AEMC Ground Resistance - Test Equipment Rental

AEMC Ground Resistance - Test Equipment Rental
• Soil Resistivity • Ground Resistance • 3-Point Measurements
• 4-Point Measurements • Clamp-On Measurements
200 Foxborough Blvd. • Foxborough, MA 02035
(800) 343-1391 • (508) 698-2115
FAX (508) 698-2118 • [email protected]
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Understanding Ground
Resistance Testing
A One Day Training Seminar
In today’s rapidly changing world of ­technological
advances, good grounding is more important than ever to
prevent costly damage and downtime due to service
­interruptions and inoperative surge ­protection caused by
poor grounds. Grounding ­systems offer protection from
­natural phenomenon such as lightning by channeling the
lightning ­current to the ground, protecting personnel from
injury and protecting system ­components from damage. In
electric power systems with ground returns, grounds help
ensure rapid operation of the ­protection relays by providing
low ­resistance fault paths in the event of unexpected
potentials due to faults. Low ground resistance is required
to meet NEC®, OSHA and other ­electrical safety ­standards.
Visit us online for more information about our ground
resistance seminars.
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Table of Contents
Soil Resistivity ......................................................................................................................................... 2
Soil Resistivity Measurements (4-Point Measurement)............................................................................ 4
Grounding Electrodes............................................................................................................................... 5
Ground Resistance Testing Principle
(Fall-of-Potential – 3-Point Measurement)................................................................................................. 9
Multiple Electrode Systems.................................................................................................................... 13
Tech Tips................................................................................................................................................ 15
Clamp-on Ground Resistance Measurement
(Models 3711 and 3731)........................................................................................................................ 18
Telecommunications............................................................................................................................... 21
Grounding Nomograph........................................................................................................................... 24
Fall-of-Potential Plot............................................................................................................................... 25
®
AEMC Instruments Ground Testers....................................................................................................... 26
© 1999-2008 Chauvin Arnoux®, Inc. d.b.a. AEMC® Instruments
Workbook Edition 10.0
950.WKBK-GROUND 09/08
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Soil Resistivity
Effects of Soil Resistivity on Grounding Electrode Resistance
Soil resistivity is the key factor that determines what the resistance of a grounding electrode system will be,
and to what depth it must be driven to obtain low ground resistance. The resistivity of the soil varies widely
throughout the world and changes seasonally. Soil resistivity is determined largely by its content of
electrolytes, which consist of moisture, minerals and dissolved salts. A dry soil has high resistivity if it contains
no soluble salts. (Figure 1)
Note:The lower the soil resistivity value, the lower the grounding electrode resistance will be.
Resistivity (approx.), Ω-cm
Average
Max.
Soil
Min.
Ashes, cinders, brine, waste
590
2370
7000
Clay, shale, gumbo, loam
340
4060
16,300
Same, with varying proportions
of sand and gravel
1020
15,800
135,000
59,000
94,000
458,000
Gravel, sand, stones with little
clay or loam
Figure 1
Factors Affecting Soil Resistivity
Two samples of soil, when thoroughly dried, may in fact become very good insulators having a resistivity in
excess of 10 9 Ω-cm. The ­resistivity of the soil sample is seen to change quite rapidly until ­approximately 20%
or greater moisture content is reached. (Figure 2)
Moisture content
% by weight
Resistivity Ω-cm
Top soil
Sandy loam
0
>10 9
>10 9
2.5
250,000
150,000
5
165,000
43,000
10
53,000
18,500
15
19,000
10,500
20
12,000
6,300
30
6,400
4,200
Figure 2
The resistivity of the soil is also influenced by temperature. Figure 3 shows the variation of the resistivity of
sandy loam, containing 15.2% moisture, with temperature changes from 20° to -15°C. In this temperature
range the resistivity is seen to vary from 7200 to 330,000Ω-cm.
Temperature
°C
20
°F
Resistivity
Ω-cm
68
7200
10
50
9900
0
32 (water)
13,800
0
32 (ice)
30,000
-5
23
79,000
-15
14
330,000
Figure 3
2
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Because soil resistivity directly relates to moisture content and temperature, it is reasonable to assume that the
resistance of any grounding system will vary throughout the different seasons of the year. Such variations are
shown in Figure 4. Since both temperature and moisture content become more ­stable at greater distances below
the surface of the earth, it follows that a grounding system, to be most effective at all times, should be constructed
with the ground rod driven down a considerable distance below the surface of the earth. Best results are obtained
if the ground rod reaches the water table.
Ohms
Seasonal variation of earth resistance with an
electrode of 3/4" pipe in rather stony clay soil.
Depth of electrode in earth is 3 ft for Curve 1,
and 10 ft for Curve 2
Figure 4
THE EFFECT OF SALT* CONTENT ON THE
RESISTIVITY OF SOIL
(Sandy loam, Moisture content, 15% by weight,
Temperature, 17°C)
Added Salt
(% by weight of moisture)
Resistivity
(Ω-cm)
0
10,700
0.1
1800
1.0
460
5
190
10
130
20
100
Figure 5
THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE
RESISTIVITY OF SOIL CONTAINING SALT*
(Sandy loam, 20% moisture. Salt 5% of weight of moisture)
Temperature
(Degrees C)
Resistivity
(Ω-cms)
20
110
10
142
0
190
-5
312
-13
1440
*Such as copper sulfate, sodium carbonate, and
others. Salts must be EPA or local ordinance
approved prior to use.
Figure 6
In some locations, the resistivity of the earth is so high that low-resistance grounding can be obtained only at
considerable expense and with an elaborate grounding system. In such situations, it may be economical to use a
ground rod system of limited size and to reduce the ground resistivity by periodically increasing the soluble chemical
­content of the soil. Figure 5 shows the ­substantial ­reduction in resistivity of sandy loam brought about by an
increase in chemical salt content.
Chemically treated soil is also subject to considerable variation of resistivity with temperature changes, as shown
in Figure 6. If salt treatment is employed, it is necessary to use ground rods which will resist chemical corrosion.
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Soil Resistivity Measurements
(4-Point Measurement)
Resistivity measurements are of two types; the 2-Point and the 4-Point method. The 2-Point method is simply
the resistance measured between two points. For most applications the most accurate is the 4-Point method
which is used in the Ground Tester Models 4610, 4620, 4630 or 6470. The 4-Point method (Figures 7 and 8),
as the name implies, requires the ­insertion of four equally spaced and in-line electrodes into the test area.
A known current from a constant current generator is passed between the outer electrodes. The potential drop
(a function of the resistance) is then measured across the two inner electrodes. The Models 4610, 4620, 4630 and
6470 are calibrated to read directly in ohms.
Where space or access to inserting rods is a problem, the Miller box may be used. The Schlumberger method
is used mainly for geologic surveys.
NOTE:
To use feet instead of cm:
2π x (conversion from cm to ft) =
(2) (3.14) (12) (2.54) = 191.5
Figure 7
A
Z
Y
A
Xv
A
A
X
A
A
B
R
A
A
A
Figure 8
Where:A = distance between the electrodes in centimeters
B = electrode depth in centimeters
If A > 20 B, the formula becomes:
ρ = 2π AR (with A in cm)
ρ = 191.5 AR (with A in ft)
ρ = Soil resistivity (Ω-cm)
The value to be used for ρ is the average resistivity of the ground at a depth equivalent to the distance “A”
between two electrodes for all tests taken.
Given a sizable tract of land in which to determine the optimum soil ­resistivity some intuition is in order.
Assuming that the objective is low ­resistivity, preference should be given to an area containing moist loam
as opposed to a dry sandy area. Consideration must also be given to the depth at which resistivity is required.
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Example
After inspection, the area investigated has been narrowed down to a plot of ground approximately 75 square feet
(7m2). Assume that you need to ­determine the resistivity at a depth of 15 ft (450cm). The distance “A” between
the electrodes must then be equivalent to the depth at which ­average resistivity is to be determined (15 ft, or
450cm). Using the more ­simplified Wenner formula (ρ = 2π AR), the electrode depth must then be no more than
1/20th of the electrode spacing or 8 ⅞" (22.5cm).
Lay out the electrodes in a grid pattern and connect to the instrument as shown in Figure 8. Proceed as follows:
• Remove the shorting link between X and Xv (C1, P1)
• Connect all four auxiliary rods (Figure 7)
For example, if the reading is R = 15
ρ (resistivity) = 2π x A x R
A (distance between electrodes) = 450cm
ρ = 6.28 x 15 x 450 = 42,390Ω-cm
Grounding Electrodes
The term “ground” is defined as a conducting connection by which a circuit or equipment is connected to the
earth. The connection is used to establish and maintain as closely as possible the potential of the earth on the
circuit or equipment connected to it. A “ground” consists of a grounding conductor, a bonding connector, its
grounding electrode(s), and the soil in contact with the electrode.
“Grounds” have several protection applications. For natural phenomena such as lightning, grounds are used to
discharge the system of current before personnel can be injured or system components damaged. For foreign
potentials due to faults in electric power systems with ground returns, grounds help ensure rapid operation of
the protection relays by providing low resistance fault current paths. This provides for the removal of the foreign
potential as quickly as possible. The ground should drain the foreign ­potential before personnel are injured and
the power or communications system is damaged.
Ideally, to maintain a reference potential for instrument safety, protect against static electricity, and limit the
system to frame voltage for operator safety, a ground resistance should be zero ohms. In reality, as we describe
further in the text, this value cannot be obtained.
®
Last but not least, low ground resistance is essential to meet NEC , OSHA and other electrical safety standards.
Figure 9 illustrates a grounding rod. The resistance of the electrode has the following components:
(A) The resistance of the metal and that of the connection to it.
(B) The contact resistance of the surrounding earth to the electrode.
(C)The resistance in the surrounding earth to current flow or earth
resistivity which is often the most significant factor.
More specifically:
(A) Grounding electrodes are usually made of a very conductive metal (copper or copper clad) with adequate
cross sections so that the overall­­­resistance is negligible.
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(B) The National Institute of Standards and Technology has demonstrated that the resistance between the
electrode and the surrounding earth is ­negligible if the electrode is free of paint, grease, or other coating,
and if the earth is firmly packed.
(C) The only component remaining is the resistance of the surrounding earth. The electrode can be thought of
as being ­surrounded by concentric shells of earth or soil, all of the same thickness. The closer the shell to
the ­electrode, the smaller its surface; hence, the greater its resistance. The farther away the shells are from
the electrode, the greater the surface of the shell; hence, the lower the resistance. Eventually, adding shells
at a distance from the grounding electrode will no longer noticeably affect the overall earth resistance
surrounding the electrode. The distance at which this effect occurs is referred to as the ­effective resistance
area and is directly dependent on the depth of the grounding electrode.
Ground rod
and clamp
Contact
resistance
between rod
and soil
Concentric
shells of
earth
Figure 9
Effect of Grounding Electrode Size and Depth on Resistance
Resistance in %
Size: Increasing the diameter of the rod does not significantly reduce its resistance. Doubling the diameter
reduces resistance by less than 10%. (Figure 10)
100
75
50
25
0
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
1 3/4
Rod diameter (inches)
Figure 10
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Depth: As a ground rod is driven deeper into the earth, its resistance is substantially reduced. In general,
doubling the rod length reduces the
resistance by an additional 40% (Figure 11). The NEC (2008, 250.53 (G)) requires a minimum of 8 ft. (2.4m) in
contact with the soil.
NEC (2008, 250.52 (A)(5)(b)) states that rod electrodes of stainless steel and copper or zinc coated steel shall
be at least 15.87mm (5/8 in) diameter, unless listed and not less than 12.70mm (1/2 in) in diameter.
200
100
Resistance in ohms
80
60
40
30
20
1" dia.
1/2" dia.
10
8
6
5
4
3
2
1
5
15
25
35 40
50
60
70
Driven depth in feet
Ground resistance versus ground rod depth
Figure 11
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Ground Rod
Resistance – Ohms
Soil Resistivity
(Ohm-centimeters)
Rod Depth
Feet
Rod Diameter
Inches
D
100
90
80
R
100
K
DIA
70
90
80
P
70
100000
60
7
50
6
5
40
50
50000
40000
40
4
30
30000
30
8
60
3
20000
15000
20
20
10000
15
15
5000
1
1.5
4000
10
3000
1
2000
3/4
10
9
8
7
5
5/8
4
1/2
1000
6
5
500
4
3
2
3
1/4
2
1
Figure 12
1
Grounding Nomograph
1. Select required resistance on R scale
2. Select apparent resistivity on P scale
3. Lay straightedge on R and P scale, and allow to intersect with K scale
4. Mark K scale point
5. Lay straightedge on K scale point & DIA scale, and allow to intersect with D scale
6. Point on D scale will be rod depth required for resistance on R scale
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Ground Resistance Testing Principle
(Fall-of-Potential — 3-Point Measurement)
The potential difference between rods X and Y is measured by a voltmeter, and the current flow between rods X
and Z is measured by an ammeter. (Note: X, Y and Z may be referred to as X, P and C or H, S or E in a 3-Point
tester or C1, P2 and C2 in a 4-Point tester.) (Figure 13)
By Ohm’s Law E = RI or R = E/I, we may obtain the grounding electrode ­resistance R.
If E = 20V and I = 1A, then
R
=
E
=
–––
I
20
–––
1
=
20Ω
This method requires the service neutral and any other grounding system be disconnected. It is not necessary to
carry out all the measurements when using a ground tester. The ground tester will measure directly by generating
its own current and displaying the resistance of the grounding electrode.
Current
supply
Ammeter (I)
Voltmeter (E)
Ground
electrode
under test
X
Auxiliary
potential
electrode
Y
Auxiliary
current
electrode
Z
R
EARTH
Figure 13
Position of the Auxiliary Electrodes on Measurements
The goal in precisely measuring the resistance to ground is to place the auxiliary current electrode Z far
enough from the grounding electrode under test so that the auxiliary potential electrode Y will be outside of the
effective resistance areas of both the grounding electrode and the auxiliary current ­electrode. The best way to
find out if the auxiliary potential rod Y is outside the effective resistance areas is to move it between X and Z and
to take a reading at each location (See Figure 16). If the auxiliary potential rod Y is in an effective resistance
area (or in both if they overlap, as in Figure 14), by ­displacing it the readings taken will vary noticeably in value.
Under these conditions, no exact va­­lue for the resistance to ground may be determined.
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On the other hand, if the auxiliary potential rod Y is located outside of the effective resistance areas (Figure 15),
as Y is moved back and forth the ­reading variation is minimal. The readings taken should be relatively close
to each other, and are the best values for the resistance to ground of the grounding electrode X. The readings
should be plotted to ensure that they lie in a “plateau” region as shown in Figure 15. The region is often referred
to as the “62% area” (See page 11 for explanation).
Readings every 5-10% of the distance from x to z are suggested. The average of the closest three readings
(user defined) would be considered the resistance between earth and the test point.
X
Y' Y Y''
Z
Resistance
Effective resistance
areas (overlapping)
52% 62% 72%
(of total distance from X to Z)
Reading variation
100% of distance
between X & Z
Figure 14
Resistance
X
Y' Y Y''
Effective resistance
areas (no overlap)
52% 62% 72%
(of total distance from X to Z)
100% of distance
between X & Z
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Z
Reading variation
Figure 15
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Measuring Resistance of Grounding Electrodes (62% Method)
The 62% method has been adopted after graphical consideration and after actual test. It is the most accurate
method but is limited by the fact that the ground tested is a single unit.
This method applies only when all three electrodes are in a straight line and the ground is a single electrode,
pipe, or plate, etc., as in Figure 16.
Consider Figure 17, which shows the effective resistance areas (concentric shells) of the grounding electrode X
and of the auxiliary current electrode Z. The resistance areas overlap. If readings were taken by moving the
auxiliary potential electrode Y towards either X or Z, the reading differentials would be great and one could not
obtain a reading within a reasonable band of ­tolerance. The sensitive areas overlap and act constantly to
increase resistance as Y is moved away from X.
Now consider Figure 18, where the X and Z electrodes are sufficiently spaced so that the areas of effective
resistance do not overlap. If we plot the resistance measured we find that the measurements level off when Y is
placed at 62% of the distance from X to Z, and that the readings on either side of the initial Y setting are most
likely to be within the established ­tolerance band. This tolerance band is defined by the user and expressed
as a percent of the initial reading: ±2%, ±5%, ±10%, etc.
Disconnect
Ground Rod
from System
Figure 16
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Figure 17
Figure 18
Auxiliary Electrode Spacing
No definite distance between X and Z can be given, since this distance is ­relative to the diameter of the
electrode tested, its length, the homogeneity of the soil tested, and particularly, the effective resistance areas.
However, an approximate distance may be determined from the following chart which is given for a
homogeneous soil and an electrode of 1" in diameter. (For a diameter of ½", reduce the distance by 10%; for a
diameter of 2" increase the distance by 10%; for a diameter of ⅜", reduce the distance by 8%.)
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Approximate distance to auxiliary electrodes using the 62% method
Depth Driven
Distance to Y
Distance to Z
6 ft
45 ft
72 ft
8 ft
50 ft
80 ft
10 ft
55 ft
88 ft
12 ft
60 ft
96 ft
18 ft
71 ft
115 ft
20 ft
74 ft
120 ft
30 ft
86 ft
140 ft
Multiple Rod Spacing
Parallel multiple electrodes yield lower resistance to ground than a single electrode. High-capacity installations
require low grounding resistance. Multiple rods are used to provide this resistance.
A second rod does not provide a total resistance of half that of a single rod unless the two are several rod
lengths apart. To achieve the grounding ­resistance place multiple rods one rod length apart in a line, circle,
hollow ­triangle, or square. The equivalent resistance can be calculated by dividing by the number of rods and
multiplying by the factor X (shown below). Additional considerations regarding step and touch potentials
should be addressed by the geometry.
Placing additional rods within the periphery of a shape will not reduce the grounding resistance below that of the
peripheral rods alone.
Multiplying Factors for Multiple Rods
Number of Rods
X
2
1.16
3
1.29
4
1.36
8
1.68
12
1.80
16
1.92
20
2.00
24
2.16
Multiple Electrode System
A single driven grounding electrode is an economical and simple means of making a good ground system. But
sometimes a single rod will not provide sufficient low resistance, and several grounding electrodes will be driven
and connected in parallel by a cable. Very often when two, three or four grounding electrodes are being used,
they are driven in a straight line; when four or more are being used, a hollow square configuration is used and
the grounding electrodes are still connected in parallel and are equally spaced (Figure 19).
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a
a
a
a
DIAGONAL
DIAGONAL
Figure 19
In multiple electrode systems, the 62% method electrode spacing may no longer be applied directly. The
distance of the auxiliary electrodes is now based on the maximum grid distance (i.e. in a square, the ­diagonal;
in a line, the total length. For example, a square having a side of 20 ft will have a diagonal of approximately 28
ft). Three readings, minimum, are still required for proper testing.
14
Max Grid Distance
Multiple Electrode System
Distance to Y
Distance to Z
6 ft
78 ft
125 ft
8 ft
87 ft
140 ft
10 ft
100 ft
160 ft
12 ft
105 ft
170 ft
14 ft
118 ft
190 ft
16 ft
124 ft
200 ft
18 ft
130 ft
210 ft
20 ft
136 ft
220 ft
30 ft
161 ft
260 ft
40 ft
186 ft
300 ft
50 ft
211 ft
340 ft
60 ft
230 ft
370 ft
80 ft
273 ft
440 ft
100 ft
310 ft
500 ft
120 ft
341 ft
550 ft
140 ft
372 ft
600 ft
160 ft
390 ft
630 ft
180 ft
434 ft
700 ft
200 ft
453 ft
730 ft
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Tech Tips
Excessive Noise
Excessive noise may interfere with testing because of the long leads used to perform a Fall-of-Potential test. A
voltmeter can be utilized to identify this problem. Connect the “X”, “Y” and “Z” cables to the auxiliary electrodes
as for a standard ground resistance test. Use the voltmeter to test the voltage across terminals “X” and “Z ” (See
Figure 20).
Ground
strip
Y Electrode
Z Electrode
X
Ground rod
Figure 20
The voltage reading should be within stray voltage tolerances acceptable
to your ground tester. If the voltage exceeds this value, try the following techniques:
A) Braid the auxiliary cables together. This often has the effect of canceling out the common mode voltages
between these two conductors. (Figure 21)
Ground
strip
Y Electrode
Z Electrode
X
Ground rod
Figure 21
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B) If the previous method fails, try changing the alignment of the auxiliary cables so that they are not parallel to
power lines above or below the ground. (Figure 22)
Disconnect ground
under test
Figure 22
C) If a satisfactory low voltage value is still not obtained, the use of ­shielded cables may be required. The
shield acts to protect the inner ­conductor by ­capturing the voltage and draining it to ground. (Figure 23)
1. Float the shields at the auxiliary electrodes
2. Connect all three shields together at (but not to) the instrument
3. Solidly ground the remaining shield to the ground under test
Ground
shield
Ground
strip
Float shield
Float shield
Connect all three
shields together
Y Electrode
Z Electrode
X
Ground rod
Figure 23
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Excessive Auxiliary Rod Resistance
The inherent function of a Fall-of-Potential ground tester is to input a ­constant current into the earth and
measure the voltage drop by means of auxiliary electrodes. Excessive resistance of one or both auxiliary
­electrodes can inhibit this function. This is caused by high soil resistivity or poor contact between the auxiliary
electrode and the surrounding dirt (Figure 24).
W
er
at
Air gaps
EARTH
Figure 24
To ensure good contact with the earth, stamp down the soil directly around the auxiliary electrode to remove air
gaps formed when inserting the rod.
If soil resistivity is the problem, pour water around the auxiliary electrodes. This reduces the auxiliary electrode’s
contact resistance without affecting the measurement.
Asphalt or Concrete Mat
Sometimes a test must be performed on a ground rod that is surrounded by a tar or concrete mat, where auxiliary
electrodes cannot be driven easily. In such cases, metal screens and water can be used to replace auxiliary
­electrodes, as shown in Figure 25.
Place the screens on the floor the same distance from the ground rod under test as you would auxiliary electrodes
in a standard fall-of-potential test. Pour water on the screens and allow it to soak in. These screens will now
perform the same function as would driven auxiliary electrodes.
Ω
Ground
rod
Water
Screens
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Figure 25
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17
Clamp-on Ground Resistance Measurement
(Models 3711 & 3731)
This measurement method is innovative and quite unique. It offers the ­ability to measure the resistance without
disconnecting the ground. This type of measurement also offers the advantage of including the bonding
to ground and the overall grounding connection resistances.
This method requires connection of utility neutral or another grounding system so that the signal goes out to
the other system and returns to the test point through the earth.
Principle of Operation
Usually, a common distribution line grounded system can be simulated as a simple basic circuit as shown in
Figure 26 or an equivalent circuit, shown in Figure 30. If voltage E is applied to any measured grounding point
Rx through a special transformer, current I flows through the circuit, thereby establishing the following
equation.
1
1
E/I = Rx + ––––––––––
where, usually
Rx >> –––––––––––
n 1 n
1
–––– ––––
∑ Rk ∑ Rk
k=1
k=1
Therefore, E/I = Rx is established. If I is detected with E kept constant, ­measured grounding point resistance
can be obtained. Refer again to Figures 26 and 27. Current is fed to a ­special transformer via a power
amplifier from a 2.4kHz constant voltage ­oscillator. This current is detected by a detection CT. Only the 2.4kHz
signal ­frequency is amplified by a filter amplifier. This occurs before the A/D ­conversion and after ­synchronous
rectification. It is then displayed on the LCD.
The filter amplifier is used tocut off both earth current at ­commercial frequency and high-frequency noise.
Voltage is ­detected by c­oils wound around the injection CT which is then amplified, rectified, and compared by
a level comparator. If the clamp is not closed ­properly, an “open jaw” annunciator appears on the LCD.
I
E
E
I
Rx
Rx
R1
R2
Rn-1
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R2
Rn-1
Rn
Rn
Figure 26
18
R1
Figure 27
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Examples: Typical In-Field Measurements
Pole Mounted Transformer
Remove any molding covering the ground conductor, and provide sufficient room for the Model 3711 & 3731
jaws, which must be able to close easily around the conductor. The jaws can be placed around the ground rod
itself. Note: The clamp must be placed so that the jaws are in an electrical path from the system neutral or
ground wire to the ground rod or rods as the ­circuit provides.
Select the current range “A.” Clamp onto the ground conductor and measure the ground current. The maximum
current range is 30A. If the ground ­current exceeds 5A, ground resistance measurements are not possible.
Do not proceed further with the measurement. Instead, remove the ­clamp-on tester from the circuit, noting the
location for maintenance, and ­continue to the next test location.
After noting the ground current, select the ground resistance range “Ω” and measure the resistance directly.
The reading you measure with the Model 3711 & 3731 indicates the resistance not just of the rod, but also of
the connection to the system neutral and all bonding connections between the neutral and the rod.
Note that in Figure 28 there is both a butt plate and a ground rod. In this type of circuit, the instrument must be
placed above the bond so that both grounds are included in the test. For future reference note the date, ohms
reading, current reading and point number. Replace any molding you may have removed from the conductor.
Note: A high reading indicates one or more of the following:
A) Poor ground rod
B) Open ground conductor
C) High resistance bonds on the rod
or splices on the conductor; watch
for buried split bolts, clamps and
hammer-on connections
Signal return
Figure 28
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
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19
Service Entrance or Meter
Follow basically the same procedure as in the first example. Notice that Figure 29 shows the possibility of multiple
ground rods, and in Figure 30 the ground rods have been replaced with a water pipe ground. You may also have
both types acting as a ground. In these cases, it is necessary to make the measurements between the service
neutral and both grounded points.
Signal out
Signal return
Figure 29
Signal out
Signal return
Figure 30
20
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Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Pad Mounted Transformer
Note: Never open transformer enclosures. They are the property of the ­electrical utility. This test is for high
voltage experts only.
Observe all safety requirements, since dangerously high voltage is present. Locate and number all rods (usually
only a single rod is present). If the ground rods are inside the enclosure, refer to Figure 31 and if they are
­outside the enclosure, refer to Figure 32. If a single rod is found within the enclosure, the measurement should be
taken on the conductor just before the bond on the ground rod. Often, more than one ground conductor is
tied to this clamp, looping back to the enclosure or neutral.
In many cases, the best reading can be obtained by clamping the Models 3711 & 3731 onto the ground rod
itself, below the point when the ground conductors are attached to the rod, so that you are measuring the ground
­circuit. Care must be taken to find a conductor with only one return path to the neutral.
Signal out
Signal return
Figure 31
Telecommunications
The clamp-on ground tester developed by AEMC® and discussed in the ­previous chapter has revolutionized the
ability of power companies to ­measure their ground resistance values. This same proven instrument and technology
can be applied to telephone industries to aid in detecting ­grounding and bonding problems. As equipment
operates at lower voltages, the system’s ability to remove any man made or natural over potentials becomes
even more critical. The traditional Fall-of-Potential tester proved to be labor intensive and left much to
interpretation. Even more important, the clamp-on ground test method allows the user to make this necessary
reading without the risky business of removing the ground under test from service.
Signal out
Underground
service
Signal return
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Figure 32
www.aemc.com
21
In many applications, the ground consists of bonding the two Utilities together to avoid any difference of
potentials that could be dangerous to equipment and personnel alike. The clamp-on “Ohm meter” can be used
to test these important bonds.
Here are some of the solutions and clamp-on procedures that have ­applications to the telephone industry.
Telephone Cabinets and Enclosures
Grounding plays a very important role in the maintenance of sensitive equipment in telephone cabinets and
enclosures. In order to protect this equipment, a low resistance path must be maintained in order for any
overvoltage potentials to conduct safely to earth. This resistance test is ­performed by clamping a ground tester,
Models 3711 and 3731, around the ­driven ground rod, below any common telephone and power company
bond connections.
To avoid any high voltage potentials between the telephone and power ­companies, a low resistance bond is
established. Bonding integrity is ­performed by clamping around the No. 6 copper wire between the master
ground bar (MGB) and the power company’s multigrounded neutral (MGN). The resistance value displayed
on the tester will also include loose or poorly landed ­terminations that may have degraded over time.
Additionally, the clamp-on ground tester can be used as a True RMS ammeter.
Pedestal Grounds
All cable sheaths are bonded to a ground bar inside each pedestal.
This ground bar is connected to earth by means of a driven ground rod.
The ground rod resistance can be found by using the instrument clamped around the ground rod or the No. 6
cable connecting these two points. (Figure 33)
Signal
return
Signal
out
Figure 33
22
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Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Signal
out
WATT-hour
meter
Remote
terminal
cabinet
Transfer
switch
Lightning
arrester
Power co.
ground
Ground rod
(8 ft long)
Telephone co.
ground
NOTE: If seperate ground rods are
used for telephone and power grounds,
the ground rods must be bonded
together using no. 6 ground wire.
Signal return
Figure 34
Cable Shield Bonds to MGN
The cable shields in a buried or above ground telephone enclosure may be grounded by means of the power
company’s multigrounded neutral. The clamp-on ground tester can be utilized to ensure that this connection has
been successfully terminated. The low resistance return path for the ­instrument to make this measurement will
be from this bond wire under test to the MGN back through all other bonds up and/or down stream ­(theory of
parallel resistance).
The clamp-on ground tester also is a True RMS ammeter.
Phone
pedestal
Ground bar
Sheath connection
Ground level
Signal
out
Ground
rod
Signal return
Note: temporary jumper required only if pedestal does not allow tester to fit.
Figure 35
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
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23
References
IEEE Std 81-1983
— EEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials
of Ground Systems
IEEE Std 142-1991
— IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
Blackburn/American Electric Co.
Memphis, TN 38119
— A Modern Approach to Grounding Systems
NEC 2008
— NFPA
24
www.aemc.com
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Grounding Nomograph
Ground Rod
Resistance – Ohms
Soil Resistivity
(Ohm-centimeters)
Rod Depth
Feet
Rod Diameter
Inches
D
100
90
80
R
100
K
70
90
80
P
70
100000
60
50000
40000
40
7
6
5
4
30
30000
30
8
50
40
50
DIA
60
3
20000
15000
20
20
10000
15
15
5000
1
1.5
4000
10
3000
1
2000
3/4
10
9
8
7
5
5/8
4
1/2
1000
6
5
500
4
3
2
3
1/4
2
1
1
Represents example of a 20Ω, 20 ft ground rod
1.Select required resistance on R scale
2. Select apparent resistivity on P scale
3.Lay straightedge on R and P scale, and allow to intersect with K scale
4.Mark K scale point
5.Lay straightedge on K scale point and DIA scale, and allow to intersect with D scale
6.Point on D scale will be the rod depth required for resistance on R scale
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
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25
Fall-of-Potential Plot
Instrument Mfr._____________ Name of Operator������������������������������������������������������
Model_____________ Location___________________________________ Date�����������������������
Ground System Type:Single Rod n
Rod Depth��������������������� ft
Serial #_____________
Multiple Rods (Grid) n Longest Diagonal Dimension������� ft
Z Electrode Distance�������������������������������������������������� ft
Voltage
Electrode (Y)
Measured
distance
from Ground Resistance
Rod under
Test (X)
%
FEET
Test Conditions
Temp: ___________
Soil: n Moist
n Dry
Soil Type
OHMS
100
n Loam n Sand & Gravel
n Shale
n Sandstone
n Granite
n Slate
n Clay
n Limestone
n Other_ ____________
50 100
90
45 90
80
40 80
72
70
35 70
62
30 60
Resistance (Ω)
60
52
50
25 50
20 40
40
15 30
30
20
10 20
10
5
10
0
0
0
Resistance Scale:
Multiplier:
26
www.aemc.com
50
100
x1
x10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Distance in Feet from Ground under Test to Voltage Electrode (Y)
Distance Scale Multiplier:
x1
x10
Disconnect
Ground Rod
from System
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
90
100
Ground resistance testers
Multi-Function
Ground Resistance Tester
Model 6472
NEW!
Model 6472
Specifications
MODEL
6472
electrical
3-Point Measurement
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Resolution
Test Voltage
Resistance Measurement Frequency
Test Current
Accuracy
Soil Resistivity 4-Point Measurement
Test Method
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Resolution
Test Voltage
Frequency
External Voltage Measurement
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Accuracy
Resistance Measurement (Bond Testing)
Measurement Type
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Accuracy
Test Voltage
Test Current
Data Storage
Memory Capacity
Communication
Power Source
Recharging Source
18
www.aemc.com
0.09Ω to 99.9kΩ
0.01Ω to 100Ω
Nominal 16 or 32VRMS user selectable
41 to 5078Hz user selectable or
automatic selection
Up to 250mA
±2% of Reading + 1ct @ 128Hz
Wenner or Schlumberger selectable with
automatic calculation of test results in Ω-meters,
Ω-cm or Ω-feet
0.01 to 99.99kΩ; ρ Max: 999kΩm
(display in kΩft is not possible)
0.01 to 100Ω
16 or 32V user selectable
From 41 to 128Hz selectable
0.1 to 65.0Vac/dc – DC to 440Hz
±2% of Reading + 1cts
2-Pole (with lead resistance compensation) or
4-Pole (Kelvin sensing) user selectable
2-Pole 0.01Ω to 99.9kΩ;
4-Pole 0.001Ω to 99.99kΩ
±2% of Reading + 2cts
16Vdc (+, - or auto polarity)
Up to 250mA max
512 test results
Optically Isolated USB
9.6V rechargeable battery pack
110/220 50/60Hz external charger with 18Vdc,
1.9A output or 12V vehicle power
Features
•2- and 4-Wire Bond Resistance/Continuity
Measurement (DC Resistance) with
automatic polarity reversal
•3-Point Fall-of-Potential measurement with
manual or automatic frequency selection
•4-Point soil resistivity measurement with
automatic calculation of Rho (ρ) and user
selection of the Wenner or Schlumberger
test method
•3-Point earth coupling measurement
•Measures Ground Resistance using the 2
clamp method (selective ground testing)
•Measures Ground Impedance at frequencies
up to 5kHz to test lightning strike protection
•Manual and automatic frequency scan from
40 to 5078Hz for optimum test accuracy in
electrically noisy environments
•Selectable test voltage of 16 or 32V up to
250mA of test current
•Auto-off power management
•Automatic recognition of all electrode
connections and their resistance value
•Stores up to 512 complete test results
• Optically isolated USB communication
•Remote set up and operation of all
measurements using DataView® software
•Automatic report generation including the fall
of potential plot
•Rechargeable NiMH batteries from wall
charger or vehicle power
•Rugged dustproof and rainproof field case
•Includes DataView® software for data
storage, real-time display, analysis, report
generation and system configuration
Description
The Model 6472 measures from 0.01 to 99.99kΩ and is
auto-ranging, automatically seeking out the optimum
measurement range, test frequency and test current.
Easy-to-use – Simply connect the leads, select test mode,
press Start and read the results. Up to 512 test results
can be stored in internal memory for recall to the display
or downloaded to a PC via DataView® software.
The large LCD is easy-to-read and indicates ground
electrode resistance, test voltage, current and frequency
as well as individual electrode resistance, battery status
and more.
The Model 6472 is Cat IV rated to 50V and is over voltage
protected to more than 250Vac against accidental live
connection to live circuits. The voltage is also displayed on
screen. In the event of a system fault, the Model 6472 can
withstand 250Vac.
Additional features of the Model 6472 include; manual and
automatic test frequency selection from 40 to 5078Hz;
user selectable 3 or 4-Pole Fall of Potential or 4-Pole Soil
Resistivity test methods and user selectable 2-Wire or
4-Wire Bond Resistance test method.
The Model 6472 is powered by 9.6V, 3.5 Ah NiMH
rechargeable batteries. An external recharger powered
from 120/230V, 50/60Hz is included and provides for
testing while recharging. The Model 6472 can also be
vehicle powered from an optional 12V battery adapter.
(Cat. #2135.42)
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Ground resistance testers
Large Display!
4-Point Bond Test
3-Point Fall-of-Potential Test
DataView ® Software
for Model 6472
DataView ® is included with the Model 6472.
The 4-Point Bond test displaying lead
­connections, bond resistance test results,
test voltage and current.
The 3-Point Fall-of-Potential test displaying test
lead connection, grounding electrode resistance,
test voltage and frequency.
Frequency Selection Test
Data Storage
The Frequency selection screen displays
­selected test frequency and voltage for the
test as well as lead connection.
Memory Recall displays test results stored
at a specific memory location.
Schlumberger Test
Wenner Test
The Schlumberger test displays test lead
­connection, soil resistivity ( ) test results,
test electrode resistance and more.
ρ
The Wenner test displays test lead ­connection,
soil resistivity ( ) test results, electrode
spacing and ­resistance.
ρ
NOTE: More information for each test is available by scrolling through the displays.
Current Probe accessory options
(For use in two probe and selective ground testing methods)
AC Current Probe
Model MN82
AC Current Probe
Model SR182
Catalog #2135.71
Catalog #2135.72
Catalog No.
• Configure all functions and ­parameters from
your PC
• Display and analyze real-time data on your PC
• Customize views, templates and reports
to your exact needs
• Create and store a complete library of
­configurations that can be uploaded to the
Model 6472 as needed
• Zoom in and out and pan through sections
of the graph to ­analyze the data
• Download, display and analyze recorded data
• Print reports using standard or
custom ­templates you design
Includes meter, rechargeable NiMH batteries, optical USB cable,
power adapter 110/240V with power cord 115V US, two 500 ft
color-coded leads on spools (red/blue), two 100 ft color-coded leads
(hand-tied, green/black), one 30 ft lead (green), four T-shaped auxiliary
ground electrodes, set of five spaded lugs, one 100 ft AEMC® tape
measure, DataView® software, ground tester workbook CD, carrying
bag for meter, carrying bag for kit, product warranty and
registration card and a user manual.
Catalog #2135.54
Description
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6472 (2-Point, 3-Point, 4-Point, Bond Test, Digital,
2135.51
Rechargeable Battery, DataView® software)
2135.52
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6472 Kit – 150 ft (Model 6472 and Catalog #2135.35)
2135.53
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6472 Kit – 300 ft (Model 6472 and Catalog #2135.36)
2135.54
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6472 Kit – 500 ft (Model 6472 and Catalog #2135.37)
Accessories (Optional) Reference to page 21 for Model 6472 Kits Catalog #2135.35, #2135.36 & #2135.37
2135.71*
AC Current Probe Model MN82 for use with Model 6472
2135.72*
AC Current Probe Model SR182 for use with Model 6472
*2 probes required for two clamp testing method.
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
PRICE
NIST CALIBRATION
$3,795.00
$94.00
$4,195.00
$4,295.00
$4,395.00
$99.00
$99.00
$99.00
$ 299.00
$ 369.00
–
–
www.aemc.com 19
Ground resistance testers
Multi-Function Ground Resistance Tester
Model 6470
Features
Measure ground
­resistance, soil
resistivity and
bonding resistance
with one instrument!
Model 6470
Specifications
MODEL
6470
electrical
3-Point Measurement
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Resolution
Test Voltage
Resistance Measurement Frequency
Test Current
Accuracy
Soil Resistivity 4-Point Measurement
Test Method
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Resolution
Test Voltage
Frequency
External Voltage Measurement
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Accuracy
Resistance Measurement (Bond Testing)
Measurement Type
Range (Auto-Ranging)
Accuracy
Test Voltage
Test Current
Data Storage
Memory Capacity
Communication
Power Source
Recharging Source
20
www.aemc.com
0.01 to 99.99kΩ
0.01 to 100Ω
16 or 32V selectable
40 to 513Hz selectable or automatic selection
Up to 250mA
±2% of Reading + 1ct
Wenner or Schlumberger selectable with
automatic calculation of test results
displayed in Ω-meters or Ω-feet
0.01 to 99.99kΩ
0.01 to 100Ω
16 or 32V selectable
73, 91.5, 101, 110 or 128Hz selectable
•3- and 4-Point measurement with manual or
automatic frequency ­selection (even during
measurement) from 40 up to 500Hz
•Automatic calculation of Soil Resistivity Ωcm
•Selectable test voltage of 16 or 32V with
up to 250mA
•Automatic frequency scan for optimum test
­frequency in noisy environments
•Automatic measurement of auxiliary ­electrodes
resistance
•Soil resistivity measurement using Wenner or
Schlumberger test method
• 2- and 4-Point DC resistance measurement
with automatic polarity change
(Bonding test function)
•Auto-off power management
•Automatic recognition of all electrode
­connections and their resistance value
•Memory stores up to 512 test results
•USB communication
•Remote operation of all measurement ­
functions using DataView ® software
•Automatic report generation through
computer or serial printer
•Rechargeable NiMH battery pack
•Rugged dustproof and rainproof field case IP54 in closed position
•IEC 61557 part 4 and part 5 compliance
•Includes DataView ® software for data ­storage,
real-time display, analysis report generation
and system configuration
­Model 6470 includes meter,
NiMH batteries, optical USB cable,
DataView ® software,
external battery charger,
power cord 110/240V (line)
and user manual.
0.1 to 65.0Vac/dc – DC to 450Hz
2% of Reading + 2cts
2-Point or 4-Point user selectable
2-Point 0.01 to 99.9kΩ; 4-Point 0.001 to 99.99kΩ
±2% of Reading + 2cts
16Vdc
200mA max
512 test results
Optically isolated USB
9.6V NiMH rechargeable battery pack
110/120 50/60Hz external charge with
18VDC, 1.9A output or 12VDC vehicle power
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Ground resistance testers
Large Display!
4-Point Bond Test
3-Point Fall-of-Potential Test
DataView ® Software
for Model 6470
DataView ® is included with the Model 6470.
The 4-Point Bond test shows lead connections,
bond resistance test results, test voltage and
current.
The 3-Point Fall-of-Potential test displays test
lead connection, grounding rod ­resistance and
test electrode resistances.
Frequency Test
Memory Test
The Frequency selection screen displays
­selected test frequency and voltage for the
test as well as lead connection.
Displays test results stored at a specific
memory location as well as the test ­function.
Schlumberger Test
Wenner Test
The Schlumberger test displays test lead
­connection, soil resistivity ( ) test results and
electrode spacing.
ρ
Catalog No.
2135.01
2135.02
2135.03
2135.04
Accessories (Optional)
The Wenner test displays test lead ­connection,
soil resistivity ( ) test results, electrode
spacing and ­resistance.
ρ
•Configure all functions and ­parameters from
your PC
• Display and analyze real-time data on your PC
•Customize views, templates and reports
to your exact needs
•Create and store a complete library of
­configurations that can be uploaded to the
Model 6470 as needed
• Zoom in and out and pan through sections
of the graph to ­analyze the data
•Download, display and analyze recorded data
•Print reports using standard or
custom ­templates you design
Multi-Function Ground Resistance Tester Model 6470 Kit (500 ft)
includes meter, NiMH batteries, optical USB cable, DataView ®
­software, ­external ­battery charger, power cord 110/240V (line), one
30 ft green wire, one each 500 ft red and blue wire, one each 100 ft
black and green wire, set of five spaded lugs, four auxiliary ground
electrodes, tape measure, carrying case and user manual.
Catalog #2135.04
Description
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6470 (2-Point, 3-Point, 4-Point, Bond Test, Digital,
Rechargeable Battery, DataView® software)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6470 Kit – 150 ft (Model 6470 and Catalog #2135.35)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6470 Kit – 300 ft (Model 6470 and Catalog #2135.36)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 6470 Kit – 500 ft (Model 6470 and Catalog #2135.37)
PRICE
NIST CALIBRATION
$2,250.00
$94.00
$2,649.00
$2,749.00
$2,849.00
$99.00
$99.00
$99.00
2135.35
Test Kit for 3-Point testing (includes two 150 ft color-coded leads on spools (red/blue),
one 30 ft lead (green), two 14.5" T-shaped auxiliary ground electrodes, set of five spaded
lugs, 100 ft tape measure and soft carrying bag)
$ 449.00
–
2135.36
Test Kit for 4-Point testing (includes two 300 ft color-coded leads on spools (red/blue),
two 100 ft color-coded leads (hand-tied green/black), four 14.5" T-shaped auxiliary
ground electrodes, set of five spaded lugs, 100 ft tape measure and soft carrying bag)
$ 549.00
–
2135.37
Test Kit for 4-Point testing (includes two 500 ft color-coded leads on spools (red/blue),
two 100 ft color-coded leads (hand-tied green/black), one 30 ft lead (green), four 14.5"
T-shaped auxiliary ground electrodes, set of five spaded lugs, 100 ft tape measure and
soft carrying bag)
$ 649.00
–
2135.38
Ground Test Kit for 3-Point testing (Supplemental for 4-Point testing – includes two 100
ft color-coded leads (hand-tied green/black), one 30 ft lead (green), two 14.5" T-shaped
auxiliary ground electrodes and soft carrying bag)
$ 249.00
–
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
www.aemc.com
21
Ground resistance testers
Ground Resistance Tester
Models 4620 & 4630
Model 4630
Specifications
MODELS
4620
4630
electrical
20Ω
200Ω
2000Ω
Range
Measurement Range
0.00 to 19.99Ω
20.0 to 199.9Ω
200 to 1999Ω
Resolution
10mΩ
100mΩ
1Ω
Open Voltage
≤42V peak
≤42V peak
≤42V peak
Resistance Measurement
128Hz square wave 128Hz square wave 128Hz square wave
Frequency
Test Current
10mA
1mA
0.1mA
Accuracy
±2% of Reading ± 1ct ±2% of Reading ± 1ct ±2% of Reading ± 3ct
Auxiliary Electrode Influence
Max Res. in Current Circuit
50kΩ
30kΩ
3kΩ
Max Res. in Voltage Circuit
50kΩ
50kΩ
50kΩ
Response Time
Approximately four to eight seconds for a stabilized measurement
Withstanding Voltage
250Vac or 100Vdc
Power Source
Eight C cell batteries;
120/230V 50/60Hz
Alkaline recommended
Rechargeable 9.6V,
3.5 Ah NiMH battery pack
Battery Life
>2000 15-second measurements; LO BAT indication on LCD
Fuse Protection
0.1A, >250V, 0.25 x 1.25"; 30kA Interrupt Capacity
Catalog No.
Features
•Measures soil resistivity (4-Point)
•Measures ground resistance
(2- and 3-Point) Fall-of-Potential method
•Step voltage tests and touch potential
­measurements
•Auto-Ranging: automatically selects the
optimum resistance range and test current
•Designed to reject high levels of noise
and interference
•Extremely simple to operate:
connect - press - read
•LED on faceplate informs operator of high
input noise, high auxiliary rod resistance and
fault connections
• Large easy-to-read backlit display
•Battery powered (Model 4620)
•AC powered with rechargeable NiMH b
­ attery
pack (Model 4630)
•Rugged dustproof and rainproof field case
•Can also be used for continuity tests
on bonding
• Color-coded terminals
Test Kit for 3-Point testing includes two 150 ft color-coded leads on
spools (red and blue), one 30 ft lead (green), two 14.5" T-shaped
auxiliary ground electrodes, one set of five spaded lugs, 100 ft tape
measurer and carrying bag.
Catalog #2135.35
Test Kit for 4-Point testing includes two 300 ft color-coded
leads on spools (red and blue), two 100 ft color-coded leads (green
and black), four 14.5" T-shaped auxiliary ground e
­ lectrodes, one set
of five spaded lugs, 100 ft tape measurer and carrying bag.
Catalog #2135.36
Test Kit for 4-Point testing includes two 500 ft color-coded leads
on spools (red and blue), two 100 ft color-coded leads (green and
black), one 30 ft lead (green), four 14.5" T-shaped auxiliary ground
electrodes, one set of five spaded lugs, 100 ft tape m
­ easurer and
carrying bag. Catalog #2135.37
See page 23 for Ground Testing kit images.
Description
2130.43
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4620 (Digital, 4-Point, Battery Powered)
2130.44
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4630 (Digital, 4-Point, Rechargeable Battery)
2135.19
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4620 Kit – 150 ft (Model 4620 and Catalog #2135.35)
2135.20
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4620 Kit – 300 ft (Model 4620 and Catalog #2135.36)
2135.21
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4620 Kit – 500 ft (Model 4620 and Catalog #2135.37)
2135.22
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4630 Kit – 150 ft (Model 4630 and Catalog #2135.35)
2135.23
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4630 Kit – 300 ft (Model 4630 and Catalog #2135.36)
2135.24
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4630 Kit – 500 ft (Model 4630 and Catalog #2135.37)
Accessories (Optional)
2130.60
Tape Measure (100 ft)
2135.35
Test Kit for 3-Point testing – 150 ft (see descriptions above for details)
2135.36
Test Kit for 4-Point testing – 300 ft (see descriptions above for details)
2135.37
Test Kit for 4-Point testing – 500 ft (see descriptions above for details)
Ground Test Kit for 3-Point testing (Supplemental for 4-Point testing – includes two 100 ft
2135.38
color-coded leads, one 30 ft lead (green), two 14.5" T-shaped auxiliary ground electrodes
and soft carrying bag) (see descriptions above)
2130.59
Calibration checker – 25Ω for Models 3620, 3640, 4500, 4610, 4620 and 4630
22
www.aemc.com
PRICE
NIST CALIBRATION
$1,265.00
$1,795.00
$1,669.00
$1,769.00
$1,869.00
$2,199.00
$2,299.00
$2,399.00
$ 94.00
$ 94.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$ 34.95
$ 449.00
$ 549.00
$ 649.00
–
–
–
–
$ 249.00
–
$
–
54.95
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Ground resistance testers
Ground Resistance Tester
Models 3620, 3640 & 4610
Features
•Measures soil resistivity (4-Point)
(Model 4610)
•Measures ground resistance (2- and
3-Point) Fall-of-Potential method
•Large analog display (Model 3620)
•Large LCD digital display
(Models 3640 and 4610)
•Designed to reject high levels of noise
and interference
•Auto-Ranging: automatically selects the
optimum range (Models 3640 and 4610)
• Battery powered
•Extremely simple to operate:
connect - press- read
• Error indicator lights
• Rugged dustproof and rainproof case
•Color-coded terminals and lead i­dentification
See page 22 for
Ground Testing
kit descriptions.
Catalog #2135.35
Model 4610
All individual units include soft
carrying case and user manual.
Specifications
MODELS
Types of Measurements
Display
Soil Resistivity Test
Measurement Ranges
3620
2- and 3-Point
Analog
No
0.5 to 1000Ω
Resolution
Test Current
Catalog #2135.36
Open Voltage
Operating Frequency
Accuracy
Interference
Power Source
Battery Life
Low Battery Indication
Fuse Protection
Catalog #2135.37
–
10mΩ
100mΩ
1Ω
10mA
10mA
1mA
0.1mA
≤24V peak
≤42V peak
128Hz square wave
±5% of Reading + 0.1% ±2% of Reading ± 1ct ±3% of Reading ± 3cts
scale length
All models reject high levels of interference voltage
(DC, 50 to 60Hz, harmonics)
Eight 1.5V AA batteries
Approx. 1680
15-second
Approx. 1800 15-second measurements
measurements
Yes
High breaking capacity, 0.1A, >250V
Catalog No.
Description
2114.90
2114.92
2114.94
2135.10
2135.11
2135.12
2135.13
2135.14
2135.15
2135.16
2135.17
2135.18
2130.59
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3620 (Analog, 3-Point)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3640 (Digital, 3-Point)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4610 (Digital, 4-Point)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3620 Kit – 150 ft (Model 3620 and Catalog #2135.35)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3620 Kit – 300 ft (Model 3620 and Catalog #2135.36)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3620 Kit – 500 ft (Model 3620 and Catalog #2135.37)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3640 Kit – 150 ft (Model 3640 and Catalog #2135.35)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3640 Kit – 300 ft (Model 3640 and Catalog #2135.36)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3640 Kit – 500 ft (Model 3640 and Catalog #2135.37)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4610 Kit – 150 ft (Model 4610 and Catalog #2135.35)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4610 Kit – 300 ft (Model 4610 and Catalog #2135.36)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 4610 Kit – 500 ft (Model 4610 and Catalog #2135.37)
Calibration checker – 25Ω for Models 3620, 3640, 4500, 4610, 4620 and 4630
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
3640
4610
2- and 3-Point
2-, 3-, and 4-Point
Digital
Digital
No
Yes
20Ω:
200Ω:
2000Ω:
0.00 to 19.99Ω 20.0 to 199Ω 200 to 1999Ω
PRICE
NIST CALIBRATION
$ 759.00
$ 795.00
$1,045.00
$1,159.00
$1,259.00
$1,359.00
$1,175.00
$1,275.00
$1,375.00
$1,449.00
$1,549.00
$1,649.00
$ 54.95
$ 94.00
$ 94.00
$ 94.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
$105.00
–
www.aemc.com
23
Ground resistance testers
Clamp-On Ground Resistance Tester
Models 3711 & 3731
Features
•Simple and fast clamp-on operation no leads, no auxiliary rods or spacing
­requirements
•Direct reading of ground resistance from
0.1 to 1200Ω
•Direct reading of continuity and ground
loop resistance
•Direct reading of ground leakage or phase
­current from 1mA to 30Arms
•Jaw design with large 1.25" (32mm) ­window accommodates up to 1000kcmil cables
• Auto-Off for power management
•Alarm function with adjustable set point
and buzzer for quick field checks
(Model 3731)
•Memory function to store 99 field
­measurements for later retrieval and
­analysis (Model 3731)
•Rugged Lexan® head and body ­construction
resists breakage
•Alarm settings and stored memory information
saved during shutdown (Model 3731)
•Designed to EN 61010-1, Cat. III
safety standards
• Patented design
Model 3731
US Patent No. 362,639
FEATURES & FUNCTIONS
Specifications
MODELS
3711 & 3731
electrical
Measurement
Range
0.1 to 1.0Ω
1.0 to 50.00Ω
50.0 to 100.0Ω
100 to 200Ω
200 to 400Ω
400 to 600Ω
600 to 1200Ω
Resolution
Accuracy (% of Reading)
0.01Ω
0.1Ω
0.5Ω
1Ω
5Ω
10Ω
50Ω
±(2% ± 0.02Ω)
±(1.5% ± 0.1Ω)
±(2.0% ± 0.5Ω)
±(3.0% ± 1Ω)
±(6% ± 5Ω)
±(10% ± 10Ω)
25% of Reading ±50Ω
1 to 299mA
1mA
±(2.5% + 2mA)
0.300 to 2.999A
0.001A
±(2.5% + 2mA)
3.00 to 29.99A
0.01A
±(2.5% + 20mA)
Ground
Resistance
Auto-Ranging
0.01 to 1200Ω
Current
Measurement
Auto-Ranging
1mA to 30.00Arms
Resistance
Measurement
Frequency
47 to 800Hz
OL displayed above 29.99Arms
9V Alkaline battery; Battery life: Eight hours or
approximately 1000 measurements of 30 seconds
Description
2117.60
2117.61
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3711 (Clamp-On)
Ground Resistance Tester Model 3731 (Clamp-On with memory and alarm)
www.aemc.com
3731
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
–
–
­Models 3711 and 3731 include
­calibration loop, battery, hard
carrying case and user ­manual.
Catalog No.
24
3711
2403Hz
Current
Measurement
Frequency
Current Overload
Power Source
MODELS
Ohms Range
Arms Range
Hold Function
Self Test
Auto-Off
Battery Life Indicator
Noise Indicator
Open Jaw Indicator
Closed Loop Indicator
Multi-Tone Beeper
Alarm Function
Memory (Logging)
PRICE
NIST CALIBRATION
$1,545.00
$1,745.00
$ 98.00
$ 98.00
Technical Assistance (800) 343-1391
Chauvin Arnoux®, Inc. d.b.a. AEMC® Instruments
200 Foxborough Blvd. • Foxborough, MA 02035 • USA
(508) 698-2115 • (800) 343-1391 • Fax (508) 698-2118
[email protected] • www.aemc.com
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