Hindi Style Guide - Center

Hindi Style Guide - Center

Hindi Style Guide

Contents

What's New? ................................................................................................................................................. 4

New Topics ................................................................................................................................................ 4

Updated Topics .......................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 5

About This Style Guide .............................................................................................................................. 5

Scope of This Document ........................................................................................................................... 5

Style Guide Conventions ........................................................................................................................... 5

Sample Text ............................................................................................................................................... 6

Recommended Reference Material ........................................................................................................... 6

Normative References ............................................................................................................................ 6

Informative References .......................................................................................................................... 6

Language Specific Conventions ................................................................................................................... 7

Country/Region Standards ........................................................................................................................ 7

Characters .............................................................................................................................................. 7

Date ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

Time ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

Numbers ............................................................................................................................................... 11

Sorting .................................................................................................................................................. 15

Geopolitical Concerns .............................................................................................................................. 17

Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions ...................................................................................... 17

Adjectives ............................................................................................................................................. 17

Articles .................................................................................................................................................. 18

Capitalization ........................................................................................................................................ 19

Compounds .......................................................................................................................................... 19

Gender .................................................................................................................................................. 19

Genitive ................................................................................................................................................ 20

Modifiers ............................................................................................................................................... 20

Nouns ................................................................................................................................................... 20

Prepositions .......................................................................................................................................... 22

Pronouns .............................................................................................................................................. 22

Punctuation........................................................................................................................................... 22

Singular & Plural ................................................................................................................................... 23

Split Infinitive ........................................................................................................................................ 24

Subjunctive ........................................................................................................................................... 24

Symbols & Non-Breaking Spaces ........................................................................................................ 24

Syntax ................................................................................................................................................... 24

Verbs .................................................................................................................................................... 24

Word Order ........................................................................................................................................... 25

Style and Tone Considerations................................................................................................................ 25

Audience............................................................................................................................................... 25

Tone ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

Style ...................................................................................................................................................... 26

Voice ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

Localization Guidelines ............................................................................................................................... 27

General Considerations ........................................................................................................................... 27

Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................ 27

Accessibility .......................................................................................................................................... 28

Acronyms .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Applications, Products, and Features .................................................................................................. 29

Frequent Errors .................................................................................................................................... 29

Glossaries............................................................................................................................................. 29

Fictitious Information ............................................................................................................................ 29

Recurring Patterns ............................................................................................................................... 29

Standardized Translations .................................................................................................................... 30

Unlocalized Items ................................................................................................................................. 30

Using the Word Microsoft ..................................................................................................................... 30

Software Considerations .......................................................................................................................... 30

User Interface ....................................................................................................................................... 30

Messages ............................................................................................................................................. 31

Keys ...................................................................................................................................................... 35

Document Translation Considerations .................................................................................................... 39

Titles ..................................................................................................................................................... 40

Copyright .............................................................................................................................................. 40

What's New?

Last Updated: March 2011

New Topics

This version of the Hindi Style Guide has gone through a major restructure. The topics included were reordered in an effort to standardize and streamlined the Style Guides for all languages.

Updated Topics

The overall Style Guide content was fully updated in February 2011 as part of major Style Guide update project performed for all languages.

4

Introduction

This Style Guide went through major revision in February 2011 in order to remove outdated and unnecessary content.

About This Style Guide

The purpose of this Style Guide is to provide everybody involved in the localization of Hindi Microsoft products with Microsoft-specific linguistic guidelines and standard conventions that differ from or are more prescriptive than those found in language reference materials. These conventions have been adopted after considering context based on various needs, but above all, they are easy to follow and applicable for all types of software to be localized.

The Style Guide covers the areas of formatting and grammatical conventions. It also presents the reader with a general idea of the reasoning behind the conventions. The present Style Guide is a revision of our previous Style

Guide version with the intention of making it more standardized, more structured, and easier to use as a reference.

The guidelines and conventions presented in this Style Guide are intended to help you localize Microsoft products and materials. We welcome your feedback, questions and concerns regarding the Style Guide. You can send us your feedback via the Microsoft Language Portal feedback page .

Scope of This Document

This Style Guide is intended for the localization professional working on Microsoft products. It is not intended to be a comprehensive coverage of all localization practices, but to highlight areas where Microsoft has preference or deviates from standard practices for Hindi localization.

Style Guide Conventions

In this document, a plus sign (+) before a translation example means that this is the recommended correct translation. A minus sign (-) is used for incorrect translation examples.

In Microsoft localization context, the word term is used in a slightly untraditional sense, meaning the same as e.g. a segment in Trados. The distinguishing feature of a term here is that it is translated as one unit; it may be a traditional term (as used in terminology), a phrase, a sentence, or a paragraph.

References to interface elements really only refer to translatable texts associated with those interface elements.

Example translations in this document are only intended to illustrate the point in question. They are not a source of approved terminology.

5

Sample Text

बूकॊऩ के आठ ददन फाद जीवित मभरा व्मक्तत

जाऩान भें बूकॊऩ औय सुनाभी के आठ ददन फाद याहतकमभिमों को एक जीवित व्मक्तत मभरा है.

जाऩानी येडडमो के भुताबफक कतसुहारू भोरयमा नाभ का मह मुिक ध्िॊस हो चुके एक भकान की दूसयी भॊक़्िर से फाहय ननकारा गमा.

उसकी हारत क्थथय फताई जा यही है रेककन िह सदभे भें है औय कुछ फोर नहीॊ ऩा यहा है.

उसे इराज के मरए क़यीफ के एक अथऩतार भें रे जामा गमा है.

सदभे भें है व्मक्तत

एक याहतकभी ने सभाचाय एजेंसी एऩी को फतामा, "भुझे कॊफर भें मरऩटा एक आदभी मभरा. िह फुयी तयह थका हुआ रग यहा था".

इससे ऩहरे सभझा जा यहा था कक बायी फर्फिफायी की िजह से अफ ककसी के जीवित होने की आशा नहीॊ है.

स्रोत: http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/news/

2011/03/110319

_japan_survivor_sz.shtml

19

भाचि 2011 को यात 8 फजे तैमाय ककमा गमा.

Recommended Reference Material

Normative References

Microsoft normative sources must be adhered to. Any deviation from them automatically fails a string in most cases. When more than one solution is allowed in these sources, look for the recommended one in other parts of the Style Guide. For example, adhere to Microsoft terminology available on Language Portal: http://www.microsoft.com/Language/en-US/Default.aspx

Informative References

There are no official rule books for Hindi grammar, but following are the dictionaries and grammar books are recommended.

1) www.shabdkosh.com

: A good online dictionary.

2)

िैज्ञाननक ि तकनीकी शब्दािरी आमोग द्िाया प्रकामशत शब्द सॊग्रह: A technical dictionary by Govt of India available at Commission for Scientific & Technical Terminology.

3) http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/Hindi/ : An online Hindi > English Dictionary.

4)

बायत सयकाय के सूचना औय प्रसायण भॊत्रारम, प्रकाशन विबाग द्िाया प्रकामशत डॉ. विजम अग्रिार की ऩुथतक 'अऩनी दहॊदी

सुधायें' : For Hindi Grammar.

6

Language Specific Conventions

This part of the style guide contains information about standards specific to Hindi.

Country/Region Standards

Characters

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script. Like other Indian languages, the letters in the Devanagari script are grouped together based on the way they are pronounced. The first 11 letters are all vowels. Then follows the velar, the palatal, the retroflex, the dental, and the labial consonants. This division indicates place where the consonants are formed.

Country/region

India

Lower-case characters

Upper-case characters

Characters in caseless scripts

Extended Latin characters

n/a n/a n/a

Note on alphabetical order

n/a

Hindi is written in a Devanagari script. Hindi is normally spoken using a combination of 52 sounds - 10 vowels, 40 consonants, nasalisation and a kind of aspiration. These sounds are represented in the Devanagari script by 52 symbols: for 10 vowels, 2 modifiers and 40 consonants. Language speakers also need to learn to recognize a character that traditionally represented a vowel but does not any longer, and four common conjunct consonants, which is actually a total of 57 symbols to remember to begin with.

Total number of characters

57

Unicode codes

Hindi Unicode range is 0901

– 0970.

Notes

n/a

Date

Country/region

Calendar/Era

First Day of the Week

India

Gregorian Calendar/AD

सोभिाय (Monday)

7

Country/region

First Week of the Year

Separator

Default Short Date

Format

India

n/a

/

DD/MM/YY

Example

17/03/11

Default Long Date Format dd/MM/YYYY

17/03/2011

Example

Additional Short Date

Format 1

Example

d Month

17

YYYY

भाचि 2011

Additional Short Date

Format 2

Example

n/a n/a

Additional Long Date

Format 1

n/a

Example

Additional Long Date

Format 2

Example

n/a n/a n/a

Leading Zero in Day Field for Short Date Format

yes

Leading Zero in Month

Field for Short Date

Format

No. of digits for century for Short Day Format

yes

2

Leading Zero in Day Field for Long Date Format

It is used but not necessary

Leading Zero in Month

Field for Long Date

Format

It is used but not necessary

Number of digits for

4

8

Country/region

century for Long Day

Format

Date Format for

Correspondence

Example

Notes

India

DD

Month YYYY

Abbreviations in Format

Codes

17

भाचि 2011 n/a

d is for day, number of d's indicates the format (d = digits without leading zero, dd = digits with leading zero, ddd = the abbreviated day name, dddd = full day name)

M is for month, number of M's gives number of digits. (M = digits without leading zero, MM = digits with leading zero, MMM = the abbreviated name, MMMM = full name)

y is for year, number of y's gives number of digits (yy = two digits, yyyy = four digits)

Time

बायत

24 hour format

India

Standard time format

Standard time format example

Time separator

Time separator examples

Yes

HH:mm:ss

03:24:12

Colon (:)

03:24:12

Hours leading zero

yes

Hours leading zero example

03:24:12

String for AM designator

String for PM designator

ऩूिािन्ह

अऩयान्ह

Notes

n/a

9

Days

Country/region: India

Day

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Normal Form

सोभिाय

भॊगरिाय

फुधिाय

गुरूिाय

शुक्रिाय

शननिाय

यवििाय

First Day of Week:

सोभिाय

Is first letter capitalized?: n/a

Notes: There is no capitalization in Hindi.

Months

Country/region: India

Month

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Full Form

जनियी

र्फयियी

भाचि

अप्रैर

भई

जून

जुराई

अगथत

मसतॊफय

अतटूफय

निॊफय

ददसॊफय

Abbreviated Form

भई

जून

जु

अग

मसत

जन

र्फय

भाचि

अप्रै

अतटू

नि

ददस

Abbreviation

सोभ

भॊगर

फुध

गुरू

शुक्र

शनन

यवि

Long Date Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

Same as Full Form

10

Is first letter capitalized?: n/a

Notes: There is no capitalization in Hindi.

Numbers

Hindi Number System follows a simple pattern of repeating itself after every ten numbers, known as Decimal system.

Phone Numbers

Country/

region

India

Country/

region

International

Dialing Code

91

Number of

Digits

Local

Area

Codes

Used?

Yes

Digit

Groupings

– Local

Number of

Digits

– Area

Codes

Separator

Number of

Digits

Domestic

2; 3; 4; 5; 6 n/a

Number of

Digits

Mobile

Digit

Groupings

– Mobile

Digit Groupings

Domestic

9; 10; 11; 12;

13; 14; 15; 16

(0##) ######; (0##)

####### (0##)

########; (0###) ###

###; (0###) #######;

(0###) ########;

(0####) ######;

(0####) #######;

(0####) ########

Number of

Digits

International

Digit Groupings

International

India 4; 5; 6; 7; 8 ####;

#####;

######;

### ####;

#### ####

10 0#########

#, 91-

0#########

# (calling from abroad)

11; 12; 13;

14; 17

91-(0##) ######; +91-

(0##) #######; +91-

(0##) ########; +91-

(0###) ### ###; +91-

(0###) #######; +91-

(0###) ########; +91-

(0####) ######; +91-

(0####) #######; +91-

(0####) ##########

Notes: n/a

11

Addresses

Country/region: India

Disclaimer: Please note that the information in this entry should under no circumstances be used in examples as fictitious information.

Address Format:

1. Titel/Honorific] FirstName

LastName

2. [CompanyName]

3. StreetName

4. [AreaName]

5. CityName,State

6. [Country]

7. PostalCode

Example Address:

Local Example

श्री अननर शभाि

जे. जे. कॊऩनी मरमभटेड

,

एभ. एभ. भागि

,

बायत नगय

,

इन्दौय

,

भ.प्र.

,

बायत

वऩन - १२३ ४५६

Example Guide

श्री

[= Title]

अननर शभाि

[= FirstName +

SecondName]

जे. जे. कॊऩनी मरमभटेड

[= CompanyName]

एभ. एभ. भागि

[= StreetName]

बायत नगय

[= Area]

इन्दौय

,

भ.प्र.

[=CityName, State]

बायत

[= Country]

वऩन - 123 456 [= PIN Code]

Local Postal Code Format: XXX XXX

Notes: Postal codes consist of 6 digits with no separators or a space after 3 digits.

MiddleName is very often abbreviated and sometimes omitted.

Generally postal codes or PIN codes, as they are known locally, are not needed for addresses in major cities. However, it is better to include them for addresses in small towns or villages.

Currency

For each country/region covered by this language, provide the following, repeating the entire set for each variation in format:

12

Country/region

Currency Name

Currency Symbol

Currency Symbol Position

Positive Currency Format

Negative Sign Symbol

Negative Currency Format

Decimal Symbol

Number of Digits after Decimal

Digit Grouping Symbol

Number of Digits in Digit

Grouping

Positive Currency Example

Negative Currency Example

ISO Currency Code

Currency Subunit Name

Currency Subunit Symbol

Currency Subunit Example

Digit Groups

The following are the norms for the digit groups:

Country/region: India

Decimal Separator: Period (.)

Decimal Separator Description: It is a period.

Decimal Separator Example: 12.23

Thousand Separator: (,)

Thousand Separator Description: Comma

Thousand Separator Example: 34,456 ;

62,879

Notes: n/a

India

रुऩमा (Rupee)

The symbol is always used before figure and a space is used.

1.1

For negative values, the ordinary hyphen accessible on the keyboard is placed before the currency symbol (no spaces) as a minus sign.

-

1.1

Period (.)

3

Comma (,)

3

123,456,789.00

- 123,456,789.00

INR 356

Paise (

ऩैसा)

P

100 P

13

Measurement Units

Metric System Commonly Used?: Yes

Temperature: Celsius

Category

Linear Measure

Capacity

Mass

English Units of

Measurement

English

Kilometer

Meter

Decimeter

Centimeter

Millimeter

Hectoliter

Liter

Deciliter

Centiliter

Milliliter

Ton

Kilogram

Pound

Gram

Decigram

Centigram

Milligram

Inch

Feet

Mile

Gallon

Translation

डेसीग्राभ

सेंटीग्राभ

मभरीग्राभ

इॊच

पुट

भीर

गैरन

ककरोभीटय

भीटय

डेसीभीटय

सेंटीभीटय

मभरीभीटय

हेतटोरीटय

रीटय

डेसीरीटय

सेंटीरीटय

मभरीरीटय

टन

ककरोग्राभ

ऩाउॊड

ग्राभ

Notes: When miles and pounds are used in the English document, add the conversion to km and kg, respectively, in parentheses.

For example 5 miles becomes

५ भीर (८ ककभी)

14

N/A

ककग्रा

N/A

ग्रा

डेग्रा

सेग्रा

मभग्रा

N/A

Abbreviation

ककभी

भी

डेभी

सेभी

मभभी

हेभी

री

डेरी

सेरी

मभरी

N/A

N/A

N/A

Percentages

Percentage is indicated by the following sign: %

Example:

व्माऩाय भें िृवि 28% है।

Sorting

Sorting rules

In the Index section, the following sorting order is applied:

1. Non-alphabetical characters (i.e. symbols like ! " # $ % & ( ) * , . / : ; ? @ [ \ ] )

2. Digits (0-9)

3. alphabetical characters

Character sorting order

n/a

Examples of sorted words

chemin cote coté côte côté čučēt

Czech chaque chemin hiša irdisch lävi lie lire

@

1

अॊफय

कभर

िाहन

Aaron andere

ändere chaque

15

myndig pint pylon piña sämtlich

šàran savoir

Šerbūra

Sietla ślub subtle llama lõug

Löwen lòza

Lübeck luč luck lye

Männer màšta mîr möchten symbol verkehrt vox waffle wood yen yuan yucca ţal ţena

Ţenēva zoo

Zürich

Zviedrija

16

zysk zzlj zzlz zznj zznz

Geopolitical Concerns

Part of the cultural adaptation of the US-product to a specific market is the resolving of geopolitical issues. While the US-product should have been designed and developed with neutrality and a global audience in mind, the localized product should respond to the particular situation that applies within the target country/region.

Sensitive issues or issues that might potentially be offensive to the users in the target country/region may occur in any of the following:

Maps

Flags

Country/region, city and language names

Art and graphics

Cultural content, such as encyclopedia content and other text where historical or political references may occur

Some of these issues are relatively easy to verify and resolve: the objective should be for the localizer to always have the most current information available. Maps and other graphic representations of countries/regions and regions should be checked for accuracy and existing political restrictions. Country/region, city and language names change on a regular basis and need to be checked, even if previously approved.

A thorough understanding of the culture of the target market is required for checking the appropriateness of cultural content, clip art and other visual representations of religious symbols, body and hand gestures.

Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions

This section includes information on how to apply the general rules of the Hindi language to Microsoft products and documentation.

Adjectives

There are four types of adjectives in Hindi:

गुण िाचक (Quality)

सॊख्मा िाचक (Numeral)

ऩरयभाण िाचक (Quantity)

सॊकेत िाचक (Demonstrative)

17

Possessive adjectives

The frequent use of possessives is a feature of English language. In Hindi too, possessive adjectives are frequently used. Examples are

भेया (mine), तुम्हाया (your), आऩका (Your (respectfull)), उनका (their), उसका(his),

हभाया(our).

Articles

General considerations

There are no articles in Hindi language. Equally important is, there is no need to translate every A or AN used in

English into Hindi.

Example

Create a document

Translation

+

दथतािे़ि फनाएॉ

-

एक दथतािे़ि फनाएॉ

Unlocalized Feature Names

Microsoft product names and non-translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in the

English language. Microsoft product names and non-translated feature names are used as it is in Hindi. No article is added.

Localized Feature Names

Hindi does not have a definite article and indefinite articles are not used with product names in Hindi.

Example:

इस कॊप्मूटय ऩय Windows सििय थथावऩत है।

Articles for English Borrowed Terms

When faced with an English loan word previously used in Microsoft products, consider the following options:

Motivation: Does the English word have any formally motivated features that would allow a straightforward integration into the noun class system of Hindi language? - None for Hindi

Analogy: Is there an equivalent Hindi term whose article could be used? - None for Hindi

Frequency: Is the term used in other technical documentation? If so, what article is used most often?

The internet may be a helpful reference here. - None for Hindi

Please always consult Microsoft terminology (for example, available via Language Portal: http://www.microsoft.com/Language/en-US/Default.aspx

) to confirm the use of a new loan word and its proper article to avoid inconsistencies.

18

Capitalization

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

Compounds

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

Gender

All nouns in Hindi are divided into one of two grammatical types, called genders. These genders are masculine-

ऩुक््रॊग and feminine-

थत्री मरॊग.

Nouns often modify other words in the sentence according to their gender.

All male living beings are masculine. All female living beings are feminine. In the case of names of inanimate

फेटा son

फेटी daughter

फच्चा boy baby

फच्ची girl baby

बाई brother

फहन sister things and abstract, collective and material nouns, gender is determined mainly by usage.

Masculine gender-

पुल्लिंग

Feminine gender-

स्त्री ललिंग

रड़का boy

रड़की girl

आदभी man

औयत woman

वऩता father

भाता mother

19

अध्माऩक male teacher

अध्मावऩका female teacher

Genitive

In Hindi, genitives are indicated with kaa/ke/kii as morpho-word. Choice of kaa/ke/kii depends on the gender, number and case ending of the head noun. Table 1 explains and illustrates the usage of kaa/ke/kii for different variations of head noun.

TABLE 1: Usage of

का

/

के

/

की

in genetive case

Gender of head noun Number of head noun Case-ending of head noun

का

/

के

/

की

Example(s)

Masculine Singular Absent

का रड़के का बाई

Masculine

Masculine

Plural

Don't care

Absent

Present

के

के

रड़के के बाई

रड़के के बाई ने,

रड़के के बाइमों ने

Feminine Don't care Don't care

की रड़के की फहन,

रड़के की फहन ने,

रड़के की फहनों ने,

रड़के की फहनें

Modifiers

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi

Nouns

General considerations

Please follow normative rules related to nouns.

1.

व्मक्तत िाचक सॊज्ञा (Proper Noun) - e.g. दद्री, गाॊधी, याभामण, गीताॊजरी, दहभारम, ताजभहर

2.

जानत िाचक सॊज्ञा (Common Noun) - e.g. भोय (peacock), ऩुथतक (book), भदहरा (lady), फारक (boy), फामरका

(girl)

3.

बाि िाचक सॊज्ञा (Abstract Noun) - e.g. फचऩन (childhood), सत्म (truth), सुॊदयता (beauty), नम्रता (politeness)

4.

सभुदाम िाचक सॊज्ञा (Collective Noun) - e.g. सेना (armed forces), सबा (assembly), भॊडरी (group)

5.

द्रव्म िाचक सॊज्ञा (Material Noun) - e.g. सोना (gold), रोहा (iron), ऩानी (water)

20

Inflection

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

Plural Formation

Singular and Plural of Nouns in the Direct Case:

Masculine: Ending in -a

Singular:

रडका

= boy Plural:

रडके

= boys

Masculine: Ending in other vowel (very few):

Singular:

गुरु

= teacher Plural:

गुरु

= teacher

Masculine: Ending in a consonant

Singular:

दोथत

= friend Plural:

दोथत

= friends

Feminine: Ending in -i

Singluar:

रडकी

= girl Plural:

रड़ककमाॉ

= girls

Feminine: Ending in a consonant

Singular:

ककताफ

= book Plural:

ककताफें

= books

Feminine: Ending in -a or -u

Singular:

अध्मावऩका

= female teacher Plural:

अध्मावऩकाएॉ

= female teachers

Singular and Plural of Nouns in the Oblique Case:

Masculine: Ending in -a

Singular:

रडके

Plural:

रडकों

Masculine: Ending in other vowel (very few):

Singular:

गुरु

Plural:

गुरुओॊ

(for

आदभी

/man/ -

आदमभमों

)

Masculine: Ending in a consonant

Singular:

दोथत

Plural:

दोथतों

Feminine: Ending in -i

Singluar:

रडकी

Plural:

रड़ककमों

Feminine: Ending in a consonant

Singular:

ककताफ

Plural:

ककताफों

Feminine: Ending in -a or -u

Singular:

अध्मावऩका

Plural:

अध्मावऩकाओॊ

21

Prepositions

Pay attention to the correct use of the preposition in translations. Influenced by the English language, many translators omit them or change the word order.

Hindi prepositions link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Hindi (like other Indian languages) uses postpositions instead of prepositions. Postpositions are like prepositions except that they are written after the noun.

US Expression

about

after behind before

Hindi Expression

के बारे में

के बाद

के पीछे

से पहले

Comment

n/a n/a n/a n/a

Pronouns

Pronouns in Hindi are called “

सििनाभ”.

There are five main types of pronouns in Hindi:

1. Personal Pronouns, known as

ऩुरुष िाचक सििनाभ

2. Demonstrative Pronoun, known as

ननश्चम िाचक सििनाभ

3. Indefinite Pronoun, known as

अननश्चम िाचक सििनाभ

4. Relative Pronoun, known as

सॊफॊध िाचक सििनाभ

5. Interrogative Pronoun, known as

प्रश्न िाचक सििनाभ

Known Issue

: It’s a common error to use

आऩ आऩके खाते, हभ हभायी र्फाइर को..., etc. It should be always आऩ अऩने,

हभ अऩने, and िो अऩने. Please keep this in mind.

Punctuation

Comma

In Hindi the sign of comma is the same as in English.

Colon

In Hindi the sign of colon is the same as in English.

22

Dashes and Hyphens

Hyphen

The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form. In Hindi also the sign of hyphen is the same as that in English.

Example:

अरग–अरग

Ellipses (Suspension Points)

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi

Period

The end of a sentence is indicated in Hindi by a vertical line “ | ” . All the other punctuation marks are used in

Hindi just as they are in English.

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks are used when you want to emphasize something.

In US source strings, you may find software references surrounded by English quotation marks. Same for Hindi.

Parentheses

In English, there is no space between the parentheses and the text inside them. Same for Hindi.

Example: 5

भीर (8 ककभी)

Singular & Plural

Plural and Singular have a very important role in Hindi, therefore they need very special attention.

Example:

ऩुथतक Singular ऩुथतकें Plural

फच्चा Singular

फच्चे Plural

योटी Singular

योदटमाॉ Plural

23

Split Infinitive

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

Subjunctive

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

Symbols & Non-Breaking Spaces

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

Syntax

Hindi uses a different word order than English. The main differences are that verbs are placed at the end of the sentence (like in German) and that Hindi (like other Indian languages) uses postpositions instead of prepositions.

Postpositions are like prepositions except that they are written after the noun.

Declarative sentences

English: Subject Verb Preposition Object => I go to the shop

Hindi: Subject Object Postposition Verb => I shop to go >

भैं दुकान जाता हूॊ।

Imperative sentences

English: Verb Negative Verb Adverb => Do not eat quickly

Hindi: Adverb Negative Verb => Quickly not eat >

ज्दी ज्दी भत खाओ।

Interrogative sentences

English: Adverb Aux.Verb Subject Verb => What are you drawing?

Hindi: Subject Adverb Verb => You what draw? >

तुभ तमा ड्रॉ कय यहे हो

?

Verbs

Hindi verbs are inflected with respect to gender of the subject (masculine, feminine), number of the subject

(singular, plural), tense (present, past, future), action (perfect, imperfect, continuous), degree of respect (intimate, familiar, respect). Verbs are referred to in their infinitive noun form which ends in na. But in the US where Edit,

Save, Delete etc words are used, the verb is used as first person, i.e.

सॊऩादन कयें, सहेजें, हटाएॉ

24

Example:

Continuous operations are usually expressed in English with a gerund, which should be translated into Hindi in passive voice. A translation of <searching image> as <

छवि खोज यहा है> looks odd. It should be छवि खोजी जा यही है.

Example

Saving file….

Translation

+

र्फाइर सहेजी जा य ही है...

-

र्फाइर सहेज यहा है...

Word Order

The word-order in Hindi is SOV (Subject, Object and Verb).

Example:

Windows is unable to open this file.

Windows

इस ितत इस र्फाइर को खोरने भें असभथि है.

Style and Tone Considerations

This section focuses on higher-level considerations for audience, style, tone, and voice.

Audience

The English forms often do not distinguish between various uses of verbs (command, function name, description of an ongoing process, etc.). Find out what is really meant with the string, and translate accordingly.

For commands, instructions, suggestions, etc., always use the personal imperative form, not impersonal forms, infinitives or deverbal nouns.

Tone

Use formal 2nd person to address the user. Normally, the pronoun

आऩ

itself will not be needed, but its relevant possessive form should be used.

Enter your name

If you don't want to ..

+

अऩना नाभ मरखें.

+

मदद आऩ...नहीॊ कयना चाहते हैं...

Use the formal 2nd person to address the system, without using the pronoun itself.

Replace +

प्रनतथथावऩत कयें

Use continuous verbs refer to system status, ongoing processes, etc.

Saving the file +

र्फाइर सहेजी जा यही है

25

In questions to the user about actions of the system, start the question with "

तमा

".

Save the file? +

तमा र्फाइर सहेजें?

The same solution (to start the question with "

तमा

") should be used when a question is phrased as a command to the user. When an option is phrased as a command to the user it should be used formal 2nd person

(imperative mood).

QUESTION

+

तमा अबी र्फाइर देखें?

View the file now

OPTION

+

अबी र्फाइर देखें.

The first person may be used for personalized creatures like the Office Assistant.

आऩ is the only form that can be used for “you” in written in Hindi.

English

You are now connected to the Internet.

Translation

अफ आऩ इॊटयनेट से कनेतट हैं.

Style

The style of writing should be simple and straight. There should be no confusion in the text. Hindi language should be written as it is written, rather than translating literally from the dictionary and on the basis of English sentences. It has been seen that there is an effort to copy the English style of making sentence.

English

If you delete the file, you will loose all data.

Translation

+

मदद आऩ र्फाइर हटाते हैं, तो आऩका साया डेटा नष्ट हो जाएगा।

-

मदद आऩ र्फाइर हटाते हैं, आऩ साया डेटा खो देंगे।

Voice

Avoid the impersonal as much as possible. Only in cases where the passive is used intentionally in English, i.e. the agent is not known or is not relevant, the term may be translated as impersonal in Hindi.

The message has been sent +

सॊदेश बेज ददमा गमा है.

26

Localization Guidelines

This section contains guidelines for localization into Hindi.

General Considerations

The following sections will provide a set of guidelines for handling different elements while localizing UI and user assistance content.

Please, make sure to always use current terminology and phrases for the product being localized by looking for the translations in the most recent version of the Microsoft terminology databases and other approved glossaries.

Consistent use of Microsoft approved terminology in all localized products is one of the major factors in achieving the required quality for localized products.

Abbreviations

Common Abbreviations

You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly on buttons or names of options) due to lack of space.

This can be done in the following ways:

In Hindi, there are no standardized abbreviations for words, so try to use the shortest available version of the word. Also, in the menus, try to use the imperative, to avoid longer words.

List of common abbreviations:

Commonly measuring units are abbreviated, such as

ककभी for KM, and ककग्रा for KG. meter kilometer centimeter millimeter gram kilogram

Liter

English

भीटय

ककरोभीटय

सेंटीभीटय

मभरीभीटय

ग्राभ

ककरोग्राभ

रीटय

Hindi (full) Hindi (abbrev.)

भी

कक.भी.

सें.भी.

मभ.भी.

ग्रा

कक.ग्रा./ ककरो

री

Some units of the International System of Units (usually these ones which are abbreviated as single capital letter) should be written in Latin, e.g. W (watt), V (volt), J (joule), Hz (hertz), kHz (kilohertz); other are written either in

Latin or Hindi, e.g. kg as

कक.ग्रा, cm as सें.भी. , etc.

27

Temperature is always measured using Celsius scale. All other temperature scales (e.g. Fahrenheit) must be recalculated into Celsius in the localized products.

The standard way to display temperature is:

x°С (x is the temperature, then goes the degree sign and then the capital Latin letter C, even in Hindi). Although in Hindi it may also be written as

सें (x is the temperature, then goes the degree sign and then

सें, the abbreviation in Hindi)

If the temperature is below zero, then the minus sign (

–) is displayed before the temperature. However, if the temperature is equal or above zero, the plus sign (+) is optional and is rarely used, e.g.

273°C, 0°C, 25°C

Information units

Units of information are often abbreviated. Always use the following:

English Hindi

KB

MB bit bit/s kB

MB bit bit/s

Accessibility

Localizers should use such a language that is simple, yet serious, easily understood, yet not cheap. Thats a tall order while translating, but then translating is a serious art. A software is used by all the segments of the society.

It should be easily understood by all! It does not mean that most of the words should be transliterated. If we focus enough, there are always simple word to translate anything. The best example is, as we all know, the song that nobody can say whether it was originally written in English or Hindi.

Example: We Shall overcome some day! O Deep in my heart! I do believe!

Translation:

हभ होंगे काभमाफ एक ददन! भन भें है विश्िास! ऩूया है विश्िास!

Acronyms

Acronyms are words made up of the initial letters of major parts of a compound term. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random

Access Memory).

Acronyms are generally not localized in Hindi.

28

Applications, Products, and Features

Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are tra demarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

There are no specific rules for Hindi regarding trade marking of the applications, product, and features.

Frequent Errors

There are many common errors that are found in software localization in Hindi. They include using I for computer,

Using verb form when creating titles, such as

र्फाइर को सॊऩाददत कयना instead of र्फाइर का सॊऩादन. Please note though, that opening a document will still be translated as

दथतािे़ि खोरना. Please see below some examples of frequent translation errors:

Example

Display unavailable

Sticking out your tongue (usually in fun)

Translation

+

प्रदशिन अनुऩरब्ध

-

अनुऩरब्ध को प्रदमशित कयें

+

जीब ददखाना (साभान्मत: भ़िाक भें)

-

आऩकी जीब को चचऩकाना (साभान्मत: भ़िाक भें)

(Here without considering the actual meaning intended of the sentence, the sentence has been translated with dictionary in hand.)

Glossaries

Microsoft glossaries are to be used for localization.

Fictitious Information

Fictitious content is legally sensitive material and as such cannot be handled as a pure terminology or localization issue.

Recurring Patterns

This section doesn’t apply to Hindi.

29

Standardized Translations

There are a number of standardized translations mentioned in all sections of this Style Guide. In order to find them more easily, the most relevant topics and sections are compiled here for you reference:

Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions

Verbs

Word Order

Style and Tone Considerations

Unlocalized Items

Trademarked names and the name Microsoft Corporation shouldn’t be localized. A list of Microsoft trademarks is available for your reference at the following location: http://www.microsoft.com/trademarks/t-mark/names.htm

.

There are no words in Hindi that are written the same way as in English. There are words though that should be transliterated in Hindi as they are commonly used by general public.

Using the Word Microsoft

In English, it is prohibited to use MS as an abbreviation for Microsoft.

The word Microsoft is to be left in English for the purpose of software localization.

Example: Microsoft

इसकी अनुभनत नहीॊ देता.

Software Considerations

This section refers to all menus, menu items, commands, buttons, check boxes, etc., which should be consistently translated in the localized product.

Refer to http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/aa511258.aspx

for a detailed explanation of the Windows user interface guidelines (English).

User Interface

Menu titles and menu items should be consistently translated in all localized products, the same US term should have identical translation in all localized applications.

When possible, try to use the following combinations of word classes in menus:

30

Menu title

A noun or deverbative noun

Menu items

A noun, deverbative noun or noun phrase

A noun, deverbative noun or

A noun or deverbative noun noun phrase

A noun or deverbative noun A verb

Example

On the Format menu: Font,

Change Case..., Styles and

Formatting...

On the Table menu: Insert,

Select, Sort..., Formula...

On the File menu: Close, Exit

The word classes of the US term and the localized term do not have to coincide, i.e. please do consider the possibility of translating a verb as a noun or vice versa, if that improves the result. Adjectives are used relatively rarely and adverbs only in exceptional cases.

Nouns and deverbative nouns should normally be in singular or plural nominative, verbs in informal 2nd person

(singular) imperative mood. Verb in menu items followed by an ellipsis or right arrowhead should also be translated as informal 2nd person (singular) imperative mood.

Menu titles should always contain only one word, since a two-word menu title would be undistinguishable from two single-word ones.

In Hindi, the word order should normally reflect the order of user actions, even if it doesn't in English.

Click Save in the File menu

+

र्फाइर भेनू ऩय सहेजें क्तरक कयें

क्तरक कयें र्फाइर भेनू ऩय सहेजें

The preferred action to be performed with menu titles and menu items is

चुनें

(select), even if the original ignores a similar recommendation given for English.

Click Save in the File menu

Select Save from the File menu

र्फाइर भेनू ऩय सहेजें क्तरक कयें

+

र्फाइर भेनू ऩय सहेजें चुनें

Messages

Status Messages

What is a Status Bar Message?

A status bar message is an informational message about the active document or a selected command as well as about any active or selected interface item. Messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the window when the user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. The status bar messages refer to actions being performed or already complete (for example in Outlook below).

31

Hindi Style in Status bar Messages

In English, the status bar messages have different forms dependent on the information they must convey. In

Hindi, menu and commands status bar messages should follow the format below.

In Hindi menu status bar messages and commands status bar messages differ as shown in the tables. When the message is a direct instruction, the imperative mode is used, formal for addressing the user and informal for the system. Periods are used at the end of sentences in status bar messages, if they are full sentences.

Name

Edit

Copy to

Folder...

New

Hindi Name

सॊऩादन

र्फो्डय भें प्रनतमरवऩ फनाएॉ

नमा

Category menu menu command

English Status Bar

message

Hindi Status Bar

message

Contains editing commands

इसभें सॊऩादन आदेश हैं

Copies the selected items to a new location

मह चमननत आइटभों की नए

थथान ऩय प्रनतमरवऩ फनाता है

Creates a new document

Make object visible?

Word is converting the document. Press Esc to stop.

Datasheet View

Done

नमा आदेश फनाता है

ऑब्जेतट दृश्म फनाएॉ?

Word

दथतािे़ि को रूऩाॊतरयत

कय यहा है। योकने के मरए Esc

दफाएॉ।

डेटाशीट दृश्म

ऩूणि

The importance of standardization

In the US product you can often find messages that are phrased differently even though they have the same meaning. Try to avoid this in the localized <Hindi> version. Use one standard translation as in the examples below:

English term

Press F1 to get Help

If you want Help press F1

Correct Hindi translation

भदद के मरए F1 दफाएॉ

32

To get Help press F1

Not enough memory

Insufficient memory

There is not enough memory

Save changes to %1?

Do you want to save changes to %1?

Error Messages

What Is An Error Message?

Here is an example:

अऩमािप्त भेभोयी

ऩरयितिनों को %1 भें सहेजें?

Error messages are messages sent by the system or a program, informing the user that there is an error that must be corrected in order for the program to keep running. For example, the messages can prompt the user to take an action or inform the user of an error that requires rebooting the computer.

Hindi Style in Error Messages

It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just translate as they appear in the US product.

The common error is using First Person Singular Number in Hindi for Error messages. As the concept of computer telling the user does not gel with the tone of the language, we cannot use the error message as if the computer is talking to the user. We should use passive voice instead for making such sentence.

Example

Cannot save the document.

Translation

+

दथतािे़ि सहेजा नहीॊ जा सकता

-

दथतािे़ि सहेज नहीॊ सकता

33

Standard Phrases in Error Messages

When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express the same thing.

Same here for Hindi, whatever the form the US is using, we should use passive voice in the error message as that is the proper Hindi way of instructing and informing. The computer talking in the first person just does not get

with the flow.

Examples:

English

Cannot …

Could not …

Failed to …

Failure of …

Translation

ककमा नहीॊ जा सकता

ककमा नहीॊ जा सका

...

कयने भें विपर

...

कयने भें विपरता

Example

इस र्फाइर को हटामा नहीॊ जा

सकता/सका

सहेजने भें विपर

Comment n/a

n/a

Cannot find …

Could not find …

Unable to find …

Unable to locate …

...

...

ढूॊढा नहीॊ जा सकता/सका

ढूॊढने भें असभथि

र्फाइर ढूॊढने भें असभथि n/a

Not enough memory

Insufficient memory

There is not enough memory

There is not enough memory available

ऩमािप्त भेभोयी नहीॊ है ऩमािप्त भेभोयी नहीॊ है

n/a

... is not available

... is unavailable

उऩरब्ध नहीॊ है

अनुऩरब्ध है

Error Messages Containing Placeholders

उऩरब्ध नहीॊ है

अनुऩरब्ध है

n/a

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase.

Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below:

%d, %ld, %u, and %lu means <number>

%c means <letter>

%s means <string>

34

Examples of error messages containing placeholders:

"Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!" means "Checking Web <number> of <number>".

"INI file "%1!-.200s!" section" means "INI file "<string>" section".

Same applies for Hindi also. A translator should first try to find out what exactly is the placeholder, because that will decide whether the sentence should use feminine form or masculine, or singular form or plural. The entire sentence may become wrong if this is not done.

Keys

The keyboard is the primary input device used for text input in Microsoft Windows. For accessibility and efficiency, most actions can be performed using the keyboard as well. While working with Microsoft software, you use keys, key combinations and key sequences.

In English, References to key names, like arrow keys, function keys and numeric keys, appear in normal text (not in small caps).

All keys used in Hindi are in their English format. There are no Hindi names given to the function keys or

any other keys.

Access Keys/Hot keys

Sometimes, there are underlined or highlighted letters in menu options, commands or dialog boxes. These letters refer to access keys (also known as hot keys) that allow you to run commands, perform tasks, etc. more quickly.

35

There are no Hindi specific Access Keys. English Keys apply.

Hot Key Special Options

"Slim characters", such as I, l, t, r, f can be used as hot key

Usage: Is It Allowed?

n/a

Characters with downstrokes, such as g, j, y, p and q can be used as hotkeys n/a

Extended characters can be used as hotkeys n/a

An additional letter, appearing between brackets after item name, can be used as hotkeys n/a

A number, appearing between brackets after item name, can be used as hotkey

A punctuation sign, appearing between brackets after item name, can be used as hotkey

Duplicate hotkeys are allowed when no other character is available n/a n/a n/a

No hotkey is assigned when no more characters are available (minor options only) n/a

Additional notes: n/a

Notes

n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Arrow Keys

The arrow keys move input focus among the controls within a group. Pressing the right arrow key moves input focus to the next control in tab order, whereas pressing the left arrow moves input focus to the previous control.

Home, End, Up, and Down also have their expected behavior within a group. Users can't navigate out of a control group using arrow keys.

Numeric Keypad

It is recommended that you avoid distinguishing numeric keypad keys from the other keys, unless it is required by a given application. In case which keys to be pressed is not obvious, provide necessary explanations.

36

Shortcut Keys

Shortcut keys are keystrokes or combinations of keystrokes used to perform defined functions in a software application. Shortcut keys replace menu commands and they are sometimes given next to the command they represent. In opposition to the access keys, which can be used only when available on the screen, shortcut keys can be used even when they are not accessible on the screen.

There are no Hindi specific shortcut keys.

English shortcut keys are used.

Standard Shortcut Keys

Hindi

Shortcut key

US

Command

US English

Shortcut Key

Hindi

Command

Help window

Cancel

F1

Context-sensitive Help Shift+F1

Display pop-up menu Shift+F10

Esc

Activate\Deactivate menu bar mode

Switch to the next primary application

F10

Alt+Tab

Display next window Alt+Esc

Display pop-up menu for the window

Alt+Spacebar

General Windows Shortcut keys

भदद

प्रसॊग सॊिेदी भदद

प्रदशिन ऩॉऩ-अऩ भेनू

यद्द कयें

भेनू फाय कोड सकक्रम/ननक्ष्क्रम कयें

अगरे प्राथमभक अनुप्रमोग ऩय जाएॉ

अगरी विॊडो ददखाएॉ

विॊडो के मरए ऩॉऩ-अऩ भेनू ददखाएॉ

सकक्रम चाइ्ड विॊडो के मरए ऩॉऩ-अऩ

भेनू ददखाएॉ

Display pop-up menu for the active child window

Alt+-

Display property sheet for current selection

Alt+Enter

Close active application window

Alt+F4

ितिभान चमन के मरए गुण ऩत्रक

ददखाएॉ

सकक्रम अनुप्रमोग विॊडो फॊद कयें

Switch to next window within (modelesscompliant) application

Alt+F6

Capture active window image to the Clipboard

Alt+Prnt Scrn

(

भोडयदहत-अनुऩारक) अनुप्रमोग के

बीतय अगरी विॊडो ऩय जाएॉ

सकक्रम विॊडो छवि को क्तरऩफोडि ऩय

कैप्चय कयें n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

37

US

Command

US English

Shortcut Key

Capture desktop image to the Clipboard

Prnt Scrn

Access Start button in taskbar

Ctrl+Esc

Ctrl+F6 Display next child window

Display next tabbed pane

Ctrl+Tab

Launch Task Manager and system initialization

Ctrl+Shift+Esc

File New

File Open

File Close

File Save

File Save as

File Print Preview

File Print

File Exit

Edit Undo

Edit Repeat

Edit Cut

Edit Copy

Edit Paste

Edit Delete

Edit Select All

Edit Find

Hindi

Command

Hindi

Shortcut key

डेथकटॉऩ छवि को क्तरऩफोडि ऩय कैप्चय

कयें

टाथकफाय भें प्रायॊब फटन ऩय जाएॉ n/a n/a

अगरी चाइ्ड विॊडो ऩय ददखाएॉ

अगरी टैब्ड ऩेन ददखाएॉ

कामि प्रफॊधक ि मसथटभ मसथटभ

इननमशमराइ़िेमशन प्रायॊब कयें

Ctrl+N

Ctrl+O

Ctrl+F4

Ctrl+S

F12

Ctrl+F2

Ctrl+P

Alt+F4

File Menu

र्फाइर नई

र्फाइर खोरें

र्फाइर फॊद कयें

र्फाइर सहेजें

र्फाइर इस रूऩ भें सहेजें

र्फाइर वप्रॊट ऩुनयािरोकन

र्फाइर वप्रॊट कयें

र्फाइर फाहय

Edit Menu

Ctrl+Z

Ctrl+Y

Ctrl+X

Ctrl+C

Ctrl+V

सॊऩादन ऩूििित कयें

सॊऩादन दोहयाएॉ

सॊऩादन काटें

सॊऩादन प्रनतमरवऩ फनाएॉ

सॊऩादन चचऩकाएॉ

Ctrl+Backspace

सॊऩादन हटाएॉ

Ctrl+A

Ctrl+F

सॊऩादन सफ चुनें

सॊऩादन ढूॊढें n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

38

US

Command

Edit Replace

Edit Go To

Help

US English

Shortcut Key

Ctrl+H

Ctrl+B

F1

Ctrl+I

Ctrl+G

Ctrl+U

Hindi

Command

सॊऩादन फदरें

सॊऩादन जाएॉ

Help Menu

भदद

Font Format

भदद

भदद

भदद

Hindi

Shortcut key n/a n/a n/a

Italic

Bold

Underlined\Word underline

Large caps

Small caps

Centered

Left aligned

Right aligned

Justified

Ctrl+Shift+A

Ctrl+Shift+K

Ctrl+E

Ctrl+L

Ctrl+R

Ctrl+J n/a n/a

Paragraph Format

केंदद्रत

फाएॉ सॊयेखखत

दाएॉ सॊयेखखत

सभामोक्जत n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Document Translation Considerations

Document localization may require some specific considerations that are different from software localization. This section covers a few of these areas.

While translating a document, the flow of the text and simple, clear language is necessary. Many times the words used are archaic and cannot be understood by common users. Sometimes, a sentence is literally translated using the format of English text. Instead, Hindi sentence should be written as Hindi is written and should not be based on English.

Example

You are about to exit the setup wizard

If you think I should, I guess I will

Translation

+

आऩ सेटअऩ वि़िाडि से फाहय ननकरने िारे हैं

-

आऩ सेटअऩ वि़िाडि से रगबग फाहय ननकरने िारे हैं

+

मदद आऩको रगता है कक भुझे मह कयना चादहए, तो

शामद भैं ऐसा ही करूॊगी

39

Example

Translation

-

मदद आऩका भानना है कक भैं ऐसा करूॊ तो, भैं आशा कयती

हूॊ कक भैं ऐसा करूॊगी

Titles

In English the titles for chapters usually begin with "How to …" or with phrases such as "Working with …" or

"Using …". In the Hindi version of Microsoft documentation, titles should generally be created using a noun instead of in verb format.

Example

Managing account

How to delete the information

Translation

+

खाते का प्रफॊधन

-

खाते को प्रफॊचधत कयना

+

जानकायी को कैसे हटाएॉ

-

जानकायी को हटाने की विचध

Copyright

Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated.

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