the logbook. It should be ∼118407+-2
-adjust the main focusing on the fiducial wire
-adjust the V angle to the middle of the aperture across which the wire appears -fine
adjust the A angle, record A and V values in the Shed logbook.
-change both angles by 180.000 deg., WITHOUT CHANGING THE MAIN FOCUSING, and redo the previous step.
-record the encoder reading in the logbook. It should give the previous reading +-1
encoder unit
-unplug the control box
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
43
-plug the connexion of the encoder to the VME
-cover the scanner, Note: in case of scanner #2, a foil closing the apertures in the
mirror support must de removed prior to the survey, and reinstalled after.
-measure the scanner #1/#4 as for #2/#3
-re-measure the autocollimation angle.
-turn OFF the theodolite (push simultaneously the + and - buttons)
-release both breaks
-mount the handle
-dismount the theodolite
-dismount the battery and the autocollimation cable
-store the theodolite in its box
-store the theodolite box and the control box in the Shed
-charge the battery(ies)
Note: in case you have to change the battery during the measurement, redo the
complete measurement with the new battery. A battery in good shape can provide ∼2h
of work with autocollimation ON. The survey of a bench will take between 1h and 1/2h.
If possible, discharge the battery before charging it.
-analyze the angle:
-in the directory ∼gougnaud/arc2/ARC/angles, edit a plain ASCII file named upstream ddmmyy.dat or downstream ddmmyy.dat, depending on the bench, where ddmmyy stands for the date of the survey. Use upstream 270798.dat or downstream 270798.dat
as a model. Units are encoder unit and decimal degrees. If several measurements of the
same quantity were done, enter the average. If the full measurement of a bench was done
twice, edit both sets of data as in the model.
-run ”angle” on a Sun machine and follow the instructions of the program, accept
the proposed mirror calibration angle and ask for an average of all your measurements.
If only one bench was measured (encoder change, BSY closed,...), use for the other bench
the most recent file available in ∼gougnaud/arc2/ARC/angles.
-analyze individual measurements and compare them to the above average. The
reproducibility of the reference angle measures several times on the same day should be
≤ 10-3 deg (17 urad ∼3 10-5 on the energy).
-compare the new average to the previous one: if nothing changed in the scanners,
and if only the downstream angle changed, this can be interpreted as a motion of the arc
(the code gives the detail of the 3 angles: upstream, downstream and reference).
-the files used today (01/07/99) are upstream 250699.dat (1 meas.) and downstream 250699.dat (2 meas.). They result in a reference angle of 34.32322 deg. (averaged)
-write the new reference angle in the arc-scan source code (include file ”arc-inclplot.f”, parameter ”Reference Angle Degree”)
-compile and test the arc-scan code.
-report in the e-logbook about the changes and results (file names).
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
Example of upstream file: upstream 250699.dat (1 meas.)
UPSTREAM BENCH MEASUREMENT
**************************
Used unit: decimal degrees
Enter data in this order:
• - Autocollimation
• - Fiducial upstream of upstream bench #1
• - Fiducial downstream of upstream bench #2
- Horizontal Distance (point A, up. fiducial)= 1996.00 mm #1
- Horizontal Distance (point A, down. fiducial)= 1975.00 mm #2
**********************
25/06/99 Andrew+Tim Mesur. Nb 1
First measurement on 25/06
Encoder reading for upstream scanner of upstream bench: 118406 #1
Encoder reading for downstream scanner of upstream bench: 118406 #2
H1
H2
V1
V2
0.000100 179.995500 90.002100 270.003500 Autocoll.
359.977700 179.973900 250.509900 109.498800
#1
179.970000 359.967100 250.382500 109.619700
#2
Example of downstream file: downstream 210699.dat (2 meas.)
DOWNSTREAM BENCH MEASUREMENT
****************************
Used unit: decimal degrees
Enter data in this order:
• Autocollimation
• Fiducial upstream of down. bench #3
• Fiducial downstream of down. bench #4
- Horizontal Distance (point A, up. fiducial)= 1870.00 mm #3
- Horizontal Distance (point A, down. fiducial)= 1840.00 mm #4
*********************
21/06/99 Pascal Mesur. Nb 1
44
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
45
First measurement on 21/06
Encoder reading for upstream scanner of downstream bench: 118405 #3
Encoder reading for downstream scanner of down. bench: 118408 #4
H1
H2
V1
V2
0.000100 179.998050 90.001400 270.000000 Autocoll
6.100100 186.10110 110.667500 249.336900
#3
6.176100 186.175700 249.129900 110.876300
#4
*********************
21/06/99 Pascal Mesur. Nb 2
Second measurement on 21/06
Encoder reading for upstream scanner of downstream bench: 118405 #3
Encoder reading for downstream scanner of down. bench: 118408 #4
H1
0.000100
6.100800
6.176000
2.4.19
H2
V1
V2
179.998100 90.003800 270.003000 Autocoll.
186.100400 110.667600 249.338500
#3
186.176100 249.130700 110.875600
#4
More on the theodolite menu
It is a 2-level menu, the entry point after power ON and indexes initialization is at the
2nd level (Theodolite ?), the +/- buttons are used to navigate among several choices,
the ”enter” button to validate the currently proposed choice. In the above list, ”+” will
move to the next option (down), ”-” to the previous one (up), and ”enter” will answer
”yes” to the proposition. In some cases (SET A) the choice is just yes/no. Then ”enter”
means ”yes” and ”+” or ”-” means ”no”:
1st level menu:
• − − − >M (Measure)?
• A (Adjust)?
• U (Unit)?
2nd level menu M (Measure):
• − − − > M-0 Return to 1st level?
• M-2 THEODOLITE? − − − > theodolite
• M-5 Zero angle? − − − > A=0,Set angle? − − − > Set A to value
• M-7 Hold angle? − − − > Hold angle
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
46
2nd level menu A (Adjust):
• –− > A-0 Return to 1st level?
• A-1 Adjust V index?− − − >Adjust V index
• A-2 Adjust A coll.?-− >Adjust A coll.
• A-4 Illumin. ON/OFF?-− >Change Illumin. mode?
• A-5 Compensator ON/OFF?-− >Change Compens. mode?
• A-6 Levelling with compensation ?-− >Levelling
2nd level menu U (Unit):
• − − − > U-0 Return to 1st level?
• U-1 Reverse A reading?− − − >Reverse A reading
• U-2 Change V display?-− >Select this V display?
• U-3 Change angle unit?-− >Sel. this angle unit?
• U-7 Sound ON/OFF?-− >Change Sound mode?
• U-8 Select configuration?-− >Select this configur?
2.4.20
Summary of field integral
The purpose is to measure absolutely the straight field integral of a ”BA” 3m long dipole,
called the ”9th dipole” and located in the ”Dipole Shed”. It is of the same type as the
8 arc dipoles and is powered in series with them.
The ARC integral setup is basically made of a 3m long plate (the ”probe”) which
is able to move inside the 9th dipole gap along the beam axis and carrying two field
measurement devices: a pair of pick-up coils connected in series and a set of NMR
probes. The coils are on both ends of the probe and the NMRs close to the center.
-at the ”upstream” probe position, the ”downstream” coil is close to the dipole
center, the ”upstream” is outside the dipole and the NMRs at one end of the dipole:
Door< −– ....................< −——-DIPOLE—–− − − >
.............< −——-PROBE——− − − >
-at the ”central” probe position, each coil is at one end of the 3m long dipole and
the NMRs close to the dipole center:
Door< −– ...................< −——-DIPOLE—–− − − >
..................................< −——-PROBE——− − − >
-at the ”downstream” probe position, the ”upstream” coil is close to the dipole
center, the ”downstream” is outside the dipole and the NMRs at one end of the dipole:
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
47
Door< −– ...................< −——-DIPOLE—–− − − >
....................................................< −——-PROBE——− − − >
We call upstream the position where the probe is the closest to the shed access door.
Among the 3 above positions, the only one where the NMR can lock on the dipole field
is the central one as in the extreme position of the probe, the field homogeneity is not
sufficient. The probe position is controlled by a linear encoder. The Z axis refers to the
”beam” direction, increasing from upstream to downstream. We use three kinds of ”Z”:
-Zm to locate a point inside the magnet. The dipole center is at Zm=0 and the yoke
ends at +-1500.mm
-Zp to locate a point inside the probe. The probe center is at Zp=0. Each of the 4
NMR probes has a Zp given in the file ”magnet.dir”. At a temperature of 21C, the coils
are at Zp=+-1519.815mm (from magnet.dir)
-Zd to refer to a displacement of the probe w.r.t. the dipole. Zd=0 refers to the
upstream (home) position of the probe. The integral measurement is performed from
Zd=0.000mm (1st PDI trigger) to Zd=3199.000mm (last PDI trigger), for forward pass.
Zd is given by the display (at the top of the rack) or by the master screen (”OUT”).
The relationship between Zm, Zp and Zd is:
Zd-Zm+Zp=C
where C is a constant given in magnet.dir (C=1604.000 nomin.). Example of use:
to have the probe center at the dipole center, one must set Zd=1604.000mm (set Zm=0
and Zp=0 in the above formula, and solve for Zd)
The integral measurement sequence is the following:
-from the current position (a priori arbitrary) move the probe upstream, up to a
limit (optic) switch.
-move downstream by a few mm to cross the encoder index (encoder initialization)
-move to the central position to measure the central field by NMR, the system checks
if the NMR locks and if the reading is stable, it will be the ”before” field
-move back to upstream position
-move to downstream position while integrating the flux through the coil system,
this measurement will be called the ”forward” integral (duration ∼ 7s)
-move back to upstream position while integrating the flux through the coil system,
this measurement will be called the ”backward” integral (duration ∼7s)
-move to the central position to measure the central field by NMR, the system checks
if the NMR locks and if the reading is stable, it will be the ”after” field.
In addition to the central field, 4 probe temperatures, a local excitation current
measurement, the setting of the dipoles P.S, the readback of the dipoles P.S and the
probe position at NMR measurement time are recorded ”before” and ”after”.
To perform an integral field measurement:
1-check if the system works (see ”details on integral system check” below)
2-run the above integral sequence (see ”details on integral run” below)
3-fix the error(s) if any (see ”details on integral errors” below)
4-save the data in a file (see ”details on integral data save” below)
5-analyze the data (see Arun Saha).
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.4.21
48
Shed access and safety
For safety reasons, the access to the shed is limited to authorized persons which are listed
in the ESAD. To be added to the list, ask the Hall-A leader. The standard operation
mode of the integral measurement setup is the remote mode, through the network, from
the counting house. In case of problem needing an access in the shed, unauthorized users
must contact Arun Saha.
2.4.22
Details on integral system check
First - from any workstation or X-terminal connected by telnet to pascal1 workstation,
run MEDM with arc master.adl data file (see Arun for the password of gougnaud on pascal1 and the first subsection for the path of arc master.adl). If pascal1 is not responding,
go in the shed and check UPS (see ”Details on AC power (integral)” below). If the UPS is
not beeping, check the room temperature. If the temperature is above 35C, the thermal
protection of the workstation is probably activated, see ”detail on temperatures” below.
If the temperature is below 35C, ask the computer center to restart pascal1.
Second - check if the 4 temperatures and the 3 currents are stable, in agreement
between them and if the beam energy computed from the current is realistic compared
to what you know from MCC. In not, call Arun. If the IOC is dead (all displays on
”arc-master.adl” are blank), reboot the ioc (see ”integral ioc reboot” below) Note: the
current/field ratio is about 1000A/1.98T and the energy/field ratio is 12.03 GeV/T. The
current used by MCC for the accelerator tuning is the set current. The readback can be
different from the set by 0.1A. The local current can be different from the set by 5A. For
the temperatures see ”detail on temperatures” below.
Third - check if the NMR is locked. If not see ”details on NMR lock” below,
Forth - check if the NMR reading is stable within 10-5 relative (P.S. stability). If
not, inquire about a recent or running setting change by the MCC. If necessary call Arun
Saha.
2.4.23
Details on NMR lock
-check if the dipole current is above 22A. The integral setup can’t work for lower currents
(22A ∼ .043T ∼517MeV), due to the NMR probe limitation.
-check if the probe is at a central position, corresponding to Zd∼1604mm. It should
be at this position if no special motion was ordered since the previous integral measurement. If not, enter 1604 RETURN in the ”set Zd position” input field, wait for the end
of the motion (look at cursor and position readback labelled ”out”) and wait for the
NMR lock for up to 1 minute. Note: due to the software, the position readback may be
updated ∼10 seconds after the real probe motion. Zd∼0mm is for the upstream position,
∼1604mm for the central position and ∼3208mm for the downstream position. If the
probe does not obey, call Arun. If Arun is not available, reboot the ioc (see ”integral ioc
reboot” below)
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
49
-check if the NMR probe selected is the good one. The system has 4 probes to
cover the field/energy range [0.043T/0.517GeV,1.05T/12.63GeV]. The software selects
automatically the probe from an estimated field and the following range table (from file
”magnet.dir”):
mini
maxi probe
T
T
0.043 0.1254 # 1
0.1250 0.250
#2
0.177 0.470
#3
0.338
1.06
#4
The estimated field is computed from the ”set” current and the coefficients given
above. Note that there is an overlap between the range of each probe. In the standard
mode (”auto selection”), two selection algorithms are used:
-initial selection: select the probe in which the estimated field will be the most
”centred”
-routine check: change the probe only if the estimated field is outside the selected
probe range.
Initial selection is executed at boot time, at each integral start and when you leave
the ”manual selection” optional mode.
The routine check is performed periodically.
In some cases in the past this algorithm did not select the best probe. If it occurs
again, force the probe selection by opening arc nmr.adl medm screen,then switch to manual selection mode, click on the probe you want to select and wait for NMR lock. Don’t
forget to return to the ”auto selection” mode before leaving the integral measurement.
Report about the problem in the e-logbook.
-expert users can also use nonstandard search modes and DAC values as proposed by
the arc nmr.adl screen (”Dac Value”, ”Dac+-5%” and ”All Probes Range”). Note that
”Dac Value” needs a scope. They are asked to restore the standard mode (”SeLected
Probe Range”) at the end. The DAC to field relationship used by the software is linearly
interpolated in the table (from file ”magnet.dir”):
dac=0 dac=1000 dac=2000 dac=3000 dac=4095 Probe
T
T
T
T
T
.040362
.05388
.07443
.104184
.132404
#1
.080713 .107771
.148845
.208340
.264790
#2
.161430 .215539
.297680
.416680
.529570
#3
.322870 .431112
.595471
.833455
1.059210
#4
Note: as the 9th dipole has a uniform field, there is no gradient coil around the probes
and the lock is in general easier to obtain than with the HRS dipoles. Nevertheless some
difficulties may occur at low field due to the hysteresis gradient. The NMR system is
the same as for the HRS (Metrolab) but the EPICS implementation is different. The
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
50
field polarity is ”+”. Some lock problems may apear in the [60A,70A] range. In this
case select the ”Dac+-5%” option, compute the approximate field as explained above,
estimate the corresponding DAC value from the table above (depending on field value
and probe #), set this estimated value in the arc nmr.adl screen, correct this setting by
using the ”+”, ”++”, ”-”, and ”–” buttons up to have the ”OUT IN T” value close to
the field you computed, and then wait for the lock. It should work, you have 100s to get
the lock at the begining and at the end of the integral sequence! The best is to get the
lock by this way before starting the integral sequence.
2.4.24
Details on integral run
To run the integral measurement sequence, call the ”arc integral.adl” medm screen on
pascal1 (see ”Details on integral system check” above), then:
-push ”start” to start the full sequence
-look at the results displayed:
-after the ”before” NMR measurement: the ”before” data set
-after the ”forward” integral pass: the forward velocity profile and the forward
voltage-after-gain profile
-after the ”backward” integral pass: the backward velocity profile and the backward
voltage-after-gain profile
-after the ”after” NMR measurement: the ”after” data set
-if ”BAD NMR” or ”PDI saturation” flags are set, or if something is obviously wrong
in the data or plots, fix the problem (see ”Details on integral error” below) and start a
new integral run.
-data are ready to be saved (see ”Details on integral data save” below)
2.4.25
Details on integral error
-”BAD NMR” flag is set if at least one of the 4 NMR status (locked and stable, before
and after) is wrong
-the full NMR field measurement is made of 3 successive elementary measurements
separated by a 5s delay.
-the ”lock” status is set to wrong if at least one of the 3 NMR measurements did
not lock before a 100s timeout. The measurement sequence is aborted as soon as a
measurement does not lock, so the maximum time one has to wait for a full NMR
measurement is about 100s (in case of a zero current measurement for example)
-the ”stable” status is set to wrong if the 2nd or the 3rd field values differs from the
1st by more than 5 10-4 relative. In any case, the field value returned is the last one.
-”In position” is set to false if the probe position was outside 1604.0+-0.1mm at
NMR measurement time.
-”PDI saturation”: the PDI (Mertolab’s Precision Digital Integrator) consists in a
programmable amplifier and a VFC integrator working in the [-5V, +5V] input range.
The PDI gain is the result of an automatic selection in the [1,2,5,10,...1000] range, similar
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
51
to the NMR probe selection. In case of a wrong gain selection (maximum voltage after
gain, as plotted in the MEDM screen, outside the [1.5V,5V[ range), call the ”arc pdi.adl”
MEDM screen to switch the gain selection mode from ”auto” to ”manual” and then select
manuallay the gain. Return to ”auto” mode before leaving the integral measurement.
-”before” and ”after” data must be very close: < 0.1 C difference for the temperatures of a given probe, ¡0.1A for the currents and ¡10-5 for the field.
-plots: the blue curves are from forward pass, yellow ones for backward pass.
-the top plot gives the probe velocity (in m/s) as function of its position (in mm).
The forward velocity should be +0.6m/s everywhere except at the center where it is
reduced to +0.06m/s. The backward velocity plot should be the mirror image of the
forward ons (-0.6 and -0.06m/s)
-the bottom plot gives the coil voltage after gain (in V) as function of the probe
position (in mm). It should be a null voltage everywhere except a set of oscillation at
the center. The backward voltage plot should be the mirror image of the forward one
(V-− >-V). See ”PDI saturation” above.
-to zoom a MEDM plot, see ”Details on gain adjustment (scanners)” above.
2.4.26
Details on integral data save
The procedure to save the datafile from ”arc-integral.adl” is the sane as for the scanners (see ”Details on file save (scanners)” above), with an independent integral run
number. The file name will be of the type ”integral-nnn.data”, stored on pascal1 in
∼gougnaud/EPICS/integral/. As pascal1 disk is not mounted on the CUE, use ftp or
rcp to move the file to the CUE.
The size of a file is 207Ko.
The data file is made of:
-a header containing basically the ”before” and ”after” data
-the forward integral data
-the backward integral data.
Forward end backward integral data are made of 3200 lines of 3 data each:
-a line per trigger, i.e. per mm of probe motion over the 3.2m of the total motion.
The first trigger line is missing.
-the first data of the line is the probe position in mm, which should be a round
value from 1.000mm to 3199.000mm at forward pass and from 3199.000mm to 1.000mm
at backward pass,
-the 2nd data are the flux increment measured during the current step (i.e. between
the previous trigger and the current one) in unit of 10-8Vs, corrected from the gain.
-the 3rd data are the time of the trigger since the start, in microsecond units.
These field increments,like the scan profiles, can be plotted by standard plotters, see
”Details on profile plot” above. The curve plotted online in ”arc-integral.adl” is the time
derivative of the above flux data, multiplied by the gain to get the input VFC voltage
after gain.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
52
Example of an integral file:
!ARC magnetic measurement integral data file
!version:1
!date: THU MAY 27 15:28:09 1999 THU MAY 27 15:29:21 1999
!local current (A) 142.25 142.25
!remote current set (A) 140.11 140.11
!remote current readout (A) 140.15 140.14
!NMR field (T) 0.2752619 0.2752621 !NMR locked? T T
!NMR stable? T T
!NMR in position? T T
!Zd plate position (mm) 1604.003 1604.003
!temperature x+,z+(deg.C) 33.2 33.1
!temperature x+,z-(deg.C) 32.8 32.7
!temperature x-,z+(deg.C) 31.1 31.1
!temperature x-,z-(deg.C) 31.1 31.1
!PDI gain: 10
!NMR probe: 3
!forward data:
1.000 -100 5138
2.000 200 9695
3.000 -100 13830
4.000 150 17611
5.000 0 21096
6.000 200 24340
.......
3198.000 -100 7051626
3199.000 150 7058284
!end forward, start backward
3199.000 -50 5160
3198.000 -50 9730
.....
2.000 -100 7052428
1.000 -50 7059066
!end backward
2.4.27
Integral ioc reboot
One of the VME boards (PMAC’s motor board) has its own internal boot process triggered at ”power on” time. So the usual boot procedure (red push button on the ioc or
reboot command through the network) is not sufficient to make sure that the integral
VME is correctly initialized. Thus, boot the VME by switching the AC power of the
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
53
VME crate OFF and ON. The AC power switch is located in the lower part of the crate
front panel.
2.4.28
Details on temperatures
The AC system of the shed is made of two cooling units, a heating unit and a controller
connected to two temperature sensors : one located in the shed and one located in the
BSY. This system is programmed in such a way that the temperature of the shed follows the BSY temperature within +-2C. The BSY temperature can be anywhere in the
[18C,35C] range, regardless of the season. The BSY temperature and the shed temperature are given (in F) by a display panel located close to the workstation, on the wall.
The AC system can be set in manual control by turning from ”auto” to ”manual” a set
of switches controlling the cooling units and the heater unit. These switch boxes are
located on the shed wall. If the shed temperature is above 34.4C (94F), call Arun Saha
(the electronics can be damaged) and cool down the shed in manual AC mode. The 4
temperature sensors of the probe are labelled Tx+z+, Tx+z-, Tx-z+, Tx-z- depending
on their position w.r.t. the following (x,z) frame:
Door< −--
x
^
|
|
< −------------D I P|O L E ----------− >
|
< −----Tx+z- -------|------Tx+z+-----− >
|
|
|
|
|---------− >z
|
|
|
|
P R O B E
|
< −----Tx-z- --------------Tx-z+-----− >
Both ”x+” sensors are on the probe edge which is inside the dipole gap and both
”x-” sensors on the opposite edge which is outside the dipole gap. Both ”z-” sensors
are at 1/4 of the long dimension of the probe and both z+ at 3/4 of this length. The
average of the 4 temperatures is used by the analysis program to correct the coil distance
from the thermal expansion of the probe, so it is important to make sure that the 4
sensors are working well. The user can just make sure that the temperatures displayed
in ”arc-master.adl” or recorded in ”arc-integral.adl” are realistic. In ”arc-integral.adl”
they are given in the order: Tx+z-, Tx+z+, Tx-z-, Tx-z+ Tx-z- and Tx-z+ should be
close to the shed temperature. Tx+z- and Tx+z+ depend on the probe position, as
the gap (iron yoke) is warmer than the shed and the dipole coil (at both ends of the
dipole) is warmer than the iron yoke. For a probe in a central position for more than
about one hour, the Tx+z- and Tx+z+ sensors should give the yoke temperature, i.e
the shed temperature plus 0. to 5.C, depending on the current, LCW temperature and
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
54
the magnet/shed temperature history. The 4 temperatures are also displayed inside the
shed, on the electronics rack. These values are digitized by separate ADCs, so they may
differ from the remote values by ∼0.1C.
2.4.29
Details on AC power (integral)
All the shed electronics and computer (except the motor power, see details about the
Power Switch below) are powered through a UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) whose
role is to protect the setup from short (∼1/4 h) power outages and to convert the US
AC power (60Hz, 200V between two phases) in a well stabilized AC power of European
type (220V, 50Hz). When working in the shed, be careful about the electrical hazard as
the setup can remain powered a long time after interrupting the UPS input (see ”Shed
access and safety” above).
The UPS unit is located under a table, in front of the electronics rack. It has a
display, a small keyboard and a beeper. The beeper activated means that some important
message about the UPS is displayed. In this case, use the keys to scan the UPS memory,
read the messages, record them in the e-logbook, stop the beeper and inform Arun. Refer
to the UPS manual (available in the shed) for details of operation.
2.4.30
Details on mechanics (integral)
The probe is capable of a fast motion (∼1m/s) and it is hazardous to access or to introduce
something inside the device, under the altuglass covers, or to dismount a cover. It is also
hazardous to manipulate the motor shaft (see ”Shed access and safety” above). To do it
safely, the user must first turn off the motor power box. The power box is located under
the motor. It has two external switches: one controlling the logics and one controlling
the power:
Logics switch
|
(TOP VIEW)
|
V
.
--------------------------------.
|
| |
<
−------DIPOLE-----− >
|
.
Power box-− >|
| |
|
DOOR<
−-|
MOTOR-|
|
.
|
|<
−--Power switch
|
.
|
| |
|
.
---------------------------------
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
55
It is important NOT to switch off the logics (some data in memory will be lost), but
to switch off the motor power (see the exact Power switch location above) prior to any
intervention on the mechanics. The detailed procedure is the following:
-turn OFF the power switch
-wait for ∼1min to empty its buffer-capacitor
-you can work safely on the mechanics
-make sure that the path of the probe is free (tools...) and the covers are in position
-turn the power switch back ON
-reboot the VME (see ”Integral ioc reboot” above)
The above procedure may be necessary if, for some reason, the probe went outside
its allowed range limited by a pair of electric limit switches. The probe range is limited
by the following set of devices:
-upstream energy damper for Zd in [-40.,-14.mm]
-upstream electric limit switch for Zd< −7.5mm
-upstream optic limit switch for Zd< −3.8mm
(operation range, 3.2m long)
-downstream optic limit switch for Zd¿3200.8mm
-downstream electric limit switch for Zd¿3212.3mm
-downstream energy damper for Zd in [3214.,3238.mm]
The current status of the 4 limit switches is given in the ”arc-master.adl” screen.
Optical limit switches are used for the encoder initialization procedure (see ”Summary
of field integral” above). Electric limit switches should never be activated. But if this
happens, then the motor control:
-stops the motor
-raises an error flag (the letted ”d” for defect is displayed inside the power box, the
usual display being a vertical segment)
-waits for a manual repositioning of the probe inside its allowed range and for a
reboot of the VME.
The manual repositioning of the probe inside its allowed range can be done safely
by manipulating the motor shaft while the motor power is off, according to the above
procedure.
2.4.31
Details on detailed field mapping
The main use of the integral setup is to measure the integral of the 9th dipole along
a straight line, located on the axis of the pole tips. By moving (manually) the dipole
in the transverse direction and then performing the integral sequence, one will measure
the integral along different axes, and hence extract the gradient of the dipole integral
(used to determine the dipole positionning tolerances). By inserting a jumper (short) on
one of the pick-up coils and reducing the gain of the PDI, the same sequence as for the
integral will provide, after a specific analysis, the field profile of the dipole as seen by
the other coil. This profile will cover one half of the magnet, including one of the two
fringing fields. Reduce the PDI gain by one step ( example: if the automatic gain is 10,
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
56
select manually 5) By inserting the jumper on the other coil, one can get the other half
profile. These two single coil measurements will provide together the complete profile of
the dipole including both fringing fields. For the central part, where the field is uniform,
more accurate data can be taken using the NMR probes. Here, there is no change in
the hardware, but one must use a specific software: the ”mapping” MEDM window. By
combining, for a set of transverse positions:
-standard integral measurement
-upstream profile (upstream coil alone)
-downstream profile (downstream coil alone)
-NMR map of the plateau,
one gets a 2D map of the dipole field in its mid-plane with an optimum accuracy
and redundancy and a minimum time spent by the operator. This 2D map is used to get
the straight-to-curved correction to the integral and a set of tolerances.
Call ”medmMew” (and NOT ”medm”), then open ”arc map.adl”, as this display is
written in a new version of MEDM. Due to a bug in this Solaris/MEDM combination, you
must enter the name of the display in the open menu, you can’t just click on the display file
name. You then get the ”ARC-MAPPING” screen. You must define the position inside
the magnet (Zm) where you want to measure the field, inside the [-1500mm,+1500mm]
range. The software will compute the probe position Zd depending on the NMR probe
selected (automatic or manual selection). You have to define 3 regions, where the steps
may differ. Edit the fields:
-STARTING Zm
-region 1 : NUMBER OF STEPS and STEP SIZE, then the intermediate position
Zm is computed automatically by the software as a result of the above input
-region 2 : NUMBER OF STEPS and STEP SIZE, then the intermediate position
Zm is computed as above
-region 3 : NUMBER OF STEPS and STEP SIZE, then the final position Zm is
computed as above.
Then push ”Start”. It takes about 20s per point, unless there is a lock problem,
where it can take up to 100s (timeout). If the NMR does not lock even far from the ends,
push ”Stop Map here”, use the DAC+-5% lock mode (see ”detail on NMR lock”), and
start a new map.
Note: after ”Stop Map here” the incomplete map can still be saved. Use ”Stop” in
case of emergency, and then reboot the VME (see detail).
The measured fields are displayed on the screen as a function of Zm. The sequence
is:
-a measurement at Zm=0, called ”Bref1”
-the list of measurement you entered
-a measurement at Zm=0, called ”Bref2”.
When done, save the data by pushing ”Save”. The file is numbered automatically,
the name is of the type mapping nnn.data, where ”nnn” stands for the map number.
The directory is given by the MEDM screen. An example of file (”mapping 7.data”) is
given below (EPICS was not responding for the P.S. readback and set, the real current
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
57
was 90A):
!ARC magnetic measurement mapping data file
!version:1
!date: SAT JUN 12 04:49:40 1999 SAT JUN 12 05:41:32 1999
-1460.00 50 20.00
-460.00 46 20.00
460.00 50 20.00
!temperature x+,z+(deg.C) 29.8 30.2
!temperature x+,z-(deg.C) 31.7 32.0
!temperature x-,z+(deg.C) 28.4 28.2
!temperature x-,z-(deg.C) 28.6 28.2
!tal nbr pts: 146
!initial & final NMR probe: 2 2
Zm (mm), B (T), NMR lckd, NMR flag,local crt(Vadc),crt set(A),crt rdt(A)
0.00 0.1770036 1 1 92.19 0.04 0.00
-1460.00 0.1770068 1 1 92.19 0.04 0.00
-1440.00 0.1770157 1 1 92.19 0.04 0.00
.......
1439.99 0.1770756 1 1 92.19 0.04 0.00
1460.00 0.1770665 1 1 92.19 0.04 0.00
0.00 0.1770044 1 1 92.19 0.04 0.00
!end
Note: ”1” is the normal status for NMR lock and NMR (stability) flag. The lines
#4,#5 and #6 of the header give the data entred by the operator. The result is a map
from -1460 to +1460mm with an uniform 20mm step size. This input is the standard
one for the needs of ARC.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.5
Fast Raster
58
9 10
The beam is rastered on target with an amplitude of several millimeters to prevent
overheating. The raster is a pair of horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) air-core dipoles
located 23 m upstream of the target. The raster has been used in two different modes,
sinusoidal and amplitude modulated. In the sinusoidal pattern both the X and Y magnet
pairs are driven with pure sine waves with 90◦ relative phase, and frequencies which do
not produce a closed Lissajous pattern. In the amplitude modulated (or square root of
time) mode both the X and Y magnets are driven at 18 kHz with a 90◦ phase between X
and Y producing a circular pattern. The radius of this pattern is changed by amplitude
modulation at 1 kHz. The radius modulation is controlled by a function generator whose
function creates a uniform distribution of the area swept out by the beam motion. It is
not possible to switch on the fly between the two modes of operation as hardware changes
are required.
One can view the status of the raster in the EPICS overview screen called “General
Accelerator Parameters” where the set-point for the radius amplitude and the readback
of the peak-current in the raster are displayed.
Control of the raster is done by first asking the MCC operators to set up the raster
for a particular radius, typically 2.5 mm. The control software assumes a field-free region
between the raster and the target, so it is only approximately correct because there are
four quadrupoles in this region. It is important to check the raster spot size and make
adjustments if necessary. The main adjustment is made by asking MCC to change the
radius. Relatively small independent adjustments to the gains on the X and the Y raster
coils are available in the middle room of the hall A counting room using the “PGA
Controller” knobs. Near these knobs is also located an oscilloscope X-Y trace of the
current in the raster. A fast shutdown (FSD) shuts the beam down within 0.1 msec if
the raster fails, thus affording some protection of the target.
NOTE: If you are unsure of the status of the raster, measure the spot size with very
low current (≤ 2µA) or with the target out of the beam. An unfortunately common
and potentially fatal error is to check the beam spot size with high current on target;
by the time you check it, the target might already be destroyed. The rastered beam
spot on target can be checked with plots in ESPACE or by using the stand alone code
called “spot”. Spot is probably already running somewhere; it runs on the Linux or Sun
computers in the counting room; if it’s not running, type “spot”. When a new CODA
run is started, spot automatically clears its histograms and displays in a window the X-Y
beam position monitor coordinates from the first few thousand events from the start of
the run. For more details on usage, type “spot -h” (help).
9
10
CV S revision Id: raster.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 15:19:03 gen Exp
Authors: ?? mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.6
Target Chamber
59
11 12
The Hall A target chamber is a large evacuated multistaged can that contains the target
struck by the CEBAF electron beam. The chamber was designed to isolate the beam
line vacuum from each HRS so that each HRS could rotate around the target without
vacuum coupling and without jeapordizing certain desired kinematic and acceptance
specifications of both high resolution spectrometers needed for approved experiments. It
was also designed to simultaneously contain a liquid or gas target and an array of water
cooled thin metallic foils, both remotely controlled and also be adaptable for the waterfall
target. The desired kinematic specifications that were considered included momentum
and energy resolution in both arms, angular range of spectrometers, angular acceptance,
and luminosity. The chamber vacuum is isolated from the HRS by using thin aluminum
foils.
The target chamber is designed so that each spectrometer will have continuous coverage in the standard tune from θmin =12.54 ◦ to θmax = 165 ◦ .
The target chamber is supported by a 24 in diameter pivot post secured in concrete,
rising about 93.6 in above the Hall A cement floor. The Hall A target chamber consists of
an aluminum middle ring, a stainless steel base ring, each with a 41.0 in inner diameter,
and a stainless steel cylindrical top hat with 40 in inner diameter to enclose the cryotarget
and secure the cryogenic connections.
The aluminum ring with an outer diameter of 45.0 in and wall thickness 2.0 in is
necessary for a sturdy support structure and to permit machining of the outside surface
to accommodate the flanges for fixed and sliding seals mounted on opposite sides of the
ring that vacuum connect the chamber to each HRS. The height of the aluminum ring
shown is 36.0 in, which is designed to accommodate the mounting flanges. The stainless
steel base ring is 11.50 in in height with one pump-out 6 in diameter port and with
seven 4 in viewing and electrical feed-through ports. The base ring will also contain
support mechanisms for the solid target ladder assembly, a rotisserie for collimating slits,
radiators, and magnetic fingers for removing the solid target vacuum-lock can. The total
height of the top ring, middle ring, and base ring is 93.81 in. This length is partly
determined by our desire to include with the cryogenic extended target a solid target
vertical ladder secured in an inverted hat through a hole in the base of the chamber.
The base ring includes an end plate through which the inverted hat will be adapted
to fit into the large vertical pipe serving as the pivot post for the Hall A spectrometers.
The stainless steel cylindrical top hat has 40.0 in inner diameter, and is 0.375 in
thick and 46.31 in high , which is necessary to permit the cryotarget to be withdrawn
and to make space available to expose the solid targets to the electron beam.
The 200 µA electron beam, presumably focussed to a 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm spot and
rastered ±5 mm horizontally or vertically on the target, enters through a oval hole in the
middle ring which is 2.06 in wide and exits through a 1.81 in hole connected to the exit
pipe.
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60
Target Chamber - Spectrometer Coupling
The aluminum middle ring will support a flange on each side for each high resolution
spectrometer. Four flanges will be available: Two flanges will contain a 6 in window
opening which will be covered with a thin foil (e.g., 10 mil aluminum) . These two flanges
will be used for experiments utilizing extended targets that do not require optimum
momentum resolution. The other two flanges will have two fixed ports (with a 8 in × 6
in opening) which will be mainly used for calibration of the spectrometers . Fixed ports
are centered at 16.11 ◦ and 45 ◦ for one flange and at 16.11 ◦ and 90 ◦ for the second
flange.
For a point beam on target a vertical opening in the walls of the chamber of height
57.15 cm x 0.065 x 2 = 7.43 cm is required so that the scattered beam is within full
acceptance of the spectrometer. If the beam is rastered on target ±0.5 cm in the vertical
direction, then the opening in the outer side of the chamber must be at least 8.5 cm for
full acceptance.
From consideration of the angular range of the spectrometers in the standard tune,
the scattered beam acceptance envelope, the effects of an extended gas target on acceptance, and the effects of a rastered beam ± 5 mm on acceptance, the target chamber
requires a window of at least 8.5 cm high in the aluminum ring extending from 6.33 ◦
(2.48 in) from the beam exit point to 8.83 ◦ (3.47 in) from the beam entrance point on
one side and a similar window on the other side of the beam. For future considerations
(e.g., using a third arm or sliding seal) the width of the window on the middle ring was
actually constructed to be 17.78 cm (7 in).
Stress Analysis of the Middle Ring
Since the middle ring has an extensive cut across the midplane on both sides as well as
entrance and exit holes and loaded with about 25,000 lbs, calculations of the stresses
and deformation of the midplane support area of the middle ring and deflection of the
window opening were made using the finite element analysis code ANSYS . The work
was conducted by a graduate student in the Department of Civil Engineering at the
University of Virginia and a REU student. A scaled down model of the middle ring
was constructed and then tested by applying forces to it using the Materials Testing
Service of the Department of Transportation at the University. ANSYS was first checked
by comparing calculations of the test model deflections to the actual data. Agreement
was within ±10%. Results of ANSYS for the target chamber showed that the maximum
deflection of the opening of the window in the middle ring varied from 0.007 in to 0.015
in depending on how the middle ring was loaded. This was decided to be a safe limit.
In the final design, several movable 7 in long, 2 in diameter aluminum support rods
are placed in the window for added support. In addition, flanges defining the ports and
coupling to the spectrometers can be added, giving additional support to the middle ring.
Compressional stresses, calculated using ANSYS assuming the middle ring was attached
to the top hat and loaded with 25,000 lbs, were less than 3000 psi almost everywhere.
However, stresses over small areas rose to levels 6000 psi near the entrance and exit
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
61
holes. These calculations indicated that we did not exceed the safety limit of 15,000 psi
for aluminum. A simple model calculation shown in Appendix A gives the result 1434
psi, which represents some average value over the midplane contact area.
Vacuum Pumping System
The vacuum in the target chamber is maintained by an Alcatel ( 880 l/s) turbomolecular
vacuum pump. The pump is connected to a 6 in port in the stainless steel ring between
130 ◦ ≤ θp ≤ 180◦ . The vacuum pump is fastened to a horizontal pipe connected to the
chamber. The vacuum pressure in the chamber is about 10−5 mm. An additional Alcatel
pump connected to an 8 in port should be added to obtain lower vacuum. Both pumps
may be isolated from the target chamber using gate valves which are remotely operated
from the vacuum control rack and interlocked to the FSD system.
A 2 in all metal gate valve is located between the entrance flange to the chamber
and the beam profile monitor. An additional gate valve is located 2 m downstream of
the target chamber to isolate the chamber from the exit beam pipe.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.7
2.7.1
Bremsstrahlung Radiator
62
13 14
Overview
The Bremsstrahlung radiator is the last element in the Hall A beam line before the
scattering chamber, and is about 72.6 cm from the center of the physics targets. Its
design is based on the Hall C radiator system built by David Meekins, and documented
in the Hall C operations manual.
The central component of the system is a U-shaped, oxygen-free copper target ladder,
with six positions for differing thicknesses of oxygen-free Cu foils. The ladder is designed
so that it never intersects the beam. The 3.175-cm wide gap in the ladder is spanned only
by the target foils, which are 6.35 cm wide, 3.175 cm high, and 3.332 cm apart (center to
center). A stepper motor moves the target ladder with foils up and down, into and out
of the beam. Hard stops prevent motion of the ladder beyond the limit switches. Water
cooling of the radiator ladder cools the foils, preventing damage from overheating by the
beam.
The interaction of the beam with the foils produces background radiation in the Hall.
At 3 GeV, ion chamber trip levels do not need to be adjusted, and increases in detector
background rates are minimal; further tests are planned for 0.8 GeV. No local shielding
is installed, as calculations indicate that this will not significantly affect dose at the site
boundary. Any installation and/or subsequent modifications must be coordinated with
RadCon.
2.7.2
Safety Issues
The only safety issue concerning the Bremsstrahlung radiator is that of induced radioactivity in the Cu targets and in the water used for cooling the targets. The water cooling
system is a closed loop, using a portable welding-torch water cooler, located under the
beam line just upstream of the target. The cooler is kept in a tray which is intended
to provide secondary containment in case of a leak. The cooling system must not be
breached or drained without concurrence from the RCG. Accidental breach or spill constitutes a radiation contamination hazard. A spill control kit, capable of containing a
system leak or spill, is staged by the door to the hall. In the event of a spill notify the
RCG.
2.7.3
Operations
Although the radiator foils are water cooled, a high current electron beam may melt the
foils. Beam currents with the radiator will be limited to 30 micro-amperes. Including a
safety factor, the raster radii given in Table 1 will limit the temperature rise to 100 ◦ C.
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63
Table 2.4: Raster radius as a function of beam current.
Current (µA) Minimum raster radius (mm)
10
15
20
25
30
(not needed)
0.2
0.7
1.3
2.1
Table 2.5: Encoder voltage calibration. See text.
Position Voltage ratio Vencoder for Vsupply = 5 V
out limit
foil 1
foil 2
foil 3
foil 4
foil 5
foil 6
in limit
0.030
0.102
0.269
0.436
0.603
0.769
0.936
0.966
0.15
0.511
1.346
2.179
3.013
3.847
4.681
4.831
The only operational control consists of moving the ladder in and out. Radiator
position is determined by the ratio of the readback voltage from a linear encoder to the
voltage applied to it. Table 2 gives the radiator position as a function of this ratio. The
foil thicknesses are set so that the thickness, in percent of a radiation length, equals the
foil number, except that no foils are mounted in position 1.
Software controls of the ladder position are under development; radiator position is
changed by calling MCC and requesting that the radiator be set to some foil position, or
to the out limit. The position may be changed with beam on. A manual-control backup
system also exists.
Both software and manual backup systems control an Oregon Micro Systems MH10DX
step motor driver, which drives a Slo-Syn M063-LS09 stepper motor. The MH10 driver,
power supplies, and other control circuitry, are in a custom-built box located in the hall
in rack 1H75B10. The linear encoder voltage ADC is in slot 5 of the CAMAC crate
in rack 1H75B02; radiator inputs use channels 15 and 16, and are connected through a
patch panel to block 30 in rack 1H75B08.
When the radiator is not being used, the system should be set to the out-limit
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
64
position, so that it is clear of the beam. Power to the control box in the hall may be
turned off with a front-panel switch if the radiator will not be used for a long time - and
should be turned off if work is to be done on the radiator. This deactivates the limit
switches and the linear encoder, but does not affect positioning. Additional hard stops
should be installed as a safety measure. The Hall A technical staff checklist, done as part
of preparations for closing the Hall for beam, includes checking the radiator position, the
status of the control box, and the installation of hard stops.
2.7.4
Special Instructions
Care must be taken in case any removal or disassembly of the radiator system is needed.
Disconnecting the stepper motor from the motor driver while power is on can damage
the motor, motor driver, and VME44 board.
The Cu targets will certainly be activated in the course of an experiment. Therefore,
only remove the Cu target, the target ladder, and/or the whole radiator system in the
presence of a Radcon officer.
Ron Gilman should be informed in case of any problems with the radiator. Except
for normal operations of the radiator, any work on the system hardware requires that
RadCon has concurred in the work and either Ron Gilman or David Meekins is present.
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.8
Møller Polarimeter
2.8.1
Purpose and Layout
65
15 16
The Hall A beam line is equipped with a Møller polarimeter whose purpose is to measure
the polarization of the electron beam delivered to the hall.
Figure 2.6: Layout of Møller polarimeter. The origin of the coordinate frame is at the
center of the polarimeter target, which is 17.5 m upstream of the Hall A target.
The Møller polarimeter consists of (see Fig.2.6):
• a magnetized ferromagnetic foil used as a polarized electron target, placed 17.5 m
upstream of the central pivot point of the Hall A High Resolution Spectrometers;
• a spectrometer consisting of three quadrupole magnets and a dipole magnet, used
to deflect the electrons scattered in a certain kinematic range towards the Møller
detector;
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CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
66
• a detector and its associated shielding house;
• a stand alone data acquisition system;
• off-line analysis software which helps to extract the beam polarization from the
data immediately after the data are taken.
The beam polarization is measured by measuring the difference in the counting rates
for two beam helicity samples.
There are also external resources of information17 .
2.8.2
Safety Assessment
Magnets
Particular care must be taken in working in the vicinity of the magnetic elements of
the polarimeter as they can have large currents running in them. Only members of the
Møller polarimeter group are authorized to work in their immediate vicinity, and only
when they are not energized. The quadrupole magnets and the leads for the dipole magnet are protected with Plexiglas shields. As with all elements of the polarimeter which
can affect the beamline, the magnets are controlled by MCC. There are four red lights
which indicate the status of the magnets. The dipole has two lights which are activated
via a magnetic field sensitive switch placed on the coils of the dipole. One light is placed
on the floor on beam left, and the other is placed on the raised walkway on beam right.
The quadrupoles have similarly placed lights (one on the floor on beam left and one
on the walkway), and are lit up when any one of the Møller quads is energized. The
status of the quadrupole power supplies is on the checklist for closing up Hall A. Lock
and tag training is required of all personnel working in the vicinity of the Møller magnets.
The power supply for the dipole is located in the Beam Switch yard Building (Building 98). The maximum current for the dipole is 450A. The quadrupole power supplies are
located in Hall A electronics rack 13, 2 supplies connected in parallel per one quadrupole.
The maximum current per one power supply is 60A at about 20V.
Vacuum System
One must be careful in working near the downstream side of the dipole magnet, as
there are two 2 by 16 cm, 4 mil thick titanium windows. Only members of the Møller
polarimeter group should work in this area.
High Voltage
There are 38 photomultiplier tubes within the detector shielding hut, with a maximum
voltage of 3000 V. The detector is serviced by sliding it back on movable rails. The high
17
(Home page:
http://www.jlab.org/~moller/)
CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
67
voltage must be turned off during any detector movement. Only members of the Møller
group should move the detector.
Target
To avoid damage to the Møller target, the target should not be in the beam if the beam
current is greater than 5 µA. Only MCC can move the target, but the experimenters are
responsible for ensuring that it is properly positioned.
2.8.3
List of Authorized Personnel
18 19
The list of the presently authorized personnel is given in Tab. 2.6. Other individuals
must notify and receive permission from the contact person (see Tab. 2.6) before adding
their names to the above list.
Name
Eugene
Alexander
Viktor
Roman
Dept.
Telephone
JLab Pager
Chudakov
JLab
6959 6959
Glamazdin
Kharkov 6378
Gorbenko
Kharkov 6378
Pomatsalyuk Kharkov 6378
e-mail
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Comment
Contact
Table 2.6: Moller Polarimeter: authorized personnel. The primary contact person’s
name is marked with a slanted font.
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CHAPTER 2. BEAMLINE
2.9
20
21
Compton Polarimeter
68
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Chapter 3
Targets
3.1
Overview
1 2
The physics program in Hall A utilizes a number of different target systems of varying
complexity. There is a set of cryogenic targets which currently operates with hydrogen
and deuterium as target materials and will soon support both helium 3 and helium 4.
A variety of solid targets is also provided; Be0, Carbon or Kapton are typical but
other self supporting materials are available if need arises.
The combination of cryogenic targets and a few solid targets is the standard configuration. In addition, there is a large program based on polarized helium 3. This is a
special installation and hence is not available at the same time as the cryogenic target
system.
Finally, a waterfall target was used during the commissioning of the hall and is still
available as a resource. This system also requires a special installation.
Each of these systems is discussed in this chapter or in an appendix.
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CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
3.2
Cryogenic Hydrogen and Deuterium Targets
70
3 4
The Hall A cryogenic target system consists of two completely instrumented targets, H2
and D2 . In addition a third target loop is installed in the scattering chamber but this
target is not usually connected to a full gas handling system. This third loop is used as
a helium target.
The hydrogen and deuterium targets present a number of potential hazards, such as
the fire/explosion hazard of the flammable gas as well as the hazards connected with the
vacuum vessel and the of handling cryogenic liquids (ODH and high pressure). In this
document the hydrogen target will be referred to, but the deuterium target is essentially
identical and almost all comments apply to both targets.
3.2.1
Flammable Gas
Hydrogen and deuterium are colorless, odorless gases and hence not easily detected by
human senses. Hydrogen air mixtures are flammable over a large range of relative concentrations from 4 % to 75 % H2 by volume. Detonation can occur with very low energy
1
input, less than 10
that required by mixtures of air and gasoline. At temperatures above
-250 C hydrogen gas is lighter than (STP) air and hence will rise. At atmospheric pressure, the ignition temperature is approximately 1000 ◦ F but air H2 mixtures at pressures
of 0.2 to 0.5 Atm can be ignited at temperatures as low as 650 ◦ F. Hydrogen mixtures
burn with a colorless flame [4].
The total volume of liquid hydrogen in the heat exchanger is about 2 l. The target
cells and their associated plumbing hold an additional 3.4 l. Thus the total volume of
hydrogen in the target is approximately 5.4 l. The volume changes between the liquid
state and gas at STP by a factor of about 800. Thus filling the target would require
about 4,300 STP l of hydrogen. The hydrogen target is connected to a 1,000 Gallon
(about 3,800 l) recovery tank. The normal running condition for hydrogen is 26 PSIA.
So the total amount needed to fill the target and the tank is about 10,900 STP l. For
deuterium, the target is about 4,300 STP l. The normal running condition for deuterium
is 22 PSIA. So the total volume needed to fill the tank is about 5,600 l. The total to fill
both the target and the tank is about 9,900 STP l.
The Hall A inventory of hydrogen and deuterium gas is stored outside the Hall A
gas shed, adjacent to the counting house. The current inventory is two A size cylinders
of hydrogen (≈ 6,800 STP l each) and four A size cylinders of deuterium (≈ 5,000 STP l
each). One bottle of hydrogen and one deuterium bottle will be kept in the Hall in order
to fill the targets. These bottles will be placed in a gas rack behind the gas panels.
The basic idea behind safe handling of any flammable or explosive gas is to eliminate
oxygen (required for burning) and to prevent exposure to any energy source that could
cause ignition. In the Hall A environment, the most likely source of oxygen is of course
the atmosphere and the most likely ignition sources are from electrical equipment.
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CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
71
Electrical Installation
Hall A contains a lot of electrical equipment and almost all of it could serve as an ignition
source in the presence of an explosive oxygen and hydrogen mixture. We have made an
effort to minimize the dangers from the equipment that is most likely to come into contact
with hydrogen gas.
There are a number of electrically powered devices associated with the target gas
handling system. All the pressure transducers in the system are approved for use in a
hydrogen atmosphere. The solenoid valves on the gas panels are explosion-proof. The
AC power for the solenoids is carried by wires which are contained in either hard or
flexible conduit. There are also LEDs on the gas panels that provide an indication as to
the status of the valve solenoids. These are powered by a 24 V DC supply. The readouts
for the pressure transducers are mounted on the gas panels and the AC power for these
readout units is in conduit. All the pressure transducers have 4-20 mA outputs.
In addition to the electrical devices in the gas handling system, there are a number
of devices inside of or mounted on the scattering chamber.
All the devices which are in the scattering chamber must have their power delivered
to them by wires in vacuum. The insulation of these wires should be radiation resistant,
so Kapton has been used where available.
The following electrical items are in close proximity to or are actually in the hydrogen
system.
Axial Circulation Fan The fans which circulate the hydrogen in the target are AC
induction motors and therefore contain no brushes and are practically immune to
sparking. The three phase power for these fans is delivered to them by 18 gauge
stranded copper wire with Kapton insulation. The maximum current that the fans
draw is 5 A for a maximum power consumption of 200 W when pumping liquid
hydrogen/deuterium. The current and voltage drawn by the fans is monitored by
the control system.
Fan Motor Tachometer The fans have a tachometer which consist of a coil that views
the flux change caused by a permanent magnet attached to the motor rotor. The
tachometer signals are carried on 22 gauge stranded wire with Kapton insulation.
This is a low power signal. The control system monitors the frequency of the fans.
Low Power Heater This is a “hair dryer” style heater ( it resembles the heater elements
found in hair dryers and heat guns) that is immersed in the hydrogen. The heater
is made of 0.0179 in diameter Nichrome wire with a resistance of 1.993 Ω per foot
wrapped on a G10 carrier board. The maximum power available to this heater
is 80 W . The power for the low power heater is supplied by a Oxford ITC-502
temperature controller. The heater lead wire is 18 gauge Kapton insulated copper
stranded wire. The heaters have a DC resistance of 20 Ω and hence will draw a
maximum of 2 A. The power supplied to this heater is monitored by the control
system.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
72
High Power Heater There are two kapton enclosed incoloy heater foils wrapped on the
inside wall of each heat exchanger. The maximum power available to each heater
is 500 W . The heater has a DC resistance of 26 Ω and two heaters in parallel are
driven by a 150 V , 7 A power supply. The current and voltage supplied to this
heater are monitored by the control system and there is a software power maximum
enforced on the power setting of this heater. The heater is connected to the outside
world by 18 gauge stranded wire with Kapton insulation.
Resistors There are two Allen Bradley and four Cernox resistors immersed in each
target loop. These resistors provide temperature measurements of the target fluid.
The temperature controllers that read them use a current of less than 30 µA to
excite them ( they are excited with a constant voltage which for our resistors is on
the order of 30 mV). The Cernox resistors are connected to the outside world with
quad strand 36 gauge phosphor bronze wire with Formvar insulation. The Allen
Bradley resistors are wired with 30 gauge Kapton insulated copper stranded wire.
Target Lifter There are two AC servo motors which provide the power to lift the target
ladder. These motors are powered by three phase 208 V power and are equipped
with fail safe brakes (the brakes are released by a 24 V DC control voltage) and
50 to 1 gear reducers. On power up, there is a delay relay that insures that the
motors are always energized before the brakes are released.
Vacuum Pumps The scattering chamber is evacuated by two Leybold 1000 l/s turbo
pumps that are backed by a Leybold 65 cf m mechanical pump. The turbo pumps
are powered by 120 V AC power while the backing pump requires three phase 208
V AC power. The motor on the backing pump is explosion proof and approved
for use in NEC Class 1, Division 1, Group D (hydrocarbons but not hydrogen)
environments. An identical mechanical pump is used in the pump and purge system
of the gas panels. Both the scattering chamber backing pump and the pump and
purge system’s mechanical pump exhaust to the vent line.
Vacuum Gauges The chamber vacuum is monitored by an HP cold cathode gauge.
This gauge has a maximum operating voltage of 4000 V and a maximum current
of 133 µA. The pressure at the entrance to the roughing pump is measured by a
convectron gauge.
Flammable Gas Detectors
There are four flammable gas detectors installed (one on top of the target, one each on top
of the hydrogen and deuterium gas panels, one on top of the gas tanks) to provide early
detection of hydrogen/deuterium leaks. These detectors are sensitive (and calibrated)
over the range from 0 to 50 % Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) of hydrogen. The electrochemical sensors were manufactured by Crowcon Detection Instruments LTD and the
readout (four channels) was purchased from CEA Instruments, Inc. (The Gas Master
Four System). The readout unit provides two alarm levels per channel. The low level
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
73
alarm is tripped at 20 % LEL while 40 % LEL activates the high level alarm. Each
channel has a relay output for both low and high level alarm states and there is also a
set of common relays for both alarm levels (these common relays respond to the ”logical
or” of the sensor inputs). The common relays will be connected to the Fast Shut Down
System, FSD, which removes the beam from the hall by disabling a grid bias at the
injector.
3.2.2
Pressure
The most important aspect of hydrogen safety is to minimize the possibility of explosive
mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen occurring. Therefore the gas handling system has been
made of stainless steel components (wherever possible) and as many junctions as possible
have been welded.
The pressure in the gas handling system is monitored in numerous places. Most
importantly, the absolute pressure of the target is viewed by two pressure transducers,
one on the fill line, PT127 for H2 and PT136 for D2 , and one on the return line, PT131 for
H2 and PT140 for D2 . These pressures are also measured by manual gauges. The fill line
gauges are PI126 for H2 and PI135 for D2 . The return line gauges are designated PI130,
H2 and PI139, D2 . The gas tanks are viewed with both pressure transducers (PT133 for
hydrogen and PT142 for deuterium) and pressure gauges (PI123 for hydrogen and PI112
for deuterium).
Target Cells
The target cells themselves represent the most likely failure point in the hydrogen system.
The outer walls and downstream window of the cells are made of ≈ 0.03 to 0.045 in thick
3004 aluminum (Coors beer cans in a former incarnation) (all the final ones are above
0.035 in). There are two cells soldered to each cell block, one 15 cm long and one 4
cm long. Both cells have an outer diameter of approximately 2.5 inches. The upstream
windows of the cells are made from 0.0028 in thick 5052 aluminum. These windows are
soldered to 1.75 in diameter (0.065 in wall) upstream window tubes which are in turn
soldered to the cell block.
Since all the components are made of aluminum it is necessary to plate them before
soldering. The final components were copper plated before assembly.
The cell block components have been pressure tested hydrostatically at Jefferson
Lab. We chose the thinnest beer cans for the pressure burst test. Results are listed in
the summary table. Upstream windows have been tested to similar pressures. Finally,
the entire completed cell block assemblies were pressurized to 85 PSID with helium gas.
A summary of the testing program to date is presented in Table 3.1.
Pressure Relief
The gas handling and controls systems have been designed to prevent excessive pressure
build up in the system in order to protect the target cells from rupture.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Object
Can
Can
Can
Can
Can
Window
Window
Window
Window
Window
Window
Complete Blocks
P (PSIG) thickness (in)
55
0.003
80
0.0035
80
0.0035
60
0.0038
85
0.0039
110
0.028
125
0.028
125
0.028
115
0.028
147
0.028
150
0.028
85
74
size
test method
short test (J)ig, (D)estructive
short
(J), (D)
long
(J), (D)
long
(V)acuum, (D)
long
(V), (D)
(J),(D)
(J),(D)
(J),(D)
(J),(D)
(J),(D)
(J),(D)
(V), Non-Destructive
Table 3.1: A summary of the early cell block pressure test data.
In the event that the pressure in the system begins to rise there are multiple vent
paths to release it. The first line of defense is the recovery tank. The second line of
defense is a small orifice solenoid valve which is slaved to a pressure transducer. This
valve, CSV28 for H2 and CSV57 for D2 , is normally controlled by the limit output of
the computer (via a VME based relay) readout of the pressure transducer that views the
target relief line, PT131 for H2 and PT140 for D2 . The valve itself is mounted in the fill
line relief assembly. The separation of the valve from its controlling pressure gauge should
provide some dampening of the response and the small orifice of the valve also ensures
that it will be able to make pressure adjustments gently if need be. There is a separate
relief valve on the fill side of the target, CRV30 for H2 and CRV59 for D2 . This relief is
mounted in parallel with the small orifice solenoid valve. Right on top of the cryocan, on
the return side of the target, there is a large size (one in) relief valve. All target pressure
reliefs are connected to the nitrogen vent line of the Hall A superconducting magnets.
This is a 3.5 in diameter copper pipe which is filled with nitrogen gas at atmospheric
pressure. Thus any vented target gas is placed in an inert environment until it is released
outside of Hall A. Each gas tank has one relief valve and one rupture disk (CRV43 and
CRD44 for hydrogen, and CRV72 and CRD143 for deuterium).
In addition to the reliefs on the gas handling system described above, the scattering
chamber itself has a four-in one PSIG relief, VRV01. This is the path that the hydrogen
will take in the event of a cell failure.
The target pressure reliefs are summarized in Table 3.2.
Scattering Chamber Vacuum Failure
The scattering chamber will be leak checked before service but obviously the possibility
of vacuum loss cannot be eliminated. The most likely sources of vacuum failure are:
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
75
Name
Target Location Diameter (in) Pressure (PSIG)
CSV28
H2
FRA
0.125
40
CRV30
H2
FRA
0.5
40
CRV82
H2
RL
1
40
CRV43
H2
TANK
1
55
CRD44
H2
TANK
1
55
CSV57
D2
FRA
0.125
40
CRV59
D2
FRA
0.5
40
CRV64
D2
RL
1
40
CRV72
D2
TANK
1
55
CRD143
D2
TANK
1
55
CRV35
He
RL
1
40
CRV01
SC
4
2
Table 3.2: A summary of the pressure relieving devices on the hydrogen/deuterium
targets and the scattering chamber. FRA is an abbreviation for Fill Line Relief Assembly.
and RL is an abbreviation for Relief Line. SC stands for Scattering Chamber.
Spectrometer Windows Initially the scattering chamber will have two aluminum windows, one for each side of the beam line.
Target Cell Failure This is a multiple loop system. If a target cell fails, the remaining
targets will have their insulating vacuum spoiled.
The two spectrometer windows are both made from aluminum. Each window is
seven in high and subtends 170 ◦ on the 43 in outer diameter of the scattering chamber.
This window is made of 0.016 in thick 5052 H34 aluminum foil.
The scattering chamber was evacuated (and cycled several times) with both windows
covered by the same 0.016 in material. The foil forms regularly spaced vertical ridges
when placed under load. The window had an inter-ridge spacing of 3 inches. If the
window is treated as a collection of smaller rectangular windows which have the full
vertical height of 7 inches and the inter-ridge spacing as a width, then stress formulas
predict that the 0.016 in material would reach ultimate stress at a pressure higher than 35
PSI. There is a gate valve between the scattering chamber and the beam entrance (exit)
pipe. Both valves will be closed automatically in the event that the chamber vacuum
begins to rise and an FSD will be caused ( this is done via a relay output of the scattering
chamber vacuum gauge). If either valve is closed an FSD will result.
In the unlikely event of a catastrophic vacuum failure, it is important that the relief
line of the targets be sized such that it can handle the mass flow caused by the sudden
expansion of its cryogenic contents due to exposure to the heat load. A calculation has
been performed which models the response of the system to sudden vacuum failure. That
calculation indicates that the relief plumbing is sized such that the flow remains subsonic
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
76
at all times and that the maximum pressure in the cells remains well below their bursting
point.
The calculation was performed by following methods in an internal report from the
MIT Bates laboratory [5]. The formulas and algorithm in the report were incorporated in
two computer codes and those codes were able to reproduce results in the report (hence
they represent an accurate implementation of the Bates calculation).
The calculation can be logically broken into two parts. First, the mass evolution rate
is calculated from geometric information and the properties of both the target material
and vacuum spoiling gas. The principal results of this first stage are the heat transferred
per unit area, q, the boil off time, tb , and the mass evolution rate, w. Second, the
capability of the plumbing to handle the mass flow is checked. The principle result of
this second step is the maximum pressure in the target cell during the discharge, P1 .
The formula involved will not be repeated (readers are referred to the Bates report
for detail). The information that was used as input to the calculation is given in tables
3.3, 3.4 and 3.5.
For the calculation of the boil off rate the target was split into two pieces: the cells
plus cell block, both aluminum; and the heat exchangers plus the connecting plumbing,
all steel. The mass evolution rates for the two pieces were then added in order to find
the total mass flow rate.
Fluid and Phase
Hydrogen/Liquid
Hydrogen/Vapor
Air
Property
Temperature
Density
Specific Heat
Enthalpy of Vaporization
Temperature
Density
Viscosity
Specific Heat
Thermal Conductivity
Volume Expansivity
Temperature
Pressure
Density
Viscosity
Specific Heat
Thermal Conductivity
Volume Expansivity
Symbol
T(K)
ρ (kg/m3 )
Cp (J/(kg K))
Hv J/kg
T(K)
ρ (kg/m3 )
µ (kg/(s m))
Cp (J/(kg K))
k (W/(K m))
β K−1
T(K)
P (Torr)
ρ (kg/m3 )
µ (kg/(s m))
Cp (J/(kg K))
k (W/(K m))
β K−1
Value
22
67.67
11520
428,500
22
2.4991
1.29∗10−6
13,550
0.02
0.00366
273
760
1.224
1.8∗10−5
1005
0.0244
0.00367
Table 3.3: The properties of the gases used to calculate the heat transferred to the
target during a catastrophic vacuum failure.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Quantity
D
k
A
V
x
q
tb
w
Cell Block
Piping
Heat Exchanger
2.5 in (0.063 m)
1.5 in (0.038 m)
7 in (0.1778 m)
55 W/(K m)
6.5 W/(K m)
6.5 W/(K m)
2
2
0.146 m
0.185 (m )
0.216 m2
0.001 m3
0.0019 (m3 )
0.002 m3
0.004 in (0.0001 m) 0.065 in (0.00165 m) 0.12 in (0.003 m)
14903 W/m2
10526 W/m2
11235 W/m2
26.78 s
28.29 s
23.89 s
0.0038 kg/s
0.0045 kg/s
0.0056 kg/s
77
Total
0.510 m2
0.0054 m3
26.3 s
0.014 kg/s
(0.03 lbs/s)
Table 3.4: The geometric quantities needed for and the results of calculations of the
mass evolution rate after a catastrophic vacuum failure.
The calculation of the pressure drop includes all the plumbing up to the large relief
valve. The calculation assumes that all the mass flow is carried out the relief side of the
target gas handling system (no flow out of the fill line reliefs). The friction factor for each
diameter was taken from a Moody plot. A typical value was f = 0.017. The effective
K values, Kef f , were adjusted to the average tube inner diameter which was taken to be
0.71 in. The final Kef f value was 40. The minor losses are from bends, expansions and
contractions in piping.
The final result shows the cells subjected to 58 PSIA during the boil off, which is
comparable to the 75 PSIA pressure that the assembled cell blocks were tested at, and
is significantly below the tested pressure of the cell components.
The scattering chamber has a volume of about 2,100 l with perhaps an additional
200 l of volume in the bellows and the cryo can. If one target cell were to rupture and
the chamber were unrelieved, the chamber pressure would rise to about 2 Atm. It takes
approximately 150 seconds to bring 5 l of 22 ◦ K hydrogen to room temperature by
conductive heat transfer with the scattering chamber walls. In order that the maximum
pressure in the chamber stay near one atmosphere, it is necessary to vent one half of the
target mass in approximately one half of the total expansion time. Therefore the relief
valve for the scattering chamber should be capable of venting about three grams per
second at a low pressure difference (say two PSIG). If one considers the case where all
three targets fail at once, the vent must be capable of handling three times that amount.
A four in diameter relief valve placed near the top of the scattering chamber should be
capable of handling this rate. A rise in the chamber vacuum will stop the beam, FSD,
and cause the gate valves on either side of the scattering chamber to close.
In the unlikely event that a line which carries helium coolant were to rupture the
four in chamber relief valve is capable of handling the full coolant flow rate.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Inner Diameter Length
0.44 in tube
10 ft
0.88 in tube
10 ft
Quantity
Minor Losses
Ktotal
ef f
Average Diameter
xmax
wsonic
m
x
P2
P1
P1
78
K (Kef f )
4.64 (31.5)
2.32 (0.98)
Value
7.4
40
0.71 in
0.890
0.065 lbs/s
0.323
0.748
14.7 PSIA
58.3 PSIA
43.6 PSIG
Table 3.5: Tubing sizes, and other information needed to analyze relief line response.
The mass flow rate was 0.03 lbs/s.
3.2.3
Temperature Regulation
This is really more an issue of target stability than one of safety. However, a target
with a carefully regulated temperature will presumably not undergo worrisome pressure
changes.
Each target contains four quality temperature measurements, two Cernox resistors
and two hydrogen vapor pressure thermometers. The primary temperature regulation is
done with a dedicated temperature controller (an Oxford ITC-502) which slaves a heater
(the ”low power heater”) to the temperature read by one of the Cernox resistors. This is
a three parameter control loop (Proportional, Integral and Differential Control or PID).
In addition, the return temperature of the target systems coolant gas is used to
regulate the supply of coolant from ESR.
Finally, the heat load from the beam will be compensated in the ”active” target
loop by use of the high power heater. This is not a true regulation but rather a one for
one replacement of the beam load should the beam disappear for whatever reason. The
beam load is calculated from the target length, the beam current as read from a current
monitor and the target material.
Excursions of the target temperature outside acceptable limits will cause the control
system to take action. Finally the redundancy of temperature measurements can be used
by the control system to pick up the failure of a sensor or its readout channel. A more
complete discussion of target temperature regulation is available in Reference [6].
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
79
Target Freezing
Solid hydrogen is more dense than the liquid phase, so freezing does not endanger the
mechanical integrity of a closed system. The chief hazard is that relief routes out of the
system will become clogged with hydrogen ice, making the behavior of the system during
a warmup unpredictable. However, since we are using 15 K coolant, while the hydrogen
freezing point is about 13.8 K, the hydrogen target should not get frozen. The freezing
point of deuterium is higher than that of hydrogen and higher than the temperature of
the gas used for cooling (15 K).There is a chance that the deuterium target can freeze.
The coolant flow through the three target heat exchangers is connected in parallel
for the three target loops. The entire target system will be run so that it represents a
constant heat load on the ESR. For instance, the ESR will deliver a constant mass flow of
helium cryogen at a constant temperature, about 15 K, and the coolant will be returned
at an approximately constant but higher temperature, usually about 20 K.
The targets are always temperature regulated by temperature controllers. Also a
high power heater will be in the PID loop to compensate any large temperature fluctuations to keep the temperature constant. In the unlikely event that the target temperature
drops too low, an alarm will sound and the target operator will turn down the corresponding J-T valve(s).
3.2.4
ODH
The total volume of the targets is relatively small, with the entire scattering chamber
containing only 9,000 STP l of target fluid when all three targets are full. As the scattering chamber is located in the middle of Hall A (i.e. not in a confined area) and the
total Hall A volume is 40,000 m3 , the ODH hazard is minimal.
3.2.5
Controls
The target controls have been implemented with the EPICS control system and with
hardware very similar to that employed by the accelerator. The basic control functions
reside on a VME based single board computer. The graphical interfaces to the control
system use a PC, and also require the Hall A Hewlett Packard, HP, computer for control
(HAC) to be present as well.
All of the instrumentation for the target is downstairs in Hall A. Most of the equipment (in fact all of the 120 V AC equipment) is on an Uninterruptable Power Supply,
UPS. The items whose power is not on UPS are:
• The scattering chamber vacuum pumps and the gas panel backing pump
• The target lifting mechanism
• The target circulation fans.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
80
This is a 7 kVA zero switching time UPS which is dedicated to the target. The PC, HAC
and the counting house target X-terminal are on Uninterruptable Power as well. The
targets dedicated UPS provides 18 minutes of power at full load (or 50 min at one half
load). The status of the UPS, online or offline, is read by the control system and after
ten minutes the control system will initiate an orderly shut down of the targets.
The principal functions that the control system performs are:
Pressure Monitoring The pressure at various places in the system is monitored and
alarm states are generated if a transducer returns a value that is outside user defined
limits. High pressures will cause the small orifice solenoid valve to open and cause
an FSD.
Temperature Monitoring The temperature of the target is read from resistors and
vapor pressure bulbs and alarm states are activated when any temperature sensor
returns a value outside the user defined limits. High temperatures will cause an
FSD to occur.
Temperature Regulation The control system allows the target temperature to be
regulated. In the default operating scenario this regulation is performed by a stand
alone temperature controller.
Solenoid Valve Control The gas systems have a number of solenoid valves that must
be switched.
J-T Valve Control The flow of coolant through the heat exchangers is controlled by a
set of J-T valves. These valves control the coolant helium flow through the three
loop heat exchangers and the precool heat exchanger.
Circulation Fan Monitoring and Control The fans which circulate the target fluid
are monitored (current, voltage, frequency). The voltage supplied to the fans is
adjustable and alarm states can be set on out of range frequency, voltage or current
values.
Vacuum Monitoring The scattering chamber vacuum is monitored by the control system. Unacceptable values will generate an FSD and close the upstream and downstream scattering chamber valves.
Target Lifter The target lifting mechanism is controlled by the computer. This allows
one to place the desired target in the beam.
3.3
Authorized Personnel
The principle contacts for the cryogenic targets are listed in table 3.3. Every shift must
have a trained target operator whenever the cryogenic targets contain liquid. These
operators are trained by one of the “experts” listed in the table and certified by J.P. Chen.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Component
Chamber Vacuum
Cryogenic Target
ESR
ESR
A Staff
Ed Folts
81
#
Outside Group
7857
#
Remark
Or Technician
On Call
5036
5878
7405
MCC
Target Group
Target Group
Cryo Group
J. P. Chen
7413
M. Kuss
5064
J. H. Mitchell 7851
M. Seely
C. Keith
CHL
Cryo on Call
Table 3.6: Contact Personel for the Cryogenic Targets and Scattering Chamber
Additional documentation on the targets and the target controls is available from
J.P. Chen. In particular, reference [6] is highly recommended.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
3.4
82
The Waterfall Target
5 6
The waterfall target system provides a target for experiments on 16 O (see figure 3.1).
The conceptual design of the waterfall target system for Hall A is very similar to the one
used at Saclay [7]. The thickness of the waterfall target can be modulated by changing
the pump speed; this adds flexibility to the system and allows the user to choose the best
value according to the wanted resolution and luminosity.
The hydrogen in the water can be used for calibration purposes. Elastic scattering
from the hydrogen in the target can be used to measure and monitor the target thickness.
The counting rate in the elastic peak is directly proportional to both the beam current
and the target thickness.
Figure 3.1: The target system.
The waterfall target can be single foil or multi-foils according to the need of the
particular experiment. In fact, a modified version of this target has been built and
used for experiments at NIKHEF (a ∼ 150 mg/cm2 single-foil and a three-foil one ∼
60 × 3 mg/cm2 ). The target built for Jefferson Lab Hall A for the two commissioning
5
6
CV S revision Id: waterfall-target.tex,v 1.1 2003/06/06 17:09:04 gen Exp
Authors: Dr.No mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
83
experiments on 16 O (E89003 and E89033) is a three-foils one with thickness ranging from
∼ 130 − 200 mg/cm2 for each foil, depending on the pump speed.
The main components of the target system are:
1. The waterfall target container, also referred to as “target cell” in this document;
2. The solid target ladder and the solid targets;
3. The hydraulic system;
4. The gas system;
5. The movement system;
6. The slow-control system.
The waterfall foils are produced inside the waterfall target container, which is mounted
in the standard Hall A scattering chamber.
The water, continuously pumped from a reservoir, goes through a heat exchanger
into the target zone, and then back into the reservoir. All parts in contact with the water
are made of stainless steel. In the target zone, the water pressed through a system of
slits and holes and guided by the stainless steel bars forms one or more flat rectangular
films, which are stable due to the surface tension and to the adherence to the guiding
bars.
The thickness of the foil(s) is (to some extent) a function of the pump speed which
determines the flow rate. Once the foil is formed (there is a minimum value of the pump
speed/flow rate for this, depending on the particular target) the thickness increases with
the pump speed. The maximum pump speed depends essentially on the dimensions of
the slits and holes the water passes through.
An absolute calibration of the target thickness as a function of the pump speed needs
to be done before the experiment. One way of measuring the absolute target thickness
is to measure the raw counting rate in the spectrometer.
The target used for E89003 and E89033 was at a fixed angle during the experiments.
Therefore the waterfall target container is designed as a box with dimension of 630×68×8
mm3 .
The entrance and exit windows of the target cell are circular (40 mm in diameter)
and are made of gold-plated Be (75 µm thick) (Fig. 3.2, 3.3). Scattered particles go
through the ‘lateral’ windows, made of stainless steel (25 µm thick, dimension of 320 X
8 mm2 ). Some schematic views of the target container are shown in Figures 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
and 3.5.
The three foils are parallel and identical. Each foil is 12 mm wide, guided by two
poles each of 2 mm by 2 mm cross-section. In the direction normal to the target, the foils
are 22 mm apart. The normal direction of each foil is 30o with respect to beam line, and
the normal direction points towards H-arm. The center of each foil is shifted 1 mm along
the foil direction and towards E-arm, see Figure 3.3. The tolerance of the machining is
less than 0.2 mm.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Figure 3.2: A cutaway of the waterfall target cell.
Figure 3.3: Detailed view of the 3-waterfoils geometry.
84
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Figure 3.4: Cutaway view of the waterfall target container.
Figure 3.5: Side view of the waterfall target container.
85
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
86
A solid target ladder is attached to the bottom of the waterfall target container,
which holds up to 5 solid targets. The water coming back to the container goes through
two cylinders in contact with the side of solid target holders, providing some cooling for
solid targets.
3.4.1
The hydraulic system
The hydraulic system is a closed circuit (loop), see Fig. 3.1 and 3.6. Water is pumped
from a stainless steel water reservoir (or tank) to the target, and then back to the tank
through stainless steel tubes. In order to produce a stable film, a gear pump, magnetically
coupled to a dc motor, is used.
A tachometer which is on the pump axis measures the pump speed (turn/min), and
a flowmeter, which is placed before the entrance of the scattering chamber, measures the
flow rate. The set voltage is also read, although it is redundant. These parameters can
be used to monitor the target thickness stability.
3.4.2
The gas system
The gas system, connected with the hydraulic system, is designed to pump gas into the
waterfall target container to reduce background. Normally hydrogen gas is used. The
gas system is made of a load and discharge tube circuit to allow the removal of the air
by flushing the hydrogen into the target cell (and the water reservoir). Once the system
is full, the circuit will be closed by electro-valves.
3.4.3
The movement system
The waterfall target and the solid target ladder can, by design, both be rotated around
the central axis of the scattering chamber and be moved vertically to change the target
at the beam position. This is done by a mechanical system schematically shown in Fig.
3.1, which consists of step motors and absolute optical encoders whose precision is 0.1
mm and 0.1 degree. For E89003 and E89033 experiments, the rotation motion of the
target is not required and thus has been disabled to prevent accidental change of the
target orientation.
3.4.4
The slow-control system
The slow control system consists of two Macintosh computers, two VME crates, an ADC,
a DAC and an electronic circuit. It handles both the data acquisition and the control of
the target system. The layout is shown in Figure 3.7.
Each Macintosh computer is hosted by one VME crate. The two computers are
interconnected via an optic ethernet line (Fig. 3.8, 3.9 ). The first one (also called
MacA) is in the hall. This is the Master. It controls the electronics directly with the
slow-control program H2OCEBAF97 written in Labview. The second one (called MacB)
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Figure 3.6: The Hydraulic system: a schematic view.
87
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
88
Figure 3.7: Schematic view of the whole system.
is a slave, and is located in the counting house where it controls the target system through
MacA.
Some of the controls and monitoring can also be done manually. This provides an
independent way of controlling the target in case the computer control fails. The pump
control and the display of the flowmeter and pump speed are duplicated in the counting
house. The reading of the optical encoder can also be seen in the counting house through
a camera. A manual command of step motors is in the Hall.
3.4.5
Authorized Personnel
One of the following people can be contacted for any waterfall target problem:
Name
Evaristo Cisbani
Franco Garibaldi
Stefano Colilli
Maurizio Lucentini
Fabio Santavenere
Massimo Gricia
Mauro Iodice
Guido Urciuoli
Salvatore Frullani
Roberto Perrino
Antonio Leone
Home Institute phone
+39-6-49902847
+39-6-49902243
+39-6-49902832
+39-6-49902232
+39-6-49902232
+39-6-49902232
+39-6-49902235
+39-6-4457165
+39-6-49902234
+39-832-320504
+39-832-320504
E-Mail
[email protected]san.iss.infn.it
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
Figure 3.8: Layout of the slow control system.
89
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
90
Figure 3.9: Signals layout
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
91
The phone at Jefferson Lab is x5794.
In absence of the forementioned people please contact: Meme Liang, Arun Saha, Ed
Folts, James Proffitt or Mark Stevens, all of them at @Cebaf.gov
3.4.6
Safety Assessments
The following potential hazards have been identified:
The low voltage system
The system is supplied by 220Vac and 110Vac. There is a magneto-thermic and
differential switch at the very first entrance of the power supply. All the lines at these
voltages are kept inside the racks, and the plugs satisfy the European CE rules for these
voltages. The supply for the single devices inside the racks is all at 5VCC, 12VCC,
24VCC, except for the pump which needs 110VCC and for the Motor Drivers, which
need a special 80VCC voltage. A custom power supply unit has been built for this purpose, and this unit is kept in the so-called ”Power Supply Unit” at the bottom of the left
rack, together with the other supply units. The signal lines are low voltage (≤12VCC the
digital lines, 0-5V or 4-20mA loops the analog ones) and kept separated from the supply
lines by using different connectors and separated cables. Optocouplers have been used
for the microswitch line-in, isolated input lines have been used for the analog lines. A
potential hazard outside of the racks, is the motor cables, which must be touched only by
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL and with the power supply switched off. An 80VCC/2A
(square wave, duty cycle 0,5) current flows in these cables when motors are in stand-by
mode. This current goes up to 7A (square wave, duty cycle 0,5) when motors are moving;
these high power lines are everywhere kept separated from the low voltage lines. The
pump power supply line is kept inside the racks, and in a position that cannot be reached
unless opening the side panel of the right rack.
The gas system
This system is a potential hazard only if hydrogen is used. The volume is ∼ 10 liters.
The pressure is 1.02 atm. The target cell for gas tightening has been tested up to 2 bars.
The gas transport tubes are made of stainless steel, 6 mm in diameter. The electro-valves
are anti-deflagrant according to the USA regulations, working at low voltage (24V AC).
All the power supplies for this section are kept separate in a different rack.
The default value for the valves, which is at the released position if power supply
fails, is ”closed”. Regulating the pressure on the gas cylinder to 0.2 atm avoids the
pressure in the target cell overriding this value even in the case of valve failure. Both
the manual valve and the remote valve control require the operator to keep pressing the
button either on the front panel of the right rack, or by using the mouse button on the
corresponding icon from the computer, in order to keep the valve open. If the button is
released, the valve will go back to the default value, i.e., closed.
Any leakage from the cell would be immediately detected by the scattering chamber
vacuum measuring system. Leakages outside of the scattering chamber would spill in the
surrounding atmosphere in the Hall. However, because of the small amount due to small
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
92
gas overpressure, this should not represent a potential hazard for the people working in
the hall. In any case, there are two pressure transducers in front of the right rack; their
values can be seen both in the Hall A directly on the panel, and in the Counting House
on the computer, or on the display through the camera, which should reveal immediately
if there is any leakage.
The water system
There are about 17 liters of pure water in the circuit. The water tank, the tubes,
the target and the cell containing it, are made of stainless steel. The tubes are joined
by ”swagelok” connectors. The entrance and exit windows for beam passing through are
made of 75 µm Be; the two side windows are made of 1 mil stainless steel.
The cell has been tested up to 2 bars for gas leaks. No water leakage is expected
unless the windows of the target cell break. In this case some water, carrying some
radioactivity, goes into the scattering chamber.
The calculations performed by Geoff Stapleton show that the radiological precautions
necessary are rather low. The water should not leak into the hall drains. Measurements
at convenient intervals will be made by the radiation control group on samples, to permit
determinations of the radionuclides yields. In case of water loss or draining water, the
radiation control group has to be informed to take precautionary measurements.
The slow control system
There are no significant hazards in working with this system, due to the low voltages
and very small currents. However, one must switch the power off to the whole system
before opening and working on the system. ONLY AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL are
allowed to touch the signal lines.
The mechanical system
There are no particular risks in touching the mechanisms, except when the system
is in motion. In this case one has to beware of the cog-wheel’s movements, by keeping
his hands away; for this reason, it is FORBIDDEN to touch the moving system when
motors are moving.
3.4.7
Operating procedure
All the operations are handled by computers. Some of them can also be performed independently by mechanical switches (referred to as manually). In the following, the main
window of the slow control program running on the MacA and/or MacB display will be
referred to simply as the ”main window”.
Connection of MacB to MacA
The MacA and MacB communicate through the Timbuktu package, which implements the TCP/IP protocols over an Ethernet dedicated line. To make the connection,
following procedure outlined below:
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
93
• Switch on the MacB computer (energize the VME crate).
• Run Timbuktu on the MacB; you can select it in the Apple (top-left) menu.
• Open the connection selecting the CONTROL button after you entered the TCP/IP
number (129.57.188.20).
• Give the username H2OCEBAF and the password WATER.
The window that appears contains a ‘carbon copy’ of the MacA screen: the user in
counting room can control all the operations of MacA by using the MacB mouse and keyboard as if the MacB user were using the MacA; BE CAREFUL: the performance
is reduced due to the connection: Be patient! wait for the screen to refresh
after any action.
Startup of the system
The system startup depends on the history of the shutdown:
After a normal shutdown
In the hall,
• Go to the right side of the right rack and push the green start button of the right
box; you will hear a beeping sound;
• Go to the front of the left rack and push the green button near the emergency one;
• Wait for the MacA to be operative;
• Click on the H2OCEBAF 97 icon (the slow control program for the water target
at CEBAF), which is almost in the center of the MacA desktop. The LabView
application will run automatically and the slow control main window will be shown;
• Push the arrow button on the top-left side of this window in order to start the
program.
The first time the program is run, after MacA power on, it initializes the electronic
modules. Every time the program is run, it asks for a new initialization of the electronic
modules. Answer YES; a small window with 4 buttons appears. Press all the buttons in
order from top to bottom. When the initialization is done the main window comes back.
After an emergency shutdown
• Recognize the cause of the emergency, and fix it.
• Release the emergency button in the hall or in the counting house, depending on
which one was used for the emergency shutdown, in order to restore its operation.
The system will be energized and a beeping sound will be heard.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
94
• Push the green button near the emergency red button. The beeping sound will be
turned off.
System shutdown
The normal procedure:
• Go to the experimental hall;
• Close the program on the MacA; shutdown the MacA;
• Move to the right side of the Right rack and push the red stop button of the right
box (the left box is not used).
The emergency procedure:
This procedure is really an EMERGENCY procedure; do not use it for normal operation. Push the emergengy red button in front of the left rack if you are in the hall,
or the one in the counting room on the top of the computer monitor. In order to restart
the system follow the startup procedure described above.
Waterfall activating
• Check that the slow control program is running on MacA and optional on MacB;
• Check if the pump is on, and in case it isn’t turn it on from the switch in front
of the right rack or from the switch in front of ”Pump Command Module” in the
counting room
• Increase the pump speed to desired value in the main window of MacA or MacB
(right side);
• Wait about 20 minutes to stabilize the water flow.
Empty target procedure
From the counting house: use the slide on the right of the main window of MacB
to set the pump speed to minimum, then switch off the pump by turning off the switch
on the front panel of the ”pump Command Module” which is located over the MacB
monitor;
or
In the hall: one can set the pump speed to minimum either from MacA by using
the slide on the right of the main window, or use the button on the front panel of the
right rack, and then turn the pump switch on the right rack to “off” position.
The reactivating of the pump needs to be done from the same switch used to deactivate it; see ”Waterfall Activating Procedure”.
Target movement procedure
After the slow control program H2OCEBAF97 is activated,
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
95
• Press the motor button on the bottom of the main window of the computer; a
motor control window will appear;
• Select the type of movement (up/down, rotation);
• Select the target or the angle; the Move button should be activated if everything
is O.K.;
• Press the Move button; a warning message reminds you to be sure of your action.
Be sure that the beam is off!!
• During the movement watch the two displays showing the current position and the
one to be reached.
• When the final point is reached, a message will inform you of the success of the
operation. Otherwise a warning message will tell you about the faulty status.
(Eventual) gas flow operating procedures
The gas filling of the target cell, when empty, has to be done in Hall A: on the right
rack there is a self-explaining panel. The washing button has to be pushed (for about
15 minutes) to open the inlet and outlet valves in order to allow the gas to replace the
air which fills the target cell.
In order to refill the cell, in the case of very small leakages (remember that the
pressure must be about 1.02 Atm), push the pressure bottom of the main window. The
pressure control window will appear. The operation is self-explaining. Just remember
that the gas flows only if you keep the button pressed.
Calibration of the movement system
For ‘normal’ operation the user does not need any additional information about the
movement system. The following calibration tables (target and angle positions versus
encoder values) are useful for checking purposes; notice that if the target changes, the
calibration has to be performed again. The following values are OK for the waterfall,
carbon, beryllium, iron target which was installed in July ’96.
Target
Water
Up Survey
Carbon
Beryllium
Iron
Low Survey
Encoder Position
17301
38528
42949
47371
51792
56213
The vertical scale factor is: 1 encoder unit = 5.74 µm.
The angular correspondence is:
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
96
Angle
0 degree
30.533 degree
Encoder Position
27361
26479
that means: 1 encoder unit = 0.035 degree.
When a new calibration is required7 only the expert(s) is(are) allowed to perform
the following steps:
• Go to the hall;
• Run the calibration program (”setlimits.vi”) on MacA in order to allow the computer to get the limits of the movement ranges (up/down and rotation if enabled);
this procedure takes several minutes;
• Rotate the target to two angles and take note of the encoder values;
• Write these value on a scrapbook;
• Select sequentially the 6 targets (waterfall and the solid ones) and take note of the
encoders values;
• Note ALL the previous and new values in the logbook,
• Move.
3.4.8
Troubleshooting
Movement failure: automatic shutdown
If one of the 4 second-level microswitches (just after the first-level ones) is hit during the
movement, the motor power supply will be turned off immediately. If this happens, a
beeping sound will inform you that the motor movements are stopped and inhibited. To
restore the operation,
1. Recognize the cause of the trouble (for example the MacA computer crashed), and
try to fix it as much as possible (in the previous example restart the MacA and the
slow control program);
2. Remove the inhibit; there is a switch in the left side of the lef t rack; switch it in
such a way as to turn off the corresponding light, then push the green button in
the front of the lef t rack, near the emergency button, in order to switch off the
beeping sound. At the same time check that the motors are not moving
(watch the 2 encoder displays in front of the lef t rack);
7
particularly, a new calibration has to be done after the substitution of the complete target castle, if
the vertical alignment values are changed
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
97
3. Now you can move the motor only manually: switch on the 80 volts manual motor
power supply (the switch is in front of Power Supply Module, at the bottom of lef t
rack);
4. Turn the remote/manual knob to manual position (the knob is in front of Motor
Drive module, at the center of lef t rack);
5. Select the direction, opposite to the one which caused the alarm (the switches are
in front of Motor Drive Module);
6. Handle the joystick carefully, get ready to switch off the manual motor power
supply if anything goes wrong.
7. As soon as the trouble has been fixed, restore the security, turning on
the switch on the left side of the lef t rack (the corresponding red light
must be on). This is the same switch of step number 2. If you forget
this step the security microswitches will be disabled and you risk serious
damage to the movement system.
Emergency: Use of Movement System with the Cranks
If it is not possible, for any reason, to use the motors to move the target there is
the chance of moving it manually, using some cranks. This procedure can be performed
ONLY BY AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL, because of the RISKS TO THE TARGET.
The procedure is the following:
• Remove the motors from their seats;
• Take the two cranks which are in the wooden box number 1, near the wall in Hall
A;
• Mount the cranks instead of the motors;
• If the encoders are working, one can position the target by reading the encoder
values on the display and matching the values with the look-up table which is in
the manual;
• If encoders are not working, the alignment must be done by matching the signals
on top of the scattering chamber.
Encoder substitution procedure
First of all, consider that the encoders are very delicate mechanisms, and must be
carefully handled; please NEVER use hammers or similar tools unless you want to risk
destroying them; moreover, do not apply torques directly on their axes, and turn them
only by hand. For the substitution, execute the following procedure:
1. Switch the whole system off;
2. Remove the cable from the broken encoder;
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98
3. Remove the cylindrical lead shielding which is around the encoder;
4. Remove the three screws at the base of the encoder, on the stainless steel ring;
5. Now you can remove the encoder.
It has its stainless steel ring fixed on the base;
6. Remove this ring from the encoder, by unscrewing it;
7. Take the spare encoder from the wooden box number 1, near the wall;
8. Without remounting the encoder, you must realign the target to the reference position 8 , by turning the top of the scattering chamber with your hands and aligning
the reference point with the alignment signs on top of the scattering chamber; this
can be done manually, after removing the motor corresponding to that movement.
When you remove the vertical movement motor the target could drop
down, which may severely damage the integrity of the target; for this
reason you have to block the cog-wheels by putting something among
the mechanisms before removing the motor. Be extremely careful when
performing this procedure.
9. Now connect the new encoder to the cable, and turn on the power supply to the
system. Check the value of the encoder position, which readout is displayed at
the bottom of the left rack: this value must match with 27361 (rotation) or 17301
(up/down) 9 . If values do not match, then turn MANUALLY the encoder axis,
until the display value is at the desired one. When done, you can remount the
encoder on top of the scattering chamber.
10. Switch off the system;
11. Put the stainless steel ring back on the encoder, as it was mounted before;
12. Re-check the encoder value, and realign it if it is changed;
13. On top of the scattering chamber, in the place where the encoder must be mounted,
you will see two pairs of cog-wheels. Turn gently the two wheels of the upper pair,
one CW the other CCW, in order to charge the small spring among them; then,
keeping this spring in charge, position the encoder back on its place, and fix it by
putting back its screws.
14. Connect the cable;
8
The reference position must be detected once when installing the target and once when checking the
alignments of the reference points with the metric rulers on the top of the scattering chamber. Here we
use the reference position, the waterfall target position and at zero degrees angle. Changing the target
block, a new reference point must be detected.
9
One single encoder step error means an offset error of about 0.04 degrees, or 0.006 mm.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
99
15. Check again the encoder value reading: if it is still 27361 (rotation) or 17301
(up/down) you are OK, otherwise you must remove the encoder and repeat the operations from the step 9. When the value is correct, you can remount the shielding;
16. Re-connect the cables;
17. Turn the system on;
18. Check if everything is OK, by moving the target up-down (and CW-CCW if rotation is enabled ) and watching the encoder reading values, which must change
consequently: if everything is OK, then there is no need of a new calibration, and
the system can work again; otherwise, you must understand which one of the above
steps has failed, and go back to that starting point.
The water pump computer-control does not work
Check the following items:
• The switch above the MacB monitor must be in the ON position;
• The switch on the back of the MacB rack in the counting room must be in the
REMOTE position;
• The pump speed switch in the front of the right rack in Hall A must be in the
REMOTE position;
• The pump speed knob in the front of the right rack in Hall A must be at 60; notice
that this knob should not be moved; it controls the maximum speed of the water
pump. 10
10
The scale is in %.
CHAPTER 3. TARGETS
3.5
11
12
Polarized 3He Target
100
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Chapter 4
High Resolution Spectrometers
(HRS)
4.1
Overview
1 2
The Hall A spectrometers and associated instrumentation are designed to perform high
resolution and high accuracy experiments. The goal is to achieve a missing mass resolution of ∼ 200-500 keV to clearly identify the nuclear final state. An absolute accuracy
of ∼ 1% is also required by the physics program planned in the Hall, which implies ∼
10−4 accuracy in the determination of particle momenta and ∼ 0.1 mr in the knowledge
of the scattering angle.
The instruments needed are a high resolution electron spectrometer (HRES) and a
high resolution hadron spectrometer (HRHS), both with a maximum momentum capability matching the TJNAF beam energy, and large angular and momentum acceptance.
A layout of the 4 GeV/c High Resolution Electron Spectrometer is shown on Figures 4.2 and 4.1. Its main design characteristics are given in the attached table. The spectrometer has a vertical bending plane and 45◦ bending angle. The QQDQ design includes
four independent superconducting magnets, three current-dominated cos2θ quadrupoles
and one iron-dominated dipole with superconducting racetrack coils. The second and
third quadrupoles of each spectrometer have sufficiently similar field requirements that
they are of identical design and construction. The overall optical length, from target to
focal plane, is 23.4 m. Optically, the HRHS is essentially identical to HRES. In fact the
two spectrometers can be used interchangeably to detect either positively or negatively
charged particles as needed by any particular experiment.
The support structure includes all system elements which bear the weight of the
various spectrometer components and preserve their spatial relationship as required for
45◦ vertical bending optics.
The alignment and positioning system includes all the elements which measure and
adjust the spatial relationship. The support structure consists of the fabricated steel
1
2
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101
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.1: A side view of the Hall A HRS spectrometer.
102
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
103
Figure 4.2: A bird’s eye view of the Hall A end-station at TJNAF.
components which support the magnets, detector, shield house and associated equipment.
It is composed of the box beam, which supports the outer elements in fixed relative
position atop the dipole; the dipole support bracket, upon which the dipole rests on the
jacks; the cradle, upon which the dipole rests through the vertical positioning system,
VPS; and a portion of the shield house load through the inboard legs of the gantry; the
gantry, which supports the shield house and the magnet power supplies; and the bogies,
which support the cradle-gantry assembly and slide on the floor plates and provide the
driving power to move the two spectrometer arms.
The detector package is supported on the box beam and is surrounded by the shield
house. It must perform two functions, tracking and particle identification, PID. The most
important capability of focusing spectrometers is measuring precisely the momenta and
entrance orientations of the tracks. Momenta resolution of 10−4 is obtainable, consistent
with the resolution of the incident beam.
A particle traversing the detector stack (Figure 4.3) encounters two sets of horizontal
drift chambers (x,y) with two planes of 368 wires in each chamber. The track resolution
is ∼ 100 µm. From the chamber information both positions and angles in the dispersive
and transverse directions can be determined. The information from these chambers is
the principal input of the tracking algorithms.
The chambers are followed by a scintillator hodoscope plane designated S1. This
plastic scintillator array provides the timing reference for the drift chambers, and is also
used in trigger formation and in combination with a second hodoscope pair it can provide
time of flight particle identification. These scintillators can also be used to perform crude
tracking.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
104
Figure 4.3: The electron spectrometer detector stack.
The next element encountered by a particle is a gas threshold Cerenkov detector.
This is used for particle identification. In the hadron spectrometer this gas threshold
Cerenkov detector can be swapped against an Aerogel detector, with a similar function.
The second hodoscope plane, S2, is located directly behind the gas Cerenkov. Its
function is essentially the same as that of S1. In the hadron spectrometer an option
exists to have this hodoscope pair be preceded by a third chamber, to improve tracking.
Each of the two spectrometers have gas and Aerogel Cerenkov detectors which can be
used when they are in electron detection mode.
The final elements in the detector stack on HRSE are the pre-shower and the lead
glass shower calorimeter. This is used for energy determination and PID.
The hadron detector is shown schematically in Figure 4.4. It consists of two sets
of (x,y) vertical drift chambers identical to those of the electron arm. The remaining
part of the detection system is used to define the level 1 trigger, as well as for particle
identification and timing. It consists of three minimally segmented planes of scintillation
counters equipped with photomultipliers at both ends, and it includes Cerenkov counters
(gas CO2 and Aerogel).
In addition, a proton polarimeter is installed in the back of the detector package
to measure the polarization of the proton using a segmented carbon analyzer up to 60
cm in thickness to allow measurements over a wide range of proton energies. A pair
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.4: The hadron spectrometer detector stack.
105
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
106
of front and a pair of rear straw chambers determine the incident and scattered angles,
respectively. The third scintillation counter, located at the rear end, provides the trigger
for the polarimeter. The polarimeter detectors are dimensioned to accept a 20◦ cone of
scattered protons.
Several support systems are necessary in addition to the basic components mentioned
above. They include gas supply systems for the wire chambers, high voltage supplies,
readout electronics, a second level trigger, software for data analysis and testing, and a
remotely controllable mechanical system.
As for the electron spectrometer, all detectors are mounted on a single rigid carriage
along with their associated electronics. The FPP components are mounted on an FPP
subframe for installation and removal as a unit. The trigger electronics are located next
to the detectors, as for the electron arm.
To reduce the resolution degrading effects of multiple scattering, the entire interior
of the spectrometer from the pivot to the detector hut is a vacuum vessel. The ends of
this evacuated volume are capped by relatively thin vacuum windows.
As mentioned, subsystems will be discussed in more detail in the next three sections. The remainder of this section will describe some features common to the two
spectrometers, then the following major sections will be devoted to the specifics that are
not common.
4.1.1
Safety with Regards to the Spectrometer
The principle concern with the spectrometers is that they are large, and have associated vacuum, hydraulic, cryogenic and magnet systems all of which can be potentially
dangerous.
The bogies which move the massive 1200 ton spectrometers must be carefully operated. Inspection of the wheels to ensure there is no debris which the wheels could
ride over is mandatory. Similarly personnel need to be aware that the spectrometers are
moving so that no one inadvertently gets trapped.
The vacuum systems associated with the spectrometers are essentially pressure vessels. Care should be exercised so as not to puncture the windows.
The magnets themselves are installed inside cryostats. These vessels are exposed to
high pressures and are therefore equipped with safety relief valves and burst discs.
The hydraulic system that operates the vertical positioning system VPS and the
horizontal positioning system HPS operates at high pressure, 3000 - 5000 psi. Therefore
one should be careful when operating those systems.
The cryogenic system operates at elevated pressure at 4K. One must guard against
cold burns and take the normal precautions with pressure vessels when operating this
system. Only WBS7 are permitted to install and take out U tubes.
The magnets have a great deal of stored energy as they are large inductors. Always
make sure people are clear of them and that the dump resistor is attached to the magnet.
There are several major safety concerns with regards to the detectors, namely 1)
flammable gas located in the VDC and FPP, 2) ODH hazard due to CO2 in the Cerenkov
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
107
counter, 3) high voltage due to the photo multipliers on the various detectors and 4)
a thin vacuum window separating the detector array from the vacuum system in the
spectrometers. The clean agent fire suppression system, while installed to suppress fires,
can also be a safety hazard. It is possible for an individual to drop down alongside the
box beam to the gantry roof inside the shield house. This area, although technically not
a confined space, could conceivably become one in the event that the clean agent system
was attached. Personnel should have a 5 minute air pack with them in the event they
must enter the area alongside the box beam to the gantry roof inside the shield house.
4.1.2
Hall A Vacuum System
The Hall A vacuum system consists of 5 separate but interconnected subsystems. The
largest is designed to supply the Hall A HRS with a self contained 5 × 10−6 Torr vacuum
that enables both spectrometers to be pumped down from atm. in a few hours. The
target vacuum system is designed to maintain a 1 × 10−6 Torr in order to minimize
contamination and provide an insulating vacuum for the cryo target. Rough insulating
vacuum for the 4 superconducting magnets is provided by a 360 cf m Roots type blower
that can be connected to each magnet. The beam line vacuum is maintained by 1 `/s
ion pump system used in the accelerator ring and a small turbo pump located near the
target. The final subsystem is a differential pumping station located near the target exit
port.
Spectrometer Vacuum System
The spectrometer vacuum system is shown in Figure 4.5. Vacuum for the HRS is supplied
by an Alcatel 880 `/s Turbo pump backed by a Balzers 360 cf m Roots type Blower.
This Blower, via a special manifold, also supplies the roughing vacuum to the HRS at
the Dipole Inlet Transition. The first Turbo is mounted on the lower side of the Dipole
entrance transition. The roughing port is also located on this transition, on the top side.
The upper turbo is located on the lower side of the window transition.
Vacuum readouts and interlock outputs are supplied by five (5) HPS series 421 Cold
Cathode gauges and seven (7) series 275 Mini-Convectron gauges. In addition to these
there will also be a FIsons Micromass 386 RGA head installed in the system for diagnostic
purposes. Most of this instrumentation will be located on the Turbo pump manifold (for
detailed information see Figure 4.5).
Powered valves, instrumentation and pumps will be controlled and powered at the
Vacuum System equipment rack located on each respective spectrometer on the gantry
platform. Selective equipment will also be controllable from the Hall A counting house.
Chamber
The HRS vacuum chamber consists of an associated vacuum window, a sieve slit
and Q1 transition, Q1 to Q2 transition, Spool section, Dipole transition, Dipole to Q3
transition, and the Q3 to exit window assembly. The spectrometer vacuum is contained
by a .007 kapton window at the entrance and a .004 titanium window at the exit.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.5: HRS vacuum system.
108
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
109
Target Vacuum System
Vacuum for the target chamber is supplied by an Alcatell 880 `/s Turbo pump backed by
an Alcatell 21 cf m 2 stage vane pump. The Turbo is mounted on the lower ring of the
Target Chamber to one side so as not to interfere with the Target Chamber windows.
The same instrumentation is used here as on the spectrometer.
Powered valves, instrumentation and pumps will be controlled and powered at the
Vacuum System equipment rack located on the access Balcony. Selective equipment will
also be controllable from the Hall A counting house.
Magnet Vacuum System
Vacuum for the magnet insulating vacuum is provided by the Cryo pumping effects of
each individual magnet.
All controls for the Magnets are manual as we expect no problem after initial pump
down.
The insulating vacuum for each magnet is self contained within the magnet.
Beam Line Vacuum System
Vacuum for the entrance beam line is supplied by 65 `/s Balzers turbo pumps, the first
of which is located on the E P chamber, and the second located 3 m upstream of the
target chamber. Both turbos are equipped with a HPS 7 Series 275 mini Convectron
gauge and a HPS series 421 Cold Cathode gauge located near the balcony.
Vacuum readouts and relay outputs for interlocks are supplied by HPS series 421
Cold Cathode gauges. In addition to these there will also be Convectron gauges. Most
of this instrumentation will be located on the Turbo pump manifold.
Powered valves, instrumentation and pumps will be controlled and powered at the
Vacuum System equipment rack located on the Balcony. Selective equipment will also
be monitored from the Hall A counting house. All control is by Accelerator in the MCC.
Beam Exit Vacuum System
Vacuum for the target chamber is supplied by an Alcatell 880 `/s Turbo pump backed
by an Alcatell 21 cf m 2 stage vane pump which maintains a 1x10−4 vacuum on the exit
beam pipe.
Between the target chamber and the exit beam pipe there is a .007 in kapton window
that has a .0375 in hole in it at the beam spot. This window acts as a differential pumping
station.
Also between the target chamber and the exit beam pipe is an 8 in air actuated gate
valve that is operated from the MCC.
Vacuum readouts and interlocks outputs are supplied by an HPS 7 Series 275 mini
Convectron and an HPS series 421 Cold Cathode gauge which are located near the
balcony.
Controls are interlocked to the beam.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
110
The chamber is made of a low mass aluminum corrugated vacuum tube of 1 m
diameter.
At the exit point of the exit beam pipe is a beam diffuser that consists of 2 .025
in beryllium windows with a water filled cavity between them for cooling. The water is
circulated through the cavity by a water cooling system located on the Hall floor, and is
interlocked through the FSD system with 2 flow switches, one on the supply and one on
the return line.
Due to high radiation levels at the exit beam pipe all seals in this area are metal.
Hazards of Vacuum Systems
Hazards associated with the vacuum system are due to rapid decompression in case of a
window failure. Loud noise can cause hearing loss. To mitigate the hazard, all personnel
in the vicinity of the large chamber with a window are required to wear ear protection
when the chamber is under vacuum. Warning signs must be posted at the area.
The scattering chamber is equipped with a large 10 mil aluminum window that
allows the spectrometers to swing from 12.5◦ to 165◦ on the EA and 12.5◦ to 140◦ on
the HA. In order to protect this window when the Hall is open, lexan window guards are
installed.
At the inlet of the sieve slit a Møller 8” diameter 7 mil kapton window is provided
to separate the target chamber from the spectrometers.
Finally, under the detectors, a 4 mil titanium window is provided. Eventually this
will be replaced with a low mass mylar/kevlar window.
The 1 `/s vac ion and the cold cathode gauges operate at several KV; consequently
there is also a shock hazard.
Additionally, all vacuum vessels and piping are designed as pressure vessels.
4.1.3
The High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS)
The HRS is composed of three superconducting quadrupole magnets, Q1, Q2, and Q3,
and one superconducting dipole magnet. The large quadrupoles were manufactured for
TJNAF by SIEMENS, the small quadrupole by SACLAY, while the dipole was built for
TJNAF by WANG NMR. The quadrupole magnets are referred to as Q1, Q2, and Q3,
where a particle first traverses Q1, then Q2 and the dipole magnet and finally traverses
Q3.
The magnet system is followed by a large steel and concrete detector hut, in which
all detector elements reside. Most of the detector elements have been built by universities
involved in the Hall A physics program.
The HRS magnet system is the cornerstone of the Hall A activities. Many of the
experiments approved in Hall A center on physics at high resolution and other short-range
phenomena, and rely on a spectrometer able to momentum analyze charged particles up
to very high momenta. The design value for the maximum momentum accessible to the
HRS magnet system is 4 GeV/c.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
111
Magnets and Power Supplies
The HRS magnet’s are all superconducting and hence their coils must be maintained at
cryogenic temperatures during operations. The LHe required by the magnets is supplied
by the End Station Refrigerator, ESR.
All the HRS magnets cryogenic services are supplied through the overhead cryogenic
lines. The distribution network begins at the distribution box over the pivot. This box
is connected to the rest of the network via the flexible transfer lines over the pivot. The
network is adjacent to the upstairs catwalk of the HRS.
Cryogenic information about each magnet is available on the control screens in the
counting house, one for each magnet. Normally during run periods the control screens
are sent upstairs to the Hall A counting house and information on all the HRS magnets
is available on the HRS control screen located in the center of the main console. The
control of all magnets is described in a following Subsection.
The power supplies for the magnets are located on the gantry balcony adjacent to
the magnets. The supplies are all cooled with LCW.
The front panels of the power supplies are interlocked. Under no circumstances
should the front panel of any supply be opened by anyone other than authorized personnel. There is a keyed electrical interlock located in the Hall A counting house main
console to prevent the power supplies from being energized at inappropriate times. There
are also signs posted listing the dangers of high magnetic fields.
The control interface for the power supplies is available through the HRS control
screen in the Hall A counting house.
Personnel
In the event that problems arise during operation of the magnets, qualified personnel
should be notified. This includes any prolonged or serious problem with the source of
magnet cryogens (the ESR). On weekends and after hours there will be a designated
individual on call for magnet services. Any member of the Hall A engineering group is
qualified to deal with unusual magnet situations but in the event of serious problems the
technician on call should be contacted.
Quadrupole Magnets
The quadrupoles provide some of the focusing properties of the spectrometer and to a
large extent its acceptance. Operating limits imposed on the quads are as follows: 1850A
for Q2 and Q3 and 3250A for Q1.
All three quadrupoles for the HRS spectrometer are warm iron superconducting
magnets. The soft iron around the superconducting coil enhances the field at the coil
center and reduces stray fields. The basic parameters for the first quadrupole, Q1, are
an effective length of 0.9 m, useful aperture of 0.3 m and a field gradient of 9.5 T/m. To
achieve the lowest possible angle setting of the HRS spectrometer (with respect to the
beam line) the incident electron beam passes through a notch in the outer yoke of Q1
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
112
when the spectrometer is at its smallest angle of 12.5◦ . The other two quadrupoles Q2
and Q3, are essentially identical with an effective (magnetic) length of about 1.8 meter,
a useful aperture of 0.6 m and a field gradient of 3.5 T/m.
The maximum operating currents (assuming a 4 GeV/c momentum particle) for the
quadrupoles are about 3000 A, 1700 A, and 1600 A, for Q1, Q2, and Q3, respectively.
This will render pole field values of 1.2, 1.0, and 1.0 T, respectively. The energy stored
in the quadrupole fields is sufficient to cause an unrecoverable quench if all the energy
stored is dumped into the magnets. Therefore a quench protection circuit is incorporated.
However, a quench can only happen if the cryomagnets have a helium level below the
coil 60% during operation.
The operating current to the Q1 quadrupole coils is provided by Danfysik System
8000 power supplies, which can operate up to 3500 A current and 5 V. The power supplies
will be cooled with a combined maximum water flow of 45 liters per minute.
In addition to the main quadrupole windings, all quadrupoles have multipole windings. To further optimize focusing properties of the HRS magnet system, it was intended
to operate including some of these multipole trim coils in order to reduce higher order
aberrations. The operating current for these multipole corrections is small, only (the multipole corrections are typically less than 2% of the main quadrupole field), of order 50 A,
and will be provided by thirty two Lakeshore power supplies. These power supplies can
operate up to 100 A current and 30 V voltage. Since the sextupoles were inadvertently
installed rotated 90 ◦ from their correct orientation, these trim coils are now considered
useless and there are at present no plans to use them.
Cryogenic Procedures
All cryogenics control is handled by WBS7. The cryo control coordinator can be reached
at the CHL (x7405) or by calling the MCC.
First Time Startup Check List.
See attached check lists for all quadrupole and dipole magnets (Tables 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3).
Dipole Magnet
The dipole, by virtue of its field index, provides both dispersion and focusing. The
present operations envelope states that the supply for the electron dipole may not be
operated at a current above 1800 A (4.4 GeV/c). The supply for the hadron dipole may
not be operated above 1200 A (3.2 GeV/c).
The dipole for the HRS spectrometer is a superconducting, cryostable magnet. Its
basic parameters are an effective length of 6.6 m, a bend radius of 8.4 m, and a gap width
of 25 cm. It is configured to achieve a 45 degree bending angle for 4 GeV/c momentum
particles at a central field excitation of 1.6 T. For the HRS dipole to reach 1.6 T an
operating current of about 1500 A is required.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
113
The dipole has been designed to achieve cryostability up to a field of 2 T, and
this property has been extensively tested up to a field of 1.6 T. The cryostable coils
are equipped with an energy removal circuit to cover the possibility of an unrecoverable
quench. However, this can only happen if the helium level drops below the coil during
operation. The current to the coils will be provided by a Dynapower System power
supply, which can operate up to 2000 A and 10 V. This power supply is located on the
gantry beside the dipole, and will be cooled with a maximum water flow of 35 liters per
minute. The flow of the magnet cooling water will be regulated by flow meters installed
on the floor of Hall A. The total water flow needed to cool the 4 power supplies for the
HRS magnet system (dipole and quadrupoles) amounts to 80 liters per minute, with a
supply pressure of cooling water for Hall A of 100 psi.
4.1.4
Operation of the HRS Magnets
Introduction
This is an abbreviated operating manual for the HRS superconducting magnets
specifically designed for Hall A experimenters. It provides instructions for setting currents, invoking NMR field regulation and general system monitoring. Curious readers
are directed to the references for more in-depth operating instructions and other technical manuals. Copies of the following supporting documents are available in the Hall A
Control Room.
References
WANG NMR Dipole Operation Manual Power Supply
Dynapower
User Manual
Appendix
NMR Tesla meter
Appendix
NMR Field REgulation
Siemens/Fug
Q2/Q3 Power Supply Manual
Saclay/Danfusik
Q1 Powersupply Manual
TOSP
HRS Dipole
TOSP
HRS Quadrupole Q1
TOSP
HRS Quadrupole Q2, Q3
HRS
SC Dipole Magnet Safety Review Vol. 2
HRS
SC Quad Safety Review Vol. 1
Starting Hall A Controls The following is an abbreviated operational manual for the
magnets supplied by Javier Gomez.
On hac x-terminal
Account: hacuser
Password: hacuser
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
114
Circuit Parameters:
Imax = 1800 A, L = 2.52H, Tau(slow) = 420 s, 640 MITS
Rdish = dump resistor + cable resistance = total resistance
Rtotal = .0045 + .0015 = .006 Ω
Rdump .134 Ω , L= 2.55 H, Tau(fast) = 19 s, 29 MITS
Magnet Dipole
signature, date
Arm (Circle one)-Electron Arm, Hadron Arm
Megger check of coil @ 250 V DC
Visual inspection walk through
Set water inlet pressure to 100 psi
Coil A Trip Voltage (1.2V+) value
Coil B Trip Voltage (1.2V-) value
Magnet Lead A Trip (1.2V+)
Magnet Lead B Trip (70mV) value
Magnet Leads are not bipolar and only work in the PS forward polarity.
Magnet lead A must be connected to the PS+
Level Trip (70%) value
Magnet Flow A Trip (60 SLPM) value
Magnet Flow B Trip (60 SLPM) value
Operational Test of trips
PS overcurrent trip (2000A)
See manual for voltage setting and gain (4V=800A)
Magnet Ready for Operation
Table 4.1: Hall A Dipole Magnet Check List (15 August 1996)
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Circuit Parameters:
Rext = 0.075 Ω, L = 25 mH, Tau = 0.3 s, Vthreshold = .1V Imax = 3250A
Magnet (Circle one) - Q1,
Arm (Circle one) - Electron Arm, Hadron Arm
Visual inspection walk through
Set water pressure at 100 psi inlet
Coil A Trip Voltage + value 25mV
Coil B Trip Voltage (-) value 25 mV
Magnet Lead A Trip (+) Voltage 80 mV
Magnet Lead B Trip (-) Voltage 80 mV
Level Trip percent 980%)
Magnet Flow A Trip (30 SLPM+) setting
Magnet Flow B Trip (30 SLPM-) setting
Operational test of trips
Magnet Ready for Operation
Table 4.2: Hall A Q1 Quadrupole Magnet Check List (15 August 1996)
Circuit Parameters:
Rext = .125 Ω, Tau = 3 s, Quench Vthreshold = .1V, Imax = 1850A
Magnet (Circle one) - Q2, Q3
Arm (Circle one)-Electron Arm, Hadron Arm
Visual inspection walk through
Meggelr Magnet @ 250 V DC
Set water pressure at 100 psi inlet
Coil A Trip Voltage (+) value
Coil B Trip Voltage (-) value
Magnet Lead A Trip (+) Voltage
Magnet Lead B Trip (-) Voltage
Magnet Lead Trip (trim) Voltage
Level Trip percent (80%)
Magnet Flow A Trip (50 SLPM+) setting
Magnet Flow B Trip (50 SLPM-) setting
Magnet Flow trim Trip (3.6 SLPM) setting
Operational test of trips
Magnet Ready for Operation
Table 4.3: Hall A Q2/Q3 Quadrupole Magnet Check List (15 August 1996)
115
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
116
Type: HAC xt or HAC hp (as per instructions when you log-on). A Hall-A Main
Control Window pops up, and all subsystem control windows can be accessed via pull
down menus from there.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
117
Figure 4.6: Magnet Portion of Main Hall A Control Screen.
4.2
4.2.1
Field Monitoring
3 4
Simple Spectrometer Field Setting (Autopilot Mode)
(All you need when everything is working and power supplies are turned on and ready
to go.)
On the Hall A main control screen there is a rectangular box for each spectrometer that
looks similar to the illustration (see Figure 4.6).
This box displays a brief summary of the status of the spectrometer magnets and
their cryogenic systems. The blue fields (with white numbers) give readbacks of the
magnetic fields and currents in each magnet. The black fields also give readbacks, however
in this case if the text appears green those parameters are OK while if they are red then
that parameter is out of tolerance and may indicate a fault condition. For example if the
helium level goes below a certain point the magnet will be automatically turned off. In
some cases it may be desirable to monitor certain critical quantities on a strip chart (e.g.
Magnet settings). A strip chart tool is available for this purpose from the bottom of the
main control screen.
To set the spectrometers for a given value of central momentum (P0) type the
desired P0 value into the yellow P0 SET box and hit return. The magnets will be
automatically set to the correct values. All green numbers in the P0 column indicates that
the desired field or current settings have been reached. Caution: Re dipoles, in general
3
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CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Teslameter
Slow Controls
MUX 2031
MUX 2032
118
Purcell Gap Probes
(Group 1)
Spares
Spare Channels
MUX 2031
Gap Probes
Spares
Vacuum
Box
(Group 0)
Figure 4.7: Basic layout of NMR system
it’s a bad idea to assume that at the first instant that the P0 display turns green that the
desired field has been reached and you can start taking data. Stable field is in general not
achieved for from 15 to 30 minutes after reaching the nominal desired field. This settling
time depends on the magnet (Hadron is slower than Electron) and the magnitude of the
field change (small changes settle faster than big changes). Experimenters are advised to
observe both the field reading and current reading on the magnet in question and verify
that things are stable to their satisfaction before proceeding.
4.2.2
Dipole Field Monitoring Electron Arm
(see special instructions for running the Hadron Dipole in field regulation mode)
Basic Setup
Each spectrometer dipole magnet is equipped with a Metrolab PT 4025 NMR Teslameter, several field probes, and multiplexers (to allow switching between the probes).
Details of the operation and theory of operation for the Teslameter can be found in its
user manual, a copy of which is available in the the counting house. The basic layout is
shown in Figure 4.7
The ”Gap Probes” (Group 0 in the controls) are located in two groups of three; one
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
C o il P a c k
C o il P a c k
(3 c o ils)
(3 c o ils)
119
3 .2 5 Ω
V a ria b le P /S
1 0 V D C M a x C o n tro l S ig n a l
Figure 4.8: Gradient Compensating Circuit.
Table 4.4: Dipole NMR probe field ranges
Probe Type Field Range (T)
3
0.17 - 0.52
4
0.35 - 1.05
5
0.70 - 2.10
group on the low field side of the gap and the other on the high field side of the gap.
The groups of three are made up of one each of the manufacturer’s type 3, 4 & 5 probes,
designed to cover different field ranges (see Table 1). The six “Purcell Gap Probes”
(Group 1 in the controls) are located in the Purcell gap of the magnet and consists of
two each of the above types. Note: Since the fall of 1998 the multiplexer-multiplexer in
the electron arm, MUX 2032, has been bypassed and hence the “Purcell Gap Probes” are
currently unavailable. There are no plans to fix this multiplexer in the immediate future.
The ”Gap Probes” are equipped with coils which provide a field gradient that cancels out the field gradient of the magnet in the vicinity of the probe. These gradient
compensating coils are part of a simple circuit that is completely independent of the
Teslameter. The basic circuit for the compensating coils is shown in Figure 4.8
The following graphs (see Figures 4.9, and 4.10can be used to determine optimum
values for the compensating coil control voltage. It should be noted that the setting
of the compensating coil current is not very critical in most cases. In general if you’re
within 10% of the correct value everything should work fine.
4.2.3
Authorized Personnel
The following individuals are responsible for NMR operation problems.
J. Gomez - x7498
J. LeRose -x7624
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.9: Control Voltage calibration for Electron Dipole.
120
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.10: Control Voltage calibration for Hadron Dipole.
121
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
4500
4000
3500
3000
DAC #
2500
2000
Type 3
1500
Fit 3
Type 4
Fit 4
1000
Type 5
Fit 5
500
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
B (Tesla)
DAC = C 0 + C1 ⋅ B + C 2 ⋅ B 2 + C 3 ⋅ B 3
Probe type
3
4
5
C0
-5157.04
-5157.39
-5156.74
C1
45026.48
22514.30
11255.70
C2
-95678.57
-23920.73
-5979.12
C3
82559.35
10320.28
1289.79
Group 0 Probes Group 1 Probes
0,3
1,4
2,5
Figure 4.11: DAC Calibration for manual operation of NMR probes.
122
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
4.2.4
123
NMR Operating Procedure:
When running in Autopilot mode (see: Simple Spectrometer Field Setting) the compensating coil voltage is set automatically and the probe appropriate for the field desired
is selected. The gaussmeter is placed in SEARCH Mode and the dipole power supply
regulator is turned on. In this case the dipole current is adjusted to achieve the desired
field. If the NMR gaussmeter is not ”locked” a backup Hall Probe is used until the NMR
”locks”. The user should just stand back and let it work. What follows are instructions
for using the NMR gaussmeter in situations where Autopilot doesn’t work or some special
supplemental measurements are required.
In principle it is possible to make the field measurements using the SEARCH mode
in the Teslameter. In this mode you select a probe and the meter explores the whole
field range of the probe until it finds and ”locks” on the resonant signal indicating that
it has a field measurement. A ”lock” is indicated on the controls display by positive field
values. This has the advantage of simplicity but in practice can be time consuming and
doesn’t always work. The problem being, in situations where there is a lot of noise mixed
in with the signal, the circuitry has problems distinguishing the signal from the noise
and gets lost before it ever finds a lock. The problem is exacerbated when the field being
measured is at the high end of the probe’s range. In this case the search starts at the low
end and keeps getting hung up on the noise and never gets to the field range of interest.
The solution to this problem is to tell the device approximately what field it’s looking
for and use the AUTO mode to find the lock. In the procedure below that is what we
will be doing.
In any case, for ”gap probes” (group 0) you must energize and adjust the gradient
compensating coils for the field ranges to be measured before trying to make measurement.
For studies involving 10% changes in the field settings the compensating coil current
can be set once and left alone.
Recommended Procedure:(turn the REGULATOR OFF for all non-autopilot field
measurements)
For group 0 probes set compensating coils appropriately (see figures).
Put meter in MANUAL mode with SEARCH OFF
Select a probe and polarity (Group 0: Probes 0, 1, 2 negative; Probes 3, 4, 5 positive)
Type in DAC number for the field range being measured (see below)
Select AUTO and wait for a lock (positive field reading)
Verify that you have a good lock by checking the oscilloscope for a clear resonant signal.
Go back to 2. for the next probe
If you have problems see the table listing problems and possible solutions.
Selecting DAC #’s
In selecting the DAC # to use for the field of interest use either the graph in Figure 4.11 or the polynomial below that.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
124
Problems and Solutions
Symptom
Weird numbers on displays, controls for
all magnets fouled up
NMR Teslameter does not respond to
commands and display shows all zeros.
Will not lock
Still will not lock
You find resonance manually
but still can’t get a lock
Can’t find resonance manually
Diagnosis and Cure
Need to reboot.
See instructions below.
Meter’s communications are
somehow hung up.
Push RESET.
Very high noise level
makes resonance hard to find.
Very high noise level makes
resonance hard to find. Search
for the resonance manually by
adjusting the DAC in manual
mode until you see the resonant
signal. (It helps if you know
what field you expect so you’ll
know where to look).
Check probe polarity.
Try decreasing and
increasing DAC number by 1.
Optimize signal by adjusting
compensating coils.
Try a different probe. Use
readings from other probes to
tell you where to look for
the resonance with the probe
that’s giving you trouble.
Make sure compensating coils are
energized properly.
Make sure magnet is on.
Hadron Dipole Field Setting Instructions: Turn on power supply (contact Mark
Stevens, John LeRose, or Javier Gomez for assistance).
Turn on field regulation mode. Type desired field value into FieldSet (yellow field).
Wait for field to reach the desired value (read from the blue field). After reaching the
desired field wait 15 minutes to assure stable field. Pay attention to the current and field
readings. If the NMR is locked, (the NMR is locked if the field reading in the blue field
has a positive number and is updating itself), don’t worry it will get there.
If the NMR is not locked (negative but updating number in the blue field) but the
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
125
current appears to be going in the right direction, don’t worry it will get there and the
NMR should lock when you get into the vicinity of the desired field. If you’re worried
anyway and want to watch the field change, push SEARCH. (The NMR will search over
the full range of the probe rather than just in the vicinity of the desired field.) The NMR
should lock in a minute or two.
If the NMR is not locked and the current is going in the wrong direction (This
can happen if you ask for a new field before you reach a stable setting), you must push
SEARCH. (The NMR will search over the full range of the probe rather than just in
the vicinity of the desired field.) The NMR should lock in a minute or two and the
software will correct the current setting appropriately but slowly. If the NMR doesn’t
lock you may have to ask for a field value appropriate for the present current (∼ 1.1 ×
10−3 T/Amp). The NMR will only search in the limited region of the requested field
and should find a lock more easily. After getting the lock let things settle in for a few
minutes and then ask for the field you want again. In extreme cases you may have to
nurse it through the transition by asking for multiple small increments. If you ask for a
change of less than 5% the NMR should not lose its lock.
To shut down: Set FieldSet to .18. Let current run down to just over 100 Amps. Then
push stop on Dipole control screen
Problems
NMR not locked but
current is changing in
the right direction
Explanation
Normal operation for
large field
changes
Action
Wait. (see above)
NMR locked but current
going in the wrong
direction.
NMR locked but field not
correct and current not
changing
Normal operation.
Wait.
Field regulation is
disabled or software
is confused.
Check that field regulation
is enabled. Enter desired
field value or one
very near the
desired value again.
NMR field display freezes. NMR Gaussmeter is not Push RESET.
(Usually but not always
communicating with
shows -#.0000000)
software.
Table 4.5: NMR troubleshhoting
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
4.2.5
126
Powering Up Dipole Magnets:
Use these instructions to recover from loss of a magnet due to a fault (e.g. He level or
lead flow fault). The order of actions matters.
(Contact Tech on call if anything behaves funny or things don’t respond as expected.
Sometimes after a trip an access to the Hall is required to reset things)
1. Wait for Iout=0 (you can’t and don’t want to do anything while the magnet is in
emergency fast dump mode.)
2. While waiting, make a log entry re the fault. Give details such as time, coincident
activities, and nature of the fault.
3. Make sure the fault is cleared. (e.g. He level and flow rates returned to normal values
and stable)
4. In the HRS Hadron (Electron) Dipole Systems’ control panel:
a) Press RESET (verify that all faults are cleared in the middle column)
b) Press START (Display will indicate Power Supply ON and magnet ENGAGED)
Power supply and magnet are ready to go. From here you can return to ”Autopilot
Mode” (type in desired P0 on control screen and wait) or proceed as described below.
For Electron dipole type in desired current in I Set and the power supply will respond.
For Hadron dipole go to HRS HADRON DIPOLE NMR control panel.
1. Press RESET
2. Press Reg. Enable YES
3. Press Search ON (should already be on but it doesn’t hurt to check)
4. Type desired field into Field Set (T) field.
5. Wait for field to reach the desired value. (In general it’s a good idea to wait about
15 minutes after first reaching the desired field before taking data.) See Hadron Dipole
Field Setting for more details and help with trouble shooting.
4.2.6
Starting Q1 Power Supply:
Do this when a fault causes the power supply to shut off.
Wait for fault to clear (watch He levels).
1. Push RESET (check all faults cleared)
2. Select desired polarity
3. Push ON
4. Type in ISET (yellow field) or re-enter P0 in Autopilot Mode).
4.2.7
Starting Q2/3 Power Supply:
Do this when a fault causes the power supply to shut off.
1. Wait for cause of fault to clear (e.g. low Helium level)
2. Press RESET
3. Select polarity
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
4. Press ON
5. Type in ISET (yellow field) or re-enter P0 in Autopilot Mode.
127
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
4.3
Collimators and Sieve Slits
128
5 6
Both spectrometers have front-end devices for calibrating the optical properties of the
spectrometers. These are known as the collimator boxes. These boxes are positioned
between the scattering chamber and the first quadrupoles (Q1). Each box is carefully
aligned and rigidly attached to the entrance flange of the Q1 of the respective spectrometer. The boxes are part of the vacuum system of the spectrometer.
Inside each box a ladder is mounted which is guided by a linear bearing and moved
up and down by a ball screw. On this ladder 3 positions are available to insert collimators. Below this ladder a special valve is mounted that can isolate the vacuum in the
spectrometer from the target system. This valve should be activated when it is moved in
front of the holes connecting the box with spectrometer and target chamber. A schematic
view of the collimator box is shown in Figure 4.12.
Vacuum requirement is 10−6 Torr. The material for the box is aluminum. It is possible to open one side of the box so that collimators can be exchanged. The reproducibility
of collimator positions after moving the ladder and/or after replacing a collimator is better than 0.1 mm in horizontal and vertical direction. The dimensions of the box are
roughly height=175 cm , width=35 cm and depth=15 cm. The tolerance in the dimension of the 7 msr collimator hole is ±0.5 mm in each direction. The tolerance in the
position of each of the sieve-slit holes is ±0.1 mm in each direction.
A typical sieve slit collimator is shown in figure 4.13. It consists of a plate of roughly
14 cm x 20 cm containing 49 holes positioned in a regular 7x7 pattern. This slit is made
out of 5 mm thick tungsten. The holes have a diameter of 2 mm except for the central
one and one positioned off-diagonal which have a diameter of 4 mm. The horizontal
distance between the holes is 12.5 mm while the vertical distance is 25.0 mm.
To get the latest information on the dimensions and locations of the collimators see
the Hall A homepage on the web7 .
4.3.1
Authorized Personnel
E. Folts - x7857 (mechanical and vacuum systems).
J. Gomez - x7498 (computer controls and electrical systems).
4.3.2
Safety Assessment
The collimator boxes form part of the vacuum system for each spectrometer. All hazards
identified in section spectrometer vacuum section applies to the collimator box as well.
In addition, safe access to the top of the collimator boxes is needed during manual
operation of the box as outlined below. Due to the proximity of the collimator boxes
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CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.12: Schematic layout of the collimator box.
129
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
Figure 4.13: Sieve slit collimator for optics calibration.
130
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
131
to the scattering chamber, and Q1 quadrupoles, all necessary safety precautions with
regards to vacuum windows, electrical power cables, cryogenic transfer lines, and high
magnetic field should be taken.
4.3.3
Operating Procedure
Slit position is changed remotely from the standard Hall A control screen.
CHAPTER 4. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROMETERS (HRS)
4.4
Spectrometer Alignment
132
8 9
At present, the systems implemented to determine the alignment of each spectrometer (roll, vertical angle/pointing and horizontal angle/pointing) without the help of the
Accelerator Division Survey group are limited to roll, vertical angle and horizontal angle.
A bi-axial inclinometer is used to determine the roll and vertical angle (also known as
pitch) of each spectrometer. These inclinometers are attached to the back of the dipoles
at the power supply platform level. The inclinometer measurements are displayed in the
main Hall A controls screen (alignment mosaic). Agreement between the inclinometer
readings and survey measurements are better than ± 0.1 mrad over all presently available
history.
The horizontal spectrometer angle is determined from floor marks set in place by the
survey group. Floor marks have been placed every 0.5 ◦ covering the useful range of both
spectrometers. The marks are located at a distance of ∼10 m from the target center.
A ruler attached to each spectrometer dipole runs over the floor marks and it acts as a
vernier to interpolate between marks. The location of a given floor mark on the ruler can
be viewed from the Hall A Counting House through a TV camera. The camera is able
to move along the length of the ruler so that any parallax effect can be eliminated. The
camera motion is controlled from the main Hall A controls screen (alignment mosaic)
through two push buttons. Two fields on the same mosaic (Flr Mrk/Vernier) allow one
to input the values read from the TV monitor. The effective spectrometer angle is then
calculated and displayed on the same mosaic. A terminal based program (setspec) is
available on the controls computer “hac” which, for a given angle, returns the floor mark
value and its location on the ruler to which the spectrometer should be set to obtain
the desired angle. Spectrometer horizontal angle surveys and floor mark determinations
agree to ± 0.2 mrad.
4.4.1
Personnel Responsible
J. Gomez (pager: 849-7498).
8
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Chapter 5
HRS Detectors
5.1
Overview
1 2
The detector package of each spectrometer has trigger, tracking, and particle ID components. In addition, the Hadron spectrometer has a unique proton polarimeter. Particles
which have passed through the magnetic elements first encounter the tracking detectors
to minimize the multiple scattering contribution to the angular and energy resolutions
of the spectrometer. The tracking part consists of two identical vertical drift chambers.
The trigger detectors include two planes of thin plastic scintillator counters, gas and aerogel Cerenkov counters and a shower counter. On the hadron spectrometer the shower
counter or large scintillator counter can be used in the trigger. Particle ID is provided by
several techniques. For electron identification the electron arm, EA, has the gas Cerenkov
counter and two layers of a segmented lead glass shower counter. Because the hadron
arm, HA, also can be used for experiments with electrons it is equipped with a short version of the gas Cerenkov counter and one layer of a segmented lead glass shower counter.
Pion identification in both spectrometers relies on an aerogel Cerenkov counters which
presently have aerogel radiator with a refraction index, n, of 1.025. Aerogel Cerenkov
counter commissioning is not yet completed. For particle momenta below 800 MeV/c,
the dE/E in the scintillator and shower counters can be used for separation of pions
and protons. The large distance between planes of the trigger scintillator counters (2 -3
m) allows a direct measurement of the particle speed with resolution ( sigma ) of 0.07.
Measurement of the time of flight on the long path from the target to the spectrometer
( 25m ) provides another powerful particle ID for coincidence experiments. The focal
plane polarimeter on the HA operates with proton momenta up to 3 GeV/c with a figure
of merit 0.03.
The detector packages are installed inside of the Shielding Huts (SH). Access to the
Shielding Huts is via very heavy swinging front doors. The main structure of the SH
is made from 3 in thick steel plates. The side walls and bottom surfaces of the SH are
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134
covered inside with 1 in thick lead slabs. Outside of the steel box, concrete is used for
neutron protection. The front door has about 34 in of concrete and 3 in of lead. Side
walls are covered with 17 in of concrete. The roof of the SH has 10 in of concrete above 3
in of steel. The lower half of the side walls facing the beam dump have an additional cover
of 15 in of concrete. Additional “Line of Sight Shielding”, LSS, is installed at a distance
of 5m from the target. This consists of 2 to 3 m of concrete. High energy pions interact
in this concrete before decaying. The LSS reduces the rate of high energy muons, which
are produced in pion decay. The overall result from SH and LSS is a reduction factor of
10 to 20 in the counting rate of a single scintillator counter ( according to calculations ).
The 2 VDCs provide accurate tracking information. They are mounted on a movable
frame which slides along Thompson rails to hard stops. The position of the VDC on the
frame and location of the Thompson rails is surveyed relative to the Hall center. The
rest of the detectors are mounted on a detector frame which can be moved out of the
Shielding Hut for detector maintenance.
5.1.1
Geometry of the Spectrometer Detector Packages
Tables 5.1 and 5.2 give geometry information for the electron arm and hadron arm
detector packages. The values in the tables indicate the position of the central point of
the detector. The origin of coordinate system (0,0,0) is located at the intersection of the
mid plane of the spectrometer and the nominal focal plane ( ∼ middle of the Bottom
VDC ).
detector
VDC1*
VDC2*
S1
AERO
GAS
S2
preSHOW
SHOW2
location
location
width
actual IDEAS model
X
0
572
1311
1646
2535
3358
3502
3780
1321
3378
3546
3912
1942
1942
1718
199
2200
2197
2400
2400
width
Y
BEAM
X(+)
X(−)
ENVELOPE
Y
271
271
356
414
650
540
700
900
843
932
696
709
886
897
925
964
- 824
- 911
-1022
- 888
-1110
-1124
-1158
-1207
+/- 57
+/- 85
+/- 163
+/- 182
+/- 279
+/- 285
+/- 301
+/- 322
Table 5.1: Locations of the detectors on Electron Arm in mm.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
detector
location
location
actual IDEAS model
VDC1*
VDC2*
S1
AERO
SC1
GAS
SC2
S2
Analyzer
SC3
SC4
S3
0
500
1287
1617
1837
2409
2952
3141
3495
3907
4264
4477
135
width
X
width
Y
BEAM
X(+)
X(−)
ENVELOPE
Y
1942
1942
1760
1872
1780
2200
2080
2220
2190
2540
3170
3600
271
271
360
414
480
650
640
640
680
1000
1500
1550
843
932
675
709
738
857
865
877
916
1099
1382
1437
- 824
- 911
- 845
- 888
- 924
-1073
-1083
-1099
-1147
-1343
-1645
-1704
+/- 57
+/- 85
+/- 163
+/- 182
+/- 198
+/- 263
+/- 268
+/- 274
+/- 296
+/- 457
+/- 705
+/- 752
Table 5.2: Locations of the detectors on Hadron Arm in mm.
5.2
5.2.1
Vertical Drift Chambers
3 4
Overview
The High Resolution Spectrometer Vertical Drift Chambers provide a precise (±125 µm)
measurement of the position and angle of incidence of both recoil electrons (in the HRSe)
and knockout protons (in the HRSh) at the respective spectrometer focal planes. This
information may be combined with the knowledge of the spectrometer optics to determine
the position and angle of the particles in the target.
Each Hall A spectrometer boasts its own VDC detector package. These packages
are located on permanent rails mounted on the spectrometer decks in the shielding huts
above the outrun windows but beneath the space frames. The packages consist of two
VDCs, and are identical in all aspects. The VDCs have been constructed without guard
wires. Each VDC is composed of two wire planes in a standard UV configuration - the
wires of each plane are oriented at 90◦ to one another, and each plane is oriented at 45◦
with respect to the nominal particle trajectories (see Figures 5.1,5.2).
Operation of the VDCs requires the application of both High Voltage (HV) across
the chambers themselves and Low Voltage (LV) across the preamp/disc cards, which
are mounted on the sides of the VDCs, within the confines of the protective aluminum
Faraday cage. The chamber gas is a combination of argon (Ar) and flammable ethane
(C2 H6 ) which is bubbled through alcohol. Gas is routed from bottles located in the Hall
A gas supply shed to gas supply control panels located on the main level of the space
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Upper Chamber
50
0.
U2
m
V2
nominal 45o particle trajectory
Lower Chamber
V1
SIDE VIEW
U1
TOP VIEW
nominal 45o particle trajectory
0.288 m
2.118 m
Figure 5.1: Relative VDC geometry
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
137
45o
nominal 45o particle trajectory
45o
45o
Figure 5.2: Relative VDC geometry
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
138
frames in the detector huts.
As charged particles pass through the chamber gas in the VDCs, they produce
ionization. This ionization drifts along the electric field lines defined by the high voltage
planes and the signal wires. Ionization is collected in the form of analog pulses on the
signal wires. The pulses are then amplified, discriminated and used to start multihit
TDCs, which are subsequently stopped by the overall event trigger. The TDCs are read
out by the CODA acquisition software. The data are histogrammed online by the DHIST
software. In-depth offline data analysis requires the ESPACE software.
5.2.2
Operating Procedure
Gas Flow Operating Procedures Chamber gas is delivered to a given VDC detector
package via HAWGS, the Hall A Wire-chamber Gas System. Complete details of this
system are presented elsewhere in this manual.
Each VDC detector package consists of two VDCs connected in parallel (see Figure
5.3). All gas connections are made using PolyfloTM tubing and Jefferson Lab specified
connectors. Gas enters the chamber assembly after bypassing an overpressure bubbler
containing 15 mm of (edible) mineral oil. Gas is exhausted from the VDC package
through a second bubbler containing 5 mm of mineral oil. Each chamber has a volume
of approximately 30 ` and is operated slightly above atmospheric pressure. Standard
flow rate set points are clearly labeled next to the control panel flow meters. The gas
flow through the chambers may be independently varied and is typically set to 7 `/hr.
A typical chamber leakage rate measured against the 5-mm mineral oil load is ≤ 3 `/hr.
The flow rate of 7 `/hr when combined with the leak rate of ≤ 3 `/hr ensures a complete
exchange of gas in the chambers roughly every 8 hours. When a bottle is nearly empty
(say 90%), it should be changed since the quality of the gas at the bottom tends to be
low. Gas bottles may only be changed by authorized personnel.
The status of the gas handling system should be monitored carefully as well as logged
every shift. Any substantial deviation from the median parameters can result in a change
in the operational parameters of the VDCs and should be immediately investigated. If at
all possible, gas flow should be continuously maintained, even in no-beam time periods.
This avoids time loss to reconditioning and maintains the desirable steady-state operating
condition. Further, it is critical that gas flow has been maintained for 24 hours prior to
any power up.
Power Supplies and Electronics Procedures The power supplies and readout electronics associated with the HRS VDCs are all commercially designed. The reader is
directed towards the manuals made available by the manufacturer for the detailed information not provided here.
A Bertan 377N HV power supply provides -4.00 kV nominal to each of three HV
planes in a given VDC detector package via a 10 MΩ Hammond splitter box (see Figure
5.4). The power supply is located in the detector hut in a NIM bin on the upper level of
the space frame. This unit may be controlled either manually or remotely via the EPICS
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
139
regulator
valve
upper chamber
P
P
lower chamber
Q
input
bubbler
valve
rotameter
Figure 5.3: Gas flow schematic
Q
exhaust
bubbler
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
140
6 kV
HV plane 1
8.2 MΩ
field lines
10 kΩ
V
signal wires
-4.00 kV
6 kV
HV plane 2
8.2 MΩ
field lines
10 kΩ
U
signal wires
6 kV
HV plane 3
8.2 MΩ
10 kΩ
Figure 5.4: VDC overview.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
141
control software, and also provides a monitor of the current drawn (nominally 70 nA) by
the VDCs to which it is attached. Connections from the power supply to the Hammond
splitter box, as well as from the Hammond splitter box to the VDCs are made using
standard SHV connectors mounted on red RG-59/U HV cable good to 5 kV.
A Kepco ATE 15-3m discriminator power supply provides +3.0 V (92 cards draw
≤ 2 A) and the Kepco ATE 6-100m pre-amp power supply provides ±5 V nominal to
the LeCroy 2735DC pre-amp/discriminator cards used to instrument the chambers via a
heavy-duty fuse panel. The precise voltages provided are +5.0 V (92 cards draw 22 A)
and -5.2 V (92 cards draw 58 A). These LV supplies are located in the detector hut on
the main level of the space frame for the HRSe and on the upper level of the space frame
for the HRSh . Complete connection schematics and instructions for making or breaking
the connections are located on the aluminum Faraday cage protective plates covering the
respective interface nodes between the power supplies and the VDCs.
Each VDC wire plane consists of 400 20 µm φ, Au-plated tungsten wires. The first
16 wires on each end of the wire plane are connected to ground for field-shaping purposes.
There are 368 wires per wire plane which act as signal wires. Thus, each spectrometer is
instrumented with 1472 channels of LeCroy 1877 multihit Fastbus TDCs. These TDCs
are located in a Kinetic Systems F050 Fastbus crate with a BiRa FB8189-4 power supply
located on the main level of the spectrometer space frame in the detector hut. The
connections between the pre-amp/discriminator cards mounted on the VDCs and the
TDCs are made with 16-conductor twisted-pair cables. Clip-on ferrites are used to filter
noise. A connection schematic is posted on the side of the rack holding the Fastbus crate
on the space frame in the detector hut.
Power-up Procedure
1. ensure gas flow has been established in the chambers as previously outlined. If it
has not, STOP RIGHT HERE! Gas flow must be well-established and steady-state
BEFORE the HV may be enabled.
2. Ensure that all power supplies as well as the Fastbus crate are off and then connect
the LV, HV, and TDC cables.
3. enable the LV. Set points are clearly labeled on the face of the power supplies. Note
that they have overcurrent setpoints, and some fine adjustments over the first 30
minutes after a cold start power-up may be required. Appropriate LEDs should all
be active on both the power supplies and the pre-amp/discriminator cards.
4. slowly (steps of no more than -300 V) ramp the HV to its nominal set point of
-4.00 kV using either the manual or the remote controls. While the trip current
is set to 10 µA, do not allow the chambers to draw more than 1 µA during the
ramping procedure or serious damage may result. If the power supply trips during
the ramping procedure, you are moving too fast. Rezero things and begin the
procedure again. NEVER USE THE AUTO-RESET FUNCTION. If the power
supply trips again, STOP IMMEDIATELY AND INVESTIGATE.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
142
5. enable the Fastbus crate. Appropriate LEDs should all be active.
6. check for poor signal connections evidenced by hot wires (wires counting extremely
fast) or dead wires (wires with no counts) using the histograming software and
cosmic rays. Remake any connections as necessary by first powering down the
Fastbus crate.
If at all possible, the HV and LV power supplies should be left on continuously if
and only if gas is available to the chamber. This avoids time loss to reconditioning and
maintains the desirable steady-state operating condition.
5.2.3
Handling Considerations
The VDCs are very delicate devices which are absolutely essential to the instrumentation
of the Hall A spectrometers. Thus, extreme care must be exercised whenever they are
moved or used.
• Before moving a VDC detector package, ensure that the protective plates are in
position. Plates include tapped aluminum sheets to be bolted over the entrance
and exit aperatures, as well as aluminum sheets which slide in between the two
chambers.
• Disconnect and reconnect all TDC cables with extreme care. The conductor pins
are relatively fragile, and should one be broken off, repair will be extremely difficult.
• When initiating gas flow, pay strict attention to the feedback parameters. Overpressure may damage the chambers.
• Never attempt to apply HV to the chambers until gas flow conditions have reached
steady-state.
• As the amount of heat generated by the pre-amp/discriminator cards it substantial,
always make sure adequate cooling is provided before attempting to run. Currently
this cooling takes the form of four temporary fans which clamp to the aluminum
Faraday cage. Eventually, permanent fans will be installed.
• When ramping the HV, never allow the chambers to draw more than 1 µA instantaneously. If they do, something is wrong!
5.2.4
Other Documentation
See the URL5 .
5
http://www.jlab.org/~fissum/vdcs.html
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.2.5
143
Safety Assessment
The following potential hazards have been clearly identified.
The High Voltage System The Bertan 377N HV low current power supply provides
a nominal -4.00 kV. Red HV RG-59/U cable good to 5 kV with standard SHV
connectors is used to connect the power supply to a Hammond splitter box, and
then to connect the splitter box to each of the three high voltage planes in a given
VDC. A given chamber draws a current from 50-100 nA.
The Low Voltage System Kepco LV power supplies are used for the the LeCroy
2735DC pre-amp/discriminator cards. Each card (23 per chamber) requires +5.0
V (92 cards draw 22 A), -5.2 V (92 cards draw 58 A) and +3.0 V (92 cards draw
≤ 2 A).
Explosive Gas The Ar C2 H6 chamber gas is explosive and must be handled accordingly.
Further, gas flow should be maintained for at least 24 hours prior to the enabling
of HV.
High Pressure Gas Bottles The gas used in the chambers is supplied in high pressure
(≥ 2000 psi) gas bottles. This confined high pressure gas represents a tremendous
(potentially lethal) amount of stored energy.
5.2.6
Responsible Personnel
The following individuals are responsible for chamber problems.
Chai, Zhengwei - x5923, pager 849-5441
Fissum, Kevin - x7325, pager 849-7325
Liyanage, Nilanga - x7254, pager 849-7254
Rvachev, Marat - x7325, pager 849-7013
Segal, Jack - x7242, pager 849-7242
Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan - x7191, pager 849-7191
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.3
5.3.1
Trigger Scintillator Counters
144
6 7
Overview
On each HRS the detector system has two planes of trigger scintillators S1 and S2.
The HA detector stack includes an optional third plane, S3. The mounting schemes of
these planes are different. S1 is clamped to the detector frame through an additional Al
channel, while S2 is assembled on a sub frame, which can slide on rails into the detector
frame. S3 has strong a heavy sub frame, which can be mounted on the top of the HA
detector frame. Figure 5.5 shows the mounting scheme for S1.
Figure 5.5: S1 mounting
S1 and S2 each consist of six paddles. Each S1 paddle has an active area of 29.5
cm by 35.5 cm. Each S2 paddle has an active area of 54.0 cm by 37.0 cm. The counters
are made of 5 mm thick BICRON 408 plastic scintillator and use multi-strip adiabatic
light guides which end in a long cylindrical spool. There is an inlet for optical fiber
mounted on the side of the cylindrical light guide. Each paddle is viewed by two 2”
photo multiplier tubes (Burle 8575). The S1 paddles are installed at a small angle to the
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average plane and overlap by 10 mm. They are supported from PMT housings. The S2
paddles have only 5 mm overlap. Paddles are supported right outside the active area to
minimize deflection of the plastic scintillator and the torque applied to the mounting of
the PMT housing.
5.3.2
PMT regime and time resolution
High energy electrons passing perpendicular to the S2 detector plane yield about 400-500
photons at the photo cathode of each PMT. In a fresh PMT this leads to 80-100 photo
electrons. On HRS the discriminators have a threshold of 45 mV and a typical PMT has
gain 3 ∗ 106 . The HV for a fresh PMT should be in the range 1800 to 2000 V. Based on
PMT pulse rise time ( 2.8 ns ) and photo electron statistics the time resolution is about
0.2 ns. The propagation time of the light inside the detector is about 10 ns, which needs
to be corrected by using track position information.
LeCroy HV 1460 modules are used to supply HV power for the trigger counters.
The HV can be controlled from a VT100 terminal connected through a terminal server
or through the EPICS system based on the HAC computer. Current HV settings for
the trigger counters should be found from a printout of the EPICS control in the last
experimental logbook. Figures 5.6 and 5.7 give examples which are included for guidance
only. The settings used in the plots may be not correct.
5.3.3
PMT operation monitoring
There are two ways to monitor PMT/detector performance. The first is based on a scaler
display program which provides information about PMT counting rates and coincidence
counting rates. A large variation of the rates between paddles is an indication of a possible
problem. The second technique is to use the analysis code ESPACE and the kumac files
developed by K. Takahashi (“kazu” files). This analysis provides amplitude spectra for
events with good tracks in the VDC. Histograms of amplitudes and average amplitudes
for each PMT are accumulated. For high efficiency of the trigger it is important to keep
the average amplitude above 600 channels. Sample spectra are shown in Fig 5.8.
5.3.4
PMT replacement
Because of a large contamination of He in the air around the detectors the quantum
efficiency of the PMTs slowly decreases ( about 5-10% per month in case of high rate
operation ). The replacement of a PMT takes about 15-20 minutes.
5.3.5
2” PMT Bases for S1 and S2 Trigger Counters
A schematic diagram of the 2” PMT Base is shown in Figure 5.9. The Base consists of
three main components. These are the front tubular housing (06), which encloses the
PMT, part of the scintillator counter’s light guide (01), and the mu-metal shield (10).
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.6: EPICS HV HRSR summary screen.
146
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.7: HV screen for a single card.
147
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.8: Average Amplitudes of HA Trigger Counters.
148
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
149
The actual base with the socket and the dynode chain is a separate part, actually an
assembly of parts (09-19). The rear tubular housing (07) completes the assembly and
encloses the dynode chain and wiring. The three main sections join at the coupling
nut (14), which threads partly inside the front tubular housing, while the rear tubular
housing threads on the remaining part.
The PMT and the electronic amplification components are mounted on a P.C. board
(15) which is enclosed in an aluminum Faraday cage. This assures rigidity and protection
from stray RF fields. The mu-metal shield is at cathode potential to minimize the dark
current due to capacitive discharge in the photo cathode glass window.
5.3.6
Handling Considerations
Assembly Instructions Unscrew the rear tubular housing from the coupling nut and
then unscrew the front tubular housing from the coupling nut. Remove the mu-metal
shield (10) from the retainer ring (12) by loosening the nylon locking set screw (11).
After insertion of the PMT in the socket, install the mu-metal shield and make sure it
sits squarely in the bottom of the socket base (13).
WARNING: The mu-metal shield should NEVER be assembled in the base without
the plastic insulator ring (09). Electrical shock may result if someone touches the outside
housings under such a condition. The plastic insulator ring also serves as a mechanical
alignment aid to keep the mu-metal shield centered within the front tubular housing.
Tighten the nylon locking set screw but don’t over do it and strip the nylon threads
in the process. The mu-metal shield has a solid friction fit in the copper ring inside the
retainer ring to make good electrical contact.
Screw the base assembly, with the PMT and mu-metal shield attached, back into
the front tubular housing, up to the half way point of the threads in the coupling nut.
The PMT socket and dynode chain assembly (15) is spring loaded (16) so one can see
how much compression the light guide will induce on this assembly, thus assuring a good
contact with the PMT without the risk of damage to the latter. Insert the collet nut
(03) and the inner collet (04) onto the light guide as shown in Figure 5.9. Position the
outer collet inside the entrance to the front tubular housing and check that it matches
the direction of the cone to that of the outer collet. Smear a thin layer of optical grease
on the light guide and insert the latter into the inner collet until it makes contact with
the PMT. This can be verified by observing the movement of the socket against the, now
slightly compressed, springs. Insert the outer collet into the inner one and screw the
collet nut making sure the springs remain slightly compressed in the process. Use the
special tool to tighten the collet nut until the light guide cannot be moved in or out.
Replace the rear tubular housing by screwing it all the way into the coupling nut.
Insert the foam plastic light stop (02) between the collet nut and the light guide. The
mechanical assembly is now complete.
The Electronic Amplification Chain The arrangement of the resistor dynode chain
is shown in Figure 5.10. The cathode is connected to the mu-metal shield through a 10
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.9: The 2” PMT base used in S1 and S2 trigger scintillators.
150
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
151
MΩ resistor, in addition to the 1 MΩ resistor between the cathode and the negative HV.
The dynode chain incorporates an adjustable potentiometer (0-500 Ω) to allow a match
between the PMT and the external load, in order to eliminate after-pulse ringing. This
potentiometer should be adjusted at first to 250 Ω and then make fine adjustments as
needed by observing the anode pulses on the oscilloscope for critical matching. It is
not advisable to do the adjustments with HV on. Instead, the process should be done
with HV off; remove the rear tubular housing, adjust the potentiometer, replace the rear
housing, and then turn the HV on again. Iterate until the matching is accomplished. In
addition to the obvious safety concerns, one does not want to remove the light sealing
rear housing from an active PMT and induce a large light leak which could destroy the
PMT.
Figure 5.10: The 2” PMT base used in S1 and S2 trigger scintillators.
Both 2” and 5” bases have been extensively tested under beam conditions. They have
several safety related features but these cannot protect anyone who is bent on violating
operating procedures and common sense. They allow the removal of the PMT/Base
assembly, for repairs of the electronics or replacement of a PMT, without decoupling the
housing and collets from the light guide. Thus, replacement of PMTs can be done in
minutes without the need to remove the scintillator counters from their subframes.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.3.7
152
5” PMT Bases for S3 Counters
The general layout of the 5” bases is similar to that of the 2” bases described above.
It consists of a front tubular housing and a rear tubular housing, both made out of
aluminum. They join at a coupling nut, as shown in the schematic diagram of Figure 5.11.
The actual base where the PMT, µ-metal shield, and the electronic dynode amplification
chain are located, is different. The corresponding middle section, incorporating the above
components, is made out of a moulded structure used in both the 5” bases and the aerogel
Cerenkov counters. The PMT socket is moulded integral to the section and it is also
spring loaded. The collets are different, due to the size of the light guide, but the method
of assembly is very similar to that of the 2” base.
Figure 5.11: The 5” PMT base used in S3 trigger scintillators.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
153
Assembly Instructions The collet assembly consists of several expanding rings, one
set of solid tapered and the other a spring collet. They are placed on top of each other,
alternating between the two kinds, with a spring collet on the top facing the scintillator
and the collet nut. As the collet nut is screwed in, it presses against the assembly and
the spring collets slide inward against the tapered solid ones, thus clamping against the
light guide. Care should be taken, when placing these two different kind of collets inside
each other, so as not to align the gaps in the plastic and create light leaks. The collets
are not continuous rings, otherwise they would not be compressible, and the gaps can
allow light all the way into the PMT if they are aligned.
The collet nut is placed first around the light guide and the successive layers of the
moulded collets are then placed around the light guide; one should make sure that enough
free length of exposed light guide remains to enter the housing to slightly compress the
PMT and base assembly, as in the case of the 2” base. Once the slight compression of the
spring loaded PMT-socket assembly is verified, the set of collet rings is moved to enter
the housing and rest firmly against the snap/stop ring inside the front tubular housing.
Then the collet ring is screwed in using the special tool until the light guide is firmly
bedded in the housing and cannot be moved in or out. The remaining procedure is the
same as that of the 2” base.
Due to the two diameter shape of the 5” PMT and its mu-metal shield, insertion of
the PMT pins into the socket is a blind operation. It has to be done by feel and experience;
the pins can only go in a specific PMT-socket geometry and it needs experience to learn
when the correct alignment has been achieved. Let someone who has experience do it,
bending of the socket pins at the base of the PMT results in destroyed PMTs, and they
are expensive.
WARNING: The plastic insulator sleeve inside the front tubular aluminum housing
should be in place BEFORE the mu-metal shield/PMT assembly is inserted. Failure to
assure the proper location of the insulating plastic sleeve may result in electrical shock.
The Electronic Amplification Chain The dynode amplification chain is mounted
on a PC board, as is the case of the 2” base. A schematic diagram of the resistor chain
is shown in Figure 5.12. As in the case of the 2” base, it incorporates an adjustable
potentiometer (0-500 Ω) and the nominal critical matching value is 90 Ω. It has, in
addition, a 51 Ω resistor in series with the 14th dynode, to further improve the shape
of the anode pulse. A safe -HV to start with is -1.8 kV; it provides the best timing
resolution with adequate pulse height for electrons during beam testing.
5.3.8
Safety Assessment
WARNING: The bases are high voltage devices and should only be handled by competent
people who can exercise common sense.
The maximum voltage for both the PMTs and dynode chain is 3 kV. In actual use,
however, there should be no need to exceed the 1.8-2.1 kV operating parameters, since
both PMTs and dynode chain have high gain. Nevertheless, the bases are high voltage
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
154
Figure 5.12: The 5” PMT base used in S3 trigger scintillators.
devices and care should be exercised during handling and setup. The external aluminum
parts, the front and rear housing, and the back plate (17), are all grounded via the
ground of the BNC (18) and SHV (19) connectors. Since the back plate is connected
to the coupling nut via the three steel posts, the front plate is also grounded via the
coupling nut and the back plate. Common sense, however, dictates that the bases are
not to be handled while under high voltage, even when multiple grounding connections
are provided.
The mu-metal shield is also under high voltage, since it is connected to the cathode.
Electrical isolation between the mu-metal shield and the front tubular housing is assured
by the high dielectric retainer ring (12) and the plastic insulator (09) at the free end of
the mu-metal shield. The air gap between the mu-metal shield and the front tubular
housing is 6 mm, thus the breakdown value (18 kV) far exceeds the maximum 3.0 kV of
the PMT.
In the event that the mu-metal shield is inserted without the plastic insulator ring,
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
155
or some oaf decides to operate the base without the outside housings, the 11 MΩ resistors
between the -HV and the mu-metal shield will restrict the current flow through the mumetal shield (and the oaf’s hands) to less than 0.2 mA with -2.1 kV on the base.
5.3.9
Responsible Personnel
The following individuals are responsible for operation of the trigger counters.
Segal, Jack - x7242
Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan - x7191
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.4
5.4.1
Lead Glass Shower Counters
156
8 9
Overview
Electromagnetic shower counters offer a useful means of particle identification (PID) [8][9]. Shower counters complement other means of PID such as time-of-flight (TOF) or
threshold Cerenkov counters, due to the independent physical processes responsible which
result in different detector limitations [10]. Independent PID allows multiple detectors
(i.e., a Cerenkov counter followed by a shower counter) to obtain excellent rejection ratios
that are the product of the individual rejection ratios.
Shower counters measure the energy deposited by the incoming particle. The detected light output is linearly proportional to the energy lost by the incoming particle.
Electromagnetic showers are stopped in the counters, whereas hadronic showers, due to
the longer hadronic mean free path, are not. Looking at the longitudinal distribution
of the energy deposited in the calorimeter differentiates between electromagnetic and
hadronic showers and therefore identifies the incident particle.
Typical pion rejection with a lead glass counter is of the order of 100-1000:1 in
the 1 to 10 GeV region [11]. The Hall A electromagnetic shower counter is meant to
offer rejection ratios better than 100:1 [12]. The limitation in using a shower counter
comes from separating the tails of the distributions, and is therefore dependent on energy
resolution. At higher energy the relative resolution of a shower counter improves, leading
to better separation between distributions. Conversely, other techniques perform worse at
higher energy. The TOF separation for a given path length decreases, and above 4 GeV/c
pions can trigger a threshold CO2 Cerenkov counter operated at standard temperature
and pressure (STP) [11]. [The threshold for a CO2 Cerenkov counter at STP is γ = 34.1,
meaning that for an electron the threshold is just over 17 MeV, while for a pion the
threshold is just over 4 GeV/c momentum].
A Cerenkov counter is routinely capable of pion rejection of the order of 1000:1
at CEBAF energies [11]. A combination of successive Cerenkov counters might achieve
higher rejection ratios. However this only works if the backgrounds in the two devices
are uncorrelated. A knock-on electron which triggers the first Cerenkov counter and
travels forward through both detectors will also trigger the second. Independent PID
provided by a measurement of the particle energy in a shower counter offers a solution to
this problem of correlated backgrounds. Used in conjunction with a threshold Cerenkov
counter, the combination can achieve rejection ratios of 5 × 105 [12].
The Hall A electron spectrometer is equipped with a 2-layer, segmented shower
counter. The first layer, the so-called “pre-shower” counter is made of 48 blocks of TF1
lead glass. Each block is nominally 10 cm by 10 cm by 35 cm long. The second layer, the
so-called “total absorber” counter is nominally 15 cm by 15 cm by 35 cm viewed head-on
by the beam.
Operation of the shower counter requires the application of High Voltage (HV) across
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the photomultiplier tubes and bases, which are mounted on the back of the shower counter
blocks for the total absorber and on the sides of the shower counter in the case of the
pre-shower, within the confines of the protective aluminum support frame.
As charged particles pass through the lead glass of the shower counter, they produce electron-positron particle-antiparticle pairs. These particles in turn both produce
additional particles and Cerenkov light which is collected in the phototubes. The pulses
are then amplified, delayed and sent to ADCs, which are gated by the overall event
trigger. The ADCs are read out by the CODA acquisition software. The data are histogrammed online by the DHIST software. In-depth offline data analysis requires the
ESPACE software.
5.4.2
Operating Procedures
Power Supplies and Electronics Procedures The HV power supplies and readout
electronics associated with the HRS VDCs are all commercially designed. The reader
is directed towards the manuals made available by the manufacturer for the detailed
information not provided here.
The LeCroy HV power supply provides -1500 V nominal to the total absorber and
1200 V to the preshower. The power supply is located in the detector hut in a NIM
bin on the upper level of the space frame. This unit may be controlled either manually
or remotely via the EPICS control software, and also provides a monitor of the current
drawn by each phototube to which it is attached. Connections from the power supply to
the base are made using standard SHV connectors mounted on red RG-59/U HV cable
good to 5 kV. Typical values of the high voltages are shown in the tables for both the
pre-radiator and the total absorber.
If at all possible, the HV and LV power supplies should be left on continuously. This
allows the tube noise to quiet down after high voltage is applied and the temperature of
the base components stabilizes.
Signal Handling, Summing, Amplification and the Multiplexer The upstairs
electronics racks hold two NIM bins containing the summing modules of the multiplexer.
The output of these is sent to the ADCs. Both the individual channels and the sum of
every six channels is sent into an ADC where it can later be analyzed by the software. The
operations manual for the multiplexer was written by H. Breuer (UMd) and is available
from him upon request.
The detector signals are physically plugged into the ADC channels and connected to
the signal wires labelled as shown in the diagrams below, for both the preshower counter
and the total absorber counter.
5.4.3
Handling Considerations
The shower counters are very delicate devices which are easily damaged. Thus, care must
be exercised whenever they are moved or used.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.13: Typical values of the preshower counter high voltages.
158
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.14: Typical values of the total absorption counterhigh voltages.
159
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.15: Map of the Pre-shower counter detectors.
160
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.16: Map of the shower counter detectors.
161
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
162
• Before turning on the high voltage for the shower counters (HAC5 for the preshower
and HAC6 for the total absorber), check the shower counter log book located in
the Hall A counting house for the latest values of the high voltage.
• Never disconnect or connect all the high voltage to the bases with the high voltage
power turned on. Doing so will damage the bases (the zener diodes are destroyed).
• Never service the lead glass with the high voltage on. The high voltage poses a
safety hazard.
• Never drop anything onto the bases and tubes; they are extremely fragile. They
should not be used as support or to hold any weight. Also, do not drop the lead
glass blocks. They will be damaged or destroyed.
• When ramping the HV, keep an eye on the current drawn by the individual bases.
A light leak in the wrapping will produce a large current ( > 1µA at low voltages
(1 kV). If the tubes draw an excess amount of current turn them off and check for
leaks in the wrapping.
5.4.4
Safety Assessment
The following potential hazards have been clearly identified.
The High Voltage System The LeCroy 1443 HV crate equipped with LeCroy 1461N
negative high voltage cards supplies provides up to 3.3 kV of low current power.
Red HV RG-59/U cable good to 5 kV with standard SHV connectors is used to
connect the power supply to the photomultiplier tube voltage divider bases. A
given base on the TA draws typically 500-600 µA of current with the high voltage
on at between 1400 and 1500 V. The PS bases typically draw 900 µA with the high
voltage on at between 1100 and 1200 V.
The Lead Glass Support Structure The lead glass shower counters are mounted on
top of the space frame for the detectors. Access for servicing the shower counters
requires climbing on top of the support frame. Only the responsible personnel
identified below should attempt to service the shower counter; such work requires
proper safety precautions and prior training/experience.
The Lead Glass blocks The lead glass shower blocks and tubes weigh approximately
70 – 80 pounds apiece. Lifting, replacing, or moving such blocks should be done
properly to avoid muscle problems and damage to the blocks.
5.4.5
Authorized Personnel
The following individuals are authorized to work on shower counters.
Breuer, Herbert - 301-405-6108
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
163
Markowitz, Pete - x7237, 305-348-1710
Segal, Jack - x7242
Voskanyan, Hakob - x5105
Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan - x7191
5.4.6
Software Algorithms
The purpose of the shower cluster reconstruction in the Preshower and the Shower detector is to:
• Define all clusters of fired blocks, which belong to the showers, registered in the
detector;
• Calculate parameters of showers in the detector: energy deposition of showers, X
and Y coordinates of the shower center;
• Set parameters and identifier of the so-called “main” cluster.
Cluster in the shower detector is determined as follows:
— Cluster is a group of continuous blocks;
— Cluster can occupy a maximum of 6 (2 × 3) blocks in the case of Preshower and 9
(3 × 3) blocks in the case of Shower;
— Central block is defined as the block that has maximum energy deposition.
The “main” cluster in Preshower/Shower is the cluster with the biggest energy, which
is coincident with the “golden track”, or coincident with some Shower/Preshower cluster.
Coincidence of the cluster with the “golden track” means that the distance between the
shower cluster center and crossing point of “golden track” with the detector plane is less
than a certain magnitude. Coincidence of the Preshower and Shower clusters means,
that distance between the clusters centers is less than a certain magnitude (it is assumed
that both of these points are on the same Z–plane).
The shower clusters reconstruction in Preshower and Shower is performed by the
following steps:
1. Sort fired blocks in order of decreasing deposited energy;
2. Pick out the block with maximum energy deposition and all fired blocks in its
arrangement (2 × 3 blocks for Preshower, 3 × 3 blocks for Shower), as belonging to
one cluster;
3. Remove all blocks associated with the found cluster from further consideration;
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3, until all of the fired blocks are associated with a cluster;
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
164
5. Calculate energy deposition, X and Y coordinates of each cluster and sort clusters
by decreasing energy deposit;
6. Define coordinates of crossing point of “golden track” with detector plane in detector local coordinate system;
7. Analyze geometrical position of the “golden track” point on the detector plane and
cluster centers in order to determine the “main” cluster and to set its parameters
and identifier.
Energy deposition E, X and Y coordinates of the shower center are calculated by
the formulas:
E=
X
i∈M
ei ,
X=
X
ei · xi /E ,
Y =
i∈M
X
ei · yi /E ,
i∈M
where: i — number of detector block, included in the cluster; M — set of blocks numbers,
included in the cluster; ei — energy deposition in block i of detector; xi , yi — X and Y
coordinates of center of block i of detector.
The shower cluster reconstruction algorithm described above has been implemented
by the ESPACE analysis subroutine tot shower. A complete description of the program
as well as information about the ESPACE routines and kumac files used to perform the
analysis, photographs of the detectors and more information can be found at the URL
10
10
http://www.jlab.org/~armen/sh_web_page/welcome.html
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.5
5.5.1
Aerogel CherenkovCounter
165
11 12
Overview
Each High Resolution Spectrometer detector package includes a single silica aerogel
Cherenkovcounter of the compact reflection mirror design, which was dictated by the
available space (36.3 cm along the incident particle direction). In addition, the high
singles rates expected in Hall A are better handled with segmented detectors covering
the focal plane, which requires short pulse decay times. Even though the diffusion length
in silica aerogel can be quite short for low λ light generated in the SiO2 radiator [13],
enough directionality remains in the visible λ region, where the selected PMTs have good
quantum efficiency, to make light collection with mirrors an attractive and practical alternative.
An effective segmentation of the aerogel Čerenkov counter, matching the segmentation of the trigger scintillators, can be used to separate multiple tracks through the
focal plane and will allow an additional element of selectivity and track sensitivity in the
focal plane instrumentation. This means that specific sections of the focal plane can be
physically disabled from the trigger, if the experimental conditions require it. It will also
provide the capability of identifying and separating pions and protons traversing the focal
plane trigger scintillators and the vertical drift chambers (VDCs) within the resolving
time of the system (double hits). For example, in the offline analysis, the aerogel counter
PMT with the highest number of photoelectrons can be matched with the trigger counter
and VDC information to identify the actual path of a pion, thus separating it from a
simultaneously detected proton, which has no Cherenkovsignature. Such a capability of
double hit resolution is not possible with diffusion Cherenkovcounter designs, because the
photon collection efficiency does not have a strong correlation with the incident particle
track within the aerogel material.
The requirement for segmentation, in addition to supplementing the information on
the individual particle position along the focal plane, also couples well with the desirability of increasing the active solid angle viewed by the PMTs in the counter. Although
the photon detection probability is not as directly proportional to the solid angle covered
by PMTs as in the case of a diffusion box, clearly, the larger the effective coverage, the
higher the probability will be that a photon will end up on a PMT. Given the divergence
of the beam envelope incident on the aerogel, and the diffusion of the light in the low
λ region by the aerogel material, an increase in the area covered by PMTs results in an
increase in the number of photons detected. As a result, a total of 26 PMTs are used in
the counter, as shown in figure5.17, with minimal spacing between their µ-metal shields
(2.8 mm). The total area covered by the PMT photocathode windows comprises 72% of
the area of the counter opposite the planar parabolic mirrors. A cross sectional schematic
of the detector is shown in figure 5.18, clearly illustrating the planar parabolic design
of the mirror surfaces and their relative orientation with respect to the PMTs, and the
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orientation of the counter relative to the central axis of the spectrometers.
The close spacing of the µ-metal shields, which is also shown in the photograph of
figure 5.19, creates dielectric breakdown problems. The µ-metal shields are at cathode
potential (-2950 V ) to avoid the capacitive discharge from a grounded µ-metal shield to
the glass of the photocathode, which would contribute to the noise level in the PMT,
and adversely affect their performance at high operating voltages. This necessitates extra
precautions, in order to avoid dielectric breakdown between adjacent shields, and between
the shields and the aluminum structure of the counter, which is at ground potential. The
solution was to wrap the outer surfaces of the µ-metal shields with a high dielectric
value (12,000 V /mm), thin (0.254 mm) Teflon film13 . In addition, the PMT housings
consist of fiberglass-epoxy composites, with added inner and outer skins of 0.0254 mm
thick Tedlar1 , with a further combined insulating value of 3,000 V . Such a combination
of insulating materials eliminates any breakdown or small leakage current induced noise
and, at the same time, satisfies all safety requirements.
The final construction of the counter, described in this report, is built around the
two sides of the main (PMT) section, each consisting of two pieces of aircraft quality
aluminum alloy, with stiffening aluminum rods formed integrally on the top and bottom.
The openings for the PMT housings were machined on these structures using CNC milling
machines to keep tolerances to fine levels. The double walled structure, on both sides
of the enclosure, further increases the rigidity of the exoskeleton by forming a second
“outer” wall on each side, very similar in configuration to the inner one, and attached
to the latter with crossbolt braces, as shown in the photograph of figure5.19. Each end
plate is made out of the same aluminum alloy as the side walls, and also incorporates
stiffening lips folded integrally to each plate, one at the top and one at the bottom. Each
end plate has been provided with inlet and outlet gasline connections, which will be used
to fill the counter enclosure with dry CO2 gas to protect the silica aerogel from water
vapour absorption. figures 5.19 and 5.20 show the bottom (tray) sections, and main plus
upper (mirror) sections, respectively. The main (middle or PMT) section, in figure 5.20,
contains the PMTs and provides the strength and rigidity for the whole counter. The
one piece aluminum end plates are also shown in both photographs.
All internal surfaces of the detector, except the planar parabolic mirrors, themselves,
are lined with aluminized mylar14 to increase the overall reflectivity of the counter. The
mirrors are made in 45 × 20.5cm2 moulded surfaces, formed in one rigid structure. The
rigidity is provided by two layers of carbon fiber epoxy composite backing, with a combined thickness of 0.28 mm, and a single sheet of mylar with thickness 0.127 mm. The
special mylar material was obtained from exposed negative film used in the cartographic
industry, and is of high smoothness and uniformity. One side was aluminized at CERN,
while the other side remains in its exposed negative (black) state, further adding to
the successive light penetration barriers into the enclosure. A representative reflectivity
curve, as a function of λ for these mirrors, is shown in figure 5.21.
The upper section of the counter containing the mirrors is mounted on its own
13
14
DuPont Canada Inc., Box 2200, Streetsville, Mississauga, ON L5M 2H3, Canada.
National Metalizing, P.O. Box 5202, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
167
aluminum subframe, which is bolted to the main frame that houses the PMTs. The upper
section, on its own, is shown in the photograph of figure 5.22, while its configuration when
mounted on the main section is shown in figure 5.19. The light and gas sealing action
is provided by continuous twin parallel rubber strips along the joint area, and by Tedlar
film of 0.025 mm thickness covering the top of the outer planar parabolic area.
The third major component of the counter consists of a removable tray where the
silica aerogel is placed. The tray occupies the bottom part of the counter and has
inside dimensions of 195 × 41cm2 where the SiO2 silica aerogel is placed. It is formed
by a frame with twin aluminum panels, which, in turn, secure the removable frame
strung with fishing line in a criss-cross pattern to hold the aerogel panels in place. This
“fishnet” frame is secured by screws and is easily removed without disturbing the aerogel
panels or requiring restringing. The bottom of the tray is formed out of a single layer
of carbon fiber epoxy skin (0.127 mm thick) and a layer of aluminized mylar of equal
thickness. Externally, it is covered by a single layer of Tedlar film to assure integrity
from light penetration; further environmental isolation is provided by two parallel strips
of rubber gasket seals enclosing the circumference of the tray and containing the feedthrough spacers for the retaining bolts. The tray is equipped with SMA-type fiber optic
feed through connectors for the gain and timing monitor system, which utilizes fiber
optic cables. Each fiber illuminates two adjacent PMTs, except the last PMT on either
side (13T and 13B in figure 5.17), which have their own dedicated fiber. The light is
generated in a gas plasma discharge unit15 and duplicates the spectrum expected from
Čerenkov radiation. In addition, the fibers terminate beneath the silica aerogel, thus, the
light reaching the PMTs will have the absorption characteristics of real Čerenkov light
produced in the aerogel radiator.
Due to the nature of Cherenkovdetectors, where few photoelectrons (PEs) are emitted by the photocathodes in the PMTs, any extraneous light entering the enclosure is
very troublesome. As a result of the small number of PEs expected, the PMTs operate
either near to, or at, maximum high voltage, and, thus, at maximum gain. As such, they
can suffer damage if a sudden light leak develops. In testing, we verified the extreme
sensitivity to minute light leaks, even across the whole length of the structure, because
of the mirrored surfaces inside the enclosure. With 26 PMTs operating at maximum
gain, and viewing, effectively, a giant mirror, sealing the enclosure against single photon
penetration requires extra care during initial testing and operations.
The PMTs chosen for the counter were Burle model number 8854, 127 mm photocathode diameter16 . The PMT amplification electronics have been described in Refs.
[14, 15]. The dynode chain incorporated a 600 kΩ resistance between the cathode and
first dynode, instead of the nominal 300 kΩ. This generates a Vdyn = 885V across the
cathode to dynode gap, thus, increasing the photoelectron collection efficiency and peak
to valley (P/V) ratio. This modification has been proven successful in increasing the PE
collection efficiency and the single PE resolution. The dynode amplification chain also
incorporates a 11 M Ω resistor in series with the µ-metal shield to eliminate the possibility
15
16
Optitron Inc. 23206 S. Normandie Ave. #8, Torrance, CA 90502, USA.
Burle Industries Inc., 1000 New Holland Ave., Lancaster, PA 17601, USA.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
168
Figure 5.17: Schematic diagram of the aerogel Čerenkov counter as viewed by the
incoming particles. The numbers indicate the sections, 1 to 13, in the counter. Each
section is viewed by two PMTs, one on the top (T) and one in the bottom (B). The
labeling carries no significance other than identifying the PMTs during the testing phase,
as described in the text.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
169
Figure 5.18: Cross sectional drawing of the counter, along the particle direction, showing
the planar parabolic nature of the mirrors and the geometry of the PMTs, as well as the
final dimensions. The joint of the two mirror surfaces in the middle of the counter defines
the mirror “ridge”.
of electric shock through careless handling; this high impedance also limits the current
drawn, in the unlikely event of a complete dielectric breakdown between the shields and
the aluminum parts of the detector. A schematic diagram of the electronic amplification
chain is shown in figure 5.23.
The operation of the aerogel detector is discussed in Ref. [16].
5.5.2
Responsible Personnel
The following individuals are responsible for aerogel Cherenkovproblems.
Serdarević, Maja - x5063
Segal, Jack - x7242
Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan - x7191
5.5.3
Safety Assessment
The PMTs are under high voltage and care is required when handling any components
of the counter. As stated earlier on in this report, the insulating material between the µmetal shield and the aluminum exoskeleton far exceeds the operating voltage. In addition,
the 11 M Ω resistor between the µ-metal shield and the HV source, restricts the current
flow below the critical 1 mA level. The combination of Tedlar film, plexiglas composites,
and injection moulded bases, are all safe to handle but care should be exercised when
handling the aluminum parts of the counter or touching the metal back plate of the
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
170
Figure 5.19: Photograph showing the final arrangement of the double sidewall structure,
and the close spacing of the housings for the PMTs. The bottom section of the counter,
with the tray and the aluminized mylar reflector lining, is also shown. In this picture, the
particles would be incident from the bottom toward the top of the counter. The upper
(mirror) section has been removed for clarity.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
171
Figure 5.20: Photograph showing the middle (PMT) section with the double sidewall
structures and the housings for the PMTs, with the top (mirror) section attached. The
tray has been removed, and the white tabs on the mirrors are pieces of tape holding
a temporary protective film in place to prevent damage to the mirror surfaces during
transportation. In this figure, the particles would be incident from the top toward the
bottom of the picture.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
172
Figure 5.21: Typical reflectivity curve of a mirror as a function of the wavelength, λ, of
the incident light.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
173
Figure 5.22: A photograph showing the upper (mirror) section with the planar parabolic
mirrors. The mirror surface is protected by a vinyl film in this picture. The mirror “ridge”
separating the counter into two halves is clearly seen. This section fits over the open top
of the counter in Fig.5.19.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
174
Figure 5.23: Schematic diagram of the electronic amplification chain. The total resistance of 600 kΩ between the cathode and the first dynode is shown as three 200 kΩ
resistors for sake of clarity. In the actual PC boards, the arrangement is of six resistors
of 100 kΩ each, in order to keep the voltage across each resistor low and avoid surface
discharge between the closely packed resistors.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
175
base. It is strongly recommended to ground the aluminum exoskeleton of the counter,
at several spots, to a common ground with the HV and signal cable ground. This will
further enhance safety and eliminate potential ground loops in the unlikely event of a
slow, and otherwise difficult to diagnose, dielectric breakdown from the µ-metal shield
to the aluminum structure or the aluminized mylar in the interior.
5.5.4
Operating Procedure
Operating Voltage ,
The operating voltage on the PMTs is -2,950 V. This is a near maximum rated
voltage and it has been shown to combine high efficiency, good P/V ratio, and long
PMT life. The overall gain of the PMT is not maximum, as is measured by BURLE,
since the dynode chain of the 13 dynodes (2nd dynode to 14th dynode) is kept at -2,600
V equivalent with the original 300 kΩ resistor value between Cathode and 1st dynode.
However, the gain is more than sufficient to separate the one PE from the pedestal of all
ADCs we have used so far. It should not be necessary to increase the voltage above the
recommended one.
5.5.5
Handling Considerations
It is generally not advised to open up the counter if the persons involved are not thoroughly familiar with the assembly and specific component function. Routine operation
does not require any hands on modifications to the detector, as along as the following
operating principles are followed:
Installation and Removal of PMTs A replacement of a PMT or repairs of the
electronic amplification chain can be accomplished by removal of that specific PMT-Base
combination. Turn the HV off on all PMTs and remove the rubber hood covering the
base and housing interface region. Now remove the three small screws attaching the base
to the integral housing. Note that the base can only be secured to the housing in one
specific orientation.
Carefully slide out the base with the PMT and µ-metal shield mounted as one unit.
Remove the elastomeric ring positioned between the PMT and the µ-metal shield. Loosen
the nut securing the µ-metal shield to the base and carefully apply upward force on the
shield while someone else is holding onto the base. This will remove the PMT and the
µ-metal shield from the socket and base, respectively.
Replacement of the PMT requires experience because it has to be done with the µmetal shield installed in, but not secured to, the base. The PMT pins need to be aligned
with the socket pins in a specific geometry, thus, the insertion has to be done by feel
and experience. Once the PMT is inserted in the socket, the µ-metal shield is secured
the base with the nut. Make sure the shield protrudes past the photocathode as much
as the tapered design allows. Carefully insert the elastomeric ring between the PMT rim
and the µ-metal shield. This ring supports the PMT and prevents it from sliding out of
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
176
Table 5.3: The number of photoelectrons detected as a function of PMT and incident
beam location in the end plate proximity configuration. Σ6 P.E. and Σ26 P.E. denotes the
measured total number of photoelectrons from six PMTS and the expected total from
26 PMTs, respectively. The incident electron beam location (hit position) is represented
by [×].
PMT Location and Number of Photoelectrons
1B [×] 4.0 1T
0.2
2B
0.8 2T
0.3
3B
0.6 3T
0.1
Σ6 P.E. 6.0 Σ26 P.E.
7.5
PMT Location and Number of Photoelectrons
5B
0.5
6B
1.0 6T
0.1
7B [×] 3.5 7T
0.2
0.1
8B
1.0 8T
9B
0.5
Table 5.4: As in table 5.3, but for the center hit location configuration.
the pins during movement; it also helps seal the interior of the counter from the outside
environment and reduces CO2 leakage rate. Reverse the process for installation.
Installation and Removal of the SiO2 Tray PLEASE NOTE: The SiO2 aerogel
panels are extremely fragile and sensitive to water and chemical vapour. Do not handle
with bare hands, use clean cotton, or other fabric type, gloves instead. Surgical gloves
often are contaminated with lubricants and are not suitable for this purpose.
The tray is secured to the main section by hex bolts. Removal of the bolts results in
the straightforward removal of the tray. There is minimum clearance between the tray
walls and the main section; as a result, the tray has to be removed and installed in a
uniform translation with respect to the main body. The frame supporting the fish net (or
tennis racket) can be removed from the tray proper by removal of the two small screws in
the middle of the tray walls and a tool (hook) is provided for this operation. The SiO2
aerogel panels can now be removed or replaced. Reverse the procedure for installation.
The securing bolts do not need to be tightened very much and, although spacers are
inserted between the rubber strips to prevent damage, care and common sense should be
exercised. Light and gas sealing is provided by the rubber strips NOT by brute force.
WARNING: After each removal of any components of the counter, check for light
leaks before turning the HV on at operating values. Even a small light leak can destroy
the PMTs if they are at -2,950 V! Check for light leaks with lights out, using a small
portable light, and reduced voltage around -2,000 V.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.6
177
The Focal Plane Polarimeter
5.6.1
17 18
Overview
The focal plane polarimeter measures the polarization of protons in the hadron spectrometer detector stack. When the protons pass through a carbon analyzer, the nuclear
spin-orbit force leads to an azimuthal asymmetry in scattering from carbon nuclei, if the
protons are polarized. The particle trajectories, in particular the scattering angles in
the carbon, are determined by pairs of front and rear straw chambers, a type of drift
chamber.
As shown in Figure 5.24, the front straw chambers are separated by about 114 cm,
and are located before and after the gas Cerenkov detector. The second chamber is
followed by scintillator 2, which is in turn followed by the polarimeter carbon analyzer.
The rear chambers, chambers 3 and 4, are separated by 38 cm and are immediately
behind the carbon analyzer.
Gas
Cerenkov
Rear Straw
Chambers
S2
Aerogel
S1
VDC
Carbon Analyser
max. 51 cm
Front Straw
Chambers
Figure 5.24: Schematic of the hadron detector stack.
The carbon analyzer consists of 5 carbon blocks. Each block is split in the middle
17
18
CV S revision Id: fpp.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 17:00:27 gen Exp
Authors: Dr.No mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
178
so that it may be moved into or out of the proton paths, so that the total thickness
of scattering carbon may be adjusted. The block thicknesses, from front to rear, are 9”
(22.9cm), 6” (15.2cm), 3” (7.6cm) , 1.5” (3.8cm) , and 0.75” (1.9cm). The block positions
are controlled through EPICS; the controls may be reached through the Hall A / hadron
spectrometer / detectors menus. Particles passing through the carbon analyzer can be
absorbed in it.
The straw chamber planes are designated as X, U, and V planes. The central ray
defines the z axis. X wires measure position along the dispersive direction. The UV
coordinate system is created by a 45 degree rotation in the transverse plane of the XY
coordinate system, with +U between the +X and +Y axes, and +V between the +Y
and -X axes.
The straw chamber operation is described in the following paragraphs.
When a charged particle passes through the chamber in typical Jefferson Lab operating conditions, there will be about 30 primary ionizations of gas molecules. Positive high
voltage of about 1.8 - 1.9 kV is applied to the wire in the center of each straw. Electrons
from the ionizations drift towards the wire. When the electrons get within about 100
µ of the wire, the gain in energy between collisions with gas molecules is sufficient that
gas molecules are further ionized in collisions. This leads to an avalanche, and a gain of
about 105 per primary ionization under the conditions in which the FPP is run.
The movement of the positive and negative ions leads to a voltage drop on the wire,
or equivalently to a negative analog signal. The analog signal is about 20 ns long, with a
(negative) peak current of about 40 µA, and propagates towards each end of the straw. At
one end of each straw is a board that supplies high voltage (see Figure 5.25); impedance
matching on this board, with a 1500 pF capacitor and a 370 Ω resistor, reduces reflection
of the signal.
The other end of each straw is connected to a readout board, that amplifies, discriminates, and multiplexes the input signals – (see Figures 5.26 and 5.27 ). At the
readout end, the signal is “coupled to ground” through a 1500 pF capacitor followed by
310 + 50 Ω resistors. In parallel with the 50 Ω resistor are diodes to limit the signal size,
preventing damage to the readout board circuitry. An amplifier samples the signal over
the 50 Ω resistor. The amp gain is about -10 mV/µA, resulting in a +400 mV signal to a
comparator. A threshold voltage input to the readout board is put over a voltage divider
consisting of 1500 + 10 Ω resistors. For the typical 4 V threshold applied to the board,
the comparator puts out a logical pulse when the 400 mV (peak) signal rises above the 4
V / 151 = 26 mV threshold. One-shots are then used to fix the width of the logical pulse
for each channel – the one-shot width is fine tuned by the use of high precision resistors
in an RC circuit; these resistors are mounted in sockets so as to be easily replaced if the
need arises. An OR circuit then combines eight individual straw outputs into a single
electronics channel.
Internally, within the Faraday cages, the high voltage is distributed to stacks of high
voltage / test pulser boards, through which it is connected to each straw via a 1 MΩ 1/4
watt resistor.
The readout cards require a high-current low-voltage power supply and a low-current
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
4
179
3
2
1
REVISIONS
ZONE
LTR
DESCRIPTION
DATE
APPROVED
D
D
Pin Numbers for J1 and J2
C
B
Channel #
J1- Sig
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
+HV
J1-RET
J2-STRW
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1M
R1-X
C
J2-STRW
1500p
3KV
C1-X
30.1K
J1-SIG
R3-X
357
R2-X
x=channel #
DRAWING NAME
PROJECT NAME
Straw Termination
Gilman
APPROVALS
DATE
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY
DRAWN
A
8/24/94
EHB
Department of Physics
and Astronomy
CHECKED
SIZE
ENGINEER
Edward Bartz
4
3
B
J1-RET
2
A
REV.
A
SHEET
A-0
1 OF 1
1
Figure 5.25: Circuit diagram for the high voltage / termination board.
low-voltage power supply for a threshold level. The readout electronics are mounted on
the chamber, shielded within Faraday cages. The high-current power supplies were built
by the Rutgers University Department of Physics & Astronomy Electronics Shop. These
supplies are set to provide sufficient current at ±5 V for the boards to which they are
hooked up. No adjustments, except for turning the supplies on / off, should be needed in
normal operation. There are voltage setting, current limiting, and overvoltage protection
potentiometers within the boxes; adjustment information is given in the FPP logbooks.
The low current supplies are Hewlett-Packard 6111A supplies. The 6111As can provide
up to 1 A for voltage from 0 to 20 V. The supplies are currently hooked up through the
rear panel to a DAC in the data acquisition panel; front panel controls on the supplies
are disabled, except for the on/off switch. The voltage is controlled through an EPICS
FPP threshold window, that is accessed through the Hall A / hadron spectrometer /
detectors menus. The high-current supplies are not computer controlled. All supplies
are mounted in the detector stack.
The multiplexed logical signals from the chambers have amplitudes smaller than
ECL levels, to prevent noise at the chamber. These signals are fed to level shifter boards
(see Figure 5.28), located in the FPP rack on the lower electronics level of the detector
stack, on the beam right side. A high-current ±5 V power supply for the level shifter
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
180
+5va
-5
C65
+5va
0.1
0.1
C1-1
R1-1
0.01
2
C3-1
6
1
1
R51
510
C66
C2-1
1n4150
1n4150
49.9
1500p-3Kv
D1-1
D2-1
R2-1
309
2
R3-1
191
U1
220p
VTH
1
C4-1
+
U17
MVL407
3
16
11
R50
100
5
3
8
4
2
7 Nec1663
8
1
4
19
4
U22
5
20
10102
0.1
C69
7
0.01
-5va
C70
10102
0.1
-5
Figure 5.26: Circuit diagram for the amplifier / discriminator section of the readout
board.
+5va
-5
C65
0.1
C96 -5
1
R51
510
C66
0.01
-1
1
R64
510
0.1
2
8
1
4
2
0p
R50
100
1
VTH
+
U17
MVL407
3
16
11
2
19
4
20
U22
12
2
U22
13
5
15
10
9
10102
C94
470p
10102
R61
732
7
U22
3
6
C70
10102
0.1
14
3
10102
510
R64
1
R59
10.0
OUT1
C69
0.01
U22
11
-5
7
-5
-5
R64
510
C102
1
R69
510
-5
-5
0.1
OUT1
OUT5
OUT6
OUT7
OUT8
7
5
6
4
U25
3
OUT4
OUT3
OUT2
2
10
12
9
11
13
14
C103
0.1
R72
15
10109
453
10109
R71
510
R68
510
R70
453
J2
U25
4
C105
0.1
J2
3
C104
C101
0.1
0.1
U22
6
-5
-5
Figure 5.27: Circuit diagram for the logical / multiplexing section of the readout board.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
181
0.1
+5v
-5v
-5v
1
56
0.1
390
R17
C17
R2-1
31
J1
C1-1
6
1
2
4
2
R3-1
1.00k
U1
0.1
8
R5-1
3
R1-1
2
7
U17
11
C2-1
0.1
56
10
9
5
J2
10116
1.00k
7 Nec1663
32
J1
2.74k
R6-1
6
J2
Vbb
1
3
1.56k
R4-1
390
R17
C3-1
1
-5v
-5v
Figure 5.28: Circuit diagram for the level shifter / receiver board.
boards is located at the bottom of the same rack. The boards convert the signals to
ECL standard levels. The level shifter outputs are connected to the starts of LeCroy
Model 1877 FASTBUS TDCs, located in the lower electronics level on the beam left side.
The TDCs measure both leading and trailing edge times to allow demultiplexing. The
TDCs are subsequently stopped by the overall event trigger, and are read out by the
CODA acquisition software. The data are histogrammed online by the DHIST software.
In-depth offline data analysis requires the ESPACE software.
The chamber gas is presently a combination of argon and ethane, about 63% and
37% by weight. The Hall A gas shed is outside next to the entrance of the Hall A truck
ramp. Gas is routed from the Hall A gas shed mixing system to the gas panel located on
the lower electronics level of the space frame, and subsequently to the FPP chambers.
The gas system is shared with the VDCs. A detailed description of the system has been
written by Howard Fenker19 .
In addition, the chambers are outfitted with a test pulser capability. A pulse is
introduced into an 8 channel (16 wire) twisted pair cable on each chamber, which connects
to the high voltage boards, at the opposite ends of each straw from the readout boards.
The pulse is resistively coupled through a 20 kΩ resistor to the ground leg of a 1500 pF
capacitor, and thence into the straws. After propagating through the straw, the pulse
enters the readout board. A pulse of about 1 V amplitude in the twisted pair cable is
sufficient to provide a few mV signal into the readout boards, resulting in a logical output
signal. The system may be used to test the functionality of each readout channel and /
or the continuity of the high voltage wire in each straw. The system currently is only
implemented for manual operation, except that data may be read out through CODA.
This procedure requires some familiarity with trigger logic and setup, should only be
done by experts, and is not documented here.
19
http://www.jlab.org/Hall-A/document/HAWGS/HAWGS_OpMan.html
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.6.2
182
Operating Procedure
Gas Flow Operating Procedures The chamber gas is mixed 63%-37% (by weight)
Ar ethane. The gas is mixed in the Hall A gas shed which is located next to the entrance
to the Hall A truck ramp. One needs key #8, which is located in a key box in the Hall A
counting house, to get inside the shed where the gas mixing is done. The argon and
ethane bottles which feed the gas mixing system are located outside the shed and can be
exchanged when they are empty. The mixed gas is sent down into Hall A and to each of
the detector huts. There are two each of argon and ethane bottles connected to the gas
system and a Matheson 8590 controller switches between the two bottles when the gas
pressure in the bottle drops below a certain level. At this point the one bottle can be
replaced while the other is being used. The procedure for changing gas bottles is outlined
below:
1. Warning: High pressure gas bottles contain significant stored energy and are potentially hazardous. Handling of gas bottles should be done only by qualified, trained
personnel.
2. For smoothest operation, used gas bottles should be replaced before their internal
pressure drops below the desired regulator output pressure.
3. Two possible cases exist in which a gas bottle needs to be replaced: only one empty
gas bottle on a system or both bottles empty on a gas system.
4. For case 1 the sequence of steps is as follows:
(a) Check in the Hall A Gas Shed. If all bottles have sufficient pressure each of the
Matheson 8590 controllers will have one green ”RUN” LED lit and one yellow
”READY” LED lit. A red ”EMPTY” LED lit indicates a bottle with low
pressure, the corresponding bottle needs to be replaced. If a red ”EMPTY”
LED is lit the central ”ALARM” LED should also show red. Nothing further
needs to be done here; go outside to the Gas Bottle Pad.
(b) Visually verify that the corresponding pressure gauge on the flex line is showing
a low pressure. A low pressure is not necessarily zero. Close the bottle valve
for the empty bottle.
(c) Disconnect the empty bottle from the high-pressure flex-line. The in-line
check-valves will prevent gas escaping from the manifold. Replace the bottle’s
cap, and move the empty bottle to the EMPTIES storage rack. Note that
ethane bottle fittings, type CGA-350, have left-handed threads.
(d) Place a full bottle of gas in the on-line rack, remove the bottle cap, and connect
the bottle to the flex-line.
(e) Open the new bottle’s valve, check for leaks at the bottle fitting. The corresponding pressure gauge should now read full bottle pressure.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
183
(f) The ALARM state of the Matheson 8590 controller should have automatically
reset. Check inside the Hall A Gas Shed. Each controller should show a green
”RUN” and yellow ”READY” LED lit. If not, re-check the installation of the
gas bottle.
5. For case 2 the sequence of steps is as follows:
(a) Check in the Hall A Gas Shed. If all bottles have sufficient pressure each
of the Matheson 8590 controllers will have one green ”RUN” LED lit and
one yellow ”READY” LED lit. If a Matheson 8590 controller shows two red
”EMPTY” LEDs lit and the central red ”ALARM” LED lit, both bottles of
the corresponding manifold need to be replaced. Nothing further needs to be
done here, go outside to the Gas Bottle Pad.
(b) Follow steps 2. through 5., as detailed immediately above, for both bottles.
(c) The ALARM state of the Matheson 8590 controller should have automatically
reset. Check inside the Hall A Gas Shed. Each controller should show two
yellow ”READY” LEDs lit. If not, re-check the installation of the gas bottle.
Press either of the two buttons labeled ”LEFT BANK” and ”RIGHT BANK”.
The lit LED above the button you pressed will change from yellow ”READY”
to green ”RUN”. You will most likely need to reset the Low Supply Pressure
shutdown at this point.
The four FPP straw chambers are connected in parallel to the gas system. (see
Figure 5.29).
(The FPP chambers are also in parallel with the VDC chambers.) All gas connections
are made using POLYFLOT M tubing and TJNAF-specified connectors. The chamber
volumes range from approximately 120 to 220 `. Gas pressure in the chambers is typically
a few Torr above atmospheric pressure. The gas flow through the chambers may be
independently varied and is typically set to 7 `/hr, leading to a replacement of the
chamber volumes about every 15 - 30 hours. Gas is exhausted from the FPP chambers
through a bubbler containing < 1 mm of mineral oil. A typical chamber leakage rate at
this flow rate is 25 - 50 %. The flow rate of 7 `/hr when combined with the leak rate
of ≤ 3 `/hr results in a complete exchange of gas in the chambers roughly every 1 - 2
days. At this level of consumption, a full gas bottle connected to the FPP system lasts
approximately 10 days. When a bottle is nearing empty (≈ 90%), it should be changed
since there may be heavy contaminants in the gas. Gas bottles may only be changed by
authorized personnel.
Gas-handling Procedures
1. Typically gas is continually flowing though the chambers. If at all possible, gas flow
should be continuously maintained, even in no-beam time periods. This avoids time
loss to reconditioning and maintains the desirable steady-state operating condition.
If the chambers are not being used in an experiment, the flowmeters for the front
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
184
vdc
115 fpp 2
vdc
40
fpp 3
35
fpp 4
115 fpp 1
Digital output flowmeters
I
B
vdc
vdc
I
B
vdc
NU B
fpp1
I
B
fpp2
I
B I
I
fpp3x fpp1
vdc fpp1 fpp2 fpp3 fpp4
manual flowmeters
13-15psi
vdc
small
flowmeter
at side of
gas panel
for fpp ch3
x planes.
fpp
INput pressure gauges
Figure 5.29: Drawing of the gas panel on the hadron detector stack.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
185
chambers are set to 20 and the flowmeters for the rear chambers are set to 60.
When the chambers are used in an experiment the standard setting for the front
chambers is 40 and for the rear chambers it is 105.
2. Gas pressure at the gas panel on the detector stack should be in the range 13 - 15
psi. With the large leakage rate of the FPP chambers, we typically run at near
the limit of the capacity of the gas mixer to supply the gas flow demanded by the
FPP and VDC chambers. Therefore it is possible to demand too much flow rate
from the mixer. If the gas pressure drops below 13 psi drop the flow to the FPP
chambers and contact Jack Segal or Howard Fenker to determine the cause and
remedy for the situation.
The status of the gas handling system should be monitored carefully as well as logged
at least once per 8-hour shift. Any substantial deviation from the median parameters
indicates a change in the operational parameters of the FPP and should be immediately
investigated.
Power Supplies and Electronics Procedures The power supplies and readout electronics associated with the FPP are a mixture of commercially purchased equipment
and equipment designed and/or assembled with the Rutgers University Department of
Physics & Astronomy Electronics Shop. The reader is directed towards the manuals
made available by the manufacturer for the detailed information not provided here for
the commercial equipment. For the Rutgers constructed equipment, further documentation is available on the web page20 .
and through FPP notebooks (try for example contacting R. Gilman for notebooks maintained by Rutgers, CEBAF Center, phone 757.269.7011).
The LeCroy 1458 HV control crate houses the Lecroy 1469P modules which control
the HV for the FPP chambers. The 1469P has 3 master HV channels and each master
HV channel controls eight slave channels. In slot 7 of the 1458 is the 1469P module
which controls chamber 1 and chamber 2. In slot 8 of the 1458 is the 1469P module
which controls chamber 3 and chamber 4. The individual slave channels can trip from
high current faults or other trip faults, but all eight slave channels must be raised and
lowered together by setting the master high voltage. The HV provides +1.8 - 1.9 kV
nominal to each of the ≈ 5100 wires in the four FPP straw chambers. The power supply
is located in the detector stack at the top of crate 6 in the upper electronics level. This
unit is controlled through HAC13. Connections from the power supply to the chambers
are made using standard SHV connectors mounted on red RG-59/U HV cable good to 5
kV.
The high-current low-voltage supply boxes were assembled by Rutgers University.
They are designed to provide a maximum current of about 1.6 / 0.6 A at -5 / +5 V to
each of the 318 readout cards on the four chambers. There are 63 / 63 / 90 / 102 cards on
chambers 1 / 2 / 3 / 4. Typical operating currents are about two-thirds of this nominal
20
http://www.jlab.org/~gilman/fpp-homepage.html
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
186
maximum value. The +/-5 V power lines are independently fused to each card. Each of
the eight supply boxes contains two or three power supplies, each rated for either 35 or
50 A. There are two power boxes for each chamber. Six boxes are located at the lower
rear end of the detector stack. The second boxes for chambers 3 and 4 are located at
the top of the detector stack, on an aluminum plate just off the upper electronics level.
These power boxes are monitored through EPICS, but turned on/off though front panel
switches.
Hewlett-Packard 6111A power supplies are used to provide typically 2 - 3 mA current
per readout card. Each of the front and rear chambers have their own power supply. The
front chambers thresholds are fused, to limit current drawn in case of a short on the
board. The rear chamber cards use a 1.5 kΩ resistor external to the board to limit
current drawn, in case of a short on the board. Board threshold circuitry also has a 1.5
kΩ to ground which with the external 1.5 kΩ makes a voltage divider. Therefore, the rear
threshold supplies are typically set to a voltage which is a factor of two larger than the
front threshold supplies to give the same threshold voltage at the readout board. Initial
tests indicate that at least a 1.5 V threshold must be applied to the cards to prevent
oscillations - this level will stop oscillations that arise when the voltage applied is reduced
to about 1.0 V. In practice it has been found that the front chambers should be operated
at 4 V and the rear at 7 V. Efficiency studies show that the chamber threshold could be
raised by 50% with minor loss in efficiency. The HP supplies are also mounted in the
hadron arm detector stack, on an aluminum panel located beneath the two upper high
current supplies.
Each straw wire contains a 25µm φ, Au-plated tungsten-rhenium wire. The number of wires per plane varies from 176 to 272. Wires are multiplexed 8 wires into one
electronics channel, leading to a required 636 TDC channels. In practice a few extra
channels are used, so that each 34 wire (16 differential signal channels plus one ground
pair) twisted pair cable contains only signals from one of the four chambers. LeCroy
1877 multihit FASTBUS TDCs are used to measure the leading edge time and width of
the pulses, to demultiplex the wire hit. Within each group of eight wires, the widths are
set to about 25, 45, 35, 55, 90, 65, 105, and 75 ns. The TDCs are located in the upper
FASTBUS crate located on the lower electronics level of the spectrometer space frame
in the detector hut. The FPP rack, containing level shifter cards, is located opposite the
FASTBUS crates on the lower electronics level. It shifts signals sizes from the reduced
±50 mV readout card output levels to ECL standard levels, for input to the TDCs. The
connections between the readout cards and the level shifter cards, as well as between
the level shifter cards and the TDCs, are made with 16-conductor twisted-pair cables. A
wiremap, detailing the cabling, is posted on the side of the FPP rack.
Power-up Procedure
1. Ensure that gas flow has been established in the chambers as outlined in the previous section. If it has not, STOP RIGHT HERE! Gas flow must be well-established
and steady-state BEFORE the HV may be enabled.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
187
2. Ensure that all power supplies as well as the FASTBUS crate are off and the LV,
HV, and TDC cables are connected.
3. Turn on the threshold and LV power supplies. Use EPICS to turn the threshold
voltages up to correct values, about 4.0 V for front chambers 1 and 2, and 7 V for
rear chambers 3 and 4.
4. Use HAC13 to turn up the chamber voltages. Standard values are 1875 V for front
and rear chambers. It is probably best to raise the HV in 300V steps. After each
step wait for the current to settle below 1 µA, then go up to the next level until
1875V is reached. Peak currents during turn-on should not exceed about 40 µA. A
10 V/s ramp rate leads to a leakage current of several µA. Trip levels should be set
to 110 µA both for turning on HV and for normal operation, so that bad spills do not
trip the chambers. Current should settle to about a µA or less within a few minutes.
If the power supply trips during the ramping procedure, it is possible that you are
moving too fast, or that some problem has developed with a chamber. Rezero things
and begin the procedure again. NEVER USE THE AUTO-RESET FUNCTION. If
the power supply trips again, STOP IMMEDIATELY AND INVESTIGATE. There
is probably a problem and expert advice may be needed. Some detailed information,
intended for experts debugging hardware problems, is available in the Rutgers web
pages.
5. Check for poor signal connections evidenced by hot wires (wires counting extremely
fast) or dead wires (wires with no counts) using the histogramming software and
cosmic rays. Be careful: apparent problems may result from bad demultiplexing
rather than from poor signal connections. Remake any connections as necessary by
first powering down the FASTBUS crate.
If at all possible, the HV and LV power supplies should be left on continuously if
and only if gas is available to the chamber. This avoids time loss to reconditioning and
maintains the desirable steady-state operating condition.
5.6.3
Carbon Doors
Four of the five doors operate remotely, the fifth needing further testing before it is
certified reliable. The doors use the EPICS control system to activate and read back the
various components.
Each layer of carbon doors has one relay board. Each board is identical in operation
and there is one spare in the event one of them should fail. The global purpose of the
relay board is as follows:
1. Turn on the 12V to power to rest of circuit board.
2. Set the polarity on the 90V used to power the motors.
3. Turn the 90V on.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
188
4. Cut off the 90V to a motor if the appropriate limit switch is hit.
5. Read back the status of the limit switches.
The 12V used to power the circuit board runs through this relay and it is activated
via an EPICS relay in VME crate 4 (hallasc4). Relay #1 turns on the 90V and it too is
activated by an EPICS relay in VME crate 4. Relay #2 switches the polarity of the 90V
being fed to the driving motors. When activated it reverses the polarity to the motors
and it is controlled by a relay in VME crate 4. Relays #3 and #5 are activated by the
inner limit switches of the carbon doors. When these switches are depressed the relay
activates and the 90V is cut off. Relays #4 and #6 are activated by the outer limit
switches of the carbon doors and like relays #3 and #5 cut off the 90V when activated.
Relays #4 and #6 activate when opened rather than when depressed. It would be nice
in the future to have relays #3 and #5 also activated by an open limit switch condition
and deactivated when the switch is closed. This way the 12V could be off to one of the
switches and the doors would stop moving. As it is now, a broken wire/short while the
doors are closing could cause the doors to continue moving risking possible damage.
The status of the limit switches is readout via an ADC in VME crate 4. If the
switches are closed a -4V is seen at the ADC input. This is effected via a voltage splitter
of 3 kΩ - 6 kΩ resistors. The readouts are plugged in via telephone jacks (PJ4, PJ5,
PJ6, and PJ7). A temporary fix has been put in place which sends the signals through
a capacitor first to block voltage spikes going into the ADC. These voltage spikes caused
the ADC to trip off-line which can only be fixed by resetting the VME crate.
The operation of the carbon doors is done via a GUI style control panel . This panel
is located under the detector screen of the hadron arm (FPP Carbon Doors). The 3/4”
carbon door has been disconnected at the 90V power supply and is not implemented in
the software GUI. This door had what may have been some sliding problems. Since it
may take a great deal of force to remove this door if it should jam, it will need to be
tested so it can be removed easily if it should jam. The normal operating procedure with
the GUI is to first make sure all the 90V power is off to each door (Blue switches), then
to turn on the 12V power to each door to see where it is located in the stack (in vs.
out). If you wish to change the status of a door (in/out) then simply toggle the IN/OUT
switch appropriately and turn on the 90V. It takes some time for the doors to move the
entire range, so be patient. When the limit switches have been reached the appropriate
indicators will light up. You should then turn the 90V off. The important aspect of this
procedure is to make sure that you do not change the polarity of the 90V while the doors
are moving. This place undue stress on the motors and the power supply as well.
5.6.4
Handling Considerations
The FPP straw chambers are very delicate devices which are absolutely essential to many
Hall A physics experiments. Thus, extreme care must be taken whenever they are moved
or used. Also, extreme care must be taken that other objects are not moved into them.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.30: EPICS GUI for the carbon doors.
189
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
190
• Before moving a straw chamber, ensure that any protective plates are in position.
• Disconnect and reconnect all TDC, HV, and LV cables with care.
• When initiating gas flow, pay strict attention to the feedback parameters. Straw
chambers are not very sensitive to overpressure of perhaps 50 - 100 Torr, but the
straw chambers can be easily destroyed by a few Torr underpressure.
• Never attempt to apply HV to the chambers until gas flow conditions have reached
steady-state.
• As the amount of heat generated by the pre-amp/discriminator cards is substantial,
always make sure adequate cooling is provided before attempting to run. This
is mostly ensured by making certain that the various cooling holes through the
Faraday shields are not covered. The chambers have internally mounted fans where
needed, which are powered up along with the readout cards.
• If the leakage current on the high voltage rises linearly with voltage, then a wire
has broken and is shorted to ground!
5.6.5
Safety Assessment
The following potential hazards have been clearly identified.
The High Voltage System The LeCroy 1458 HV low current power supply provides
a nominal +1.80 kV. Red HV RG-59/U cable good to 5 kV with standard SHV
connectors is used to connect the power supply to the chambers. Each HV channel,
of the 6 per chamber, typically will draw a few hundred nA.
The Low Voltage System LV power supplies are used for the pre-amp/discriminator/multiplexer
cards. Each card requires up to 1.6 A at -5 V and 0.6 A at +5 V, plus a few mA
threshold at 4 - 8 V.
High Pressure Gas Bottles The gas used in the chambers is supplied in high pressure
(≥ 2000 psi) gas bottles. This confined high pressure gas represents a tremendous
(potentially lethal) amount of stored energy.
5.6.6
Responsible Personnel
The following individuals are responsible for chamber problems. Generally, the non
Jefferson Lab people are responsible for FPP detector problems, whereas the Jefferson
Lab people are responsible for more general data acquisition problems or, e.g., gas /
voltage supplies shared with other systems.
Ronald Gilman, Rutgers - x7011, pager 0161
Mark Jones, William & Mary - x5255, pager 849-5045
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Charles Perdrisat, William & Mary - 221.3572 or 3522
Xiangdong Jiang, Rutgers, x7011, pager 849-6664
Steffen Strauch, Rutgers, x7011,
Jack Segal, Jefferson Lab - x7242
Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Jefferson Lab - x7191
191
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.7
The Hall A Gas System
5.7.1
192
21 22
Overview
The Hall A detector gas systems are located in the Hall A Gas Shed alongside of the
truck ramp for Hall A. The gas cylinders in use are along the outside of the Gas Shed
in a fenced area. There are racks next to the Gas Shed for storage of full gas cylinders.
On the other side of the truck ramp there are racks for storage of both full and empty
cylinders. Hall A currently uses ethane, argon, ethanol, two grades of CO2 and nitrogen.
One system uses two cylinders of SFC grade CO2 (without a helium head). This is
for the gas Cerenkov counters in the HRS detector arrays.
One system uses two cylinders of Coleman grade CO2. This is for flushing the
aerogel Cerenkov counters in the HRS detector arrays.
One system uses a single cylinder of Coleman grade CO2. This is for the gas
Cerenkov counter in the (e,p) setup in the beamline.
One system uses two cylinders of Zero grade argon and two cylinders of Chemically
Pure grade of ethane. This is for all the HRS wire chambers of both arms. The two gases
are mixed inside the Gas Shed and bubbled through ethyl alcohol. Details of this system
can be found in the Hall A Wire-chamber Gas System (HAWGS) manual. A copy of the
current manual is in Counting Room A and on the Hall A web page.
One cylinder of Industrial grade nitrogen is used to provide pressurized gas for a few
automatic cylinder switch-overs in the systems.
Maintenance of the gas system is routinely performed by the Hall A technical staff.
Shift personnel are not expected to be responsible for maintaining the detector gas systems. Unexpected maintenance requirements should be handled by contacting
Jack(John) Segal - pager and phone are both extension 7242
Hall A Technician on call
5.7.2
Gas Alarms
In Counting Room A there are two alarm panels associated with the gas systems for the
detectors. They are located on the far left end of the control console, mounted one above
the other. The upper panel is a Gas Master flammable gas monitoring system. The
lower panel is a gas systems status indicator. The Gas Master system will go into alarm
if elevated levels of flammable gas are present in either of the Detector Shielding Huts
or the Gas Shed. The Gas Master system will also go into alarm if the magnets vent
cryogens. The gas systems status will alarm if any of a number of faults are detected
in the Hall A Wire-chamber Gas System. The led for the specific fault will turn red to
indicate which fault caused the alarm.
Response to an alarm should be to contact either of the personnel listed above.
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CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
5.8
HRS Gas Supply System for Wire Detectors
193
23
24
5.8.1
Overview
The detector systems in both HRS’s (FPP and VDC) are expected to use a mixture of
Argon and Ethane in roughly equal proportions, plus about 1% ethanol. The Argon and
Ethane are supplied from high-pressure gas bottles. They are combined in the desired
proportion by a mixing system and this mixture is passed through a bath of isopropyl
alcohol which is maintained at a fixed temperature. See Figure 5.31 for a schematic
diagram of the gas supply / mixing system.
The gas mixture is delivered to gas distribution racks in the Hadron Spectrometer
and the Electron Spectrometer. The transmission lines and the distribution plumbing
have been designed as if the FPPs and VDCs were actually independent systems using
different gas mixtures. This design was chosen in order to ease the expected transition
to such a system in the future. Also supplied is a source of purge gas, currently pure
argon. The distribution racks provide, for each detector, selection of either operating
gas or purge gas, flow control and metering, overpressure relief to protect the detector
components, exhaust flow measurement, and backflow prevention.
Bulk Gas Supply
The bulk gas supply consists of two bottles each of Argon, Ethane, and Carbon-Dioxide.
Except for fittings which vary by type of gas the three supplies have identical plumbing.
One bottle of each gas will be on-line during system operation while the second bottle
serves as a ready reserve (connected to the manifold, but valved off). The two bottles
are connected through check valves and manual valves to a high-pressure manifold. The
pressure in this manifold is sensed by a pressure transducer whose signal is available to
the slow-controls computer for monitoring. The pressure is also indicated locally by a
mechanical pressure gauge attached to a two-stage regulator. A pressure regulator for
each type of gas reduces the pressure to approximately 45 psig. This is the pressure at
which gas is supplied to the gas shed. It may be monitored by the outlet pressure gauges
(PG-021, -022, -023) on the pressure regulators and, inside the gas shed, on gauges PG131, -132, -133. Prior to entering the shed the gas passes through manual valves (MV-031,
-032, -033), Excess Flow Valves (XF-041, -042, -043), and Solenoid Valves (AV-051, -052,
-053).
The Excess Flow Valves automatically close if the flow rate exceeds about 4 slpm
at 45 psig. These valves must be manually reset after they trip. Refer to the section
Resetting a closed Excess Flow Valve for this procedure The solenoid valves are electrically
operated (24 VDC) normally-closed valves. Power must be supplied to the solenoids in
order for gas to flow. Valve power is supplied, when interlock conditions are satisfied,
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CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
194
by the Gas Interlock System. Note that one of the required interlock conditions is that
there be ample gas pressure downstream of the solenoid valves. System operators must
use the manual ”Low Pressure Override” pushbutton on the interlock panel (in the
mixing room) in order to initially bring up the 45 psig supply pressure. The pushbutton
circuit automatically re-arms after ample pressure is detected by the pressure switches
(PS-111, -112, -113). These switches are located immediately above gauges PG-131,
-132, and -133. Just below these gauges are overpressure relief valves (RV-121, -122,
-123) which have been set to release if the supply pressure exceeds about 60 psig. After
passing through check valves which prevent backstreaming the three gas supplies enter
the mixing system.
5.8.2
Gas Mixing Station
The gas mixing system works by metering three gas supplies into a common mixing tank.
The mixture is then bubbled through alcohol in a tank within a small refrigerator which
has been modified for safe operation in a flammable gas system. Because the gas flow, not
the pressure, is regulated by the metering system, pressure switches have been installed
to monitor the mixer outlet pressure and provide feedback to the flow-control system.
The mixing, bubbling, and pressure control systems are all built into the same relay rack.
They are collectively referred to as the Gas Mixing Station. A flow diagram is shown in
Figure5.31
Mass Flow Control System
The flow rate of each component gas is controlled by a mass flow controller which delivers
a constant mass of gas per unit time. (Tylan General model FC-280AV) The mass flow is
independent of pressure, although a minimum differential pressure across the controller is
required for proper operation. The valves are factory-calibrated for Nitrogen (N2 ). The
system controlling them is field-programmed to compensate for different gasses. Flow
channel 1, currently assigned for CO2 , has a mass flow controller calibrated to deliver a
maximum of 100 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) N2 (74 sccm CO2 ). Flow
channels 2 and 3 have controllers with a full scale range of 1000 sccm N2 . With the
calibration factors taken into account the maximum flows are 500 sccm Ethane (channel
2) and 1450 sccm Argon (channel 3). Manual valves (MV-201 & 221, etc.) are provided
which allow one to bypass the mass flow controllers and use a needle-valve / rotameter
set (MV-211, -212, -213) if desired. The needle valve must be closed during normal
operation using the mass flow controllers.
The mass flow valves are controlled by a Dynamass Flow Control System (Vacuum
General, Inc. model DM-2401). This unit is outfitted with four flow-control channels
(two model FM-8 two-channel modules) and could be upgraded to eight flow channels
if desired. Refer Figure5.32 for a diagram of this system. Currently HAWGS has only
three of the four channels instrumented. The FM-8 receives a flow measurement from its
associated flow controller, adjusts it by the calibration factor for the gas being used, and
displays the result on the front panel. If the measured flow differs from the desired flow as
Figure 5.31: Shed Schematic Diagram
Check
Valve
Check
Valve
Check
Valve
Channel 1
CO2
MV-031
Pressure
Regulator
Solenoid
Valve
F
Solenoid
Valve
AV-051
XF-041
Excess
Flow
Valve
PG021
F
XF-042
Excess
Flow
Valve
Channel 2
Ethane
MV-032
Pressure
Regulator
PG022
AV-052
AV-053
Gas Bottle Pad
(Outside)
Pressure
Transducer
Pressure
Transducer
Solenoid
Valve
XF-043
Excess
Flow
Valve
Channel 3
Argon
MV-033
Pressure
Regulator
F
Pressure
Gauge
PG131
Pressure
Gauge
Check
Valve
Check
Valve
PG132
Check
Valve
Delivery
Rack
RV121
Overpressure
Relief
Pressure
Switch
PS-111
RV122
Overpressure
Relief
Pressure
Switch
PS-112
RV123
Overpressure
Relief
Pressure
Switch
F
F
F
MV-211
Rotameter
Flow
Controlled
Valve
MV-201
MV-212
Rotameter
Flow
Controlled
Valve
MV-202
MV-213
Rotameter
Flow
Controlled
Valve
MV-203
MV-221
RV271
MV-222
MV-223
MV-243
MV-241
Bubbler
Flow
Transducer
Pressure
Gauge
0º C
MV-244
Reservoir &
Sight Glass
MV-242
Refill
Canister
Pressure
Gauge
MV-302-A
Rotameter
Inert
Inert Delivery
Pressure Regulator
PR-301
MV-252
Bubbler Bypass
MV-251
F
Pressure
Switch
Pressure
Switch
MV-231
Mixer Rack
Overpressure
Relief
MV-232
Overpressure
Alarm Switch
Overpress.
Shutdown
Primary Pressure
Control Switch
MV 299
Hi/Lo
Flow Rate
Programs
A&B
Flow
Controller
Pressure
Regulator
Check
Valve
Check
Valve
Check
Valve
Pressure
Transducer
PG133
Pressure
Gauge
PG301-A
PS-113
PG301-B
PG023
Pressure
Gauge
PG301-C
Vent
MV-302-B
Rotameter
FPP
VDC
FPP
MV-302-C
Rotameter
VDC
From
Hall A
To
Hall A
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
195
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
196
DM-2401
FLOW
RATIO
MODE
RAMP TIME
CAL
RATIO BASE
RANGE
ZERO SET
OPT 1
STEP
SET
REMOTE
LOCK
AUTO ZERO
SET
B
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ENABLE
PROGRAM SELECT
A
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
C
D
FM-8
FM-8
Channel 1
Channel 3
Channel 2
TYLAN GENERAL
FC-280AV
MASS FLOW
CONTROLLER
TYLAN GENERAL
FC-280AV
MASS FLOW
CONTROLLER
TYLAN GENERAL
FC-280AV
MASS FLOW
CONTROLLER
Figure 5.32: Block Diagram of Mass Flow Control System.
set in the FM-8 by an operator, a correction signal is sent to adjust the valve in the flow
controller. The DM-2401/FM-8 system allows the user to define up to four mixture/flow
settings. Refer to the Dynamass System manual and to section 3.3.3 Setting a Flow Rate
for more detail on operating the flow controllers.
The measured flows of the three component gasses are combined in a small blending
tank in the back of the mixing station. The resulting mixture is delivered to the alcohol
bubbler through a line which is teed to an overpressure relief valve (RV-271) set for 25
psig. This prevents overpressuring of the blending tank, the bubbler, or the delivery
lines.
Alcohol Bubbler
Because the interesting alcohols for use in wire chambers have a feeble vapor pressure
at room temperature, it is not convenient to purchase bottled gas with alcohol already
added. A practical means of adding alcohol vapor to a gas is to pass the gas through
a reservoir of the liquid alcohol which is maintained at a specified temperature. At a
given temperature, the vapor pressure of the alcohol may be known, and this vapor
pressure represents directly the partial pressure of the vapor in the gas mixture. The
vapor pressures of organic compounds may be calculated from information in the CRC
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, where it has been parameterized as
Log10P = (−0.2185A/K) + B
(5.1)
where P is the pressure in Torrs, K is the temperature in Kelvin, and A and B
are parameters provided in the Handbook for a number of compounds. For isopropanol
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
197
V apor Pressures
1 .0 0 0 0
0 .1 0 0 0
0 .0 1 0 0
Va p o r Pr e s s u r e ( At m )
Is o p ro p a no l
Et hyl Alc o ho l
0 .0 0 1 0
-2 0 .0 0
-1 0 .0 0
0 .0 0
1 0 .0 0
2 0 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
4 0 .0 0
T e m p e r a t u r e ( C)
Figure 5.33: Vapor Pressures of Isopropyl and Ethyl Alcohols calculated using the CRC
Handbook parameterization.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
198
within the temperature range -26.1o C to +232.0o C, the parameters given are A=10063.5
and B=8.996156. For Ethyl Alcohol the parameters are A=9673.9, B=8.827392.
At 0o C, for example, this formula gives the vapor pressure of isopropanol as 0.0115
Atm. (1 Atm. 760 Torr). If the gauge pressure of the bubbler gas + vapor is 1 atmosphere
(2 Atm absolute pressure), as intended for Hall A, then the fraction of alcohol vapor, by
partial pressure, is about 0.57%. Figure 5.33 shows the vapor pressures of these alcohols
as a function of temperature.
Note that the bubbler temperature defines the vapor pressure and thus the dew point
for the vapor in the gas. If the gas comes in contact with any surface which is colder
than the dew point (the temperature of the bubbler) the alcohol vapor will condense
on that surface. This is why it is important that all components of the gas system be
maintained at a temperature above that of the alcohol bubbler. Because gas in the
Hall A chambers is at about 1 atmosphere absolute pressure while that in the bubbler
is at twice this pressure, the dew point for the gas in the chambers is lower than the
bubbler temperature. The bubbler system consists of a refrigerator, a bubbler tank, a
cold reservoir, a warm reservoir, and a fill tank. A float valve automatically maintains
the liquid levels in the bubbler tank and the cold reservoir. Alcohol enters the bubbler
tank only from the cold reservoir so that its temperature has already been established.
The warm reservoir, sitting above the refrigerator, is equipped with a sight glass and
serves as the main on-line alcohol storage vessel. When the level of liquid in this tank
becomes low it must be manually refilled from commercially supplied bottles using the
fill tank. The refrigerator used to maintain the alcohol bubbler temperature has been
modified specifically to make it safe for containing flammable gasses and liquids.
Filling the alcohol reservoir is not trivial. Please refer to and carefully follow the
procedure detailed in section 3.3.2 Adding Alcohol.
Delivery Pressure Control
Gas will be metered to each detector element through a needle valve. To achieve a
constant flow through a needle valve a constant differential pressure must be maintained
across it, so it is necessary to provide a fairly constant supply pressure out of the mixing
station. This comes only at a price, as the mass flow controllers deliver a fixed flow rate
regardless of pressure (within practical limits). If the detectors in Hall-A consume less
gas than the mixer supplies, the pressure in the supply lines will increase. Similarly, if less
gas is mixed than is consumed the pressure will decrease. To provide a usefully constant
pressure of about 15 psig in the supply line, a pair of pressure switches has been installed
in the mixing station outlet. The first of these, the Primary Pressure Control Switch,
is set to open at 16 psig and close again at 14 psig or below. When the pressure is low
this switch is closed and the Flow Control System is commanded to use the flow rates set
into its PROGRAM C (”high flow”). When the Primary Pressure Control Switch
opens, PROGRAM-D (”zero flow”) is selected. By setting PROGRAM-C to provide just
a little more gas than required by the detectors, the supply pressure can be maintained
at between 14 and 16 psig. with a cycle time of several minutes. This pressure variation
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
199
will result in a flow rate variation of no more than about 15%, which should be of no
consequence for the detectors.
A second pressure switch, the Overpressure Alarm Switch, is calibrated to open
at 18 psig and re-close at 14 psig or below. If the delivery line pressure manages to exceed
the 18 psig threshold it indicates a system failure of some sort and the gas interlock system
is tripped by this switch. Manual operator intervention is then required to re-establish
gas flow.
Pressure control of the inert gas supply, used to purge the detectors, is provided by
a conventional single-stage regulator (PR-301) mounted inside the delivery rack. This
regulator receives 45 psig inert gas (the same gas delivered to mixer flow channel 3) and
provides 15 psig gas to the INERT supply line to Hall-A.
5.8.3
Gas Delivery into Hall A
Between the gas shed and the two Hall-A shield houses are several gas line runs of about
700 feet in length. These are shown schematically in Figure 5.34. Three gasses (inert,
VDC, and FPP) are supplied to the Hadron Arm through 1/2-inch OD polyethylene
tubing. Two similar tubes are teed into these near the beamline entrance to Hall-A and
they supply VDC and inert gas to the Electron Arm shield house. The pressures in all
of these lines is nominally 15 psig.
Distribution in the Shield Houses
Inside each shield house there is a gas distribution panel which controls the gas flows to
the individual wire chambers in that detector stack. Figure 5.34 shows a diagram of the
shield house gas systems.
Each gas supply is first filtered and fed to a visual pressure gauge (PG-401-A/B
and PG- 501-A/B/C) so that the supply pressure can be locally verified. Inert gas (for
purging detectors) and operating gas (either VDC or FPP gas) is manifolded to a series
of three-way valves one for each detector flow circuit. These valves are labeled MV-411,
-412 in the Electron Arm, and MV-511 MV-516 in the Hadron Arm.
The three-way valve associated with each detector may be used to select either
operating or purge gas independently of the other detectors. The selected gas is supplied
to the inlet of a needle-valve / rotameter combination (labels MV-42x and MV-52x) which
is to be used to set and observe the gas flow to each detector. The rotameters are sized
for reasonably accurate metering of 5 slph Argon-Ethane and purging at about ten times
this rate. (Note that the gas mixer will supply a total of only 60 slph Argon-Ethane,
limited by the capacity of the Ethane mass flow controller).
On its way from the rotameter to the detector the gas passes by an overpressure relief
bubbler which is basically a manometer filled with mineral oil. The overpressure bubblers
are set to release at a pressure greater than about 30 mm of water (∼33 mm mineral
oil). This pressure is sufficient to allow purging at the desired rate. Gas returning from
the detector passes through an electronic mass flow meter and through a low pressure
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
200
oil bubbler. This bubbler prevents backstreaming of waste gas into the detectors. The
flow meter reading is indicated locally on a LCD display and is available as an analog
signal for connection to the slow controls computer. Note that these digital flowmeters
are factory- calibrated for Nitrogen. To correct the readings for Argon multiply by 1.45;
for Ethane multiply by 0.5; for CO2 multiply by 0.74.
Waste Gas Collection and Venting
Gas coming from the chamber exhaust bubblers is collected in a manifold and routed
back to the gas shed through a large (1-inch OD) polyethylene tube. There are separate
manifolds and exhaust lines for the VDC and FPP systems. Back-pressure in the exhaust
manifolds is monitored by PHOTOHELIC(R) pressure switches. If more than about 1inch H2 O backpressure develops in an exhaust manifold the gas supply interlock system
is tripped, turning off the gas supply at the solenoid valves outside the gas shed. The
purpose of this particular interlock is to protect the detector windows from overpressure.
5.8.4
Autherized Personnel
The following personnel are responsible for problems concerning the gas system:
Howard Fenker -x7431
Jack Segal -x7242
5.8.5
Safety and Device Protection
There are a number of monitor points which provide signals to the gas interlock panel and
which can cause the supply of gas to be interrupted. The primary purpose of this system
is to facilitate the safe handling of a flammable gas. A secondary but equally important
function is protection of the detector hardware. Finally, this system serves to help insure
the integrity of the data collected by Hall A experiments by alerting the experimenters
on shift if a condition arises which might affect the detector gas quality. The conditions
monitored are 1) flammable gas leak detection, 2) low main supply pressure, 3) high
delivery pressure, 4) high exhaust line pressure, 5) forced airflow in gas shed, 6) overtemperature in gas shed or a shield house, and 7) house fire alarm. The ”Kill Gas”
buttons in the counting room and in the gas shed also feed into this interlock system.
When a fault condition occurs, power to the solenoid valves controlling gas flow
into the gas shed is turned off, closing the valves. An audible alarm sounds in both the
gas shed and the counting room, and one or more red lights on the interlock panels in
both locations indicate the specific fault detected. The audible alarm may be silenced by
pressing the ”Alarm Override” button. Note that this does not restore gas flow or clear
a fault.
After the fault is cleared it is necessary to activate the ”Low Pressure Override”
circuit by pressing the corresponding button on the interlock panel in the gas shed. This
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Figure 5.34: Gas Distribution inside Hall-A.
201
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
202
circuit temporarily disables the ”Low Pressure” fault circuit, allowing the solenoid valves
to open up and restore gas pressure to the inlet pressure switches. When pressure is
restored this circuit automatically resets itself.
Note that the Excess Flow Valves will almost always trip immediately after the
solenoid valves are re-opened. This is because of the sudden high flow rate which occurs
when the pressure in the gas line downstream of a solenoid valve is low and the solenoid
valve is opened with full inlet pressure. To reset the Excess Flow Valves refer to the
section Resetting a closed Excess Flow Valve.
5.8.6
System Operation
Pre-Startup Checklist
Before initial use with a flammable gas or after a significant down-time the following
checks should be made to insure the safety and integrity of the HAWGS:
1. Leak-Check the entire gas system using a safe gas such as Argon or Nitrogen.
2. Calibrate over-pressure relief valves: RV121, 122, 123 should release at 55-65 psig,
RV271 must release at 20-25 psig).
3. Check calibration of Excess-Flow valves (should close at 4-5 slpm).
4. Check proper operation of each interlock circuit and that interlock system shuts off
gas supply.
5. Measure the detectors leak rates and verify that each is below 7 slph (or current
administrative limit - note that current physical limit is 500 sccm Ethane and 1450
sccm Argon based on flow controller full scales for N2 and correction factors for
Ethane and Argon).
6. Verify that flammable gas leak sensors are appropriately calibrated.
Startup Procedure
1. Close gas shed outlet valves MV-302-A, -B, -C to isolate the mixing/delivery system
from the spectrometer detectors.
2. Activate the ”Kill Gas” crash button. Interlock panel should alarm. Silence the
alarm by pressing ”Alarm Silence”. Reset the Crash Button by pulling outward. If
any fault conditions (red LED) other than ”Low Pressure” and ”Main Relay” are
indicated, clear them by correcting the indicated fault.
3. Check alcohol supply and Bubbler temperature. Fill and/or adjust as necessary
(see Adding Alcohol) .
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
203
4. Check that adequate supply bottles of appropriate gasses are attached to the high
pressure supply manifolds and valve one bottle ON for each manifold.
5. Verify that all used main pressure regulators (outside) are set for 45-50 psig.
6. Select ”Manual / Expert” pressure control using toggle switch on panel in rear of
mixing station, behind flow controller. Note that while in ”Expert” mode
there is no automatic delivery pressure control! Overpressure is prevented
only by the overpressure shutoff switch and the alcohol reservoir relief valve.
7. Verify that the Dynamass Flow Control System DM-2401 is in ”Non-VG” mode by
• Press PROGRAM SELECT pushbutton A.
• Put the DM-2401 in NO-MODE mode (if it is not already) by pressing the
MODE pushbutton until all LEDs in the column of LEDs on the left of the
unit are off.
• Simultaneously press and release PROGRAM SELECT buttons A and C.
• Press the MODE pushbutton until the OPT 1 LED is lighted. Verify that the
display for channel 4 reads all zeros.
• Return the DM-2401 to NO-MODE.
8. Set Dynamass Flow-Control System to Program ”D: Zero Flow”. Put the DM-2401
in ”FLOW-MODE” and verify that all flow settings are at zero.
9. With the DM-2401 in ”FLOW-MODE”, set up flow program ”C” to provide the
desired mixture at about 10% higher total flow than the detectors are expected to
consume.
10. Return the DM-2401 to ”NO-MODE”.
11. Select ”Auto” pressure control using toggle switch on panel in rear of mixing station,
behind flow controller.
12. Actuate the Low Pressure Override on interlock panel. ”Main Relay” light should
become green.
13. Set Excess-Flow Valves and Manual valves at regulators to full OPEN, wait about
ten (10) seconds for supply lines to come up to pressure, then set all three Excess
Flow Valves to AUTO SHUTOFF. - ”Low-Pressure” interlock circuit should go to
green during this step3 .
14. Verify proper operation of flow/mix control system and outlet pressure regulation
by observing flow rates on the mixer control and outlet pressure at the supply
rack (pressure gauges 301B, -301C). If the alcohol bubbler loop is valved on it may
take several minutes for its volume to fill with gas and come up to pressure. Be
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
204
patient. When the pressure indicated on gauges PG301-B/C reaches about 15 psig
the DM2401 system should cycle to flow program D. To bleed down the outlet
pressure in order to cause the pressure loop to cycle, you may crack valve MV-299
(located in the rear of the mixer rack). When the pressure drops back to about 13
psig the control system should switch back to program C. Re-close valve MV-299
when tests are complete.
15. Check/Adjust the Purge gas pressure regulator (PR 301) to insure that the delivery
pressure of the inert gas (taken from gas supply 3 - nominally Argon) is about 15
psig as registered on pressure gauge PG-301A.
16. Slowly open gas shed outlet valves MV-302-A, -B, -C to bring up the pressure in
the supply lines to the spectrometers. After pressure has equalized open these three
valves fully. Note that one or more Excess Flow Valves will trip (close) if the
total gas flow through the three rotameters associated with these valves exceeds
(roughly) 150 units (full scale on one rotameter).
17. At each of the Hadron and Electron shield house gas distribution racks, verify
the presence of supply pressures (gauges PG401A,B and PG501A,B,C) and set gas
selection valves and needle valves to desired gasses and flow rates for each chamber.
Normal Operation
Changing gas bottles
Warning: High pressure gas bottles contain significant stored energy and
are potentially hazardous. Handling of gas bottles should be done only by
qualified, trained personnel.
For smoothest operation, used gas bottles should be replaced before their internal
pressure drops below the desired regulator output pressure.
The sequence of steps for replacing an empty gas bottle is as follows:
1. Make sure that the backup bottle is full, then open its bottle valve and its manifold
valve. The in-line check-valves will prevent back-filling of the empty bottle. As a
precaution, set the corresponding Excess Flow Valve to OPEN/RESET, wait
ten seconds, then set the Excess Flow Valve back to AUTO.
2. Close both the bottle and manifold valves for the empty bottle.
3. Disconnect the empty bottle from the high-pressure flex-line, replace the bottles
cap, and move the empty bottle to the EMPTIES storage rack. Note that ethane
bottle fittings, type CGA-350, have left-handed threads.
4. Place a full bottle of gas in the on-line rack, remove the bottle cap, and connect
the bottle to the flex-line.
5. Open the new bottles valve, check for leaks at the bottle fitting, then re-close the
bottle valve.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
205
Adding Alcohol
Warning: Never open gas flow into the alcohol bubbler without an outlet
valve being open.
As long as the level in the RESERVOIR is such that some alcohol is visible in the
sight glass the bubbler will be maintained at its normal fill. An effort should be made to
prevent the RESERVOIR level from getting too low.
1. To fill the RESERVOIR close valves MV-243 and MV-244 to isolate the RESERVOIR from the pressure equalization line.
2. Open valve MV-241 to vent the RESERVOIR.
3. Remove the cover of the REFILL CANISTER and fill the canister with alcohol.
Put the cover back on but do not seal it (if you seal the cover at this point the flow
of alcohol out of the REFILL CANISTER will be impeded).
4. Open valve MV-242 to let the alcohol into the RESERVOIR. The liquid level can
be monitored in the sight glass on the side of the RESERVOIR. Fill until the
liquid level is near the top of the sight glass then close MV-242. Do not overfill
(to or above the top of the sight glass).
5. Close valve MV-241, then open valves MV-243 and MV-244.
6. Seal the cover on the REFILL CANISTER to prevent contamination.
Setting a Flow Rate
The flow of each individual gas component, and therefore the final gas mixture, is controlled by the Dynamass DM-2401 System, the FM-8 Flow/Ratio Modules, and
the Tylan General FC-280 Mass Flow Controllers. The DM-2401 accepts and
stores programs for the set of FM-8’s. Each FM-8 controls one or two Mass Flow
Controllers.
To set or alter a flow rate:
1. Prevent the mixed-gas outlet pressure from exceeding its 18 psig interlock trip
level by either a) closing valves MV-201,2,3, or b) insuring that the detectors are
consuming a sufficient quantity of gas to prevent this overpressure from occurring
during the time it takes you to perform steps 3-11, below.
2. Set the Auto/Expert pressure control switch (rear of mixer rack) to EXPERT.
3. Verify that the DM-2401 is in the NO-MODE mode, indicated by none of the LEDs
in the column on the extreme left of the unit being illuminated. If necessary, press
the MODE pushbutton until this condition is achieved.
4. Press program select button C and verify that the corresponding LED illuminates.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
206
5. At the DM-2401 Keyboard module, press the MODE switch until the FLOW LED
illuminates. The window value for channel 1 will begin to flash.
6. Select the channel you wish to alter by pressing the STEP button until the window
value of the desired channel is flashing.
7. Press the UP or DOWN SET buttons to alter the value as desired. Legal flow
values are 0.0-100.0 sccm for channel 1, 0-1000 sccm for channels 2 and 3.
8. If the Red ON LED for the desired channel (immediately to the right of the value
window) is not lit, press the ON/OFF button for that channel to illuminate this
LED.
9. Repeat steps 6-8 as necessary to program all desired gas flows.
10. Return the DM-2401 to NO-MODE as in step 3.
11. Return the Auto/Expert pressure control switch (rear of mixer rack) to AUTO.
12. Re-Open valves MV201, 202, 203, if closed in step 1.
13. Observe system flow and pressure control and verify that it is correct.
5.8.7
Troubleshooting : Things to Check
Each of the following monitor points must report a nominal condition to the gas interlock
panel in order for the logic to be ”made up” and for gas flow to be enabled:
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
Label
Low Pressure
Note: This channel
will always indicate
a fault after some
other problem has
caused the solenoid
valves to close.
Gas Shed Airflow
Overtemp Gas Shed
Over-Pressure FPP
Over-Pressure VDC
Electron
Over-Pressure VDC
Hadron
Gas Leak
Overtemp Electron
Overtemp Hadron
Post-Bubbler
Supply
Overpressure
207
Meaning
The seconeary
pressure of one or
more of the mixer
inlet gas supplies
has dropped below
the 45 psi
threshold.
Gas Shed Exhaust
Fan ( ceiling of
”Isobutane Room’)
has failed.
Temperature in Gas
Shed Too High
(∼110o F).
VDC/FPP Exhaust
manifold pressure
at Hadron Or
Electron Shield
House Gas Rack
Flammable gas
detection system
has sensed a leak
Likely Remedy
• Check for a closed
”Excess Flow” Valve,
Remedy the cause, and
reset the valve
•Replace empty supply
bottle.
Sensor
3 pressure
switches located
on the ”Delivery
Rack”
Restore forced
ventilation.
Vane Switch
mounted just
inside exhaust
fan
Klixon mounted
in rack
Temperature in
Electron Shield
House Too High
(∼110o F).
Temperature in
Hadron Shield
House Too High
(∼110o F).
Gas pressure out of
mixer/bubbler rack
is >18 psi.
•Take action to protect
equipment.
•Reduce temperature
•Take action to protect
equipment.
•Reduce temperature.
•Eliminate exhuast line
blockage
•Allow Hall-A
atmospheric pressure to
stabilize
•Localize leak by
referring to readings on
GasMaster-4 system in
Counting House
•Fix Leak
•Take action to protect
equipment.
•Reduce temperature.
•Reset Dynamass
Controller
•If needed, vent excess
pressure using MV-299
PHOTOHELIC(R)
gauges on gas
panels in shld
houses
GASMASTER
HydroCarbon
Detector heads in
Gas Shed and
each Shield
House.
Klixon mounted
in gas rack in
Electron Shield
House
Klixon mounted
in gas rack in
Hadron Shield
House
Pressure switch
in rear of Mixing
Station
(mixer/bubbler
rack)
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
208
Resetting a closed Excess Flow Valve
Each Excess Flow Valve automatically closes if the flow rate through it exceeds about 4
slpm at 45 psig. The exact flow threshold varies somewhat depending upon the delivery
pressure.
These valves must be manually reset after they trip. This is done by rotating the red
handle 90o CW (to OPEN/RESET ) and then 90o CCW (back to AUTO SHUTOFF. ).
It will be necessary to keep the valve in the OPEN/RESET position for about 10 seconds
until nominal pressure builds up downstream. The excess flow valves must be returned
to the AUTO SHUTOFF setting to insure system safety.
Restoring flow after a ”Low Supply Pressure” shutdown
If the gas pressure in any enabled supply line to the mixer rack drops below about
40-45 psig, the interlock will sound an alarm and close all of the solenoid valves. This
prevents the system from delivering a bad mixture to the detectors. After restoring the
gas supply, for example, after replacing an empty gas cylinder, perform the following
steps to restart the flow of gas.
1. Verify that no faults other than ”Low Pressure” and ”Main Relay” are indicated
on the gas interlock panel.
2. Insure that all high-pressure manifolds are pressurized and that the secondary pressures indicated by the gauges above the bottles are at about 40-45 psig (normally
these should not need adjustment).
3. Press the Low Pressure Override button on the interlock panel in the gas shed.
4. Reset all Excess Flow Valves by turning their handles to OPEN/RESET, waiting
for about ten seconds, then returning their handles to AUTO SHUTOFF.
5. Verify that all faults are now cleared on the gas interlock panel.
Restarting flow after a power failure.
Normally the gas control system is protected from power outages by an uninterruptable
power supply (UPS). If the system is nevertheless disturbed by a loss of power then
perform the steps outlined in section 3.2, Startup Procedure.
5.8.8
Maintenance
Periodic Inspections
Anytime work is done on any part of the gas system, or there is an occurrence that could
possibly have damaged the gas system, the system should be carefully inspected and
checked for leaks.
CHAPTER 5. HRS DETECTORS
209
The flammable gas detector heads and control system should be tested periodically
for proper operation, in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and the
TJNAF fire safety program.
Each sensor feeding the Gas Interlock Panel should be exercised at least annually
for proper operation. The interlock system itself should be tested at the same time to
insure that it interrupts the supply of gas when it is tripped.
The high-pressure manifold and bottle connections should be regularly checked for
leaks and damage. In particular, the CO2 system (CGA-320) uses plastic seals at the
bottle connection which must be replaced periodically.
Flowmeter Calibration The Tylan General mass flow controllers (mass flow valves)
require periodic cleaning and calibration (section 5.7, Tylan General Mass Flow Controller Instruction Manual ). The first step in this process is to check the operation
of the instruments and perform further work as necessary. This procedure should be
planned and carried out whenever 1) there appears to be a problem with the operation
of a flow controller, or 2) there is a lengthy break in the Hall-A program that would allow
the gas system to be taken off-line for several weeks. If absolutely necessary the needlevalve/rotameter combinations plumbed in parallel with the mass flow controllers could
be used to allow interim operation of the gas system while one or more flow controllers
is removed for maintenance.
Chapter 6
Slow Controls
6.0.1
Hall A Slow Controls
6.0.2
Introduction
1 2
The Hall A base equipment for experiments consists of two general purpose, similar,
superconducting spectrometers and their associated detector packages as well as several
~ target, beam current monitors,
specific function systems (i.e. cryogenic targets, 3 He
ARC energy measurement system, e-p energy measurement systems and so on). Each of
these major systems is, typically, composed of several sub-system levels which need to
be interlocked for protection of human life and/or equipment, monitored for operational
status and commanded to perform various operations so that the system as a whole is
able to perform the desired measurement or function. Most of these sub-systems have
an infrastructure role; they are essential for the correct operation of the major system of
which they are part but, in themselves, are irrelevant for the experimental physics data
being acquired. An example could be the cryogenics of one of the spectrometer magnets;
proper cryogenics filling of the magnets is absolutely essential for the magnets to operate
but, for a given experiment, the relevant quantities are the spectrometer momentum
and optics produced by the various active magnets and not the cryogenics levels of each
magnet. The task of monitoring and commanding the infrastructure of the various Hall
A systems falls on a distributed computer system loosely referred to as “slow controls”
or “Hall A Controls (HAC)”.
6.0.3
Hall A Controls Overview
The Hall A distributed control system is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) [17]3 architecture. The basic components of the system
are:
1
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http://www.aps.anl.gov/asd/controls/epics/EpicsDocumentation/WWWPages/EpicsDoc.
html
2
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CHAPTER 6. SLOW CONTROLS
211
• Operator Interfaces (OPI). These are UNIX based workstations able to run various
EPICS tools like the Motif-based Display Editor/Manager (MEDM) used by the
operators for display and command of the various systems.
• Input Output Controllers (IOC). These are VME based crates containing a single
board computer with the real-time operating system VxWorks and various I/O
modules as well as interfaces to other I/O busses like serial or GPIB.
• Boot Servers. These are UNIX based workstations from which the IOCs load the
various software components they need to perform their functions (i.e. operating
system, database of signals to be monitored/commanded, controls algorithms and
so on).
• Local Area Network (LAN). This is the communication path joining the IOCs,
OPIs and the Boot Servers.
Signal monitoring and command is performed by the IOCs. At the heart of an IOC is
a memory resident database describing each of the signals to be monitored and controlled
by the IOC. Each database entry (record) corresponds to a signal. When a given record
executes, it accesses the appropriate I/O module to retrieve/update the signal value. The
origin of this record execution request can be local to the IOC (i.e. another database
record) or remote (i.e. operator intervention through an OPI or a record located in
another IOC). In all cases, access to the record is by name and not by IOC location. The
general EPICS mechanism to access a record consists of broadcasting the record name
in the network. Upon receiving the broadcast, every IOC in that network searches its
database to determine if it contains the record name being sought. The IOC holding
the requested record responds to the query establishing a connection with the querying
process.
The interface provided by the IOCs to access their record database is geared towards
efficiency and not human friendliness. Two reasons dictate this choice: minimization of
CPU overhead due to interface management and the fact that the system is distributed.
Operator access to the record database of a given IOC is through a Graphical User interface (GUI) process executing in a UNIX based computer. The standard distribution of
EPICS comes with a Motif based implementation of such GUI, the so-called MEDM. It is
possible to also implement a GUI to the IOCs using the Tool Command Language (TCL)
with X11 extensions (TK) (i.e. TCL/TK). Such implementation is used, for example, by
the Hall A cryotarget system. There can be many instances of these GUIs executing in
the same computer as well as in several different computers (i.e. the GUI processes are
also distributed). Each of these GUI processes can access multiple IOCs simultaneously
and within each IOC, all or a subset of the database records. The computers where these
GUIs execute are referred to as the OPI.
Figure 6.1 shows a schematic view of the present Hall A controls layout. Exchange
of signals between Hall A and other JLab control systems takes place through the main
Jefferson Lab network (JLab LAN). Presently, the system is in a state of flux as management of various portions of the Hall A controls system is being transferred to the
CHAPTER 6. SLOW CONTROLS
212
Accelerator Division Controls Group (ADCG). This might entail future changes in the
organization of the Hall A control system like boot servers and IOC task re-arrangement.
A brief description of the present state of the system follows.
There are three IOCs in Hall A which at the present time are directly managed by
the ADCG. These IOCs are iocse10, iochla and iochla2. They are located in the row of
racks next to the beam line. Iocse10 performs the readout of the Beam Position Monitors
(BPMs) located in Hall A (i.e. those located at Compton region and before the target).
Iochla handles Hall A beam line tasks like Fast Shut Down (FSD) logic, Møller target
motion, Beam Loss monitors and ionization chambers. Hall A cryogenics distribution and
magnet filling/level are controlled by iochla2 through a GPIB based network of CAMAC
crates. This IOC also monitors all spectrometer magnet temperatures during a magnet
cooldown. The iochla2 signals are available in the Hall A controls network through a
dedicated IOC (hallasc9) located in the electronics room (middle room) of the Hall A
Counting House. Only Accelerator Operations personnel are allowed to reboot and/or
perform any hardware/software changes in iocse10, iochla and iochla2 and the associated
equipment that they control. If necessary, hallasc9 can be rebooted by pressing the
“RESET” push button located in the IOC front panel. Such operation does not have
any effect on the Hall A cryogenics distribution itself (hallasc9 does not control any
hardware, it is simply a signal repeater). If a magnet cryogenics problem develops in
Hall A, the Hall A on-call technical staff should be notified.
The controls layout of each High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) is similar; each
consists of three IOCs which monitor and control the detector package infrastructure,
general spectrometer functions and, spectrometer motion. In the case of the hadron
HRS, these IOCs are hallasc4, hallasc16 and hallasc7. Hallasc4 and hallasc16 are located inside the detector hut. Hallasc4 is in the second floor of the detector electronics
racks while hallasc16 is located under the Box Beam supporting the detectors and detector electronics. Access to hallasc16 is through a “manhole” located at the back of
the detector hut. The IOC in charge of the hadron HRS motion is located right at the
back of the dipole (power supplies level). In the case of the electron HRS, the IOCs are
hallasc11, hallasc14 and hallasc18 respectively. Their location is similar to their hadron
spectrometer counterparts.
The tasks assigned to IOCs hallasc7 and hallasc18 are well defined and unique:
spectrometer motion. Hallasc4 monitors/controls the Vertical Drift Chambers (VDCs)
High Voltages (HV), discriminator threshold levels and the low voltage power supplies
for the discriminator cards as well as the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) tracking chamber’s HVs, discriminator levels and low voltage power supplies. Hallasc4 also controls
the operation of the FPP carbon doors as well as monitoring the gas flow to the FPP
tracking chambers and VDCs. In the case of the electron HRS, the corresponding IOC
(hallasc11) monitors/controls similar quantities for the VDCs only (there is no FPP
system). The general spectrometer infrastructure IOCs (hallasc14 and hallasc16) monitor/control magnets power supplies, field probes, hardware interlock systems and power
leads cryogenic cooling, collimator motion, magnet/spectrometer vacuum and spectrometer horizontal/vertical angles. If a problem arises, all these IOCs can be hardware reset
CHAPTER 6. SLOW CONTROLS
213
from the Hall A Counting House through the green buttons panel located in the middle
room.
There is an extra IOC, hallasc22, located on the second floor of the electron HRS
detector electronics racks (inside the detector hut). This IOC monitors and controls,
through a private network, various high voltage power supplies. Two of these supplies
are located in the electron HRS detector hut, one in the hadron HRS detector hut and
one along the beam line. These power supplies are used by various systems like the
spectrometer scintillator planes (trigger), gas Cerenkov and Aerogel counters, electron
HRS calorimeter, FPP, hadron HRS calorimeter (when installed) and various beam line
systems like the ARC energy measurement system.
The beam line IOC hallasc12 is reserved, at this time, for Hall A application testing
and development. There are other specific purpose IOCs located in the group of electronics racks next to the beam line. The reader is referred to the specific description of
those systems and related instructions elsewhere in this OPS manual.
There are several Hall A controls related IOCs and computer systems outside the
hall. Some of them are specific purpose systems described elsewhere in this manual like
the 9th magnet Bdl IOC and associated ARC workstation located inside the 9th magnet
shed, and they are described elsewhere in this manual. The others are briefly described
below.
Hallasc17 is located in the gas shed. It monitors the supply of gas used by the
tracking chambers (i.e. VDCs and FPP chambers). If necessary, hallasc17 can be rebooted by pressing the “RESET” push button located in the IOC front panel. Hallasc5
is located in the electronics room of the Hall A Counting House (middle room) in the
same VME crate than hallasc9. Hallasc5 monitors signals associated with Hall A beam
current. It can be reset by pressing the “RESET” push button located in the IOC front
panel. The remaining computers and X-terminals associated with the Hall A controls are
used as OPI and/or boot servers for the IOCs. One of the X-terminals in the counting
house is dedicated to the display of accelerator MEDM screens (it is automatic, no user
involvement is required).
The “hac” computer is used to gain access to the Hall A control systems. Once
logged into this computer, issue the command “HAC hp” if logging was accomplished
through a Hewlett Packard computer console or “HAC xt” if through an X-terminal. The
Hall A controls main screen shown in Figure 6.2 will appear. Follow then the instructions
given in the system of your interest.
6.0.4
Personnel Responsible
If a problem develops with the Hall A controls system, page J. Gomez at 849-7498.
CHAPTER 6. SLOW CONTROLS
Figure 6.1: Schematic of the Hall A controls system.
214
CHAPTER 6. SLOW CONTROLS
Figure 6.2: Hall A Main Control Screen.
215
Chapter 7
Data Acquisition and Trigger
7.1
Spectrometer Data Acquisition
1 2
The Hall A data acquisition uses CODA [18] (CEBAF Online Data Acquisition), a toolkit
developed at Jefferson Lab by the Data Acquisition Group.
We have one fastbus crate in the electron spectrometer and two fastbus crates in the
hadron spectrometer. The fastbus modules are of the following types: (1) LeCroy model
1877 TDCs operating in common–stop with 0.5 nsec resolution for our drift chambers
and straw chambers; (2) model 1875 TDCs operating in common–start with 0.1 nsec
resolution for our scintillators and trigger diagnostics; and (3) model 1881M ADCs for
signals from scintillators, Cerenkov, and leadglass detectors. Event–driven readout of
our beam position monitors and raster current is available from VME systems.
The trigger supervisor is a custom–made module built by the data acquisition group.
Its functions are to synchronize the readout crates, to administer the deadtime logic of the
entire system, and to prescale various trigger inputs. We have two trigger supervisors, one
in each spectrometer. This allows us to run the spectrometers independently if needed.
Use the public account “adev” for running runcontrol, and use “adaq” for other
online software including ESPACE. On “adaq” the directory tree of an experiment is
adaq/$EXPERIMENT which is organized in subdirectories of various tasks, such as
scaler display, ESPACE, and other online codes, all of which will be described in sections
below. The trigger management software is described in the Trigger chapter.
7.1.1
General Computer Information
In the counting room we have various computers for DAQ, analysis, and controls. The
controls subnet (which includes the “hac” computer among others) is the responsibility
of J. Gomez and is documented in Chapter 6. The DAQ computer’s names are denoted
by adaqXN, where X=s is SunOS, X=h is HP-UX, and X=l is for Linux PC. adaqs1 is
the Compton DAQ computer and is normally reserved by the Compton group. adaqs2
1
2
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CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
217
and s3 are for running the spectrometer DAQ or doing online analysis. adaqh2, h3, and
h4 are for running the older version 1.4 of CODA still used by some setups. adaql1 and l2
are relatively fast Linux PCs available for analysis and are administered by Ole Hansen.
To reboot the Suns, login as “adaq” and type “reboot”. On HP’s adaqh2-4 you
cannot reboot, but must “shutdown”. For both HPs and Suns here is how to shutdown:
Login as “adaq” and type “shutdown”, wait several minutes until the screen indicates
it’s safe (on Suns it goes black and on HPs it will say it’s safe), then turn off power.
To reboot the Linux machines, first hit Ctrl-Alt-F1 to switch to a text console, then hit
Ctrl-Alt-Del to reboot. If power fails for a prolonged time, you must shutdown before
the UPS fails.
For all computer problems you may call Robert Michaels (x7410) unless you happen
to know another expert who can solve your problem. If Michaels is not available, call
Ole Hansen (x7627) or Javier Gomez (x7498).
7.1.2
Beginning of Experiment Checkout
This subsection describes the checkout of DAQ and trigger needed before an experiment
can start.
1. First ensure that all the fastbus, VME, CAMAC, and NIM crates are powered on.
They should boot up in a functional state, except for heavily loaded fastbus crates
that sometimes lose their NVRAM. (If that happens, call R. Michaels)
2. You may download a default trigger, following the directions in the trigger chapter.
If the hadron momentum changes you may need to set a new delay. A trigger
expert should do the start-of-experiment trigger checklist.
3. Make sure the HV is on for all detectors and that the values are normal.
4. Start the xscaler display following the instructions below and check that the rates
from detectors are normal.
5. Startup runcontrol (CODA) using the directions below and start a run. With the
trigger downloaded and the HV on, you are taking cosmics data, typically at a rate
of 3 Hz per spectrometer. Examine the data using dataspy, dhist, and ESPACE as
explained below. Compare the plots and printouts to normal values.
7.1.3
Running CODA
This section describes how to run CODA for the spectrometer DAQ. There are two modes:
1) The most common is the “1-Trigger-Supervisor (1-TS)” mode which uses one trigger
supervisor and is used for coincidence experiments; and 2) The “2-Trigger-Supervisor
(2-TS)” mode which is used for running the two spectrometers independently.
The 1-TS mode can also handle single–arm triggers but is about 1/2 the aggregate
speed of the 2-TS mode. When running the 2-TS mode, one uses the adev account on
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
218
adaqs2 for the H-spectrometer and the atrig account on adaqs3 for the E-spectrometer.
The 1-TS mode normally uses the adev account on adaqs2 only. The information that
follows refers to the adev account, but the atrig account is quite similar. For example, for a file like /home/adev/prescale/prescale.dat there is a corresponding file at
/home/atrig/prescale/prescale.dat.
Here is how to start and stop a run. Normally, when you come on shift, runcontrol
will be running. If not, see the section on “Cold Start” below. To start and stop
runs, push the buttons “Start Run” and “End Run” in the runcontrol GUI. To change
configurations use the “Run Type” button. If you have been running you will first
have to push the “Abort” button before you can change the run type. Normally the
configurations you want are the following.
TWOSPECT – For running the two spectrometers in 1-TS mode.
PEDRUN – To do a pedestal run in 1-TS mode
ELECTRON – For E-arm in 2-TS mode
HADRON – For H-arm in 2-TS mode
PEDRUNE – To do a pulser run for E-arm in 1-TS mode
PEDRUNH – To do a pulser run for H-arm in 1-TS mode
A note about pedestal runs. They have the exclusive purpose of obtaining pedestals
used for pedestal suppression. For details about what is done and hints for getting
pedestals for ESPACE (which does not want the PEDRUN result), see /home/adev/
ped/README.)
Some Frequently Asked Questions about DAQ
• Q: Where is the data ? Use a command “find run 1745” to find where run 1745
has been written on disk and MSS. The data are first written to disk. Files are
automatically split, with suffixes .0,.1,.2...etc. Splitting occurs at 2 Gbytes to avoid
problem of system file size limit. Files are archived automatically to tape in the
MSS tape silo. Two tape copies are made. Data are purged from disk automatically.
Users should never attempt to copy, move, or erase data.
• Q: How to adjust prescale factors ? Edit the file /home/adev/prescale/ prescale.dat.
One common problem is putting typographical errors here which then leads to no
triggers getting accepted.
• Q: What is the deadtime ? The deadtime is displayed in the datamon window,
which normally is running next to the runcontrol window, but if this window is not
up, type “datamon” to bring it up. This window also shows the full-path-name of
the file being written by CODA for the present run.
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
219
• Q: Why is the deadtime so high ? (and related) Search for answers among the
following. The standard lore is that 30% deadtime is tolerable, but you should
ask your analysis team to decide. Sometimes people seeing large deadtimes have
forgotten to observe that the beam is in pulsed mode. Another possibility is that
the workstation is overloaded. The computer used for CODA should not be used
for much else. Do not attempt to read or write rapidly to the same physical disk
to which CODA is writing. Sometimes it is observed that the workstation itself is
very sluggish. This could be due to a foreign mounted disk having gone away, and
there are other possible reasons. If a Cold Start of CODA doesn’t solve this, you
may try rebooting the workstation (see computer section). Also, if the event size
changes substantially, e.g. due to noise conditions, the deadtime as a function of
rate will change, especially in the regime of high rates.
Cold Start of CODA
If CODA is not running, or if it gets hung up, you can do a cold start. Frequently a
subset of these steps is sufficient to recover from a hangup, but it takes some experience
to realize the minimum of steps that are necessary, so the simplest thing is to do them
all (it takes a few minutes).
• Kill off all CODA processes on the workstation by typing “kcoda”. This stops
runcontrol, the event builder, and other processes, and allows for a clean start.
• Make sure the fastbus and VME crates are running. The crates are named below as
“computer(CODA-name)”, where computer is the internet name and the CODAname is the name runcontrol calls it: hallasfi1 (ROC1), hallasfi2 (ROC2), hallasfi3
(ROC3), halladaq1 (TS0), halladaq4 (TS1), hallavme2 (ROC15), and hallavme1
(ROC14). (Note: for 1-TS mode you don’t use ROC15, and sometimes ROC3
which has FPP is left off for good reasons.) You can check if the ROCs are up
by looking on the Components work space at the telnet session (if it’s not logged,
try to telnet in). If the ROCs don’t talk to runcontrol, you can type “reboot” at
the arrow prompt (→). If you don’t get this arrow prompt, or if you can’t telnet
in, the computer is hung up, so press for a full 5 seconds the labeled green button
corresponding to this ROC in the middle room of the counting room. After the
ROC comes back (2 minutes), telnet back in to verify it’s up.
• Start runcontrol interactively by typing “runcontrol”. Iconize and ignore the window from which you started runcontrol.
• In runcontrol, press the “Connect” button. After “connect” wait 10 seconds and
press “Run Types”. You may also press the “Reset” button in the upper left corner.
Indeed sometimes reset is all that’s needed to fix CODA. Choose the run type from
the dialog box (see section on Running CODA for descriptions of run types).
• After you configure and download the Run Type, you can “Start Run” to start a
new run.
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
Port
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7.1.4
Table
Service
HAC1
HAC2
HAC9
HAC11
HAC12
HAC5
HAC6
HAC13
220
7.1: Terminal Service for DAQ
Device
Function
halladaq1
E-arm Trig Super TS0
hallasfi1
E-arm Fastbus ROC1
halladaq4
H-arm Trig Super TS1
hallasfi2
H-arm Fastbus ROC2
hallasfi3
H-arm Fastbus ROC3
LeCroy 1450 E-arm HV control
LeCroy 1450 E-arm HV control
LeCroy 1450 H-arm HV control
Electronic Logbook and Beam Accounting
Two tools are available for logging information by the shift workers: 1) The Electronic
Logbook “halog”, and 2) The Hall Beam–Time Accounting Table.
The electronic logbook is a web-based repository of logbook data. There are two
ways to make entries: One can use the halog GUI (type “halog” and make your entry),
or one may use a script to insert a file. Some data from EPICS and scalers, among
other things, are inserted automatically into halog on each start-of-run and each endof-run. These data also get written into files with the run number in their name in
/home/adev/epics/runfiles. Data appear on the web at a certain URL3 .
It is recommended that one software expert from the experiment be assigned to
modify the logging scripts as he or she sees fit.
The Hall Beam–Time Accounting Table is the mechanism to summarize and record
how the beam time in a shift was spent. These data are logged automatically in a
database and are e-mailed to various people like the run coordinators and the hall leader.
When you come on shift, the GUI is probably already running. If not, you may start it
by logging onto adaqs2 as the adaq account, cd to /home/adaq/ACCOUNT, and type
“atable”. It is a fairly obvious GUI, but there is also a help button which explains
everything.
7.1.5
Terminal Servers
There are four DEC server 200/MC terminal servers in Hall A; one in each of the two
spectrometer detector huts and two near the beamline. These servers allow you check
and to modify the detector HV, as well as the NVRAM of the frontend DAQ computers.
The servers may be accessed through dumb terminals connected to any CEBAF terminal
server, e.g. the VT100 style terminal in the middle room of the counting house. The
table entitled “Terminal Service for DAQ” shows the ports connected for spectrometer
and beamline DAQ.
3
http://www.jlab.org/~adaq/halog/html/logdir.html
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
7.2
Trigger Hardware and Software
221
4 5
The Hall A trigger was designed by the University of New Hampshire. Here we give a
brief overview of the hardware arrangement, the logic of the trigger, and the usage of
the software control. Diagrams of the hardware layout are shown in three accompanying
figures for the E-arm, H-arm, and coincidence circuit.
Scintillators make the main, so-called S-Ray, trigger in each spectrometer arm, and
a coincidence is formed between the spectrometer arms. The S-Ray trigger is formed by
requiring that scintillator paddles in planes S1 and S2 both fired (and both phototubes
in each paddle), and that the paddle combinations in S1 and S2 belong to an allowed set.
A memory lookup (MLU) decides if the combination is valid. The allowed combinations
are for “S-Ray” tracks that are at an approximately 45 degree angle with respect to the
hall floor, with a tolerance of ±1 paddle on either S1 or S2. The timing of this trigger
is determined by a strobe on the MLU which in most events comes from the right-side
PMTs of the S2 plane. The coincidence is formed in an overlap AND circuit with a 110
nsec window. The electron arm singles triggers are called T1 (event type 1) in CODA,
the hadron arm singles are T3, and the coincidences are T5. If T1 doesn’t exist, a
looser trigger called T2 is considered (similarly for T3/T4 on H-arm). This looser trigger
requires any hit in 2 out of the following 3 detectors: S1,S2, and Cerenkov (in the case
that a Cerenkov detector is used), or 1 out of 2 from S1 and S2 if there is no Cerenkov
detector in the spectrometer. These looser triggers are prescaled, and a sample of about
5 Hz from them allows for an accurate measurement of inefficiencies. The trigger design
is quite flexible and it is relatively easy to add detectors to define new trigger types or to
modify existing ones, so long as the detector is fast enough. The trigger supervisor also
allows for the possibility of 2nd level triggers which could be used for a later decision.
Here we describe the software control of the CAMAC modules involved in the trigger. There are four types of modules that are controlled: 1) Discriminators; 2) Delay
Units; 3) Memory Lookup Unit 4) AND/OR Modules A graphical user interface called
XTrigMang was written by T. Smith (UNH). XTrigMang is used to download the trigger
and read back values. This GUI reads in a default setup file and with one button, called
“Download All”, one may load the default setup. To start XTrigMang, login to adaqh2 as
the “adaq” account, then type “gotrigger” to go to the correct directory (which contains
the default setup in trigsetup.settings), and type “XTrigMang” there. For experiments
that never change the trigger, one only needs to “Download All” to ensure the trigger
is set up after power is turned on for the crates. For coincidence experiments it is anticipated that the only change one needs to make is the delay on the hadron arm to
accommodate momentum changes. Proton momenta above 360 MeV/c are at present
accommodated by the hardware (it would be a fairly easy hardware change to go lower).
For coincidence experiments, instead of using XTrigMang directly, one must download
the trigger with a script called trigsetup. Login to adaqh2 as “adaq” account and type
“trigsetup”. It asks for the momentum of the H-arm (under the assumption that a proton
4
5
CV S revision Id: trigger.tex,v 1.3 2003/06/06 17:19:22 gen Exp
Authors: R.Michaels mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
patch, row 1
222
to ADC
fixed
cable delay
to SCALER
modular
870 ns
delay
1-12,14
to TDC
S1R-OR
OR
S2R-OR
1-12,14
(rear panel out)
4413/200
4564
4518/100
S1R 1-6>1-6
DISCR
S2R 1-6>7-12
pulser>14
4518/100
4518/100
DELAY/FO
DELAY/FO
DELAY/FO
1-12,14
E1/2
4518/300
1
OR
1-12,14
E1/4
E1/18
E1/16
E1/20
Phillips
6>13
DELAY/FO
X5
ECL->NIM
E2/12
E2/6,7
NIM
RETIMING
DELAY to
FTM in E-ARM
7
RETIMING DELAY
to SCALERS CEB1
to SCALERS CEB2
ENABLE
1-12
INPUT A
1-12,14
S-RAY>1
4516
4518/100
2373
S1 1-6
AND
DELAY/FO
S1-OR>2
MLU
S2-OR>3
S2 7-12
pulser 14
E1/6
INPUT B
1-12,14
S1L 1-6>1-6
4413/200
1-12
E1/8
E1/10
S1-OR OR
S2-OR>7
4518/100
to SCALERS CEB0
DISCR
S2L 1-6>7-12
pulser>14
DELAY/FO
1-12,14
E1/14
E1/12
1-12,14
modular
880 ns
delay
1-12,14
to TDC
PROMPT TRIGGER T1
SRAY
to ADC
patch, row 2
fixed
cable delay
to SCALERS CEB3
A1 - A10
NIM
LINEAR
FAN-IN
1-4
NIM
LINEAR
FAN-IN
5-8
2373
1-11
C/G
ANALOG SUM>11
NIM
4518/100
C/G-SUM
S2
MLU
LINEAR
DISCR
E2/2
C/G
DELAY/FO
1-11
FAN-IN
>1-10
GAS CERENKOV
S-RAY
S1
4413/200
11
E2/4
NIM
LINEAR
FAN-IN
9-10
C/A
E2/8
1-11
1-11
B1 - B10
fixed
cable delay
modular
880 ns
delay
to TDC
to ADC
patch, row 3
to ADC
fixed
cable delay
modular
fixed
delay
4413/200
No SRAY but all possible
combinations of S1, S2,
C/G, C/A with one missing
____
SRAY*S1*S2*C/G
____
SRAY*S1*S2*C/A
____
SRAY*S1*C/G*C/A
____
SRAY*S2*C/G*C/A
4518/100
DISCR
DELAY/FO
1-16
1-16
PROMPT TRIGGER T2
to TDC
1-16
to SCALERS
to SCALERS
1-16
AEROGEL
4518/100
4564
C/A-OR
DELAY/FO
OR
CERENKOV
17-26
to SCALERS
4413/200
17-26
4518/100
1-10
DISCR
DELAY/FO
1-10
LeCroy Model Number
modular
fixed
delay
fixed
cable delay
to TDC
FUNCTION
times used,blank if 1
to ADC
CAMAC CRATE/SLOT
CAMAC Module Notation
PRE-SHOWER
1-48
ANALOG
MIXER/
AMPLIFIER
to ADCs
SHOWER
1-96
HALL A ELECTRON PROMPT TRIGGER DESIGN 11/13/97
Figure 7.1: Electron Arm Trigger Circuit.
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
patch 1, row 1
Must be added to allow S1R to be
included in strobe but maintain
S2R timing
to ADC
fixed
cable delay
223
1-13
to SCALER
modular
880 ns
delay
1-12,14
to TDC
S1R-OR
OR
S2R-OR
1-12,14
4518/100
4518/100
4518/100
DISCR
DELAY/FO
DELAY/FO
DELAY/FO
(rear panel out)
S1R 1-6>1-6
S2R 1-6>7-12
pulser>14
ECL->NIM
1-12,14 OR
3
7
1-12,14
H1/2
H1/4
H1/17
H1/16
NIM
to FTM
Phillips
4564
4413/200
ECL
fixed
NIM cable delay
H1/22,23
H1/18
RETIMING DELAY
ENABLE
to SCALERS ABC1
1-12
INPUT A
1-12,14
1>S-RAY
4516
4518/100
2373
DELAY/FO
MLU
S1 1-6
AND
H1/6
INPUT B
1-12,14
S2 7-12
pulser 14
1-12
2>S1-OR
3>S2-OR
H1/8
H1/10
7>S1-OR OR
S2-OR
to SCALERS ABC2
4413/200
4518/100
S1L 1-6>1-6
DISCR
S2L 1-6>7-12
pulser>14
DELAY/FO
to SCALERS ABC0
1-12,14
H1/14
H1/12
1-12,14
modular
860 ns
delay
1-12,14
to TDC
PROMPT TRIGGER T3
SRAY
to ADC
patch 1, row 2
fixed
cable delay
to SCALERS ABC6
A1 - A10
NIM
LINEAR
FAN-IN
1-4
NIM
LINEAR
FAN-IN
5-8
1-11
C/G
ANALOG SUM>11
NIM
S1
NIM
LINEAR
FAN-IN
9-10
2373
4413/200
C/G-SUM
LINEAR
S2
MLU
DELAY/FO
C/G
DISCR
FAN-IN
1-11
>1-10
GAS CERENKOV
S-RAY
4518/100
11
H2/4
H2/2
C/A
H2/7
1-11
NIM/3
B1 - B10
1-11
fixed
cable delay
modular
840 ns
delay
to TDC
to ADC
patch 2, row 1
patch 2, row 2
to ADC
fixed
cable delay
PROMPT TRIGGER T4
modular
fixed
delay
4413/200
Note: both Cerenkov detectors are removed
from the detector stack for the D(e,e’d)
experiment. This does not affect logic
since both serve as vetoes to the logic
4518/100
DISCR
L1-13>1-13
to TDC
DELAY/FO
1-13
H2/16
1-13
H2/18
to SCALERS
to SCALERS
1-13
4564
AEROGEL
4518/100
C/A-OR
OR
DELAY/FO
CERENKOV
17-30
to SCALERS
R1-13>1-13
4413/200
4518/100
DISCR
DELAY/FO
These must be added to put AEROGEL
into logic
1-13
1-13
H2/20
H2/22
LeCroy Model Number
modular
fixed
delay
fixed
cable delay
to TDC
FUNCTION
times used,blank if 1
to ADC
patch 2, row 3
CAMAC CRATE/SLOT
CAMAC Module Notation
Note: The FPP is not included in TRIGGER LOGIC
Note: The modular delays are NIM LD1200
HALL A HADRON PROMPT TRIGGER DESIGN 11/13/97
Figure 7.2: Hadron Arm Trigger Circuit.
No SRAY but all other
possible combinaations
with one missing
____
SRAY*S1
____
SRAY*S2
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
224
711
from H-ARM RETIMING DELAY (NIM)
DISCR
Upstream BCM (V/F)
RETIMING
NIM > L1-T2
NIM/10
Downstream BCM (V/F)
Hadron Arm T4
MLU OUT 9
Fixed Delay
hadron delay 1
0 - 300 ns variable delay
delay + hTOF = 300 ns
hadron delay 2
300 - 0 ns variable delay
delay 2 + delay 1 = 300 ns
T4
1-16
T3
H2/10
4
TDC 1877 STOP (VDC)
5
H1/18
to SCALERS ABC5 (h+)
16 14
4
4516
T5
logic(AND)
VXI
1
delay/FO
X4
H2/14
to SCALERS ABC4
4518/300
4
13
Level-1
ACCEPT
TS
LEVEL
TRANS
VXI
ECL->NIM
T1
2
NIM/12
T2
Trigger
Super
(TS)
VXI
Level-1
ACCEPT
ADC
GATES
NIM
Level-1
ACCEPT
NIM
ECL->NIM
ECL->NIM
NIM/11
NIM/11
NIM
4
3
5
1
H2/11
Accumulated
T2 delay is
136 ns up to
this point
4518/300
to SCALERS ABC3 (h-)
delay/FO
delay/FO
delay/FO
X4
H2/10
TDC 1877 STOP (FPP)
AND
TDC 1875 START
4518/100
4518/300
5
Hadron
Arm T3
MLU OUT
0>1
FTM
FTM EXT
to SCALER
NIM/
1
NIM
fixed
4518/100
4518/300
delay/FO
X2
H2/9
delay/FO
1>2
H2/9
Triggers
T1....T5
3
Triggers TS1
...TS5 plus
Clock=TS8
QUAD
LOGIC UNIT
delay
NIM
Fixed Delay
E1>1
NIM
Logic
DISCR
Module
NIM
Phillips
Phillips
ECL->NIM
ECL->NIM
transit from
HRS2 to HRS1
237 ns
Belden 9907
N1>5
H1/22,23
H1/22,23
Hadron Arm
Electronics
T1>1
E5 "TC
(E-ARM Trigger)"
transit from
HRS1 to HRS2
237 ns
Belden 9907
cable T1
cable T2
RG-213
cable T3
transit from
HRS2 to HRS1
237 ns
Belden 9907
transit from
HRS2 to HRS1
340 ns
Electron Arm
Electronics
N3
Phillips
Phillips
ECL->NIM
ECL->NIM
E2/6,7
E2/18,19
STOP to
coinc TDC
= TC
E3
Electron
Arm
TDC 1875 START
T1>1
Phillips
1
Accumulated
T1 delay is
116 ns up to
this point
ADC 1881 GATE
TDC 1877 STOP
ECL->NIM
T2>2
Level-1
ACCEPT
E2/6,7
SCINT ADC GATE
FTM
AND
START for
coinc TDC
TDC 3
Delayed S2R from E-Retiming Delay
VXI
L1-T2
E1
Det Monitor>15
E2
Phillips
Phillips
ECL->NIM
ECL->NIM
E2/18,19
E2/18,19
TDC 1
T1 MLU (out 2)
T1>1
T2 MLU (out 5)
T2>2
NIM
13
Upstream BCM>14
ECL->NIM
N1
Upstream BCM (V/F)
Downstream BCM>16
NIM/1
1-16
to SCALER CEB4
Phillips
Downstream BCM (V/F)
16
NIM
16
ECL->NIM
DISCR
E2/6,7
NIM/5
N2
65 ns
cable delay
Coincidence Trigger 11/14/97
Figure 7.3: Coincidence Trigger Circuit.
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
225
is in the H-arm and that the E-arm has an electron with respect to which the H-arm must
be delayed). Then trigsetup loads the correct default setup file and starts XTrigMang,
which pops up. At this point, you simply press the “Download All” button in XTrigMang
to setup the trigger.
If individual modules need to be modified for test purposes etc. (e.g. to change
thresholds), one may press on the buttons in the XTrigMang GUI and pop up the components in an obvious way. Each component has four buttons which it is essential to
understand: 1) The “Set” button. One must enter the choice and then press “Set”. This
loads your choice into memory on the workstation (not on the CAMAC crate). 2) The
“Down” button. This sends whatever choice is in memory to the CAMAC crate. 3) The
“Show” button. This reads back from CAMAC what is actually in the module. 4) The
“Read” button. This shows what is in memory on your workstation. Note that “read”
is quite different from “show”. A typical operation to modify a trigger module would be
to Set the value, Download it, and then Show to check that the value is in the CAMAC
module.
7.3
Online Analysis, Data Checks
6 7
The following tools are available for checking data online.
Scaler Display and Scaler Events
Scaler rates and values are displayed using a MOTIF based display called “xscaler” written by C. Howell of Duke University. Normally this is already running on adaqs2 or s3. It
also runs on HP-UX but the SunOS version is preferred. If it is not running, login as adaq
and go to the appropriate directory, which is /home/adaq/$EXPERIMENT/electron/scaler
and /home/adaq/$EXPERIMENT/hadron/scaler for the E-arm and H-arm respectively
where $EXPERIMENT is an environment variable like e95001. Then type “xscaler”
there. Remember to push the button “Start”. The first several pages are the scaler rates
and the next half of the pages are the absolute scaler counts. The scalers are cleared
at the beginning of each CODA run. Scalers are read out at approximately 0.5 Hz and
injected into the CODA data-stream as event type 140. A file “scaler history.dat” is
maintained which is a complete history of scaler readings at the end of each run that
ended normally. For 1-TS mode, this file is in /home/adev/scaler.
7.3.1
Analysis using ESPACE
ESPACE is the main offline software package for analyzing Hall A experiments, and it is
used for rapid near-online analysis in the counting room. ESPACE is documented in a
separate chapter, but it is worth mentioning here in a list of essential tools for checking
data.
6
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CV S revision Id: online-analysis.tex,v 1.1 2003/06/06 15:38:43 gen Exp
Authors: R.Michaels mailto:[email protected]
CHAPTER 7. DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGER
7.3.2
226
Dataspy and Dhist
Dataspy and Dhist are online diagnostic programs whose purposes are: 1) To print out
randomly sampled detector data; and 2) To automatically plot to the screen histograms
of online data. Dhist is actually a shell script which runs the executable “dplot”. For
some online help, simply type “dataspy” or “dplot”. These codes analyze a random
sample of of raw, uncut data in real time from the CODA computer. The data are
distributed on the network by a server which obtains data from shared memory.
This paragraph assumes you are on shift and wish to run dhist. While “dplot” can
run in several ways, let’s be definite: Log in to adaqh2 (or s3) as “adaq” account. If
dhist isn’t running, type “dhist”. Now you will see a reminder of what directory to go
to and that you should type “./dhist” there.
There are optional interfaces “dopte” and “dopth” for turning on/off the histogram
pages. The dopte(h) interfaces also show an alarm status for the histograms by statistical
comparison to a set of reference histograms. To start these interfaces, type “dopte” or
“dopth” for the E-arm and H-arm respectively.
dhist makes about 20 pages of plots which pop up on the workstation screen and
remain for a few seconds in succession. Each page also results in a postscript file for
printing, and there is a histogram file dplot.his which one can view in PAW.
Appendix A
Hall Checklist
A.1
Pre Beam and Cryo Target Checklist
Cryo Target Pre Beam Checklist Date
time
Last revised 3/6/98
This checklist will be completed after every restricted access to Hall A during which
maintenance is performed
People checking list
Electron Arm
Spectrometers
correct angle
(not to be used for calculations)
correct pointing
(not to be used for calculations)
collimator operation at 3 positions
check spectrometer for obstructions to movement
check intergen bottles for correct pressure
insure that 15 degree stop pin is installed
Vacuum
blower on at controls under spectrometer
turbo on at turbo controller in rack # 1H71B01
pump valves open at valve controller in rack # 1H71B01 channel #2
convectron gages read ”0” millitorr
roughing valve closed at rack #1H71B01 channel # 4
cold cathode gages on at gage in rack # 1H71B01 cold cathode ¡ 5x10-5
actual cold cathode reading
entrance & exit vacuum windows functional
magnet controls
Q1
Q1 full of liquid (80%) actual
227
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
228
open lead flows on Q1 to 80 slm as read from rack #Q171Q
actual lead flows
A
B
cctv camera on and focused
D1
Dipole full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Dipole to 80 slm as read from rack #D171Q
actual lead flows
A
B
Q2
Q2 full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Q2 to 60 slm as read from the Q2 instrument rack meter.
actual lead flows
A
B
Q3
Q3 full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Q3 to 60 slm as read from the Q3 instrument rack meter.
actual lead flows
A
B
Power supplies
POWER SUPPLY TURN ON PROCEDURES
Verify UPSs as operational on all power supply controls (with no current on
magnets only)
red rotating beacons on
Q1:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
visually check power supply for faults
when all faults have been cleared, insure that power supply is in remote control
Q2:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
turn on both sets of three pole breakers located on power supply
visually check power supply for faults
when all faults have been cleared, lift lever on lower right side of supply
insure that power supply is in remote control
Q3:
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
229
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
turn on both sets of three pole breakers located on power supply
visually check power supply for faults
when all faults have been cleared, lift lever on lower right side of supply
insure that power supply is in remote control
Dipole:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
turn on power lever on right upper side of supply
visually check power supply for faults on supply and at rack #
when all faults have been cleared, insure that power supply is in remote control
cctv camera on and focused
check power supply for proper polarity
NMR gradient compensation for on and proper polarity
Hadron Arm
Spectrometers
correct angle
(not to be used for calculations)
correct pointing
(not to be used for calculations)
collimator operation at 3 positions
check spectrometer for obstructions to movement
check intergen bottles for correct pressure
insure that 15 degree stop pin is installed
Vacuum
blower on at controls under spectrometer
turbo on at turbo controller in rack # 1H71B01
pump valves open at valve controller in rack # 1H71B01 channel #2
convectron gages read ”0” millitorr
roughing valve closed at rack #1H71B01 channel # 4
cold cathode gages on at gage in rack # 1H71B01 cold cathode ¡ 5x10-5
actual cold cathode reading
check dipole turbo for on
magnet controls
Q1
Q1 full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Q1 to 80 slm as read from rack #Q171Q
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
230
actual lead flows
A
B
cctv camera on and focused
D1
Dipole full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Dipole to 80 slm as read from rack #D171Q
actual lead flows
A
B
Q2
Q2 full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Q2 to 60 slm as read from the Q2 instrument rack meter.
actual lead flows
A
B
Q3
Q3 full of liquid (80%) actual
open lead flows on Q3 to 60 slm as read from the Q3 instrument rack meter.
actual lead flows
A
B
Power supplies
POWER SUPPLY TURN ON PROCEDURES
Verify UPSs as operational on all power supply controls (with no current on
magnets only)
red rotating beacons on
Q1:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
visually check power supply for faults
when all faults have been cleared, insure that power supply is in remote control
Q2:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
turn on both sets of three pole breakers located on power supply
visually check power supply for faults
when all faults have been cleared, lift lever on lower right side of supply
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
231
insure that power supply is in remote control
Q3:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
turn on both sets of three pole breakers located on power supply
visually check power supply for faults
when all faults have been cleared, lift lever on lower right side of supply
insure that power supply is in remote control
Dipole:
visual inspection of main current leads, dump resistor, and lead flags (for
condition, visual shorts, etc.)
unlock power disconnect switch and turn on AC power
turn on power lever on right upper side of supply
visually check power supply for faults on supply and at rack #
when all faults have been cleared, insure that power supply is in remote control
cctv camera on and focused
check power supply for proper polarity
NMR gradient compensation for on and proper polarity
Target
windows functional
cctv cameras ”on” and focused
target light ”on”
backing pump ”on” at pump
turbo ”on” at rack # 1H75B09
turbo valve ”open” at rack # 1H75B09 channel # 1
gages operational
convectron ”0” millitorr at rack # 1H75B09
cold cathode ¡ 5x10-4 at rack # 1H75B08
actual cold cathode reading
Exit beam tube
backing pump ”on” at pump and operational
valve ”open” controlled at rack # 1H75B09 channel # (temp manual at
pump)
turbo ”on” at rack # 1H75B09
gages operational
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
232
convectron ”¡5” millitorr at rack # 1H75B09
actual convection reading
diffuser cooler on
diffuser water level ok
Entrance beam tube
insure that Møller turbo is on and running
insure that Møller target cooler is on and operational
insure that there is cooling water flow to the Møller Dipole
insure that ep turbo is on and running
beam line vacuum valves ”open” (visually checked)
instrument air compressor functioning normally
Hall
all interlocks in rack # 1H75B08 indicate green
check 3 Møller power supplies for on (lights flashing at magnets)
check location and operational readiness of Ion chambers
correct LCW flow and pressure (100 psi supply and 60 psi return)
cctv cameras on and focused
cctv monitors at X terminal off
clear of unnecessary equipment
Man lift and Forklift in truck ramp
perform pre sweep of run safe boxes
unnecessary personnel exit Hall
move Electron spectrometer stairs clear of lower balcony
ensure polar crane is positioned over the entrance beam pipe
and that power is off at the power disconnect switch
ensure spectrometer entrance window guards are removed
ensure target window guards are removed
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A.2
Post Beam Checklist for Maintenance Period
Revised 2/22/99
This checklist will be completed prior to every restricted access to Hall A during
which maintenance is performed
People checking list
Spectrometers
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
233
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Install yellow covers on inlets to spectrometers
Target
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Install protective shields over vacuum windows if Cryo target is installed
Power supplies
( from a computer console )
Electron
set current to 0 amps by remote
set current to 0 amps by remote
set current to 0 amps by remote
set current to 0 amps by remote
Hadron
set current to 0 amps by remote
set current to 0 amps by remote
set current to 0 amps by remote
set current to 0 amps by remote
control
control
control
control
on
on
on
on
Q1
Q2
Q3
Dipole
control
control
control
control
on
on
on
on
Q1
Q2
Q3
Dipole
Entrance beam tube
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Exit beam tube
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Dump
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Inspect visible areas for water leaks
Hall
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Inspect power supply platforms, spectrometers, and the rest of the Hall, looking
for water leaks and cryogenic plumes
Man lift and Forklift removed from truck ramp
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A.3
Post Beam Checklist for an Extended Time
Last revised 2/22/99
This checklist will be completed prior to extended restricted accesses to Hall A.
People checking list
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
Power supplies
( from the control room )
Electron
Q1
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Q2
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Q3
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Dipole
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Hadron
Q1
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Q2
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Q3
set current to 0 amps by remote control
turn output off by remote control
Dipole
set current to 0 amps by remote control
( from the Hall )
Target
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Install protective shields over vacuum windows if Cryo target is installed
target light off at target
cctv cameras off at target
234
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
turbo off at rack #
turbo valve closed at rack #
backing pump off and bled up at pump
gages operational
windows functional
235
switch #
Spectrometers
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
turbo valves closed at valve controller in rack # 1H71/72B08 switch #
turbo off at turbo controller in rack # 1H71/72B08
blower off at controls under spectrometer
pump valves closed at valve controller in rack # 1H71/72B08 switch #
convectron gages on
cold cathode gages off at gage in rack #
windows functional
Electron
Q1
ensure 0 current status on local power meter
ensure that the set to and ADC readouts all equal ”0”
turn off Q1 LCW supply valve slowly and lock it in the off position
Q2
ensure
ensure
ensure
switch
switch
0 current status on local power meter
that the set to volts readout equals ”0”
that the set to current readout equals ”0”
off input power at power supply
off power at safety disconnect and lock switch in the off position
Q3
ensure 0 current status on local power meter
ensure that the set to volts readout equals ”0”
ensure that the set to current readout equals ”0”
switch off input power at power supply
switch off power at safety disconnect and lock switch in the off position
Dipole
ensure 0 current status on local power meter
switch off input power at power supply
switch off power at safety disconnect and lock switch in the off position
Hadron
Q1
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
ensure 0 current status on local power meter
ensure that the set to and ADC readouts all equal ”0”
turn off Q1 LCW supply valve slowly and lock it in the off position
Q2
ensure
ensure
ensure
switch
switch
0 current status on local power meter
that the set to volts readout equals ”0”
that the set to current readout equals ”0”
off input power at power supply
off power at safety disconnect and lock switch in the off position
Q3
ensure 0 current status on local power meter
ensure that the set to volts readout equals ”0”
ensure that the set to current readout equals ”0”
switch off input power at power supply
switch off power at safety disconnect and lock switch in the off position
Dipole
ensure 0 current status on local power meter
switch off input power at power supply
switch off power at safety disconnect and lock switch in the off position
Entrance beam tube
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
beam line vacuum valves closed
E P turbo valve closed
E P turbo off
E P backing pump off and vented to atm.
Møller turbo valve closed
Møller turbo off
Møller backing pump off and vented to atm.
instrument air compressor functioning normally
Exit beam tube
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
beam tube valve closed
exit beam tube turbo valve closed
236
APPENDIX A. HALL CHECKLIST
237
exit beam tube turbo off
exit beam tube backing pump off and vented to atm.
cold cathode gage off
convectron gages on
Dump
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
turn off diffuser cooler
Inspect visible areas for water leaks
Hall
NOTE : LOOK FOR ”RADIATION AREA” SIGN and OBEY
Inspect power supply platforms, spectrometers, and the rest of the Hall, looking
for water leaks and cryogenic plumes
cctv cameras off
clear of unnecessary equipment
Man lift and Forklift removed from truck ramp
Doors unlocked
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