102B/`II
US 20130082935A1
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2013/0082935 A1
Duggan et al.
(54)
(43) Pub. Date:
DYNAMIC COMMAND PRESENTATION AND
KEY CONFIGURATION FOR KEYBOARDS
Apr. 4, 2013
Publication Classi?cation
(5 1) Int. Cl.
G06F 3/02
(75) Inventors: Finbarr Duggan, Bray (IE); Seung
(52)
Yang, Woodinville, WA (US); Gerrit
i/048
‘ ‘
Hofmeesters WOOdinV?1e’WA(US);
(2006.01)
(200601)
‘
_
USPC ......................................... .. 345/172, 715/773
Vasudha Chandrasekaran, Mountain
(57)
ABSTRACT
Techniques involving selective modi?cation of keyboard pre
sentation and functionality. A commanding mode is selec
View, CA (U S)
tively activated on a virtual keyboard. Activating the com
(73) Assignee: Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA
manding mode attributes commands to respective individual
(Us)
keys of the virtual keyboard. Also in response to the com
manding mode, indicia suggestive of the command is pre
sented on those individual keys to Which the commands Were
attributed. The commands can be executed in an application
(21) App1.No.: 13/249,258
(22) Filed:
in response to selection of the respective individual keys
When in commanding mode.
Sep. 30, 2011
100
COMPUTING APPARATUS
10
1’8
TOUCH-BASED KEY ENTRY MODULE
COMMANDING
MODE ACTIVATION
102B/‘II
KEY COMMAND
CONFIGURATION
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‘El; 120A
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KEYBOARD LAYOUT WITH
12
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120B COMMANDS
|
COMMAND
122
DISPLAY & USER INPUT
xxx/
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FUNCTION '\ 126
APPLICATION
106
/
Patent Application Publication
Apr. 4, 2013 Sheet 1 0f 7
US 2013/0082935 A1
100
COMPUTING APPARATUS
104 102
108
TOUCH-BASED KEY ENTRY MODULE
/
102E111
110
COMMANDING
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MODE ACTIVATION
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DISPLAY & USER INPUT
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FUNCTION \ 126
APPLICATION
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FIG. 1
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Apr. 4, 2013 Sheet 2 0f 7
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ATTRIBUTE COMMANDS TO RESPECTIVE f 302
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PRESENT INDICIA ON THE INDIVIDUAL KEYS OF THE VIRTUAL KEYBOARD TO
WHICH COMMANDS ARE ATTRIBUTED, IN RESPONSE TO ACTIVATION OF THE
COMMANDING MODE
306
V
ENABLE EXECUTION OF COMMANDS IN RESPONSE TO SELECTION OF THE
COMMANDS’ RESPECTIVE INDIVIDUAL KEYS WHEN IN COMMANDING MODE
FIG. 3
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LANGUAGE
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FIG. 7B
Patent Application Publication
Apr. 4, 2013 Sheet 6 0f 7
US 2013/0082935 A1
| PRESENT TOUICH KEYBOARD I\ 800
I
800 _/
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CONFIGURE BASED ON THE
APPLICATION BEING USED
CONFIGURE BASED ON THE
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DYNAMICALLY PRESENT ONE OR MORE COMMAND IDENTIFIERS ON ONE
OR MORE RESPECTIVE KEYS IN RESPONSE TO THE COMMANDING MODE
BEING ACTIVATED AND THE DETERMINED LANGUAGE
810
WHILE IN COMMANDING MODE, ASSOCIATE A COMMAND KEYSTROKE SEQUENCE
WITH EACH OF THE KEYS IN WHICH A COMMAND IDENTIFIER HAS BEEN PRESENTED
812
NO
KEY
HAVING COMMAND IDENTIFIER
TOUCH ED?
SEND COMMAND KEYSTROKE SEQUENCE RECOGNIZABLE
BY THE KEYBOARD STACK IN RESPONSE TO KEY WITH
THE COMMAND IDENTIER BEING TOUCHED
EXECUTE COMMAND IDENTIFIED BY THE TOUCHED
COMMAND IDENTIFIER AT THE APPLICATION
V
REVERT KEYS BACK TO DEFAULT FUNCTION
FIG. 8
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Apr. 4, 2013 Sheet 7 0f 7
US 2013/0082935 A1
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
DYNAMIC COMMAND PRESENTATION AND
KEY CONFIGURATION FOR KEYBOARDS
executed the instructions can recogniZe that the commanding
mode has been enabled by selection of the modi?er key, and
BACKGROUND
respective keys of the touch keyboard. The instructions can
recogniZe that a key that has a command identi?er presented
in response, can dynamically present command identi?ers on
[0001]
Physical keyboards and on-screen keyboard emula
tors may enable keyboard commanding, Which allows com
mands to be performed in an application by pressing a com
bination of keys or representations of such keys. For example,
holding a modi?er key (e.g. Ctrl) While concurrently pressing
a character or “shortcut” key can cause a command to be
performed. Such commands may be able to be accessed in
other Ways, such as via a graphical user interface (GUI) menu,
icon or other manner, Where keyboard commanding enables
commands to be reached by pressing key combinations.
[0002] Keyboard commanding may improve on GUI com
manding via mouse or on-screen commanding as no special
keys for commands are needed, as existing physical or on
screen keys can be utiliZed Without needing additional Work
ing space. Further, users do not need to remove their hands
on it has been selected, and in response, provide a series of
keystroke actions to a keyboard stack to carry out a command
identi?able by the command identi?er of the selected key.
The instructions may further disable the commanding mode
to return the touch keyboard to its state prior to enabling of the
commanding mode.
[0007]
This Summary is provided to introduce a selection
of concepts in a simpli?ed form that are further described
beloW in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not
intended to identify key features or essential features of the
claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit
the scope of the claimed subject matter.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
from the keyboard, Which may improve input e?iciency.
[0008]
[0003]
computing apparatus that incorporates virtual keyboard
Notwithstanding some bene?ts to keyboard com
manding, keyboard commanding systems suffer from a dis
coverability issue, Where keyboard shortcuts for commands
FIG. 1 is a block diagram depicting a representative
based commanding in accordance With the disclosure;
are dif?cult for users to discover and learn. In on-screen
[0009] FIG. 2 depicts an example in Which a command is
associated With and presented on a key in connection With a
environments, this may result in the use of dedicated on
commanding mode;
screen elements despite the availability of keyboard-based
commanding. Additionally, modi?er keys can serve various
purposes in physical keyboards that Would be inappropriate
or dif?cult in a keyboard optimiZed for touch, and leveraging
an input system designed for physical keyboards may there
[0010] FIG. 3 is a How diagram of an exemplary manner for
identifying command shortcuts on a virtual keyboard;
[0011]
FIG. 4 depicts another example for identifying com
mand shortcuts on a virtual keyboard;
[0012]
FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate representative keyboard
layouts that depict the dynamic command assignment and
command key identi?cation described herein;
fore be ineffective.
SUMMARY
[0004] Techniques involving selective modi?cation of key
board presentation and functionality. One representative
computer-implemented technique includes activating a com
manding mode on a virtual keyboard. Activating the com
manding mode attributes commands to respective individual
keys of the virtual keyboard. Also in response to the com
manding mode, indicia suggestive of the command is pre
sented on those individual keys to Which the commands Were
attributed. The representative technique further involves
enabling execution of the commands in a processor-imple
mented application in response to selection of their respective
[0013] FIG. 6 is a block diagram that illustrates examples of
adapting the shortcuts based on keyboard language When in
commanding mode ;
[0014] FIGS. 7A and 7B illustrate examples of implement
ing dynamic shortcut keys using system-level and applica
tion-level commands respectively;
[0015] FIG. 8 is a How diagram illustrating alternative
method features in connection With the command assignment
and descriptions; and
[0016] FIG. 9 depicts a representative computing system in
Which the principles described herein may be implemented.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
individual keys When in commanding mode.
[0005] Another representative implementation involves an
[0017]
apparatus that includes at least a touch-based keyboard and a
the accompanying draWings that depict representative imple
processor. The touch-based keyboard includes visually pre
mentation examples. It is to be understood that other embodi
ments and implementations may be utiliZed, as structural
sented keys. At least one of the keys is con?gured as a modi
?er key, and at least one of the other keys is con?gured as a
standard key to provide a ?rst function When selected. The
In the folloWing description, reference is made to
and/or operational changes may be made Without departing
from the scope of the disclosure.
processor is con?gured to recogniZe that the modi?er key has
[0018]
been selected, Which initiates a commanding mode. In
response to the commanding mode, the processor is con?g
ured to present command indicia on the standard key, and to
functionality. Often a physical keyboard is associated With a
computing system, such as a physical keyboard that connects
to a computer Wirelessly or by Way of cabling. Other user
recon?gure the standard key to provide, When selected, a
different function identi?able by the command indicia.
[0006] In yet another representative embodiment, com
puter-readable media having instructions stored thereon
visual presentations of keyboards, such as presented on a
display device, projected on a table or other surface (e.g.
projection keyboard), via surface computing, etc. The present
Which are executable by a computing system. The executable
instructions can present a touch keyboard, and provide a
selectable modi?er key on the touch keyboard that is con?g
ured to enable and disable a commanding mode. When
disclosure may be utiliZed in connection With any collection
of selectable indicia generally referred to herein as key
boards, that facilitate modi?able visual representations on at
least one of the selectable indicia (e.g. keys).
The disclosure is generally directed to keyboard
entry mechanisms involve virtual keyboards that provide
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
[0019] Computer-executed applications typically receive
items (eg “keys”) that are visually presented and that col
keyboard input such as characters and other input identi?ed
lectively provide a manner in Which user input can be
achieved.
by the key itself. However, applications often facilitate entry
of commands or functions that are not speci?cally associated
[0023]
With a designated key. For example, a function at an operating
commanding mode on a virtual keyboard. In one embodi
system level or application level may be invoked by pressing
ment, activating the commanding mode attributes commands
to respective keys of the virtual keyboard. Text, icons, images,
a series of keystrokes that serve as a “shortcut” forperforming
that function. An example is CTRL+C, Which can copy
selected information to an electronic clipboard although the
Techniques disclosed herein include activating a
colors, photos and/or other indicia may be presented on the
keyboard may not have a designated “copy” key. HoWever,
keys to Which commands Were attributed, in response to the
activation of the commanding mode. The commands can be
because such shortcuts involve a series of keystrokes that may
not be identi?ed on the keyboard, such keyboard command
particular keys. Thus, among other things, the techniques
executed by pressing or otherWise activating any of these
ing suffers from a discoverability issue. The keyboard short
described herein involve touch-based keyboards or other vir
cuts for commands are dif?cult for users to discover and
tual keyboards that incorporate a commanding mode Where
learn. Onscreen and other visually-presented keyboards
commands may be associated With individual keys. Text or
could present additional dedicated keys for additional com
mands, but this could result in an unacceptably large visual
other indicia is displayed on the appropriate key on the key
board, Which can identify the command(s) to be sent. In some
layout that may not signi?cantly alleviate discoverability dif
cases, a single key activation (e.g. press) on a virtual keyboard
?culties.
When in commanding mode can replicate multiple key
presses involved With physical keyboard shortcut commands.
Further, applications can provide text descriptions and/or
[0020]
Another representative problem involves the use of
virtual keyboards in input systems designed for physical key
boards. Applications may leverage an input system designed
for physical keyboards in their application of keyboard-based
commanding. Character entry solutions optimiZed for touch
other indicia for non-standard shortcuts that can be integrated
screens cannot share the same input architecture as traditional
into the keyboard, irrespective of the language the text is
provided in. Commands can be dynamically synchroniZed
With a particular keyboard layout. These and other represen
keyboards Without compromising their design, since modi?er
tative embodiments are described in greater detail beloW.
keys can serve many purposes in physical keyboards Which
Would be inappropriate in a keyboard optimiZed for touch. As
a result, soft keyboards and other virtual keyboards do not
provide commanding or require applications to expose com
manding in a neW Way.
[0021] The disclosure addresses these and other problems.
Discoverability problems are addressed by, for example, dis
playing descriptions, images, colors and/or other indicia of
the commands on the relevant shortcut keys When command
ing mode is engaged. As a result, no on-screen elements
[0024]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram depicting a representative
computing apparatus 100 that incorporates virtual keyboard
based commanding in accordance With the disclosure. The
computing apparatus 100 may represent, for example, a desk
top computer, laptop computer, mobile communication
device, smartphone or other mobile telephone, application
speci?c computing devices (eg hand-held signature devices,
scanners, etc.), or any electronic device capable of presenting
a virtual keyboard or other touch-based keyboard to accept
user input. The computing apparatus 100 may include a pro
Would need to be displayed Within the application. Issues
cessor (P) 102 and operating system (OS) 104, through Which
involving input systems designed for physical keyboards may
be addressed by utiliZing the existing commanding system.
applications and other functional modules may be executed.
[0025] In the illustrated embodiment, application 106 rep
resents a computer application that may utiliZe input from the
user by Way of a keyboard. The touch-based key entry module
108 represents an executable module that may operate in
connection With, or integrally With, an operating system 104.
The representative touch-based key entry module 108 of FIG.
1 facilitates activation of a commanding mode, visual alter
To avoid the modi?er issues described above With virtual
keyboards, a virtual modi?er key may be provided that oper
ates Within the scope of the virtual keyboard, and engages a
commanding mode rather than sending a modi?er key touch/
press event. Each shortcut key press on the touch keyboard or
other virtual keyboard can Wrap multiple key actions on the
traditional keyboard stack to achieve an analogous effect as if
using a modi?er based solution on a physical keyboard.
ation of a keyboard layout, and the user selection of a com
mand(s) using the altered keyboard layout. More particularly,
Accordingly, users can get physical keyboard commanding
the touch-based key entry module 108 of FIG. 1 includes a
that appears to behave as that of a physical keyboard, and
applications can get touch or other virtual keyboard com
commanding mode activation module 110, Which represents
manding Without involving any additional Work to be under
mode activation module 110 may be triggered through selec
taken. Users do not have to change their posture or move
tion of one or more selectable keys or other items on a ?rst
his/her hands aWay from the keyboard to a pointing device,
keyboard layout 112. The ?rst keyboard layout 112 may be
presented via the display and user input device 114, Which
and can more readily copy, paste and do other commands
Without having to recall a keystroke combination for each
command.
[0022] Various embodiments beloW are described in terms
of onscreen or touch keyboards. It should be recogniZed,
a manner of initiating a commanding mode. The commanding
represents a touchscreen or other onscreen or projected key
board. In one example, the commanding mode is activated by
pressing a single modi?er key 11 6 on the ?rst keyboard layout
112, although it could be activated by selecting multiple keys
or other user input items. In one particular embodiment, com
hoWever, that the description is applicable to any virtual key
board or other keyboard capable of con?gurably adapting
manding mode is activated by touching a control (CTRL) key
visual indicia on one or more keys of the collection of keys.
on the ?rst keyboard layout 112.
References to touch keyboards, touchscreens, onscreen key
boards, touch-based keyboards, virtual keyboards and the like
[0026] In another embodiment, the commanding mode
may be activated by Way of recogniZable triggering events,
is intended to broadly encompass collections of selectable
other than those involving a user’s manual selection. For
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
example, the disclosure contemplates various “smart” trig
[0029]
gers that can be based on one or more static and/ or dynamic
conditions that Would suggest that one or more command
tion module 110 causes the commanding mode to remain in
shortcuts may dynamically be presented on certain keys or
other UI mechanisms. As an example, the commanding mode
activation module 110 may recogniZe selection of text in a
document, and may dynamically provide the second key
board layout 122 that may include one or more commands
that can be used With selected text (e.g., “copy text” com
mand). As another example, using arroW keys could present a
second keyboard layout 122 that includes one or more navi
gational commands. As these examples suggest, While trig
gering of the modi?er mode may be effected via a particular
designated key(s), it can also be triggered in response to other
user actions that suggest that the commanding mode is to be
activated.
[0027]
Another representative trigger is a gesture(s) made
by a user via the UI. For instance, a touch gesture on a
touchscreen, touchpad or other touch-based mechanism to
scroll some direction in a document may provide a second
keyboard layout 122 that includes one or more navigational
commands (e.g., “go to beginning of document,” “go to end of
document,” etc.). Another example may be a touch gesture
In one embodiment, the commanding mode activa
effect, and consequently the second keyboard layout 122 to be
presented, until the modi?er key(s) 116 is no longer being
touched/ selected. In another embodiment, the modi?er key(s)
116 may be con?gured as a “sticky key,” Where it toggles on
and off upon each successive touch. By activating the com
manding mode in this manner, a user can be presented With an
altered keyboard vieW that shoWs available commands for
selection. Rather than having to remember shortcut combi
nations, the user can press the modi?er key(s) 116 to cause the
key command con?guration module 118 to temporarily con
?gure one or more keys as command shortcut keys, from
Which the user can make a command selection.
[0030] As noted above, one embodiment involves main
taining the commanding mode if the user continues to touch
the modi?er key 116, and is applied to all subsequent shortcut
key touches until the modi?er key 116 touch is removed. In
another embodiment, a sticky key can be used, Which Will
remain in effect until the modi?er key is pressed again to
deactivate the commanding mode. In yet another embodi
ment, the modi?ed mode can be invoked by touching the
modi?er key(s), and Without lifting, sliding to the desired
command shortcut key to invoke the action at the command
that suggests an attempt to expand or Zoom a document vieW,
shortcut key Where the sliding action stops. These examples
Where such touch gesture presents various document Zoom
are merely representative manners in Which the modi?er key
(s) may be used, and do not represent an exhaustive list. As
noted above, the commanding mode may so be invoked in
manners Where a modi?er key(s) is not used, but rather the
triggering is “smart” in that it recogniZes user actions, ges
tures or other inputs to invoke the commanding mode.
[0031] It should be noted that touch-based key entry mod
ule 108 and any associated modules may be executed using
softWare operable by a processor, such as the processor 102.
HoWever, a touch keyboard or other virtual keyboard may
have a dedicated processor(s) associated thereWith, such as
commands. As these examples reveal, any desired techniques
for triggering the commanding mode may be implemented,
including but not limited to manual selection via a user inter
face mechanism(s), indirect triggering via touch gestures,
automatic triggering through other user input such as text
selection, etc. Thus, it should be recognized that descriptions
involving any particular triggering technique are equally
applicable to other triggering techniques.
[0028]
When the commanding mode has been activated,
one or more keys on the presented keyboard change to serve
as shortcut keys for functions other than the default function
of those keys. For example, a key command con?guration
module 118 recogniZes that the commanding mode has been
activated, and con?gures one or more keyboard keys to serve
as command shortcuts While in commanding mode. In the
example of FIG. 1, the key command con?guration module
118 causes at least one key 120A to represent a command key
processor 102B. Unless otherWise noted, references to a pro
cessor as used herein refer to a processing module(s) Whether
a dedicated processor(s) 102B associated With a virtual key
board, touchscreen controller, system level processor(s) 102,
and/or other processor.
[0032] FIG. 2 depicts an example in Which a command is
associated With and presented on a key in connection With a
120B provided via a second keyboard layout 122 With com
commanding mode. The representative touch-based or virtual
mands. For example, the key 120A of the ?rst keyboard
keyboard 200 includes a plurality of visually presented keys
layout 112 may be a character key, such as a “C” key. When
(referred to generally herein as “keys”), including at least one
modi?er key 202A and at least one key 204A (referred to in
the modi?er key 116 is selected, the commanding mode acti
vation module 110 recogniZes that this modi?er key 116 has
been selected, and the key command con?guration module
118 presents a second keyboard layout 122 With the neW
command(s) displayed. In the present example, the second
keyboard layout 122 may be the same as the ?rst keyboard
layout 112, With the exception of added or changed informa
this example as a standard key) that is acted on as a result of
the modi?er key 202A being activated. In this example, prior
to the modi?er key 202A being activated by the user, the
standard key 204A represents the “S” character key. When the
modi?er key 202A is touched or otherWise selected, the func
tion associated With the standard key 204A changes in that it
tion on the key 120B relative to the original key 120A. As an
example, the “C” on the key 120A from the ?rst keyboard
Will noW cause a command to be sent to a keyboard handler
layout 112 may be changed to instead or additionally display
nal “S” character. In the illustrated embodiment, the modi?ed
a command, such as “copy” Which is a command to copy a
standard key 204B becomes associated With a “save” com
mand to save a document, Which is also Written or otherWise
identi?ed for the user on the modi?ed standard key 204B
selected portion of a document. When the key 120B is
selected by a user, the underlying command 124 is provided
to the application 106 (or OS 104, or other target) to perform
an associated function 126 for the application 106. For
example, if the command 124 represents a “copy” command,
text or other data selected in the application 106 Will be
copied, such as copied to a clipboard.
module or “keyboard stack” (not shoWn) rather than the origi
itself The modi?er key 202A may be touched and held, or the
modi?er key 202A may be con?gured as a toggle key that
remains activated until touched again.
[0033] While the text or other indicia (the Word “save” in
the current example) may be presented next to or otherWise
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
near the modi?ed standard key 204B, in one embodiment the
text/indicia is presented somewhere on the face of the modi
the commands that are noW available in response to activation
?ed standard key 204B When in commanding mode. Repre
sentative modi?ed standard key 204B depicts that the
descriptive indicia may be presented in addition to the origi
408 With command vieW may be presented as shoWn at block
nal function of the key, Which Was the character “S” in this
example. As the function of the key changes to the command
during commanding mode, one embodiment involves replac
ing the indicia on the key With only the command identi?er as
shoWn at key 204C. In yet another embodiment, other indicia
of the commanding mode. For example, a keyboard layout
410. In the illustrated embodiment, the keyboard layout 408
has changed such that the functions associated With a plural
ity of the keys has changed to noW represent a command
rather than a character. For example, the “W” key has changed
to depict a description of “close doc” that indicates that the
active document in the application Will be closed if the key
412 is selected. While the command “close doc” may be an
such as an image or icon may instead or additionally be
operating system-level command usable across multiple
presented on the key, as depicted by key 204D. In still other
embodiments, indicia such as that shoWn by any keys 204B,
corresponding to the active application being used With the
204C, 204D may be presented by ?rst softWare such as an
operating system. Where the commands are operating sys
tem-level commands, the commands associated With keys as
a result of entering commanding mode may be available
across multiple applications that run on the operating system.
[0034] Other indicia such as that shoWn by key 204E may
be presented by second softWare, such as by the application to
Which the command is being used. For example, the applica
tion may register commands that can be used With the appli
cation, key associations, and associated descriptive indicia.
When commanding mode is activated via the modi?er key
202A/202B, the application’s commands can be associated
applications, it may also be an application-speci?c command
virtual keyboard.
[0038]
In the illustrated embodiment, it is assumed that the
user has touched key 412, thereby selecting the shortcut key
exhibiting the desired command as depicted at block 414. In
response, block 416 illustrates an embodiment Where that the
sequence of keystrokes is provided that the application Would
recogniZe as the selected command if activated on a physical
keyboard. More particularly, in one embodiment, the
sequence of key manipulations is provided to a keyboard
stack 418 or other keyboard handling module that is other
Wise used for a hardWare keyboard, thereby obviating any
need to have a keyboard stack dedicated to the virtual key
With and described on keys, such as key 204E Which may use
application-speci?c text, an icon or image, and/ or other
board. For example, When the “Wiclose doc” key 412 is
pressed, a series of keystrokes shoWn at block 417 may be
descriptive indicia to identify the command associated With
the key 204E While in commanding mode.
delivered to cause the command to be executed at the appli
[0035] FIG. 3 is a How diagram of an exemplary manner for
identifying command shortcuts on a virtual keyboard. In this
example, a commanding mode is activated as shoWn at block
300. This may be accomplished in various manners, such as
by touching or otherWise selecting one or more keys of the
virtual keyboard. As shoWn at block 302, in response to acti
vation of the commanding mode, commands are attributed to
doWn press of the CTRL key Which serves as the modi?er key
in this example, a doWn press of the “W” key, a release of the
cation 422. This series of keystrokes may be, for example, a
“W” key, and a release of the CTRL key. Thus, pressing the
shortcut key 412 While in command mode essentially mimics
a series of keystrokes that Would be performed on a physical
keyboard to perform the command, thereby enabling the
same keyboard stack 418 to be used. In this manner, the
respective individual keys of the virtual keyboard. For
virtual keyboard emulates a physical keyboard, and the key
example, a “save” command may be attributed to the default
“S” key, a “copy” command may be attributed to the default
board stack 418 sees the input from the virtual keyboard the
“C” key, etc. When in commanding mode, indicia is presented
on the individual keys of the virtual keyboard to Which the
commands have been attributed, as shoWn at block 304. By
presenting the indicia on the keys themselves, a user can
easily identify the appropriate key to press in order to effect
same as if it had been received from a physical keyboard
Where the keystrokes are transmitted as they occur. The key
board stack 418 may be separate softWare operating in con
nection With the operating system 420, or alternatively may
be implemented as part of the operating system 420.
[0039] FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate a representative manner
for identifying command shortcuts on a touch keyboard. FIG.
the desired command. Block 306 indicates that commands
may be executed in response to selection of the commands’
5A illustrates a ?rst state or ?rst layout 500A of a virtual
respective individual keys When in commanding mode.
keyboard, Which is assumed to be a touch keyboard imple
[0036]
mented via a touchscreen in the illustrated embodiment. The
CTRL key 502A serves as the modi?er key that activates the
FIG. 4 depicts a more particular example for iden
tifying command shortcuts on a virtual keyboard. A standard
keyboard vieW 400 is ?rst presented, as depicted by the rep
resentative keyboard layout 402. Keyboard layout 402
depicts a portion of a standard QWERTY keyboard. In accor
dance With the disclosure, a modi?er key(s) 404 is selected as
shoWn at block 406. The modi?er key 404 may be a desig
nated or neW key on the keyboard layout 402, although in one
embodiment a key already on the keyboard layout 402 is used
as the modi?er key 404. For example, the control (CTRL) key
may be used as the modi?er key. In one embodiment, the
CTRL or other modi?er key 404 does not send any output, but
rather it changes the output sent by other keys. In other Words,
commanding mode in the illustrated embodiment. The ?rst
layout 500A of the touch keyboard represents a QWERTY
keyboard that includes character keys, including the character
keys identi?ed as keys 504A, 504A, 508A, 510A, 512A,
514A, 516A and 518A.
[0040]
When the modi?er key 502A is touched, the
embodiment of FIG. 5B illustrates that it may toggle and
remain selected, as depicted by toggled modi?er key 502B.
While the modi?er key is selected as depicted by toggled
modi?er key 502B, the commanding mode is activated. It
should be recogniZed that some embodiments do not involve
a toggle, and the user continues to touch the CTRL key 502B
in one embodiment it’s effect is to change the payload of the
character keys. This is described in greater detail beloW.
[0037] When the modi?er key 404 has been touched or
to remain in commanding mode. When commanding mode is
otherWise selected, the keyboard layout may change to re?ect
of the keyboard layout 500B. For example, What Was origi
activated, commands are presented on one or more of the keys
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
nally the character “A” key 504A becomes a shortcut key
The example above assumes that the language 602 is based on
504B With the command “select all” to select all text and/or
other information in an active application document. The
textual description “select all” 524 is also presented on or
Similarly, What Was originally the character “Z” key
the language installed on the keyboard 600, but the language
of the operating system 604 may alternatively be used as the
basis for the language selections.
[0046] Shortcut key commands may be associated With any
keyboard key, and not only character keys. In some embodi
ments, the modi?er key may be used in connection With
SHIFT keys, arroW keys, and/or other non-character keys to
506A becomes a shortcut key 506B With the command
perform shortcuts. For example, touching the modi?er key
“undo” to undo the last action(s) in the active application
document, and the text “undo” 526 is also presented. Similar
change are shoWn by shortcut keys 508B-518B and their
respective textual descriptions 528-538. As can be seen, acti
vation of the CTRL 502B key or other modi?er key(s) acti
vates commanding mode, Where available commands 524
jump a Word to the right in the application. In one embodi
ment, a description can be provided on the right arroW key to
indicate this command function When the modi?er key has
been selected. Similarly, the use of the modi?er symbol in
proximate the key 504B, to assist the user in knowing Which
key is to be touched in order to cause the “select all” command
to be issued to the application.
[0041]
538 are presented on shortcut keys 504B-518B. Selection of
any of these shortcut keys 504B-518B Will cause the respec
tive command to be provided to the application or other
targeted software.
[0042] Embodiments described herein relate to a system
Where an application can supply text and/or other indicia to
describe shortcuts that are not otherWise presented on the
keyboard, Which Will then be integrated into the keyboard
irrespective of language. Keyboard layouts may differ
depending on the language that is to be used, and selection of
a language or region may impact the presentation or layout of
the keyboard. In accordance With the disclosure, shortcut
identi?ers can be presented in the language of the installed
keyboard, and may also be presented on different keys for
different languages due to the shortcuts potentially being
associated With different keys. FIG. 6 is a block diagram that
illustrates examples of these features.
[0043] A virtual keyboard, such as the onscreen keyboard
(e.g. CTRL) and a right arroW key can cause the cursor to
combination With a plurality of subsequent keys may also
perform an appropriate function, such as a combination of
CTRL-SHIFT-ARROW Where ARROW represents either the
left or right arroW to select the Word in the direction of the
arroW from the position of the cursor. When the last key in the
sequence is touched, the Whole command sequence can then
be provided to the keyboard handling module, also referred to
herein as the keyboard stack, for processing and recognition
of the desired command.
[0047] Other embodiments account for content direction
based on language and the ability to provide shortcut keys to
change the direction. Most scripts are Written from left-to
right (LTR), although certain scripts (e.g. HebreW, Arabic,
etc.) are Written from right-to-left (RTL). Where Writing
incorporates characters from both Writing directions, the
Writing (and reading) order may change multiple times in a
single block of text. Thus, shortcut key combinations may be
used to change the Writing order direction. The disclosure
contemplates this by emulating a physical keyboard that can
600, can be adapted for language by installing the appropriate
use the commanding mode and one or more subsequent key
language 602 via the operating system 604. Depending on the
language of the keyboard, the shortcut descriptions and/or
other indicia presented on keys When in commanding mode
strokes to change the Writing direction. For example, in a ?rst
scenario Where no RTL languages are installed, When the
that the installed language 602 is English 606, and command
ing mode has been activated. A representative command for
“italics” 608 might then adapt a character key “I” 610A.
CTRL or other modify key is selected, the SHIFT keys can be
disabled. On the other hand, When a bi-directional language is
installed, the left and right shift keys can be modi?ed to LTR
and RTL When in commanding mode. In such case, the left
SHIFT key Will send CTRL+LEFTSHIFT to sWitch to LTR
When the mode key 612 has been touched or otherWise
Writing direction, and the right SHIFT key Will send CTRL+
selected, the key 610A is modi?ed to that shoWn by key 610B,
RIGHTSHIFT to sWitch to RTL Writing direction. The appro
priate direction may be indicated on the shortcut keys in
response to the modi?er key being selected. This embodiment
represents a conditional change, Where the key alteration is
dependent on Which keyboard language is installed. Other
may differ. In the embodiment of FIG. 6, it is ?rst assumed
Where the command “italics” is displayed on the key 610B. In
one embodiment the “I” key 610A is selected to ultimately
represent the shortcut key 610B, since a CTRL-I in a physical
keyboard toggles the italics feature. In this example, the
shortcut key 610B description of “italics” is presented in
English 606, as this is the language 602 that has been installed
for the onscreen keyboard 600.
[0044] It is next assumed that the installed language 602 is
Spanish 612, and commanding mode has been activated. A
representative command for “italics” 608, Which may corre
spond to “cursiva” in Spanish, might then adapt a character
key “C” 614A. When the mode key 612 has been touched or
otherWise selected, the key 614A is modi?ed to that shoWn by
key 614B, Where the command “cursiva” is displayed on the
key 614B. In this example, the shortcut key 614B description
of “cursiva” is presented in Spanish 612, as this is the lan
guage 602 that has been installed for the onscreen keyboard
600.
[0045] It should be recogniZed that the language 602 may
be determined based on, for example, the language of the
operating system 604 or the language of the keyboard 600.
conditional key/keyboard changes may also be implemented.
[0048]
As noted above, the shortcut key commands may be
system-level commands, application-level commands, etc.
FIGS. 7A and 7B illustrate examples of implementing the
dynamic shortcut keys using system-level and application
level commands respectively. Referring to FIG. 7A, multiple
applications 700, 702, 704 may execute under the control of
an operating system 706. In such an embodiment, the key
board con?guration 708 of shortcut descriptions 710 When in
commanding mode can be applied across each of the appli
cations 700, 702, 704. In other Words, Whether using appli
cation-A 700 or application-B 702, pressing the modi?er key
to activate commanding mode Will, in one embodiment,
present the same shortcut commands on designated keys of
the keyboard.
[0049] In another embodiment, the shortcut key commands
may be application-level commands, Where the applications
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
themselves or other source registers at least some information
for speci?c use With the respective application. FIG. 7B illus
trates such an example. Again, the applications 700, 702, 704,
and operating system 706 are utilized. In this example, each
sequence When the “C” key is touched When in commanding
mode. When a key associated With a dynamically presented
command identi?er is touched (or otherWise selected) as
determined at decision block 812, the command keystroke
of the applications 700, 702, 704 registers their commands
sequence that is recogniZable by the existing keyboard stack
and/or indicia 712, 714, 716 to be presented for these com
mands. In another embodiment, the commands themselves
is sent as shoWn at block 814. This embodiment assumes that
an existing keyboard stack, such as a keyboard stack used in
are operating system-level commands, but the descriptions
and/or other indicia are registered by each application 700,
having to create a different keyboard stack. In such a case, the
702, 704. In the illustrated embodiment, it is assumed that
each application 700, 702, 704 registers at least its oWn com
mands and corresponding shortcut descriptions or other indi
connection With a physical keyboard, is exploited Without
command keystroke sequence is provided to mimic that
Which Would be provided by a physical keyboard to produce
the same command for that application.
cia 712, 714, 716 to be presented When in commanding mode.
[0054]
In such case, each application can have an application-spe
identi?er may then be executed at the application as shoWn at
block 816. In one embodiment, the keys may revert back to
their default state as shoWn at block 818. For example, a key
that had been dynamically modi?ed to send a “copy” com
mand may revert to a “C” character key in response to a
ci?c keyboard con?guration 718, 720, 722 to identify short
cut commands When in commanding mode.
[0050] For example, application-A 700 may register com
mands and descriptive indicia 712 With the operating system
706. When the modi?er key is selected While using applica
tion-A 700, the application-speci?c commands and indicia
712 registered to application-A 700 may be presented to
provide keyboard con?guration-A 718. Similarly, applica
tion-B 702 may register commands and indicia 714 With the
operating system 706. When in commanding mode using
application-B 702 the application-speci?c commands and
indicia 714 may be presented to provide keyboard con?gu
ration-B 720. In this manner, keyboard layouts can be
dynamically changed based on the particular application,
Whereby applications having their oWn shortcut key combi
nations can be implemented.
[0051] FIG. 8 is a How diagram illustrating a representative
The command identi?ed by the touched command
command being sent, in response to the modi?er key being
toggle off or released, etc.
[0055] It should be recognized that the sequence of various
functions in How or block diagrams need not be in the repre
sentative order that is depicted unless otherWise noted. For
example, in FIG. 3, the order of blocks 302 and 304 does not
suggest that these features be performed in this order. Simi
larly, numerous functions associated With the How diagram of
FIG. 8 need not be performed in the order depicted, and such
depictions are merely for purposes of illustration.
[0056] FIG. 9 depicts a representative computing device or
apparatus 900 in Which the principles described herein may
be implemented. The representative computing device 900
method for facilitating command presentation and execution
can represent any computing device in Which a virtual key
that identi?es various possible features. A touch keyboard or
other virtual keyboard is presented as noted at block 800. As
board or other keyboard Where dynamic command assign
previously noted, the dynamic command presentation and
implementation may be con?gured on an application basis as
depicted at block 801, or may be con?gured based on the
operating system being used as depicted at block 802. In the
application-based embodiment, each application can provide
application-speci?c commands and command identi?ers that
can be presented When in commanding mode. In the operating
ment and presentation can be effected. The computing envi
ronment described in connection With FIG. 9 is described for
purposes of example, as the structural and operational disclo
sure for facilitating dynamic command assignment and pre
sentation is applicable in any environment in Which a key
board may be used for user input. It should also be noted that
the computing arrangement of FIG. 9 may, in some embodi
system-level commands and command identi?ers that can be
ments, be distributed across multiple devices (eg system
processor and display or touchscreen controller, etc.).
[0057] The representative computing device 900 may
used for multiple applications running on the operating sys
include a processor 902 coupled to numerous modules via a
tem.
system bus 904. The depicted system bus 904 represents any
type of bus structure(s) that may be directly or indirectly
system-based embodiment, the operating system can provide
[0052]
In the illustrated embodiment, the CTRL key is
touched to activate a commanding mode as shoWn at block
coupled to the various components and modules of the com
804, although any key(s) may be selected to do so in other
embodiments. Block 806 shoWs that a relevant language may
be determined, such as the language of the operating system
806A or the language of the keyboard installation 806B. The
puting environment. A read only memory (ROM) 906 may be
determined language may control or at least in?uence one or
more of the command descriptions used, the keys on Which
commands Will be presented, etc.
[0053] Based on the commanding mode being activated
and the language, one or more command identi?ers are
dynamically presented on one or more respective keys, as
provided to store ?rmWare used by the processor 902. The
ROM 906 represents any type of read-only memory, such as
programmable ROM (PROM), erasable PROM (EPROM), or
the like.
[0058] The host or system bus 904 may be coupled to a
memory controller 914, Which in turn is coupled to the
memory 912 via a memory bus 916. The command assign
ment and presentation embodiments described herein may
involve softWare that stored in any storage, including volatile
shoWn at block 808. For example, the command identi?er
storage such as memory 912, as Well as non-volatile storage
may be a textual description, icon or image that reveals or
devices. FIG. 9 illustrates various other representative storage
devices in Which applications, modules, data and other infor
mation may be temporarily or permanently stored. For
example, the system bus 904 may be coupled to an internal
storage interface 930, Which can be coupled to a drive(s) 932
suggests the command, etc. Block 810 indicates that in addi
tion to presenting a command identi?er, a command key
stroke sequence is associated With each of the keys in Which
a command identi?er has been presented. For example, a “C”
key may become associated With a CTRL+C keystroke
such as a hard drive. Storage 934 is associated With or other
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
Wise operable With the drives. Examples of such storage
include hard disks and other magnetic or optical media, ?ash
data includes commands and command descriptions. For
example, Where the application(s) 968 provide application
memory and other solid-state devices, etc. The internal stor
speci?c commands and descriptions, such data may be stored
age interface 930 may utiliZe any type of volatile or non
as shoWn at block 976. System-level commands and/or
volatile storage.
descriptions 978 may alternatively or additionally be stored
[0059] Similarly, an interface 936 for removable media
may also be coupled to the bus 904. Drives 938 may be
coupled to the removable storage interface 936 to accept and
act on removable storage 940 such as, for example, ?oppy
for commands and descriptions that can be applied to mul
tiple applications 968, such as those applications conforming
hard disks, etc. In some cases, a host adaptor 942 may be
to common operating system 962 commands. Keystroke
command sequences 980 to be assigned to shortcut keys When
in commanding mode may also be stored. These modules and
data are depicted for purposes of illustration, and is not
provided to access external storage 944. For example, the host
adaptor 942 may interface With external storage devices via
intended to represent an exhaustive list. Any programs or data
described or utiliZed in connection With the description pro
small computer system interface (SCSI), Fibre Channel,
serial advanced technology attachment (SATA) or eSATA,
and/or other analogous interfaces capable of connecting to
vided herein may be associated With the storage/memory 960.
[0063] The computing device 900 includes some visual
mechanism to present the virtual keyboard(s) 990 described
herein. A particular example of a virtual keyboard is a touch
disks, optical disks, memory cards, ?ash memory, external
external storage 944. By Way of a netWork interface 946, still
other remote storage may be accessible to the computing
device 900. For example, Wired and Wireless transceivers
associated With the netWork interface 946 enable communi
cations With storage devices 948 through one or more net
Works 950. Storage devices 948 may represent discrete stor
age devices, or storage associated With another computing
system, server, etc. Communications With remote storage
devices and systems may be accomplished via Wired local
area netWorks (LANs), Wireless LANs, and/or larger net
Works including global area netWorks (GANs) such as the
Internet.
[0060]
The computing device 900 may transmit and/or
screen 992, Which may utiliZe the processor 902 and/or
include its oWn processor or controller C 994. Other displays
996 may be used as a virtual keyboard 990, such as a projected
keyboard.
[0064] As previously noted, the representative computing
device 900 in FIG. 9 is provided for purposes of example, as
any computing device having processing capabilities can
carry out the functions described herein using the teachings
described herein.
[0065] As demonstrated in the foregoing examples,
embodiments described herein facilitate dynamic command
assignment and command identi?cation on a keyboard When
receive information from external sources, such as to obtain
a commanding mode has been initiated. In various embodi
keyboard con?gurations, dynamic command key assign
ments, methods are described that can be executed on a com
ments and command identi?ers based on language, etc. Com
munications betWeen the device 900 and other devices can be
puting device(s), such as by providing softWare modules that
effected by direct Wiring, peer-to-peer netWorks, local infra
are executable via a processor (Which includes one or more
structure-based netWorks (e.g., Wired and/or Wireless local
physical processors and/ or logical processors, controllers,
etc.). The methods may also be stored on computer-readable
area netWorks), off-site netWorks such as metropolitan area
media that can be accessed and read by the processor and/or
netWorks and other Wide area netWorks, global area netWorks,
etc. A transmitter 952 and receiver 954 are shoWn in FIG. 9 to
circuitry that prepares the information for processing via the
processor. For example, the computer-readable media may
depict a representative computing device’s structural ability
include any digital storage technology, including memory
to transmit and/ or receive data in any of these or other com
912, storage 934, 940, 944, 948 and/or any other volatile or
non-volatile storage, etc.
munication methodologies. The transmitter 952 and/or
receiver 954 devices may be stand-alone components, may be
integrated as a transceiver(s), may be integrated into or
already-existing part of other communication devices such as
the netWork interface 946, etc.
[0061]
The memory 912 and/or storage 934, 940, 944, 948
may be used to store programs and data used in connection
[0066] Any resulting program(s) implementing features
described herein may include computer-readable program
code embodied Within one or more computer-usable media,
thereby resulting in computer-readable media enabling stor
age of executable functions described herein to be performed.
As such, terms such as “computer-readable medium,” “com
With the dynamic command assignment and presentation
techniques described herein. The storage/memory 960 repre
puter program product,” computer-readable storage, com
sents What may be stored in memory 912, storage 934, 940,
944, 948, and/or other data retention devices. The represen
tative device’s storage/memory 960 may include an operating
system 962. Associated With the operating system 962, or
separate therefrom, softWare modules may be provided for
performing functions associated With the description herein.
For example, a commanding mode activation module 970 and
herein are intended to encompass a computer program(s)
key command con?guration module 972 as described in con
With a computer-readable medium having instructions stored
thereon. Therefore, unless otherWise noted, references to
nection With FIG. 1 may be provided integrally or separately
from the operating system 962. A keyboard stack 974 or other
keyboard handling program as previously described may also
puter-readable media or analogous terminology as used
existent temporarily or permanently on any computer-usable
medium.
[0067]
Having instructions stored on computer-readable
media as described herein is distinguishable from instructions
propagated or transmitted, as the propagation transfers the
instructions, versus stores the instructions such as can occur
computer-readable media/medium having instructions stored
thereon, in this or an analogous form, references tangible
be provided.
media on Which data may be stored or retained.
[0062] The device storage/memory 960 may also include
data 966, and other programs such as the application pro
grams 968 that receive the user input via the keyboard. Such
[0068] Although the subject matter has been described in
language speci?c to structural features and/or methodologi
cal acts, it is to be understood that the subject matter de?ned
Apr. 4, 2013
US 2013/0082935 A1
in the appended claims is not necessarily limited to the spe
ci?c features or acts described above. Rather, the speci?c
features and acts described above are disclosed as represen
tative forms of implementing the claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
activating a commanding mode on a virtual keyboard,
Which attributes commands to respective individual
keys of the virtual keyboard;
presenting indicia on the individual keys to Which com
mands are attributed in response to the activation of the
commanding mode; and
enabling execution of the commands in a processor-imple
mented application in response to selection of their
respective individual keys When in commanding mode.
2. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, Wherein
enabling execution of the commands comprises initiating
delivery of a series of keystroke actions for the respective
command to a keyboard handler module in response to the
selection of the respective individual key When in command
ing mode.
3. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, Wherein
presenting indicia on the individual keys to Which commands
are attributed comprises presenting indicia in a language to
Which the virtual keyboard is con?gured.
4. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, Wherein
presenting indicia on the individual keys to Which commands
are attributed comprises presenting indicia in a language of an
operating system on Which the processor-implemented appli
the commanding mode to present command indicia on
the standard key, and to recon?gure the standard key to
provide a second function identi?able by the command
indicia When selected.
12. The apparatus of claim 11, Wherein the processor is
con?gured to provide the second function by sending a com
mand in response to selection of the recon?gured standard
key When in the commanding mode.
13. The apparatus of claim 12, further comprising a data
retention device con?gured to store a series of keystroke
actions for the command, and to send the series of keystroke
actions in response to the recon?gured standard key being
selected.
14. The apparatus of claim 12, further comprising a data
retention device con?gured to store at least the command
indicia as provided by an application to Which the command
is provided, and Wherein the processor is con?gured to
present the command indicia provided by the application
When in commanding mode.
15. The apparatus of claim 12, Wherein the processor is
con?gured to present the command indicia as at least text that
identi?es the command that is sent in response to selection of
the recon?gured standard key When in the commanding
mode.
16. The apparatus of claim 12, Wherein the processor is
con?gured to present the command indicia as at least an
image that identi?es the command that is sent in response to
selection of the recon?gured standard key When in the com
cation executes.
manding mode.
5. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, Wherein
activating the commanding mode to attribute commands to
thereon Which are executable by a computing system for
respective individual keys comprises changing a default func
tion attributed to the individual keys to the respective com
mands in response to activating the commanding mode.
6. The computer-implemented method of claim 5, further
comprising reverting the individual keys back to their default
function after any of the commands is initiated in response to
its respective individual key being selected While in com
manding mode.
7. The computer-implemented method of claim 5, further
comprising reverting the individual keys back to their default
function in response to deactivation of the commanding
mode.
8. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, further
comprising activating the commanding mode by selecting at
least one predetermined key, and further comprising deacti
vating the commanding mode by again selecting the at least
one predetermined key.
9. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, Wherein
the processor-implemented application provides the com
mands and corresponding indicia.
10. The computer-implemented method of claim 1, further
comprising activating the commanding mode With a smart
trigger that recogniZes certain user input as a trigger to acti
vate the commanding mode.
11. An apparatus comprising:
a touch-based keyboard comprising a plurality of visually
presented keys, Wherein at least one of the keys is con
?gured as a modi?er key, and Wherein at least one of the
other keys is con?gured as a standard key to provide a
?rst function When selected; and
a processor con?gured to recogniZe selection of the modi
?er key to enter a commanding mode, and in response to
17. Computer-readable media having instructions stored
performing functions comprising:
presenting a touch keyboard;
providing a selectable modi?er key on the touch keyboard
con?gured to enable and disable a commanding mode;
recogniZing that the commanding mode has been enabled
by selection of the modi?er key, and in response,
dynamically presenting one or more command identi?
ers on one or more respective keys of the touch key
board;
recogniZing that one of the keys having the command iden
ti?ers presented thereon has been selected, and in
response, providing a series of keystroke actions to a
keyboard stack to carry out a command identi?ed by the
command identi?er of the selected one of the keys; and
disabling the commanding mode to return the touch key
board to its state prior to enabling of the commanding
mode.
18. The computer-readable media as in claim 17, Wherein
the instructions for dynamically presenting one or more com
mand identi?ers on one or more respective keys comprise
instructions for dynamically presenting the one or more com
mand identi?ers in a language installed on the touch key
board.
19. The computer-readable media as in claim 17, Wherein
the instructions for dynamically presenting one or more com
mand identi?ers on one or more respective keys comprise
instructions for dynamically presenting the one or more com
mand identi?ers in a language of an operating system running
an application utiliZing the touch keyboard.
20. The computer-readable media as in claim 17, Wherein
the instructions for providing a selectable modi?er key on the
US 2013/0082935 A1
touch keyboard comprise instructions for providing a CTRL
key that is con?gured to enable and disable the commanding
mode.
Apr. 4, 2013
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