NEA/DB/DOC(2014) - khs
NEA Data Bank
NEA/DB/DOC(2014)2
General description of fission observables
GEF code
Supplement to JEFF Report 24
Karl-Heinz Schmidt
Beatriz Jurado
CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan, France
Charlotte Amouroux
CEA, DSM-Saclay, France
June 2014
Foreword
Foreword
The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project is a collaborative effort among
the member countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank to develop
a reference nuclear data library. The JEFF library contains sets of evaluated nuclear data,
mainly for fission and fusion applications; it contains a number of different data types,
including neutron and proton interaction data, radioactive decay data, fission yield data
and thermal scattering law data.
The General fission (GEF) model is based on novel theoretical concepts and ideas
developed to model low energy nuclear fission. The GEF code calculates fission-fragment
yields and associated quantities (e.g. prompt neutron and gamma) for a large range of
nuclei and excitation energy. This opens up the possibility of a qualitative step forward
to improve further the JEFF fission yields sub-library.
This supplement to JEFF Report 24 provides technical information on the GEF code
and subroutines, as well as examples and practical hints.
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General description of fission, GEF code, 3
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Developments for the GEF code have been supported by the European Commission within
the Sixth Framework Programme through EFNUDAT (project No. 036434) and within
the Seventh Framework Programme through Fission-2010-ERINDA (project No. 269499),
and by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Special thanks go to Mr E. Dupont who incited
the work on this report and followed it with much interest and many helpful remarks.
4
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General description of fission, GEF model, Table of contents
Table of contents
1 Name of the program
6
2 Description of the program
6
3 Method of solution
7
4 Computational structure
7
5 Subroutines
10
6 Typical running time
16
7 Related and auxiliary programs
16
8 Hardware requirements
16
9 Programming language(s) used
16
10 Operating system under which the program is executed
16
11 Other programming or operating information or restrictions
17
12 Names and adresses of authors
17
13 Material available
17
14 Practical hints
17
15 Deterministic version of GEF as a subroutine
22
16 Terms and conditions
23
References
32
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General description of fission, GEF code, 5
1
Name of the program
GEF Version 2014/2.1
The official GEF websites are http://www.khs-erzhausen.de and
http://www.cenbg.in2p3.fr/GEF.
2
Description of the program
GEF is a computer code for the simulation of the nuclear fission process. The GEF
code calculates pre-neutron and post-neutron fission-fragment nuclide yields, angularmomentum distributions, isomeric yields, prompt-neutron yields and prompt-neutron
spectra, prompt-gamma spectra, and several other quantities for a wide range of fissioning nuclei from polonium to seaborgium in spontaneous fission and neutron-induced
fission. Multi-chance fission (fission after emission of neutrons) is included. For neutroninduced fission, the pre-compound emission of neutrons is considered. Output is provided
as tables and as parameters of fission observables on an event-by-event basis.
Specific features of the GEF code:
• The mass division and the charge polarisation are calculated assuming a statistical
population of states in the fission valleys at freeze-out. The freeze-out time considers
the influence of fission dynamics and is not the same for the different collective
variables.
• The separability principle [1] governs the interplay of macroscopic and microscopic
effects. - Five fission channels are considered. The strengths of the shells in the
fission valleys are identical for all fissioning systems. The mean positions of the
heavy fragments in the asymmetric fission channels are essentially constant in atomic
number, as suggested by experimental data [2].
• The stiffness of the macroscopic potential with respect to mass asymmetry is deduced from the widths of measured mass distributions [3].
• The excitation-energy-sorting mechanism [4-7] determines the prompt neutron yields
and the odd-even effect in fission-fragment yields of even-Z and odd-Z systems.
• Neutron evaporation from the fragments is calculated with a Monte-Carlo statistical
code using level densities from empirical systematics [8] and binding energies with
theoretical shell effects with gamma competition included.
• Model uncertainties and covariances are determined by a series of calculations with
perturbed parameters.
• Multi-chance fission is supported.
6
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General description of fission, GEF model, • Pre-compound emission is considered for neutron-induced fission.
3
Method of solution
The Monte-Carlo method is used. Uncertainties and co-variances are deduced from perturbed calculations.
4
Computational structure
Gross structure
• User input:
Input is provided by dialogue, GUI or by file.
• Read tables:
Macroscopic masses (Thomas-Fermi masses),
Evaluated masses (from 2012 mass table),
Shell effects (from P. Möller et al.),
Nuclear spectroscopic data (from JEFF3 decay file).
• Begin loop over systems and energies of input file.
Synchronize parallel calculations.
• - Begin loop of perturbed calculations (optional).
- Sample all model parameters within their uncertainty range.
• - - Perform calculations*) with perturbed parameters.
• - - Establish multi-variant distributions.
- - Output of perturbed results, tables and list-mode (optional).
• - End loop of perturbed calculations.
• - Perform calculations*) with nominal parameters.
• - Uncertainties and covariances from multi-variant distributions.
• - Output of nominal results, tables and list-mode (optional).
• End loop over systems and energies of input file.
*) The calculations are detailed in the next section.
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General description of fission, GEF code, 7
Flow of calculations
• Begin Monte-Carlo event loop (multi-chance fission).
Start with target Z, A, entrance channel.
• - Begin Monte Carlo event loop (pre-fission decay).
• - - Calculate pre-equilibrium emission (for n-induced reaction).
• - - Calculate neutron and proton decay widths (compound).
- - Calculate fission decay width.
- - Chose decay at random (fission or particle emission).
• - - In case of particle emission:
- - Determine particle energy at random.
• - - In case of fission:
∗
- - Build table of fissioning nuclei (ZCN ,ACN , ECN
).
• - End Monte-Carlo event loop (pre-fission decay).
- In case of fission or end of particle cascade → next event.
• End Monte-Carlo event loop (multi-chance fission).
∗
• Ordering of multi-chance table (ZCN ,ACN , ECN
at fission).
• Begin multi-chance loop.
∗
Pick up next ZCN , ACN , ECN
from multi-chance table.
• - Calculate parameters of distributions for sampling in MC loop.
• - Begin Monte-Carlo loop (sample all distributions).
• - - Sample fission channel.
• - - Sample A1 and A2 (fragments).
- - Sample Z1 and Z2 (fragments).
• -
-
Sample deformation energies of final fragments.
Sample intrinsic excitation energies at scission.
Sample collective excitation energies at scission.
Sum up to E1∗ and E2∗ of fully accelerated fragments.
• - - Calculate Q value.
- - Deduce T KE from energy conservation (T KE = Q − E1∗ − E2∗ ).
• - - Sample angular momenta of fragments.
8
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General description of fission, GEF model, • - - Prompt-neutron and prompt-gamma emission from fragments.
- - Calculate post-neutron Z1′ , Z2′ , A′1 , A′2 , T KE ′ .
- - Determine relative yields of isomeric states.
• - End Monte-Carlo loop (sample all distributions).
• End multi-chance loop.
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General description of fission, GEF code, 9
Subroutines
5
Subroutines
Function getyield
The function getyield returns the unnormalized yield of a fission channel.
Input:
– Excitation energy relative to the outer-barrier height.
– Temperature above the barrier (constant-temperature regime).
– Effective temperature below the barrier (for tunneling).
Function masscurv
The function masscurv returns the curvature of the macroscopic potential for massasymmetric distortions according to the systematics of Rusanov et al.
Input:
– Z of fissioning nucleus
– A of fissioning nucleus
Function d e saddle scission
The function d e saddle scission returns the potential-energy gain from fission barrier to
scission according to Asghar and Hasse.
Input:
– Z 2 /A1/3 of fissioning nucleus
Function t egidy
The function t egidy returns the temperature parameter of the constant-temperature
nuclear-level-density formula of Egidy et al.
Input:
– Mass number
– Shell effect
Function t rusanov
The function t returns the temperature of the Fermi-gas nuclear-level-density formula of
Rusanov et al.
Input:
– Excitation energy
– Mass number
10
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General description of fission, GEF model, Subroutines
Function lymass
The function lymass returns the nuclear mass according to the liquid drop model of Myers
and Swiatecki.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
– Deformation parameter β
Function lypair
The function lypair returns the pairing-fluctuation energy according to the liquid-drop
model of Myers and Swiatecki.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
Function fedefolys
The function fedefolys returns the nuclear deformation energy according to the liquiddrop model of Myers and Swiatecki.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
– Deformation parameter β
Function ldmass
The function ldmass returns the macroscopic nuclear mass according to the Thomas-Fermi
model of Myers and Swiatecki.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
– Deformation parameter β
Function ame2012
The function ame2012 returns the nuclear mass from the 2003 mass evaluation.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
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General description of fission, GEF code, 11
Subroutines
Function u shell
The function u shell returns the ground-state shell effect from the Strutinsky-type model
calculation of Möller et al.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
Function u shell exp
The function u shell exp returns the ground-state shell effect from the difference of empirical mass and Thomas-Fermi mass without even-odd fluctuations.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
Function u shell e0 exp
The function u shell e0 exp returns the difference of the empirical mass and the ThomasFermi mass. It includes shell effect and pairing fluctuation.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
Function u mass
The function u mass returns the Thomas-Fermi macroscopic mass plus the ground-state
shell correction of Möller et al.
Input:
– Atomic number Z
– Nuclear mass number A
Function ecoul
The function ecoul returns the Coulomb repulsion between two nuclei in the tip-tip configuration.
Input:
– Z1 , A1 , β1 , Z2 , A2 , β2 , tip distance d
Function beta light
The function beta light returns the mean deformation of the light fragment of the S2
fission channel.
12
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General description of fission, GEF model, Subroutines
Input:
– Atomic number Z of light fragment
Function beta heavy
The function beta light returns the mean deformation of the heavy fragment of the S2
fission channel.
Input:
– Atomic number Z of heavy fragment
Function z equi
The function z equi determines the charge polarisation and returns Z1 in a configuration
of two deformed nuclei (Z1 , A1 , β1 , Z2 , A2 , β2 ) in tip-tip-configuration with a tip distance
d by minimising the total potential energy.
Input:
– ZC N , A1 , A2 , β1 , beta2 , d
Subroutine beta opt light
The subroutine beta opt light determines the optimum deformation β2 of the light fragment when the deformation β1 of the heavy fragment is imposed in a tip-tip configuration.
Input:
– A1 , A2 , Z1 , Z2 , d, β2
Subroutine beta equi
The subroutine beta equi determines the optimum deformation parameters of two deformed nuclei in a tip-tip configuration.
Input:
– A1 , A2 , Z1 , Z2 , tip distance d
Subroutine eva
The subroutine eva is a simple evaporation code, used for the fragment de-excitation
cascade. It considers neutron evaporation and statistical E1 gamma emission. The subroutine eva returns for neutron evaporation the times after scission and the kinetic energies
of the neutrons, for gamma emission the energies of the photons, and the composition (Z
and A) and the excitation energy of the residual nucleus.
Function u accel
The function
u accel returns the velocity of the fragment 1 at time Tn after scission in
q
units of (E/M eV )/A.
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General description of fission, GEF code, 13
Subroutines
Input:
– A1 , Z1 , A2 , Z2 , pre-scission T KE
Function p gamma low
Random generator of gamma energy for gamma emission below the neutron separation
energy.
Input: – Z, A, inititial excitation energy E ∗
Function p gamma high
Random generator of gamma energy for gamma emission above the neutron separation
energy.
Input:
– Z, A, inititial excitation energy E ∗
Function u ired
The function u ired returns a reduction factor for the momentum of inertia at the yrast
line due to shell effect and pairing correlations.
Input:
– Z, A
Function u alev ld
The function u alev ld returns the macroscopic level-density parameter of the Fermi-gas
formula according to Ignatyuk.
Input:
– Z, A
Function u temp
The function u temp returns the nuclear temperature parameter from the modified composite level-density formula of Schmidt and Jurado with the influence of shells and pairing
correlations (optional).
Input:
– Z, A, E ∗
Function gggtot
The function gggtot returns the probability to emit a gamma of energy Eγ in competition
with neutron emission.
Input:
– Atomic number Z of emitting nucleus.
14
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General description of fission, GEF model, Subroutines
– Mass number A of emitting nucleus.
– Excitation energy E ∗ of the emitting nucleus.
– Energy Eγ of the emitted gamma.
Function bftf
The function bftf returns the height of the fission barrier with shell effects and pairing
correlations considered (optional).
Input:
– Z, A
Function bftfa
The function bftfa returns the height of the inner fission barrier with shell effects and
pairing correlations considered (optional).
Input:
– Z, A
Function bftfb
The function bftfb returns the height of the outer fission barrier with shell effects and
pairing correlations considered (optional).
Input:
– Z, A
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General description of fission, GEF code, 15
6
Typical running time
A typical calculation with 100 000 events takes about 5 seconds on one processor of
an Intel i7 CPU (2.80GHz). Calculations with perturbed parameters and calculations
at higher excitation energies, where multi-chance fission occurs, require somewhat more
time.
7
Related and auxiliary programs
The main routines are written in FreeBASIC 1 . FreeBASIC 1 produces compiled binary
code that uses the C run-time library. Graphics output is based on the X11 library. A
graphical user interface is provided for WINDOWS 2 , written in JustBasic 3 , which has a
specific run-time library. The WINDOWS 2 version of GEF runs also under WINE 4 on
LINUX.
8
Hardware requirements
Computing time can be important for calculations with high statistics or for a large
number of systems. Parallel computing, e.g. with a multi-core CPU, is supported and
can be beneficial.
Memory: minimum ≈ 100 MByte;
Disc: minimum ≈ 500 kByte for 1 calculation; eventually more, depending on the option.
9
Programming language(s) used
Computer language on LINUX : FreeBASIC 1 ; on WINDOWS 2 : FreeBASIC 1 and JustBasic 3 .
10
Operating system under which the program is executed
a) WINDOWS XP 2 or newer
b) Any LINUX distribution. Eventually, some additional packages need to be installed,
e.g. the X11 developer tools.
1
FreeBASIC is available from http://www.freebasic.net/ with no cost.
WINDOWS is either a registered trademark or a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United
States and/or other countries.
3
JustBasic is available from http://www.justbasic.com/ with no cost.
4
WINE is a windows compatibility layer for LINUX (http://www.winehq.org/)
2
16
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General description of fission, GEF model, 11
Other programming or operating information or
restrictions
Multi-chance fission is supported, except when a distribution of excitation energies at
fission is provided on input. The results on neutron emission prior to fission and promptneutron emission from the fragments are given separately. GEF provides all results event
by event in a list-mode file on demand. The sequence of the events in the list-mode output
is sorted by energy at fission in the case of multi-chance fission in order to save computing
time. Therefore, the event sequence in the list-mode output should be randomly sampled,
if the GEF code is to be used as a realistic generator for fission events. An optional
enhancement factor may be specified. A value >1 increases the statistics of the MonteCarlo calculation and hence reduces the statistical uncertainties of the results. Default
value is 105 events. With this value, the statistical uncertainties are already smaller than
the model uncertainties in most cases. Higher statistics may be useful to compare different
systems, to study systematic trends and to determine reliable covariances.
12
Names and adresses of authors
K.-H. Schmidt, Rheinstr. 4, 64390 Erzhausen, Germany, B. Jurado, CENBG, CNRS/IN2
P3, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, F-33175 Gradignan, France
13
Material available
FreeBASIC 1 source files. JustBasic 3 executable and run-time-library. Executables for
WINDOWS 2 and LINUX. ReadMe file with technical instructions.
14
Practical hints
Installing and running GEF
Please keep the sub-folder structure of GEF.zip. Sub-folders that are needed by the code
are created automatically, if they do not exist. GEF does not overwrite or delete the
output files. Files in the folders ”/out”, ”/tmp”, and ”/dmp” that are not needed any
more should be deleted.
– ”/out” contains the main output as ASCII tables.
– ”/tmp” contains more specific or internal information as ASCII tables.
– ”/dmp” contains spectra in SATAN analyser format.
– ”/ctl” contains control files for parallel computing.
On WINDOWS2 : The file GEF.zip provides an executable of the main programm
(GEF.exe) and - in the sub-folder GUI - a graphical user interface. GEF is started by
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General description of fission, GEF code, 17
running ”GEF.bat”(!) in a command window. All user input must be entered by the GUI
window.
If you want to apply any changes, use an IDE (e.g. FBIDE 5 ) for editing any of
the source files (*.bas). Compile the main routine GEF.bas under FreeBASIC 1 . The
other files are automatically included in the compilation process. The GUI is written in
JustBasic 3 .
On LINUX : The file GEF.zip provides an executable (GEF) that runs directly in a
terminal by entering ”./GEF”. (Do not forget to set the file properties to ”execute as a
program”.)
The GUI that is provided in the WINDOWS 2 version may also be used under LINUX
by running the WINDOWS 2 version of GEF under WINE 4 without any loss of performance.
If you want to make any changes to GEF, prepare an executable, using an IDE (e.g.
GEANY 6 with the FreeBASIC 1 compiler. GEF.bas is the main routine. The other files
are automatically included in the compilation process. Remark: Installation of additional
packages may be required. (See http://www.freebasic.net/ − > Documentation − >
User Manual − > Using the FreeBASIC Compiler − > Installing FreeBASIC.) E.g. the
graphics output requires the installation of the X11 library. If the graphics does not work,
you may suppress it by commenting the following line in GEF.bas:
#Include Once "DCLPlotting.bas"
Input
Required input of GEF:
• Z and A of fissioning nucleus or target.
• Excitation mode and excitation energy.
The user is guided through additional input options by the input dialogue (on LINUX)
or by the GUI (on WINDOWS 2 ).
Output
Quantities available on output of GEF:
• Contributions of fission chances.
• Relative yields of fission channels.
• Element-yield distribution*).
5
6
18
FBIDE is available from http://fbide.freebasic.net/ with no cost.
GEANY is available from http://www.geany.org/ with no cost.
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General description of fission, GEF model, • Isotonic-yield distribution (pre- and post-neutron).
• Isobaric-yield distribution*).
• Mass-chain yields (pre- and post-neutron)*).
• Fragment kinetic energies.
• Fragment angular-momentum distributions (for every nuclide).
• Relative independent isomeric yields.
• Prompt-gamma spectrum.
• Prompt-neutron spectrum.
• Neutron-multiplicity distribution.
• Energies and directions of prompt neutrons (pre- and post-scission).
*) Including uncertainties and covariances.
Many more quantities are internally calculated and may be listed.
List-mode output
The optional list-mode output comprises many properties of the fission fragments and the
prompt neutrons on an event-by-event basis. A sample is listed below:
- Sample:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Z1 Z2 A1pre A2pre A1post A2post I1pre I2pre n1 n2 TKEpre TKEpost
Z1: Atomic number of first fragment
Z2: Atomic number of second fragment
A1pre: Pre-neutron mass number of first fragment
A2pre: Pre-neutron mass number of second fragment
A1post: Post-neutron mass number of first fragment
A2post: Post-neutron mass number of second fragment
I1pre: Spin of first fragment after scission
I2pre: Spin of second fragment after scission
n1: Prompt neutrons emitted from first fragment
n2: Primpt neutrons emitted from second fragment
TKEpre: Pre-neutron total kinetic energy [MeV]
TKEpost: Post-neutron total kinetic energy [MeV]
* In separate lines: Prompt post-scission neutrons (including acceleration phase)
* 0 E1, cos(theta1), phi1, E2, cos(theta2), phi2, E3, cos(theta3, phi3, ...:
*
Energies [MeV] in lab. frame and angles vs. direction of light fragment of all post-scission neutrons
* 1 E1l, E2l, E3l, ...: Energies [MeV] of neutrons emitted from light fragment in frame of light fragment
* 2 E1h, E2h, E3h, ...: Energies [MeV] of neutrons emitted from heavy fragment in frane of heavy fragment
* Calculation with
40 54 98 142 96
0
2.85
0.75
1
1.30
0.09
2
2.12
1.66
33 61 83 157 82
0
2.77
0.50
1
2.18
2
0.25
39 55 98 142 97
0
3.19
0.54
1
2.27
2
1.33
42 52 103 137 103
0
1.52 -0.96
nominal model parameters
140 4.0 3.0 2 2 172.58 169.51
182.2
0.80
0.96 240.7
2.80
-0.50
323.4
0.58
0.54
72.3
156 1.5 4.5 1 1 167.69 166.00
84.3
0.03 -0.69 237.3
141 4.0 7.0 1 1 177.58 176.00
257.4
1.90 -0.55 106.7
135 6.5 8.5 0 2 192.03 190.83
55.5
0.29 -0.77 159.2
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General description of fission, GEF code, 19
1
2
42
0
1
2
39
0
1
2
42
0
1
2
38
0
1
2
38
0
1
2
41
0
1
2
40
0
1
2
40
0
1
2
0.29
0.25
52 104 136 101 134 5.0 6.0
2.04
0.76
33.3
0.66
0.88
1.48
0.55
0.52
1.47
55 95 145 93 144 2.5 4.5
3.17
0.86 238.5
0.79
1.05
1.70
2.72
52 109 131 109 130 7.5 6.5
1.95 -0.94 214.2
0.48
95
1.06
0.06
0.75
56 94
1.86
0.52
0.22
53 103
5.51
3.33
0.84
54 101
1.24
0.02
0.72
54 101
2.34
0.91
0.18
56
3 2 176.48 172.47
0.10 334.8
0.84
0.70
323.8
2 1 169.95 167.33
0.09 229.2
4.94
-0.89
65.8
0.66
0
0.00
0.81
266.0
347.2
1.76
-0.43
104.0
0.69
108.4
0.58
0.43
318.0
-0.95
66.9
0.63
0.27
125.1
0.69
-0.15
290.4
1 192.70 192.04
145 94 144 2.5 6.5 1 1 182.00 180.35
0.97
27.6
2.11 -0.91 208.2
146 93 143 1.0 14.0 1 3 161.87 159.52
0.86
4.4
1.01 -0.94 134.6
1.10
2.45
137 99
0.94
1.84
0.26
139 100
0.99
1.44
135 5.5 4.5
340.3
5.15
0.76
0.87
4 2 166.08 161.36
1.00 338.3
1.44
0.83
-0.83
33.6
138 1.5 3.5 1 1 194.31 192.61
167.3
0.47 -0.31 338.9
139 99 138 0.5 1.5
0.79 221.5
1.94
0.86
2 1 190.43 187.67
0.75 172.7
1.17
Advanced options
Uncertainties: Uncertainty analysis from calculations with perturbed parameters
is available. These calculations are also used to determine covariances between different
observables as given by the model. As an option, also the multi-variant distributions of
fission-fragment yields can be obtained.
Energy distribution: Instead of a single energy, also a distribution of excitation
energies above the ground-state at fission may be provided in a file on input.
The file name is fixed: Espectrum.in.
- Example:
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2
...
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.7
Each line gives an energy (in MeV) and a weight. Energy steps of about 100 keV are
recommended. The spectrum may be un-normalized. The corresponding option is chosen
by the GUI under W IN DOW S 2 or by the option ”ES” under LINUX. Note that GEF
calculates only first-chance fission for this option.
Input list: GEF supports reading an input list from file. This option is chosen if
the file ”file.in” is found.
20
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General description of fission, GEF model, Instructions:
1. Create a file with the following information:
First line: Statistical enhancement factor (default = 1 corresponds to 105 events per
system). A larger factor increases the number of calculated events accordingly.
Second line: Energy value or list of energy values.
For neutron-induced fission: List of energy values in ascending order.
For spontaneous fission: Energy value. (Only one value is allowed.)
Following lines: Specification of the fissioning system. (ZC N , AC N , kind of fission)
- Example for spontaneous fission:
10
0
98, 250, "GS"
98, 252, "GS"
...
- Example for neutron-induced fission:
2
0.0253E-6, 0.4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
92, 234, "EN"
92, 236, "EN"
...
In the case of neutron-induced fission, a sequence of calculations is performed with the
energies given in the second line of the input file.
- Example for fission from a shape isomer:
(The isomers must be listed in the file NucProp.bas.)
100
0
94, 241, "IS1"
94, 242, "IS1"
...
2. Create the file ”file.in”: The file ”file.in” contains the names of the input files
(one per line). Comments are supported.
- Example
"U238NF.in"
’ "CF252SF.in"
"PU240SF.in"
In this example, only the files U238NF.in and PU240SF.in are treated.
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General description of fission, GEF code, 21
Parallel computing: GEF supports starting several processes in parallel, which
calculate the systems given in the input file in parallel in a coordinated way. This enables
making efficient use of modern multiprocessor machines. Before starting a new sequence
of calculations, the files ”/ctl/done.ctl” and ”/ctl/thread.ctl” must be deleted.
15
Deterministic version of GEF as a subroutine
A deterministic version of the GEF code provides pre-neutron fission-fragment nuclide
distributions and excitation energies. It is written as a subroutine that is called with a
specific compound nucleus, its excitation energy and its angular momentum on input.
Only first-chance fission is calculated. The subroutine is available in FreeBASIC1 and in
FORTRAN. Compilation with the GNU Fortran-95 compiler was tested.
Computational structure
• Read tables
Macroscopic masses (Thomas-Fermi masses)
Evaluated masses (from 2012 mass table)
Shell effects (from P. Möller et al.).
Nuclear spectroscopic data (from JEFF3 decay file).
• Calculate parameters of distributions.
• Calculate distributions.
Fission-fragment yields (Z and A) for each fission channel.
Spin distribution per fragment (Z and A) and fission channel.
Excitation energy per fragment (Z and A) and fission channel.
• Fill output arrays of pre-neutron fragment properties.
Nuclide yields ( Y (Z, A) ).
Spin distribution ( P (J, Z, A) ).
Excitation-energy distribution ( P (E ∗ , Z, A) ).
In contrast to the Monte-Carlo version, correlations between the fission observables
cannot be provided due to the deterministic structure of the computations.
22
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General description of fission, GEF model, Terms and conditions
16
Terms and conditions
c
Authors of the GEF code (General description of fission observables) are 2009,
2010,
2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Dr. Karl-Heinz Schmidt, Rheinstrasse 4, 64390 Erzhausen, Germany and Dr. Beatriz Jurado, Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan,
Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut Vigneau, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan, Cedex, France.
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either
version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed
in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/) for more
details.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
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General description of fission, GEF code, 31
References
References
[1] Experimental evidence for the separability of compound-nucleus and fragment properties in fission, K.-H. Schmidt, A. Kelic, M. V. Ricciardi, Europh. Lett. 83 (2008)
32001.
[2] Nuclear-fission studies with relativistic secondary beams: analysis of fission channels, C. Böckstiegel et al., Nucl. Phys. A 802 (2008) 12.
[3] Shell effects in the symmetric-modal fission of pre-actinide nuclei, S. I. Mulgin,
K.-H. Schmidt, A. Grewe, S. V. Zhdanov, Nucl. Phys. A 640 (1998) 375.
[4] Entropy-driven excitation-energy sorting in superfluid fission dynamics,
K.-H. Schmidt, B. Jurado, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 212501.
[5] New insight into superfluid nuclear dynamics from the even-odd effect in fission,
K.-H. Schmidt, B. Jurado, arXiv:1007.0741v1 [nucl-th].
[6] Thermodynamics of nuclei in thermal contact, K.-H. Schmidt, B. Jurado, Phys.
Rev. C 82 (2011) 014607.
[7] Final excitation energy of fission fragments, K.-H. Schmidt, B. Jurado, Phys. Rev.
C 83 (2011) 061601(R).
[8] Inconsistencies in the description of pairing effects in nuclear level densities,
K.-H. Schmidt, B. Jurado, Phys. Rev. C 86 (2012) 044322.
32
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