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USER’S MANUAL
Model 35, 35DL, 35HP, 35DLHP
Ultrasonic Precision Thickness Gages
Part No. 910-261D
September, 2006
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Electronic Equipment, this symbol indicates that the product must not be disposed of as unsorted municipal waste, but should be collected separately. Refer
to your local Olympus distributor for return and/or collection systems available
in your country.
Copyright © 2006 by Olympus NDT.
All rights reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of
Olympus NDT, except where permitted by law. For information, contact us at
[email protected]
Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their
respective companies, and are mentioned for identification purposes only.
Printed in the United States of America.
September 2006
910-261D
Table of Contents
1 General Information....................................................... 1-1
2 Basic Operation...............................................................
2.1 Initial Setup .........................................................
2.2 Making Measurements ........................................
2.3 Low Battery.........................................................
2-1
2-1
2-3
2-3
3 Calibration Measurement .............................................. 3-1
3.1 Measurement Mode Selection............................. 3-1
3.2 Choosing a Default or User-Defined Setup ........ 3-2
3.3 Calibration and Measurements............................ 3-8
3.3.1 Velocity and Zero Calibration ............. 3-8
3.3.2 Material Sound Velocity Unknown..... 3-8
3.3.3 Material Sound Velocity Known......... 3-10
3.4 Zero Calibration .................................................. 3-10
3.5 Calibration and Measurement (Velocity Measurement
Mode) ................................................................. 3-11
3.5.1 Two Point Calibration ......................... 3-11
3.5.2 Optional HPV/C Digital Caliper ......... 3-13
3.6 Calibration and Measurement (Two Point)......... 3-14
4 Additional Model 35 Gaging Features ..........................
4.1 Back Light...........................................................
4.2 Freeze Mode........................................................
4.3 Measurement Setup .............................................
4.3.1 Meas Option ........................................
4.3.2 Units ....................................................
4.3.3 Resolution............................................
4.3.4 Min/Max ..............................................
4.3.5 Hold/Blank ..........................................
Model 35 Series
4-1
4-2
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-9
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September 2006
4.3.6 Measure Rate ....................................... 4-9
4.3.7 Averaging Mode .................................. 4-10
4.3.8 CAL Lock ............................................ 4-11
4.3.9 Quick Setup ......................................... 4-11
4.3.10 ID Overwrite...................................... 4-12
4.4 System Setup....................................................... 4-13
4.4.1 Beeper.................................................. 4-13
4.4.2 Inactive Time....................................... 4-14
4.4.3 Language ............................................. 4-14
4.4.4 Radix.................................................... 4-15
4.4.5 Backlight Mode ................................... 4-15
4.4.6 Save Key Function .............................. 4-16
4.4.7 File Mode (35DL and 35DLHP Only) 4-17
4.5 Communication ................................................... 4-17
4.5.1 Send Format......................................... 4-18
4.5.2 Protocol................................................ 4-23
4.5.3 Connector ............................................ 4-23
4.5.4 Continuous Output............................... 4-24
4.6 Normal Diff and Reduction Rate ........................ 4-26
4.7 High/Low Alarms................................................ 4-28
4.8 Activating Waveform Option.............................. 4-32
4.9 Optional Waveform............................................. 4-34
4.9.1 Transducer Setup Adjust Mode ........... 4-36
4.9.2 Saving Custom Transducer Setups ...... 4-38
4.9.3 35PCScope .......................................... 4-40
4.10 Clock Setup ....................................................... 4-40
4.11 Resets ................................................................ 4-41
4.11.1 Measurement Reset ........................... 4-41
4.11.2 Master Reset ...................................... 4-43
4.11.3 Database Reset................................... 4-43
4.12 B-Scan ............................................................... 4-44
4.12.1 Using the B-scan Function ................ 4-46
Model 35 Series
September 2006
4.12.2 B-scan Freeze ....................................
4.12.3 Saving B-scan ....................................
4.13 DB Grid (DL Models Only)..............................
4.13.1 Using the DB Grid Function..............
4.13.2 Saving Data .......................................
4.13.3 Reviewing Stored Thickness Data.....
4.13.4 Editing and Moving Directly.............
4.13.5 Inserted ID# Location in Grid Files...
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4-48
4-49
4-50
4-51
4-52
4-53
4-54
4-55
5 Datalogger and Data Transmission............................... 5-1
5.1 Datalogger Overview .......................................... 5-1
5.2 Organizing the Datalogger .................................. 5-3
5.2.1 File Name Structure............................. 5-3
5.2.2 Identifier Structure............................... 5-3
5.3 Creating Data Files.............................................. 5-4
5.3.1 Standard Editing Commands ............... 5-4
5.3.2 Creating Files From a Computer ......... 5-6
5.3.3 Creating Files From the Model 35DL . 5-6
5.4 Opening a File ..................................................... 5-15
5.5 Saving Data ......................................................... 5-16
5.6 Using the Review ID Mode................................. 5-17
5.7 Using Edit ID Mode ............................................ 5-18
5.8 Delete .................................................................. 5-19
5.8.1 Deleting a Range of ID#s in a File ...... 5-19
5.8.2 Deleting Selected Files ........................ 5-20
5.8.3 Deleting Stored Value ......................... 5-22
5.8.4 Quick Clear (35DL and DLHP Only).. 5-23
5.9 Receiving Files and Using GageViewTM............. 5-24
5.9.1 Receiving Files From a Computer....... 5-24
5.9.2 Using GageView ................................. 5-25
5.10 Statistics Reports............................................... 5-25
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6 Specifications................................................................... 6-1
7 Application Setups .......................................................... 7-1
8 Theory of Operation ....................................................... 8-1
9 Application Notes............................................................ 9-1
9.1 Measurement Mode............................................. 9-1
9.2 Transducer Selection ........................................... 9-2
9.3 Factors Affecting Performance and Accuracy .... 9-4
9.4 Couplants............................................................. 9-8
9.5 High Temperature Measurements ....................... 9-9
9.6 Cable Lengths...................................................... 9-10
9.7 Pulser/Receiver and Gating Adjustments............ 9-11
9.7.1 Pulser Power ........................................ 9-12
9.7.2 Maximum Gain.................................... 9-12
9.7.3 Initial Gain........................................... 9-12
9.7.4 Main Bang Blank................................. 9-13
9.7.5 Echo Window ...................................... 9-13
9.7.6 Detect Mode ........................................ 9-14
9.7.7 Echo 1 Detect, Echo 2 Detect.............. 9-15
9.7.8 Interface Blank .................................... 9-15
9.7.9 Mode 3 Echo Blank ............................. 9-16
9.7.10 TDG Slope......................................... 9-17
10 Maintenance and Troubleshooting .............................
10.1 Routine Care and Maintenance .........................
10.2 Transducers .......................................................
10.3 Error Messages..................................................
10.4 Turn On and Low Battery Problems .................
10.5 Self Diagnostics ................................................
10.6 Tests ..................................................................
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
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10.7 Repair Service ................................................... 10-5
10.8 Replacement Parts and Options ........................ 10-6
Appendix I: Sound Velocities
Model 35 Series
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September 2006
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Preface
Model 35 Series Ultrasonic Gages are designed and manufactured as
precision instruments. Under normal working conditions, they will
provide long, trouble-free service.
Damage in transit - Inspect the unit thoroughly immediately upon
receipt for evidence of external or internal damage that may have
occurred during shipment. Notify the carrier making the delivery
immediately of any damage, since the carrier is normally liable for
damage in shipment. Preserve packing materials, waybills, and other
shipping documentation in order to establish damage claims. After
notifying the carrier, contact Olympus NDT so that we may assist you
in the damage claims, and provide replacement equipment, if
necessary.
Warranty
Olympus NDT guarantees Model 35 Series Ultrasonic Gages to be
free from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of two
years (twenty-four months) from date of shipment. The warranty
covers only equipment that has been used in a proper manner as
described in this instruction manual and has not been subject to
excessive abuse, unauthorized repair, or modification. DURING
THIS WARRANTY PERIOD, OLYMPUS NDT LIABILITY IS
STRICTLY LIMITED TO REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT OF A
DEFECTIVE UNIT AT ITS OPTION. Olympus NDT does not
warrant Model 35 Series Ultrasonic Gages to be suitable for intended
use, and assumes no responsibility for unsuitability for intended use.
Olympus NDT accepts no liability for consequential or incidental
damages including damage to property and/or personal injury.
This warranty does not include the transducer, transducer cable,
Model 35 Series
910-261D
September 2006
charger or battery. The customer will pay shipping expense to the
Olympus NDT plant for warranty repair; Olympus NDT will pay for
the return of the repaired equipment. For instruments not under
warranty, the customer will pay shipping expenses both ways.
Olympus NDT offers an optional third year warranty coverage (at an
additional cost), under the same terms, at the time of purchase.
Olympus NDT reserves the right to modify all products without
incurring responsibility for modifying previously manufactured
products. Olympus NDT does not assume liability for the results of
particular installations, as these circumstances are not within our
control.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
1 GENERAL INFORMATION
The Panametrics-NDTTM 35 Series of hand-held ultrasonic thickness
gages includes precision microprocessor-based instruments that use
pulse-echo techniques to measure material thickness when both sides
of the test material are not easily accessible.
Four 35 Series models described in this manual include:
• Model 35: Basic precision thickness gage using transducers in the
frequency range of 2.25 - 30.0 MHz
• Model 35DL: Thickness gage with file-based, alphanumeric
Datalogger using transducers in the frequency range of 2.25 - 30.0
MHz
• Model 35HP: Basic high penetration precision thickness gage
using transducers in the frequency range of 0.5 - 5.0 MHz
• Model 35DLHP: Precision high penetration precision thickness
gage with file-based alphanumeric Datalogger gage using
transducers in the frequency range of 0.5-5.0 MHz
The gages also measure sound velocity and pulse transit time in most
solids and liquids.
35 Series gages use three (3) modes of operation with contact, delay
line, and immersion transducers and include an Application AutoRecall feature, which allows both Standard Default and Custom
Stored Application Setups. In general, one of the Default Transducer
Setups is adequate for most applications. However, if your application
requires a specialized setup, the 35 Series offers ten (35 and 35HP)
and twenty (35DL and 35DLHP) custom setup locations that may be
programmed by the user or by the company.
Model 35 Series
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September 2006
The 35 Series is equipped with a USB port for connecting the gage to
the GageView interface program or to 35PCScope software. The
PCScope program allows users to make adjustments to transducer
setups while viewing RF waveforms. This can also be done using the
optional waveform feature.
Other 35 Series features include:
• Thickness range: 0.004 - 25.000" (0.100-635 mm), dependent on
material and transducer type
• Backlit display
• High-Low alarm functions
• Differential Mode
• Maximum resolution of 0.0001" (0.001 mm)
• Display HOLD/BLANK mode
• Long battery life
• Measurement in inches or millimeters
• MIN/MAX Mode
• RF Waveform output for optional 35PCScope interface program
• Rugged case and sealed, color-coded keypad for tactile and audio
feedback
• Semi-automatic keyboard calibration
• Internal self-test modes
• Calibration lockout function (prevents accidental change to
calibration or measurement mode
• Optional live waveform for all models.
Page 1-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
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In addition, special prompts inform the user of instrument conditions
such as: active transducer type and setup, low battery, loss of signal,
calibration mode, alarms, and differential mode.
Panametrics-NDT gages can use a variety of broadband contact, delay
line, and immersion transducers to permit optimum application on
most engineering materials. For applications assistance, please consult
the company or refer to Chapter 7 of this manual for a list of Default
Transducer Setups and approximate thickness ranges.
Table 1: Model 35 Series Features
Mode 1, 2, 3 Measurements
35
35HP
35DL
35DLHP
•
•
•
•
•
Transducer Frequency
0.050-5.0 MHz
Transducer Frequency
2.25-30.0 MHz
•
Application Setup Recall
•
Thickness Display Resolution to 0.0001" (0.001
mm)
•
Model 35 Series
•
•
•
•
•
•
Page 1-3
910-261D
September 2006
Table 1: Model 35 Series Features
35
35HP
35DL
•
Thickness Display Resolution to 0.001" (0.01 mm)
35DLHP
•
Electroluminescent Display Back Lighting
•
•
•
•
Fast Measurement Rate:
Up to 20 per second
•
•
•
•
Fast Minimum Mode
•
•
•
•
Freeze Mode
•
•
•
•
Display Hold/Blank
•
•
•
•
Inches/Millimeter
•
•
•
•
Low Battery Indicator
•
•
•
•
150-Hour Battery Operating Time
•
•
•
•
Battery Saver
•
•
•
•
Page 1-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Table 1: Model 35 Series Features
35
35HP
35DL
35DLHP
Two Year Limited Warranty
•
•
•
•
Differential Mode
•
•
•
•
Hi-Low Alarm
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internal Datalogger
Optional Live Waveform
•
•
•
•
USB
Note: The USB port on
the Model 35 and
Model 35 HP is
used for internal
software upgrade
only and transducer
communications.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Optional RS-232 Port
The gages employ a full range of user-controlled display functions to
measure the thickness of materials from one side only. A full line of
transducers is available to measure materials between 0.004” (0.08
mm) and 25” (635 mm) thickness.
Model 35 Series
Page 1-5
910-261D
September 2006
The Model 35 series makes full use of its microprocessor to offer
selectable, advanced measurement features. The Model 35DL and
35DLHP built-in datalogger allows a simple method for recording
thickness readings and for labeling each point with an identification
code. The Model 35DL and 35DLHP can store up to 8000 thickness
readings or 350 waveforms with thickness readings (Waveform
Option), providing an alternative to the manual recording of data.
Page 1-6
Model 35 Series
September 2006
2
910-261D
BASIC OPERATION
This section demonstrates how to create basic thickness
measurements with a 35 Series gage. The unit ships from the factory
containing default conditions for the transducer(s) you have
purchased. Parameters may be changed after you become familiar
with the more sophisticated gage features.
2.1 Initial Setup
Follow the initial setup procedure when operating the gage for the first
time, in addition to using the default settings and test block included
with the gage.
To begin the initial setup:
Step 1:
Plug the transducer cable into the transducer connector
located on the top panel of the 35 Series.
Step 2:
Connect the transducer to the other end of the cable.
Step 3:
Press the [ON/OFF] key to turn the gage on. Ensure that the
‘probe type’ shown in the initial startup screen matches the
transducer you have attached to the gage. This part number
is engraved on the back or side of the transducer.
Note: If the probe type does not match the transducer, please
refer to Section 3.2 of this manual.
Step 4:
Approximately three (3) seconds after the gage is turned on
the following screen will appear (current units are indicated
on the right side of the display):
Model 35 Series
Page 2-1
910-261CD
September 2006
Figure 2-1: Zero Screen
To alternate measurement units between inches (IN) and millimeters
(mm):
Step 1:
Press [2ndF], [ ](Setup).
Step 2:
Use the [ ] in the measurement Tab to select Units, and
then use the [
Step 3:
] or [
] key to select English or Metric.
Press [MEAS] Key.
The gage is now ready to make measurements based on the default
settings and the included test block.
Page 2-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
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2.2 Making Measurements
Step 1:
Apply couplant to the test block or material at the spot to be
measured. In general, the smoother the material surface, the
thinner the couplant may be. Rough surfaces require more
viscous couplant such as gel or grease. Special couplants are
required for high temperature applications.
Step 2:
Press the tip of the transducer to the surface of the material
to be measured. Use moderate to firm pressure and keep the
transducer as flat as possible on the material surface.
Step 3:
Read the material thickness on the gage display.
Note: For highest accuracy both a velocity and zero
calibration must be done.
2.3 Low Battery
The gage will operate for at least 150 hours on one set of three (3) AA
alkaline batteries under normal conditions (not in FAST mode and
with backlight off). The battery symbol in the bottom right corner of
the display indicates remaining battery life.
Model 35 Series
Page 2-3
910-261CD
September 2006
Page 2-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
3
910-261D
CALIBRATION AND
MEASUREMENT
3.1 Measurement Mode Selection
(Thickness, Velocity, or Time of
Flight)
The 35 Series ultrasonic gages can operate in either a Velocity,
Thickness, or Time of Flight mode. In Thickness mode, which is the
default measurement mode, the gage calculates and displays the
material thickness based on a time of flight measurement and a
calibrated material velocity. In Velocity mode the gage can directly
display velocity based on a time of flight measurement and user entered
Ref Value (Thickness). The 35 series can also operate in a Time of Flight
mode to display total time of flight.
To Select Measurement Mode:
Step1:
Press [2nd F],[ ] (Setup).
Step2:
While the MEAS Tab is Highlighted use the [ ] key to
highlight MEAS OPTION.
Step3:
Use the [
] and [
] keys to change between Thickness,
Velocity, or TOF (Time of Flight).
Step4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measurement Mode using the
new settings.
Model 35 Series
Page 3-1
910-261D
September 2006
3.2 Choosing a Default or User
Defined Setup
The 35 Series gages can use a variety of transducers through the AutoApplication Recall feature. Stored within the gage are twenty-one (21)
default setups (35 and 35DL) and seventeen (17) default setups (35HP
and 35DLHP) as well as twenty (20) user-defined application setups
(35Dl and 35 DLHP) and ten (10) user-defined application setups (35
and 35HP) that provide maximum flexibility for a wide range of
applications.
The Pre-Defined setups always remain in the gage as defaults and cannot
be removed. This section describes how to choose an appropriate stored
transducer setup and how to calibrate the 35 Series gages for a specific
application.
To setup a 35 Series gage:
Step 1: Select a transducer for the desired application and connect it
to the gage.
Note: To determine an appropriate transducer, please refer to
Section 7.1. Use the table as a guideline only; exact thickness ranges will vary depending on the application.
Step 2: While the gage is in the Measure mode, press [2nd F][
(RECALL SETUP).
Page 3-2
],
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
The following screen appears:
Step 3:
Use the [ ] or [ ] keys to scroll through the available
stored setups until the correct setup for the application is
highlighted.
Note: During the time that the list of transducer setups is displayed, pressing [2nd F][ ] will jump to the first custom
transducer setup and pressing [2nd F],[ ] will jump to
the first default transducer setup.
Step 4:
Once the correct setup is highlighted, press [MEAS]. This
action automatically recalls the setup parameters for the
chosen setup and brings the user back to the measure screen.
Begin taking measurements.
Model 35 Series
Page 3-3
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September 2006
Available SETUP choices include:
Table 3-1: 35 and 35DL
ACTIVE
DEFM1- M116
DEFM1- M112
DEFM1- M110
DEFM1- M106
DEFM1- M109
DEFM1- M1016
DEFM1- M1036
DEFM3-M208
DEF2P-M208
DEFM3-M202
DEFM2-M202
DEFP2-M202
DEFM3-V260
DEFM2-V260
DEFP2-V260
Page 3-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Table 3-1: 35 and 35DL
DEFM2-M201
DEFP2-M201
DEFM2-M206
DEFP2-M206
DEFM2-M207
DEFP2-M207
USER-1
USER-2
USER-3
USER-4
USER-5
.
.
.
USER-10 or 20
Model 35 Series
Page 3-5
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September 2006
Table 3-2: 35HP and 35DLHP
DEFM1- M110
DEFM1- M106
DEFM1-M1036
DEFM1-M101
DEFM1-M102
DEFM1-M103
DEFM1-M109
DEFM2-M201
DEFP2-M201
DEFM2-M206
DEFP2-M206
DEFM2-M207
DEFP2-M207
DEFP1-M2008
DEFM1/V153
DEFM1/V154
Page 3-6
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Table 3-2: 35HP and 35DLHP
DEFM1/V156
USER-1
USER-2
USER-3
USER-4
USER-5
.
.
.
USER-10 or 20
Note: The setups listed as USER-1 through USER-XX may be
renamed for special applications. For a complete
description see Section 9–Application Notes.
Note: Ten (10) user-defined setups can be stored in the 35 and
35HP. Twenty (20) user-defined setups can be stored in
the 35DL and 35DLHP.
Model 35 Series
Page 3-7
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September 2006
3.3 Calibration and Measurements
(Thickness Measurement Mode)
3.3.1 Velocity and Zero Calibration
The Material Velocity and Zero Calibration procedures may be
combined using a thick and a thin calibration block of the same material.
Step 1: Couple the transducer to the thick calibration block.
Step 2: Press [CAL VEL].
Step 3: When the thickness reading is stable, press [ENTER].
Step 4: Uncouple the transducer from the block and use the [ ,
,
, and
] slewing keys to enter the thickness of the
thick block.
Step 5: Couple the transducer to the thin block and press the [CAL
ZERO] key.
Step 6: When the reading is stable, press the [ENTER] key.
Step 7: Uncouple the transducer from the block and use the [ ,
, and
block.
,
] slewing keys to enter the thickness of the thin
Step 8: Press the [MEAS] key to complete the calibration and go to
the Measure Mode.
3.3.2 Material Velocity Calibration When
Material Sound Velocity Is Unknown
To do the Material Velocity Calibration, a calibration block made from
the material to be measured must be used. The block should be
Page 3-8
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
approximately as thick as the thickest section to be measured and have
flat, smooth, and parallel front and back surfaces. The thickness of the
block must be known exactly.
Step 1: Couple the transducer to the block.
Step 2: Press the [CAL VEL] key.
Step 3: When the thickness reading is stable, press [ENTER].
Step 4: Uncouple the transducer and use the [ , ,
, and
slewing keys to enter the thickness of the standard.
]
Step 5: Press [MEAS] to complete the calibration and return to
Measure Mode.
If the gage double beeps before returning to the Measure Mode, then an
error has been made in the calibration procedure, and the velocity has not
been changed. The most likely problem is that the thickness value
entered was not correct.
In order to read and record the material velocity for this particular
material, [2ndF], [CAL VEL](VEL) may be pressed following Velocity
Calibration (or at any time from the Measure Mode). This velocity may
be entered by means of the slewing keys in the future when measuring
this material, without using the block.
Note: Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature. For maximum accuracy the calibration block
should be at approximately the same temperature as the
samples to be measured.
Model 35 Series
Page 3-9
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September 2006
3.3.3 When Material Sound Velocity Is
Known
When preparing to measure a different material, of known sound
velocity, the velocity may be entered directly without doing the CAL
VEL procedure discussed above.
Step 1: From the Measure mode press [2ndF], [CAL VEL](VEL).
The current velocity will be displayed.
Step 2: This number may then be changed to the desired value using
the [ ,
,
, and
] slewing keys.
Step 3: Press [MEAS] to complete the entry and return to the
Measure mode. If the gage is turned off before the [MEAS]
key is pressed, the velocity will not be updated to the new
value, but instead will retain the previous value.
3.4 Zero Calibration
To do the Zero Calibration, a calibration block of the material to be
measured must be used. The block should be approximately as thin as
the thinnest section to be measured. If the surface of the material to be
inspected is rough, the surface of the calibration block may be
roughened to simulate the actual surface to be measured. Rough surfaces
generally reduce the accuracy of measurements but simulating actual
surface conditions on the calibration block can help to improve results.
The exact thickness of the sample must be known.
Step 1: Couple the transducer to the standard.
Step 2: Press the [CAL ZERO] key.
Step 3: When the thickness reading is stable, press the [ENTER]
key. The [ENTER] key will not be accepted if the LOS
display flag is on.
Page 3-10
Model 35 Series
September 2006
Step 4: Uncouple the transducer and use the [ , ,
slewing keys to enter the known thickness.
910-261D
, and
]
Step 5: Press the [MEAS] key to complete the calibration and return
to the Measure Mode.
Note: If the gage is turned off before the [MEAS] key is
pressed, the Zero value will not be updated to the new
value but instead will retain the previous value. If the
gage sounds a long beep before returning to the Measure
Mode, an error has been made in the calibration procedure, and the Zero value has not been changed. The
most likely cause is that the entered thickness was not
correct.
The model 35 series is now calibrated for the transducer and material
and is ready to make thickness measurements on samples of the material
that was used for calibration that have unknown mechanical thickness.
Simple couple the transducer to the material and the Gage will display
the Thickness
3.5 Calibration and Measurements
(Velocity Measurement Mode)
3.5.1 Two Point Calibration (Velocity Measurement Mode)
Two Point Calibration requires two samples of the same material
velocity and known thickness. The velocity value does not need to be
known.
Step 1: Activate the Velocity Measurement Mode as described in
Section 3.1.
Model 35 Series
Page 3-11
910-261D
September 2006
Step 2: Couple to a thick sample and press [CAL VEL]. The gage
will display a thickness reading.
Step 3: When the thickness reading is steady, press [ENTER].
Step 4: Use the [ , ,
known thickness.
, and
] slewing keys to enter the
Step 5: Couple the transducer to a thin sample and press [CAL
Zero]. The gage will display a thickness reading.
Step 6: When the thickness reading is steady, press [ENTER].
Step 7: Use the [ , ,
known thickness.
, and
] slewing keys to enter the
Step 8: Press the [MEAS] key to complete the calibration.
The Model 35 Series gage is now calibrated for the transducer and is
ready to make velocity measurements on a sample with know
mechanical thickness.
To make a velocity measurement:
Step 1: Press [2nd F], [ENTER] (REF VALUE) and use the [ ,
,
, and
] slewing keys to enter the known thickness
and then press [MEAS].
Step 2: Couple to the sample. The calculated velocity will be
displayed.
Note: When coupling to samples with the same mechanical
thickness, it is not necessary to re-enter the Reference
Thickness. A new reference thickness must be enter
when the mechanical thickness of the material to be
tested changes.
Page 3-12
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
The company offers a digital caliper that can be used to measure
mechanical thickness and automatically input the Reference Thickness
directly into the gages. To use the digital caliper, the 35 Series Gage
requires an optional RS-232 communication port, a special digital
caliper, and a communication cable. For more information, please
contact the company.
3.5.2 Optional HPV/C Digital Caliper
Step 1: Cable Connection: Remove the RS-232 environmental plug
from the caliper, located in the RS-232 port above the
Fowler Sylvac label.
Step 2: Insert the HPV/CC cable into the caliper’s RS-232 slot with
the words “OPTO RS232” facing down.
Step 3: Plug the other end of the 35HPV/CC cable into the optional
RS-232 port of the 35 Series gage.
Step 4: When setting up the Units on the HPV/C digital caliper,
press the Set Button or Mode Button to turn ON the digital
caliper. To turn OFF the caliper, press and hold the Set
Button for two (2) seconds.
Step 5: Press the Mode Button. “SET” displays (active for three [3]
seconds).
Step 6: Press Mode Button twice to display “UNIT” (active for
three [3] seconds).
Step 7: Press Set Button to toggle between Inch and MM.
Step 8: Set the 35 Series gage for Velocity Measurement (see
Section 3.1).
Step 9: With the 35DL or 35DLHP, press [2nd F], [ ] (Setup) and
use [
Model 35 Series
] to highlight the COMM tab, and then use the [ ,
Page 3-13
910-261D
September 2006
,
, and
] slewing keys to set the connector to RS232 and the device to Caliper.
Step 10: Use the digital caliper to measure the thickness of the
material and then press Set Button. The displayed thickness
value will be transferred to the 35DL or 35DLHP gage and
be displayed in the REF THK box.
3.6 Calibration and Measurements
(Two Point Calibration - Time of
Flight Measurement Mode)
Two point calibration requires two samples of the same material
velocity and known thickness. The velocity value does not need to be
known.
Step 1: Activate the Time of Flight Measurement Mode as
described in Section 3.1.
Step 2: Couple to a thick sample and press [CAL VEL]. The gage
will display a thickness reading.
Page 3-14
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Step 3: When the thickness reading is steady, press [ENTER].
Step 4: Use the [ , ,
known thickness.
, and
] slewing keys to enter the
Step 5: Couple the transducer to a thin sample and press [CAL
Zero]. The gage displays a thickness reading.
Step 6: When the thickness reading is steady, press [ENTER].
Step 7: Use the [ , ,
known thickness.
, and
] slewing keys to enter the
Step 8: Press the [MEAS] key to complete the calibration.
The model 35 Series gage is now calibrated for the transducer and is
ready to make round trip time measurements.
To make a time of flight measurement, couple to the sample and the gage
displays the round trip time of flight.
Model 35 Series
Page 3-15
910-261D
September 2006
Page 3-16
Model 35 Series
September 2006
4
910-261D
ADDITIONAL Model 35
SERIES GAGING FEATURES
Model 35 Series thickness gages have several additional convenient
features. The use of these features is not required for basic operation.
However, they make the gages more versatile instruments.
The following additional features may be accessed directly from the
keypad:
Tables 4-1A & 4-1B:
Model 35,
Model 35HP,
Model 35DL,
and Model
35DLHP
Backlight
Model 35DL
and Model
35DHP
Datalogger
Freeze
Additional features may be accessed in the setup mode. To access or
change any of these functions, press [2nd F], [ ](SETUP).
Model 35 Series
Page 4-1
910-261D
September 2006
These features include the following functions:
Model 35, 35HP, 35DL, and 35DLHP Series Gages
• Inches/Millimeters Conversion
• Resolution
• Min/Max
• Hold/Blank
• Measure Rate
• CAL Lock
• Beeper
• Inactivity time
• Radix
• Backlight mode
• LCD Contrast adjust
• Resets
• Diagnostics
• Alarms
• Differential Mode
4.1 Back Light
The display backlight feature internally illuminates the liquid crystal
display with a bright, uniform light. This allows the display, which has
excellent visibility in normal to high ambient light conditions, to be
viewed in low to zero ambient light conditions.
Page 4-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
To switch Backlight On/Off:
• Model 35 and Model 35HP - Press the [Light Bulb] key.
• Model 35DL and 35DLHP - Press [2nd F],[Freeze](LIGHT/
LCD).
Additionally, when the backlight is switched on, you may select a
power-saver Auto Backlight mode, which turns the backlight on only
when a reading is being made and turns it off five seconds after LOS
of signal.
To select Auto Backlight:
Step 1:
Press [2nd F], [ ](SETUP).
Step 2:
Use [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Backlight Mode
Step 4:
Use the [
and Auto.
Step 5:
Press [MEAS] to return to the measure mode with the new
settings.
] to select the System Tab.
] and [
] keys to change between Normal
Note: The next time the backlight is turned on, it will function
in the as set (Normal) mode.
To adjust Contrast:
The Contrast adjustment feature allows the Model 35 Series thickness
gages to adjust the contrast (light or dark) of the display.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-3
910-261D
September 2006
To adjust the display contrast for the Model 35 and Model 35HP:
Step 1:
From Measure Mode, press [2nd F][Light Bulb](LCD ADJ).
Step 2:
Use the [ ] or [ ] key to adjust contrast.
Step 3:
Press [ENTER] to exit Contrast Adjust Mode.
To adjust the Display Contrast for the Model 35DL and 35DLHP:
Step 1:
From Measure Mode, press [2nd F][FREEZE](LIGHT/
LCD) to turn on the back light and begin contrast
adjustment.
Step 2:
Use the [ ] or [ ] key to adjust contrast.
Step 3:
Press [ENTER] to exit Contrast Adjust Mode.
Step 4:
Press [2nd F][FREEZE](LIGHT/LCD) to turn the back light
off.
4.2 Freeze Mode
The freeze function allows the operator to freeze the thickness display
when the [FREEZE] key is pressed. The display is returned to an
active status by pressing [FREEZE] a second time or by pressing
[MEAS]. This function is useful in a situation when the user wishes to
hold a displayed thickness reading. This is helpful for high
temperature thickness measurement applications to limit the
transducer contact time. The freeze can also be used in combination
with the Min/Max function.
Page 4-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.3 Measurement Setup
The measurement setup menu allows the user to turn on/off many of
the additional measurement features of the Model 35 Series gages.
Measurement setup features include:
• Meas Option (Thickness, Velocity, or Time of Flight)
• Units
• Resolution
• Min/Max
• Hold Blank
• Measure rate
• Averaging
• Cal Lock
• Quick Setup
• ID Overwrite (Model 35DL and 35DLHP only)
4.3.1 Meas Option
The Meas Option allows the user to select the measurement type. The
35 Series gages can measure and display thickness, velocity, or round
trip time of flight. See Sections 3.2, 3.4, and 3.5 for details.
To activate the Meas Option:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Meas Option and [
,
select Thickness, Velocity or TOF (Time of Flight).
Model 35 Series
,
] to highlight the MEAS tab.
] to
Page 4-5
910-261D
Step 4:
September 2006
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.3.2 Units
Changing units allows the user to change from inch measurement
units to millimeter measurement units.
To change units:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Units and the [
to select English (in.) or metric (mm).
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the MEAS tab.
,
] keys
4.3.3 Resolution
Resolution allows the user to change the number of decimal points
displayed in the thickness display.
To changing resolution:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs. Use the
[
Step 2:
,
] keys to highlight the MEAS tab.
Use the [ ] key to highlight Resolution and the [
keys to select Standard, Low, or High.
,
]
Note: High resolution is available only for the Models 35 and
35DL.
Step 3:
Page 4-6
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.3.3.1 Resolution (Thickness Mode)
For Models 35 and 35DL, the user can select among Standard (0.001"
or 0.01 mm), Low (0.01" or 0.1 mm), and High (0.0001" or 0.001
mm).
For Models 35HP and 35DLHP, the user can select between Standard
(0.001" or 0.01 mm) and Low (0.01" or 0.1 mm).
4.3.3.2 Resolution (Velocity Mode)
For Models 35 and 35DL, the user can select between Standard
(0.0001 in/µsec or 0.001 mm/µsec) and Low (0.001in/µsec or 0.01
mm/µsec).
For Models 35HP and 35DLHP, the user can select between Standard
(0.0001in/µsec or 0.001 mm/µsec) and Low(0.001 in/µsec or 0.01
mm/µsec).
4.3.3.3 Resolution (Time of Flight Mode)
The resolution for the Time of Flight Mode is fixed at 0.01 µsec.
4.3.4 Min/Max
Min/Max allows the user to put the gage in Min or Max scanning
mode. This feature allows the user to scan over an area and quickly
determine the minimum or maximum thickness.
Min Mode displays live thickness values and recalls the minimum
thickness when a LOS (loss of signal) occurs. Live thickness values
are displayed in filled-in form, and recalled min values are displayed
in outlined form. The minimum values are retained in a temporary
Model 35 Series
Page 4-7
910-261D
September 2006
memory until new minimum thickness values replace them or until the
[Meas] key is pressed to reset the minimum. When Min Mode is
selected, the Model 35 Series gage automatically changes to MAX
update mode.
Max Mode displays live thickness value and recalls the maximum
thickness when a LOS (loss of signal) occurs. Live thickness values
are displayed in filled-in form, and recalled max values are displayed
in outlined form. The maximum value is retained in a temporary
memory until a new maximum thickness value replaces it or until the
[Meas] key is pressed to reset the maximum. When Max Mode is
selected, the Model 35 Series gage automatically changes to MAX
MEAS Rate (up to 20 Hz).
To select Min/Max:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Min/Max and the [
keys to select among Off, Min, or Max.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the MEAS tab.
,
]
Note: The Freeze key can be used with the Min/Max feature to
prevent the gage from reading false signals while the
transducer is being removed from the surface of the
material. While in Min or Max Mode, scan the area of
interest and then press the [Freeze] key. Uncouple the
transducer from the material and press the [Freeze] key
again to recall Min or Max.
Page 4-8
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.3.5 Hold/Blank
Hold/Blank controls:
• Hold: The gage holds the last measurement when no
measurements (LOS) are being made.
• Blank: The display blanks out the thickness value when no
measurements (LOS) are being made.
The Model 35 Series is set by default to blank out the measurement
display when no measurements are being made. When Hold mode is
selected, live (active) thickness readings are displayed with filled-in
numbers, and held measurements are displayed with outlined
numbers.
To change Hold/Blank:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF],[ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Hold/Blank and [
select between Blank and Hold.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] to highlight the MEAS tab.
,
] to
4.3.6 Measure Rate
Measure Rate allows the user to display the measurement update rate.
The user can select among update rates of 4 Hz, 8 Hz, 16 Hz, and
MAX (MAX rate is within a range of 16 - 20 Hz, dependent on the
measurement mode and the application).
Note: Changing to the MAX update rate will greatly affect the
battery life of the Model 35 Series thickness gages.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-9
910-261D
September 2006
To change Measure Rate:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Measure Rate and the
[
,
MAX.
Step 4:
,
] keys to highlight the MEAS tab.
] keys to select among 4 Hz, 8 Hz, 16 Hz, and
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.3.7 Averaging Mode
In the Averaging Mode, the displays shows the average value of the
ten (10) most recent readings. The Q-Bar (quality bar) is an indicator
of measurement stability – a longer Q-Bar indicates more stable
readings, that is, readings that do not vary from one another.
Averaging and Q-Bar are available for all measure rate settings.
Three options for the Averaging setting are available: ON, OFF and
Q-Bar.
To change Measure Rate:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [ ] key to enter the MEAS tab.
Step 3:
Press [ ] or [ ] to scroll to AVERAGING.
Page 4-10
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Step 4:
Press [
,
] to choose On, Off, or Q-Bar.
Step 5:
Press [MEAS/RESET].
4.3.8 CAL Lock
CAL Lock allows the user to lock the calibration so that it cannot be
changed while CAL Lock is enabled. If the user tries to change the
calibration while the lock is activated, the gage displays a CAL Lock
message.
To activate CAL Lock:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight CAL Lock and [
select between Off and On.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the MEAS tab.
,
] to
4.3.9 Quick Setup
When activated, the Quick Setup feature permits the user to quickly
recall the first four (4) user-defined setups by the use of a simple
keypad shortcut.
To activate Quick Setup:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [ ] key to highlight the MEAS tab.
Step 3:
Press the [ ] or [ ] to scroll to Quick Setup.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-11
910-261D
September 2006
Step 4:
Press the [
] or [
] to choose On or Off.
Step 5:
Press [MEAS/RESET].
Once Quick Setup is activated:
• Press [ENTER], [ ] to recall the first user-defined transducer
setup.
• Press [ENTER], [
setup.
] to recall the second user-defined transducer
• Press [ENTER], [ ] to recall the third user-defined transducer
setup.
• Press [ENTER], [
setup.
] to recall the fourth user-defined transducer
4.3.10 ID Overwrite (Model 35DL and 35DLHP
Only)
ID Overwrite allows the user to lock ID locations so that once a
thickness reading is saved at the ID# location, users will be prompted
with a message asking if they wish to overwrite the stored thickness
value when attempting to overwrite stored readings.
To activate ID Overwrite:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight ID Overwrite and [
select between Off and On.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
Page 4-12
,
] keys to highlight the MEAS tab.
,
] to
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.4 System Setup
The System Setup menu allows the user to turn on/off many Model 35
Series gage configurations.
Features include:
• Beeper
• Inactive Time
• Language
• Radix
• Backlight Mode
• Save Key Function
• File Mode
4.4.1 Beeper
Beeper allows the user to turn the audio beeper of the Model 35 Series
gages on and off. The Beeper is set to On by default and will generate
an audio beep when any key is pressed or when an alarm condition has
been detected.
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Beeper and [
between Off and On.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
Model 35 Series
,
] keys to highlight the System tab.
,
] to select
Page 4-13
910-261D
September 2006
4.4.2 Inactive Time
Inactive Time allows the user to set the Auto Power Off feature to
either On or Off. When Inactive Time is set to On, the Model 35
Series gage powers off after approximately six (6) minutes during
which no thickness measurements or key presses have occurred.
When Inactive Time is set to Off, the Model 35 Series unit remains
powered up until the user turns the unit Off or the battery voltage
becomes low.
To change Inactive Time:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Inactive Time and [
select between Off and On.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the System tab.
,
] to
4.4.3 Language
The default language for the 35 Series gages is English, but the gages
can add a custom language so that text will be shown in the custom
programmed language. This feature will be added to the 35 Series
gages in early 2006. Please contact the company for more
information.
To activate Custom Language:
Step 1: Press [2ndF],[ ] (Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2: Use the [
,
] keys to select the System tab.
Step 3: Press the [ ] or [ ] to scroll to Language.
Page 4-14
Model 35 Series
September 2006
Step 4: Press [
910-261D
,
] to choose English or Custom.
Step 5: Press [MEAS/RESET].
4.4.4 Radix
Radix allows the user to select the display of the radix character (the
character that separates the whole and decimal part of the thickness
value). In the United States, the period (.) is used as radix (Example:
0.123"). In many other countries, the comma (,) is used (Example:
1,25 mm).
To change radix:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Radix and [
between Period and Comma.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the System tab.
,
] to select
4.4.5 Backlight Mode
Backlight Mode allows the user to determine how the backlight works
once it has been turned on. When Backlight Mode is set to Normal,
the backlight will stay on until it is turned off. When Backlight Mode
is set to Auto and the backlight is turned on, it will stay on while a
thickness measurement is being displayed and automatically turn off
five (5) seconds after a LOS (Loss of Signal) has occurred.
To Change Backlight Mode:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-15
910-261D
September 2006
Step 2:
Use the [
,
] keys to highlight the System tab.
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Backlight Mode and [
to select between Normal and Auto.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
]
4.4.6 Save Key Function
The Save key on the 35DL and 35DLHP units can be programmed to
initiate a Save or Send function.When the Save key is set to “SAVE”,
pressing the [SAVE] key will save the current thickness reading to the
internal datalogger. When the Save key is set to “SEND”, pressing the
[SAVE] key will send the reading through the optional RS-232 port.
Note: The 35DL and 35DLHP cannot single send thickness
data through the USB port.
The ability to program the Save key is helpful when using the optional
RS-232 output or the remote foot switch options. Pressing the remote
foot switch acts in the same way as pressing the Save key so that
programming the Save key function allows the remote foot switch to
initiate a Save or Send function.
To change the Save key function:
Step 1: Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2: Use the [
,
] keys to highlight the System tab.
Step 3: Use the [ ] key to highlight Save and [
between “SAVE” and “SEND”.
,
] to select
Step 4: Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
Page 4-16
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.4.7 File Mode (35DL and 35DLHP Only)
When creating data files in the 35DL and 35DLHP, it is necessary to
designate the type of data that will be stored in the file. The File Mode
parameter in the System Setup tab allows the user to set the default
file mode. This sets the default file type that is designated when a new
file is created. The user can change this during the file creation. The
file Modes are:
• Normal - For saving standard thickness measurements
• Velocity - For saving velocity measurements
• Time of Flight - For saving time of flight measurements
• Reduction Rate - For saving both Thickness and % Reduction
Rate measurements
To Change the default File mode;
Step 1:
Press [2nd F], [ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight File Mode and [
,
] to
select among Normal, Velocity, Time of FLT, and Reduction
RT.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.5
Communication
,
] keys to highlight the System tab.
The 35 Series gages are supplied with a standard USB communication
port. This port is used to:
• Communicate with the optional 35PCSCOPE program for
Model 35 Series
Page 4-17
910-261D
September 2006
creating custom transducer setups.
• Upgrade gage operating software.
• Communicate with the Panametrics-NDT Gageview interface
program.
- 35 and 35HP gages can send and receive Custom Transducer
setups.
- 35DL and35DLHP can send and receive Thickness, Velocity
and Time of Flight data as well as Custom Transducer setups.
An optional (unit must be returned to the company for modification)
RS-232 port is available for the 35DL and 35DLHP for use with:
• Serial port printers
• RS-232 serial communication programs
• RS-232 digital caliper (supplied)
• Bar code reader (supplied)
4.5.1 Send Format
The Send format selects the format of the data being sent from 35
Series gages. It is set by default to F1 and should be changed only
when communicating with custom software. Contact the company for
information concerning additional Send formats.
Single sending can only be done using the optional RS-232 output.
Send can only be done with the thickness reading. Formats F1-F5 are
used when performing File Sends or Range Sends to external software
or printers.
Page 4-18
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
F1 Format: Sends ID#, Thickness Table, and Setups Table
Identifier
001
002
003
004
005
OK
Thickness
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
Units
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
SU#
2
OK
VEL (/µS)
0.22600
DIFF
0.000
Flags
M1-M1-M1-M1-M1--
LO ALM
0.000
HI ALM
25.000
SU#
2
2
2
2
2
UNITS
In
BASE MEAS SETUP
DEFM1-M110
F2 Format: Sends ID#, Thickness Table, Setup Table, and
Statistics
Identifier
001
002
003
004
005
OK
Thickness
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
Units
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
SU#
2
OK
VEL (/µS)
0.22600
DIFF
0.000
Flags
M1-M1-M1-M1-M1--
LO ALM
0.000
HI ALM
25.000
SU#
2
2
2
2
2
UNITS
In
BASE MEAS SETUP
DEFM1-M110
***STATISTICS***
# OF THK
MEAN
MEDIAN
RANGE
STD. DEV
# OF HIGH ALARM
% OF HIGH ALARM
# OF LOW ALARM
% OF LOW ALARM
5
1.091"
1.091"
0.000"
0.000"
0
0%
0
0%
IDENTIFIER
MINIMUM THK
Model 35 Series
Page 4-19
910-261D
September 2006
001
002
003
004
005
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
IDENTIFIER
001
002
003
004
005
MAXIMUM THK
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
OK
F3 Format: Sends the ID#, Thickness Table, Setup Table, and
Transducer Setup Table
Identifier
001
002
003
004
005
OK
Thickness
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
Units
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
SU#
2
OK
VEL (/µS)
0.22600
DIFF
0.000
Setup Name:
Probe Type:
Material Velocity:
Zero:
Pulser Voltage:
Maximum Gain:
Initial Gain:
TVG Slope:
Main Bang Blank:
Echo Window:
Mode:
Echo1 Detection:
Page 4-20
Flags
M1-M1-M1-M1-M1--
LO ALM
0.000
HI ALM
25.000
SU#
2
2
2
2
2
UNITS
In
BASE MEAS SETUP
DEFM1-M110
DEFM1-M110
M110
0.22600"/µs
220.0
110 V
55.1 dB
26.1 dB
4.97 dB/µs
500.15 ns
199.50 µs
1
-slope
Model 35 Series
September 2006
Echo2 Detection:
Interface Blank:
Mode3 Echo Blank:
910-261D
N/A
N/A
N/A
OK
F4 Format: a "+" or "-" Sign and Thickness Table (No ID#’s)
+1.091
+1.091
+1.091
+1.091
+1.091
F5 Format: Sends the ID# , Thickness Table, Setup Table,
Transducer Setup Table, and Statistics
Identifier
001
002
003
004
005
006
OK
Thickness
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
1.091
--.---
Units
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
SU#
2
OK
VEL (/µS)
0.22600
DIFF
0.000
Flags
M1-M1-M1-M1-M1-LI--
LO ALM
0.000
HI ALM
25.000
SU#
2
2
2
2
2
2
UNITS
In
BASE MEAS SETUP
DEFM1-M110
Table continues on the following page.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-21
910-261D
Setup Name:
Probe Type:
Material Vel:
Zero:
Pulser Voltage:
Maximum Gain:
Initial Gain:
TVG Slope:
Main Bang Blank:
Echo Window:
Mode:
Echo1 Detection:
Echo2 Detection:
Interface Blank:
Mode3 Echo Blank:
September 2006
DEFM1-M110
M110
0.22600"/µs
220.0
110 V
55.1 dB
26.1 dB
4.97 dB/µs
500.15 ns
199.50 µs
1
-slope
N/A
N/A
N/A
OK
***Statistics***
# OF THK:
MEAN:
MEDIAN:
RANGE:
STD. DEVIATION:
# OF HIGH ALARM:
% OF HIGH ALARM:
# OF LOW ALARM:
% OF LOW ALARM:
5
1.091"
1.091"
0.000"
0.000"
0
0%
0
0%
IDENTIFIER
001
002
003
004
005
MINIMUM THK
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
IDENTIFIER
001
002
003
004
005
MAXIMUM THK
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
1.091"
OK
Page 4-22
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
F6 Format: Used with the Reduction Rate function to output both
the thickness and the Reduction Rate along with an alarm
indicator. If the alarm is set and triggered at an ID# location, a
single asterisk (*) indicates a YELLOW alarm condition, and a
double asterisk (**) indicates a RED alarm condition.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
0.503
0.503
0.402
0.401
0.301
0.301
0.202
0.202
0.103
0.103
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
24.7*
24.7*
49.5**
49.6**
74.3**
74.3**
4.5.2 Protocol
Two sets of remote commands can be used to communicate with 35
Series gages. Normally, communication between the 35 Series gages
and 35pcscope or Gageview is done using the Multi Char command
set. The Single Char command set is used for communication with
custom software and external devices like digital calipers, RS-232
printers, and RS-232 bar code readers.
4.5.3 Connector
35 Series gages are standardly supplied with a USB communication
port only. An optional RS-232 port is available for communication
with RS-232 base equipment. Normally, the connector should be set to
USB and should be set to RS-232 only when the option has been
installed and you are communicating via RS-232 protocol.
When RS-232 is selected, the user can also configure the device
(printer, terminal, bar code or caliper). In addition, the user can set the
Model 35 Series
Page 4-23
910-261D
September 2006
baud rate when printer and terminal are selected. The baud rate can be
set to1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, or 19200. Additional RS-232
parameters at fixed at:
• Word Length
Fixed at 8 bits
• Parity
Fixed at None
• Stop Bits
Fixed at 1
To change the communication settings:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight the parameter and [
select settings.
Step 4:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the Comm tab.
,
] to
4.5.4 Continuous Output (Optional RS-232 Output Only)
The 35DL and 35DLHP can send continuous thickness data via the
optional RS-232 port. This allows the 35DL and 35DLHP to be
integrated into custom systems that require the continuous monitoring
of thickness readings.
Continuous Output Configuration
OFF:
Page 4-24
Continuous output is turned off.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Continuous Output Configuration
ON:
Continuous thickness at the measurement update
rate (selectable in Measure tab 4, 8, 16 or Max
(approximately 20 Hz)).
5 SEC
AVG:
Average thickness reading every five (5) seconds.
The output is the average of every thickness value
since the last output interval (approximately 100
readings). Data is collected at the maximum
measure rate (approximately 20 Hz). LOS (Loss of
Signal) readings are ignored in the average
calculation.
10 SEC
AVG:
Average thickness reading every ten (10) seconds.
The output is the average of every thickness value
since the last output interval (approximately 200
readings). Data is collected at the maximum
measure rate (approximately 20 Hz). LOS (Loss of
Signal) readings are ignored in the average
calculation.
Output
Format:
0.092<CR>,<LF>
0.095<CR>,<LF>
0.097<CR>,<LF>
0.093<CR>,<LF>
0.091<CR>,<LF>
0.095<CR>,<LF>
0.090<CR>,<LF>
0.092<CR>,<LF>
To change the continuous output mode (for 35DLand 35DLHP and
optional RS-232 output):
Model 35 Series
Page 4-25
910-261D
September 2006
Step 1: Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2: Use the [
,
] keys to highlight the Communication tab.
Step 3: Use the [ ] key to highlight “CONT OUTPUT” and [
,
] to select among OFF, ON, 5 SEC AVG, and 10 SEC
AVG.
Step 4: Press [MEAS] to return to Measure Mode.
4.6
Normal Differential and Reduction
Rate Diff Mode
Differential (Diff) Mode allows the user to set a differential set point.
When Diff Mode is activated, the gage displays the difference
between the Diff set point and the actual thickness value. The gage
displays a “D” to indicate that Diff Mode is active.
Reduction Rate Diff Mode is used in metal bending or applications in
which the user needs to track the percentage of wall thinning that has
occurred during a metal bending process. The user enters the original
wall thickness in the gage, which then displays the actual thickness
Page 4-26
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
and the percentage difference between the current thickness and the
reference thickness. The user can select to show either the thickness
value or the reduction rate in large font.
To activate Diff Mode:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Enable and [
On or Off.
Step 4:
Press the [ ] key to highlight Diff Type and use the
Model 35 Series
,
] keys to highlight the Diff tab.
,
] to select
Page 4-27
910-261D
[
September 2006
,
] keys to select Normal or Reduction Rate.
Step 5:
Press the [ ] key or [ENTER].
Step 6:
Press the [
[ ,
] key to highlight the former value and use
,
,
] to edit the value.
Step 7:
Press [ENTER].
Step 8:
Press [
RT.
Step 9:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.7
High/Low Alarms
,
] to select large font Thickness or Reduction
The High/Low alarm allows the user to establish high and low alarm
set points. When a thickness is displayed below the Low Alarm set
point or above the High Alarm set point, an audio beep is sounded and
an alarm flag is displayed.
When the alarm is active but not above or below set points, the gage
displays an “A”. The gage displays an “L” to indicate a Low Alarm
condition and an “H” to indicate a High Alarm condition only when
set points have been violated.
Page 4-28
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Note: The Alarm Mode and the Diff Mode are mutually excluModel 35 Series
Page 4-29
910-261D
September 2006
sive (cannot be used at the same time except when
Reduction Rate is selected). If one of these functions is
activated, it will be automatically turned off when the
other function is turned on.
4.7.1 Activate the High/Low Alarm (When Reduction Rate Is Inactive)
To activate the High/Low Alarm (when Reduction Rate is inactive):
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Enable and [
On or Off.
Step 4:
Press the [ ] key to highlight Lo-Alarm and use the
[
Step 5:
] keys to highlight the Alarm tab.
,
] to select
] keys to slew to the low alarm set point.
Press the [ ] key to highlight Hi-Alarm and use the
[
Step 6:
,
,
,
] keys to slew to the high alarm set point.
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.7.2 Activate the High/Low Alarm (When Reduction Rate Is Active)
High and low Reduction Rate alarms can be set when the Reduction
Rate differential mode is activated. The user will set a high (RED) and
Low (YELLOW) reduction percentage, and the gage will display:
• “R” flag for reduction rates that are greater than or equal to the
Red Alarm (high).
Page 4-30
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
• “Y” flag for reduction rates that are between the Yellow Alarm
(low) and Red Alarm (high) set points.
• “G” flag for reduction rates that are less than the Yellow Alarm
(low) set point.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-31
910-261D
September 2006
To activate the High/Low Alarm (when Reduction Rate is active):
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Enable and [
On or Off.
Step 4:
Press the [ ] key to Red Alarm (high) and use the [
,
] keys to highlight the Alarm tab.
key and the [ ,
set point.
Step 5:
Press [ENTER].
Step 6:
Press the [
the [ ,
,
,
,
] to select
]
] keys to edit the alarm value
] key to highlight Yellow Alarm (low) and use
,
,
] keys to edit to the alarm set point.
Step 7:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.8
Activating Waveform Option
An optional Live Waveform can be added to any of the 35 Series
gages. If the Live Waveform option has been purchased with a new 35
Page 4-32
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Series gage, then the optional software will already be loaded and
activated on the unit. When this feature is activated, a waveform tab
will be placed in the Setup menu. See Section 4.9 for more
information on using the optional Live Waveform.
If the Live Waveform software was purchased after the unit was
initially supplied, then the Waveform option must be activated using a
unique license name and license name code system.
Each 35 Series gage will generate a unique license name. To activate
the internal Live Waveform feature, the user must enter a valid license
code. Contact Panametrics-NDTTM or our local Panametrics-NDT
representative to obtain a valid license code for the license name. This
license code is not valid for any other 35 Series unit.
Activate the Live Waveform software through the following
procedure:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF],[ ] (SETUP).
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Press [ENTER] twice. The gage displays a License Name.
Model 35 Series
] key to select the License Tab.
Page 4-33
910-261D
Step 4:
September 2006
Enter the License Code provided by Panametrics-NDTTM
using the [ ,
,
,
,
] keys and then press [ENTER].
Step 5:
Use the [
] keys to select Done and press [ENTER].
Step 6:
Press [ENTER] to accept.
Step 7:
Power the unit Off, then On again to complete the Live
Waveform activation.
4.9
Optional Waveform
An optional live waveform available for all 35 Series gages allows the
user to view the live ultrasonic waveform to help align the transducer
for difficult applications. When this feature is added, the user can
change between the standard thickness display and the optional live
waveform display. The user can also select an automatic tracking
zoom for the waveform so that measurement echoes will always be
displayed on screen.
A Save Key designation is also set in the waveform setup tab (35DL
and 35DLHP) to allow the user to define the function of the Save Key.
Setting the Save Key to “THK ONLY” will save only the thickness
value when the Save Key is pressed, and setting the Save Key to
“THK + WF” will save the thickness and waveform when the Save
Key is pressed.
Note: This tab is available only if the Waveform option is activated on the gage. Please contact the company for more
information concerning activating the optional Waveform feature.
Note: The 35DL and 35DLHP can save approximately 8000
thickness readings or 350 waveforms with thickness
Page 4-34
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
readings.
To activate the optional waveform:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF], [ ] (Setup) to display the Setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Press the [ ] or [ ] to scroll to Enable.
Step 4:
Press [
Step 5:
Press [ ] or [ENTER] to scroll to Zoom.
Model 35 Series
,
or
] keys to select the Waveform tab.
] to choose On or Off.
Page 4-35
910-261D
September 2006
Step 6:
Press [
or
Step 7:
Press [ ] or [ENTER] to scroll to Save Key (Models 35DL
and 35DLHP only).
Step 8:
Press [
Step 9:
Press [MEAS/RESET].
,
] to choose On or Off.
] to choose THK ONLY or THK + WF.
Note: When the waveform has been enabled and the Zoom feature is turned off, the user can adjust the range and
delay of the waveform by using [ ] or [ ] keys
(changes the range to the next higher or lower range set
point) or [
,
] keys (increases or decreases the
waveform delay).
DELAY
RANGE
4.9.1 Transducer Setup Adjust Mode
The Transducer Setup Adjust Mode feature allows the user to make
transducer setup adjustments.
Note: These adjustments can affect the measurement capability of the instrument and should be undertaken only by a
person with extensive knowledge of ultrasonic theory.
Page 4-36
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
This mode can be activated while the optional waveform is enabled or
while in standard thickness display mode. Adjusting the transducer
setup should only be done while viewing the live ultrasonic
waveform. If your unit does not have the optional live waveform, then
the gage can be connected to the optional 35PCScope program for
viewing and adjusting transducer setups.
To activating Transducer Setup Adjust Mode:
Step 1:
Make sure that the proper default transducer or custom
transducer setup has been recalled. Refer to section 3.2 for
information concerning recalling stored transducer setups.
Step 2:
Press [2ndF], [
] (Setup Recall) and press [Enter].
Step 3:
Press [2ndF], [
] again to enter Transducer Adjust Mode.
Step 4:
Press [ ] or [ ] to select the transducer setup parameter
and press [
,
] to adjust the value.
Note: A complete list of setup parameters and their definitions
appears in Chapter 9.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-37
910-261D
September 2006
Note: When in Setup Adjust Mode with live waveform, range
and delay parameters are displayed in the Setup Parameter list.
4.9.2 Saving Custom Transducer Setups
Once the proper adjustments are made, you can store the settings as a
custom transducer setup file. The 35 Series gages can store multiple
setups in its internal memory. The 35 and 35HP can store 10 custom
transducer setup files. The 35DL and 3DLHP can store 20 custom
transducer setup files.
To save setup parameters, follow these steps:
Step 1:
Make the appropriate changes to the setup parameters.
Step 2:
Press [2nd F] ,[
Step 3:
Press [SAVE]. The gage displays the Save Recall Setup
screen.
Page 4-38
](RECALL SETUP).
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Step 4:
Use the [
name.
Step 5:
Press [ENTER].
Step 6:
Use the [ , ] keys to select a location in which to store
the file and press [ENTER]. Note that locations labeled
User1 through UserXX are blank locations. If you chose a
location that has a setup already stored in it, the old setup
will be overwritten.
Step 7:
Press [ENTER] while SAVE is highlighted to save the
custom transducer setup or use the [
,
keys to
highlight CANCEL and press [ENTER] to cancel the setup
save.
Step 8:
Press [MEAS] to return to Measurement Mode.
Model 35 Series
,
,
,
] keys to edit/enter a new file
Page 4-39
910-261D
September 2006
4.9.3 35PCScope
35PCScope is an optional interface program that allows the user to
view the live waveform and transducer setup parameters for all 35
Series gages. This program allows the user to:
• View live waveforms and make transducer setup adjustments
• Upload/down load custom transducers setups
• Print the waveform screen
• Save/recall waveform screens
For more information concerning 35PCScope, contact the company.
4.10 Clock Setup (Models 35DL 35DLHP
Only)
The clock is used to set the internal date and time for the Model 35DL
and 35DLHP, so that a time/date stamp, indicating when data was last
stored in a file, can be given to a data file.
To set the internal date and clock:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Hour and [
hour.
Step 4:
Press the [ ] key to highlight Minute and use the
[
Step 5:
,
,
] keys to highlight the Clock tab.
,
] to set the
] keys to set the minute.
Press the [ ] key to highlight Year and use the [
Page 4-40
,
]
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
keys to set the year.
Step 6:
Press the [ ] key to highlight Month and use the [
keys to set the month.
Step 7:
Press the [ ] key to highlight Day and use the [
keys to set the day.
Step 8:
Press the [ ] key to highlight Set/Cancel and use the
[
Step 9:
,
,
,
]
]
] keys to select Set or Cancel.
Press [Enter] when Set is highlighted to set the clock and
then press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
4.11 Resets
Resets restore Model 35 Series operating software to factory default
settings. Three resets can be performed: Measurement, Master, and
Database (Model 35DL and 35DLHP only).
4.11.1 Measurement Reset
Measurement Reset resets the measurement parameters to their
default values. The parameters that are reset and their reset values are:
• Material Velocity (0.2260 in/µsec)
• Measure Option (Thickness)
• Unit (Inches)
• Resolution (Standard)
• Min/Max (Off)
• Hold/Blank (Blank)
• Measure Rate (4 Hz)
Model 35 Series
Page 4-41
910-261D
September 2006
• Averaging (Off)
• CAL Lock (Off)
• Quick Setup (Off)
• ID Overwrite (Off) Model 35DL and 35DLHP only
• Beeper (On)
• Inactive Time (On)
• Language (English)
• Radix (Period)
• Backlight Mode (Normal)
• Battery Type Alkaline
• Alarm (Off). Default Values: Low = 0.000; High = 25.000
• Diff (Off). Default Value = 0.000
To perform Measurement Resets:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Measurement Reset and press
[ENTER].
Step 4:
Use the [
,
] keys to highlight Reset or Cancel and
press [ENTER].
Step 5:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
Page 4-42
,
] keys to highlight the Reset tab.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.11.2 Master Reset
Master Reset resets the entire instrument to its default values and also
deletes the database on the Model 35DL and 35DLHP.
Note: Caution should be used when performing a Master
Reset because it will cause the gage to delete all stored
thickness readings. Once a master reset has been performed, the thickness data cannot be retrieved.
To perform Master Resets:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Master Reset and press
[ENTER].
Step 4:
Use the [
,
] keys to highlight Reset or Cancel and
press [ENTER].
Step 5:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the Reset tab.
4.11.3 Database Reset (Model 35DL and 35DLHP
Only)
Database Reset resets and clears the entire database.
Note: Caution should be used when performing a Database
Reset because it will cause the gage to delete all stored
thickness readings. Once a database reset has been performed, the thickness data cannot be retrieved.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-43
910-261D
September 2006
To perform Database Resets:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] key to highlight Database Reset and press
[ENTER].
Step 4:
Use the [
,
] keys to highlight Reset or Cancel and
press [ENTER].
Step 5:
Press [MEAS] to return to the Measure Mode.
,
] keys to highlight the Reset tab.
4.12 B-scan
B-scan converts thickness readings to cross-sectional image profiles.
The B-scan function is used to scan over an area and look at how the
cross sectional thickness is changing. The B-scan, DB Grid, and
Optional Waveform are mutually exclusive features. Only one of these
functions can be active at a time. Activation of one of these functions
will automatically deactivate any of the others. You can save these
images (datalogger versions only) in the gage internal datalogger in
order to review them later or download them to a computer
(GageView) or printer at a later time. A maximum of 350 B-scan
images can be stored to the internal datalogger.
Page 4-44
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
The follow are definitions of the available B-Scan options and
parameters.
Enable: Allows the user to turn the function On or Off.
B-Scan Direction: Determines the direction in which data is updated
or drawn on the screen. Choose the B-Scan direction based on the
direction of transducer movement.
• Left to right: Causes the data to start at the right of the screen and
scroll to the left and produces a B-Scan that is properly orientated
based on transducer movement.
• Right to left: Causes the data to start at the left of the screen and
scroll to the right and produces a B-Scan that is properly
orientated based on transducer movement.
Save Key: Determines what gets saved when the Save key is pressed.
Saving B-scan images can only be done with the Datalogger version
(DL) of the gages.
• THK ONLY: Will save only the current thickness reading when
the Save key is pressed.
• THK + B-scan: Will Save the Thickness and the B-scan image
Model 35 Series
Page 4-45
910-261D
September 2006
when the Save key is pressed.
B-Scan Freeze Mode: Determines which thickness readings are
displayed when the [FREEZE] key is pressed during a scan.
• Show Minimum: Will recall the minimum thickness in the scan to
the center of the screen, even if the minimum has scrolled off the
current B-scan screen.
• Show Current: Will stop the B-scan at its current position when
the [FREEZE] key is pressed.
Max Thickness: Allows the user to set the thickness range for the Bscan image. This should be set slightly larger than the maximum
thickness that will be encountered. The maximum value for Max
Thickness is 25.00" (635.00 mm).
4.12.1 Using the B-scan Function
To activate the B-scan feature:
Step 1:
Press the [2nd F],[ ](SETUP) key to display the Setup
Tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] Key to enter the B-scan Setup menu.
Step 4:
Use [ and ] to select a parameter and [
adjust the setting.
Step 5:
When the Max thickness is highlighted, press [
or
]
to adjust the Max thickness (range for the B-scan) value
with the [ ,
Step 6:
] key to highlight the B-scan Tab.
,
,
and
] to
] keys and then press [ENTER].
Press the [MEAS] key to return to the Measure mode and
Page 4-46
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
save the adjusted settings.
Once the B-scan function has been enabled, the B-scan starts drawing
the cross-sectional thickness when the transducer make contact with
the material and the first thickness reading is displayed. The B-scan
will continue to draw while displaying the live thickness at the
transducer location until one of the following events occurs:
• The gage encounters a LOS condition (Loss of Signal), no
thickness value. When an LOS occurs, the B-scan stops updating
and will start up again if a new thickness reading is acquired. A
vertical blank line will be inserted into the B-scan image to
indicate that a LOS condition has occurred.
• The user presses the Freeze key and stops the B-scan update. The
gage will either recall the minimum thickness (Freeze Min) or
freeze at the current location (Freeze Current). This will also
display the B-scan Review screen. The user can use the [
and
] keys to review the thickness readings on the frozen B-scan.
A triangle marks the location of the minimum thickness in the Bscan.
• The user presses the [MEAS] key. The B-scan is reset and blanked
out allowing the user to start another scan.
Model 35 Series
Page 4-47
910-261D
September 2006
Live B-scan Screen
4.12.2 B-scan Freeze
Freezing the B-scan allows the user to review all the thickness values
of the current B-scan. When the [FREEZE] key is pressed, a vertical
line (Review Marker) appears to indicate the location of the displayed
thickness. This is either the Minimum or Current thickness location of
the B-scan, depending on the Freeze option selected. The unit displays
the thickness and the location of the minimum. Pressing [
] and
[
] moves the Review Marker to the left or the right of the scan.
During review, the gage always displays the thickness at the Review
Marker location.
Tip: Set the B-scan to Freeze Min if you wishes to recall the
Minimum thickness to the center of the B-scan screen
even if the minimum value moved off the B-scan screen.
Page 4-48
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
B-scan Review Screen
4.12.3 Saving B-scan to the Internal Datalogger (DL Models Only)
B-scan images can be saved to the internal datalogger and recalled to
the screen or uploaded to the optional GageView interface program.
Only one thickness value is saved with the B-scan image. This value
can be the current thickness, minimum thickness, or the thickness at
the Review Marker on a frozen B-scan. The Datalogger can store a
maximum of 350 B-scan images.
To save the B-scan image to the internal datalogger:
Step 1:
In the B-scan setup tab, set the Save Key option to “THK +
B-scan”.
Step 2:
Press the Save key.
A. Pressing the Save key while the B-scan is live (currently
scrolling) saves the B-scan image and the thickness at
Model 35 Series
Page 4-49
910-261D
September 2006
the current update position.
B. Pressing the Save key on a frozen B-scan saves the Bscan image and the thickness at the position of the
review marker. The user can move the review marker to
any location on the frozen B-scan.
4.13 DB Grid (DL Models Only)
The DB Grid feature allows the user to view the open data file in a
Grid or Expanded Liner format. 2D Grid files display the rows and
columns of the grid file. This allows the user to easily see the
thickness data being saved to the grid file at the current position.
Incremental and Sequential files are displayed in an Expanded Liner
format, showing the last six (6) ID# locations in a linear file list. DB
Grid, B-scan, and the Optional Waveform are mutually exclusive
features and cannot be used at the same time. Turning one of these
functions on will turn any of the other functions off.
DB Grid of a 2D Grid type File
DB Grid of a 2D Grid Type File
Page 4-50
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
DB Grid of an incremental file
DB Grid of Incremental File
DB Grid allows the user to easily navigate through grids by
simultaneously displaying the grid positions with the current thickness
reading. This gives the user the ability to move in any direction on the
grid file rather than following a pre-set list of ID’s. Instead of
automatically incrementing to the next ID location, the user may press
the ID# key and use the arrow keys to move to any row or column in
the grid file.
The following are definitions of the available DB Grid options and
parameters:
Enable: Allows the user to turn the DB Grid function On or Off.
Transpose Grid: Allows the user to switch the position of the Row
and Columns of a 2D Grid file. This parameter has no affect on
incremental or sequential files.
4.13.1 Using the DB Grid Function
To activate the DB Grid feature:
Model 35 Series
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September 2006
Step 1:
Press the [2nd F],[ ](SETUP) key to display the Setup
Tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Step 3:
Use the [ ] Key to enter the DB GRID Setup menu.
Step 4:
Use the [ and ] to select a parameter and the [
] to adjust the setting.
Step 5:
Press the [MEAS] key to return to the Measure mode and
save the adjusted settings.
] key to highlight the DB GRID Tab.
and
4.13.2 Saving Data While DB Grid Is Active
Once DB Grid is activated, press the Save key to store the current
thickness reading in the Current ID# location.
Page 4-52
Model 35 Series
September 2006
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4.13.3 Reviewing Stored Thickness Data While DB
Grid Is Active
Step 1:
From Measure mode, press the [2nd F], [
gage displays the ID REVIEW screen.
Step 2:
Use [ , ,
,
] to move to a new grid or ID#
location. For incremental or sequential files, only the [ ,
] keys can be used.
] (ID#) key. The
Note: The user can jump to the beginning of the file by press-
Model 35 Series
Page 4-53
910-261D
September 2006
ing [2nd F], [ ] or to the end of the file by pressing [2nd
F], [ ].
Step 3:
Press the [MEAS] key to go back to the Measure mode at
the new ID# location. The gage increments from this new
ID# location.
4.13.4 Editing and Moving Directly to Any ID#
Location in the Active File
Step 1:
From Measure mode, press the [2nd F], [
gage displays the ID REVIEW screen.
Step 2:
Press the [2nd F], [
] (ID#) key. The
] (ID#) again to enter the ID# EDIT
screen. A cursor appears in the current ID# and the [ ,
,
,
] keys can be used to edit to any location in the
active file.
Step 3:
Press the Measure key to return to the Measure screen at the
new ID# location or press [2nd F], [
] (ID#) to go back to
Review mode at the edited ID# location.
Page 4-54
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
4.13.5 Inserted ID# Location in Grid Files
ID# locations can be inserted into or appended to 2D Grid files. If the
user adds an additional ID# location in a grid file, the Row and
Column cell is displayed in reverse video indicating that there are
additional ID#s stored at the current Row and Column locations.
Inserted points in incremental or sequential files are shown as added
ID#s in the current file list.
To view the inserted or appended ID# location in a file, enter the ID#
] (ID#). Use the [ , ,
,
Review screen by pressing [2nd F], [
] keys to highlight the reverse video cell. Press [ENTER]. The grid
will be displayed in an Expanded Linear format, and the inserted ID#
can be viewed. Press [Enter] again to switch back to the normal DB
Gird view.
Inserted
ID#
Model 35 Series
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September 2006
Page 4-56
Model 35 Series
September 2006
5
910-261D
DATALOGGER and Data
Transmission for Models
35DL and 35DLHP
Two important features of the Model 35DL and 35DLHP are the internal
datalogger and USB communication. The operation of the datalogger
and data transmission are described in this section.
Topics include:
•
Datalogger Overview
•
Organizing the Datalogger
•
Creating Data Files
•
Opening a File
•
Saving Data
•
Using ID# Review Mode
•
Using ID# Edit Mode
•
Deleting a File
•
Receiving Files and Using the GageView Interface Program
•
Statistics Reports
5.1
Datalogger Overview
The Model 35DL and 35DLHP datalogger have a built-in file and data
management system. Each thickness reading is stored and tagged with
an alphanumeric identification number and file name with descriptive
fields. A complete description of the measurement type, gage
calibration and setup parameters is stored along with each reading.
Datalogger functions include:
Model 35 Series
Page 5-1
910-261D
September 2006
•
Store thickness measurements or optionally thicknesses with
waveforms
•
Recall stored data to the gage displays
•
Receive previously transmitted thickness data back from a
computer
•
View current datalogger settings while simultaneously taking
measurements.
You can store thickness measurements. When each measurement is
stored, the gage also stores a complete description of the measurement
conditions. The additional data stored with each thickness value
includes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
File Name
Identifier
Units (in or mm)
LOS (Loss of Signal)
Differential Mode
Differential Reference Value
Alarm Mode
Alarm Status
Alarm Set Points
Minimum or Maximum Mode
Minimum or Maximum Reading
Velocity
Resolution
Transducer Setup Number Information
You can store a maximum of 8,000 thickness (or optionally 350
waveforms with thicknesses), velocity, or time of flight values at any
one time (Models 35DL and 35DLHP only).
Page 5-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
5.2
910-261D
Organizing the Datalogger
The Model 35DL and 35DLHP datalogger is a flexible, file-based
system. Every measurement stored in the datalogger is tagged with a file
name and identification number (ID number). The file name and ID
number may be thought of as the place in the gage memory where the
measurement data is stored. This description usually corresponds to the
physical location numbers of each measurement point in the actual
application.
When stored data is loaded into a computer and later recalled back to the
gage, each measurement is always uniquely identified by the file name
and ID number where it was initially stored.
5.2.1 File Name Structure
File names consist of up to eight (8) alphanumeric characters. Allowable
characters are as follows:
0123456789
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
space - . / , : # *
The total number of files is limited by the number of ID numbers.
5.2.2 Identifier (ID Number) Structure
ID numbers consist of up to 10 alphanumeric characters. Allowable
characters are as follows:
0123456789
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
space - . / , : # *
Model 35 Series
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September 2006
The allowable number of ID numbers within a file depends on the total
number of identifiers in the datalogger. There are no restrictions on the
use of any allowed character at any position in an ID number except
that you cannot use a space as either the first or last character of the ID
number.
5.3
Creating Data Files
You can create data files for the Model 35DL and 35DLHP datalogger
from within the gage.
Throughout this section there are references to the use of the Model
35DL and 35DLHP Standard Editing Commands. These commands are
described in the section below.
5.3.1 Standard Editing Commands
To enter a character or a symbol at any character location, follow these
steps:
Step 1:Press [ ] or [ ] to select a letter, number, or punctuation mark.
Step 2:Press and quickly release a slewing key to change the character
by one value. Hold down an arrow key to continuously cycle
through the letters, numbers, and punctuation marks until the
desired character is displayed.
The [ ] key moves forward from A to Z then *, #, :, ,, /, ., -, blank, 9,
8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, A, and so forth.
The [ ] key moves backward from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, -, ., /, ,, :,
#, *, Z to A blank - and so forth. After selecting an alpha character,
press [
Page 5-4
] or [
] to move the cursor position to another character.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Figure 5-1: Organization of Character Cycle
Model 35 Series
Page 5-5
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September 2006
To insert a character at the cursor position, do the following:
Press [CAL ZERO]. The character at the cursor and all those to the
right move one position to the right, making a space for a new
character.
To delete the character at the cursor position, do the following:
Press [CAL VEL]. The character at the cursor is deleted and any
characters to the right moves left one position to fill-in the empty
space.
5.3.2 Create Files From a Computer (Using
GageView)
See the GageView Interface Program Instruction Manual.
5.3.3 Create Files from the Model 35DL
To create files from the Model 35DL and 35DLHP, follow these steps:
Step 1:Press [2ndF],[ ](FILE). The File Tab menu opens.
Step 2:Press [
] and [
] to highlight the Create option.
Step 3:Press [ ].
5.3.3.1 Incremental
After a starting ID number (up to 10 alphanumeric characters) has been
entered, the gage automatically increments to the subsequent ID
numbers using the following incrementing rules:
Page 5-6
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
•
Only that portion of an ID number consisting of digits and letters
(no punctuation marks) beginning with the right-most character
and extending leftward to the first punctuation mark or to the leftmost character (whichever is first) can increment.
•
Digits are cycled 0, 1, 2, ..., 9. The 9 to 0 transition is done only after
incrementing the character to the left. Letters are cycled A, B, C, ...,
Z, A, etc. The Z to A transition is done only after incrementing the
character to the left. In either case, if there is no character to the left,
or if the character to the left is a punctuation mark, then the ID
number cannot increment.
•
If an ID number cannot increment, after a reading is saved, a long
error beep sounds and the momentary message “CANNOT
INCREMENT” is shown on the display.
Note:
To make the gage increment through a range of
numbers several digits wide while beginning with a
single digit ID number, the maximum number of
digit positions must be entered initially using leading
zeroes.
Some examples of automatically generated incremented ID number
series include:
Table 5-1: Five Examples of Automatically Generated
Incremented ID Number Series
1:
Initial
Limit
1
2
3
.
.
.
9
Model 35 Series
Page 5-7
910-261D
September 2006
Table 5-1: Five Examples of Automatically Generated
Incremented ID Number Series
2:
Initial
Limit
ABC
ABD
ABE
.
.
.
ABZ
ACA
ACB
.
.
.
ZZZ
3:
Initial
Limit
ABC*12*34
ABC*12*35
ABC*12*36
.
.
.
ABC*12*99
4:
Initial
Limit
Page 5-8
001
002
003
.
.
.
009
010
.
.
.
999
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Table 5-1: Five Examples of Automatically Generated
Incremented ID Number Series
5:
Initial
Limit
1A
1B
1C
.
.
.
1Z
2A
2B
.
.
.
9Z
Model 35 Series
Page 5-9
910-261D
September 2006
To create an Incremental File, follow these steps:
Step 1: Press [2ndF][ ](File) to display the File Tabs.
Step 2: Use the [
] and [
] keys to select the Create Tab.
Step 3: Use the [ ] key to highlight the file name and press [
to enter a file name using the [ ,
function. Press [ENTER].
Step 4: Use the [
[ENTER].
and
,
,
]
] editing
] keys to select Incremental. Press
Step 5: Use the [
and
] keys to select Thickness, Velocity, or
Time of Flight (TOF) and press [ENTER]. Thickness is for
storing thickness data in the file. Velocity is for storing
velocity data in the file.TOF is for storing TOF (Time of
Flight) data in the file.
Step 6: Use the [
and
press [ENTER].
Step 7: Use the [
] keys to select Continue and then
] key to enter the start ID number using the
editing function keys [ ,
Step 8: Use the [
,
[ENTER].
,
,
]. Press [ENTER].
] to select Done or Cancel. Press
5.3.3.2 Sequential
A Sequential File is defined by a starting and an ending ID number. The
resulting file is inclusive of the starting and ending points and all points
in between.
Page 5-10
Model 35 Series
September 2006
Example:
910-261D
Start ID# = ABC123
End ID# = ABC135
The resulting file would contain the following list
of ID numbers:
ABC123
ABC124
ABC125
.
.
.
ABC135
Example:
Start ID# = XY-GY
End ID# = XY-IB
The resulting file would contain the following list
of ID numbers:
XY-GY
XY-GZ
XY-HA
.
.
.
XY-IB
To create a Sequential File, follow these steps:
Step 1: Press [2ndF][ ](File) to display the File Tabs.
Step 2: Use the [
and
] keys to select the Create Tab.
Step 3: Use the [ ] key to highlight the file name. Press the [
Model 35 Series
]
Page 5-11
910-261D
September 2006
key to enter a file name using the [ ,
function. Press [ENTER].
Step 4: Use the [
[ENTER].
and
,
,
] editing
] keys to select Sequential. Press
Step 5: Use the [
and
] keys to select Thickness, Velocity, or
Time of Flight (TOF). Press [ENTER].Thickness is for
storing thickness data in the file. Velocity is for storing
velocity data in the file.TOF is for storing TOF (Time of
Flight) data in the file.
Step 6: Use the [
[ENTER].
and
Step 7: Use the [
] key to enter the Start ID# using the [ ,
,
,
] editing function. Press [ENTER].
Step 8: Use the [
,
] keys to select Continue. Press
] key to enter the End ID# using the [ ,
,
] editing function. Press [ENTER].
Step 9: Use the [
[ENTER].
and
] keys to select Done or Cancel. Press
5.3.3.3 2-D Grid File
A 2-D grid is a sequence of ID numbers arranged to describe a path
through a two-dimensional matrix. Each part of the ID number
corresponds to a particular matrix dimension.
A 2-D (two-dimensional) sequence begins with the ID number that
refers to the first column and the first row. Then the column (or row)
increments one value at a time until the sequence reaches the last column
(or row) value while the other dimension value stays constant. At this
Page 5-12
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
point the other dimension increments from its first to its last value. This
continues until the ID number that refers to the last column and last row
is reached.
Note: Either the columns or the rows can be selected to increment first. Refer to the following figure.
Figure 2
General Grid Database
Model 35 Series
Page 5-13
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September 2006
How is a grid used? A grid structure may associate one dimension of the
grid (for example, the columns) with the physical parts whose wall
thickness is to be measured. The particular measurement points on each
part are then associated with the other dimension of the grid (that is, the
rows).
Alternatively, the rows and columns of a grid may refer to a two
dimensional map of measurement points on the surface of one part. In
this case, a different grid is made for each part.
To create a 2-D Grid file, follow these steps:
Step 1: Press [2ndF][ ](File) to display the File Tabs.
Step 2: Use the [
and
] keys to select the Create Tab.
Step 3: Use the [ ] key to highlight the file name. Press [
enter a file name using the [ ,
function. Press [ENTER].
Step 4: Use the [
[ENTER].
and
,
,
] to
] editing
] keys to select 2D Grid. Press
Step 5: Use the [
and
] keys to select Thickness, Velocity, or
Time of Flight (TOF). Press [ENTER].Thickness is for
storing thickness data in the file. Velocity is for storing
velocity data in the file.TOF is for storing TOF (Time of
Flight) data in the file.
Step 6: Use the [
[ENTER].
and
Step 7: Use the [
] key to enter the Start COL using the [ ,
,
,
] editing function. Press [ENTER].
Step 8: Use the [
Page 5-14
] keys to select Continue. Press
] key to enter the End COL using the [ ,
,
Model 35 Series
September 2006
,
910-261D
] editing function. Press [ENTER].
Step 9: Use the [
,
] key to enter the Start ROW using the [ , ,
] editing function. Press [ENTER].
Step 10: Use the [
] key to enter the END ROW using the [
] editing function. Press [ENTER].
Step 11: Use the [
and
] keys to select to increment first by
Row or Column. Press [ENTER].
Step 12: Use the [
[ENTER].
5.4
and
] keys to select Done or Cancel. Press
Opening a File
Use the File Open function to retrieve a file stored in the datalogger and
mark it as the active file in the Measure Mode.
To open a File, follow these steps:
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][ ](FILE) to go to the File Tabs.
Step 2:
Press [
Step 3:
Press [ ] to enter the Open tab.
Step 4:
Use [ ] or [ ] to scroll files.
Step 5:
Press [ENTER] to select the file.
Step 6:
Use [
Step 7:
Press [ENTER].
Model 35 Series
] and [
] or [
] to scroll to the Open tab.
] to choose Open or Cancel.
Page 5-15
910-261D
5.5
September 2006
Saving Data
To store displayed thickness values in the datalogger, press [SAVE]. All
appropriate calibration and setup parameters are also stored
simultaneously.
If a measurement is already stored at the current ID number, pressing
[SAVE] overwrites the old thickness reading with the current thickness
reading, unless ID Overwrite Protection is enabled in Meas Setup.
If you do not want to save a measurement at a specific ID, press [SAVE]
while no measurement is taken. The gage will store an LOS condition
and _.___ at the specific ID number.
To save a thickness reading, do the following:
While the thickness value is being displayed, press [SAVE].
An audible beep indicates that the reading is saved. The displayed
thickness value and setup information is stored at the current ID number
in the current file. If the thickness display is blank when [SAVE] is
pressed, then “_.___” is saved in place of a value.
Note: When saving data with the optional Live Waveform, you
must select Save Thickness and Waveform in the Waveform Setup tab to save the waveform with thickness. If
Page 5-16
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
the Save key is set to Thickness Only, only the thickness
value will be saved.
The ID number is automatically updated to the next ID number in the
sequence. The new ID number is indicated on the display. If the ID
number cannot be updated, a long beep sounds and the gage displays a
message explaining why the ID was unable to update. In this case, the ID
number on the display remains unchanged.
Some of the special features of the Model 35DL and 35DLHP allow the
gage to store more than one thickness value at an ID location. For this
reason, the gage has four file forms for saving data:
•
•
•
•
Thickness - Standard one thickness saved
Velocity - One velocity reading saved
TOF - One time of flight reading saved
Reduction Rate - One thickness and one reduction rate saved
Note: The gage cannot store different file type data in a single
file.
5.6
Using the Review ID Mode
The review ID mode has two purposes:
•
Review datalogger contents by scanning through stored ID
locations in the active file.
•
Move within the file and change the current ID location to any
location that already exists in the file.
To review stored thickness values or move to an existing ID location,
follow these steps:
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][
Model 35 Series
](ID#).
Page 5-17
910-261D
September 2006
Step 2:
Use [ ] or [ ] to change ID.
Step 3:
Press the [MEAS] key to return to Measure Mode at the new
ID# location.
Note: In ID Review Mode, the user can jump to the beginning
of a file by pressing [2ndF],[ ] or to the end of a file by
pressing [2ndF],[ ].
5.7
Using Edit ID Mode
The ID Edit mode is generally used for one of two purposes:
•
To change the current ID Location to a different ID Location
already in the database. This mode is useful when you are using a
large data file and it would take too long to locate the desired ID by
pressing [ ] and [ ].
•
To change the current ID Location to a new ID, which does not yet
exist in the database. This mode is useful when you want to include
additional measurement points to the active file. Additional ID
locations can be added anywhere in the file.
Note:
No stored data is shown while in ID Edit Mode and
no measurements can be made.
To use the ID Edit mode, follow these steps:
Page 5-18
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][
](ID#).
Step 2:
Press [2nd F][
](ID#) again.
Step 3:
Use the [ ,
current ID#.
Step 4:
](ID#) to view the content of the new ID#,
Press [2ndF][
or press [MEAS] to return to Measure mode at the new ID#
location.
5.8
Delete
,
,
] keys to make changes to the
5.8.1 Delete a Range of ID#s in a File
Note: When deleting a range of ID’s in an incremental file,
both the ID# and the stored value will be deleted.
Note: When deleting a range of ID’s in a sequential or 2-D grid
file, only the thickness values will be deleted. The ID#
structure will remain.
Model 35 Series
Page 5-19
910-261D
September 2006
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][ ](FILE) to go to the File Tabs.
Step 2:
Press [
Step 3:
Press [ ] to enter the Delete tab.
Step 4:
Press [
Step 5:
Press [ ] to select the starting ID#.
Step 6:
Use [
] to edit the Start ID# using the [ , ,
editing function keys. Press [ENTER].
Step 7:
Press [
] to edit the End ID# number using the
[ , ,
,
] to scroll to the Delete tab.
] or [
] to select ID Range.
,
]
] editing function keys. Press [ENTER].
Step 8:
Use [
] or [
[ENTER].
] to choose Delete or Cancel. Press
Step 9:
Press [MEAS] to return to Measurement Mode.
5.8.2 Delete Selected File
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][ ](FILE) to go to the File Tabs.
Page 5-20
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Step 2:
Press [
Step 3:
Press [ ] to enter the Delete tab.
Step 4:
Press [
Step 5:
Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the file.
Step 6:
Press [ENTER] to select the file for deletion.
Step 7:
Use [
Step 8:
Press [ENTER].
Step 9:
Press [MEAS] to return to Measurement Mode.
Model 35 Series
] to scroll to the Delete tab.
] or [
] or [
] to select Delete File. Press [ENTER].
] to choose Delete or Cancel.
Page 5-21
910-261D
September 2006
5.8.3 Delete Stored Value
You may erase the current stored value at a specified ID location by
overwriting the value with new data or a LOS value. You may enable
ID# Overwrite, and the gage will display a message that states
whether data already exists at an ID location.
To enable ID# Overwrite:
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][ ](SETUP) to go to the Setup Tabs.
Step 2:
Press [ ] to enter the MEAS tab.
Step 3:
Press [ ] or [ ] to scroll to ID Overwrite.
Step 4:
Use [
Step 5:
Press [MEAS] to end.
Page 5-22
] or [
] to choose ON or OFF.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
5.8.4 Quick Clear Contents of the Active File
(35DL and 35DLHP Only)
The 35DL and 35DLHP allow the user to quickly clear the contents of
the active file without deleting the file or any of the ID#s in the file.
This feature is useful for applications that require the user to store and
download data repeatedly using the same exact file format. The user
can save the data in the file, download it, and quickly clear the file and
start again. When using this function, it is not necessary to build a new
file each time.
To quickly clear the content of the active file:
Step 1:Press [2nd F] and press and hold the [ ] (FILE) key. The File
Clear screen will be displayed.
Model 35 Series
Page 5-23
910-261D
September 2006
Step 2:Press [ENTER] while Clear is highlighted to clear the data in the
file, or press [MEAS] to cancel the quick clear.
5.9
Receiving Files and Using the
GageView Interface Program
5.9.1 Receiving (Downloading) Files From a
Computer
Datalogger information can be downloaded from a computer into the
gage. This has two benefits:
1.
Thickness survey data previously saved with ID#s and
stored in a computer file may be retrieved to the gage at a
later date to guide you through the measurement sequence
using ID#s or to compare current values with previous
thickness values.
2.
You may create ID# sequences in a computer and then
download them to the gage. This externally created
sequence can guide you through the prescribed
measurement location path. The ID sequence created in the
Page 5-24
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
computer must have setup information.
Data downloaded to the Model 35DL and 35DLHP gage must be in
the same format in which data is transmitted. We recommend using
the GageView Interface Program to manage all functions of
interfacing, storing, and creating Model 35DL and 35DLHP data.
5.9.2 Using the Optional GageView Interface
Program
GageView is the interface program for the Model 35DL and 35DLHP.
GageView is a Windows®-based program compatible with Windows
2000® and XP®. It can create inspection database files, load data files,
and generate reports. GageView is compatible with Model 35DL and
35DLHP data files and offers advanced ODBC compatibility and
enhanced OLE features.
For more information on GageView, refer to the GageView
Instruction Manual.
5.10 Statistics Reports
The Model 35DL and 35DLHP can generate statistic reports from within
the gage without having to connect to a computer.
5.10.1 Statistics Report for an Entire File
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][ ](FILE) to go to the File tabs.
Step 2:
Press [
Step 3:
Press [ ] to enter the Stats tab.
Model 35 Series
] to scroll to Stats tab.
Page 5-25
910-261D
September 2006
Step 4:
Press [
] or [
[ENTER].
Step 5:
Use [ ] and [ ] to scroll to files.
Step 6:
Press [ENTER] to select the file.
Step 7:
Use [
Step 8:
Press [ENTER].
Step 9:
Press [ENTER] again to view the next screen.
Page 5-26
] or [
] to select Report on File. Press
] to choose Report or Cancel.
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
5.10.2 Statistics Report for a Range of ID#s in
a File
Use the following procedure to read statistics for a range of ID#s in a
file:
Step 1:
Press [2nd F][ ](FILE) to go to the File tabs.
Step 2:
Press [
Step 3:
Press [ ] to enter the Stats tab.
Step 4:
From Report On, press [
] or [
ID# Range. Press [ENTER].
Step 5:
Use [
] to edit Start ID# using the [ , ,
function keys. Press [ENTER].
Step 6:
Use [
] to edit the ID# using the [ , ,
function keys. Press [ENTER].
Step 7:
Use [
Step 8:
Press [ENTER].
Step 9:
Press [ENTER] again to view the next screen.
Model 35 Series
] to scroll to the Stats tab.
] or [
] to select Report on
,
,
] editing
] editing
] to choose Report or Cancel.
Page 5-27
910-261D
September 2006
Page 5-28
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
6 SPECIFICATIONS
THICKNESS
MEASUREMENT
RANGE:
0.0040 to 25.000 inches or
0.100 to 635.0 mm (depending on
material and application)
VELOCITY
MEASUREMENT
RANGE
0.0200 - 0.7362 in/µsec
0.5080 - 18.699 mm/µsec
TIME OF FLIGHT
MEASUREMENT
RANGE
0.0 -109.5 µsec
THICKNESS DISPLAY 35 AND 35DL
• Standard - 0.001 in (0.01 mm)
RESOLUTION:
• Low - 0.01 in (0.1 mm)
• High - 0.0001 in (0.001 mm)
35HP and 35DLHP
• Standard - 0.001 in (0.01 mm)
• Low - 0.01 in (0.1 mm)
Model 35 Series
Page 6-1
910-261D
VELOCITY
RESOLUTION
September 2006
35 AND 35DL
• Standard - 0.0001 in/µsec
(0.001 mm/µsec)
• Low - 0.001 in/µsec (0.01 mm/
µsec)
• High - 0.0001 in/µsec (0.001
mm/µsec)
35HP and 35DLHP
• Standard - 0.0001 in/µsec
(0.001 mm/µsec)
• Low - 0.001 in/µsec (0.01 mm/
µsec)
TIME OF FLIGHT
RESOLUTION
Model 35, 35DL, 35HP, and 35DLHP
MEASUREMENT
RATE:
Selectable 4, 8, 16, or MAX
measurements per second
Fixed at 000.01 µsec
Note: MAX is between 16 and 20
measurements per second
and is dependent on
measurement mode and
application.
Page 6-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
MEASUREMENT
MODE:
910-261D
Echo Detection Methods (selected
as part of the application setup)
• Mode 1 - Time between excitation pulse and first echo following blank period using
contact transducers.
• Mode 2 - Time between the
interface echo and the first
backwall echo. Normally used
with delay line or immersion
transducers.
• Mode 3 - Time between a pair
of backwall echoes following
the interface echo. Normally
used with delay line or immersion transducers.
DISPLAY:
Model 35 Series
5-digit Liquid Crystal Display
(LCD), 0.425” (10.8 mm)
numerals; 160X100 pixel
resolution.
Page 6-3
910-261D
September 2006
DISPLAY UNITS, SYMBOLS, and FLAGS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
File Name (35DL and 35DLHP)
Freeze Flag: F, _
Min/Max Flags: M, m,_
Diff/Alarm Flags: D, A, H, L, G, Y,
R
5. ZOOM, Z,_
6. Waveform, W,_
7. Measure Mode Flags: M1, M2, M3
8. Measure Rate: 4 Hz, 8 Hz, 16 Hz,
MAX
9. Stored Thickness (35DL and
35DLHP)
10. Units: IN, MM
11. LOS Flag: LOS, _
12. Help Text
13. Battery Life Indicator
14. Key Press Guide
15. 2nd Function Key Press Indicator:
2nd F
16. Current Measurement Box
17. Reference thickness (Velocity
Mode) Reduction % (Reduction
Rate)
18. ID Box (35DL and 35DLHP)
19. DN Flag: DN, (35DL and
35DLHP)
Note: See diagram on following
page.
Page 6-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
METRIC/ENGLISH
MODES:
Allows selection between English
and metric units via the keypad.
BATTERY:
Three (3) AA alkaline batteries or
three (3) AA NiMH batteries.
BATTERY LIFE:
150 hours minimum (Mode 1, 4
Hz Meas Rate, Backlight Off);
20 hours minimum (Backlight On)
Model 35 Series
Page 6-5
910-261D
September 2006
OPERATING TEMP.
RANGE
(ELECTRONICS):
-10° C to +50° C (+14°F to
+122°F)
SIZE:
6.0” L x 3.31” W x 1.50” H
152mm L x 84mm W x 38mm H
WEIGHT:
8.5 oz. (0.24 Kg)
TRANSDUCERS
OPERATION:
35 and 35DL can use single
element direct contact, delay, or
immersion transducer in the
frequency range of 2.25 MHz - 30
MHz.
35HP and 35DLHP can use single
element direct contact, delay, or
immersion transducer in the
frequency range of 0.50 MHz - 5.0
MHz.
DATALOGGER Model 35DL and 35DLHP Only:
STORAGE CAPACITY: 8000 thickness measurements;
Waveform option, 350 waveforms
with thickness.
Page 6-6
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
INFORMATION
STORED:
ID Number, File Name, Thickness
Value, Units, LOS Condition,
Differential Mode, Differential
Reference Value, Alarm Mode,
High Alarm Setpoint, Low Alarm
Setpoint, Minimum Reading Flag,
Gain Mode Velocity Value,
Transducer Setup Information.
DATALOGGER FILES
8-character alphanumeric file
names
IDENTIFICATION
NUMBERS:
10 alphanumeric characters,
character set A-Z, 0-9, and the
special characters -, ., /, ,, :, #, *
FILE FORMATS
Incremental, sequential, 2dimension grid
DATALOGGER
FEATURES:
Save Reading at ID#
Review Stored Contents of Data
Erase a File
Move to specific ID#’s in a file
Communications with USB 2.0
Full Speed
Environmental IP-65 Compliant:
Tested to IP-65. Gasket sealed case protected against water
and dust ingress. Impact resistant.
Model 35 Series
Page 6-7
910-261D
September 2006
Page 6-8
Model 35 Series
September 2006
7
910-261D
APPLICATION SETUPS
Application Setups are sets of stored configurations of the gage
parameters for various measurement applications. Setups are
optimized for application features such as material, thickness range,
and required accuracy or resolution.
When the gage is turned on, the last setup used is automatically
selected, and the gage is ready to make similar measurements. If the
application has changed, choose an Application Setup name based on
the new application.
Model 35 and 35DL Application Setup Name/Application
Setup Name
DEFM1-M116
DEFM1-M112
DEFM1-M110
Model 35 Series
Probe
Type
M116
Steel: 0.020 - 1.5" (0,500 - 38
mm)
Plastic: 0.010" min. (0,25 mm
min.)
M112
Steel: 0.030 - 10" (0,75 - 254
mm)
Plastic: 0.010" min. (0,25 mm
min.)
M110
Steel: 0.040 - 15" (1,00 - 380
mm)
Plastic: 0.025" min. (0,6 mm
min.)
Page 7-1
910-261D
September 2006
DEFM1-M109
M109
DEFM1-M106
M106
DEFM1-M1016
M1016
DEFM1-M1036
M1036
DEFM3-M208
DEF2P-M208
DEFM3-M202
M208
M208
M202
DEFM2-M202
M202
DEFP2-M202
DEFM3-V260
M202
V260
DEFM2-V260
V260
DEFP2-V260
V260
DEFM2-M201
M201
DEFP2-M201
M201
DEFM2-M206
M206
Page 7-2
Steel: 0.050 - 20" (1,25 - 508
mm)
Plastic: 0.025" min. (0,6 mm
min.)
Steel: 0.080 - 20" (2,00 - 508
mm)
Plastic: 0.050" min. (1,25 mm
min.)
Steel: 0.030 - 1.5" (0,76 - 38 mm)
Plastic: 0.010" min. (0,25 mm
min.)
Steel: 0.080 - 25" (2,00 - 635
mm)
Plastic: 0.050" min. (1,25 mm)
Steel: 0.008 - 0.200" (0,2 - 5 mm)
Plastic: 0.005 - 0.2" (0,12 - 5 mm)
Steel: 0.010 - 0.500" (0,25 - 12,5
mm)
Steel: 0.020 - 0.750" (0,5 – 19
mm)
Plastic: 0.025 - 0.25" (0,6 - 6 mm)
Steel: 0.010 - 0.200" (0,25 - 5
mm)
Steel: 0.020 - 0.400" (0,5 - 10
mm)
Plastic: 0.010 - 0.120" (0,25 - 3
mm)
Steel: 0.030 - 0.750" (0,75 - 19
mm)
Plastic: 0.020 - 0.500" (0,50 –
12,5 mm)
Steel: 0.050 - 1.00" (1,25 - 25 mm
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Plastic: 040. - 0.500" (1,0 – 12,5
mm)
M207
Steel: 0.080 - 1.00" (2,0 - 25 mm)
DEFM2-M207
DEFP2-M207
M207
Plastic: 0.080 - 0.500" (2,0 – 12,5
mm)
Note: Exact thickness range depends on material and
application.
DEFP2-M206
M206
Model 35HP and 35DLHP Application Setup Name/Application
Setup Name
DEFM1-M110
DEFM1-M109
DEFM1-M106
DEFM1-M1036
Model 35 Series
Probe
Type
M110
Steel: 0.040 - 15" (1,00 - 380
mm)
Plastic: 0.025" min. (0,6 mm
min.)
M109
Steel: 0.050 - 20" (1,25 - 508
mm)
Plastic: 0.025" min. (0,6 mm
min.)
M106
Steel: 0.080 - 20" (2,00 - 508
mm)
Plastic: 0.050" min. (1,25 mm
min.)
M1036 Steel: 0.100 - 25" (2,50 - 635
mm)
Plastic: 0.080" min. (2,00 mm)
Page 7-3
910-261D
September 2006
DEFM1-M101
M101
DEFM1-M102
M102
DEFM1-M103
M103
DEFM2-M201
M201
DEFP2-M201
M201
DEFM2-M206
M206
DEFP2-M206
M206
DEFM2-M207
DEFP2-M207
M207
M207
DEFP1-M2008
M2008
DEFM1-V153
V153
DEFM1-V154
DEFM1-V156
V154
V156
Steel: 0.5 - 25" (12 - 635 mm)
Plastic: 0.20" - 5.0" (5-127 mm)
Steel: 0.200 - 25" (5 - 635 mm)
Plastic: 0.1" - 3.0" (2,5 - 75 mm)
Steel: 0.1 - 25" (2,5 - 635 mm)
Plastic: 0.100 - 3.0" (2,5-75 mm)
Steel: 0.050 - 1.00" (1,25 – 25
mm)
Plastic: 0.050 - 0.400" (1,25 – 10
mm)
Steel: 0.050 - 1.00" (1,25 – 25
mm)
Plastic: 0.040 - 0. 500" (1,0 – 127
mm)
Steel: 0.080 - 1.00" (2,0 - 25 mm)
Plastic: 0.080 - 0.500" (2,0 – 127
mm)
Smooth Fiberglass: 0.2 - 3.0" (5,0
- 75 mm)
Steel 0.500 - 10.00" (12 - 400
mm)
Steel: 0.150 - 3.0" (3,75 - 75 mm)
Steel 0.050 - 0.75" (1,25 - 19 mm)
Note: Exact thickness range depends on material and
application.
Page 7-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
TRANSDUCER SETUP PARAMETERS
Name
Det Mode
Setup Name
Probe Type
MatlVel
Zero
Pulser Pwr
Max Gain
Init Gain
TDG Slope
MB Blank
Model 35 Series
Description
Units/Resolutions/
Range
Echo Detect Mode 1, 2, or 3
Name for trans10-character alphanuducer setup
meric
One of the 13 transTransducer type
ducer types from
default setup list for 35
and 35DL.
One of the 14 transducer types from
default setup list for
35HP and 35DLHP.
Ultrasonic sound 0.030 - 0.5511"/µsec
velocity of material (0,762-13,999 mm/µsec
to be measured
Zero calibration
0 -999.99
factor
Pulser power
30, 60, or 110 Volts
Maximum receiver 0 – 80.0 dB in 0.3 dB
gain steps
Initial T.V.G. gain 0 - Max Gain in 0.3 dB
steps
Time Varied Gain 0 - 26.52 dB/s in 0.1
dB/µs steps
Main Bang Blank 57.16 nsec to 225 µsec
in 0.1 nsec steps
Page 7-5
910-261D
Echo Win
Ech1Dtect
Ech2Dtect
I/FBLANK
M3EchBlnk
Page 7-6
September 2006
Echo window
55 ns to 200 s in 0.014
ns steps.
Detection polarity + or of first echo
Detection polarity + or of second echo
Blank after Inter- 0 - 999.99 ns;
face echo
1.00 - 20.00 µs
Blank after first
0 - 20.01 µs in 0.01 µs
measured backwall steps
echo in Mode 3
Model 35 Series
September 2006
8
910-261D
THEORY OF OPERATION
Panametrics-NDTTM Model 35 Ultrasonic Thickness Gages operate
on the “Pulse/Echo” principle. This principle works by precisely
timing the reflection of high frequency sound waves from the
transducer to the far wall of a test piece. This technique, derived from
sonar, has been widely applied to nondestructive testing because it
permits accurate measurement of material thickness even though
access may be available from only one side.
The 35 Series gages use a variety of piezoelectric transducers that
generate bursts of mechanical vibrations, or sound waves, when
excited by short electrical pulses. The frequency of these sound waves
is far beyond the limit of human hearing, from one million to twenty
million cycles per second, versus a typical limit of less than twenty
thousand cycles per second for the human ear. Sound at these very
high frequencies does not travel well through air, so a coupling
medium such as a drop of liquid (usually propylene glycol, glycerin,
water, or oil) is used between the transducer and the test piece.
The sound waves generated by the transducer are coupled into the test
piece and reflected back from the opposite side. The same transducer
then receives the reflected sound waves and converts them to
electrical pulses. The gage amplifies the received signal, digitizes a
selected portion of the wave train, and then very precisely measures a
time interval corresponding to one round trip of the sound waves in
the test piece. This measurement is made in one of three modes as
described below. The gage, which has been calibrated to the speed of
sound in the test material, computes the thickness of the test material
using the relationship:
.
Model 35 Series
Page 8-1
910-261D
Where:
September 2006
( t )V
X = ---------2
• x = the thickness of the material
• V = the velocity of sound in the material
• t = the measured round-trip transit time of the pulse
• t0 = the zero offset factor (to correct for transducer wearplate
delay, cable delay, and other fixed delays)
Model 35 Series gages can employ any of three measurement modes
to calculate pulse transit time. The selection of the proper mode for a
given application is dependent on a number of factors discussed in
detail in Application Notes.
Mode 1 is employed with contact transducers. In this mode,
measurement is made from the initial excitation pulse to the first
returning echo from the back wall of the test piece. The MTI marker
indicates the Measured Time Interval.
Mode 2 is employed with delay line and immersion transducers. In
this mode, measurement is made between an interface echo marking
the time the sound wave enters the test piece and the first backwall
echo. The MTI marker indicates the Measured Time Interval.
Mode 3 is also employed with delay line and immersion transducers.
In this mode, measurement is made between two successive back wall
echoes that follow an interface echo. The MTI marker indicates the
Measured Time Interval.
Page 8-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Figure 8-1: Block Diagram of the Model 35
Model 35 Series
Page 8-3
910-261D
September 2006
The pulser, under the control of the microprocessor, provides a
unidirectional broadband spike voltage impulse to a heavily damped
broadband ultrasonic transducer. The broadband ultrasonic pulse
generated by the transducer is coupled to the test piece by means of
liquid couplant. Echoes returning from the back or inside surface of
the test piece are received by the transducer and converted to electrical
signals, which in turn are fed to the receiver AGC amplifier. The
microprocessor-based control and timing logic circuits both
synchronize the pulser and select the appropriate echo signals that will
be used for the time interval measurement.
If echoes are not detected during a given measurement period, the
gage will shut down to save power until a new measurement cycle is
required. If echoes are detected, the timing circuit will precisely
measure an interval appropriate for the selected measurement mode,
and then repeat this process a number of times to obtain a stable,
averaged reading. The microprocessor then uses this time interval
measurement, along with sound velocity and zero offset information
stored in the Random Access Memory (RAM), to calculate thickness.
Finally, the thickness is shown on the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
and updated at a selected rate.
Page 8-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
9
910-261D
APPLICATION NOTES
Model 35 Ultrasonic Thickness Gages can be used in a variety of
applications when proper technique is employed. This section
discusses advanced gage usability and measurement techniques to
assist in challenging applications.
To take maximum advantage of the gages’ versatility, the user should
be familiar with the basic principles of ultrasonic nondestructive
testing. There are several textbooks that discuss this subject in detail,
as well as classroom training opportunities. Consult the company for
further information.
9.1
Measurement Mode
Model 35 Series gages are capable of operating in three measurement
modes, representing three alternate ways of timing echoes. Mode
selection is usually based on the requirements of a particular
application as described below:
Mode 1: Measurements are made between an excitation pulse and the
first back wall echo from the test piece, using contact-type
transducers. Mode 1 is a general purpose test mode, and is normally
recommended for use, unless one of the conditions described under
Modes 2 or 3 is present.
Mode 2: Measurements are made between an interface echo
representing the near surface of the test piece and the first back wall
echo, using delay line or immersion transducers. Mode 2 is most often
used for high-temperature measurements with high-temperature delay
line transducers, measurements on sharp concave or convex radii, in
confined spaces with delay line or immersion transducers, and for onModel 35 Series
Page 9-1
910-261D
September 2006
line measurement of moving material with immersion transducers.
Mode 3: Measurements are made between two successive back wall
echoes, using delay line or immersion transducers. This mode may be
employed only when clean multiple backwall echoes appear, which
typically limits its use to materials of relatively low attenuation and
high acoustic impedance such as fine-grained metals, glass, and
ceramics. Mode 3 typically offers the highest measurement accuracy
and the best minimum thickness resolution in a given application, at
the expense of penetration, and it is used when accuracy and/or
resolution requirements cannot be met in Mode 1 or Mode 2.
Ultrasonic thickness measurements using contact transducers in Mode
1 are generally the simplest to implement and may be used in the
majority of applications. For most material, the contact method of
measurement provides the highest coupling efficiency of ultrasound
from the transducer to the test piece. Mode 1 contact measurements
can generally be used with the Model 35 Series when minimum
material thickness does not fall below approximately 0.005" (0.12
mm) of plastic or 0.010" (0.25 mm) of metal, precision required is not
better than 0.0005" (12.5 microns), test material is at room
temperature, and geometry permits contact coupling. Mode 2 and
Mode 3 measurements with delay line and immersion transducers are,
as noted above, generally recommended when application
requirements preclude use of Mode 1.
9.2
Transducer Selection
The selection of the appropriate transducer for a given application is
based on the range and resolution of the thickness measurement
required, the acoustic properties of the test material, and part
geometry. Choose the best mode by experimenting with test standards
representing the desired range of measurement.
Page 9-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Generally, the highest frequency and smallest diameter transducers
that give acceptable results over the required range are recommended.
Small diameter transducers are easily coupled to test material and
permit the thinnest couplant layer at a given contact pressure.
Furthermore, higher frequency transducers produce echo signals of
faster rise time and thereby enhance the precision of thickness
measurements. On the other hand, the acoustic properties or surface
condition of the test material may require larger, low frequency
transducers to overcome poor coupling or signal losses due to
scattering or attenuation.
The Model 35 Series gages are programmed with many different
internal setups for use with a wide variety of transducers. Many
additional custom setups may be created for special applications not
measurable by any of the standard internal setups. In some
applications, optimum performance will entail the use of more than
one transducer.
See Chapter 7 for lists of some common transducers and typical
measurement ranges. For further information on specific transducer
recommendations, consult the company.
Note: For best results, only recommended Panametrics-NDT
transducers should be used with Model 35 Series gages,
insuring suitable electrical impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, and main bang recovery characteristics. While the
gage may work with transducers from other manufacturers, the company cannot guarantee performance.
Additionally, transducers must be maintained in good
condition. Broken or cracked wearplates, worn delay
lines, and thermal damage will all degrade performance
and affect measurements.
Model 35 Series
Page 9-3
910-261D
9.3
September 2006
Factors Affecting Performance and
Accuracy
1.
Calibration: The accuracy of any ultrasonic measurement is
only as good as the accuracy and care with which the gage
has been calibrated. Model 35 Series gages are shipped
from the factory with standard setups for a number of
transducers and applications. In some cases, it may be
desirable to optimize these setups for specific measurement
situations, as described in Section 3. In all cases, it is
essential that the velocity and zero calibrations, also
described in Section 3, are performed whenever the test
material or transducer is changed. Periodic checks with
samples of known thickness are recommended to verify that
the gage is operating properly.
2.
Surface Roughness of the Test Piece: The best measurement
accuracy is obtained when both the front and back surfaces
of the test piece are smooth. If the contact surface is rough,
then the minimum thickness that can be measured will be
increased because of sound reverberating in the increased
thickness of the couplant layer. Additionally, if either test
piece surface is rough, it may cause distortion in the
returning echo due to the slightly different multiple sound
paths seen by the transducer, resulting in measurement
inaccuracies.
3.
Coupling Technique: In Mode 1 (contact transducer)
measurements, the couplant layer thickness is part of the
measurement and is compensated by a portion of the zero
offset. If maximum accuracy is to be achieved, then the
Page 9-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
coupling technique must be consistent. In order to
accomplish consistent measurements, use a couplant of
reasonably low viscosity; employ only enough couplant to
achieve a reasonable reading; and apply the transducer with
uniform pressure. Practice will show the degree of moderate
to firm pressure that produces repeatable readings. In
general, smaller diameter transducers require less coupling
force to squeeze out the excess couplant than larger
diameter transducers. In all modes, tilting the transducer
distorts echoes and causes inaccurate readings, as noted
below.
4.
Curvature of the Test Piece: A related issue to this section
involves the alignment of the transducer with respect to the
test piece. When measuring on curved surfaces, it is
important that the transducer be placed approximately on
the centerline of the part and held as steadily to the surface
as possible. In some cases, a spring-loaded V-block holder
may be helpful for maintaining this alignment. In general, as
the radius of curvature decreases, the size of the transducer
should be reduced, and the more critical transducer
alignment will become. For very small radii, an immersion
approach will be necessary. In some cases it may be useful
to observe the waveform display via the PCScope option as
an aid in maintaining optimum alignment. Practice the best
way to hold a transducer with the aid of a waveform display.
On curved surfaces it is important to use only enough
couplant to obtain a reading. Excess couplant will form a
fillet between the transducer and the test surface where
sound will reverberate and possibly create spurious signals
that may trigger false readings.
5.
Taper or eccentricity: If the contact surface or back surface
of the test piece is tapered or eccentric with respect to the
Model 35 Series
Page 9-5
910-261D
September 2006
other, the return echo will be distorted due to the variation
in sound path across the width of the beam. Accuracy of
measurement will be reduced. In severe cases, no
measurement will be possible.
6.
Page 9-6
Acoustic Properties of the Test Material: There are several
conditions found in certain engineering materials that can
potentially limit the accuracy and range of ultrasonic
thickness measurements:
-
Sound Scattering: In materials such as cast stainless
steel, cast iron, fiberglass, and composites, sound
energy will scatter from individual crystallites in the
casting or boundaries of dissimilar materials within the
fiberglass or composite. Porosity in any material can
have the same effect. Gage sensitivity must be adjusted
to prevent detection of these spurious scatter echoes.
This compensation can in turn limit the ability to discriminate a valid return echo from the backside of the
material, thereby restricting measurement range.
-
Sound Attenuation or Absorption: In many organic
materials such as low density plastics and rubbers,
sound energy is attenuated very rapidly at the frequencies used for ultrasonic gaging. This attenuation typically increases with temperature. The maximum
thickness that can be measured in these materials will
often be limited by attenuation.
-
Velocity Variations: An ultrasonic thickness measurement will be accurate only to the degree that material
sound velocity is consistent with gage calibration. Some
materials exhibit significant variations in sound velocity
from point to point. This happens in certain cast metals
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
due to the changes in grain structure that result from
varied cooling rates, and the anisotropy of sound velocity with respect to grain structure. Fiberglass can show
localized velocity variations due to changes in the resin/
fiber ratio. Many plastics and rubbers show a rapid
change in sound velocity with temperature, requiring
that velocity calibration be performed at the temperature
where measurements are made.
7.
Phase Reversal or Phase Distortion: The phase or polarity of
a returning echo is determined by the relative acoustic
impedances (density x velocity) of the boundary materials.
The Model 35 Series assumes the customary situation where
the test piece is backed by air or a liquid, both of which have
a lower acoustic impedance than metals, ceramics, or
plastics. However, in some specialized cases, such as
measurement of glass or plastic liners over metal, or copper
cladding over steel, this impedance relationship is reversed
and the echo appears phase reversed. In these cases, it is
necessary to change the appropriate Echo Detection polarity
in order to maintain accuracy. A more complex situation
can occur in anisotropic or in homogeneous materials such
as coarse-grain metal castings or certain composites, where
material conditions result in the existence of multiple sound
paths within the beam area. In these cases, phase distortion
can create an echo that is neither cleanly positive nor
negative. Careful experimentation with reference standards
is necessary in these cases to determine effects on
measurement accuracy.
Model 35 Series
Page 9-7
910-261D
9.4
September 2006
Couplants
A wide variety of couplants may be used in ultrasonic gaging. We
have found that propylene glycol (Couplant A) is suitable for most
applications. For a list of other suitable couplants, typical for
thickness measurements, please refer to Table 9-1 below.
Couplant
Purpose
Description
Temperature
A Propylene
Glycol
Smooth surfaces
General pur- Max. 200°F
pose, non-cor- (90°C)
rosive, washes
off with water
B Glycerin
Rough surfaces; highly
attenuated
materials
General pur- Max. 200°F
pose, slightly (90°C)
viscous, high
acoustic impedance
D Gel
Rough surSlides across Max. 200°F
faces, sand-cast wide surfaces, (90°C)
metals, fiber- does not drip or
glass lay-ups, run
weld inspections, overhead
surfaces, and
vertical walls
Note: For more information, refer to the Ultrasonic Transducer
catalog or call your local representative.
Table 9-1: Couplants
Page 9-8
Model 35 Series
September 2006
Couplant
910-261D
Purpose
Description
Temperature
E-2 High Temp Test materials Remains stable 500° - 1000°F
at elevated tem-liquid or paste (260° - 540°C)
peratures
without boiling
off when used
at intended
temperatures
F-2 Medium
Temp
Easy removal at 32° - 540°F
high tempera- (0° - 280°C)
tures
G-2 Medium
Temp
Non-toxic, bio- 0° - 600°F
degradable
(-12° - 315°C)
Note: For more information, refer to the Ultrasonic Transducer
catalog or call your local representative.
Table 9-1: Couplants
9.5
High Temperature Measurements
Measurements at elevated temperatures (higher than approximately
125°F or 50°C) represent a special category. Standard contact
transducers will be damaged or destroyed by exposure to temperatures
higher than this limit because of the varying thermal expansion
coefficients of the materials used to construct them, which will cause
disbonding at elevated temperatures. Contact transducers should
never be used on a surface that is too hot to comfortably touch with
bare fingers. High temperature measurements with the Model 35 will
always be done in Mode 2 or Mode 3 with either a delay line
transducer (using an appropriate high temperature delay line) or an
Model 35 Series
Page 9-9
910-261D
September 2006
immersion transducer. Consult the company for further information
on specific transducer selection.
Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature, normally
increasing as the material gets colder and decreasing as it gets hotter,
with abrupt changes at freezing or melting points. This effect is much
greater in plastics and rubber than it is in metals or ceramics. For
maximum accuracy, the gage sound velocity setting should be
calibrated at the same temperature at which measurements will be
made. Measurement of hot materials with a gage set to room
temperature sound velocity will often lead to significant error.
Finally, at temperatures greater than approximately 200°F or 100°C,
special high temperature couplants are recommended. Refer to Table
9-1 or consult the company for details.
9.6
Cable Lengths
Model 35 Series gages should normally be used with transducer
cables no longer than approximately 3 feet or 1 meter. The maximum
length of cable that can be used in a specific case will depend on the
type of transducer and minimum thickness to be measured. Generally,
very long cables are not recommended, except in certain specialized
cases (usually involving low frequency transducers). Particular
attention must be paid to the problems of electrically matching the
transducer to the cable, accounting for attenuation of the signal in the
cable, and compensating for pulse transit time through the cable.
Consult the company for further information.
Page 9-10
Model 35 Series
September 2006
9.7
910-261D
Pulser/Receiver and Gating
Adjustments
In addition to providing programmed standard transducer setups, the
Model 35 Series permits the user to create custom setups by changing
a series of pulser/receiver and gating parameters.Custom setups are
used when the measurement requirements of a particular application
are not optimally met by one of the standard setups. In some cases, a
Model 35 Series will be shipped from the factory pre-programmed
with one or more custom setups to meet special customer
requirements. In any case, users may wish to create custom setups of
their own. The adjustments described in this section should be made
only by a qualified technician who is familiar with the basic theory of
ultrasonic gaging and the interpretation of ultrasonic waveforms.
Many of these adjustments are interactive, and all of them have an
effect on the measurement range and/or measurement accuracy of the
Model 35. In most cases, adjustments should not be attempted without
monitoring waveforms via the 35PCScope option. Additionally, when
establishing a custom setup for a specific application, it is essential to
verify performance on reference standards representing the material(s)
and thickness range to be measured.
9.7.1 Pulser Power
Excitation pulse (main bang) voltage may be adjusted in three steps of
30, 60, and 110 Volts. Higher voltages may provide greater
penetration at the expense of near surface resolution, especially in
Mode 1, while lower voltages may provide better near surface
resolution at the expense of penetration. For most applications, the
110 Volt setting provides the best signal-to-noise ratio for returning
echoes.
Model 35 Series
Page 9-11
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September 2006
9.7.2 Maximum Gain
Maximum available receiver gain may be adjusted from 0.0 dB to
79.6d B. The Model 35 uses Automatic Gain Control (AGC) and
Time Dependent Gain (TDG) functions to automatically adjust
receiver gain to an optimum level when an echo is detected. When no
echo is being detected (LOS prompt), gain will rise to the maximum
level set by Initial Gain, Slope, and Maximum Gain. If maximum gain
is set too high, the gage may hang up on transducer noise or other
spurious signals. If it is set too low, returning echoes may not be
boosted high enough for detection. In general, for a given application
the Max Gain should be set high enough that all echoes of interest are
detected, but a steady LOS prompt is displayed when the transducer is
not coupled to a test piece.
9.7.3 Initial Gain
Initial Gain and TDG Slope are part of a Time Dependent Gain system
that may be used to optimize near-surface resolution while providing a
higher maximum gain for thicker samples. Initial Gain may be
adjusted from 0 dB to the maximum defined by the Max Gain setting.
This parameter sets an upper limit on receiver gain in the vicinity of
the excitation pulse (Mode 1) or interface echo (Modes 2 and 3). By
effectively making the excitation pulse or interface echo smaller, the
TDG system permits detection of echoes occurring close to pulse or
echo in time. The TDG system is also used in measurements of highly
scattering materials, such as cast metals and fiberglass, to minimize
detection of scatter echoes occurring ahead of the backwall. From the
initial gain level, receiver gain slopes up to the maximum gain level at
the rate determined by the TDG Slope setting. Initial Gain setting is
most critical in applications where minimum thickness measurement
must be optimized, and should always be set with the aid of a
reference standard representing that minimum. In cases where
Page 9-12
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
minimum thickness capability is less important than penetration and
scatter echoes are not a problem, Initial Gain may simply be set equal
to Max Gain.
9.7.4 Main Bang Blank
Main Bang Blank creates a blank or dead zone (up to 18 microseconds
from the excitation pulse) where it is not possible to detect echoes.
The blank is used to prevent detection of the trailing edge of the
excitation pulse as if it were a backwall or interface echo. In Modes 2
and 3, the setting of the Main Bang Blank is not critical; it merely
needs to be set at some point between the end of excitation pulse
ringdown and the interface echo. In Mode 1, however, the length of
the Main Bang Blank determines the minimum thickness that can be
measured, and it must be positioned with care after selecting the
Initial Gain level. If the Main Bang Blank is too short, then the gage
will hang up on the excitation pulse, and readings will not be possible.
If the Main Bang Blank is too long, then the minimum measurable
thickness will be unnecessarily restricted. In general, set the Main
Bang Blank just beyond the point where the gage hangs up, and test
with the transducer both coupled to and uncoupled from the test
material to ensure accurate measurements.
9.7.5 Echo Window
The Echo Window is the time interval in each main bang period
during which the gage is enabled to detect echoes. The Echo Window
interval begins at the end of the Main Bang Blank. The end of the
Echo Window depends on the Dtect Mode and Echo Win parameters
Model 35 Series
Page 9-13
910-261D
September 2006
as shown in Table 9-2:
DtectMode = 1
Echo Window
Starts
DtectMode = 2 or 3
At the end of Main At the end of Main
Bang Blank
Bang Blank
Echo Window EndsEchoWindow
xµsec following
Main Bang
EchoWindow xµsec
following the
detected interface
echo
Note: xµsec where x is the parameter set by the user.
Table 9-2: Echo Window
In Mode 1, the Echo Window may usually be set to any value greater
than the round-trip pulse transit time in the thickest or slowest piece of
material to be measured. The exact setting is not critical as long as it is
long enough to include the farthest echo of interest. In Modes 2 and 3,
the Echo Window is limited to the time interval between successive
interface echoes. The end of the Echo Window must be set ahead of
the second interface echo to prevent detection of that echo, which in
turn will determine a maximum measurable thickness for Mode 2 and
Mode 3 setups. In applications involving Mode 2 and Mode 3
immersion measurements, this condition must apply throughout the
range of water paths to be used.
9.7.6
Detect Mode
The Detect Mode function selects Mode 1, Mode 2, or Mode 3
measurements. See Table 9.2 for further explanation.
Page 9-14
Model 35 Series
September 2006
9.7.7
910-261D
Echo 1 Detect, Echo 2 Detect
Echo 1 Detect and Echo 2 Detect select positive or negative polarity
echo detection as determined by application requirements. Selection is
dependant on the mode of measurement and the type of test material.
Note that positive and negative polarity refer to processed echoes
displayed on the PCScope.
• Mode 1: In Mode 1 with contact transducers, Echo 1 is the back
wall echo and Echo 2 is not applicable. Echo 1 is normally negative. An exception occurs in measurement of a material of low
acoustic impedance bonded to a material of high impedance (such
as plastic or rubber over metal), where the echo is phase-reversed
and positive detection for Echo 1 is appropriate.
• Mode 2: In Mode 2 with delay line or immersion transducers,
Echo 1 is the interface echo and Echo 2 is the backwall echo.
Echo 1 is normally positive for high impedance materials such as
metals and ceramics, and negative for low impedance materials
such as most plastics. Echo 2 is normally negative unless the back
wall echo represents the sort of low-to-high impedance boundary
described above.
• Mode 3: In Mode 3 measurements with delay line or immersion
transducers, Echo 1 is the interface echo and Echo 2 represents the
backwall echoes. Since Mode 3 generally involves measurement
of high impedance materials, the general rule is to set Echo 1 positive and Echo 2 negative. In some special cases involving difficult geometries, phase distortion may cause the positive side of
the backwall echoes to be better defined than the negative side. In
such cases set, Echo 2 positive.
9.7.8
Interface Blank
Use Interface Blank in Modes 2 and 3 only. Interface Blank represents
Model 35 Series
Page 9-15
910-261D
September 2006
a blank or dead zone up to twenty (20) microseconds in length that
follows the leading edge of the interface echo. In Mode 2, the
Interface Blank prevents detection of trailing lobes or cycles of the
interface echo, which might otherwise be detected as backwall echoes,
resulting in a hang-up condition. The Interface Blank should be set as
short as possible to avoid unnecessarily restricting minimum
measurable thickness. The Initial Gain function will often help reduce
interface echo amplitude and permit use of a shorter interface blank.
Check Interface Blank settings with the transducer both coupled to
and uncoupled from the test material. In Mode 3, the Interface Blank
selects which pair of backwall echoes will be measured. In most
conditions, the Interface Blank would be set just short of the first
backwall echo. However, as a practical matter, the first backwall echo
from thin materials is often distorted or lost in the interface ringdown,
and with some challenging geometries (such as tight radii), later pairs
of backwall echoes may be cleaner than early ones. In these cases, the
Interface Blank should be set to a length that insures detection of a
clean and well-defined pair of backwall echoes, even if they are not
the first two.
9.7.9
Mode 3 Echo Blank
The function of Mode 3 Echo Blank in Mode 3 is analogous to that of
Interface Blank in Mode 2 or Main Bang Blank in Mode 1. This
function creates a blank or dead zone up to twenty (20) microseconds
long following the leading edge of the first detected backwall echo, to
prevent detection of trailing lobes or cycles of that echo and the
resulting gage hang-up. Because Mode 3 Echo Blank limits minimum
measurable thickness, set the controls as short as possible (seldom
longer than a few hundred nanoseconds). Special cases may occur
where mode conversion effects on curved samples cause significant
spurious signals between legitimate echo peaks. In such cases, set the
Mode 3 Echo Blank as long as necessary to prevent detection of the
Page 9-16
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
spurious signals.
9.7.10 TDG Slope
The Time Dependent Gain (TDG) Slope function controls the rate
receiver gain slopes up from the Initial Gain level to the Max Gain
level. The Slope may be set from 0.0 to 26.5 dB per microsecond.
Generally, TDG Slope should be set as high as possible to reach
maximum gain as quickly as possible without having the gage hang up
on spurious signals.
Model 35 Series
Page 9-17
910-261D
September 2006
Page 9-18
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
10 MAINTENANCE AND
TROUBLESHOOTING
10.1 Routine Care And Maintenance
The Model 35 Series case is sealed to prevent intrusion of
environmental liquids and dust. However, it is not completely
waterproof. Therefore, the unit should never be immersed in any fluid.
The case, keypad and display window may be cleaned with a damp
cloth and mild detergent if necessary. Do not use strong solvents or
abrasives.
10.2 Transducers
The ultrasonic transducers or probes used with the Model 35 Series
are rugged devices that need little care. They are not indestructible,
however, and a little attention to the following items will result in the
longest transducer life:
The cables can be damaged by cutting, pinching, or pulling. Care must
be taken to prevent mechanical abuse to the cables. Never leave a
transducer where a heavy object can be placed on the cable. Never
remove a transducer from the gage by pulling on the cable. Pull on the
molded connector housing only. Never tie a knot in a transducer cable.
Do not twist or pull the cable at the point where it connects to the
transducer. These precautions are particularly important for all
transducers other than the models that have field-replaceable cables.
Model 35 Series
Page 10-1
910-261D
September 2006
Transducer performance will be degraded by excessive wear at the tip.
To minimize wear, do not scrape or drag the transducer across rough
surfaces. When a transducer tip becomes too rough, concave, or
otherwise non-flat, operation may become erratic or impossible.
Although some wear is normal in corrosion gaging applications,
severe wear will limit transducer life. A transducer resurfacing
procedure can be performed to improve performance of worn
transducers. Contact the company for details.
10.3 Error Messages
During the normal operation of the gage, certain special error
messages may be displayed. Usually these indicate a problem with the
operating procedure but some may indicate a physical problem with
the gage itself. Consult the company for further information.
10.4 Turn On And Low Battery Problems
The bars on the batteries symbol show operating time remaining. If
the gage turns off immediately after turn-on, or if it does not turn on at
all, then the battery is probably completely discharged. The batteries
should be replaced. If, after replacing the batteries, the unit still does
not turn on, there has probably been a component failure within the
gage, which should be serviced.
10.5 Self Diagnostics
Model 35 Series thickness gages include two self-diagnostic screens
that permit the user to identify hardware or software problems.
To view the Diagnostic 1 screen and see internal self-test results:
Page 10-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
,
] keys to highlight the DIAG1 tab.
The following results are displayed:
Gain
Internal Calibration
BLK, DET, SMP Internal Blank, Detector and
Sampler Test
Thresh Cal
(RCVR1)
Threshold Calibration Test
Receiver 1
Thresh Cal
(RCVR2)
Threshold Calibration Test
Receiver 2
Table 10-1: DIAG1 Results
Note: Highlighted parameters indicate that the specific selftest failed based on the expected values.
To view the Diagnostic 2 screen, which shows information about your
Model 35 series gage:
Step 1:
Press [2ndF][ ](Setup) to display the setup tabs.
Step 2:
Use the [
Model 35 Series
,
] keys to highlight the DIAG2 tab.
Page 10-3
910-261D
September 2006
The following results are displayed:
SW REV
Reports software version
(1.00/1.00G)
Battery
Indicates current battery voltage
Probe
Indicates current attached
probe
PR TX
Indicates the time of flight for
the transmit delay line
PR RX
Indicates the time of flight for
the receiver delay line
Table 10-2: DIAG2 Results
Note: If PR TX displays N/A, then either the cable is broken or
there is a problem with the transducer.
10.6 Tests
The Model 35-DL gage tests include:
•
KEYPAD - Tests keypad keys.
•
VIDEO - Tests to assure that pixel locations are functional.
10.6.1 KEYPAD TEST
The Keypad test tests to assure that keypad keys are functional. The
KEYPAD test displays each functional keypad key. The gage display
Page 10-4
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
during the test should match the keypad. Where mismatches occur,
keys are not functional. To test the keypad, use the following
procedure:
Step 1:
From the Main screen, press [2ndF][ ] and use the [
]
arrow to move across the top of the screen to the TESTS tab.
Step 2:
Press the [ ] arrow to select KEYPAD TEST and then
press ENTER or [2ndF][ ] to abort the test. Determine
visually that the keypad keys are functional.
Step 3:
Press ENTER to Exit to the TESTS screen.
10.6.2 VIDEO TEST
The Video test tests to assure that pixel locations are functional. Nonfunctional pixel locations display in white when the VIDEO test is
run. To test the video display, use the following procedure:
Step 1:
From the Main screen, press [2ndF][ ] and use the [
]
arrow to move across the top of the screen to the TESTS tab.
Step 2:
Press the [ ] arrow to select VIDEO TEST and then press
ENTER or [2ndF][ ] to abort the test. Determine visually
that video pixels are functional by observing if white spots
occur in the screen test display.
Step 3:
Press ENTER to Exit to the TESTS screen.
10.7 Repair Service
The company will repair any Model 35 gage at its Waltham,
Massachusetts, USA factory. In addition, some local PanametricsNDT dealers can perform repairs.
Model 35 Series
Page 10-5
910-261D
September 2006
10.8 Replacement Parts And Optional
Parts And Equipment
Replacement parts for the Model 35 Series as well as additional
related equipment are available from the company.
Page 10-6
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
APPENDIX I: SOUND
VELOCITIES
The following table presents a tabulation of the ultrasonic velocity in a
variety of common materials. It is provided only as a guide. The actual
velocity in these materials may vary significantly for a variety of
reasons, such as: composition, preferred crystallographic orientation,
porosity, and temperature. Therefore, for maximum accuracy,
establish the sound velocity in a given material by first testing a
sample of the material.
Table I - 1
Sound Velocities of Various Materials
(Longitudinal Wave Velocity)
Material
V(in./µsec)
V(m/sec)
Acrylic resin (Perspex)
0.107
2730
Aluminum
0.249
6320
Beryllium
0.508
12900
Brass, naval
0.174
4430
Copper
0.183
4660
Diamond
0.709
18000
Glycerin
0.076
1920
Inconel®
0.229
5820
Iron, Cast (slow)
0.138
3500
Model 35 Series
Page I-1
910-261D
September 2006
Table I - 1 (cont.)
Sound Velocities of Various Materials
(Longitudinal Wave Velocity)
Material
V(in./µsec)
V(m/sec)
Iron, Cast (fast)
0.220
5600
Iron oxide (magnetite)
0.232
5890
Lead
0.085
2160
Lucite®
0.106
2680
Molybdenum
0.246
6250
Motor oil (SAE 20/30)
0.069
1740
Nickel, pure
0.222
5630
Polyamide (slow)
0.087
2200
Nylon, fast
0.102
2600
Polyethylene, high density
(HDPE)
0.097
2460
Polyethylene, low density
(LDPE)
0.082
2080
Polystyrene
0.092
2340
Polyvinylchloride, (PVC,
hard)
0.094
2395
Rubber (polybutadiene)
0.063
1610
Silicon
0.379
9620
Page I-2
Model 35 Series
September 2006
910-261D
Table I - 1 (cont.)
Sound Velocities of Various Materials
(Longitudinal Wave Velocity)
Material
V(in./µsec)
V(m/sec)
Silicone
0.058
1485
Steel, 1020
0.232
5890
Steel, 4340
0.230
5850
Steel, 302 austenitic stainless
0.223
5660
Steel, 347 austenitic stainless
0.226
5740
Tin
0.131
3320
Titanium, Ti 150A
0.240
6100
Tungsten
0.204
5180
Water (20°C)
0.0580
1480
Zinc
0.164
4170
Zirconium
0.183
4650
References
1. W.P. Mason, Physical Acoustics and the Properties of Solids, D.
Van Nostrand Co., New York, 1958.
2. E.P. Papadakis, Panametrics - unpublished notes, 1972.
3. J.R. Fredericks, Ultrasonic Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, 1965.
Model 35 Series
Page I-3
910-261D
September 2006
4. D. L. Folds, "Experimental Determination of Ultrasonic Wave
Velocities in Plastics, Elastomers, and Syntactic Foam as a
Function of Temperature", Naval Research and Development
Laboratory, Panama City, Florida, 1971.
5. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio, 1963.
Page I-4
Model 35 Series
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