6.2 What are Monet Screens?

6.2 What are Monet Screens?
XXX
Screening on the Esko-Graphics
FlexRip
Version 1.0
HADW
12 07 2004
© Copyright 2004 Esko-Graphics, Gent, Belgium
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................
i
1 Concepts ........................................................................................................................
6
1.1 General information on screening..........................................................
1.2 Esko-Graphics screening technology.....................................................
1.2.1 Esko-Graphics pre-calculated Screens ....................................
1.2.2 Esko-Graphics on-the-fly calculated Screens .........................
1.2.3 When to use pre-calculated or on-the-fly calculated
Screens?........................................................................................
6
6
6
7
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2 What’s new in FlexRip v5.2?.......................................................................................
9
3 Esko-Graphics Classic Screens ...................................................................................
10
3.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................
3.2 Angle support ...........................................................................................
3.3 Dot shape support....................................................................................
3.3.1 Fogra-Round dots ......................................................................
3.3.2 Circular dots ...............................................................................
3.3.3 Elliptical dots .............................................................................
3.3.4 Helio dots ..................................................................................
3.3.5 Square dots .................................................................................
3.3.6 Eccentric dots .............................................................................
3.3.7 Rugby dots ..................................................................................
3.4 Ruling support..........................................................................................
3.4.1 Ruling and dot shape support for the offset angle class.......
3.4.2 Ruling and dot shape support for the flexo angle class........
3.5 How to select the right angles for each ink? .........................................
3.6 Screen registration....................................................................................
3.7 Maximum number of Screens per job....................................................
3.8 Intensity accuracy.....................................................................................
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15
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4 Classic Screens special dot shapes .............................................................................
21
4.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................
4.2 Helio dots ..................................................................................................
4.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................
4.2.2 Two types of helio dots .............................................................
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4.2.3 How to use helio dots ? .............................................................
4.3 Eccentric dots ............................................................................................
4.3.1 Advantages of eccentric dots....................................................
4.3.2 Selection of eccentric dots .........................................................
4.3.3 Form of the eccentric dot...........................................................
4.3.4 Available angles .........................................................................
4.3.4.1 Flexo angles ..................................................................
4.3.4.2 Offset angles .................................................................
4.3.5 Available rulings ........................................................................
4.3.6 Rosette formation .......................................................................
4.4 Rugby dots ................................................................................................
4.4.1 Dot quality ..................................................................................
4.4.2 Ruling support............................................................................
4.4.3 Other angles than flexo and offset angles...............................
4.5 Rosette Screens .........................................................................................
4.5.1 Form of the rosette screen .........................................................
4.5.2 Selecting the rosette screen .......................................................
4.5.3 Screening velocity ......................................................................
4.5.4 Angle support.............................................................................
4.5.5 Ruling support............................................................................
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5 HighLine Screens .........................................................................................................
35
5.1 What are highline Screens? .....................................................................
5.2 What do you need for highline Screens?...............................................
5.3 Installing HighLine Screens ....................................................................
5.4 Using HighLine Screens ..........................................................................
5.4.1 Warning.......................................................................................
5.4.2 Selecting highline Screens.........................................................
5.4.3 Dot shape support......................................................................
5.4.4 Ruling and angle support .........................................................
5.4.4.1 Offset angles .................................................................
5.4.4.2 Flexo angles ..................................................................
5.4.5 Colors and angles for the offset process .................................
5.5 Guidelines for choosing the right ruling...............................................
5.6 Using 30 and 60 degree angles ...............................................................
5.6.1 Put yellow on 30 or 60 degrees.................................................
5.6.2 Use 30 or 60 degrees for C,M or K ...........................................
5.6.3 Use 30 or 60 degrees for special colors....................................
5.7 Managing color with highline Screens ..................................................
5.7.1 Calibrating your device for highline Screens .........................
5.7.2 Dot gain compensation with IntelliCurve ..............................
5.7.3 Highlight treatment ...................................................................
5.7.4 Color management.....................................................................
5.8 Comparison between highline Screens and stochastic screening......
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5.9 Frequently asked questions ....................................................................
5.10 Troubleshooting .....................................................................................
5.10.1 RIP errors...................................................................................
5.10.2 Printing artifacts.......................................................................
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6 Esko-Graphics Monet Screens ....................................................................................
53
6.1 General information.................................................................................
6.2 What are Monet Screens? ........................................................................
6.2.1 General properties .....................................................................
6.2.2 Fields of application...................................................................
6.2.3 Performance ................................................................................
6.2.4 Equivalent rulings and angles..................................................
6.2.5 Second order Monet Screens (“Monet for Flexo”).................
6.2.6 Step by step instructions for using Monet Screens................
6.2.6.1 First or second order Monet Screens ........................
6.2.6.2 Whole job or specific places........................................
6.2.6.3 Selecting rulings and angles .......................................
6.2.6.4 What is a good choice for the dot size and
equivalent ruling ? .......................................................
6.2.6.5 Further recommendations ..........................................
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7 SambaFlex Screens .......................................................................................................
67
7.1 The difference between SambaFlex Screens and Samba Screens.......
7.2 What are SambaFlex Screens?.................................................................
7.3 Advantages of SambaFlex Screens.........................................................
7.4 Mastering the transition ..........................................................................
7.4.1 Seven transition points for every resolution ..........................
7.4.2 How to select the transition point? ..........................................
7.4.3 The problem of too many dot sizes .........................................
7.5 SambaFlex Screens and flexography .....................................................
7.5.1 Dot gain and printing stability .................................................
7.5.2 Printing stability advantages for the flexo process................
7.5.3 SambaFlex Screens and Cyrel Digital Imager ........................
7.5.3.1 How does CDI improve the results of SambaFlex
Screens? .........................................................................
7.5.3.2 What can SambaFlex Screens do that CDI does
not allow doing?...........................................................
7.5.3.3 Conclusion ....................................................................
7.5.3.4 How to select the minimum dot size with CDI?......
7.5.4 Good starting points for minimum dot sizes .........................
7.5.5 Relation between SambaFlex Screens and anilox
properties.....................................................................................
7.5.6 SambaFlex Screens and IntelliCurve .......................................
7.6 SambaFlex Screens and silk screen printing .........................................
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7.6.1 Advantages for the silk screen process ...................................
7.6.2 Good starting points for minimum dot sizes .........................
7.7 Technical information..............................................................................
7.7.1 Rosette formation .......................................................................
7.7.2 Dot shape and screen angles ....................................................
7.8 SambaFlex Screens versus other advanced screening techniques.....
7.8.1 SambaFlex versus Hybrid Screening.......................................
7.8.1.1 Hybrid screening is a mixture of stochastic and
conventional screening................................................
7.8.1.2 The transition between the classic and the
stochastic Screens.........................................................
7.8.1.3 A gradual transition between stochastic and
classic Screens (cfr. SambaFlex Screens) ...................
7.8.1.4 Conclusions...................................................................
7.8.2 SambaFlex versus FM Classic screening.................................
7.9 Frequently asked questions ....................................................................
7.9.1 Selecting both dot size and transition point ...........................
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8 Groovy Screens.............................................................................................................
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8.1 What are groovy Screens? .......................................................................
8.2 Advantages of groovy Screens ...............................................................
8.3 Groovy screen software...........................................................................
8.4 Parameters of the groovy Screens ..........................................................
8.5 Standard groovy Screens.........................................................................
8.5.1 Groovy dot shapes .....................................................................
8.5.2 Ruling and angles.......................................................................
8.6 Optimizing solid rendering ....................................................................
8.7 Different ways of using Groovy Screens...............................................
8.7.1 Solids only...................................................................................
8.7.2 Vignettes and contones .............................................................
8.8 The Screen Manager application ............................................................
8.9 Using groovy Screens in FlexoPerfection..............................................
8.10 Groovy Screens limitations on Flexrip v5.1 ........................................
8.11 Side effect of installing Groovy Screens ..............................................
8.12 Feedback ..................................................................................................
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9 Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens..............................................................................
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9.1 What are Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens ? ......................................
9.2 How to select PostScript Screens?..........................................................
9.3 Supported rulings.....................................................................................
9.4 Supported angles......................................................................................
9.5 Angle and ruling accuracy ......................................................................
9.6 When to use PostScript Screens ?...........................................................
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10 Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens ..............................................................................
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10.1 What are Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens ? ......................................
10.2 How to select Dynacell Screens ? .........................................................
10.3 Supported dot shapes ............................................................................
10.4 Supported rulings...................................................................................
10.5 Supported angles....................................................................................
10.6 What rulings to select to avoid moiré ? ...............................................
10.7 What angles to select to avoid moiré ? ................................................
10.8 Angle and ruling accuracy ....................................................................
10.9 When to use Dynacell Screens ? ...........................................................
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Index .................................................................................................................................
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1
Concepts
1.1 General information on screening
This section is intended to refresh some general concepts of screening.
however does not solve complete lack of knowledge of the screening process.
It
Some terms used in screening
Screen ruling: The number of screen dots per inch or per centimeter. Expressed
in lines per inch (LPI) or lines per centimeter. Throughout this manual, we
always use lines per inch. The screen ruling is sometimes also called screen
frequency or lineature
Screen angle: The angle under which the screen dots are positioned in a
conventional screen. Screen angles are measured in degrees. Esko-Graphics
classic Screens are measured from 0 degrees at the horizontal axis and measured
clockwise (except for Dynacell Screens).
Imagesetter resolution: The number of imagesetter pixels per inch (ppi or dpi).
The imagesetter resolution is typically a lot bigger than the screen ruling.
Popular imagesetter resolutions are 2000,2400,2540 ppi.
1.2 Esko-Graphics screening technology
On the FlexRip, there is a clear distinction between 2 different screening
technologies:
• Esko-Graphics pre-calculated Screens
• Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
1.2.1 Esko-Graphics pre-calculated Screens
Pre-calculated means that the aspect, the form, the rulings and the angles of the
screen are pre-defined in the Esko-Graphics screening labs. These Screens are
the result of advanced engineering work. The Screens are optimized for a
smooth aspect, good behavior on the different printing processes, lack of artifacts
etc. Furthermore, the Screens are designed following a system of screen angles
that avoids moiré between the main colors (cyan, magenta and black).
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Concepts
The use of pre-calculated Screens allows to support advanced screening features
like stochastic screening (Monet Screens), transitional screening (Samba Screens)
and flexo optimization effects like Groovy Screens and MicroLight Screens.
Pre-calculated Screens have only one disadvantage: since these Screens have
been designed and tested one by one, there is only a limited number of precalculated Screens. Although the total number exceeds 2000 different screen
ruling/angle/dot shape combinations, it is very well possible that no precalculated screen is close enough to a customer's wish. This happens specifically
when other angles than flexo or offset angles are demanded.
Esko-Graphics pre-calculated Screens with conventional screen patterns are
called Esko-Graphics Classic Screens.
1.2.2 Esko-Graphics on-the-fly calculated Screens
Esko-Graphics on-the-fly calculated Screens don’t have the limitation of a limited
set of available rulings and angles. This is reached through on-the-fly calculation
of the screening pattern.
The Screens are calculated during the RIP process based on the precise ruling,
angle and dot shape definition. Since this process happens in the RIP black box
just before exposure, the result of this calculation has never been watched or
optimized by an Esko-Graphics engineer. As a result, these Screens can have a
lower quality than the pre-calculated Screens.
Two kinds of on-the-fly calculated Screens exist:
• Dynacell Screens: These use the dot shapes of the Esko-Graphics Classic
Screens. All rulings and angles are possible. When angles are chosen 30
degrees apart and rulings are chosen identical, Dynacell guarantees lack of
moiré effects. Dynacell is available for the PostScript/PDF channel and for
the Esko-Graphics native channel. This last feature is new in FlexRip v5.2.
Dynacell Screens are sold as an option.
• PostScript Screens: These use the dot shapes as defined in the PostScript or
PDF file. These Screens guarantee full compatibility with the Adobe standard.
They are available through the PostScript/PDF channel only. Quality is
typically lower than with Dynacell or Classic Screens, because the dot shapes
are less well formed and because no moiré-preventing methods are applied.
PostScript Screens are a standard feature of the FlexRip’s PostScript channel
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Concepts
1.2.3 When to use pre-calculated or on-the-fly calculated Screens?
Most of the time, films or plates are made with flexo or offset angles.
Since the ruling support for flexo and offset angles is very elaborate, it is normal
to use pre-calculated Screens. Quality is guaranteed over the complete range of
the ruling scale.
When other angles than flexo or offset angles are demanded, you can start using
on-the-fly calculated Screens. For lower rulings (think of silk screen printing),
quality is mostly very acceptable. Only for higher rulings (135 lpi and higher),
quality can become a problem. The artifacts you can encounter are patterns and
lines. Also dot gain can become less under control.
Example
Suppose you want to output at 30 degrees, round dots, 60 lpi at 2000 dpi. The closest
screen to 30 degrees in pre-calculated Screens is 37 degrees (a flexo angle). 37 degrees is
too far from 30 degrees to be used as a true 30-degree screen. On-the-fly calculated
Screens will generate a precise 30 degree screen at 60 lpi. Since 60 lpi is a lower ruling,
quality will be OK.
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What’s new in FlexRip v5.2?
• Dynacell Screens are available through the Esko-Graphics native channel. In
FlexRip v5.1, Dynacell Screens were only available though the
PostScript/PDF channel
• Offset angle Screens can have different rulings and slightly different dot
shape aspects. This is further explained in a separate paragraph.
• HighLine Screens are now fully integrated (no special installation CD
needed). HighLine Screens are a rename of the extended offset screening set.
• Support for Groovy Screens (option)
• Support for MicroLight Screens (option)
• Availability of some advanced features for Dynacell Screening
• EskoCal imagesetter calibration. This is specifically interesting for offset CTP
devices. Film imagesetters can still be calibrated with the conventional
gamma compensation or you can switch to EskoCal calibration
• Support for advanced IntelliCurve features
• Better feedback on the really used screen rulings (most of this was introduced
through a service pack on FlexRip v5.1)
• Screen Filter, allowing to replace PostScript Screens with Esko-Graphics
precalculated Screens or by other PostScript Screens. (See dedicated Screen
Filter documentation on the Doc and Tools CD-Rom
• Serious update of the documentation
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.1 Introduction
Esko-Graphics Classic Screens is a precalculated screening technology. This
means that the Screens are calculated in the Esko-Graphics engineering
laboratory. The result of this calculation is put in screening files, which reside on
the screening directory of your FlexRip. Putting the files there is done through
the Screens installation. Not all files are put on the screening directory: only a
selection is made based on the license installed on the FlexRip.
Screen support for Classic Screen TECHNOLOGY (CLS) is based on the concept
of optimization towards a selected printing technique. Screen support is divided
into two main angle system classes:
• OFFSET: Used in standard offset printing with the conventional angle system
Y at 0 degrees, C, M, and K at 15, 45 or 75 degrees depending on the
application.
• FLEXO: Used for flexography, gravure, silkscreen printing, and offset-togravure conversion from film with the conventional angle system rotated 7.5
degrees forward or backward.
FLEXO1: Y at 7.5 degrees, C, M and K at 22.5, 52.5 or 82.5 degrees depending on
the application
FLEXO2: Y at 82.5 degrees, C, M and K at 7.5, 37.5 or 67.5 degrees depending on
the application
On a Esko-Graphics FlexRip, the offset angle class is standard available. The
Flexo angle class is available as an option.
On a Esko-Graphics SparkRip, the flexo angle class is standard available. The
Offset angle class is available as an option.
In case you try to use an angle class you did not purchase or have standard,
the RIP will error out and show a message
E_SCRSEL_IE
Internal error (Required Flex screen license
not available (dot = m, angle = 15))
in the log file. The message indicates what dot shape and what angle is
requested so you can easily check why the RIP detects a licensing problem.
The two angle system classes are important in the use of the CLS-technology.
A user must know for which class the job will be made to be able to select a
suitable ruling, because ruling support is different for both angle system
classes and is further dependent on the dot shape. The Screens in the RIP,
making up the screen support for each of these classes, are tuned to each
other, which results in optimal quality for the particular angle system class.
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.2 Angle support
As mentioned in the previous section, the following angles are supported (angles
are measured clockwise with angle 0 horizontally):
• OFFSET class: 0, 15, 45, 75 degrees
• FLEXO class: 7.5, 22.5, 37.5, 52.5, 67.5, 82.5 degrees
Angle accuracy is within 1 degree of these nominal values. The angle difference
of 30 degrees nominal between the 3 main Screens is accurate within 0.5 degrees.
However, the differences in angle are exactly tuned to the differences in ruling,
this to avoid moiré. The 0 degree angle can have a seriously different ruling
though. This angle is reserved for the yellow. Using a different ruling (up to 10
% different) for yellow is a trick to diminish the yellow-moiré effect. More
information is found in a separate section on yellow-moiré.
Note that in the graphic editors, the integer values of the flexo class angles are
used (7, 22, 37, 52, 67 and 82). When using other angles, the RIP will take the
closest angle available in the particular support list. However, the user should
only use the mentioned values to avoid surprises and mistakes.
It is impossible to make any other angle than the angles mentioned above.
Remark that there is a difference between 45 and 135 degrees for all dotshapes
that are not symmetrical in 2 directions. Classic Screens does not allow you to
select 45 and 135 separately for almost all dot shapes. Instead, the choice
between 45 and 135 is done automatically in order to optimize quality.
3.3 Dot shape support
Esko-Graphics Classic Screens support a wide variety of dot shapes. Not every
Esko-Graphics RIP has all dot shapes installed. Some dot shapes are standard;
others are sold as an option.
On the FlexRip, following dot shapes are standard available:
• Fogra-round dots
• Circular dots
• Elliptical dots
• Square dots
On the SparkRip, following dot shapes are standard available:
• Fogra-round dots
• Circular dots
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
All other dots are available as an option. Optional dot shapes are not
automatically available on your FlexRip when you have bought one of the angle
sets. These dot shapes have to be purchased separately. Contact your salesman
or inside-sales for more information.
When you try to use a dot shape that is not installed on your FlexRip, the RIP
process will error out and you will get a message in your log file telling you that
you don’t have the needed license.
3.3.1 Fogra-Round dots
The fogra-round dot closely resembles the elliptical and round dots, and can be
used as such. It is also a better alternative for square dots. As with elliptical dots,
the touching of the dots at the 4 corners at 50 % (leading to the well-known 50 %
intensity jump) is avoided by using a more elongated dot shape so that the dots
first touch around 45 % forming a chain and touching for the second time around
55 %.
The fogra-round dot can be used for virtually all printing processes. It is very
popular for offset printing, but it can also be used for flexography, letterpress,
silk screen printing and for making films for offset-helio conversion. Only
chemical etching gravure cannot be done with the fogra-round dot shape.
The chains formed when the dots first touch have predefined orientations. For
the different screen angles, the following holds:
• Offset 0, 15, 75 degrees: the chain is in the direction of the screen angle.
• Offset 45 degrees: the chain is perpendicular to the direction of the screen
angle.
• Flexo 82, 67, 22, 7 degrees: the chain is in the direction of the screen angle.
• Flexo 52, 37: the chain is perpendicular to the direction of the screen angle.
As a result of these predefined orientations, the chains of the cyan, magenta and
black Screens are 60 degrees apart. This improves the quality of the rosette.
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.3.2 Circular dots
The circular dot grows continuously circular even above 50 %.
The circular dot is typically used for flexography and letterpress.
3.3.3 Elliptical dots
The elliptical dot resembles the fogra dot but the dot is more elliptical. The first
touching point is now around 35 %. Between 35 % and 65 %, a chain is formed
with the same orientations as for the round/fogra dots.
The elliptical dot is available for offset and flexo angles.
3.3.4 Helio dots
The helio dot continuously grows square, even above 50 %, forming the wellknown helio walls. This dot is needed for the classic gravure etching processes
only.
The helio dot is available for offset and flexo angles. The quality however is
better.
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
The wall/hole ratio is determined by a dot gain compensation curve. This way, it
is possible to control the film percentage of the 100 % full print density.
3.3.5 Square dots
The square dot is the most classic dot shape. It is square in the highlights, forms a
checkerboard at 50 % and forms square holes in the shadows. The square dot is
sometimes claimed to be the dot shape producing the finest detail, although this
is a subjective matter. At 50 %, the tonal jump can be very noticeable, especially
when the printing process is characterized by a large dot gain. If this tonal jump
is too obvious, use fogra dots instead (possibly elliptical dots).
3.3.6 Eccentric dots
Eccentric dots are Classic Screen dots with variable eccentricity. The user can
choose the touching point of the (elliptical) dots. Available touching points are
5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Between the two touching points, the dots form a
chain.
Eccentric dot X1, first touching point at 10 %, second touching point at 90 %.
More information on eccentric dots can be found in the chapter eccentric dots.
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3.3.7 Rugby dots
Rugby dots are special dot shapes for screen printing. Its shape is like a rugby
ball, so a diamond with round edges. The dots touch around 35 % to form chains.
At 65 %, a negative dot with rugby shape appears. The dot shape is fully
symmetrical.
3.4 Ruling support
The ruling support depends on the angles, the output resolution, the wanted dot
shape and the optics on your imagesetter. The user should be aware of those
factors in order to be able to select a suitable ruling. Once a job is made and
ready to be exposed, the RIP determines the angle system class by means of the
selected angle:
• 0, 15, 45, or 75 will use the offset angle system,
• 7, 22, 37, 52, 67 or 82 will use the flexo angle system.
You must always strictly adhere to the tables and use the nominal ruling values
from the appropriate tables in the job. If you try to select a ruling that is not in
the table, the RIP will select the closest ruling from the list automatically. You
can find the really used screen ruling in the log file of the RIP.
Should this happen, change the rulings in the job to a supported value. This
message can also appear when the desired dot shape is not supported.
Also be aware that processing a job for a different output resolution than the one
it was made for, can lead to another actual output screen ruling. When changing
the output resolution, the rulings in the job should be adapted accordingly.
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.4.1 Ruling and dot shape support for the offset angle class
Following table lists the rulings for the offset angles on the resolutions of the
Esko-Graphics film imagesetters. For rulings on other resolutions, we refer to
the appropriate ruling tables.
Dot shapes: ($=optional)
• S = square
• R= round/fogra
• E = elliptical
• C = Circular
• X = Eccentric ($)
• H = Helio
($)
Warning
If you select 150 lpi on 2540 ppi on Optics 100, your result will be different than on
Optics 300. Optics 300 will make a 150 lpi, Optics 100 will jump to the nearest
available screen in the list, which is 134 lpi. The user is asked to strictly adhere to the
numbers in the tables to avoid incompatibilities in the future.
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.4.2 Ruling and dot shape support for the flexo angle class
Following table lists the rulings for the flexo angles on the resolutions of the
Esko-Graphics film imagesetters. For rulings on other resolutions, we refer to
the appropriate ruling tables.
Dot shapes: ($=optional)
• S = square
• R= round/fogra
• E = elliptical
• C = Circular
• X = Eccentric ($)
• H = Helio ($)
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.5 How to select the right angles for each ink?
In a CMYK printing system, you need to select 3 equal rulings for cyan, magenta
and black. Furthermore, the angles for C,M and K must be 30 degrees apart. This
leads to the well-known rosette pattern, widely accepted.
For the yellow ink a screen 15 degrees apart from one of the others is used. This
screen combined with any of the other Screens will always lead to an unpleasant
moiré, but as yellow is a less prominent ink, one can expect it to be barely visible.
However... in some images, it is visible. To keep this moiré to a minimum it is
very important to choose an appropriate angle for the inks.
From the moiré formed with Screens 15, 45 or 75 degrees difference, the 45
degrees difference shows the least annoying moiré. So the ink, which is
suspected to give moiré with the yellow in a large two-ink zone, should
preferably be screened with the angle 45 degrees different from the one used for
the yellow ink.
Practically this means that images containing many flesh tones should have the Y
and M components screened with 45 degrees difference. Images containing large
areas of light greens should have the Y and C components screened with 45
degrees difference. Neutral images can still be screened with the Y and K
components with 45 degrees difference. For images containing both sensitive
zones, a compromise has to be made. In some cases trial and error should lead to
the best choice. For the specific angle system classes, the following holds:
• for OFFSET with Y at 0 the sensitive component should be at 45 degrees
• for FLEXO1 with Y at 82.5 the sensitive component should be at 37.5 degrees
• for FLEXO2 with Y at 7.5 the sensitive component should be at 52.5 degrees
More information on how to avoid yellow moiré is found in an appendix of this
document.
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
3.6 Screen registration
The rosette patterns in Esko-Graphics Classic Screens are always the standard 30degree clear-centered rosette.
When repeating or merging several jobs on one film, or when merging several
separations of one job on the same film, the screen registration is supported on a
JOB-bound base. This guarantees that multiple jobs as single-ink per film will
give exactly the same result as multiple inks of one job on one film. Furthermore,
step-and-repeating of jobs can deliver exact copies if the screen registration
feature is used (just as if they would be repeated with a step-and-repeat
machine). All samples have the same rosette patterns on exactly the same places.
Example
A four-color screened stamp is separated and repeated 100 times on one film. After
exposure, the film is cut into its separations and is printed on a four-color press. Each
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Esko-Graphics Classic Screens
rotation delivers a page with 100 exactly equal stamps with clear-centered rosettes
starting in the same way on each separate stamp.
3.7 Maximum number of Screens per job
Esko-Graphics Classic Screens supports up to 256 different Screens (=
ruling/angle/dotshape selections) per job. If more than 64 different Screens
appear on a film the RIP will be unable to expose that job, which results in the
following error message:
Too many Screens to load.
3.8 Intensity accuracy
Esko-Graphics Classic Screens guarantee an intensity accuracy after gamma or
EskoCal calibration of +/- 1 % on a film imagesetter and of +/- 2 % on a
Platesetter. Imagesetting on platesetters seems less accurate because the chemical
process fluctuates more and because the measuring equipment is less accurate.
Higher rulings will show bigger deviations. The accuracy claims hold until 200
lpi. Higher ruling accuracy will seriously depend on the quality of the
imagesetter and the chemical process sitting behind it.
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4
Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.1 Introduction
One of the big advantages of Classic Screens is the availability of highly
optimized dot shapes. Typically, these dot shapes are specifically designed for
certain printing processes. Following is a list of special dot shapes available for
Classic Screens
• Helio dots
• Eccentric dots
• Rugby dots
• Carto Screens
• Line Screens
• Rosette Screens
The special dot shapes are normally not standard available.
purchase them as options
You have to
4.2 Helio dots
4.2.1 Introduction
The helio dot continuously grows square, even above 50 %, forming the wellknown helio walls. This dot is needed for the classic gravure etching processes
only. The dotshape is highly optimized for both contone reproduction and
linework areas.
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.2.2 Two types of helio dots
There are 2 types of helio dots: convex dots (dot=H) and concave dots (dot=G)
Dot=H
Dot=G
Convex (normal helio) dots are the dots traditionally used. The dot is as square
as possible. However in some circumstances the etching process smoothens out
the square shape of the dots as shown schematically in the picture below.
Consequently the walls could break during printing, resulting in bad print
quality. This only happens at the highest dot percentages and therefore, this
effect is mostly important for the 100 % areas (which are still screened in the
gravure process).
The concave helio dot is designed in such a way that this effect is avoided. The
dot is made like a cookie. When etching the cylinder, the sharp ends round off
and the final result is closer to a square than the result of the normal helio dot.
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
When to use dot=H or dot=G ?
Dot=H should be used when breaking of the “helio walls” during printing is no
real problem.
For the concave helio Screens (dot = G) the square-shaped screen dots are
replaced by slightly pincushion shaped dots. Since this dotshape compensates
for preferential etching of the walls during platemaking, the helio walls on the
plate will be more rigid, resulting in less breaking of the walls during printing
and thus resulting in a higher and more stable quality of the prints. This
dotshape will be useable up to slightly higher screen levels compared to the
normal helio dot.
4.2.3 How to use helio dots ?
The two sets of helio Screens can be selected by using ‘DOT = H’ (for the normal
helio dots, see next paragraph) and ‘DOT=G’ (for the concave helio dots).
The wall/hole ratio is determined by a dot gain compensation curve. The way to
do this is described in the IntelliCurve manual.
Both sets of helio Screens are available for the offset and flexo angle sets. The
supported rulings (in LPI) for the different output resolutions (in PPI) are given
in the table below for the Esko-Graphics film imagesetters.
For other
imagesetters, we refer to the chapter with ruling tables per device type.
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.3 Eccentric dots
Eccentric dots are Classic Screen dots with variable eccentricity. The user can
choose the touching point of the (elliptical) dots. Available touching points are
5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Between the two touching points, the dots form a
chain. Eccentric dots for flexo are available on Esko-Graphics FastRip, PS
DirectRip and FlexRip, always as an option.
4.3.1 Advantages of eccentric dots
The unidirectional elongated dot construction has the following advantages:
• Less obvious rosette patterns. In the case of line Screens, the rosette patterns
disappear completely, which results in the illusion of a higher ruling
• Less visible tonal jump where the dots touch. The more elongated the point is,
the less obvious the tonal jump will be because the touching points are spread.
In the case of line Screens, there is no tonal jump at all because the lines never
touch.
24
Classic Screens special dot shapes
• As the user has the choice between different eccentricities, there will always
be an excellent compromise between sharpness (which is best for square dots)
and smooth variation (which is best for line Screens).
• If the eccentricity is big enough (X0 and X1), the direction of the chain only is
important for moiré considerations. This way, it is possible to avoid yellow
moiré by putting the yellow perpendicularly to one of the other three colors.
Perpendicular chains do not generate moiré.
Eccentric dots are available for flexo angles as well as for offset angles. However,
in the flexo printing process, eccentric dots have specific advantages:
• Avoiding rosette patterns is especially interesting in case the rosette patterns
are very visible. Due to the lower rulings, the difference between eccentric
dots and conventional round or circular dots is more striking in flexo than in
offset or gravure. The eccentric dot is especially advantageous for the
corrugated market, but has recently become more popular in the flexible
packaging market as well (for example the Scitex Geometric dot ™ is the
equivalent for the X0 dot).
• The flexo process is characterized by a high dot gain. Eccentric dots tend to
lower this dot gain, as well as the tonal jumps, which are caused by dot gain.
4.3.2 Selection of eccentric dots
Selection is done with dot=Xx with x between 0 and 4. The eccentric dots can be
freely combined with other dot shapes in one job or on one film if the input to
the FastRip or FlexRip is Esko-Graphics’ native GRO format (or one of its
variants GRS, GRC,GRA,GRI,GRQ,GRR etc). Dot gain compensation can be
different for the different dot shapes and even for the different angles with the
unique screen-based dot gain compensation facility (IntelliCurve).
4.3.3 Form of the eccentric dot
Eccentric dots offer the choice between 5 eccentricities:
Eccentric dot X0, first touching point at 5 %, second touching point at 95 %.
Eccentric dot X1, first touching point at 10 %, second touching point at 90 %.
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
Eccentric dot X2, first touching point at 20 %, second touching point at 80 %
Eccentric dot X3, first touching point at 30 %, second touching point at 70 %
Eccentric dot X4, first touching point at 40 %, second touching point at 60 %
4.3.4 Available angles
Eccentric dots are available for flexo and offset angles. The ruling support for
the flexo angle class is however far more elaborate. Therefore, in many cases, we
suggest to also use the flexo angles for the offset printing process. If more or
different angles or rulings are needed than the table allows, it is better to use
Dynacell Screening. This allows to use eccentric dots with any ruling or angle.
Using Dynacell Screening with eccentric dots demands a license for both
Dynacell Screening and for Eccentric dots.
4.3.4.1 Flexo angles
The following angles are supported for eccentric dots:
7.5, 22.5, 37.5, 52.5, 67.5, 82.5, 97.5, 112.5, 127.5, 142.5, 157.5, 172.5 degrees
Angles are measured clockwise with 0 degrees horizontal.
26
Classic Screens special dot shapes
; Note
Classic screen angle values are normally between 0 and 90 degrees. Eccentric Screens, on
the other hand, have angle values between 0 and 180 degrees. This means that an
eccentric screen of 7.5 degrees is perpendicular to an eccentric screen of 97.5 degrees.
These Screens are thus really different and they can be used for different separations. The
moiré between 2 perpendicular Screens does not exist for X0 and X1. For X2, X3 and X4
perpendicular Screens should not be used within a 4-color work (quadri).
The rule for 4-color work is to position the 3 main separations (C, M and K) with a
difference of 60 degrees. The Y can then be put on 15 or 30 degrees.
Example
Good choices for a standard quadri image (C, M, Y, K) with X0 or X1: C on 7.5, M on
127.5, K on 67.5 and Y on 97.5 (yellow is not prominent) This combination does not
generate any moiré at all (even not for the yellow). In the case of X0 no rosettes appear,
but small triangles will appear. However, these triangles are much less apparent than the
standard rosette patterns
Good choices for a standard quadri image (C, M, Y, K) with X2, X3 or X4: C on 7.5, M
on 127.5, K on 67.5 and Y on 82.5 (yellow is not prominent) This combination is very
similar to the classic elliptical dot combination and can be used as such.
4.3.4.2 Offset angles
Eccentric dots also exist with offset angles. The ruling support is however far
less elaborate.
The supported offset angles are:
0, 15, 45,75,90,105,135,165,180 degrees
Again, good 4-color work demands angle choices 60 degrees apart for the more
prominent colors.
Example
Good choices for a standard quadri image (C, M, Y, K) with X0 or X1: C on 15, M on 75,
K on 135 and Y on 105 or 165 (yellow is not prominent)
This combination does not generate any moiré at all (even not for the yellow). In the case
of X0 no rosettes appear, but small triangles will appear. However, these triangles are
much less apparent than the standard rosette patterns.
Good choices for a standard quadri image (C, M, Y, K) with X2, X3 or X4: C on 15, M
on 135, K on 75 and Y on 90 (yellow is not prominent) This combination is very similar
to the classic elliptical dot combination and can be used as such.
The X0 dot is very close to a line screen. For offset angles, there also exist line Screens.
More info can be found in line Screens for cartography doc under review link?
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.3.5 Available rulings
Ruling support is dependent on the imagesetter.
We refer to the ruling tables per device. The eccentric dots can be found in the
tables in the rows having X in the list of dot shapes for that row. The rulings for
all variants of eccentric dots are equal (the ruling support for X0 is equal to the
ruling support of X1 etc.)
4.3.6 Rosette formation
One of the advantages of eccentric dots is the visual disappearance of the rosette
structures when using the X0, X1 and X2 dots. Rosette structures appear when
Screens with angle differences around 30 degrees are used. When round dots are
used, they are unavoidable since other screen angles always lead to moiré. In the
case of eccentric dots however, the elongated structure of the dots allows a
screen angle choice with angles 60 degrees apart. This leads to far less visible
rosettes.
The more elongated the dot, the less visible the rosettes will be.
Moreover, when the yellow angle is chosen correctly, eccentric dots also prevent
yellow moiré building.
doc under review link!!
The rosette formation can be seen in the illustrations below. Remark following
differences:
• the eccentric dots still show some detain in the balance, while the round dots
loose this detail completely.
• the rosettes in the balance are very visible for
annoying for the eccentric dots
round dots, and far less
• the bananas have a yellow moiré for the round dots, but not for the eccentric
dots
• the strawberries and lemons are more crispy for the eccentric dots than for the
round dots
Comparison of the rosette of round dots with eccentric dots (X0 dot)
28
Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.4 Rugby dots
Rugby dots are special dot shapes for screen printing. Its shape is like a rugby
ball, so a diamond with round edges. The dots touch around 35 % to form
chains. At 65 %, a negative dot with rugby shape appears. The dot shape is fully
symmetrical.
Rugby dots are selected with dot=D.
4.4.1 Dot quality
The rugby dots are designed with extreme care for the dot quality. However, the
best quality can only be reached with high enough a resolution. 59 lpi can be
reached with 2000 ppi and with 4000 ppi but 4000 ppi will produce a better dot
quality.
In most cases, dot quality is also acceptable for the lower resolutions and the
exposure will be faster.
Quality differences are only in the shape of the dot, not in the correctness of
rulings and angles. There is always a perfect match between the 3 main colors in
order to avoid moiré between the 3 colors. In general, moiré is never a result of
the resolution choice. It is fully related to the choice of ruling, angle with respect
to the mesh count.
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.4.2 Ruling support
Following table shows the ruling support for the rugby dots on the EskoGraphics film imagesetters. All values are in lines per inch (LPI). For the ruling
support on other imagesetters, we refer to the ruling tables per device, where
you have to look for the dot=D entries.
We advise the user to adhere strictly to these values. This guarantees the exact
reproduction of these ruling values, which is important to avoid moiré with the
screen mesh
As is visible, as good as any ruling can be obtained when taking advantage of the
available imagesetter resolutions.
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.4.3 Other angles than flexo and offset angles
Line Screens have many special applications within cartography. In fact, the line
Screens are not used to make a continuous tone.
Typically, line Screens are used to make a large number of light tones with subtle
differences when compared to fill areas. The possibility to put six line Screens
(three prominent and three non-prominent) on top of each other without moiré is
very important for cartography.
Line Screens are perfectly compatible with Classic Screens, which means that you
can perfectly use line Screens for continuous tone multi-color work. For quadri,
line Screens give you the additional benefits of avoiding tonal jumps and rosette
patterns. The disadvantage is the fact that sharpness is not as good in the
direction of the lines as perpendicular to the lines. Strange effects can occur if
your image contains lines parallel to the screen angle. Should this be the case,
choose another angle for this separation
Line Screens are selected with the "DOT=L" option.
4.5 Rosette Screens
4.5.1 Form of the rosette screen
Rosette Screens are used to screen fine lines. There are two kinds of rosette
Screens: biangular and triangular.
biangular screen
The biangular screen is the combination of two normal circular dot Screens into
one screen. The result looks like the following picture:
triangular screen
The triangular screen is the combination of three normal circular dot Screens into
one screen. The result looks like the following picture:
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
4.5.2 Selecting the rosette screen
Rosette Screens are dot shapes like any other dot shape. The names are "DOT=B"
for biangular Screens and "DOT=T" for triangular Screens.
4.5.3 Screening velocity
As the rosette screen is fully pre-calculated, just like any other screen, there is
theoretically no time penalty for using rosette Screens. However, rosette Screens
are memory consuming. As a result of paging, it is possible that a job with many
different Screens will expose slower than a job with only one screen. Paging
occurs when the RIP has less physical memory than required. In that case, part
of the hard disk is used as extra memory but at the cost of speed.
4.5.4 Angle support
Rosette Screens are already the combination of different angles. Generally, it is
impossible to combine different rosette Screens. Therefore, there is no angle
support. You can specify any angle in the editor, but the result will always be the
same.
4.5.5 Ruling support
We define the ruling of a rosette screen as the ruling of the Screens that make up
the rosette. The ruling support for biangular Screens is identical to the ruling
support for triangular Screens.
Ruling support is given in lines per inch (LPI).
Following is the ruling support on the Esko-Graphics film imagesetters. For the
ruling support on other imagesetters, we refer to the specialized tables
32
Classic Screens special dot shapes
Carto angle set (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 degrees)
values in lines per inch (LPI)
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Classic Screens special dot shapes
34
5
HighLine Screens
5.1 What are highline Screens?
HighLine screens are specially developed to image and print higher screen
rulings on relatively low resolution imagesetter and platesetter devices.
HighLine screens improve the visual aspect of printed artwork such as
magazines, brochures or packages. Many Packaging and Commercial Printers
have successfully implemented the usage of highline screens and benefit this
way from extra revenue and customer loyalty.
HighLine screening is interesting in combination with many CTP devices. Many
CTP devices have relatively low resolutions (at least compared to for example
the Esko-Graphics film imagesetter range). Almost all CTP devices work faster
at lower resolutions than at higher resolutions.
With normal Screens, high screen rulings have following disadvantages
• Less screen steps, leading to ugly gradations and lack of detail (posterization)
in contones.
• General limitation of available screen rulings and angles and sometimes bad
quality rosette formation
• Loss of highlights because the first printable dot has a too high dot percentage
• Tonal jump problems where the dots touch
• Moiré effects because the screen is not optimized towards the imagesetter
optics.
Therefore, the Esko-Graphics Classic Screens were limited to about 225 lpi at
2540 ppi. For exposing higher screen rulings, you needed a higher resolution,
which overcomes most of the mentioned problems. With many CTP devices
however, 2400 is the highest (only) resolution. The Esko-Graphics PlateDriver is
here an exception. Combining the PlateDriver’s highest resolution with highline
Screens offers the best possible quality.
HighLine Screens overcome the limitations of conventional Screens. No matter
how high the screen ruling, there are always sufficient screen steps available
(minimum 1024), leading to smooth vignettes and sufficient steps in the upper
highlights. The Screens are optimized for modern optical systems. The screen
angles remain the correct screen angles to form the correct clear-centered
rosettes.
In addition, highline Screens also offer 30 and 60 degree angles. This allows to
put the yellow color on another screen angle 90 degrees. The advantages of this
are described in the paragraph about 30 and 60 degree angles.
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HighLine Screens
HighLine Screening is a 100 % Amplitude Modulated screening method. Dots
are organized on a regular grid determined by a screen ruling and a screen angle.
Dot percentages are determined by the size of the dots. HighLine Screens is thus
NOT a stochastic screening or a hybrid/transitional screening method.
However, it has many advantages that are normally only attributed to stochastic
screening: improved sharpness, deeper colors (better saturation), no visibility of
rosettes, less object moiré.
Highline screens puts the limitation towards the screen ruling only at the
printing operation itself: what ruling is optimal for this paper/ink/press
combination. Highline screens is a premium prepress solution, it is not the
solution to every printing problem. The highest screen rulings supported by
highline screens are typically only beneficial for optimal printing circumstances.
However, highline also offers advantages also in less ideal circumstances (such
as rotational offset printing) by using intermediate screen rulings such as 250 lpi.
5.2 What do you need for highline Screens?
• HighLine Screens work on the Esko-Graphics Flexrip only
• Minimum FlexRip software version is v5.1 customer 3
• It is strongly advised to have at least Flexrip v5.2. Certain parts of the below
information is only valid on FlexRip v5.2 and later.
• You need the highline screen license on your RIP.
Limitations:
• HighLine Screens are not available on the Esko-Graphics LithoSetter and
Optics 600 film imagesetters (such as the MegaSetter Optics 600S and Optics
600Q). If you want to use high screen rulings with your Optics 600Q film
imagesetter, we advise to use the high resolutions such as 4000 ppi.
Comparable results can be reached as with highline Screens at the cost of
extra exposure time.
• It is disadvised to use HighLine Screens for flexography (highline Screens are
offered with offset angles only, for flexo, use the flexo screen set).
36
HighLine Screens
5.3 Installing HighLine Screens
HighLine Screens are found on the FlexRip Screens CD (version v5.2 or later).
Following are the right steps to install HighLine Screens:
• Stop all your dispatchers.
• Update the license of your RIP to include HighLine Screens. This is done after
purchasing the HighLine Screen option from Esko-Graphics.
• Reboot your FlexRip (to make sure the new license is active)
• Reinstall the Screens on that RIP (by running through the Install procedure
which automatically starts up when you put the Screens CD in the CD-ROM
drive of your FlexRip).
• Restart your FlexRip dispatchers. (rebooting is normally not needed but also
doesn’t harm).
5.4 Using HighLine Screens
5.4.1 Warning
The complete offset screening set is updated. Following effects can result from
this:
• Slight changes to the effective ruling of the 0 degree Screens. Since the 0
degree Screens were used for yellow only (up until now), no hard moiré
effects can result from this change.
• Extra rulings are added, resulting in effective rulings closer to the demanded
rulings. In case the demanded ruling was taken out of the previously
published lists in the Screening manual, no ruling changes will occur. Only
when other rulings were taken, it is possible that there is now a closer ruling
found than previously. In case of doubt, always make new plates for all
separations.
• No changes to flexo angles and rulings have been done, so this warning does
NOT apply do flexo angles.
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HighLine Screens
5.4.2 Selecting highline Screens
Selection of highline Screens is automatic once the license is activated and the
Screens are installed. There is no fall back path other than taking away the
highline license. Since highline Screens have no disadvantage towards classic
Screens, the RIP will always use HighLine Screens if these are available for the
chosen dot shape/ruling/angle combination.
5.4.3 Dot shape support
HighLine Screens are available for the Esko-Graphics Round/Fogra, Elliptical,
Square and Circular dot. The reader is referred to the Classic Screens chapters in
the screening manual for an overview of how these dotshapes look like and
behave. Other dotshapes have no highline versions and continue to behave like
in the past. This includes the so-called Yellow-moiré screens (so there are
currently no highline versions of the Yellow-moiré screens).
5.4.4 Ruling and angle support
5.4.4.1 Offset angles
Angle support is now 0,30,45,60,75 and 90 degrees. So 30 and 60 degrees were
added for all rulings. Ruling support is equal for all 4 dot shapes that support 60
degree angles (S,C,E and R).
Following table shows the ruling support for most popular resolutions: (all
rulings are in lines per inch, resolutions in pixels per inch)
38
HighLine Screens
5.4.4.2 Flexo angles
Remark on installations of highline Screens on rips with screen sets older than
the Screenset of Flexrip v5.2:
Depending on how old your previous screen installation was, the flexo screens
might be updated with newer versions. These versions are smoother than
previous versions because they were recalculated according to an improved
algorithm. Also some extra rulings were added for the elliptical and square dot.
Circular and Round/Fogra rulings support does not change. These are marked
in Yellow and bold in the table below.
Ruling support Flexo angles in FlexRip v5.2 or FlexRip v5.1 after installing
Highline screens.
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HighLine Screens
5.4.5 Colors and angles for the offset process
The difference between Cyan, Magenta and Black must always be 30 degrees.
When there is no 30 or 60 degree possible (like in Esko-Graphics Classic Screens),
there is only one possibility: use 15,45 and 75 for cyan, magenta and black (in any
sequence). 90 can be used for yellow only.
When adding 30 and 60 degrees, other schemes are possible. One can still use
15,45 and 75 for cyan, magenta and black, and choose between 90, 30 and 60
degrees for yellow.
Another possibility is to choose 0,30 and 60 for cyan, magenta and black (in any
sequence) and choose between 15,45 and 75 for yellow. This new scheme is
possible because rulings and angles for 30 and 60 degrees are carefully chosen
and calculated to not generate moiré with the 0 degree screen.
Esko-Graphics preferred angle schemes
Following are the angle schemes Esko-Graphics promotes:
1. The Classic set with best moiré avoiding choice for flesh tones:
Cyan 15, Magenta 45, Black 75, Yellow 90
2. HighLine set with Black on 45 for best flesh tones:
Cyan 15, Magenta 75, Black 45, Yellow 30 or
Cyan 75, Magenta 15, Black 45, Yellow 60
3. When there is a lot of green in the artwork, following scheme is also
interesting:
40
HighLine Screens
HighLine set with Black on 45 for best greens:
Cyan 15, Magenta 75, Black 45, Yellow 60 or
Cyan 75, Magenta 15, Black 45, Yellow 30
Make sure to choose equal rulings for each color.
Be sure to never mix up the different schemes.
WRONG:
Following schemes are
Cyan 15, Black 45, Yellow 60, Magenta 30.
Reason: magenta is only 15 degrees apart from cyan (and black) and this
generates moiré
Cyan 0 Black 30 Yellow 60 Magenta 75
Reason: Cyan at 0 is also at 90, so only 15 degrees apart from the 75 degrees of
magenta.
5.5 Guidelines for choosing the right ruling
You must optimize the chosen ruling for your process and printing operation.
Many novice highline users use too high screen rulings, leading to less than ideal
results. The table with available rulings shown above only indicates which
rulings can be generated by the RIP. Esko-Graphics does not give any guarantee
towards the quality of these Screens on our platesetter or on your printing press.
The best way of choosing the best screen ruling is by making a test form with
these different rulings. Make sure to have on your test form images (as highquality as possible) and technical elements. The technical elements contain
vignettes and scales at both sides of the image. Make sure the scales have a
sufficient number of steps. You will need these scales later to measure dot gain
and create a dot gain compensation table.
A good set of steps is:
1%,2%,3%,5%,10%,20%,30%,40%,50%,60%,70%,80%,90%,95%,98%,100%.
Also
make sure you print at least have 4 different rulings and that these rulings span
the highline range. A classic mistake is to leave out the Screens below 300 lpi,
while in many cases the ideal ruling IS below 300 lpi.
A good set of rulings to test is: 175 lpi, 225 lpi, 275 lpi, 300 lpi, 350 lpi. The 175 lpi
is your normal ruling, replace it with the ruling you are really using most (could
be 150 lpi or 180 lpi or 200 lpi). If you have stochastic Screens installed on your
RIP, you might also add stochastic Screens (20,25 and 30 micrometer).
Make sure to not print recto-verso as this will hinder your evaluation.
When printed, you need to evaluate the printed results. Following are things too
look for:
• Which ruling is the first ruling where you don’t see any rosette patterns
anymore with the naked eye. Clearly this is dependent on your eyes. It is a
July 2004
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HighLine Screens
good idea to let different people judge this. Most people clearly see rosettes at
150 lpi, also see them at 175 lpi but less obviously and can no longer see
rosettes around 250 lpi. Rosettes are generally considered to be disturbing the
image, so you need to go high enough to not see the rosettes anymore. Don’t
use a loupe for this. Also don’t try for longer than 2 seconds to see the
rosettes, on the long run you always see something.
• Look for the first ruling where sharpness doesn’t improve anymore. A way to
do this is to do blind testing. When comparing 2 rulings, take the images of
both and make sure you cannot see which is which (mark it on the back or put
a sticker on top of the mark). If you can distinguish 4 or 5 times out of 5 trials
the highest ruling (based on sharpness, not based on color!!!), then you need
to go one ruling up. Most people easily distinguish 150 lpi from 175. Up until
250 lpi, improvement is seen by most experienced people (provided the
images have sufficient quality). Some processes show further improvement
until 300 lpi. Seeing improvement over 300 lpi is seldom and normally only
happens with special applications (photography books for example). A classic
mistake is to confuse sharpness with color effects. Higher rulings have more
dot gain and this will look like more sharpness to many people. What really
happens is that not the sharpness improves, but the contrast improves in a
certain part of the tonal scale. Some parts of the image will look enhanced
(sharper?) while other parts will loose detail (shadows fill in).
• Look for printing artifacts getting worse when going to higher rulings. Most
prints over 400 lpi show clear problems: lines, graininess, … What is
happening here? The ruling is way too high for the process and the images
can no longer be reproduced in a faithful way.
• Look for color deviations. Measure with a densitometer the different colors
and compare this to your norms. It is normal that higher screen rulings have
more dot gain. You can compensate this with dot gain compensation
(IntelliCurve). However, dot gain compensation can only compensate for the
average dot gain, not for dot gain fluctuations happening on press between
different sheets, between left and right of the image etc. As dot gain goes up,
also dot gain fluctuation goes up. If you see more than 5 % deviation between
patches of the same % on different spots or on different sheets, your ruling is
definitely too high.
The right ruling is
• a ruling where you no longer see the rosettes
• a ruling not higher than the ruling from where on sharpness does not improve
anymore
• a ruling where you don’t see imaging and printing artifacts that don’t appear
at lower rulings
• a ruling where color deviations are still acceptable and easily compensated
with IntelliCurve.
If you have no time for doing all of that, take 275 lpi as a starting point. If you
are successful with this, you can go to 300 lpi and further up. Certainly don’t
start at 400 lpi or higher.
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HighLine Screens
5.6 Using 30 and 60 degree angles
HighLine Screens also support 30 and 60 degree angles. There are different
applications for this:
• an alternative angle for the yellow separation
• possibility to put C,M and K on 0,30 and 60 degrees respectively
• an additional angle for silk screen printing (sometimes interesting for
avoiding moiré with the mesh).
5.6.1 Put yellow on 30 or 60 degrees
In Esko-Graphics Classic Screens with offset angles, yellow is always put on 90
degrees. The other angles (15,45 and 75 degrees) are used for the darker colors
(C,M and K).
As is discussed in the Classic Screens manual, it is advised to keep 45 degrees
between yellow and magenta, otherwise there is a risk of seeing an annoying
yellow-moiré pattern in the flesh tones. The best screening angle set is therefore:
Cyan 15, Magenta 45, Black 75, Yellow 90
Remark that magenta is put on 45 degrees. Many people prefer to have black on
45 degrees because this is the least visible screening pattern for the human eye.
Putting black on 45 degrees is certainly advisable for gray backgrounds and
monochrome gray images. When putting black on 45 degrees, magenta has to
shift to 15 or 75 degrees. If you then still want to keep 45 degrees difference
between yellow and magenta, putting yellow on 90 (0) degrees is no longer an
option. In that case, following angle set (available through highline Screens only)
is a good solution:
HighLine set with Black on 45 for best flesh tones:
Cyan 15, Magenta 75, Black 45, Yellow 30 or
Cyan 75, Magenta 15, Black 45, Yellow 60
5.6.2 Use 30 or 60 degrees for C,M or K
HighLine Screens provides 30 and 60 degree angles that match the 0/90 degree
angle in such a way that combining these three angles with the same screen
ruling creates a moiré-free combination, just like the combination of 15,45 and 75
degrees is moiré-free. Therefore, you can use this combination also for the main
colors. Remember that yellow needs another angle, typically 45 degrees apart
from magenta. Therefore, following angle scheme is a good choice: Cyan 0,
Magenta 30, Black 60, Yellow 75
July 2004
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HighLine Screens
This set won’t be used very much. Screen angles at 0 degrees are very well
visible for the human eye and should be avoided for prominent colors (certainly
for black). There might however be technical reasons for using this angle set.
Especially with elliptical dots, 0 degrees can be an interesting angle if the
medium is imaged in such a way that the formed chains are in the printing
direction (this causes less dot gain).
5.6.3 Use 30 or 60 degrees for special colors
30 and 60 degrees are available angles also for special colors. If more than 4
colors are used, there is a need for more screen angles. Extra colors like orange
and green can then be put on 30 and 60 degrees.
However, this does not mean that no ugly moiré patterns will occur. 60 degrees
is only 15 degrees apart from 45 and 75 degrees and therefore, the special color
being put on 60 degrees can create a moiré effect with the colors at 45 and 75
degrees. Esko-Graphics does not advise to do this.
5.7 Managing color with highline Screens
Nowadays, color accuracy is one of the key quality elements of printing.
Changes to the screening process need to be done in such a way that color
remains accurate and reproducible. Your Esko-Graphics system provides 3
different tools to guarantee color accuracy:
• Calibration
• Dot gain compensation
• Color management
Each of these tools has its specific function on the road to color accuracy and
reproducibility. They should not be confused or used in each other’s place. EskoGraphics promotes a clear distinction between calibration of devices and dot
gain compensation for a press.
5.7.1 Calibrating your device for highline Screens
; Note
It is advised to do this operation with FlexRip v5.2 or later.
Calibration guarantees that an imaging device produces plates or films with the
correct screening densities. Esko-Graphics promotes to calibrate devices
44
HighLine Screens
independent from printing presses. Calibration should make the plate read
linear. So 50 % in the job creates a plate of 50 % unless asked differently for
example because dot gain compensation is used. Therefore, such calibration is
often also called linearization.
Linearization does not come for free, most devices don’t produce a 50 % screen
for a 50 % screen pattern. Instead, the complex interaction between the laser, the
medium and the chemistry create a result which is often different from 50 %.
Silver plates are mostly within a 4 % range, polymer plates can have bigger
deviations (up until 20 % depending on technology and screen ruling used). In
addition, these deviations will get bigger when using highline Screens or
stochastic Screens (deviation increase in a linear way with screen ruling or with
equivalent screen ruling in the case of stochastic Screens).
In theory, highline Screens are calibrated in the same way as conventional
Screens with lower rulings. Starting with FlexRip 5.2, the tool for calibration in
the Esko-Graphics FlexRip is EskoCal.
EskoCal is an automatic system that allows to linearize all Screens with only a
limited set of measurements needed. Even Screens that have never been
measured before are linearized with a decent accuracy. The reader is referred to
the EskoCal chapter in the screening manual for information on how to use
EskoCal. You don’t need to do anything special for highline Screens. Just make
sure to fill in ALL measurement fields because you are going to need all the
accuracy you can get.
EskoCal’s accuracy heavily depends on the screen ruling. Conventional screen
rulings like 150 or 175 lpi are linearized with an accuracy close to the limitations
of the plate measurement devices (typically +/- 1 %). This is accurate enough for
all practical usage.
Higher screen rulings, as used with highline Screens, tend to produce bigger
deviations and fluctuations. Therefore, EskoCal will no longer linearize with the
same precision. At 300 lpi, deviations after calibration on a polymer plate of +/4 % are normal and very difficult to automatically correct.
There are 3 possible solutions to this problem:
• Accept the deviation and compensate for the effect in dot gain compensation
(see later).
Although this is a mixture of calibration and dot gain
compensation, it is an practical and acceptable strategy if deviations are not
too big and fluctuations are low.
• Finetune the calibration through a “Plate making compensation”. The reader
is referred to the FlexRip v5.2 documentation, section FRC for learning more
about “plate making compensation”. Whenever you decide to redo EskoCal
(for example because you change plate batch or because the imagesetter had
service and possibly the laser settings have been altered), you also have to
redo your platemaking compensation.
• Lower the screen ruling. In order to figure out whether this is necessary,
make another calibrated plate and measure the differences between the
calibrated plates. Since the RIPped data did not change (make sure this is the
case!), the deviations you measure are caused by fluctuations in the process
July 2004
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HighLine Screens
and measurement mistakes (the measurement devices are not very accurate
on higher screen rulings). If these deviations are bigger than the deviations
you or your customer accepts for color accuracy, you have to lower the screen
ruling. EskoCal, and any other calibration system can compensate for
systematic deviations only. Random fluctuations (cause for example by
temperature changes) cannot be solved in this way. By lowering the screen
ruling, you diminish the effect of these random fluctuations.
5.7.2 Dot gain compensation with IntelliCurve
Higher screen rulings have higher dot gain. Typically, dot gain is about linear
with screen ruling. So if at 150 lpi a 50 % screen prints 65 % (15 % dot gain), it
will print 80 % (30 % dot gain) at 300 lpi. Clearly the effect on the final color is
tremendous. When 50 % prints 65 %, you don’t need dot gain compensation
since this is the norm for offset printing. If it however prints 80 %, it will be way
too dark and a dot gain compensation will be needed.
The reader is referred to the IntelliCurve manual to learn how to create dot gain
compensation tables. We suggest to make a screen based dot gain compensation
where normal screen have no DGC or the DGC measured in the past for these
normal Screens and highline Screens have a new DGC measured from the test
forms we have talked about already.
5.7.3 Highlight treatment
Depending on the device or the printing press you use, it is possible that the
smallest dots don’t print. This will reflect in a tonal scale as in the picture below.
This is a relatively exaggerated case, for 400 lpi on a printing system that is not
really suited for it. Examples in reality are typically not so striking.
As you can see, all the lowest percentages don’t print at all. It is possible that
they are not kept on the plate, or otherwise they don’t print. Highline screens
don’t react on this by making the dots bigger as some other approaches do (for
example SambaFlex Screens or :Sublima from Agfa). Instead, the problem is
solved in a better way through IntelliCurve. Just measure the printed result and
put it in IntelliCurve. You need sufficient steps in the highlights!!! If you don’t
see anything until 5 % and then a lot of print in the 10 %, you better add extra
steps in-between and possibly also higher than 10 %. Normally, you would use a
reference curve. We suggest that you only make one curve to both cover dot
gain (see previous paragraph) and the highlight effect. You can do the
measurements on the same scale, this is really a simple approach.
46
HighLine Screens
As you can see, IntelliCurve reacts on the measurements with a bump-up effect.
The lowest percentages of the images and vignettes will be bumped up to bigger
screens, resulting in printing where there was no print before using the curve.
This looks like you are loosing tonal range, but this is not the case. It is a unique
concept of IntelliCurve to remap the available tonal range to the available screen
steps (an awful lot in the case of highline screens) without losing steps or
contrast. More information on how this works is found in the IntelliCurve
manual (appendix). You don’t need to understand this though to take advantage
of it, just trust it.
The result of the above exercise is that printing with this curve in use will
generate the tonal scale of the reference curve (the green curve). If the original
screens (lower rulings) were also dot gain compensated in this way (or if the
reference is measured from the original screen), density will be close between
highline screens and the original screens.
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HighLine Screens
5.7.4 Color management
Color management is used for 2 purposes:
• To generate contract proofs
• To separate images
If you use highline Screens, it is best to measure a new color management profile.
This will allow to take advantage of the improved color gamut (highline Screens
have a bigger color gamut than conventional Screens). In addition, the color
differences that will automatically happen because highline Screens have
different optical dot gain and overprint properties, will be measured in this
profile and be used to predict the color on a contract-proof.
The color profile should be measured from a print that was made with calibrated
plates and with the dot gain compensation mentioned in the paragraph above
switched on. All further plates used must continue to be calibrated and dot gain
compensated in the same way, color management will NOT take over these
functions. (this is a mistake often made).
The reader is referred to the color management documentation of the color
management system in use (for example Esko-Graphics Kaleidoscope).
Measuring profiles for highline Screens is done in exactly the same way as for
other Screens. Just make sure the test form is printed with highline Screens and
uses the right DGC. Also make sure to select the right profile when making
proofs and when separating images.
5.8 Comparison between highline Screens and
stochastic screening
HighLine Screening is a 100 % Amplitude Modulated screening method. Dots
are organized on a regular grid determined by a screen ruling and a screen angle.
Dot percentages are determined by the size of the dots. HighLine Screens is thus
NOT a stochastic screening or a hybrid/transitional screening method.
However, it has many advantages that are normally only attributed to stochastic
screening: improved sharpness, deeper colors (better saturation), no visibility of
rosettes, less object moiré.
Following table compares highline Screens with stochastic Screens:
Fine detail
48
Stochastic Screens
HighLine Screens
Dependent on
equivalent ruling.
Lower dot size is higher
equivalent ruling and
Dependent on ruling.
With high enough ruling
all sharpness available in
the image is reproduced.
HighLine Screens
more sharpness. With
small enough dots, all
sharpness available in
the image is reproduced.
Subtle detail
Only possible with the
smallest dots. Bigger
dots have too much
graininess
Extremely faithful
rendition of subtle detail
Graininess
Small dot sizes (high
equivalent ruling)
needed to avoid
graininess. Even then
never as smooth as a
conventional screen
Never grainy
Rosettes
Unexisting but replaced
with low frequency
clouds
Invisible, also no clouds
Color gamut
Slightly bigger than
conventional because of
thinner ink layers
Same effect as stochastic
but even better because
of the better distribution
of the dots.
Hexachrome
Ideal since you can
assign different patterns
to all hexachrome inks
You need to put the
green on the magenta
angle and the orange on
the cyan angle.
Excellent results can be
reached in this way
Object moiré
Almost excluded
Dependent on the
ruling. With high
rulings almost excluded
because the images
don’t contain more
patterns than their
resolution allows.
Misregistration
Geometrical effect equal
to conventional Screens.
No color deviations
caused by
misregistration
Color deviations caused
by misregistration
possible but less than
with conventional
Screens
Dot gain and Color
accuracy
Poor behavior in the
midtones. Too many
dots cause high dot gain
Better behavior than
stochastic screening,
especially in the
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HighLine Screens
and high dot gain
fluctuations. Can be
diminished with bigger
dot sizes (lower
equivalent ruling) but at
the cost of heavy
graininess and loss of
sharpness
midtones. Lowering the
screen ruling diminishes
dot gain and dot gain
fluctuations WITHOUT
causing graininess.
Conclusion:
• Stochastic screening is a good solution if you print objects with structures or if
you print hexachrome. HighLine also gives good results in this case (better
than conventional screening) but such environment has a natural fit with
stochastic screening. Esko-Graphics promotes Monet Screens as a perfect
stochastic screening method (see Monet Screens chapter in the Screening
documentation).
• HighLine has a clear advantage of producing better subtle detail and never
become grainy. HighLine better fits to most standard press environments
where the smallest stochastic screen dots are difficult to accurately reproduce
(dot gain, loss of printing dots and fluctuations) and bigger stochastic Screens
loose from even lower LPI highline Screens because of graininess. The biggest
advantage of HighLine is that you a far more natural trade-off between final
image quality and printability. It is possible to smoothly go up from
conventional screen rulings to highline Screens without ever having an abrupt
quality fall-back like you have if you switch from conventional Screens to
stochastic Screens with the same equivalent ruling (mostly this result is
considered way too grainy).
5.9 Frequently asked questions
How do I measure the screen ruling of a highline screen?
Measuring high screen rulings is an expert operation. Most simple screen
measurement tools are not foreseen for highline Screens. The best way for
measuring the screen ruling is to use a bitmap viewer such as Esko-Graphics
ScreenView or Esko-Graphics (flexo)Perfection. Alternatively: measure with a
microsope how many dots fit in a mm (a good microscope has a measurement
ocular showing a mm and subdivisions). Multiply this number of dots with 25.4
and you get the ruling. Finally, you can measure the ruling with a plate
densitometer. This measurement is mostly not very accurate, it only gives a
rough estimate.
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HighLine Screens
5.10 Troubleshooting
5.10.1 RIP errors
The RIP errors out when I try to use highline Screens or I get a far lower
screen ruling than expected.
Check whether you have the license RSSCRC00A2 on the RIP you are using. If
that is not the case, you need to first install (or purchase) the highline license.
Remark that this license is needed on each RIP separately, it is not a site license.
Check if the Screens are installed. This can be done by checking whether
following file is available on bg_data_Screens_v010 on your FlexRip: o6060r2.csb.
If this file is not there, (re-)install the Screens. During installation, the license
needs to be available, otherwise the highline Screens won’t be installed.
If the RIP generates output but the ruling is wrong, first ask somebody else to
recheck the ruling and read the Frequently asked question “How do I measure
the screen ruling of a highline screen”.
If the problem persists, send your log file to Esko-Graphics customer services.
5.10.2 Printing artifacts
Above 350 lpi, I see ugly lines, stripes or patterns appearing
At higher screen rulings and when using small size stochastic Screens, each laser
imagesetter problem and each printing press problem will be more apparent
than at lower screen rulings. Although highline Screens have been optimized to
be as little sensitive as possible for these problems, there will always be a screen
ruling where the problems win over the cure (if you don’t believe this, try
making 1000 lpi with a 1000 ppi imagesetter…).
It is possible to see these effects below 350 lpi too, it depends on the quality of
your process.
In all cases, if you see these effects, lower the screen ruling. In case of doubt (and
if you have maintenance contract), send your printed result and plates to EskoGraphics customer service.
I see a tonal jump between 0 % and the first printing dot
HighLine Screens is an amplitude modulated screening method. The smallest
dots on the plate are just one laser pixel big. If this dot doesn’t print, the first
printing will appear at a later moment in the scale. HighLine Screens are
designed in such a way that this transition is normally smooth. This depends on
the vignette used. Depending on dot gain, this part of the vignette might be too
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HighLine Screens
abrupt.
See paragraph “Highlight treatment (page 46)” in the chapter
“Managing color with highline screen” for more information.
52
6
Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
6.1 General information
Monet Screens are the Esko-Graphics stochastic screening technology. They are
characterized by a great flexibility towards the printing process, due to their
unique variable dot size feature. Excellent results have been reached in offset,
flexo, letterpress and screen-printing on standard presses. Contrary to many
other stochastic screen technologies, no special equipment is needed for working
with Monet Screens.
; Note
For in depth information Check out the PDF: Stochastic Screening Monet Screens. on the
Doc and Tools CD.
6.2 What are Monet Screens?
6.2.1 General properties
Monet Screens are the Esko-Graphics frequency-modulated (FM) Screens,
providing moiré-free images that approximate the quality of true photographs.
Monet Screens 2 is the current version.
Monet Screens are characterized by the following specific properties:
• the dots are not placed on a geometrical pattern
• the size of the dots is not proportioned to the dot percentage
• the number of dots depends on the dot percentage
Monet Screens resemble other stochastic screening technologies, such as
CristalRaster (Agfa) , Harlequin’s Dispersed Screening or Creo’s Staccato.
The following illustrations show the differences between Classic and stochastic
screening techniques:
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
Classic Screens: Square dot
Monet Screens (stochastic)
Monet Screens give you access to all advantages of frequency-modulated or
stochastic screening:
• no disturbing rosette pattern
• no problems with moiré for patterned originals such as textiles
• no interference with anilox rolls or silk Screens
• sharper images
• capability of combining more than four separations without moiré
• Slightly bigger color gamut
In addition, Esko-Graphics Monet Screens offer you specific print-technical
advantages:
• Selection of the (average) dot size. This allows the smallest possible dot to be
selected, in order to avoid printing problems caused by dots that are too
small.
54
Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
• The dot size varies only slightly for a given mean dot size. This avoids
artifacts generated by dot gain (or dot loss).
• The dot gain compensation can be adjusted for the different types of behavior
of these Screens on the printing press. This results in excellent printability.
• Monet Screens creates a kind of chain effect in the midtones to diminish dot
gain
• Monet Screens can be combined with Classic Screens in the same job. This
allows a flexible choice between Classic and Monet Screens, whichever best
fits the needs of your high-quality work. Moreover, Monet Screens can be
compensated in a different way than Classic Screens, by using the screenbased dot gain compensation utility.
The advantages of Monet Screens, with respect to other stochastic screening
technologies, are:
• the ability to generate very big dot sizes.
• the availability of a special version for high dot gain (MF)
• the possibility to combine Monet Screens freely with Classic Screens in a
separation
Monet Screens provide an innovative flexible screening technology, which offers
you the tools to migrate your printing processes to the promising field of
frequency-modulated screening.
6.2.2 Fields of application
Monet Screens are especially interesting in the following domains:
• printing of pictures containing textures and patterns
• high-quality quadri (no rosettes, sharpness, ...)
• printing on textures (e.g. textile printing)
• screening of fine lines (e.g. in cartography)
• images with sharp straight edges (no sawtooth effects)
Monet Screens are less suitable for:
• smooth or flat backgrounds in one color (e.g. a 50 % grey)
• applications with high dot gain. This is specifically true for the standard
Monet Screen (dot=M). The special version for high dot gain (dot=MF)
overcomes partially this disadvantage of stochastic screening.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
6.2.3 Performance
The exposure performance is the same as the performance of Esko-Graphics
'Classic Screens.
6.2.4 Equivalent rulings and angles
Monet Screens do not have angles or rulings. However, it is still important to
distinguish between different Monet Screens because they can have different dot
sizes and different structures (dot placement).
Dot sizes are like rulings of a conventional screen. Higher rulings use bigger dot
sizes and are used for printing processes that have trouble reproducing smaller
dots. So with Monet Screens, we still have to select bigger dots for these printing
processes. Since most people have a better idea of classic screen rulings than of
micron dot sizes, we decided to select Monet Screens over an equivalent ruling.
A printing process that can print 133 lpi conventional screen can also print a
Monet Screen with an equivalent ruling of 133 lpi.
Below is described what the exact relationship is between a Monet Screen and a
Classic Screen with equal ruling. If you are not interested in the mathematics
behind this, you can simply skip this section.
Relation between Monet Screen and Classic Screen of equal ruling
The equivalent ruling is defined by the ruling of the Classic Screen that has the
same dot size at 5 % as the Monet Screen.
56
Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
Example
The following table demonstrates the equivalence between Monet 200 and the Classic
Screen 200 LPI. All sizes are in micron. The Monet size is the same as the size of the
Classic Screen at 5 %: 28.4 micron.
Classic 200
Monet 200
1%
12.7
28.4
2%
18.0
28.4
3%
22.0
28.4
5%
28.4
28.4
10 %
40.2
28.4
20 %
56.8
28.4
50 %
89.8
28.4
The formulae interconnecting size and equivalent ruling are:
size (in micron) = (25400 * sqrt(0.05))/ equivalent_ruling (LPI)
size (in micron) = 5680/equivalent_ruling
equivalent ruling (LPI) = 5680/size(in micron)
It is clear that the higher the equivalent ruling, the smaller the dots will be, and the better
your process ought to be in order to reach a satisfactory result.
For a given dot size, you always have several Monet Screens with different dot
placement. This is necessary for high-quality color work. To distinguish
between different dot placements, we use equivalent angles. There is no
relationship at all between the Monet Screen angles and the Classic Screen
angles. You can use a Monet Screen of 15 degrees for black, together with a
Monet Screen of 0 degrees for cyan or magenta without moiré.
Different colors are best printed with equal equivalent rulings (equal dot sizes).
However, this is not a stringent rule. If the equivalent rulings are equal, you
HAVE TO use different equivalent angles. Otherwise, you will screen twice with
exactly the same dot size and dot placement. This gives the same effect as
screening two separations with Classic Screens with the same angle and ruling.
Color shifts due to small registration errors will be very difficult to avoid.
Using angles from one of the classical sets can enhance performance. Using 15
and 75 degrees together on one film can print faster than using 15 and 67 degrees
together. This is because the performance has been optimized towards the
classical choices of 30 degrees of difference.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
6.2.5 Second order Monet Screens (“Monet for Flexo”)
Second order Monet Screens are Monet Screens with bigger dot sizes for the
holes in the shadow areas than for the dots in the highlight areas. The following
picture illustrates the difference between first order and second order stochastic
Screens.
First order Monet Screens:
Second order Monet Screens:
Second order Monet Screens have following advantages over normal (first order)
Monet Screens:
• Good highlight detail without loss in the shadows due to fill-up
• In flexography, small gaps between dots fill in due to a “gravure-like” inking
effect: the gap is filled with ink and takes more ink than the dots. This effect is
especially important when too much pressure is applied between the anilox
roller and the plate cylinder. Second order stochastic Screens help to avoid
this effect by enlarging the gap.
• Dot gain is lower
Second order Monet Screens are selected with dot=MF. Everybody having a
Monet Screens license can also use second order Monet Screens.
Competitive stochastic screening designs don’t offer this choice. Often they
behave about half-way between M and MF. If you are confronted with a print
where Monet Screens has more dot gain than a competitive offering for the same
dot size, try using MF.
58
Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
6.2.6 Step by step instructions for using Monet Screens
To use Monet Screens, you have to make following choices:
• First or second order Monet Screens
• Monet Screens for the whole job or on specific places only
• Select ruling and angle
6.2.6.1 First or second order Monet Screens
First order Monet Screens are selected with dot=M.
Second order Monet Screens are selected with dot=MF.
Second order Monet Screens is best chosen for every process with high dot gain
like conventional flexography, newspaper printing, printing on low quality
substrates etc. High quality offset works better with conventional Monet Screens
(dot=M) and also flexography over the Cyrel Digital Imager makes better results
with conventional Monet Screens.
6.2.6.2 Whole job or specific places
When Monet Screens must be applied to the whole job at once, you can select
dot=M in the FLEXRIP dispatcher or on the Mac or in PackEdge or in the
FLEXRIP handler. See the FLEXRIP user manual for more information.
Applying Monet Screens only on specific places is only possible with PackEdge
or PackLine. You cannot do selective Monet Screens with PostScript or PDF
Input.
Within PackEdge and PackLine, it is possible to select a dot shape for every ink.
You can furthermore have a physical ink occurring more than once. The trick is
then to make 2 cyans, one with conventional dots (for example dot=R) and once
with Monet Screens (dot=M or dot=MF). You do the same for any other ink.
Then, depending on whether a color is made with the one ink set or with the
other, the system will select Monet Screens or conventional Screens.
Combining Monet Screens with Samba Screens or Samba Screens with
conventional Screens is done in exactly the same way.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
Very important is to select dot=JOB when exposing over the FLEXRIP handler or
over the PackEdge Print option, else the selected dot shapes will be overruled
with the dot shape selected in the Print dialog or the handler.
6.2.6.3 Selecting rulings and angles
Working with Monet Screens is very similar to working with Classic Screens.
You can work with Monet Screens as if they were Classic Screen dot shapes.
In the graphic editors, you can fill in the equivalent ruling and angle in the Inks
menu (where you normally fill in the ruling and angle). When the input comes
from PostScript or PDF, the ruling used in the Print Dialog of the DTP software
will be used as the equivalent ruling and the angles will be used as equivalent
angles.
Although many people work with equivalent rulings and angles like with
conventional rulings and angles, it is mostly useful to have a table at hand telling
what rulings exist and what dot sizes are the result of them. Furthermore, you
like to know what dot patterns exist. The list of dot patterns is visible out of the
list of different angles.
The table below is adequate for the Esko-Graphics film imagesetters. Tables for
other imagesetters can be found in the section with tables per device.
Dot sizes are in micron. Always make sure to use one of the available angles.
Otherwise the nearest available angle will be taken. You run the risk of using the
same screen twice.
Example
Suppose you take 2540 ppi, 191 lpi equivalent ruling (30 micron dot). In this case, 45
and 37 degrees will generate the same stochastic screen, because 37 degrees does not exist
and 45 degrees is the nearest existing screen to 37 degrees. It has already been mentioned
that using exactly the same screen for different separations twice results in moiré with
the slightest misregistration.
Monet Screens first order (dot=M) on the Esko-Graphics film image setters
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
Monet Screens second order (dot=MF) on the Esko-Graphics film image setters
The available angles for dot=MF are equal for all rulings and are:
0,7,15,37,45,67,75 and 82 degrees.
Remark that the dot size and the hole size are different. This is fundamental for
the second order Monet Screen technology. Not furthermore that the difference
between dot size and hole size is dependent on the resolution. Lower resolutions
show bigger differences than higher resolutions. Lower resolutions should
therefore be used for the processes with extreme dot gain like corrugated
postprint flexography.
Choice of angles for quadri work
For quadri work (CMYK), the best way of working is to use the angles 90, 15, 45
and 75 of one job all with the same equivalent ruling. All dot sizes and shapes
will then be more or less equal, which will result in a good gray balance. If the
full set of 7, 37, 67, 82 exists, you can also use this one. Furthermore, if you decide
to do the same job with Classic Screens, you would only have to change the dot
shape to, for example, "DOT=R". The combination will be moiré-free.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
More than four separations
With Monet Screens, it is perfectly possible to combine more than four
separations within one image. As every combination works, there is a practically
endless range of possibilities. However, in most cases you want the dot sizes to
be more or less equal.
Example
Suppose you want to expose seven separations (C, M, Y, K, blue, green and red), and you
want a dot size of around 30 micron. In this case, the following combination will generate
an excellent result:
If your film is large enough, you can expose all of them at once on one single film.
Not enough angles available
If not enough different angles are available for a given dot size and resolution,
you can combine them with other resolutions.
Example
Suppose you want to expose ten separations (C, M, Y, K, blue, green, red, brown, orange
and gray), and you want a dot size of around 30 micron. In this case, the following
combination will generate an excellent result:
If your film is large enough, you can expose all of them on two films: one exposed at 2000
ppi for the first five separations, the second one at 2540 ppi for the five other separations.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
6.2.6.4 What is a good choice for the dot size and equivalent ruling ?
The quality of your printing result largely depends on the choice of the dot size.
If you have already experimented with Monet Screens, you will have seen that
the results vary significantly according to which dot size has been used.
The flexible possibility of choosing the dot size is the main feature, which makes
Monet Screens special. This makes it possible to match the technology as good
as possible to the existing printing processes, for which you want to make plates
or masters.
Why larger dots?
• the larger the dot, the easier plate making will be
• the larger the dot, the better it prints
• the smaller the dot, the more dot gain
Why smaller dots?
• the larger the dot, the more grainy it looks
• the smaller the dot, the better detail reproduction will be; however, there is a
limit
If you can keep the dots on the plate, but the result is too grainy, try a smaller dot
(higher equivalent ruling). If you cannot keep the dots on the plate, and as a
consequence you loose detail, try a larger dot (lower equivalent ruling), or try to
improve the way you make plates.
Choosing the dot size is a matter of experience. If you have no idea where to
start, try the following:
Offset process
A dot size of 25 micron should work for all offset processes, except perhaps for
offset printing on special substrates. If your result is too grainy, try 20 micron or
even lower.
Be careful when making plates from film. Especially when you use small dots
(under 25 micron), you have to avoid overexposure.
The effect of overexposure is different for positive and negative offset. For
positive offset, overexposure will cut away dust, but also the smallest dots.
When the dots are only 20 micron large, you will lose a lot of them, which will
result in color differences. A good rule is to expose until the 6-micron lines have
disappeared, while the 8-micron lines are still visible on the control strip. For dot
sizes smaller than 20 micron, you have to be even more careful. For dot sizes
larger than 20 micron, you have a larger exposure range.
In a negative offset process, overexposure will give you a larger dot gain. The
smaller the dots are, the more dot gain. In the dark shadowed areas, the small
openings tend to fill up, due to overexposure.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
Be aware that in most cases dots smaller than 20 micron will not generate better
results. It just makes your work more difficult. Small dot sizes should only be
used for special applications, such as security printing and very high-quality
work, for example for printing with a waterless press.
Due to dot gain on the imagesetter, negative dots (white spots on a black
background) will always be smaller than positive dots (black spots on a white
background). 20-micron positive dots will enlarge to 25-micron dots, while 20
micron negative dots will fill up to 15 micron or smaller. Be aware of this when
making your films.
Computer to plate makes many of these issues obsolete. Therefore, computer to
plate is a good starting point for success with stochastic screening in general and
Monet Screens specifically. However, excellent results have been made with
film processes too, certainly when the dot size was chosen correctly.
Example
We give values for a highlight dot. Theoretical size: 20 micron. Size on positive film: 25
micron (black spot). Size on plate with correct exposure: 20 micron (dots smaller than on
film).
Size on negative film: 13 micron (white spot). Size on plate with correct exposure: 20
micron (dots larger than on film).
Be very careful with contacts, as they will extremely influence the dot size and
the final density. Contacting films to films should be avoided for many other
reasons too.
Flexo process
Flexo has a wide range of applications, all with different kinds of substrates,
inks, anilox rolls and press characteristics.
Therefore, it is impossible to give a straight rule.
Tests have shown that the chosen dot size should be inversely proportional to
the dot gain of the complete process. Corrugated postprint is characterized by a
high dot gain and low resolutions. In this case, larger dots have to be used, for
example dots of around 80 or 100 micron. For label printing however, smaller
dots can be used. Tests have shown that printing with correctly exposed flexo
plates give excellent results with dots of around 35 micron.
Second order stochastic Screens print easier than first order stochastic Screens. If
you have a lot of dot gain, avoid first order stochastic Screens.
The success you will have with Monet Screens for flexo largely depends on plate
making and on the craftsmanship of the press operator. Although Monet Screens
solve a number of typical flexo problems, they introduce some new problems,
which can be avoided by using the correct materials and working with interested
press operators. Particularly slur should be avoided as much as possible,
because it generates a very high dot gain when combined with Monet Screens.
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
Slur can be avoided with a correct pressure on the press, both between plate
cylinder and substrate and between plate cylinder and anilox roll.
Thin photopolymer plates give better results than thicker plates, as you have the
possibility to keep smaller dots on your plate. The dot gain is in general smaller.
Exposure should be done carefully, in order to have a good dot quality. It is
possible that you will have to do some tests to determine the ideal exposure time.
This is a matter of experience. In general, a slightly longer exposure gives the
best result (about 10 % longer exposure for Classic Screens). Reflections should
be avoided as much as possible. Films must be mat.
If you want to use Monet Screens for flexography, it is a good idea to read our
application note on Monet Screens for flexography.
Screen-printing
Screen-printing is used for a wide range of applications, some of them
characterized by very special demands towards dot sizes. Remember that Classic
Screen dots at 50 % are 10 times larger (in area) than Classic Screen dots at 5 %.
To avoid the 5 % dots from disappearing between the mesh, you have to choose
a very low ruling. As a result, your 50 % dots will be very large.
This makes Monet Screens especially interesting for screen printing processes,
because the dot size only slightly varies for a given mean dot size, which is freely
chosen by the operator.
Only experiments can show which dot size is best for your application. A good
test is to make a test film with different sizes on it. For 1270 ppi, you can put 100,
80, 60 and 40 micron on one film. Doing tests with this film will teach you how
your process reacts to the various dot sizes.
Moiré between Monet Screens and the mesh is practically impossible, except for
the 67-degree equivalent angles. Therefore, try to avoid these angles. The
standard offset set (0, 15, 45 and 75 degrees) in most cases gives the best result.
6.2.6.5 Further recommendations
For a flat monochrome tint, stochastic Screens give a more grainy result than
conventional Screens. For flat Screens, it is in some cases advisable not to use
Monet Screens. Note that, for this work, the 45-degree Classic Screen is excellent.
Monet Screens are only advisable for monochrome work when
• extreme sharpness is needed
• the originals or the substrate contain textures
• printing is done in screen printing
For quadri, we recommend Monet Screens in most cases, especially when the
rosette patterns disturb the image (chocolate colors, deep purple,...) and when
the image contains fine textures (textile,grids).
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Esko-Graphics Monet Screens
• Patterns are in general best printed with Monet Screens because the patterns
cannot interfere with the (non-existing) patterns in these Screens.
• CT-resolution : Monet Screens are known to generate an extreme sharpness.
If you work with the normal CT-resolution (e.g. 300 ppi), your result will be at
least as good as with normal Screens. However, every screening technology is
limited by the resolution of the CT. Monet Screens will not generate
sharpness if your CT is not sharp. Therefore, extremely good results can be
obtained when using higher CT-resolutions. Note that this is not the case with
conventional screening. Above 300 ppi, you need a very high ruling (above
200 lpi) to obtain better sharpness than with 300 ppi.
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SambaFlex Screens
7.1 The difference between SambaFlex Screens and
Samba Screens
SambaFlex Screens solves the only real limitation of Samba Screens: with Samba
Screens, the minimum dot size is determined by the resolution of the
imagesetter. SambaFlex Screens on the other hand supports 7 different
minimum dot sizes for every imagesetter resolution. These 7 different minimum
dot sizes cover a very broad range, from hardly visible dots until dots that are so
big that they can only be used for artistic effects.
Just like Samba Screens, SambaFlex Screens are transitional Screens. They have a
stochastic part in highlights and shadows, a conventional part in the midtones
and the transition between both contains a pattern that is slightly going over
from stochastic to conventional over a very big number of intermediate patterns.
7.2 What are SambaFlex Screens?
SambaFlex Screens are a mixture of classic screening technology and stochastic
screening technology.
Classic screening places printing dots on a regular grid. The grid is the same for
all densities. Different densities have different dot sizes but the number of dots
remains equal.
Stochastic Screens on the other hand don’t place the printing dots on a regular
grid. Different densities are reached by placing more dots for higher printing
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SambaFlex Screens
density and less dots for lower printing density.
stochastic screening is called Monet Screens.
Esko-Graphics' version of
Experience with Classic Screens and Monet Screens (stochastic) learned that both
screening techniques had their advantages and disadvantages in the flexo and
silkscreen printing process. Classic Screens were especially valuable in the
midtones because dot gain is lower than with stochastic Screens and because the
mathematical dot position guarantees a clean aspect. Monet Screens can
sometimes produce grainy results, but perform very well in the highlights where
the optimized dot positioning and the choice of the minimum dot size allow for a
perfect match to the technical limitations of the printing process. Moreover,
rosette formation is avoided and sharpness is enhanced.
Combination of classic and stochastic screening has been asked for since a long
time, however the far-going differences in both technologies made it very
difficult to make a smooth transition between a nice stochastic screen in the
highlights and a classic screen in the midtones obeying the fixed moiré rules of
classic screening technology. With SambaFlex Screening, Esko-Graphics resolves
the combination problem in an artistic way. Following is an enlarged gradation
of the screen.
As can be seen, the screen starts as a true stochastic screen with a selectable dot
size, which allows for a perfect match to the anilox roll. Around 50 %, a true
classic screen is formed, with screen angles and screen rulings obeying the rules
for moiré- free classic Screens. In-between, the screen transforms itself smoothly
from a stochastic pattern into a classic pattern. In the meantime, the dots grow
following the required density.
The improvement is explained through the revolutionary technology behind the
SambaFlex Screens, which not only uses normal stochastic and classic dot
positioning but also an endless set of in-between patterns. As a result, it is no
longer needed to force a transition between the previously incompatible classic
and stochastic patterns. Instead, the Samba screen runs over a big number of
patterns with always increasing classic features and diminishing stochastic
features. In the highlights, the dot pattern does not follow any classic pattern, at
25 %, dots come nearer to the classic theoretic center and the distance from that
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SambaFlex Screens
center is based on the original stochastic pattern. You see the dots dancing
around the classic center. Finally, at 50 %, the dots are fully on the classical grid.
5 % SambaFlex Screen
True stochastic pattern
Smooth aspect
12 % SambaFlex Screen
Dots dancing around the classic center
7.3 Advantages of SambaFlex Screens
In many printing processes, highlights and shadow areas produce specific
printing problems.
In flexography, highlight dots must have at least a certain size, otherwise, they
break during plate making, or even while printing, and they no longer produce
correct printing. Depending on the circumstances, there can be no print at all (all
information lost) or the dots can produce filthy printing (speckles, ink building
up etc). This is demonstrated in following pictures:
A negative film for
flexography can contain
very little dots. The dot
to the left is 10
micrometer, the middle
one is 20 micrometer and
the last one is 30
micrometer
The result after plate
making. The smallest dot
(A) is too small to make
a decent dot and it does
not print. Dot B almost
touches the printing
surface. It is not stable
and printing will be very
dependent on
circumstances like
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SambaFlex Screens
pressure, vibrations, ink
properties
The result on print. As
expected, dot A does not
print at all and dot C
produces a stable
printing result. Dot B is
printing filthy dots,
sometimes no dot,
sometimes very big dots.
This results in a strange
printing curve. In
practice, such a curve
limits the tonal range
until point C. Bringing
down point C can be
done with thin plate
technology, digital plate
making (CDI), finer
anilox rollers
etc.SambaFlex Screens
however change this
curve fundamentally
In screen printing, dots should at least be as big as the area between the threads
of the silk screen. With a classic screen, all these limitations will directly
translate themselves into limitations of the printable dot percentage.
Effect of the screen ruling (classic Screens):
Suppose that a flexo process cannot print dots smaller than 25 micrometer. At a
screen ruling of 150 lpi, this is around a 2 % dot on film. With the big dot gain of
flexography, this 2 % dot will print around 10 %. This means that the smallest
dot on print is 10 %. Nothing under 10 % is printing. This will seriously limit
the contrast in our image. If we want to have more contrast, we must lower the
screen ruling. At 100 lpi, this same 25-micrometer dot is only a 1 % dot. This dot
will print around 5 % in flexography, increasing our contrast range seriously.
Lowering the screen ruling has a far-going effect on sharpness. Therefore, we
want to avoid it at any price.
How SambaFlex Screens solves these issues
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SambaFlex Screens
SambaFlex Screens breaks the laws of the classic Screens: it is possible to
maintain the minimum dot of 25 micrometer independent of the dot percentage.
So it is possible to still have 25-micrometer dots at 1 % or lower on film with a
150 lpi or higher screen count. This is reached by diminishing the number of
dots. Following picture explains this:
Classic Screens
SambaFlex Screens
Stochastic Screens
dots too small
don’t print
bigger dots
print OK
bigger dots
print OK
Transition point
Prints OK
Transition point
Prints OK
Transition point
Prints OK
Prints OK
Prints OK
Too much Dot Gain
1%
3%
10%
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SambaFlex Screens
7.4 Mastering the transition
7.4.1 Seven transition points for every resolution
The fundamental question when using SambaFlex Screens is how big the
smallest dot should be. Since this size of the dot will be used between 0 and the
transition point, it is important that this dot is a well printing dot.
One could judge that the easy way out would be to take the dot immediately big
enough. This will without any doubt lead to the easiest printing possible.
Unfortunately, there is a drawback on stochastic patterns with bigger dots.
Bigger dots mean fewer dots and less dots means less sharpness. Additionally,
the human eye is pretty sensitive to big dots and we experience an unpleasant
pattern when looking at bigger size stochastic Screens. This is illustrated in
following picture:
So the goal is to find the point where the dots are big enough to print correctly
and still small enough to not produce objectionable patterns. SambaFlex Screens
are specifically developed towards this goal.
SambaFlex Screens give you a far-going control on the way the stochastic Screens
make their transition to the conventional screen. Since printing processes differ
heavily, SambaFlex Screens gives you a very broad range of possible minimum
dot sizes. This is illustrated in the table below:
Minimum dot sizes in micrometer for SambaFlex Screens at different resolutions
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SambaFlex Screens
• There are SambaFlex Screens with very coarse stochastic patterns (CS45) and
SambaFlex Screens with almost unnoticeable stochastic effects (CS4)
• When selecting bigger stochastic dots, the highlights have less dots
• When selecting bigger stochastic dots, the transition point in the highlights
shifts up to higher dot percentages
• The minimum dot size has no influence at all on the midtones
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SambaFlex Screens
• The transition between stochastic and conventional is smooth for every choice
of minimum dot size.
7.4.2 How to select the transition point?
The transition point is selected through a dot shape. You have the choice
between CS4, CS9, CS14, CS19, CS25, CS36 and CS45.
The number after “CS” points to the number of pixels in the highlight dots.
Higher imagesetter resolutions will thus produce smaller highlight dots for the
same dot shape.
In order to help you to determine the right dot shape for your application, there
is a tool available as on-line help. The tool looks like below:
Starting this tool is easy:
• On the FLEXRIP (where SambaFlex Screens are installed) do
Start/Programs/Esko-Graphics/Screen Data v1.0/SambaFlex transition point
• If you have the SambaFlex CD-ROM, put it in your CD writer, open windows
Explorer, go to the CD-ROM drive, go to subdirectory Documentation and
double click on screendoc_index.htm. Then first click on SambaFlex, then on
the transition tool
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SambaFlex Screens
Once you know what dot shape to use, all you have to do is select this dot shape
in your application. You can select SambaFlex Screens on your FLEXRIP, in
PackEdge and in Plato.
In PackEdge and Plato, SambaFlex Screens must be selected using the Paint
Menu. See the Screens manual for more information about how to select screen
dot shapes in PackEdge.
7.4.3 The problem of too many dot sizes
SambaFlex Screens has 7 possible minimum dot sizes for every imagesetter
resolution. This opens the question what dot size is ideal for your application.
There are many methods to know what the best dot size is for every application:
• By experiment: you can make a test chart with the different dot shapes side
by side and judge which one performs best. On the SambaFlex CD-ROM, you
will find a step by step procedure for doing tests plus also an excellent test
form and some DGC files that will be of much help.
• By experience: On the long run, you know perfectly what you can expect from
each combination of SambaFlex dot shape and printing process.
• Good starting points: Since experiments are expensive, and experience takes
time to build up, this guide will try to give directions towards typical sizes
you want to select for the different printing applications.
7.5 SambaFlex Screens and flexography
7.5.1 Dot gain and printing stability
Following dot gain curve shows clearly the advantages of SambaFlex Screens
over both Monet Screens as Classic Screens. The difference with Classic Screens
is mainly important in the highlight area (under 15 %) and to a lesser degree in
the shadow areas (above 85 %). It is important to stress on the fact that the
classic screen is unable to reproduce a density lower than 10 % on print.
Compared to Monet Screens, the dot gain difference in the midtones is striking.
Moreover, it will prove to be an advantage that the midtone dot gain is so near to
classic Screens.
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SambaFlex Screens
7.5.2 Printing stability advantages for the flexo process
The real advantage of SambaFlex Screens is its stability on the flexo press.
Typical stability problems in the flexo process are:
• Highlights sometimes don’t print, sometimes print far too heavy dependent
on anilox characteristics and applied pressure. SambaFlex Screens’ guaranteed
minimum dot size avoids unpredictable behavior of dots jumping into the
anilox cells.
• Midtone dot gain fluctuates, especially for stochastic Screens SambaFlex
Screens have far less dot gain than stochastic Screens and the dot gain is far
better predictable.
• Shadows tend to fill in. Due to the frequency modulation in the shadow areas,
ink fill-in is lower than for classic or stochastic Screens.
7.5.3 SambaFlex Screens and Cyrel Digital Imager
Some people believe that SambaFlex Screens allows to equal CDI quality using
film based plate making. Other people believe that SambaFlex Screens loose
their advantages when you start using a CDI. Although both SambaFlex Screens
and CDI both improve the general flexo plate characteristics, there is no reason
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SambaFlex Screens
to believe that the one replaces the other. On the contrary, combination of both
has been a successful receipt for many flexo houses.
7.5.3.1 How does CDI improve the results of SambaFlex Screens?
Plate making over the Cyrel Digital Imager produces smaller dots than over film
copying.
In following example, we suppose that you need dots of 40
micrometer on film to guarantee stable plate making. These dots will result in
dots on plate of 60 micrometer and will print around 80 micrometer. When
looking at a gradation with this plate making process, it would look like below:
Conventional plate making, 120LPI
When making plates over the Cyrel Digital Imager, you need dots of about 60
micrometer on the black mask. Although this gives you the impression that you
will be using a coarser screen, the result on plate is surprising: the dots on plate
will only be about 35 micrometer big. Printed dots will be around 55
micrometer. This will result in a gradation that looks like below:
CDI plate making, 120LPI
Remark that this screen looks finer and smoother than the screen made with
conventional plate making. Since we now lost both the dot gain limitation and
the highlight range limitation of higher screen rulings in flexography, we can
increase the screen ruling until 133 lpi (for this example), leading to the gradation
below, which still looks a lot finer than the result with conventional plate
making.
CDI plate making, 133LPI
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SambaFlex Screens
7.5.3.2 What can SambaFlex Screens do that CDI does not allow doing?
Each flexo plate making and printing process has certain limitations to the
printability of the smallest dots. Smaller dots don’t hold on plate or dip into the
anilox cells. Using a CDI does not change this game. Small dots print badly, also
when the plate is a digital plate. CDI allows making smaller dots on plate then
conventional plate making. More important: the dots made by CDI are more
stable and easier to reproduce. But even these smaller dots are still big enough
to eat an important piece away from the reproduction curve. Moreover, this gets
worse when rulings increase, one of the driving factors to use a CDI. SambaFlex
Screens allows getting back this piece of the reproduction curve.
So CDI extends the tonal range from 14 % lightest stable print to 6.8 % lightest
stable print. SambaFlex brings it down to virtually 0. In case of conventional
plate making, this is at the cost of coarse highlight Screens with ugly patterns, in
the case of CDI, this is at a far lower cost (see previous paragraph).
7.5.3.3 Conclusion
CDI and SambaFlex Screens don’t replace each other but reinforce each other.
7.5.3.4 How to select the minimum dot size with CDI?
As already explained, during plate making with digital plates, the dots actually
shrink, while they expand with conventional plate making. As a result of this,
you typically have to select a “coarser” SambaFlex Screen for CDI than for
conventional plate making. However, after plate making and printing, it prints
finer than the version with conventional.
In the above example, we took 40 micrometer (on film) for the conventional plate
making. At 120 LPI, 2000 dpi, this would be dot shape CS9 (38.1 mm). For the
CDI plate making, we took 60 micrometer (on the black mask0 for the minimum
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SambaFlex Screens
dot. At 120 LPI, 2000 dpi, this would be dot shape CS25 (63.5 mm). Although
CS25 is coarser than CS9, after printing the result will be less coarse, mainly
because plate making dot gain is so much lower with the CDI process.
7.5.4 Good starting points for minimum dot sizes
Following are good starting points for minimum dot sizes for flexography. Dot
sizes are in micrometer and are the sizes on film or on the CDI black mask. Sizes
on print will heavily differ due to dot gain effects. Sizes for the CDI are higher
because CDI plate making diminishes the printing dot size, while film based
plate making increases the dot size. The numbers below are chosen in such a
way that the dot size on plate will be equal for film based and CDI.
Best choice will further be dependent on the ink types, the quality of the press,
and certainly also of the anilox roller.
7.5.5 Relation between SambaFlex Screens and anilox properties
Does SambaFlex Screen change anything to the anilox parameters on your flexo
press?
A general answer is that any anilox roll suited for normal Screens are also suited
for SambaFlex Screens with the same ruling. SambaFlex Screens don't increase
the demands on the anilox rolls. On the contrary, due to the minimum dot size
effect, it is possible to extend the ruling range of a given anilox roll. (You could
also argue that you can use a worse anilox for equal rulings, but that is a bad
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idea in general.
printing).
Good anilox rollers is a must have for every quality flexo
SambaFlex Screens are especially interesting if the minimum dot does not dip
into the anilox roll. Following table shows the relation between minimum dot
size and anilox ruling
7.5.6 SambaFlex Screens and IntelliCurve
IntelliCurve is Esko-Graphics' professional dot gain compensation tool.
IntelliCurve allows you to make the best possible fit between the desired
printing characteristics and the real printing characteristics of a press. This way,
printing on a press becomes far more predictable.
In flexography, SambaFlex Screens have an important impact on the best use of
IntelliCurve, in the first place because the minimum dot behavior of flexography
is definitely better with SambaFlex Screens.
There is a complete application note on how to improve SambaFlex Screens
results with IntelliCurve. Therefore, this manual limits itself to the key points:
• Use IntelliCurve as always to measure the printing densities (see IntelliCurve
manual).
• Selection of the minimum dot percentage is less stringent than in conventional
Screens. In theory, you don’t need a minimum dot percentage anymore since
the smallest dots don’t become smaller with smaller percentages. You just
have less dots. However, since you have less dots, they are further from each
other. Since flexography has more trouble with isolated dots than with dots
close to each other, it is possible that a given dot shape (like CS19) produces
correct printing for 2 % but not for 1 %. In order to avoid that the dots get that
far from each other, you can again use a minimum percentage. Typically, this
number will be far lower than for conventional Screens.
• If you are using a CDI, you will be aware of the use of bump-up curves.
Bump-up curves are made for conventional screening. For SambaFlex Screens,
they are in theory again not needed. For the same reason as mentioned above,
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a slight bump-up curve can still help you. Instead of bumping up 1 % to 7 or
8 %, you will only bump up to 3 %. Doing real measurements on press will
point you in the same direction.
• Continue to use the reference curves.
• Use your dot gain curves as usual in the RIP, but don’t forget to have a look at
SCRDGC files, where you have to make sure you add lines for SambaFlex
Screens. If you don’t add lines for SambaFlex Screens, the SCRDGC will fall
back on the entries for Default dots, and these entries are typically not made
for SambaFlex Screens.
Adding lines for SambaFlex Screens is
straightforward since every SambaFlex Screen is a special dot shape, so you
put in the column for dot shapes CS4, CS9 etc. For each press, you will mostly
only use one of the SambaFlex Screens, so it is rare to have to add lines for
different SambaFlex Screens.
7.6 SambaFlex Screens and silk screen printing
7.6.1 Advantages for the silk screen process
A common problem in silk screen-printing is the difficulty to print small dots or
to keep open the shadow areas. This is due to the mesh characteristics. When
using conventional Screens, there will always be a percentage where the dots
don't print anymore. As a result, the tonal scale is limited to 10 – 90 % with all its
consequences for imaging quality. It has been proven in the past, that this effect
could be solved using stochastic Screens (like Esko-Graphics' Monet Screens)
with sufficiently large dot sizes. However, stochastic Screens also proved to
have specific disadvantages, mainly an increased dot gain and possibly a grainy
aspect (when using bigger dots). Using SambaFlex Screens with the appropriate
minimum dot, it is possible to keep the highlight dots, just like was the case with
stochastic Screens, but without the disadvantages of stochastic Screens in the
midtones. Currently, choice of the minimum dot size can only be done by
choosing the resolution.
7.6.2 Good starting points for minimum dot sizes
In silkscreen printing, the minimum dot size of the Samba Screen must in each
case be bigger than the holes between the threads of the mesh. In following
table, TPC is threads per centimeter and TPI is threads per inch. This table gives
you immediately a good starting point for the minimum dot (in micrometer)
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7.7 Technical information
Following is technical information about the behavior of SambaFlex Screens. If
you are not specifically looking for a higher level of technical information about
SambaFlex Screens, you can skip this whole chapter.
7.7.1 Rosette formation
As could be expected from the technology behind SambaFlex Screens, overlaps
of different colors will look different dependent on the densities of the colors:
• Overlaps of highlight dots will look like overlaps of Monet Screens
• Overlaps of midtone dots will produce the true classic clear centered rosettes
• Overlaps of in-between dots or overlaps of highlight dots over midtone dots
will produce weaker rosettes than is the case with classic Screens
7.7.2 Dot shape and screen angles
SambaFlex Screens were specially designed for flexography and silk screenprinting. Therefore, the dot shape is based on the for flexo widely accepted
circular dot (see gradation). The supported angles are the standard flexo angles:
7.5, 22.5, 37.5, 52.5, 67.5, 82.5 degrees. These are also the best angles for
silkscreen printing. As is the case for Esko-Graphics' Classic Screens, rulings and
angles perfectly fit to prevent all kinds of moiré between the 3 most prominent
colors.
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Combination of SambaFlex Screens with Classic Screens or Monet Screens
SambaFlex Screens behaves on the Esko-Graphics' FastRips as a special dot
shape which can be combined with other dot shapes in the same way as that can
be done for Monet Screens and different classic dot shapes.
7.8 SambaFlex Screens versus other advanced
screening techniques
SambaFlex Screens is often compared with other screening techniques that differ
from conventional screening. This chapter will show you that SambaFlex
Screens outperforms its competitors in features, performance, quality and
flexibility.
It is important for you to defend these advantages towards your customers.
They choose who makes their plates, and you have a serious lead over your
competitors since you are a SambaFlex Screens user. Make sure your
commercial people understand this and spread this into the market as your high
quality service to the printers.
According to laws in certain countries, we will not use the commercial names of
the competing techniques in this guide. Instead, we will refer to these techniques
through a technical name (typically the technical name accepted by the market).
However, whenever this is necessary for a good understanding, we can give
examples of products that use the referred techniques
We will compare SambaFlex Screens with:
• Hybrid Screening (mixture of stochastic and conventional screening)
• Frequency modulated conventional screening (FM Classic screening,
sometimes also called Quantum screening)
• Stochastic Screening
7.8.1 SambaFlex versus Hybrid Screening
7.8.1.1 Hybrid screening is a mixture of stochastic and conventional screening
This technique, which is applied for PCC's Hybrid Screens, a real classic screen is
used for the midtones and a real stochastic screen is used for the highlights and
the shadows. The classic screen is cut off at a density for which the screen dots
have a certain critical size. The stochastic screen is made of screen dots with this
critical size. To avoid a clear transition between the classic and the stochastic
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parts both the classic screen and the stochastic screen are mixed in an
intermediate density range (typically from 5% to 10%). The most important
advantages of this technique over the first technique are:
A true stochastic screen in the highlights and the shadows, resulting in a
smoother aspect compared to a frequency modulated screen with all dots on a
classic grid.
No clear “defects” visible at the onset of the frequency modulated part.
However, this technique has also some important disadvantages:
Four transitions are present in the complete density range: the appearance of the
classic screen (typically at 5% and 95%) and the disappearance of the stochastic
screen (typically at 10% and 90%). Each transition can result in a clear boundary
in for example vignettes. Especially the transition between a pure stochastic
screen and a mixture between stochastic and classic Screens (i.e. at the onset of
the classic screen) is problematic, as will be discussed below. In the intermediate
density range, screen dots with different sizes coexist since both the dots of the
stochastic screen (typically with relatively small dots) as the dots of the classic
screen (with sizes depending on the density) are present. This could result in
less controllable dot gain.
7.8.1.2 The transition between the classic and the stochastic Screens
The aim of combined Screens is to maintain a minimum dot size for all densities.
This means that a classic screen has to be cut off completely at a certain density
since at lower densities all dots are too small. Since the total density of the classic
and the stochastic screen has to vary smoothly, the stochastic screen must
compensate for the sudden density change caused by the classic screen, which is
illustrated in the next graphs:
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SambaFlex Screens
This sudden change in both the contribution of the stochastic screen and of the
classic screen is visually rather striking in vignettes and contones.
7.8.1.3 A gradual transition between stochastic and classic Screens (cfr.
SambaFlex Screens)
A third way of obtaining a transition between a stochastic and a classic screen is
used by the Esko-Graphics' SambaFlex Screens. In the intermediate range the
SambaFlex screen runs over a big number of patterns with always increasing
classic features and diminishing stochastic features. In the highlights, the dot
pattern does not follow any classic pattern, at 25% dots come nearer to the classic
theoretic center and the distance from that center is based on the original
stochastic pattern. The dots are really “dancing” around the classic centers. The
advantages of this technique over the previous techniques are clear:
A true stochastic screen in the highlights and the shadows.
No clearly visible defects at the onset of the stochastic screen.
No mixture of two kinds of screen dots with some dots belonging to the
stochastic screen, others to the classic screen. Instead all dots contribute to the
classic screen, to the stochastic screen and to all intermediate Screens.
Consequently, all dots have the identical size, whatever the density. This will
positively contribute to a more controllable dot gain.
There are no sudden jumps in the stochastic and classic contributions. The clear
transitions in vignettes, which were present with the Hybrid Screens, are thus
avoided.
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7.8.1.4 Conclusions
The elegant transition between the stochastic and the classic Screens used for the
SambaFlex Screens offers clear advantages over the techniques used by Screens
such as the PCC's Hybrid Screens: better manageable dot gain and the absence of
clear transitions between stochastic and classic Screens resulting in effectively
usable density ranges all the way from 0% to 100%.
7.8.2 SambaFlex versus FM Classic screening
FM Classic screening, or frequency modulated conventional screening is not a
mixture of stochastic and conventional screening. Instead, it is conventional
screening, where part of the highlight dots is left away depending on the dot
percentage. The dots that remain are NOT shifted away from the classical grid.
Although not really new, this technique was recently taken up by PCC Artwork
Systems under the name Quantum Hybrid Screening. Compared to SambaFlex
Screens, FM Classic screening misses the movement of the dots in the highlight
areas. This has two important drawbacks compared to SambaFlex Screens:
• The dot pattern is not stochastic anymore and shows visible artifacts
• The transition between the frequency modulated part and the purely
conventional part is very hard.
Following graphics show the differences
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SambaFlex Screens
When printing FM Classic Screens in flexography, the dots will become bigger
and the grainy effect will be increased. Moreover, the bad dot positioning will
influence the quality of the dots, certainly when using conventional plate making
(where dot size and form is pretty dependent on the dots around it).
Problems can occur easily around the places where dots are missing, making
these artifacts even more visible.
The flexibility in choice of the transition point is comparable. Both SambaFlex
Screens as FM Classic Screens allow choosing a minimum dot size (which is
actually determined by the number of pixels in the smallest dot). The transition
point is in both cases given by following formula. However, in the case of
SambaFlex Screens, that point is barely visible. It is the place where there are as
many dots as in the classic screen. However, the dots are still not on the
conventional positions, so it does not show that much.
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7.9 Frequently asked questions
7.9.1 Selecting both dot size and transition point
SambaFlex allows me to select a “dot shape” code (such as CS14 or CS36),
which at the same time determines the transition point and the size of the
stochastic dots. Why can’t I select both independently?
There is a very good reason for this. SambaFlex Screens forces the transition
point to the dot percentage where the stochastic dots are exactly as big as the
dots of the conventional screen that is going to be used in the midtones. If this is
not done, strange things will happen:
If the transition point is at a darker dot percentage, you will have too many
stochastic dots. When making the transition to conventional Screens, you will
have to take away dots when going to higher dot percentages. This is extremely
unnatural. Vignettes will show banding. Dot gain will be inconsistent. There is
also no good reason to do this.
Conclusion: the natural place for the transition point is the point where the
stochastic dots are as big as the conventional dots.
But take care, this does NOT mean that at that point the SambaFlex Screen is
already completely equal to the conventional screen. All dots will be present,
and starting from that point, the dots will grow just like the classic screen. But
the dots are not yet on the mathematical grid position. This is an important trick
of SambaFlex Screens and it is this trick that masks the transition point for the
human eye.
What would happen if the SambaFlex Screen would be completely classic after
the transition point? Stochastic effect suddenly stops
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SambaFlex Screens
SambaFlex Screens transition: barely visible because the screen is still stochastic
after the transition point.
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8
Groovy Screens
8.1 What are groovy Screens?
Groovy Screens is Esko-Graphics’ solution for improving solid rendering in
flexographic processes. Groovy Screens have their best performance on foils.
Performance on other substrates (paper, metal) is heavily dependent on the
printing circumstances.
Groovy Screens put a line pattern in the dark areas of the screen. The transition
between the normal screen pattern and the line pattern is smooth, leading to a
smooth gradation on print between the lower density of the non-groovy print to
the higher density of the groovy print. This is illustrated by the picture below.
8.2 Advantages of groovy Screens
The major advantage of groovy Screens is an improved solid rendering. The
solids have a more even ink layer. Typically, the ink layer will be thinner. When
looking at it with a microscope, you still see the microscopical lines. They are
normally, in optimal circumstances, extremely thin.
Solids of 1.1 density without grooves can improve to 1.3 density. Solids of 1.3
without grooves can improve to 1.5 density.
Apart from that, also the saturation of the colors improves. A solid cyan doesn’t
only show a higher density when measured with a densitometer. When
measuring with a colorimeter or photospectormeter, it becomes clear that the
increased cyan density in the first place comes from a purer cyan print.
Lightness doesn’t change all that much but the a and/or b values will be bigger
(more positive or more negative, said differently, more distant from 0). This
clearly points to a better saturation.
8.3 Groovy screen software
Groovy Screens software exists in 3 variations. Each variation has a separate
license cost:
• As installable Screens on the FlexRip (GVY dots). Only a limited number of
variations is available. However, they are chosen after thorough testing on a
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wide variety of flexographic processes. It is advised to start with this set of
Screens. The installable Screens can work on FlexRip v5.1 customer 3 with
SP5 with certain restrictions. It is advised though to use FlexRip v5.2
• As user-created Screens through the Screen Manager application. This allows
to create your own Groovy Screens to be used on the FlexRip. The extra
license cost applies to the Screen Manager application (site license). On the
FlexRip, the standard groovy screen license suffices. The Screen Manager
application works together with FlexRip v5.2 and later only.
• As an option on FlexoPerfection. FlexoPerfection is Esko-Graphics’tool to edit
screened bitmaps such as screened Tiff files or LEN files. Apart from many
other advanced editing tools, under which an important set of flexo tools, the
Groovy Screens option allows to apply groovy Screens to selected areas of the
bitmap. Examples would be large solid areas. Uniquely, FlexoPerfection also
allows to create a protection line on the linework boundaries in order to make
sure small linework effects (like small text) is not broken by the grooves.
Although it is possible to automate FlexoPerfection through hotfolders, the
user will find out that the true advantage of using FlexoPerfection resides in
the interactivity.
8.4 Parameters of the groovy Screens
The groovy screen technology has following parameters:
• Basic screen dotshape to be used in all parts not affected by the groovy
Screens. The standard groovy Screens are all based on the Esko-Graphics
double-circular dot. Using the Screen Manager, you can apply groovy Screens
to any Esko-Graphics screen dotshape, even including Monet Screens
(stochastic) and SambaFlex Screens (transitional/hybrid). FlexoPerfection
applies grooves to any screened pattern without caring what pattern this is.
• Frequency of the grooves (number of lines per inch). Popular frequencies are
between 300 and 600 lines per inch (so much higher than the ruling of the
normal screen).
• Angle of the grooves. The grooves don’t have necessarily the same angle as
the screen. The angle of the grooves is a very important parameter, making a
big difference for the quality of the solid rendering.
• Thickness of the grooves at full solid. The grooves start very tiny and become
thicker while the dot percentage grows to 100 %. The maximum thickness is a
parameter of the screen. For the standard groovy Screens, this maximum
thickness is chosen very thick, typically way too thick. The user should use
IntelliCurve to determine where exactly the solid will be put. This is further
explained below.
• Transition start. The grooves only start at a certain percentage. Below this
percentage, the screen is a normal screen. Above this percentage, the normal
screen is mixed with the grooves, leading to a complex pattern. During some
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transitioning time, the normal screen blends out and the pattern becomes fully
a groovy pattern with increasingly thick grooves.
• Transition end. Determines the lowest percentage where the screen is only
containing lines.
• Dotshape of the grooves. Typically this is a straight line, but other shapes can
be made available.
8.5 Standard groovy Screens
8.5.1 Groovy dot shapes
The standard groovy Screens are the Screens that get installed automatically
when you install the Screens on a FlexRip with the groovy Screens license
switched on. This makes available a set of dot shapes with names starting with
Groovy and dot shape code starting with GVY. We created a set of groovy
Screens with predefined parameters (for the meaning of these parameters, see
above). Most applications are covered with this standard set. Most of the testing
will be used to determine which of these shapes fits best to the press conditions
and to what percentage in this screen the solid will be mapped.
Groovy Screens react as all other dot shapes in the Esko-Graphics FastLane
system. You can select them using the Paint menu of PackEdge, Plato, BackStage
Edit and Plato Edit. You can also select them in the dispatcher.
The PPD’s for the Mac are not yet adapted. If you need this, please send a mail
to [email protected], CC to [email protected] with attached the
current ppd you are using and a clear mentioning of Groovy Screens.
As all other dot shapes in the GRS system, you can use Groovy Screens together
with other Screens in one single job. Refer to the PackEdge manual for more
information, or read the chapter Monet Screens in the Screens manual.
8.5.2 Ruling and angles
The rulings are identical to the rulings and angles of circular dots. Please read
the Screens manual for tables for a big number of different imagesetters and
resolutions. Only the standard offset angles and rulings are available. The
standard groovy Screens don’t support the highline rulings (very high screen
rulings) and angles (30 and 60 degrees). If this is needed, you should use the
Screen Manager application.
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Groovy Screens
8.6 Optimizing solid rendering
The groovy Screens make a smooth transition from circular dot to a line pattern
with close to 50 % area coverage. Typically, this transition prints as a double
vignette, first becoming darker, then again lighter (see the bottom part of the
picture below). You should determine the darkest point experimentally, for
example by printing a vignette with clear markers of 90 – 100 % per 0.5 %. It is
advised to print these aside from a true solid and aside from a normal circular
vignette. Don’t leave white space between the vignettes, judging solid density is
a lot easier if the zones are adjacent. You can use a densitometer to find the
optimum spot. This is done in the picture below. As you can see, a 95 % in the
job prints prints 1.4 density. No other pattern prints a higher density.
Now you have to use IntelliCurve to cut off the range at this percentage. For
this, you set the maximum dot percentage to the found percentage and you
switch OFF the keep 100 checkbox.
Further ripping with this dgc curve will now produce screened solids. They will
look as the pattern at 95 % in the picture above. All other percentages will be
mapped accordingly. In order to make a correct curve, it is advised to first
measure the solid with the densitometer on the spot of highest density rendering
(in this case the 95 %). All further measurements with the densitometer will then
be made relative to this measurement. This will lead to the scale as found in
Print % in the picture above. Following IntelliCurve Screenshot shows how this
will look like. It is furthermore advised to continue using the reference curve
(see IntelliCurve manual).
Remember you can use SCRDGC to use different cut off percentages for
linework and CT or to limit this cut off to just Groovy Screens (HEAVILY
ADVISED!!!!!)
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8.7 Different ways of using Groovy Screens
8.7.1 Solids only
It is possible that you want to use groovy Screens only for solid linework. The
best way for doing this is to
• Choose a groovy screen with a high transition point, for example 95 %.
• Create an Intellicurve DGC file for the contones, with maximum density on
this transition point or lower. This guarantees that the contones don’t get any
grooves. In case you are already using a DGC file, you can edit this DGC file
and change the maximum value. Remark that you best add a point film 95 %
print 100 % (so at the transition point) to tell Intellicurve that your 95 % is
your best solid.
• Create a second IntelliCurve DGC, which is only different from the first DGC
in the maximum value and in the last point before 100 %. As you can see,
now we map the solid to a 98 %. In this groovy screen, 98 % corresponds to a
line pattern of about 30 %. Remark that this will not only create grooves in
the full solid linework but also in close to solid linework. Approximately
everything above 99 % will have grooves. This will help avoiding a too abrupt
change in vignettes that reach up until 100 %.
• Put these DGC curves in a SCRDGC file where you add a line for this groovy
screen, and put the ct_nogrooves.dgc under CT and the lw_withgrooves
under LW.
8.7.2 Vignettes and contones
Groovy Screens can add contrast to vignettes and contones. If you want to take
advantage of this, you must allow the grooves to move more downwards. This
means you need to choose a groovy screen with a lower transition point. This
will make the transition smoother, this way creating a more smooth vignette.
Determine experimentally the best solid mapping, suppose that this is 98 %. The
IntelliCurve DGC will then look as below.
Remark that the maximum value is 98 %. In order to extend the grooves even
more, we added a point (film 97%,print 95%). The result can be seen in the
compensation values window: IntelliCurve drags more job percentages (more
contone steps…) into the groovy area. This way, a bigger part of the CT and
vignettes will get grooves and the full contrast effect in the grooves will be used
for increasing the contrast in the images.
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Groovy Screens
This kind of a curve can be used without alteration also for the linework. Clearly
you only want to use this curve for groovy Screens, so you best again use
SCRDGC for this.
8.8 The Screen Manager application
Please refer to the Screen Manager documentation on the Doc and Tools CDRom.
8.9 Using groovy Screens in FlexoPerfection
Documentation is not yet available at this time.
8.10 Groovy Screens limitations on Flexrip v5.1
• Screen Manager application does not work so you cannot create your own
groovy Screens
• 100 % is always solid unless put with IntelliCurve on a lower value.
• Vignettes can be of lower quality than groovy Screens on FlexRip v5.2
8.11 Side effect of installing Groovy Screens
When installing Groovy Screens on FlexRip v5.1, some side effects on offset
angle Screens can happen. The Groovy screen set is a prerelease of the screen set
of FlexRip v5.2. Therefore, once groovy Screens are installed, FlexRip v5.1 will
produce the screen rulings of FlexRip v5.2. These rulings are identical to the
rulings of FlexRip v5.1 with following exception:
The ruling set of offset angles of the dots C,E,R and S are extended. Following
table demonstrates this (rulings in LPI and resolutions in PPI)
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Groovy Screens
Read this table as follows: Lines marked with 5.2 (orange color) are new rulings
in FlexRip v5.2. The jump-to-nearest mechanism still works. The result of this is
that some jobs can generate different rulings (closer!) than with FlexRip v5.1.
Example
At 2400 ppi, a job with a ruling 150 lpi (defined for example in Packedge) is exposed. In
Flexrip v5.1, the closest ruling (see table) was 141 lpi. In FlexRip v5.2 (and also in
FlexRip v5.1 after installing a recent screen kit like the Groovy screen kit), the closest
ruling will be 147 lpi. This gives a different but closer result.
The same effect happens after installing HighLine Screens (formerly known as
Extended offset screening). HighLine supports the full table above, so all rows,
all rulings can be exposed. When you don’t have a highline license and ask for a
high ruling (a ruling from a row marked with HighLine), FlexRip v5.2 will jump
to the highest available ruling. FlexRip v5.1 is not foreseen for this and will error
out.
We remind you of the golden rule of Esko-Graphics screening for many years
now: 'Use the documented rulings from the table.' This gives you the guarantee
that Screens come out with this ruling (at least for the main angles, not for
yellow) and that the rulings will remain the same over the different versions.
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8.12 Feedback
We expect feedback from you ! Send all your remarks, printed results and
experiences to [email protected] Also send a mail to confirm your
installation was successful.
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9
Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens
9.1 What are Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens ?
Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens allow to screen your artwork with any screen
angle, screen ruling and screening dot shape. Instead of using pre-calculated
screen tiles (the method used in Esko-Graphics Classic Screens, Monet Screens
and SambaFlex Screens), PostScript Screens will calculate the screen tiles on-thefly when starting the RIP process.
With PostScript Screens, it is possible to very accurately fit the screening
algorithm to strange rulings and angles like 123.34 lines per inch at 9.34 degrees.
The real used ruling and angle is mostly indistinguishable from the demanded
ruling and angle for every measuring equipment. Furthermore, PostScript
Screens guarantee moiré-free results if (and only if) the demanded angles are 30
degrees apart and the demanded rulings are equal for the main colors (cyan,
magenta and black).
PostScript Screens are only available through the FlexRip PostScript/PDF
channel. If you want rulings or angles unavailable through classic screening
with the Esko-Graphics native input channel, you should use Dynacell screening.
9.2 How to select PostScript Screens?
In the queue settings of the dispatcher, tab PS/PDF Input, click on the combo
box of PostScript Screening as visible in the picture below. There, you have the
choice between
• Esko Classic (Precalculated): selects Esko-Graphics pre-calculated Screens
• PostScript
• Dynacell (recent FlexRip versions only!)
PostScript Screens are selected when you select “PostScript”.
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Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens
Although PostScript Screens are completely designed by Esko-Graphics, we call
them PostScript Screens since they are a rigorous implementation of the
PostScript screening specification. Contrary to Esko-Graphics’ pre-calculated
Screens, the screen ruling and angle is very close to the asked values.
Furthermore, PostScript Screens follow the dot shape description of the
PostScript file.
9.3 Supported rulings
Any ruling is supported with Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens.
Screen quality will however suffer as soon as the ruling is bigger than 6 % of the
imagesetter resolution.
Example
Suppose the imagesetter has 2540 dpi. Then 6 % of 2540 is 152 lpi. Up until 150 lpi,
PostScript Screens will generate very acceptable results. Rulings bigger than 150 lpi
will still come out accurately, but the dot shape will not be as beautiful anymore, and it is
also possible that some patterning effects become visible.
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Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens
There is no practical limit to the lower end of the rulings. Very low rulings like
10 lpi can be generated without any trouble.
9.4 Supported angles
Any angle is supported with Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens.
9.5 Angle and ruling accuracy
Angle accuracy is normally +/- 0.01 degrees Ruling accuracy is normally +/0.05 lines per inch
Example
Resolution: 2540 ppi
Asked ruling: 127.15 lpi
Asked angle: 9.27 degrees
Real PostScript ruling: 127.14526, deviation 0.00474 lines per inch
Real Dynacell angle: 9.2698 degree, deviation 0.0002 degrees
This deviation means not even 20 % of a printing dot deviation on a film of 1 meter. It is
clear that this is perfect for every practical printing condition. Nobody can print as
accurately, and even no imagesetter is that accurate.
All multiples of 45 degrees are matched perfectly.
Example
Resolution: 2540 ppi
Asked ruling: 133 lpi
Asked angle: 45 degrees
Real PostScript ruling: 133.04 deviation 0.04 lines per inch
Real Dynacell angle: 45 degrees exactly
9.6 When to use PostScript Screens ?
• You can only use PostScript Screens with PostScript or PDF input
• Avoid PostScript Screens if the desired angles are offset angles or flexo angles.
Pre-calculated Screens always generate better results
• Use PostScript Screens if the deviation of pre-calculated Screens is too big.
This mostly happens in following circumstances:
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Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens
• Other angles than flexo or offset angles are wanted (happens regularly in
screen printing).
• A precise implementation of the PostScript dot description (spot function)
is needed
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10
Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
10.1 What are Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens ?
Dynacell is the most recent Esko-Graphics screening technology.
Just like Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens, Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
allow to screen your artwork with any screen angle and screen ruling with very
high precision. Contrary to PostScript screening, the dot shape is not determined
by the DTP application. Instead, you can choose real Esko-Graphics dot shapes
like in use for the precalculated Screens. Dynacell is the result of the combination
of the Esko-Graphics dot shape technology with the “on the fly technology” used
for the Esko-Graphics PostScript Screens.
With Dynacell Screens, it is possible to very accurately fit the screening
algorithm to strange rulings and angles like 123.34 lines per inch at 9.34 degrees.
The real used ruling and angle is mostly indistinguishable from the demanded
ruling and angle for every measuring equipment. Furthermore, Dynacell
Screens guarantee moiré-free results if (and only if) the demanded angles are 30
degrees apart and the demanded rulings are equal for the main colors (cyan,
magenta and black). The dot shapes are defined with the same mathematical
functions as the precalculated Screens.
In FlexRip v5.1, Dynacell is only supported for the PostScript and PDF channel.
Starting with FlexRip v5.2, also the Esko-Graphics native channel(s) will support
Dynacell screening.
10.2 How to select Dynacell Screens ?
In the queue settings of the dispatcher, tab PostScript, click on the combo box of
PostScript Screening as visible in the picture below. There, you have the choice
between
• Esko Classic (Precalculated): selects Esko-Graphics pre-calculated Screens
• PostScript
• Dynacell (recent FlexRip versions only!)
Dynacell Screens are selected when you select “Dynacell”.
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Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
10.3 Supported dot shapes
Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens work with the Esko-Graphics dot shape
technology. Following dot shapes are standard on the FlexRip:
• Round/fogra
• Square
• Elliptical
• Circular
Following dot shapes are optional on the FlexRip:
• Rugby
• Helio
• Eccentric
When acquiring a license for Dynacell Screens, your optional dot shapes will
react as they react for precalculated Screens. If you have a license for helio dots
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Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
with precalculated Screens, you will also be able to use them with Dynacell
Screens.
Following dot shapes are not (yet) supported by Dynacell Screens:
• Samba(flex) Screens
• Monet Screens
• Rosette Screens
• Groovy Screens and MicroLight Screens
• Seamless Screens (CDI)
• Special CDI Screens (CD0 and CD1)
• All customized screen designs (Screens starting with U)
When trying to select these dots while your dispatcher is set to Dynacell
screening, the RIP will error out with following message
FripErr(FRIP_E_JOBERR, FRIP_E_INTERNAL, 0,
(<dotshape>) not supported by DynaCell",
mod,
"Requested
dot
10.4 Supported rulings
Any ruling is supported with Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens.
Screen quality will however suffer as soon as the ruling is bigger than 6 % of the
imagesetter resolution.
Example
Suppose the imagesetter has 2540 dpi. Then 6 % of 2540 is 152 lpi. Up until 150 lpi,
Dynacell Screens will generate very acceptable results. Rulings bigger than 150 lpi will
still come out accurately, but the dot shape will not be as beautiful anymore, and it is also
possible that some patterning effects become visible.
There is no practical limit to the lower end of the rulings. Very low rulings like
10 lpi can be generated without any trouble.
There are some tweaking possibilities to improve the quality of the Dynacell
Screens for higher rulings and offset angles (especially 45 and 90 degrees). Check
the appendices of this document to find out how to do this.
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Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
10.5 Supported angles
Any angle is supported with Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens.
Important to notice is also that he Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens follow the
PostScript convention for the angle measurement:
• Angles are measured counterclockwise
• Angle=0 is horizontal
• Angles higher than 90 degrees are NOT equal to angles lower than 90 degrees.
The chains are in the direction of the angles.
10.6 What rulings to select to avoid moiré ?
For cyan, magenta and black, there is a very simple rule: take them equal ! Make
sure to do this precisely. Contrary to Esko-Graphics precalculated Screens,
Dynacell follows rigorously what you ask, so it will punish you for your
mistakes. If you ask two times 100 lpi and once 101 lpi, Esko-Graphics
precalculated Screens will all jump to the same ruling, while Dynacell will
effectively generate one screen that is off by 1 lpi. This will result in moiré !
For yellow, the rule is less stringent. The yellow separation is mathematically
always a cause of moiré. You can only try to choose it in such a way that moiré
is not very apparent. More than the ruling choice, the angle choice will be
important. For the ruling, the yellow ruling should be not more than 10 %
different from the ruling of the other colors. Taking yellow equal to the other
colors is a simple rule and not better or worse than any other rule. There is a
theory that the yellow should be at least 5 % off the other rulings, but practical
results don’t always confirm this.
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Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
10.7 What angles to select to avoid moiré ?
In order to avoid moiré effects, the angles are best chosen 60 degrees apart for
cyan, magenta and black. Yellow is then put at 15 degrees of one of the other
colors.
Example
• Cyan = 15 degrees
• Magenta = 75 degrees
• Black =135 degrees
• Yellow = 30 degrees
In order to avoid yellow moiré as much as possible, it is advised to take yellow
45 degrees rotated from the magenta separation.
In the above example, yellow can be chosen at 0,30,60,90,120,150 or 180 degrees.
Best choices for avoiding yellow moiré are 45 degrees rotated from 75 degrees,
which is 30 degrees or 120 degrees.
10.8 Angle and ruling accuracy
Angle accuracy is normally +/- 0.01 degrees Ruling accuracy is normally +/0.05 lines per inch
Example
Resolution: 2540 ppi
Asked ruling: 127.15 lpi
Asked angle: 9.27 degrees
Real Dynacell ruling: 127.14526, deviation 0.00474 lines per inch
Real Dynacell angle: 9.2698 degree, deviation 0.0002 degrees
This deviation means not even 20 % of a printing dot deviation on a film of 1 meter. It is
clear that this is perfect for every practical printing condition. Nobody can print as
accurately, and even no imagesetter is that accurate.
All multiples of 45 degrees are matched perfectly.
Example
Resolution: 2540 ppi
Asked ruling: 133 lpi
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Esko-Graphics Dynacell Screens
Asked angle: 45 degrees
Real Dynacell ruling: 133.04 deviation 0.04 lines per inch
Real Dynacell angle: 45 degrees exactly
Warning
When using the Esko-Graphics native input channel (GRS), the rulings and angles are
limited to integer values. This is a limitation of the GRS format, not of the FlexRip. This
limitation will be solved when switching to PDF as the native format for the EskoGraphics applications.
10.9 When to use Dynacell Screens ?
• In FlexRip v5.1, you can only use Dynacell Screens with PostScript or PDF
input. Starting with FlexRip v5.2, you can also use Dynacell Screens with
Esko-Graphics native input (GRS). In all cases, Dynacell is a chargeable
option.
• Avoid Dynacell Screens if the desired angles are offset angles. Pre-calculated
Screens always generate better results.
• Use Dynacell Screens if the deviation of pre-calculated Screens is too big. This
mostly happens in following circumstances:
• Other angles than flexo or offset angles are wanted (happens regularly in
screen printing).
• Very low rulings are needed
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INDEX
A
Angle Support (Classic Screens) , 11
C
Calibrating for HighLine Screens, 44
Classic Screens, 10
Classic Screens Special Dot Shapes, 21
D
Dot Shape Support (Classic Screens) , 11
Dynacell Screens, 102
E
Eccentric Dots, 24
G
Groovy screens, 90
H
Helio Dots, 21
HighLine Screens, 35
HighLine Screens Flexo Angles, 39
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M
Maximum number of Screens in a Job (Classic Screens), 20
Monet Screens, 53
P
PostScript Screens, 98
R
Right Angles (Classic Screens), 18
Rosette Screens, 31
Rugby Dots, 29
Ruling Support (Classic Screens), 15
S
SambaFlex Screens, 67, 67
SambaFlex Screens vs. Samba Screens, 67
Screen Registration (Classic Screens), 19
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