T-10-UT Rev. E - Trailmax Trailers

T-10-UT Rev. E - Trailmax Trailers
T-10-UT
Table of Contents
Section 1.
Operation .................................................................................... 3
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
A.0
Section 2.
Introduction ................................................................................... 3
Purpose ........................................................................................ 3
Rating............................................................................................ 3
Design and Safety Factors ........................................................... 4
Vehicle Load and Handling Limits ................................................ 4
Reporting Safety Defects ............................................................. 7
Alert Symbols ................................................................................ 8
Pre-Trip Inspection........................................................................ 9
Hook-Up Procedures .................................................................. 10
Loading and Unloading .............................................................. 11
Trailers With Ramps ................................................................. 12
Trailers With Tilt Decks ............................................................. 12
Addendum: Tire Safety Information ...............................................
Maintenance .............................................................................. 13
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Periodic Maintenance .................................................................. 13
Structural Components ............................................................... 14
Sub-Frame ................................................................................ 14
Deck ......................................................................................... 14
Sub-Assembly Components ....................................................... 14
Coupling .................................................................................... 14
Jack .......................................................................................... 15
Cushion Cylinder ....................................................................... 15
Deck Latch ................................................................................ 15
Deck Hinge Assembly ............................................................... 15
Running Gear .............................................................................. 16
Suspension ............................................................................... 16
Hubs and Drums ....................................................................... 16
Brake Drum Inspection ............................................................. 17
Bearing Inspection .................................................................... 17
Standard Bearing Lubrication .................................................... 18
E-Z Lube Bearing Lubrication .................................................... 18
Seal Inspection and Replacement ............................................ 19
Hub Reinstallation and Bearing Adjustment .............................. 19
Wheels and Tires ........................................................................ 20
Wheels ...................................................................................... 20
Tires .......................................................................................... 22
Inflation Pressure ...................................................................... 22
Tire Wear Diagnostic Chart ...................................................... 23
Electrical ..................................................................................... 24
Harnesses and Lights ............................................................... 24
Junction Block ........................................................................... 24
Electrical Plug ........................................................................... 24
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2.6
Brake System (Common to Hydraulic and Electric) ................... 25
Brake Adjustment ...................................................................... 25
Brake Cleaning and Inspection ................................................. 26
Brake Lubrication ...................................................................... 26
2.7 Hydraulic Brake System .............................................................. 27
Operation .................................................................................. 27
Surge Actuator Maintenance ..................................................... 27
Corrosive Environment Warning ............................................... 28
Hydraulic Lines.......................................................................... 28
Hydraulic Brakes ....................................................................... 28
Brake System Bleeding ............................................................ 29
Hydraulic Brake System Troubleshooting Chart ....................... 31
2.8 Electric Brake System ................................................................ 31
Operation .................................................................................. 31
Using your Brakes Properly ...................................................... 32
Synchronization ........................................................................ 33
Controllers ................................................................................ 33
Magnets .................................................................................... 34
Electric Brake System Troubleshooting .................................... 35
Measuring Voltage ..................................................................... 35
Measuring Amperage ................................................................ 37
Electric Brake System Troubleshooting Chart .......................... 38
2.9 Pre-Storage Maintenance ............................................................ 40
2.10 Pre-Season Maintenance ............................................................ 41
Section 3.
Parts .......................................................................................... 42
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Section 4.
Structural Components ............................................................... 42
Deck Surface ............................................................................ 44
Major Sub-Assemblies ................................................................ 45
Hammerblow Drop Leg Jack .................................................... 45
Couplers ................................................................................... 46
Deck Latch Assembly ............................................................... 48
Cushion Cylinder....................................................................... 50
Running Gear .............................................................................. 51
Suspension, 7K......................................................................... 51
Hydraulic Brake Components ................................................... 52
Electric Brake Components, 5K ............................................... 54
Axle End Components .............................................................. 56
Wheels and Tires ........................................................................ 57
Electrical ..................................................................................... 58
Harnesses and Lights ............................................................... 58
Electrical Plug ........................................................................... 60
Electric Brake Wiring ................................................................ 61
Electric Breakaway System ...................................................... 61
Hydraulic System ........................................................................ 62
Model DA10 Surge Actuator ...................................................... 64
Tool Box ....................................................................................... 66
Warranty Claim Procedure ....................................................... 67
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Section 1.
1.0
Operation
Introduction
This section describes how trailers can have different operational characteristics
based on design, load configuration, gross weights, suspension characteristics, articulation and extreme differences between loaded and unloaded weights.
Trailers have safe operating limits just as automobiles, airplanes, and other vehicles. The interaction of the vehicle characteristics, maintenance, load, roadway,
weather, the skill of the driver and vehicle speed affect these limits. Knowledge of how
these factors affect the vehicle’s operating limits and utilization of defensive driving
techniques should result in safer driving.
1.1
Purpose
The purpose of this section is to describe how the vehicle characteristics, maintenance, road conditions, and weather can affect trailer control and stability limits, and
how driver awareness and skill can help compensate for these factors. This knowledge
will assist you to safely enjoy the maximum utility and productivity from your trailer.
First and foremost, DO NOT operate the trailer until you have read and fully understand this instruction and operating manual. It is also important that each and every
person who operates the trailer be given the opportunity to read this manual.
1.2
Rating
Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) is the rated load-carrying capacity of an individual axle and wheel assembly. It represents the load that may be steadily sustained
by the components in the system; i.e., tires, wheels, hubs, bearings, axles, brakes,
suspension, sub-frame, etc. with the GAWR limited by the component with the lowest
working rating. Consideration of environmental and operational factors may require the
manufacturer to reduce the nominal rating.
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) is the maximum rated combined weight of a
trailer and its payload (uniformly distributed) based on its structural capabilities.
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1.3
Design and Safety Factors
The safety factor is a ratio between the design stress imposed by the load sitting
static on the trailer and the minimum yield stress of the steel used in construction of
that trailer structure. For example, if the structure is built using 50,000 psi minimum
yield strength steel and the load sitting on it causes a stress level of 25,000 psi then a
2:1 safety factor would exist. THIS SAFETY FACTOR DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE
STRUCTURE CAN THEN BE USED TO CARRY TWICE THE RATED LOAD. Under
dynamic conditions, or as the trailer moves and encounters shocks, vibrations, twists
and other conditions that exist during transport, stress levels are elevated far beyond
those in the static situation.
Distributed Load is when a load is distributed evenly over the length of the trailer
deck. This would be considered as the ideal load scenario when fully loaded to rated
capacity.
Concentrated Load is one that is localized over a shorter than normal distance and
imposes greater stress in the concentrated load areas. Under these conditions, it is not
recommended to carry the full rated capacity of the trailer. Extreme concentrated applications may require additional support for the load.
1.4
Vehicle Load and Handling Limits
Vehicle handling limits can be greatly affected by the weight of a load, its placement, the amount of weight distributed over the axles and whether or not the load is
secured properly.
Tow vehicle and trailer combinations are designed to provide maximum directional
control and roll stability within the constraints of highway size and weight limits. Any
combination can be rolled over by driving too fast around a curve, making too abrupt a
maneuver, or by leaving the roadway. Locking up the wheels on an axle can result in a
jackknife or trailer swing out.
One of the major contributing factors to vehicle rollover is high center of gravity on
tall loads. Extreme caution should be used in maneuvering a vehicle and trailer combination, or any unit that has a tall load. Positioning the load in a central side to side
location will enhance directional control, roll stability and braking.
You should be aware that trailers with a shorter wheel base are more prone to roll
during an abrupt lane change or quick reactions at the wheel. This tendency can be
made dramatically worse with a tall, high center of gravity load.
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Overloading a vehicle should never be permitted. Overloading results in tire blowouts, spring breakage, frame damage, diminished braking capacity, and will severely
alter the vehicle’s normal handling characteristics. All vehicles are designed with a
maximum load capability. To best utilize these vehicles in the safest manner the loads
as shown on the certificate label should not be exceeded.
Adequate tongue weight is required for trailers to tow correctly. Inadequate tongue
weight can cause a “whipping action” particularly in shorter wheel base trailers. Too
much tongue weight can overload tow vehicle hitch resulting in reduced steering load
and loss of steering control. Selecting the correct tow vehicle is crucial for the application.
Always maintain enough braking and stopping distance. Erratic or unequal brake
action from side to side on either tow vehicle or trailer can cause handling problems in
braking situations. A balance between tow vehicle and trailer on brake application and
release timing and synchronized pressure will reduce push/pull characteristics which
when excessive, may result in jackknife. The use of properly matched brake lining is
recommended to enhance safer braking.
Proper alignment of both tow vehicle and trailer wheels will add significantly to the
handling characteristics of the combination and allow the driver to utilize all the design
responses of the vehicle to make evasive maneuvers in the safest manner.
Irregular terrain, steep grades and crowned roads, especially rural roadways, freeways, exit ramps, curves, bumps and depressions introduce forces into a tow vehicle/
trailer combination that could result in an accident if proper precautions and driving
techniques are not followed. Even a vehicle that meets all maintenance and load requirements can become hazardous when excessive speeds and certain roadway characteristics are combined.
While on a downgrade, the force of gravity works against the driver in maintaining
control of the vehicle, particularly if the road surface is wet or slick from snow and ice
or loose material. On upgrades, the problem is spinning out due to insufficient traction
at the drive wheels, particularly on snow and ice.
Great care must be taken to avoid excessive use of brakes on long downgrades.
Overheated brakes are dangerously inefficient. It is very dangerous to brake on a
downgrade using only the trailer brakes. If this is done, the trailer brakes heat up and
fade and the tow vehicle brakes alone will not be able to stop the combination by
themselves. Drivers should reduce speed, downshift and use engine compression as
the principal means of controlling speed on long grades and using all brakes so brake
temperatures can be held to a safe level.
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Weather conditions can be a major factor in the cause of accidents. Rain, ice, snow,
high winds and visibility combined with excessive speed, sudden lane changes, or
other factors that put lateral forces into a tow vehicle trailer combination contribute
significantly to an accident.
Slippery roads can increase stopping distances and reduce the ability to control the
vehicle. When the road is wet, the available tire/road friction may be half that of a dry
road, and icy roads can reduce friction many times over wet roads. If hard braking or
rapid acceleration occurs, there may be little or no friction available to prevent tire
lateral movement and skidding results.
The driver has a responsibility to compensate for the characteristics and conditions
of his vehicle, the road conditions and weather. Reducing speeds and increasing attentiveness may compensate for most of these conditions. The more familiar the driver is
with the vehicle and the road, the less likely he will need to make abrupt emergency
maneuvers which will take the vehicle to its limits. Control and stability may be maintained if the driver knows his vehicle, his load, and the road.
Either braking or accelerating while cornering can significantly reduce the controllability and stability of the vehicle and should be avoided. The best driving practice is to
decelerate to a safe conservative speed before entering a corner or approaching congested traffic and then apply only moderate power until an essentially straight path has
been established.
It is imperative that a safe speed always be maintained. The safe speed is that
speed at which control can be maintained over the vehicle at all times. This speed will
allow an emergency change of lane maneuver, travel off an exit ramp with a tightening
radius and recovery from pavement drop-off or wet pavement. This speed will vary from
one combination of vehicle to another and takes into consideration such factors as
road conditions, weather, traffic, visibility, type of load and experience of the driver.
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1.5
Reporting Safety Defects
If you believe that your vehicle has a defect that could cause a crash, injury, or death,
you should immediately inform the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
in addition to notifying Gem State Mfg., Inc.
If NHTSA receives similar complaints it may open an investigation, and if it finds that a
safety defect exists in a group of vehicles it may pursue a remedy campaign and recall
those vehicles. However, NHTSA cannot become involved in individual problems between
you, your dealer, or Gem State Mfg., Inc.
To contact NHTSA, you may either call the Vehicle Safety Hotline toll free at 1-888-3274236 (TTY: 1-800-424-9153), go to http://www.safecar.gov; or write to Administrator,
NHTSA, 400 Seventh Street SW., Washington, DC 20590. You can also obtain other
information about motor vehicle safety from http://www.safecar.gov.
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1.6
Alert Symbols
It is important that your know the meaning of the following symbols that are used
throughout this document.
!
SAFETY ALERT!
This is the safety alert symbol. It is used to alert you to potential personal injury hazards. Obey all safety messages that follow this symbol to
avoid possible injury or death.
!
DANGER
DANGER!
DANGER! indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury.
! WARNING
WARNING!
WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
! CAUTION
CAUTION!
CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury.
CAUTION
CAUTION
CAUTION used without the safety alert symbol indicates a potentially
hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in property damage.
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1.7
Pre-Trip Inspection
There are some items on every vehicle combination that can be and should be
inspected prior to every trip that require no special knowledge, training, or sophisticated equipment.
Before beginning a trip, make a thorough visual inspection of the trailer for cracks
in the structure, or bent components such as the tongue or frame. Check for any missing fasteners in suspension as well as other areas, and look for broken or bent springs
and spring hangers or otherwise damaged components.
Verify that the hitch on the tow vehicle is the correct size and configuration to fit the
trailer coupling. The hitch must be rated to meet or exceed the Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating (GVWR) of the trailer.
Check the hitch height of the trailer and compare it to the tow vehicle; it is very
important that the trailer be towed in the level position when loaded. In order to achieve
the correct hitch height, elevate the tongue of the trailer slightly (1" to 2") by adjusting
the trailer hitch to compensate for settling of tow vehicle springs when loaded.
Always visually inspect hitch for unusual appearances such as bent components,
cracks in welds or chipped paint where stress cracks may appear from high loads.
Check tires for proper inflation. Tire manufacturers recommend checking inflation
pressure while trailer is not loaded and tires are cool. This will provide a more accurate
reading. A drop of 10 PSI in tire pressure can reduce the carrying capacity of the tire as
much as 20%. This reduced capacity could cause tire failure and poor tire life.
Maintaining proper wheel nut torque value is essential to prevent wheel end separation or potential damage to the hub or wheel. Always check wheel nuts every 50 to
100 miles for the first 200 miles of operation, then periodically thereafter. The same
procedure should be repeated after dismount and remount of wheels. It is important to
follow the specified tightening sequence recommended in the tire maintenance section
of this manual.
NOTE: For trailers with hydraulic surge brakes, check the brake fluid reservoir
level and add brake fluid to the fill line if necessary.
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1.8
Hook-Up Procedures
! WARNING
TRAILER HOOK-UP
The consequences of not properly hooking the trailer to the tow vehicle
can be very serious. Failure to adhere to information in this section could
lead to the trailer becoming detached, the trailer brakes and/or lights not
working correctly, or other unsafe situations which could result in an accident causing property damage, bodily injury or death.
Connect the tow vehicle to the trailer and check that the coupler is completely latched.
Be sure that a safety pin is inserted to ensure coupler will not unlatch during transport.
Connect the electrical plug from the trailer’s harness to the receptacle of the tow vehicle. Check all lights on the trailer to make sure they are working correctly with the tow
vehicle’s electrical system.
Be sure the landing leg and drop foot are fully retracted and the crank handle is
stowed in transport position. For trailers with 2-speed jacks, use low gear for raising
and lower the jack under load, and high gear for raising and lowering the leg when it is
off the ground.
Check all safety chains and their attachment to both the trailer and the towing vehicle. Connect safety chains to tow vehicle using crossed pattern under tongue. Allow
slack for turning, but avoid having chains drag on pavement. Make certain that all
attachment devices are properly installed and in good working order.
For trailers with air brakes, connect the Glad Hands (one service and one emergency) to tow vehicle. Shut off petcock(s) on air tank(s) or if already shut, open to
exhaust all moisture, then shut off. It is very important that the air system be drained of
moisture after each use to keep all components functioning properly and to make equipment safe.
Trailers with electric brakes or hydraulic surge brakes come equipped with an emergency breakaway device. The breakaway system is designed to operate after the coupling system has failed. Connect breakaway chain S-hook to bumper or hitch on tow
vehicle. Allow slack for turning, but avoid letting chain drag on pavement. Provide as
straight a connection as possible.
Always check that trailer brakes are working properly. If trailer is equipped with electric
brakes, use brake controller to adjust for load.
The breakaway system is for emergencies and is not a parking brake.
The following paragraphs pertain to trailers with hydraulic surge brakes:
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The ‘surge’ or ‘push’ of the trailer toward the tow vehicle when the tow vehicle brakes
are applied actuates the trailer brakes. Excessive surge actuator travel (over one inch)
when brakes are applied indicates a need to adjust the trailer brakes.
Should the breakaway be accidentally applied while unhitching, pry the breakaway
locks apart to release lever.
Sway control devices that restrict operation of the actuator cannot be used. The
actuator must be free to telescope in response to braking requirements.
1.9
Loading and Unloading
! CAUTION
TRAILER LOADING PRACTICES
The consequences of ignoring proper trailer loading practices can be
very serious. Failure to adhere to the information in this section could
lead to unsafe handling, diminished braking capacity, or other unstable
trailer characteristics which could result in an accident causing property
damage, bodily injury or death.
It is the operators responsibility to take whatever steps necessary to load the
trailer properly, even when it is not easy to calculate the total load or determine the
load center of gravity.
A decal on the trailer similar to the one shown below indicates the correct placement of
the load. Load the trailer so that 60% of the total load weight is forward of the arrow, and
40% is rearward of the arrow. This will ensure that the proper load balance and tongue
weight are achieved.
!
WARNING
MAINTAIN 60% OF LOAD
FORWARD OF THIS POINT
(REFER TO OWNERS MANUAL)
! CAUTION
ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS!
Adverse weather conditions can cause wet and slippery trailer decks
and ramps. Depending on the type of equipment and typical weather conditions it may be necessary to add traction aids to the trailer deck and
ramps.
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Always use extreme caution when loading and unloading equipment on trailer. Make
sure road surface is level. Loading and unloading on an uneven surface may cause damage to the trailer frame and create unsafe loading conditions.
Always set brakes on tow vehicle and trailer before loading and unloading and use
chock blocks as an added safety precaution.
Before securing equipment, always lower booms, loaders and buckets. The parking
brake on the equipment being transported must be engaged, where applicable. Always
make sure you are under the maximum allowable height clearance.
Equipment with crawler tracks as well as wheel type equipment should be restrained
in the lateral, forward, rearward and vertical direction using a minimum of four direct
tie-downs and binders each having a working load limit of at least 5000 lbs. and should
be blocked to prevent forward movement.
Articulated vehicles shall be restrained in a manner that prevents articulation while
in transit.
Trailers With Ramps
Loading ramps can be adjusted for various track widths. Prior to loading or unloading it is very important that ramps are adjusted to proper spacing for equipment being
transported. When loading equipment onto deck, drive slowly forward until appropriate
tongue load is achieved. Ramps are designed to support rear of trailer during loading
and unloading. Ramps must be in stored position during transport.
Trailers With Tilt Decks
It is very important that the deck latch is in the locked position with the safety pin
inserted at all times during transport. Always unlock deck when unloading equipment.
Failure to do this may result in damage to deck. Deck latch is adjustable to keep deck
tight and rattle free.
When loading equipment onto deck, drive slowly until deck begins to tilt closed, and
proceed forward until 10% of load weight in on the hitch of trailer. Not enough tongue
weight can result in swaying of trailer, which can be an unsafe condition.
When unloading use reverse procedure as loading. Back up slowly until deck begins to tilt, stop and wait for deck to completely open, then proceed to back off slowly.
Trailer deck will tilt open and tilt closed with one persons weight. The deck may tilt
faster or slower depending on outside temperature, because the temperature affects
the density of the fluid in the deck cylinder.
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Addendum
A. Tire Safety Information
If your trailer wieght less than 10,000 pounds GVWR or less, it will have a Tire and
Loading Information Placard. (See Below)
To Determine the correct load limit for your trailer complete the following steps:
1 - Locate the statement, “The weight of cargo should never exceed XXX kg or XXX
lbs., “ on your vehicle’s placard. See figure 1-1.
2 - This figure equals the available amount of cargo and luggage load capacity.
3 - Determine the combined weight of luggage and cargo being loaded on the
vehicle. That weight may not safetly exceed the availalbe cargo and luggage
load capacity.
The trailer’s placard refers to teh Tire Information Placard attached adjacent to ro
near the trailer’s VIN (Certification) label at teh left front of the trailer.
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Addendum
A.1. Tire Safety - Everything Rides On It
The National Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has published a brochure (DOT HS
809 361) that discusses all aspects of Tire Safety, as required by CFR 575.6. This
brochure is reproduced in part below. It can be obtained and downloaded from NHTSA,
free of charge, from the following web site:
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/TireSafety/ridesonit/tires_index.html
Studies of tire safety show that maintaining proper tire pressure, observing tire and
vehicle load limits (not carrying more weight in your vehicle than your tires or vehicle can
safely handle), avoiding road hazards, and inspecting tires for cuts, slashes, and other
irregularities are the most important things you can do to avoid tire failure, such as tread
separation or blowout and flat tires. These actions, along with other care and maintenance activities, can also:
·
·
·
·
Improve vehicle handling
Help protect you and others from avoidable breakdowns and accidents
Improve fuel economy
Increase the life of your tires.
This booklet presents a comprehensive overview of tire safety, including information on
the following topics:
· Basic tire maintenance
· Uniform Tire Quality Grading System
· Fundamental characteristics of tires
· Tire safety tips.
Use this information to make tire safety a regular part of your vehicle maintenance
routine. Recognize that the time you spend is minimal compared with the inconvenience
and safety consequences of a flat tire or other tire failure.
A.2. Safety First - Basic Tire Maintenance
Properly maintained tires improve the steering, stopping, traction, and load-carrying
capability of your vehicle. Underinflated tires and overloaded vehicles are a major cause
of tire failure. Therefore, as mentioned above, to avoid flat tires and other types of tire
failure, you should maintain proper tire pressure, observe tire and vehicle load limits,
avoid road hazards, and regularly inspect your tires.
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A.3. Finding Your Vehicle’s Recommended Tire Pressure and Load Limits
Tire information placards and vehicle certification labels contain information on tires and
load limits. These labels indicate the vehicle manufacturer’s information including:
·
·
·
·
Recommended tire size
Recommended tire inflation pressure
Vehicle capacity weight (VCW–the maximum occupant and cargo weight a vehicle is
designed to carry)
Front and rear gross axle weight ratings (GAWR– the maximum weight the axle
systems are designed to carry).
Both placards and certification labels are permanently attached to the trailer near the left
front.
A.4. Understanding Tire Pressure and Load Limits
Tire inflation pressure is the level of air in the tire that provides it with load-carrying
capacity and affects the overall performance of the vehicle. The tire inflation pressure is
a number that indicates the amount of air pressure– measured in pounds per square
inch (psi)–a tire requires to be properly inflated. (You will also find this number on the
vehicle information placard expressed in kilopascals (kPa), which is the metric measure
used internationally.)
Manufacturers of passenger vehicles and light trucks determine this number based on
the vehicle’s design load limit, that is, the greatest amount of weight a vehicle can safely
carry and the vehicle’s tire size. The proper tire pressure for your vehicle is referred to
as the “recommended cold inflation pressure.” (As you will read below, it is difficult to
obtain the recommended tire pressure if your tires are not cold.)
Because tires are designed to be used on more than one type of vehicle, tire manufacturers list the “maximum permissible inflation pressure” on the tire sidewall. This number
is the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire under normal
driving conditions.
A.5. Checking Tire Pressure
It is important to check your vehicle’s tire pressure at least once a month for the following
reasons:
·
Most tires may naturally lose air over time.
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·
Tires can lose air suddenly if you drive over a pothole or other object or if you
strike the curb when parking.
With radial tires, it is usually not possible to determine underinflation by visual
inspection.
For convenience, purchase a tire pressure gauge to keep in your vehicle. Gauges can
be purchased at tire dealerships, auto supply stores, and other retail outlets.
The recommended tire inflation pressure that vehicle manufacturers provide reflects the
proper psi when a tire is cold. The term cold does not relate to the outside temperature.
Rather, a cold tire is one that has not been driven on for at least three hours. When you
drive, your tires get warmer, causing the air pressure within them to increase. Therefore,
to get an accurate tire pressure reading, you must measure tire pressure when the tires
are cold or compensate for the extra pressure in warm tires.
A.6. Steps for Maintaining Proper Tire Pressure
·
·
·
·
·
·
Step 1: Locate the recommended tire pressure on the vehicle’s tire information
placard, certification label, or in the owner’s manual.
Step 2: Record the tire pressure of all tires.
Step 3: If the tire pressure is too high in any of the tires, slowly release air by
gently pressing on the tire valve stem with the edge of your tire gauge until you get
to the correct pressure.
Step 4: If the tire pressure is too low, note the difference between the measured
tire pressure and the correct tire pressure. These “missing” pounds of pressure
are what you will need to add.
Step 5: At a service station, add the missing pounds of air pressure to each tire
that is underinflated.
Step 6: Check all the tires to make sure they have the same air pressure (except
in cases in which the front and rear tires are supposed to have different amounts
of pressure).
If you have been driving your vehicle and think that a tire is underinflated, fill it to the
recommended cold inflation pressure indicated on your vehicle’s tire information placard
or certification label. While your tire may still be slightly underinflated due to the extra
pounds of pressure in the warm tire, it is safer to drive with air pressure that is slightly
lower than the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended cold inflation pressure than to drive
with a significantly underinflated tire. Since this is a temporary fix, don’t forget to recheck
and adjust the tire’s pressure when you can obtain a cold reading.
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A.7. Tire Size
To maintain tire safety, purchase new tires that are the same size as the vehicle’s original tires or another size recommended by the manufacturer. Look at the tire information
placard, the owner’s manual, or the sidewall of the tire you are replacing to find this
information. If you have any doubt about the correct size to choose, consult with the tire
dealer.
A.8. Tire Tread
The tire tread provides the gripping action and traction that prevent your vehicle from
slipping or sliding, especially when the road is wet or icy. In general, tires are not safe
and should be replaced when the tread is worn down to 1/16 of an inch. Tires have builtin treadwear indicators that let you know when it is time to replace your tires. These
indicators are raised sections spaced intermittently in the bottom of the tread grooves.
When they appear “even” with the outside of the tread, it is time to replace your tires.
Another method for checking tread depth is to place a penny in the tread with Lincoln’s
head upside down and facing you. If you can see the top of Lincoln’s head, you are
ready for new tires.
A.9. Tire Balance and Wheel Alignment
To avoid vibration or shaking of the vehicle when a tire rotates, the tire must be properly
balanced. This balance is achieved by positioning weights on the wheel to counterbalance heavy spots on the wheel-and-tire assembly. A wheel alignment adjusts the angles
of the wheels so that they are positioned correctly relative to the vehicle’s frame. This
adjustment maximizes the life of your tires. These adjustments require special equipment and should be performed by a qualified technician.
A.10. Tire Repair
The proper repair of a punctured tire requires a plug for the hole and a patch for the area
inside the tire that surrounds the puncture hole. Punctures through the tread can be
repaired if they are not too large, but punctures to the sidewall should not be repaired.
Tires must be removed from the rim to be properly inspected before being plugged and
patched.
A.11. Tire Fundalmentals
Federal law requires tire manufacturers to place standardized information on the
sidewall of all tires. This information identifies and describes the fundamental characteri-
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istics of the tire and also provides a tire identification number for safety standard certification and in case of a recall.
A.11.1. Information on Passenger Vehicle Tires
P
The “P” indicates the tire is for passenger vehicles.
Next number
This three-digit number gives the width in millimeters of the tire from sidewall edge to
sidewall edge. In general, the larger the number, the wider the tire.
Next number
This two-digit number, known as the aspect ratio, gives the tire’s ratio of height to width.
Numbers of 70 or lower indicate a short sidewall for improved steering response and
better overall handling on dry pavement.
R
The “R” stands for radial. Radial ply construction of tires has been the industry standard
for the past 20 years.
Next number
This two-digit number is the wheel or rim diameter in inches. If you change your wheel
size, you will have to purchase new tires to match the new wheel diameter.
Next number
This two- or three-digit number is the tire’s load index. It is a measurement of how much
weight each tire can support. You may find this information in your owner’s manual. If not,
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contact a local tire dealer. Note: You may not find this information on all tires because it
is not required by law.
M+S
The “M+S” or “M/S” indicates that the tire has some mud and snow capability. Most
radial tires have these markings; hence, they have some mud and snow capability.
Speed Rating
The speed rating denotes the speed at which a tire is designed to be driven for extended periods of time. The ratings range from 99 miles per hour (mph) to 186 mph.
These ratings are listed below. Note: You may not find this information on all tires because it is not required by law.
Letter Rating
Q
R
S
T
U
H
V
W
Y
Speed Rating
99 mph
106 mph
112 mph
118 mph
124 mph
130 mph
149 mph
168* mph
186* mph
* For tires with a maximum speed capability over 149 mph, tire manufacturers sometimes use the letters ZR. For those with a maximum speed capability over 186 mph, tire
manufacturers always use the letters ZR.
U.S. DOT Tire Identification Number
This begins with the letters “DOT” and indicates that the tire meets all federal standards.
The next two numbers or letters are the plant code where it was manufactured, and the
last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built. For example, the numbers 3197 means the 31st week of 1997. The other numbers are marketing codes used
at the manufacturer’s discretion. This information is used to contact consumers if a tire
defect requires a recall.
Tire Ply Composition and Materials Used
The number of plies indicates the number of layers of rubber-coated fabric in the tire. In
general, the greater the number of plies, the more weight a tire can support. Tire manufacturers also must indicate the materials in the tire, which include steel, nylon, polyester,
and others.
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Maximum Load Rating
This number indicates the maximum load in kilograms and pounds that can be carried
by the tire.
Maximum Permissible Inflation Pressure
This number is the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire
under normal driving conditions.
A.11.2. UTQGS Information
Treadwear Number
This number indicates the tire’s wear rate. The higher the treadwear number is, the
longer it should take for the tread to wear down. For example, a tire graded 400 should
last twice as long as a tire graded 200.
Traction Letter
This letter indicates a tire’s ability to stop on wet pavement. A higher graded tire should
allow you to stop your car on wet roads in a shorter distance than a tire with a lower
grade. Traction is graded from highest to lowest as “AA”,”A”, “B”, and “C”.
Temperature Letter
This letter indicates a tire’s resistance to heat. The temperature grade is for a tire that is
inflated properly and not overloaded. Excessive speed, underinflation or excessive
loading, either separately or in combination, can cause heat build-up and possible tire
failure. From highest to lowest, a tire’s resistance to heat is graded as “A”, “B”, or “C”.
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A.11.3. Additional Information on Light Truck Tires
Please refer to the following diagram.
Tires for light trucks have other markings besides those found on the sidewalls of passenger tires.
LT
The “LT” indicates the tire is for light trucks or trailers.
ST
An “ST” is an indication the tire is for trailer use only.
Max. Load Dual kg (lbs) at kPa (psi) Cold
This information indicates the maximum load and tire pressure when the tire is used as
a dual, that is, when four tires are put on each rear axle (a total of six or more tires on the
vehicle).
Max. Load Single kg (lbs) at kPa (psi) Cold
This information indicates the maximum load and tire pressure when the tire is used as
a single.
Load Range
This information identifies the tire’s load-carrying capabilities and its inflation limits.
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A.12. Tire Safety Tips
Preventing Tire Damage
•
•
Slow down if you have to go over a pothole or other object in the road.
Do not run over curbs or other foreign objects in the roadway, and try not to strike the
curb when parking.
Tire Safety Checklist
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check tire pressure regularly (at least once a month), including the spare.
Inspect tires for uneven wear patterns on the tread, cracks, foreign objects, or other
signs of wear or trauma.
Remove bits of glass and foreign objects wedged in the tread.
Make sure your tire valves have valve caps.
Check tire pressure before going on a long trip.
Do not overload your vehicle. Check the Tire Information and Loading Placard or
User’s Manual for the maximum recommended load for the vehicle.
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Section 2.
2.0
Maintenance
Periodic Maintenance
Pre-Trip InspectionCheck brake fluid level- see ‘Surge Actuator Maintenance’ on page 27.
Lube coupler- see ‘Coupling’ on page 14.
Examine frame and tongue members for evidence of damage or cracked welds.
Check lights for correct operation.
Weekly-WeeklyCheck cold tire pressures- see ‘Inflation Pressure’ on page 22.
Check lug nut torque- see page 21.
MonthlyCheck for loose or missing suspension fasteners.
Check brake adjustment- see page 25.
QuarterlyLube Dico surge actuator rollers- see ‘Surge Actuator Maintenance’ on page 27.
AnnuallyPack wheel bearings- see page 18.
Inspect brakes and linings- see page 26.
Bi-annuallyFlush brake fluid and bleed system- see page 29.
Grease deck hinge- see page 15.
SpecialSubmerged axles- immediately re-pack wheel bearings. Check brake linings for
contamination.
Accident or Overload- check all structural components for damage. Check tires and
wheels for damage.
Skidding-check tires for flat spots.
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2.1
Structural Components
Sub-Frame
Other than for periodic or special inspections the trailer sub-frame requires no regular
maintenance other than washing. Keeping the trailer clean will help you notice other
things such as cracked welds or leaking brake fluid. If your application requires the
hauling of corrosives then frequent washdowns are very important.
Deck
The deck is the major load-carrying member of the trailer. It requires no regular
maintenance other than a periodic check for broken welds, loose fasteners and corrosion. If the trailer has been overloaded or in an accident, inspect the deck carefully.
Your trailer has one of two types of decking material, either rubber compound or
wood. For wood decks it may be necessary to apply a new coat of wood preservative
after decking has aged and become dry. The best time to apply preservative is during
warm weather for better penetration.
The rubber compound material requires no particular maintenance.
Replace decking when necessary. Occasionally check for loose, missing, or broken
deck screws.
2.2
Sub-Assembly Components
Coupling
Your trailer has either a pintle eye or ball type coupling. Check for cracks, loose
fasteners and wear. Regularly apply a coating of grease to the hitch contact areas of
the coupling to prevent accelerated wear.
The fasteners for the coupling are very important and deserve careful
attention.Replace the bolts if they are damaged in any way, and replace the locknuts if
worn. Using a torque wrench, torque the fasteners to 150 lb-ft. This torque value is
valid for both types of coupler.
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Jack
As necessary, grease the jack lead screw using the following procedure:
1. Fully extend the jack and apply grease to the lead screw through the grease port
(hole) in the side of the jack body.
2. Cycle the jack up and down several times to distribute the grease on the screw.
The following three sub-sections pertain to trailers with tilt decksCushion Cylinder
The fluid in the cylinder should be changed if the cylinder has leaked or if the deck
action has become jerky and/or sluggish. Fully collapse the cylinder, and then remove
the filler plug and drain out the old fluid. Add 10W hydraulic fluid until the cylinder is full
and all the air has been expelled.
Deck Latch
If the latch becomes difficult to operate apply some penetrating lubricant to the
moving parts. Should the deck develop a rattle, adjust the hook receiver assembly on
the tilt deck.
Deck Hinge Assembly
The hinge assembly is highly stressed during loading and unloading, and so check
it for cracked welds frequently.
Every six months, or sooner if service dictates, grease the deck hinges. Apply grease
to the fittings (one per side) until fresh grease becomes visible.
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2.3
Running Gear
Suspension
The suspension on your trailer is either a rubber torsion axle type or the slipper leaf
spring type. Rubber torsion suspensions require no maintenance.
Slipper springs have an eye formed in one end of the spring only with the other end
formed into a reverse curve. The attachment of these springs is as follows:
1. The front eye is attached directly into the front hanger with a bolt and nut.
2. The rear end of the spring is captured in the rear hanger or equalizer with a
‘keeper bolt’ that prevents the spring from coming out when the trailer is jacked up for
service.
Visually inspect the suspension system every 6,000 miles for signs of excess wear,
elongation of bolt holes, and loosening of fasteners. Whenever loose or replaced the
fasteners in your suspension system should be torqued as detailed below:
1. U-bolt- 45 to 60 lbs.-ft.
2. Shoulder Type shackle bolt- 30 to 50 lbs.-ft.
3. Fasteners with castle nuts- snug fit only. The cotter pin will retain the nut-bolt
assembly.
Hubs and Drums
Hub Removal- Whenever the hub equipment on your trailer must be removed for
inspection or maintenance the following procedure should be utilized:
1. Before jacking up the wheel, break loose the wheel lug nuts. Do not loosen them
more than 1/2 turn while the trailer wheel is still on the ground.
2. Jack up the wheel. Use a jack stand to support the axle. If the wheel does not
rotate freely, back off the brake adjustment. Remove the wheel.
3. Remove the grease cap (hubcap) by carefully prying progressively around the
flange of the cap.
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4. Remove the cotter pin from the spindle nut.
5. Unscrew the spindle nut and remove the spindle washer.
6. Remove the hub from the spindle, being careful not to allow the outer bearing
cone to fall out. The inner bearing cone should be retained by the grease seal.
Brake Drum Inspection
The critical surface of the brake drum is the contact area for the brake shoes during
stopping. Check for excessive wear or heavy scoring. If the drum is scored or out of
round, it should be machined. For a 12" brake drum, the inside diameter must be no
greater than 12.090" after machining.
Bearing Inspection
Wash all grease and oil from the bearing cone using a suitable solvent. Dry the
bearing with compressed air or a lint-free cloth and inspect each roller completely. Also
clean and inspect the cups (races) inside the hub. Any pitting, spalling, bluing (heat
damage) or corrosion is cause for replacement.
NOTE: Bearings must always be replaced in sets of a cone and cup.
! CAUTION
RISK OF PERSONAL INJURY!
Be sure to wear safety glasses when performing the following procedure. Failure to do so can result in serious injury.
To remove the bearing cup from the hub, proceed as follows:
1. Place the hub on a flat work surface with the cup to be removed on the bottom
side.
2. Using a brass drift punch, carefully tap around the small diameter end of the cup
to drive it out.
3. After cleaning the hub bore area, tap in the new cup with the brass drift. Work
gently around the perimeter of the cup so as not to distort it. Make sure that it is fully
seated against the retaining shoulder in the hub.
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Standard Bearing Lubrication
Bearings should be lubricated every 12 months or 12,000 miles. If the axles have
been submerged, the bearings should be repacked immediately. Service the bearings
with lithium grease meeting NLGI No. 2 standards. Use this procedure:
1. Place a quantity of grease into the palm of your hand.
2. Press a section of the wide end of the bearing into the outer edge of the grease
pile closest to the thumb, forcing grease into the interior of the bearing.
3. Repeat this while rotating the bearing from roller to roller.
4. Continue this process until you have the entire bearing completely filled with
grease.
5. Before reinstalling the bearing in the hub, apply a light coat of grease on the
bearing cup.
E-Z Lube Bearing Lubrication
If your axles are equipped with the E-Z Lube feature, the bearing can be lubricated
without removing the hubs from the axle. The feature consists of axle spindles that
have been specially drilled and fitted with a grease zerk in their ends. When grease is
pumped into the zerk, it is channeled to the inner bearing and then flows back to the
outer bearings and eventually back out to the grease cap hole. Regrease using this
procedure:
1. Remove the rubber plug from the end of the grease cap.
2. Place a standard grease gun onto the grease zerk located in the end of the
spindle. Make sure the grease gun nozzle is fully engaged on the fitting.
3. Pump grease into the zerk. The old, displaced grease will begin to flow back out
the cap around the grease gun nozzle.
4. When the new, clean grease is observed, remove the grease gun, wipe off any
excess, and replace the rubber plug in the cap.
5. Rotate the hub or drum by hand while adding grease.
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Note: The E-Z Lube feature is designed to allow immersion. If the hubs are removed from the axle, it is imperative that the grease seals be replaced. A worn or
defective grease seal will allow brake lining contamination during the bearing greasing
procedure.
Seal Inspection and Replacement
Whenever the hub is removed, inspect the seal to assure that it is not nicked or torn
and is still capable of properly sealing the bearing cavity. If there is any question of its
condition, replace the seal. To replace the seal take the following steps:
1. Pry the old seal out of the hub with a screwdriver. Be careful not to scratch or nick
the sealing surface of the hub with the end of the screwdriver.
2. Clean the hub surfaces. If the bearing is removed for any reason, be sure to
reinstall it before pressing in the new seal. Apply a Permatex sealant to the outside of
the new seal (metal seal shells only).
3. Tap the seal into place using a clean wood block.
Hub Reinstallation and Bearing Adjustment
1. Place the hub (with inner bearing set and grease seal installed), outer bearing,
spindle washer and spindle nut back on the spindle in the reverse order of removal.
Rotate the hub assembly while tightening the spindle nut to approximately 50 lbs.-ft. of
torque.
2. Then loosen the spindle nut to remove the torque. Do not rotate the hub.
3. Finger tighten the spindle nut until just snug.
4. Install a new cotter pin (tang washer for E-Z lube hubs). If necessary, the nut can
be backed off slightly to align the castellations with the cotter pin hole in the spindle.
Bend over the tangs of the pin.
5. Check that the hub turns freely and is without unusual sounds. The spindle nut
should be free to move until restrained by the cotter pin or tang washer.
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2.4
Wheels and Tires
Wheels
Wheels are a very important and critical component of your running gear. Inspect
them visually for cracks or elongated bolt holes whenever they are removed for any
reason. If it becomes necessary to replace the wheels on your trailer, be certain that
the replacement units match the originals in the following regards:
1. Bolt Circle. Many bolt circle dimensions are available and some vary by so little
that it might be possible to attach an improper wheel that does not match the axle hub.
Be sure to match your wheel to the axle hub.
2. Capacity. Be sure your wheels have enough load carrying capacity and pressure
rating to match the maximum load of the tire and trailer.
3. Offset. This refers to the relationship of the center line of the tire to the hub face
of the axle. Care should be taken to match a replacement wheel with the same offset
wheel as originally equipped. Failure to match offset can result in reduced carrying
capacity of your axle.
4. Rim Contour.
!
DANGER
RIM CONTOURS!
Use only the approved rim contours as shown in the Tire and Rim
Yearbook or the tire manufacturers catalog. The use of other rim contours is dangerous. Failure to use the proper rim contour can result in
explosive separation of the tire and wheel and could cause a serious
accident.
! WARNING
WHEEL MODIFICATIONS!
Do not attempt to repair or modify a wheel. Even minor modifications
can have a great effect. Do not install a tube to correct a leak through the
rim. If the wheel is cracked, the air pressure in the tube may cause the
pieces of the wheel to explode with great force and can cause serious
injury or death.
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When installing the wheels, make sure that the hub and wheel mating surfaces are
clean and free of rust, dirt and excess paint. The studs and threads must be clean, dry
and in good condition for applying installation torque.
Tighten the lug nuts in the following pattern in three steps- first to 20-25 lbs.-ft., next
to 50-60 lbs.-ft., and then to the final torque of 80 to 95 lbs.-ft.
Tighten wheel nuts every 50 miles for the first 200 miles. Check periodically.
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1
3
6
7
8
4
5
2
1
6
3
4
5
2
Six bolt pattern
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Tires
Before mounting tires onto wheels make certain that the rim size and contour is
approved for the tire as shown in the Tire and Rim Association Yearbook or the tire
manufacturers catalog. Also make sure the tire will carry the rated load. If the load is
not equal on all tires due to trailer weight distribution, use the tire rated for the heaviest
wheel position.
To determine the tire capacity for LT and ST tires, use the capacity rating molded
into the tire.
Use tire mounting procedures as outlined by the Rubber Manufacturers Association
or the tire manufacturer.
Inflation Pressure
Correct tire inflation pressure (LT245/75R 16 “E”- 80 psi, ST225/75R 15 “D”- 65 psi)
is the most important factor in tire life. Inflation pressure should be as recommended by
the manufacturer for the load. Pressure should be checked cold before operation. Do
not bleed air from tires when they are hot. Check inflation pressure weekly during use
to insure the maximum tire life and tread wear. Use the tire wear diagnostic chart to
help you pinpoint the causes and solutions of tire wear problems.
NOTE: Tire wear should be checked frequently because once a wear pattern becomes firmly established in a tire it is difficult to stop, even if the underlying cause is
corrected.
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Tire Wear Diagnostic Chart
Wear Pattern
Cause
Corrective Action
Center Wear
Over inflation
Adjust pressure to
particular load per
tire catalog
Edge Wear
Under inflation
Adjust pressure to
particular load per
tire catalog
Side Wear
Loss of camber or
over loading
Adhere to load
limits. Have axle
aligned
Toe Wear
Incorrect toe-in
Have axle aligned
Cupping
Loose bearing or
out of balance
Adjust bearing;
balance tires
Flat spots
Wheel lockup or
tire skidding
Adjust brakes;
avoid sudden stops
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2.5
Electrical
Harnesses and Lights
The electrical harnesses in the trailer run within the frame members and require no
maintenance. The oval stop/turn/tail lights and the round clearance lights are all of the
sealed type and do not have a separately replaceable bulb. If a light stops working, first
check the connection at the light for voltage (with a test lamp or volt meter) to verify that
the electrical system is functioning properly. If it is then replace the lamp; if not then
troubleshoot the electrical system.
Junction Block
The junction block requires no regular maintenance. If an electrical problem develops, check for corroded or loose terminals.
Electrical Plug
The plug should be kept clean and free of dirt. If an electrical problem develops,
loosen the plug cover retaining screw, slide the cover down over the harness, and
check the screws that hold the wires for security. Also check for stray or broken strands
of wire.
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2.6
Brake System (Common to Hydraulic and Electric)
! CAUTION
ASBESTOS DUST HAZARD!
Since some brake shoe friction materials contain asbestos, certain precautions need to be taken when servicing brakes:
1. Avoid creating or breathing dust.
2. Avoid machining, filing or grinding the brake linings.
3. Do not use compressed air or dry brushing for cleaning.
(Dust can be removed with a damp brush.)
! CAUTION
RISK OF PERSONAL INJURY!
Whenever it becomes necessary to jack the trailer it is up to you to
ensure that the trailer or axle is supported securely. Use blocks or jack
stands on solid ground, especially if you are going to be working under
the trailer.
Brake Adjustment
Brakes should be adjusted (1) after the first 200 miles of operation when the brake
shoes and drums have ‘seated’, (2) at 3000 mile intervals, (3) and as use and performance requires. Adjust the brakes as follows:
1. Jack up the wheel to be adjusted. Support the raised wheel securely.
2. Remove the adjusting hole cover from the adjusting slot on the bottom of the
brake backing plate.
3. With a screwdriver or a brake adjusting tool, rotate the starwheel of the adjuster
assembly to expand the brake shoes. Adjust the brake shoes until the pressure of the
linings against the drums makes the wheel very difficult to turn.
4. Now rotate the starwheel in the opposite direction until the wheel turns freely with
a slight lining drag.
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5. Replace the adjusting hole cover and lower the wheel to the ground.
6. Repeat the above procedure on all brakes.
Brake Cleaning and Inspection
Your trailer brakes must be inspected and serviced at yearly intervals or more often
as use and performance requires. Use the following guidelines for inspection:
Wheel Cylinders- Inspect for leaks and smooth operation. Clean with brake cleaner
and flush with fresh brake fluid. Hone or replace as necessary.
Magnets and Magnet Arms- Inspect magnets for wear. Inspect magnet arms for
loose or worn parts.
Shoes and Linings- Inspect visually. Replace if the lining is worn to 1/16" thickness or
less, contaminated with grease or brake fluid, or abnormally scored or gouged.
Hardware- Check all hardware. Check shoe return spring, hold down springs, and
adjuster springs for stretch or wear. Replace as required. Service kits are available.
Drums- Check drums for scoring, cracking, or uneven wear. Machine drum surface
only if under maximum diameter. Replace as necessary. See page 17 for more information.
Brake Lubrication
Moving brake components should get a light film of high temperature grease or antiseize compound. These areas include the brake anchor pin, the actuating arm bushing
and pin, and the areas on the backing plate that are in contact with the brake shoes and
actuating lever arm.
! CAUTION
BRAKE LINING CONTAMINATION!
Do not get grease or oil on the brake linings, drums, or magnets.
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2.7
Hydraulic Brake System
Operation
The hydraulic brakes on your trailer are much like those on your car. The hydraulic
brake fluid from a master cylinder is used to actuate the wheel cylinder which, in turn,
applies force against the brake shoes and drum. The main difference between automotive hydraulic brakes and hydraulic trailer brakes is the actuation system which transfer
the braking signal from the tow vehicle to the brakes.
The surge braking system uses a specially designed trailer hitch coupler which has
a hydraulic cylinder built in. When the tow vehicle applies its brakes, the tow vehicle
decelerates causing the trailer to apply a pushing force against the hitch. This force
actuates the surge hitch hydraulic cylinder, forcing brake fluid under pressure into the
wheel cylinders, which then causes the trailer brakes to be applied.
Surge Actuator Maintenance
Before towing check that the brake fluid reservoir is full. If not, refill to 3/8 inch below
the top of the reservoir with DOT 3 brake fluid. Check for leaks and repair as required.
A film of grease on the coupler will extend coupler life while eliminating squeaking.
Wipe clean and renew film each time trailer is used.
Before towing, examine the actuator for bent parts or excessive wear. Replace parts
as necessary. Check to determine that mounting bolts are tight and welds not cracked.
Some earlier models used the Dico actuator that had grease fittings for the internal
rollers. If your trailer is equipped with this actuator, grease the rollers every 90 days or
5000 miles.
Excessive actuator travel (over one inch) when brakes are applied indicates a need
to adjust the brakes. Adjust per instructions found in the brake section of this manual. In
general, back-off adjusters 10 clicks from locked rotation. Adjust Free-Backing brakes
by rotating in forward direction only.
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Corrosive Environment Warning
! WARNING
CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS!
Saltwater, granular fertilizers and other corrosive materials are destructive to metal. To prolong the life of a braking system used under corrosive
conditions the actuator should be flushed after use with a high pressure
water hose. Failure to properly clean the actuator could weaken it and/or
cause it to fail and result in serious injury and/or property damage.
Hydraulic Lines
Occassionally check the condition and security of the lines and hoses that comprise
the brake hydraulic system. Check that the lock tabs and clamps are in place and
securely holding the lines to the frame. Look for signs of leakage, especially if you have
had to add fluid to the reservoir frequently.
Check the tubing for kinks, cracks, blockage and corrosion, and replace any that
are questionable. Inspect the hoses for age checking (cracking of the outer rubber
sheath), damage, blisters, or other signs of impending failure and replace as necessary.
Hydraulic Brakes
The hydraulic brakes on your trailer use a single piston wheel cylinder to apply the
brakes. A description of operation of this brake is as follows:
When the brakes are applied, the single-acting wheel cylinder moves the primary
shoe towards the drum. The frictional force between the brake drum and the lining
attempts to turn the primary shoe into the secondary shoe through the adjuster link
assembly. The secondary shoe is forced into the anchor pin and from this point, the
secondary and primary shoes attempt to ‘wrap around’. In essence, the brake has
utilized frictional force to augment the hydraulic actuation force on the primary shoe.
These brakes incorporate a ‘free-backing’ design which allows a surge actuator
equipped trailer to move easily in reverse. Without this feature the surge actuator would
be applying the trailer brakes as the tow vehicle is attempting to back the trailer.
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Brake System Bleeding
The preferred method for bleeding air out of the brake hydraulic system is to use a
pressure-type brake bleeder. Follow the manufacturers directions for using the bleeder.
To bleed the brakes manually, proceed as follows:
1. Fill the master cylinder in the surge actuator with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid. Remove the two 5/16" hex head bolts that hold the lever guides and emergency lever
spring. Remove the lever guide and emergency lever spring. Using short strokes, pull
forward on emergency lever until all bubbling stops inside the master cylinder.
2. Install a bleeder hose on the bleeder screw of the left wheel cylinder (left rear if
tandem axle). You should always begin the bleeding operation on the wheel cylinder
that is farthest from the master cylinder. Have the loose end of the hose submerged in
a glass container of brake fluid so that you can observe bubbling.
3. Loosen the bleeder screw one turn and operate the breakaway lever slowly until
all bubbling stops. Close the bleeder screw securely.
4. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir and replenish as necessary
between wheel cylinder bleedings.
5. Using the same procedure move to the right brake (or right rear if tandem) and
bleed it; for tandem trailers then bleed the left front brake next, and finish with the right
front brake.
6. Fill the reservoir to within 3/8" below the top and replace filler cap securely. Reinstall the lever guides and emergency spring with the two bolts that were removed earlier.
Maintenance
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Hydraulic Brake System Troubleshooting Chart
REMEDY
CAUSES
ADJUST BRAKES
UNDERADJUSTMENT
LUBRICATE
LACK OF LUBRICATION
REPLACE COMPONENTS
BROKEN BRAKE
COMPONENTS
CORRECT
SYMPTOM
CAUSES
REMEDY
BROKEN OR KINKED
BRAKE LINE
REPAIR OR REPLACE
NO BRAKES
SEVERE
UNDERADJUSTMENT
ADJUST BRAKES
NOISY BRAKES
MALFUNCTIONING
ACTUATION SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOT SYSTEM
INCORRECT BRAKE
COMPONENTS
INCORRECT BRAKE
ADJUSTMENT
ADJUST BRAKES
REPLACE COMPONENTS
LOOSE, BENT OR BROKEN
BRAKE COMPONENTS
EXCESSIVELY WORN
BRAKE LININGS
REPLACE SHOES
AND LININGS
ADJUST
UNDERADJUSTMENT
INCORRECT LININGS
INSTALL CORRECT
SHOE AND LININGS
MACHINE OR REPLACE
OUT OF ROUND DRUMS
GREASE OR FLUID
SOAKED LININGS
REPLACE GREASE SEAL OR CYLINDER.
INSTALL NEW SHOE AND LINING
INFLATE EVENLY TO PROPER
PRESSURE ON BOTH SIDES
INCORRECT TIRE
PRESSURE
MATCH TIRES ON AXLE
UNMATCHED TIRES
ON SAME AXLE
EXCESSIVE DRUM WEAR
REPLACE
REPAIR OR REPLACE
RESTRICTED BRAKE
LINES OR HOSES
TRAPPED AIR IN LINES
BLEED SYSTEM
CHECK FOR STUCK OR
SLUGGISH PISTONS
MALFUNCTIONING
CYLINDER ASSEMBLY
OVERLOADED TRAILER
CORRECT
INSTALL CORRECT SHOE AND
LINING- COMPLETE AXLE
DEFECTIVE OR DAMAGED
SHOE OR LINING
MALFUNCTIONING
ACTUATION SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOT SYSTEM
ADJUST
ONE SIDE OUT
OF ADJUSTMENT
OVERLOADED TRAILER
ADJUST BRAKES
REPLACE RUBBER PARTSSERVICE WITH DOT 3 FLUID
IMPROPER FLUID
HARSH BRAKES
INCORRECT BRAKE
ADJUSTMENT
ADJUST BRAKES
OPEN WITH COMPRESSED
AIR OR REPLACE CYLINDER
BLOCKED MASTER
CYLINDER
SURGING BRAKES
GREASE OR FLUID
ON LINING
REPLACE SHOES
AND LININGS
FREE CABLE
AND LUBRICATE
PARKING BRAKE
CABLE FROZEN
DRAGGING BRAKES
GREASE OR OIL
ON LINING
CLEAN OR REPLACE
INSTALL NEW
SHOES AND LININGS
IMPROPER LINING THICKNESS OR LOCATION
OUT OF ROUND
OR CRACKED DRUMS
MACHINE OR REPLACE
LOCKING BRAKES
WEAK BRAKES
PULLS TO ONE SIDE
Maintenance
FROZEN MASTER CYLINDER
OR WHEEL CYLINDER PISTONS
REBURNISH OR REPLACE
®
page 30
T-10-UT
2.8
Electric Brake System
Operation
The electric brakes on your trailer are similar to the drums brakes on your automobile. The basic difference is that your automotive brakes are actuated by hydraulic
pressure while the electric brakes are actuated by an electromagnet. With all of the
brake components connected into the system, the brake will operate as follows:
1. When the electrical current is fed into the system by the controller, it flows through
the electromagnets in the brakes. The high capacity electromagnets are energized and
are attracted to the rotating armature surface of the drums which moves the actuating
levers in the direction that the drums are turning.
2. The resulting force causes the actuating cam block at the shoe end of the lever to
push the primary shoe out against the inside surface of the brake drum. The force
generated by the primary shoe acting through the adjuster link then moves the secondary shoe out into contact with the brake drum.
Backing Plate
Actuating Lever Arm
Primary Shoe
Magnet
Retractor Springs
Secondary Shoe
Shoe Hold Down
Spring
Adjusting Screw
Adjusting Screw
Spring
Maintenance
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Increasing the current flow to the electromagnet causes the magnet to grip the
armature surface of the brake drum more firmly. This results in increasing the pressure
against the shoes and brake drums until the desired stop is accomplished.
Using your Brakes Properly
Your trailer brakes are designed to work in synchronization with your tow vehicle
brakes. Never use your tow vehicle or trailer brakes alone to stop the combined load.
In order for your tow vehicle to provide the correct amperage flow to the trailer brake
magnets for comfortable and safe braking it is imperative that you make the proper
brake system adjustments. Changing trailer load and driving conditions as well as uneven alternator and battery output can mean unstable current flow to the brake magnets. It is therefore crucial that you maintain and adjust your brakes as set forth in this
manual, use a properly modulated brake controller, and perform the synchronization
procedure noted below.
In addition to the synchronization adjustment detailed below, electric brake controllers provide a modulation function that varies the current to the electric brakes with the
pressure on the brake pedal or amount of deceleration of the tow vehicle. It is important
that your brake controller provide approximately 2 volts to the braking system when the
pedal is first depressed and gradually increases the voltage to 12 volts as brake pressure is increased. If the controller “jumps” immediately to a high voltage output, even
during a gradual stop, then the electric brakes will always be fully energized and will
result in harsh brakes and potential wheel lockup.
Proper synchronization of the tow vehicle to trailer braking can only be accomplished by road testing. Brake lockup, grabbiness, or harshness is quite often due to
the lack of synchronization between the tow vehicle and the trailer being towed, too
high of a threshold voltage (over 2 volts), or under adjusted brakes.
Before any synchronization adjustments are made, your trailer brakes should be
burnished-in by applying the brakes 20 to 30 times with approximately a 20 mph decrease in speed, for example slowing from 40 to 20 mph each time. Allow ample time for
the brakes to cool between application. This allows the brake shoes and magnets to
slightly “wear-in” to the drum surfaces.
Maintenance
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page 32
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Synchronization
To insure safe braking performance and synchronization, read the brake controller
manufacturer’s instructions completely before attempting any synchronization procedure.
! CAUTION
ROAD SAFETY!
Before making road tests, make sure that the area is clear of vehicular
and pedestrian traffic. The purpose of these tests is to adjust the brakes
for safe operation, and therefore you should expect that initial braking
action make be weak or irregular.
Make several hard stops from 20 mph on a dry paved road free of sand and gravel.
If the trailer brakes lock and slide, decrease the gain setting on the controller. If they do
not slide, slightly increase the gain setting. Adjust the controller just to the point of
impending brake lockup and wheel skid.
Note: Minimum vehicle stopping distances are achieved when wheels approach
lockup, however actual brake lockup should be avoided as it results in poor vehicle
stability and control. Depending on load, brake type, wheels and tires, not all trailer
brakes are capable of wheel lockup.
If the controller is applying the trailer brakes before the tow vehicle brakes, then the
controller level adjustment should be adjusted so that the trailer brakes come on in
synchronization with the tow vehicle brakes. For proper braking performance, it is recommended that the controller be adjusted to allow the trailer brakes to come on just
slightly ahead of the tow vehicle brakes. When proper synchronization is achieved
there will be no sensation of the trailer “jerking” or “pushing” the tow vehicle during
braking.
Controllers
Start by making sure trailer brakes are properly adjusted. Some controllers have a
gain control to vary the amount of current to the brakes, and a level control which sets
the controller’s inertia sensor to sense deceleration. The level adjustment also can be
used to vary when the trailer braking is felt. The gain or output control adjustment
usually controls the maximum amount of amperage available to the brakes. This can be
adjusted for varying trailer loads. The chart below details adjustments available for
different brake controllers.
Maintenance
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! CAUTION
CONTROLLER PARAMETERS!
Do not adjust the brake controller outside the parameters outlined by
the controller manufacturer’s instructions.
Controller*
Tekonsha
(9010,20,30,55)
Brake Timing Adjustment
Level
Brake Force Adjustment
Gain
Kelsey 81741A
Level
Gain
Draw-Tite 5100
Sync
Output
*See manufacturer’s instructions
Magnets
Your electric brakes are equipped with high quality electromagnets that are designed to provide the proper input force and friction characteristics. Your magnets should
be inspected and replaced if worn unevenly or abnormally. As indicated below a straightedge should be used to check wear.
Even if wear is normal as indicated by your straightedge, the magnets should be
replaced is any part of the magnet coil has become visible through the friction material
facing of the magnet. It is also recommended that the drum armature surface be refaced
when replacing magnets. Magnets should also be replaced in pairs (both sides of the
axle). Use only genuine Dexter replacement parts when replacing your magnets.
Abnormal Wear
(Replace Magnet)
Normal Wear
Maintenance
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Electric Brake System Troubleshooting
Most electric brake system malfunctions that cannot be corrected by either brake
adjustments or synchronization adjustments can generally be traced to electrical system failure. Mechanical causes are ordinarily obvious, i.e. bent or broken parts, worn
out linings or magnets, seized lever arms or shoes, scored drums, loose parts, etc. A
voltmeter and ammeter are essential tools for proper troubleshooting of electric brakes.
Measuring Voltage
System voltage is measured at the magnets by connecting the voltmeter between
the two magnet lead wires at any brake. This may be accomplished by using a pin
probe inserted through the insulation of the wires leading from the trailer frame to the
brake assembly, or if necessary by cutting the wires. The engine of the tow vehicle
should be running when checking the voltage so that a low battery will not affect the
readings.
Voltage in the system should begin at zero volts and as the controller bar is slowly
actuated should increase gradually to about 12 volts. This gradual increase of voltage
is referred to as modulation. No modulation means that when the controller begins to
apply voltage to the brakes it applies an immediate high voltage (acting more like an
On-Off switch), which causes the brakes to apply instantaneous maximum power.
The threshold voltage of a controller is the voltage that is applied to the brakes
when the controller first energizes. The lower the threshold the smoother the brakes
will operate. Too high a threshold voltage (in excess of 2 volts as quite often found in
heavy duty controllers) an cause grabby, harsh brakes.
INCREASING
VOLTAGE
12 VOLTS
2 VOLT
(THRESHOLD)
SE
RI
GE
A
T
OL
V
AL
U
AD
GE
R
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T
OL
V
PT E
U
R RIS
AB
GOOD
MODULATION
POOR
MODULATION
ZERO VOLTS
INCREASING PEDAL PRESSURE
Maintenance
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page 35
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From
Trailer
Harness
VOLTMETER
To measure VOLTAGE, measure
across both brake magnet wires.
From
Trailer
Harness
AMMETER
To measure AMPERAGE, measure
between one open brake magnet wire.
Maintenance
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page 36
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Measuring Amperage
System amperage is the amperage being drawn by all the brakes on the trailer. The
engine of the tow vehicle should be running when checking the amperage.
One place to measure system amperage is at the BLUE wire of the controller which
is the output to the brakes. The BLUE wire must be disconnected and the ammeter put
in series into the line. System amperage draw should be as noted in the paragraph
below. Make sure your ammeter has sufficient capacity and be sure to connect it with
the correct polarity to avoid damaging the meter.
If a resister is used in the brake system it must be set at zero or bypassed completely to obtain the maximum amperage reading.
Individual brake amperage draw can be measured by inserting the ammeter in the
line at the magnet you want to check. Disconnect one of the magnet lead wires and
attach the ammeter between the two ends. Make sure that the wires are properly reconnected and sealed after testing is complete.
By far the most common electrical problem is low or no voltage and amperage at the
brakes. Common causes of this condition are:
1. Poor electrical connections.
2. Open circuits.
3. Insufficient wire size.
4. Broken wires.
5. Blown fuses (fusing of brake circuits is not recommended).
6. Improperly functioning controllers or resistors.
Another common electrical problem is partially shorted circuits (indicated by abnormally high system amperage). These are occasionally the most difficult to find. Possible causes are:
1. Shorted magnet coils.
2. Defective controllers.
3. Bares wires contacting a grounded object.
Maintenance
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Finding a system short is a matter of isolation. If the high amperage reading drops
to zero by unplugging the trailer, the short is in the trailer. If the amperage reading
remains high with all the brake magnets disconnected, the short is in the trailer wiring.
All electrical troubleshooting procedures should start at the controller. Most complaints regarding brake harshness or malfunction are traceable to improperly adjusted
or non-functioning controllers. See your controller manufacturers data for proper adjustment and testing procedures. If the voltage and amperage is not satisfactory, proceed to the connector and then to the individual magnets to isolate the problem source.
12 volts output at the controller should equate to 10.5 volts minimum at each magnet.
Nominal system amperage at 12 volts with the magnets at normal operating temperature, i.e. not cold, system resister at zero and controller at maximum gain should be 3.0
amps for each magnet in the circuit.
Maintenance
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page 38
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Electric Brake System Troubleshooting Chart
REMEDY
CAUSES
FIND AND CORRECT
OPEN CIRCUITS
ADJUST BRAKES
SEVERE
UNDERADJUSTMENT
TEST AND CORRECT
FAULTY CONTROLLER
FIND AND CORRECT
SYMPTOM
CAUSES
REMEDY
WRONG MAGNET LEAD
WIRE COLOR
CORRECT
NO BRAKES
INCORRECT ADJUSTMENT
ADJUST
BRAKES PULL TO
ONE SIDE
GREASE OR OIL ON
LININGS OR MAGNETS
CLEAN OR REPLACE
SHORT CIRCUITS
BROKEN WIRE
FIND AND REPAIR
CLEAN OR REPLACE
GREASE OR OIL ON
MAGNETS OR LININGS
BAD CONNECTIONS
FIND AND REPAIR
CLEAN AND CORRECT
CAUSE OF CORROSION
CORRODED
CONNECTIONS
UNDERADJUSTMENT
ADJUST
REPLACE
WORN LININGS
OR MAGNETS
IMPROPER
SYNCHRONIZATION
CORRECT
MACHINE OR REPLACE
SCORED OR GROOVED
BRAKE DRUMS
IMPROPER CONTROLLER
CHANGE
CORRECT
IMPROPER
SYNCHRONIZATION
FAULTY CONTROLLER
TEST AND CORRECT
ADJUST BRAKES
UNDERADJUSTMENT
UNDERADUSTMENT
ADJUST
REBURNISH OR REPLACE
GLAZED LININGS
LACK OF LUBRICATION
LUBRICATE
CORRECT
OVERLOADED TRAILER
BROKEN BRAKE
COMPONENTS
REPLACE COMPONENT
ADJUST
UNDERADJUSTMENT
INCORRECT BRAKE
COMPONENTS
CORRECT
CORRECT
IMPROPER
SYNCHRONIZATION
GREASE OR OIL ON
LININGS OR MAGNET
CLEAN OR REPLACE
TEST AND CORRECT
FAULTY CONTROLLER
SURGING BRAKES
OUT OF ROUND OR
CRACKED BRAKE DRUMS
MACHINE OR REPLACE
REPLACE COMPONENTS
LOOSE, BENT OR BROKEN
BRAKE COMPONENTS
LOCKING BRAKES
FAULTY CONTROLLER
TEST AND CORRECT
MACHINE OR REPLACE
OUT OF ROUND
BRAKE DRUMS
OVERADJUSTMENT
READJUST
ADJUST SYSTEM RESISTOR
AND SYNCHRONIZE
INSUFFICIENT
WHEEL LOAD
OUT OF ROUND
BRAKE DRUMS
MACHINE OR REPLACE
TEST AND CORRECT
FAULTY CONTROLLER
INCORRECT BRAKE
COMPONENTS
REPLACE
REPAIR OR REPLACE
BROKEN WIRES
INTERMITTENT BRAKES
LOOSE, BENT OR BROKEN
BRAKE COMPONENTS
REPLACE
FIND AND REPAIR
LOOSE CONNECTIONS
DRAGGING BRAKES
FAULTY BREAKAWAY
SWITCH
REPAIR OR REPLACE
FIND AND REPAIR
FAULTY GROUND
LOOSE WHEEL BEARING
ADJUSTMENT
ADJUST
BENT SPINDLE
REPLACE AXLE
HARSH BRAKES
WEAK BRAKES
NOISY BRAKE
Maintenance
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2.9
Pre-Storage Maintenance
If your trailer is to be stored for an extended period of time or over the winter, it is
important that the trailer be prepared properly.
1. Give the trailer a thorough wash down and let it dry completely.
2. Remove the breakaway battery (for electric brake systems) and store inside, out
of the weather. Charge the battery at least every 90 days.
3. Jack up the trailer and place jack stands or blocks under the suspension tie
plates so that the weight will be off the tires. The best way to jack the trailer for this is to
place the jack under the trailer frame rail using a wood block to protect the finish. Raise
the jack until the suspension assembly on that side is high enough to insert the blocks.
Never jack or support the trailer using the axle tube or equalizers.
4. Lubricate exposed mechanical moving components such as the hitch and suspension parts. Store the trailer under cover for best protection, or under a tarp if cover
is not available. Leaving the trailer out in the weather may cause accelerated aging.
5. No wheel bearing service is necessary at this time unless the axles have been
immersed.
Maintenance
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page 40
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2.10
Pre-Season Maintenance
Before removing the trailer from the jack stands:
1. Remove all wheels and hubs (brake drums). Note which spindles the drums were
removed from so that they can be reinstalled in the same location.
2. Inspect the suspension for wear and corrosion and correct any discrepencies.
3. For leaf spring suspensions, check the tightness of all the hanger bolts, shackle
bolts, and U-bolt nuts per recommended torque values (see page 16).
4. Check all brake linings, brake drums and armature faces for excessive wear or
scoring.
5. Check brake magnets with an ohmmeter. The magnets should check at 3.2 ohms.
If shorted or excessively worn, replace the magnets.
6. Lubricate all brake moving parts.
! CAUTION
BRAKE LINING CONTAMINATION!
Do not get grease or oil on brake linings or magnet face.
7. Remove any rust from braking surface and armature surface with fine emery
paper or crocus cloth. Protect the bearings from contamination while so doing.
8. Remove and re-pack the wheel bearings (see page 18). Install new grease seals
when the bearings are reinstalled.
9. Reinstall the hubs and adjust bearings as outlined on page 19.
10. Remount and torque the wheel lug nuts. Be sure to remember to re-torque the
lugs periodically (see page 21).
11. Check cold tire inflation pressures (LT245/75R 16 “E”- 80 psi, ST225/75R 15
“D”- 65 psi).
Maintenance
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Section 3.
3.1
Parts
Structural Components
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
2
Safety Chain and Hook Assembly ........................................ 1/4" ASSY
2.
2
Fender Assembly .............................................................. SA-03285
3.
1
Right Hand Tail Light Bracket ............................................. SA-12779
4.
1
Left Hand Tail Light Bracket ............................................... SA-14218
5.
8
D-ring ......................................................................................... B-40
6.
1
*Upper Side Plate Assembly ............................................. SA-12525
7.
2
*Lower Latch Side Plate ....................................................... C-12526
*Item 6 included on Tilt Deck Assembly SA-02275 and Item 7 included on Tongue
Assembly SA-11179
Parts
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page 42
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3
4
2
P
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5
6
1
7
Parts
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page 43
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Deck Surface
Wood Deck
Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
1.
3
Deck Lumber, 1-1/2 x 10 x 16’ ........................................ 1 1/2x10 16’
4
Deck Lumber, 1-1/2 x 12 x 16’ ........................................ 1 1/2x12 16’
2.
86
Torx Deck Screws, 1/4-20 x 2-1/2" ............................................. 32519
Rubber Deck
Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
1.
11
Rubber Compound Decking ................................................. 9102-16
2.
250
Torx Deck Screws, 1/4-20 x 2-1/2" ............................................. 32519
Note: Rubber compound decking requires additional crossmember support and cannot be retrofitted to trailers built for wooden decks.
2
1
Note: Forward structural channel
not shown for clarity;
first deck board is left out
to reveal crossmember
Parts
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page 44
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3.2
Major Sub-Assemblies
Hammerblow Drop Leg Jack
Ref. Quantity
1
1.
1
2.
1
3.
1
4.
1
Description......................................................................... Part No.
Jack Assembly with Crank .....................................................182304
Inner Ram and Drop Leg Assembly ....................................... 701165
Screw and Nut Assembly ......................................................712216
Crank Assembly Kit .............................................................800075
Screw, Nut, and Bearing Replacement Kit ........................500220
Note: Kit names are bold type while component names are regular type; kit components, if itemized, are indexed under the kit name. Kit component quantities are per
kit; other parts and kit quantities are per trailer.
2 4
3
P
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1
Parts
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page 45
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Couplers
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
2-5/16" Lever Lock Coupler ................................................. 07678-97
5/8" -11 UNC x 1-5/8" Hex Head Bolt Grade 5 ...........................04051
2.
4
5/8" -11 UNC Stover Lock Nut ..................................................03730
3.
4
2
3
1
Parts
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page 46
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Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Pintle Eye ........................................................................... 09557-97
5/8"-11 UNC x 4-1/2" Hex Head Bolt Grade 5 ............................. 02434
2.
2
5/8"-11 UNC Nylon Insert Lock Nut ............................................ 02587
3.
2
Note: Pintle Eye and associated hardware is an available option.
3
2
P
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1
Parts
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Deck Latch Assembly
Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
Upper Latch Assembly
1/2" x 1-1/4" Adjusting Bolt .................................................... 17207
1.
1
2.
1
Utility Latch-Hook ............................................................ C-12534
3.
2
Glide Latch Bearing .................................................. GFI-1214-06
4.
1
Latch Pin ........................................................................ C-04150
5.
2
E-Clip ..................................................................... 10385-00118
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1
1
4
2
4
Lower Latch Assembly
Utility Latch Assembly .................................................. SA-12536
Utilty Latch Handle .......................................................... C-12535
Glide Latch Bearing .................................................. GFI-1214-06
Latch Pin ........................................................................ C-04150
E-Clip ..................................................................... 10385-00118
Parts
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page 48
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Upper Latch Assembly
1
3
5
4
2
Lower Latch Assembly
1
4
5
P
A
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3
2
Parts
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page 49
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Cushion Cylinder
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Cushion Cylinder .................................................................... 30X08
1
Parts
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page 50
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3.3
Running Gear
Suspension, 7K
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
2
7000# Rubber Torsion Axle .................................................7700353
P
A
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1
Parts
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Hydraulic Brake Components
Ref. Quantity
1
1
1.
1
2.
1
3.
1
4.
1
4.
1
5.
3
6.
1
7.
1
8.
1
9.
1
10.
1
11.
1
12.
2
13.
1
14.
2
15.
1
16.
1
17.
2
18.
1
19.
4
20.
1
21.
1
22.
2
23.
1
24.
1
25.
1
Description......................................................................... Part No.
Complete Brake Assembly- Right ........................................SB42028
Complete Brake Assembly- Left .......................................... SB42029
Back Plate Assembly .................................................... SB18496-30
Brake Shoe Kit (2 Front & 2 Rear) .......................................SB18498
Bleeder ................................................................................... 05431
Wheel Cyl. Assy-Right ...........................................................SB9776
Wheel Cyl. Assy-Left ..............................................................SB9777
5/16-18 UNC x 5/8” Hex Bolt ................................................... 05961
Push Rod ..............................................................................SB9783
Adjusting Screw Assembly ..................................................SB42159
Spring-Adjusting Screw ....................................................... SB24765
Shoe Lever ................................................................... SB18502-95
Travel Link ..................................................................... SB17917-95
Locknut ................................................................................... 05962
5/16” Star Washer ................................................................... 05424
Pin-Front Shoe ........................................................................ 05824
Retaining Ring ......................................................................SB7778
Spring-Shoe ..........................................................................SB9786
Spring-Lever .........................................................................SB9785
Spring-Shoe Return ...............................................................SB6814
Pin-Shoe Hold Down #4 ......................................................SB18505
Cup-Shoe Hold Down............................................................ SB9789
Spring-Hold Down -Maroon ....................................................... 9790
Spring-Hold Down - Blue ........................................................... 9791
Cover Plate-Adjusting Hole ....................................................... 9254
Pin-Shoe Hold Down #1 .......................................................... 03562
Washer-Shoe Guide ................................................................ 18950
Hex Cap Screw-1/4-20 UNC x 3/4 ........................................... 12972
Parts
®
page 52
23
12
5
6
®
3
11
22
2
9
12
page 53
10
4
14
13
18
20
7
11
16
19
1
25
24
17
Parts
21
15
T-10-UT
8
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Electric Brake Components, 5K
Ref. Quantity
1
1
1.
1
2.
1
2.
1
3.
2
4.
2
Description......................................................................... Part No.
LH Complete Brake Assembly ........................................ 023-105-00
RH Complete Brake Assembly ....................................... 023-106-00
Backing Plate Assembly ................................................. 036-089-05
LH Lever Actuating Arm .................................................. 047-107-00
RH Lever Actuating Arm ................................................. 047-108-00
Wire Clip ........................................................................ 027-005-00
Retractor Spring .............................................................. 046-009-00
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
Shoe and Lining Kit ...................................................... K71-048-00
Primary Shoe and Lining........................................... 040-044-00
Secondary Shoe and Lining ...................................... 040-045-00
Shoe Hold Down Pin ................................................. 049-011-00
Shoe Hold Down Spring ............................................ 048-077-00
Adjuster Assembly .......................................................... 043-004-00
Adjusting Screw Spring .................................................. 046-018-00
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
Magnet Kit ..................................................................... K71-105-00
Magnet (white wire) ................................................... 042-099-01
Magnet Clip ............................................................... 027-009-00
Magnet Spring ........................................................... 046-080-00
Plug ................................................................................ 046-007-00
Wire Grommet ................................................................ 046-016-00
Anchor Post Washer ...................................................... 005-067-00
Nut Washer Assembly...................................................... 006-193-00
Note: Kit names are bold type while component names are regular type; kit components, if itemized, are indexed under the kit name. Kit component quantities are per
kit; other parts and kit quantities are per trailer.
Parts
®
page 54
15
2
®
14
3
5
page 55
7
16
4
17
1
13
11
9
6
Parts
8
10
T-10-UT
12
P
A
R
T
S
T-10-UT
Axle End Components
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Grease Seal .................................................................... 010-036-00
2.
1
Inner Bearing Cone ......................................................... 031-030-02
3.
1
Inner Bearing Cup ........................................................... 031-030-01
1/2" Wheel Stud ................................................................ 007-262-00
4.
6
5.
1
Brake Drum (6 stud on 5.5" circle) ................................... 008-201-09
6.
1
Outer Bearing Cup .......................................................... 031-029-01
7.
1
Outer Bearing Cone ........................................................ 031-029-02
8.
1
Spindle Washer ............................................................... 005-023-00
9.
1
Spindle Nut Retainer ........................................................ 006-190-00
10.
1
Spindle Nut (1"-14) .......................................................... 006-176-00
11.
1
Grease Cap .................................................................... 021-042-01
12.
1
Rubber Plug .................................................................... 085-001-00
1
3
4
6
2
8
10
12
7
5
9
11
Parts
®
page 56
T-10-UT
3.4
Wheels and Tires
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Tire ...................................................................... ST225/75R 15 “D”
2.
1
Wheel .................................................................................. 91-5660
3.
6
Wheel Nut, 1/2"-20, 60° ................................................... 006-008-00
Note: Tires are not available through Gem State Manufacturing; contact your local
equipment tire retailer for replacement parts.
1
P
A
R
T
S
2
3
Parts
®
page 57
T-10-UT
3.5
Electrical
Harnesses and Lights
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1
E-7 Electrical Kit ............................................................... K00768C
1.
5
Red Clearance Lamp, sealed .......................................... 10205R
2.
7
Mounting Grommet ............................................................ 10704
3.
2
Amber Clearance Lamp, sealed ...................................... 10205Y
4.
2
Oval Stop/Turn/Tail Light, sealed ....................................... 60202R
5.
2
Oval Mounting Grommet ..................................................... 60700
6.
1
License Plate Lamp ........................................................... 26331
7.
1
Main Harness .................................................................... 50923
8.
2
Marker/Clearance Harness ........................................50321 0216
9.
1
Tail Light Harness .............................................................. 51305
10.
1
Pigtail ................................................................................ 94853
Note: Kit names are bold type while component names are regular type; kit components, if itemized, are indexed under the kit name. Kit component quantities are per
kit; other parts and kit quantities are per trailer.
Parts
®
page 58
T-10-UT
10
9
4
5
8
7
6
P
A
R
T
S
2
3
2
1
Parts
®
page 59
T-10-UT
Electrical Plug
Ref. Quantity
1.
1
Options
2.
1
3.
1
Description ......................................................................... Part No.
Seven Way RV Plug ............................................................... 12-706
Seven Way Plug and Spring .............................................. PL 15-730
Six Way Plug ............................................................................. S603
Not Wired
BrownTail and Marker
BlackAccessories
YellowLeft Turn
GreenRight Turn
WhiteGround
1
Red (or Blue)Electric Brakes
BlackAccessories
YellowLeft Turn
WhiteGround
BrownTail and Marker
GreenRight Turn
OpenNot Used
2
BlackAccessories
WhiteGround
3
RedStop
YellowLeft Turn/Stop
Parts
BrownTail and Marker
Red (or Blue)ECU Power/ Electric Brakes
GreenRight Turn/Stop
®
page 60
T-10-UT
Electric Brake Wiring
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
E-8 Brake Harness Kit ........................................................ K00769
1.
1
Brake Harness ..........................................................51362 0012
2.
1
Brake Harness ..........................................................51362 0096
3.
4
Magnet Pigtail ....................................................................94619
Note: Kit names are bold type while component names are regular type; kit components, if itemized, are indexed under the kit name. Kit component quantities are per
kit; other parts and kit quantities are per trailer.
3
1
P
A
R
T
S
2
2
1
Electric Breakaway System
Ref. Quantity Description......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Electric Breakaway Kit W/O Switch ......................................... 20017
2.
1
Electric Breakaway Switch W/44” Leads ................................. 20014
Parts
®
page 61
T-10-UT
3.6
Hydraulic System
Hydraulic Lines
Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
Surge Line Kit .................................................................. 0716-001
1.
4
Brake Hose, 13" ........................................................... 18013-FF
2.
9
Hose Bracket .................................................................... 25 x 15
3.
8
Hose Clip............................................................................. 1457
4.
1
Adapter Tee ......................................................................... 7900
5.
2
Union Tee with Bracket ......................................................... 7812
6.
1
Brake Line, 121" ...................................................... AG-16121-C
7.
1
Brake Line, 84" ........................................................ AG-16084-C
8.
1
Brake Line, 3/16" X 20-1/2" -5 Bend RH........................ 0716-001-1
9.
1
Brake Line, 3/16" X 20-1/2" -5 Bend LH ........................ 0716-001-2
10.
1
Brake Line, 3/16" X 20" -3 Bend RH ............................ 0716-001-3
11.
1
Brake Line, 3/16" X 20" -3 Bend LH ............................. 0716-001-4
12.
5
Tube Clamp ............................................................. COV-0411Z1
3.
13.
14.
15.
1
1
4
1
Finish Surge Line Kit ....................................................... 0716-007
Hose Clip............................................................................. 1457
Brake Hose, 13” .......................................................... 18013-MF
Brake Line, 9" ........................................................... AG-16009-S
90° Surge Fitting .............................................................. 2400X2
Note: Kit names are bold type while component names are regular type; kit components, if itemized, are indexed under the kit name. Kit component quantities are per kit;
other parts and kit quantities are per trailer.
Parts
®
page 62
T-10-UT
15
2
13
3
8
9
12
6
11
7
P
A
R
T
S
4
5
10
1
14
Parts
®
page 63
T-10-UT
Model DA20 Surge Actuator
Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Inner Slider Tube Channel Centered ....................................11044-97
2.
1
Top Wear Pad ......................................................................... 10962
3.
1
Bottom Wear Pad ................................................................... 10963
4.
2
Spacer Block........................................................................... 10964
5.
2
Damper Shock ....................................................................SB12426
6.
1
Front Shock Pin ................................................................. 03409-95
7.
1
Outer Case ........................................................................ 03412-97
8.
2
Connecting Pin .................................................................... 03411-95
5/32" x 1-1/4" Cotter Pin ............................................................. 02363
9.
6
10.
1
Rear Shock Pin .................................................................. 03410-95
11.
1
Emergency Lever Spring .................................................... 05693-95
5/16"-18 UNC x 5/8" Hex Head Bolt Grade 5 .............................. 05961
12.
2
5/16" External Tooth Lock Washer ............................................. 05424
13.
2
1/4"-20 UNC x 2” Hex Head Bolt Grade 5 ................................. 00618
14..
4
1/4" Lock Washer ..................................................................... 00057
15.
4
16.
1
Emergency Lever .................................................................... 05951
17.
1
Push Rod Assembly ................................................................ 03534
18.
1
Composite Master Cylinder w/gasket 09153 ........................... 05650
19.
1
Master Cylinder Gasket ........................................................... 09153
1/8" pipe - 3/16" Inverted Flare Fitting w/ orifice .......................... 05679
20.
1
21.
1
Master Cylinder Cap w/ Diaphragm and O-ring ....................... 03876
Replacement O-ring ................................................................ 05849
3/32" Cable Assembly w/ hooks ................................................ 05408
22.
1
Replacement S-hooks ......................................................... SB10555
23.
1
Lever Guide ....................................................................... 03866-95
24.
1
Master Cylinder Protective Boot .............................................. 05687
Decal- Towable/Not Towable ...............................................BH21003
1/4"-20 UNC Hex Nuts ............................................................ 00062
25.
4
Parts
®
page 64
12
13
22
23
11
18
21
®
14
16
15
20
10
2
24
25
page 65
17
8
7
5
9
4
1
Parts
3
T-10-UT
6
P
A
R
T
S
T-10-UT
Tool Box
Ref. Quantity Description ......................................................................... Part No.
1.
1
Tool Box .......................................................................... GEM001.W
Parts
®
page 66
T-10-UT
Section 4.
Warranty Claim Procedure
At Gem State Manufacturing, we insist on a high level of quality materials and workmanship that go into every TrailMax trailer. Ultimately this will minimize the need for frequent service and warranty claims. However, in the event of a claim, we want to be as
responsive as possible.
In the event that you have a problem with your trailer that may be warranty related, your
cooperation is appreciated when the following steps are followed in an effort to process
the claim expeditiously.
1. Have the trailer V.I.N. (Vehicle Identification 17 digit Number) and model No. available.
2. Refer to the Operators Manual when identifying defective parts. If the claim is structural
related, photos may be required and are helpful in determining how to correct the problem.
(Digital photo’s can be sent via e-mail to [email protected] in *.jpg or *.jpeg
format.)
3. Contact a TrailMax representative in your immediate area. If you do not have or can not
find a representative in your area, then contact the factory Warranty Administrator for assistance @ 1-800-447-0213.
4. Give a detailed description and nature of the problem. Also leave contact name(s),
phone no. and/or e-mail address.
5. A claim will be processed and reviewed for warranty approval. The factory Warranty
Administrator must authorize all Warranty Claims before repairs can be made.
Note: All work must be done by an authorized TrailMax warranty
station. Should you choose to make repairs prior to approval, you
could assume full responsibility for repairs.
6. Defective parts must be returned to Gem State Manufacturing at 1705 Industrial Way,
Caldwell, Idaho, 83605, for evaluation unless otherwise instructed.
7. Please make sure you have followed the procedure all the way through, failure to do so
could hold up final process of Warranty Claim and approval for payment.
Our ultimate goal is to retain satisfied customers. Your cooperation is appreciated, as
we will process the claim as expeditiously as possible to get you back in service.
Warranty Claim Procedure
®
page 67
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