User`s manual FLIR Tools - FLIR Customer Support Center

User`s manual FLIR Tools - FLIR Customer Support Center
User’s manual
FLIR Tools
Program version 1.1
Publ. No.
Revision
Language
Issue date
T559600
a511
English (EN)
March 2, 2011
FLIR Tools
User’s manual
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
Legal disclaimer
All products manufactured by FLIR Systems are warranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the
delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordance with
FLIR Systems instruction.
Products which are not manufactured by FLIR Systems but included in systems delivered by FLIR Systems to the original purchaser, carry
the warranty, if any, of the particular supplier only. FLIR Systems has no responsibility whatsoever for such products.
The warranty extends only to the original purchaser and is not transferable. It is not applicable to any product which has been subjected to
misuse, neglect, accident or abnormal conditions of operation. Expendable parts are excluded from the warranty.
In the case of a defect in a product covered by this warranty the product must not be further used in order to prevent additional damage. The
purchaser shall promptly report any defect to FLIR Systems or this warranty will not apply.
FLIR Systems will, at its option, repair or replace any such defective product free of charge if, upon inspection, it proves to be defective in
material or workmanship and provided that it is returned to FLIR Systems within the said one-year period.
FLIR Systems has no other obligation or liability for defects than those set forth above.
No other warranty is expressed or implied. FLIR Systems specifically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose.
FLIR Systems shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential loss or damage, whether based on contract, tort
or any other legal theory.
This warranty shall be governed by Swedish law.
Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in connection with this warranty, shall be finally settled by arbitration in accordance with
the Rules of the Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. The place of arbitration shall be Stockholm. The language to
be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be English.
Copyright
© 2011, FLIR Systems. All rights reserved worldwide. No parts of the software including source code may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed
or translated into any language or computer language in any form or by any means, electronic, magnetic, optical, manual or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of FLIR Systems.
This documentation must not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or transmitted to any electronic medium or
machine readable form without prior consent, in writing, from FLIR Systems.
Names and marks appearing on the products herein are either registered trademarks or trademarks of FLIR Systems and/or its subsidiaries.
All other trademarks, trade names or company names referenced herein are used for identification only and are the property of their respective
owners.
Quality assurance
The Quality Management System under which these products are developed and manufactured has been certified in accordance with the
ISO 9001 standard.
FLIR Systems is committed to a policy of continuous development; therefore we reserve the right to make changes and improvements on
any of the products described in this manual without prior notice.
Patents
One or several of the following patents or design patents apply to the products and/or features described in this manual:
0002258-2; 000279476-0001; 000439161; 000499579-0001; 000653423; 000726344; 000859020; 000889290; 001106306-0001; 001707738;
001707746; 001707787; 001776519; 0101577-5; 0102150-0; 0200629-4; 0300911-5; 0302837-0; 1144833; 1182246; 1182620; 1188086;
1285345; 1287138; 1299699; 1325808; 1336775; 1365299; 1402918; 1404291; 1678485; 1732314; 200530018812.0; 200830143636.7;
2106017; 235308; 3006596; 3006597; 466540; 483782; 484155; 518836; 60004227.8; 60122153.2; 602004011681.5-08; 6707044; 68657;
7034300; 7110035; 7154093; 7157705; 7237946; 7312822; 7332716; 7336823; 7544944; 75530; 7667198; 7809258; 7826736; D540838;
D549758; D579475; D584755; D599,392; DI6702302-9; DI6703574-4; DI6803572-1; DI6803853-4; DI6903617-9; DM/057692; DM/061609;
ZL00809178.1; ZL01823221.3; ZL01823226.4; ZL02331553.9; ZL02331554.7; ZL200480034894.0; ZL200530120994.2; ZL200630130114.4;
ZL200730151141.4; ZL200730339504.7; ZL200830128581.2.
iv
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
Table of contents
1
Notice to user ..................................................................................................................................
1
2
Customer help ................................................................................................................................
2
3
Documentation updates .................................................................................................................
3
4
What is FLIR Tools? ........................................................................................................................
4
5
Quick Start Guide ...........................................................................................................................
5
6
Workflow ..........................................................................................................................................
6
7
Installation .......................................................................................................................................
7.1
System requirements ...........................................................................................................
7.2
Installation of FLIR Tools .......................................................................................................
7.2.1
Windows XP installation ........................................................................................
7.2.2
Windows Vista installation ....................................................................................
7
7
8
8
9
8
Supported file formats ................................................................................................................... 10
9
Window elements and toolbar buttons ........................................................................................
9.1
Window elements: The Library tab ......................................................................................
9.2
Window elements: The image-editing window ....................................................................
9.3
Toolbar buttons (in the image-editing window) ...................................................................
11
11
12
13
10 Importing images from the camera .............................................................................................. 14
11 Managing images and folders .......................................................................................................
11.1 Moving images .....................................................................................................................
11.2 Deleting images ....................................................................................................................
11.3 Deleting a directory ..............................................................................................................
11.4 Creating a subfolder .............................................................................................................
15
15
16
17
18
12 Analyzing images ...........................................................................................................................
12.1 Laying out a measurement tool ............................................................................................
12.2 Moving a measurement tool .................................................................................................
12.3 Resizing an measurement tool .............................................................................................
12.4 Deleting a measurement tool ...............................................................................................
12.5 Changing the temperature levels .........................................................................................
12.6 Auto-adjusting an image ......................................................................................................
12.7 Changing the palette ............................................................................................................
19
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
13 Creating an image sheet ................................................................................................................ 26
14 Creating reports .............................................................................................................................. 27
15 Updating the camera and PC software ........................................................................................ 28
16 About FLIR Store ............................................................................................................................ 29
17 Changing settings .......................................................................................................................... 30
18 About FLIR Systems ....................................................................................................................... 31
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
v
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
More than just an infrared camera .......................................................................................
Sharing our knowledge ........................................................................................................
Supporting our customers ...................................................................................................
A few images from our facilities ...........................................................................................
32
33
33
33
19 Glossary ........................................................................................................................................... 35
20 Thermographic measurement techniques ...................................................................................
20.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................
20.2 Emissivity ..............................................................................................................................
20.2.1 Finding the emissivity of a sample .......................................................................
20.2.1.1
Step 1: Determining reflected apparent temperature .......................
20.2.1.2
Step 2: Determining the emissivity ...................................................
20.3 Reflected apparent temperature ..........................................................................................
20.4 Distance ................................................................................................................................
20.5 Relative humidity ..................................................................................................................
20.6 Other parameters ..................................................................................................................
39
39
39
40
40
42
43
43
43
43
21 History of infrared technology ...................................................................................................... 44
22 Theory of thermography ................................................................................................................
22.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................
22.2 The electromagnetic spectrum ............................................................................................
22.3 Blackbody radiation ..............................................................................................................
22.3.1 Planck’s law ..........................................................................................................
22.3.2 Wien’s displacement law ......................................................................................
22.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann's law .........................................................................................
22.3.4 Non-blackbody emitters .......................................................................................
22.4 Infrared semi-transparent materials .....................................................................................
48
48
48
49
50
51
53
54
56
23 The measurement formula ............................................................................................................. 58
24 Emissivity tables .............................................................................................................................
24.1 References ............................................................................................................................
24.2 Important note about the emissivity tables ..........................................................................
24.3 Tables ....................................................................................................................................
vi
64
64
64
65
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1
Notice to user
Typographical
conventions
This manual uses the following typographical conventions:
■
■
■
■
User-to-user
forums
Semibold is used for menu names, menu commands and labels, and buttons in
dialog boxes.
Italic is used for important information.
Monospace is used for code samples.
UPPER CASE is used for names on keys and buttons.
Exchange ideas, problems, and infrared solutions with fellow thermographers around
the world in our user-to-user forums. To go to the forums, visit:
http://www.infraredtraining.com/community/boards/
Training
To read about infrared training, visit:
■
■
■
Additional license
information
http://www.infraredtraining.com
http://www.irtraining.com
http://www.irtraining.eu
This license permits the user to install and use the software on any compatible
computer, provided the software is used on a maximum of two (2) computers at the
same time (for example, one laptop computer for on-site data acquisition, and one
desktop computer for analysis in the office).
One (1) back-up copy of the software may also be made for archive purposes.
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
1
2
Customer help
General
For customer help, visit:
http://support.flir.com
Submitting a
question
To submit a question to the customer help team, you must be a registered user. It
only takes a few minutes to register online. If you only want to search the knowledgebase for existing questions and answers, you do not need to be a registered user.
When you want to submit a question, make sure that you have the following information to hand:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Downloads
On the customer help site you can also download the following:
■
■
■
■
■
2
The camera model
The camera serial number
The communication protocol, or method, between the camera and your PC (for
example, HDMI, Ethernet, USB™, or FireWire™)
Operating system on your PC
Microsoft® Office version
Full name, publication number, and revision number of the manual
Firmware updates for your infrared camera
Program updates for your PC software
User documentation
Application stories
Technical publications
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
3
Documentation updates
General
Our manuals are updated several times per year, and we also issue product-critical
notifications of changes on a regular basis.
To access the latest manuals and notifications, go to the Download tab at:
http://support.flir.com
It only takes a few minutes to register online. In the download area you will also find
the latest releases of manuals for our other products, as well as manuals for our
historical and obsolete products.
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
3
4
What is FLIR Tools?
T638842;a3
FLIR Tools is a software suite specifically designed to provide an easy way to update
your camera and create inspection reports.
Examples of what you can do in FLIR Tools include the following:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Import images from your camera to your computer.
Apply filters when searching for images.
Lay out, move, and resize measurement tools on any infrared image.
Create PDF imagesheets of any images of your choice.
Add headers, footers, and logos to the imagesheets.
Create PDF reports of any images of your choice.
Add headers, footers, and logotypes to the report.
Update your camera with the latest firmware.
Browse and purchase infrared cameras, software, and accessories in our webshop.
4
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5
Quick Start Guide
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1
Install FLIR Tools on your computer.
2
Connect your camera to the computer, using a USB cable.
3
Start FLIR Tools.
4
Click Import and follow the on-screen instructions to move the images from
the camera to a destination folder on your computer.
5
On the Library tab, select the images that you want to include in your report.
6
Right-click the set of images and select Create report.
7
Attach the PDF file to an e-mail in your e-mail client and send the report to
your client.
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5
6
Workflow
General
When you carry out an infrared inspection you follow a typical workflow. This section
gives an example of an infrared inspection workflow.
Figure
T638833;a1
Explanation
This table explains the figure above:
6
1
Use your camera to take your infrared images and/or digital photos.
2
Connect you camera to a PC using a USB connector.
3
Import the images from the camera into FLIR Tools.
4
Create a PDF report in FLIR Tools.
5
Send the report to your client as an attachment to an e-mail.
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7
Installation
7.1
System requirements
Operating system
FLIR Tools supports USB 2.0 communication for the following PC operating systems:
■
■
■
■
Hardware
Microsoft Windows XP, 32-bit, SP3
Windows Vista, 32-bit, SP1
Windows 7, 32-bit
Windows 7, 64-bit
Microsoft Windows XP:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Personal computer with an Intel 800 MHz Pentium processor, or an AMD Opteron,
AMD Athlon 64, or AMD Athlon XP processor
1 GB of RAM
20 GB of available hard disk space
CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive
Super VGA (1024 × 768) or higher-resolution monitor
Internet access required for web updates
Keyboard and Microsoft mouse, or a compatible pointing device
Microsoft Windows Vista:
■
■
■
■
■
Personal computer with a 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) processor
1 GB of RAM
40 GB hard disk, with at least 15 GB of available hard disk space
DVD-ROM drive
Support for DirectX 9 graphics with:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
WDDM driver
128 MB of graphics memory (minimum)
Pixel Shader 2.0 in hardware
32 bits per pixel
SVGA (1024 × 768) or higher-resolution monitor
Internet access (fees may apply)
Audio output
Keyboard and mouse, or a compatible pointing device
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7
7 – Installation
7.2
Installation of FLIR Tools
7.2.1
Windows XP installation
NOTE
Before you install FLIR Tools, do the following:
1 Close all programs.
2 Uninstall any previous versions of FLIR Tools.
3 Uninstall any drivers and language packs related to FLIR Tools.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to install FLIR Tools:
1
Insert the FLIR Tools installation CD/DVD into the CD/DVD drive. The installation should start automatically.
If the installation does not start automatically, follow this procedure:
1
2
3
4
2
Double-click My Computer on the Desktop.
Right-click the CD/DVD drive and click Explore.
Double-click SETUP.EXE.
Go to Step 2 below.
FLIR Tools requires some prerequisites.
If they are not already installed on your computer, click OK when asked if
you want to install the software.
3
FLIR Tools requires Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0.
If this software is not already installed on your computer, click OK when
asked if you want to install the software.
Installation of Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 can take several minutes.
8
4
In the FLIR Tools installation wizard dialog box, click Next.
5
In the license agreement dialog box, carefully read and accept the license
agreement and click Next.
6
In the customer information dialog box, enter your customer details and
click Next.
7
Click Install.
8
Click Finish.
9
If you are asked to restart your computer, do so.
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7 – Installation
7.2.2
Windows Vista installation
General
Before you install FLIR Tools, close all programs.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to install FLIR Tools:
1
Insert the FLIR Tools installation CD/DVD into the CD/DVD drive. The installation should start automatically.
2
In the Autoplay dialog box, click Run setup.exe (Published by FLIR Systems).
3
In the User Account Control dialog box, confirm that you want to install
FLIR Tools.
4
In the Ready to Install the Program dialog box, click Install.
5
Click Finish. The installation is now complete. If you are asked to restart
your computer, do so.
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9
8
Supported file formats
General
FLIR Tools supports several radiometric and non-radiometric file formats.
Radiometric file
formats
FLIR Tools supports the following radiometric file formats:
■
■
■
Non-radiometric
file formats
FLIR Tools supports the following non-radiometric file formats:
■
■
NOTE
10
FLIR radiometric *.jpg
FLIR radiometric *.img
FLIR radiometric *.fff
*.jpg
*.pdf (as reports and image sheets)
Radiometric *.jpg images that are merged from an infrared image and a digital photo
will be correctly displayed in FLIR Tools.
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9
Window elements and toolbar
buttons
9.1
Window elements: The Library tab
Figure
T638827;a3
Explanation
This table explains the figure above:
1
Folder pane
2
Program tabs:
■
■
Library
FLIR Store
3
Image window in the thumbnail view of selected folders
4
Menu bar:
■
■
■
Full screen
Options
Help
5
Image window detail view of the specific image selected
6
Measurement and parameters pane
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11
9 – Window elements and toolbar buttons
9.2
Window elements: The image-editing window
Figure
T638828;a1
Explanation
This table explains the figure above:
12
1
Measurement toolbar
2
Measurement and parameters pane
3
Temperature scale
4
Cancel button
5
Save and close button
6
Auto-adjust button, to adjust the image for the best brightness and contrast
7
Temperature span and level control
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9 – Window elements and toolbar buttons
9.3
Toolbar buttons (in the image-editing window)
Figure
T638831;a2
Explanation
This table explains the figure above:
1
Selection tool
2
Spotmeter tool
3
Line tool
4
Area tool
5
Circle and ellipsis tool
6
Fusion/Picture-in-Picture tool
7
Color palette tool
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13
10
Importing images from the
camera
Procedure
Follow this procedure to import images from the camera to a computer:
NOTE
14
1
In the camera, set the USB mode to Mass Storage Device (MSD) or Mass
Storage Device-UVC (MSD-UVC).
2
Connect a USB cable to the USB connector on the connector panel of the
camera.
3
Connect the other end of the USB cable to its connector on the connector
panel of a computer.
4
Start FLIR Tools.
5
Click Import and follow the on-screen instructions.
In some cameras you can save the images onto a memory card. If this is the case,
you can remove the card from the camera and insert it into a card reader that is
connected to the PC. Then select the card drive as in the procedure above.
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11
Managing images and folders
11.1
Moving images
General
You can move one image or a group of images from the image pane to a destination
folder.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to move one image or a group of images:
1
Go to the Library tab.
2
In the image window, select the image or images that you want to move.
3
Move the image/images to the destination folder using a drag-and-drop
operation.
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11 – Managing images and folders
11.2
Deleting images
General
You can delete one image or a group of images.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to delete one image or a group of images:
1
Go to the Library tab.
2
In the image window, select the image or images that you want to delete.
3
Do one of the following
■
■
NOTE
■
■
16
Press the DELETE key and confirm that you want to delete the image
or images.
Right-click the image or images, select Delete, and confirm that you
want to delete the image or images.
When you delete an image or a group of images, you can restore them from the
computer’s Recycle Bin.
You can also remove images by deleting the path under Options > Library. Removing the path does not delete the images.
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11 – Managing images and folders
11.3
Deleting a directory
General
You can delete a directory from the library.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to delete a directory:
NOTE
1
Go to the Library tab.
2
Right-click a directory and select Delete directory.
You can also remove a directory by deleting the path under Options > Library. Removing the path does not delete the images.
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17
11 – Managing images and folders
11.4
Creating a subfolder
General
You can create a subfolder to an existing directory in the library.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to create a subfolder:
18
1
Go to the Library tab.
2
Right-click a directory and select Create subfolder.
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12
Analyzing images
12.1
Laying out a measurement tool
General
You can lay out one or more measurement tools on the image, e.g., a spotmeter, an
area, a circle, a line, etc.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to lay out a measurement tool:
1
On the Library tab, double-click an image.
2
On the image toolbar, select a measurement tool.
3
To lay out the measurement tool on the image, click the location where the
measurement tool is to be placed.
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12 – Analyzing images
12.2
Moving a measurement tool
General
Measurement tools that you have laid out on the image can be moved around, using
the selection tool.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to move a measurement tool:
1
On the Library tab, double-click an image.
2
On the image toolbar, select
3
20
.
On the image, select the measurement tool and drag it to a new position.
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12 – Analyzing images
12.3
Resizing an measurement tool
General
Measurement tools that you have laid out on the image, such as an area, can be resized using the selection tool.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to resize a measurement area:
1
On the Library tab, double-click an image.
2
On the image toolbar, select
3
.
On the image, select the measurement area and use the selection tool to
drag the handles that are displayed around the frame of the area:
T638838;a1
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21
12 – Analyzing images
12.4
Deleting a measurement tool
General
You can delete any measurement tools that you have laid out on the image.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to delete a measurement tool:
1
On the Library tab, double-click an image.
2
On the image toolbar, select
3
22
.
On the image, select the measurement tool and press DELETE.
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12 – Analyzing images
12.5
Changing the temperature levels
General
At the bottom of the infrared image you will see two sliders. By dragging these sliders
to the left or to the right you can change the top and bottom levels in the temperature
scale.
Figure
T638839;a1
Changing the top
level
Follow this procedure:
Changing the
bottom level
Follow this procedure:
Changing both the
top and bottom
levels at the same
time
Follow this procedure:
NOTE
■
Drag the right slider right or left to change the top level in the temperature scale.
Drag the left slider right or left to change the bottom level in the temperature scale.
SHIFT-drag the left or right slider right or left to change both the top and the bottom
levels in the temperature scale at the same time.
■
You can also use the mouse scrollwheel to adjust the temperature levels.
You can double-click the temperature levels scale to auto-adjust the image.
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23
12 – Analyzing images
12.6
Auto-adjusting an image
General
You can auto-adjust an image or a group of images. When you auto-adjust an image
you adjust it for the best image brightness and contrast.
Figure
T638839;a1
Procedure
To auto-adjust the image, do one of the following:
■
■
24
Double-click the temperature levels scale (pictured above).
Click the Auto button.
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12 – Analyzing images
12.7
Changing the palette
General
You can change the palette that the camera uses to display the different temperatures
within an image. A different palette can make it easier to analyze the image.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to change the palette:
1
On the Library tab, double-click an image.
2
In the image window, select a new palette on the top toolbar:
T638836;a1
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25
13
Creating an image sheet
General
You can create an image sheet of one or more images in your folders.
The image sheets are saved in Adobe PDF format. To download the free reader, go
to:
http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/
Figure
This figure shows a typical image sheet:
T638840;a1
Procedure
26
Follow this procedure to create an image sheet:
1
Under Options > Report, select the page size and a logo, and add any
infomation that you want in the headers and footers.
2
On the Library tab, select the image or images that you want to include in
your image sheet.
3
Right-click the image or images and select Create imagesheet. The imagesheet will now be created as a PDF file.
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14
Creating reports
General
You can create a report of one or more images in your folders.
The image sheets are saved in Adobe PDF format. To download the free reader, go
to:
http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/
Figure
This figure shows a typical report:
T638841;a1
Procedure
Follow this procedure to create an image sheet:
1
Under Options > Report, select the page size and a logo, and add any
infomation that you want in the headers and footers.
2
On the Library tab, select the image or images that you want to include in
your report.
3
Right-click the image or images and select Create report. The report will
now be created as a PDF file.
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27
15
Updating the camera and PC
software
General
You can update FLIR Tools with the latest service packs.
Using FLIR Tools, you can also update your infrared camera with the latest firmware.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to update FLIR Tools:
1
Start FLIR Tools.
2
On the Help menu, select Check for updates.
3
Follow the on-screen instructions.
NOTE
Before updating the camera you must update FLIR Tools.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to update your infrared camera:
28
1
Connect your infrared camera to the PC
2
Start FLIR Tools.
3
On the Help menu, select Check for updates.
4
Follow the on-screen instructions.
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About FLIR Store
General
By clicking FLIR Store you are taken to FLIR Systems webshop.
Here you can browse our cameras, software, and accessories, and place orders.
Figure
T638835;a1
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17
Changing settings
General
You can change a variety of settings relating to report and imagesheet creation, as
well as general settings relating to the software.
Procedure
Follow this procedure to change settings:
1
On the menu bar, click Options.
2
In the dialog box, do one or more of the following:
■
■
■
■
30
Set which folders shall be included in the library pane.
Set defaults for page size, logotypes, headers, and footers
Set temperature and distance units
Set language
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About FLIR Systems
FLIR Systems was established in 1978 to pioneer the development of high-performance
infrared imaging systems, and is the world leader in the design, manufacture, and
marketing of thermal imaging systems for a wide variety of commercial, industrial,
and government applications. Today, FLIR Systems embraces five major companies
with outstanding achievements in infrared technology since 1958—the Swedish
AGEMA Infrared Systems (formerly AGA Infrared Systems), the three United States
companies Indigo Systems, FSI, and Inframetrics, and the French company Cedip.
In November 2007, Extech Instruments was acquired by FLIR Systems.
T638608;a1
Figure 18.1 Patent documents from the early 1960s
The company has sold more than 135 832 infrared cameras worldwide for applications
such as predictive maintenance, R & D, non-destructive testing, process control and
automation, and machine vision, among many others.
FLIR Systems has three manufacturing plants in the United States (Portland, OR,
Boston, MA, Santa Barbara, CA) and one in Sweden (Stockholm). Since 2007 there
is also a manufacturing plant in Tallinn, Estonia. Direct sales offices in Belgium, Brazil,
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18 – About FLIR Systems
China, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and
the USA—together with a worldwide network of agents and distributors—support our
international customer base.
FLIR Systems is at the forefront of innovation in the infrared camera industry. We anticipate market demand by constantly improving our existing cameras and developing
new ones. The company has set milestones in product design and development such
as the introduction of the first battery-operated portable camera for industrial inspections, and the first uncooled infrared camera, to mention just two innovations.
10722703;a2
Figure 18.2 LEFT: Thermovision® Model 661 from 1969. The camera weighed approximately 25 kg
(55 lb.), the oscilloscope 20 kg (44 lb.), and the tripod 15 kg (33 lb.). The operator also needed a 220 VAC
generator set, and a 10 L (2.6 US gallon) jar with liquid nitrogen. To the left of the oscilloscope the Polaroid
attachment (6 kg/13 lb.) can be seen. RIGHT: FLIR i7 from 2009. Weight: 0.34 kg (0.75 lb.), including the
battery.
FLIR Systems manufactures all vital mechanical and electronic components of the
camera systems itself. From detector design and manufacturing, to lenses and system
electronics, to final testing and calibration, all production steps are carried out and
supervised by our own engineers. The in-depth expertise of these infrared specialists
ensures the accuracy and reliability of all vital components that are assembled into
your infrared camera.
18.1
More than just an infrared camera
At FLIR Systems we recognize that our job is to go beyond just producing the best
infrared camera systems. We are committed to enabling all users of our infrared
camera systems to work more productively by providing them with the most powerful
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18 – About FLIR Systems
camera–software combination. Especially tailored software for predictive maintenance,
R & D, and process monitoring is developed in-house. Most software is available in
a wide variety of languages.
We support all our infrared cameras with a wide variety of accessories to adapt your
equipment to the most demanding infrared applications.
18.2
Sharing our knowledge
Although our cameras are designed to be very user-friendly, there is a lot more to
thermography than just knowing how to handle a camera. Therefore, FLIR Systems
has founded the Infrared Training Center (ITC), a separate business unit, that provides
certified training courses. Attending one of the ITC courses will give you a truly handson learning experience.
The staff of the ITC are also there to provide you with any application support you
may need in putting infrared theory into practice.
18.3
Supporting our customers
FLIR Systems operates a worldwide service network to keep your camera running at
all times. If you discover a problem with your camera, local service centers have all
the equipment and expertise to solve it within the shortest possible time. Therefore,
there is no need to send your camera to the other side of the world or to talk to
someone who does not speak your language.
18.4
A few images from our facilities
10401303;a1
Figure 18.3 LEFT: Development of system electronics; RIGHT: Testing of an FPA detector
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18 – About FLIR Systems
10401403;a1
Figure 18.4 LEFT: Diamond turning machine; RIGHT: Lens polishing
10401503;a1
Figure 18.5 LEFT: Testing of infrared cameras in the climatic chamber; RIGHT: Robot used for camera
testing and calibration
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19
Glossary
Term or expression
Explanation
absorption (absorption factor)
The amount of radiation absorbed by an object relative to the
received radiation. A number between 0 and 1.
atmosphere
The gases between the object being measured and the camera,
normally air.
autoadjust
A function making a camera perform an internal image correction.
autopalette
The IR image is shown with an uneven spread of colors, displaying cold objects as well as hot ones at the same time.
blackbody
Totally non-reflective object. All its radiation is due to its own
temperature.
blackbody radiator
An IR radiating equipment with blackbody properties used to
calibrate IR cameras.
calculated atmospheric transmission
A transmission value computed from the temperature, the relative
humidity of air and the distance to the object.
cavity radiator
A bottle shaped radiator with an absorbing inside, viewed
through the bottleneck.
color temperature
The temperature for which the color of a blackbody matches a
specific color.
conduction
The process that makes heat diffuse into a material.
continuous adjust
A function that adjusts the image. The function works all the
time, continuously adjusting brightness and contrast according
to the image content.
convection
Convection is a heat transfer mode where a fluid is brought into
motion, either by gravity or another force, thereby transferring
heat from one place to another.
dual isotherm
An isotherm with two color bands, instead of one.
emissivity (emissivity factor)
The amount of radiation coming from an object, compared to
that of a blackbody. A number between 0 and 1.
emittance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time and
area (W/m2)
environment
Objects and gases that emit radiation towards the object being
measured.
estimated atmospheric transmission
A transmission value, supplied by a user, replacing a calculated
one
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19 – Glossary
Term or expression
Explanation
external optics
Extra lenses, filters, heat shields etc. that can be put between
the camera and the object being measured.
filter
A material transparent only to some of the infrared wavelengths.
FOV
Field of view: The horizontal angle that can be viewed through
an IR lens.
FPA
Focal plane array: A type of IR detector.
graybody
An object that emits a fixed fraction of the amount of energy of
a blackbody for each wavelength.
IFOV
Instantaneous field of view: A measure of the geometrical resolution of an IR camera.
image correction (internal or external)
A way of compensating for sensitivity differences in various parts
of live images and also of stabilizing the camera.
infrared
Non-visible radiation, having a wavelength from about 2–13 μm.
IR
infrared
isotherm
A function highlighting those parts of an image that fall above,
below or between one or more temperature intervals.
isothermal cavity
A bottle-shaped radiator with a uniform temperature viewed
through the bottleneck.
Laser LocatIR
An electrically powered light source on the camera that emits
laser radiation in a thin, concentrated beam to point at certain
parts of the object in front of the camera.
laser pointer
An electrically powered light source on the camera that emits
laser radiation in a thin, concentrated beam to point at certain
parts of the object in front of the camera.
level
The center value of the temperature scale, usually expressed
as a signal value.
manual adjust
A way to adjust the image by manually changing certain parameters.
NETD
Noise equivalent temperature difference. A measure of the image
noise level of an IR camera.
noise
Undesired small disturbance in the infrared image
object parameters
A set of values describing the circumstances under which the
measurement of an object was made, and the object itself (such
as emissivity, reflected apparent temperature, distance etc.)
object signal
A non-calibrated value related to the amount of radiation received by the camera from the object.
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19 – Glossary
Term or expression
Explanation
palette
The set of colors used to display an IR image.
pixel
Stands for picture element. One single spot in an image.
radiance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time, area
and angle (W/m2/sr)
radiant power
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time (W)
radiation
The process by which electromagnetic energy, is emitted by an
object or a gas.
radiator
A piece of IR radiating equipment.
range
The current overall temperature measurement limitation of an
IR camera. Cameras can have several ranges. Expressed as
two blackbody temperatures that limit the current calibration.
reference temperature
A temperature which the ordinary measured values can be
compared with.
reflection
The amount of radiation reflected by an object relative to the
received radiation. A number between 0 and 1.
relative humidity
Relative humidity represents the ratio between the current water
vapour mass in the air and the maximum it may contain in saturation conditions.
saturation color
The areas that contain temperatures outside the present level/span settings are colored with the saturation colors. The saturation colors contain an ‘overflow’ color and an ‘underflow’
color. There is also a third red saturation color that marks everything saturated by the detector indicating that the range should
probably be changed.
span
The interval of the temperature scale, usually expressed as a
signal value.
spectral (radiant) emittance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time, area
and wavelength (W/m2/μm)
temperature difference, or difference
of temperature.
A value which is the result of a subtraction between two temperature values.
temperature range
The current overall temperature measurement limitation of an
IR camera. Cameras can have several ranges. Expressed as
two blackbody temperatures that limit the current calibration.
temperature scale
The way in which an IR image currently is displayed. Expressed
as two temperature values limiting the colors.
thermogram
infrared image
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19 – Glossary
Term or expression
Explanation
transmission (or transmittance) factor
Gases and materials can be more or less transparent. Transmission is the amount of IR radiation passing through them. A
number between 0 and 1.
transparent isotherm
An isotherm showing a linear spread of colors, instead of covering the highlighted parts of the image.
visual
Refers to the video mode of a IR camera, as opposed to the
normal, thermographic mode. When a camera is in video mode
it captures ordinary video images, while thermographic images
are captured when the camera is in IR mode.
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20
Thermographic measurement
techniques
20.1
Introduction
An infrared camera measures and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object.
The fact that radiation is a function of object surface temperature makes it possible
for the camera to calculate and display this temperature.
However, the radiation measured by the camera does not only depend on the temperature of the object but is also a function of the emissivity. Radiation also originates
from the surroundings and is reflected in the object. The radiation from the object
and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere.
To measure temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the
effects of a number of different radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically
by the camera. The following object parameters must, however, be supplied for the
camera:
■
■
■
■
■
The emissivity of the object
The reflected apparent temperature
The distance between the object and the camera
The relative humidity
Temperature of the atmosphere
20.2
Emissivity
The most important object parameter to set correctly is the emissivity which, in short,
is a measure of how much radiation is emitted from the object, compared to that from
a perfect blackbody of the same temperature.
Normally, object materials and surface treatments exhibit emissivity ranging from
approximately 0.1 to 0.95. A highly polished (mirror) surface falls below 0.1, while an
oxidized or painted surface has a higher emissivity. Oil-based paint, regardless of
color in the visible spectrum, has an emissivity over 0.9 in the infrared. Human skin
exhibits an emissivity 0.97 to 0.98.
Non-oxidized metals represent an extreme case of perfect opacity and high reflexivity,
which does not vary greatly with wavelength. Consequently, the emissivity of metals
is low – only increasing with temperature. For non-metals, emissivity tends to be high,
and decreases with temperature.
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20 – Thermographic measurement techniques
20.2.1
Finding the emissivity of a sample
20.2.1.1
Step 1: Determining reflected apparent temperature
Use one of the following two methods to determine reflected apparent temperature:
20.2.1.1.1
1
Method 1: Direct method
Look for possible reflection sources, considering that the incident angle = reflection angle (a
= b).
10588903;a1
Figure 20.1 1 = Reflection source
2
If the reflection source is a spot source, modify the source by obstructing it using a piece if
cardboard.
10589103;a2
Figure 20.2 1 = Reflection source
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20 – Thermographic measurement techniques
3
Measure the radiation intensity (= apparent temperature) from the reflecting source using the
following settings:
■
■
Emissivity: 1.0
Dobj: 0
You can measure the radiation intensity using one of the following two methods:
10589003;a2
Figure 20.3 1 = Reflection source
Note: Using a thermocouple to measure reflected apparent temperature is not recommended for two important reasons:
■
■
A thermocouple does not measure radiation intensity
A thermocouple requires a very good thermal contact to the surface, usually by
gluing and covering the sensor by a thermal isolator.
20.2.1.1.2
Method 2: Reflector method
1
Crumble up a large piece of aluminum foil.
2
Uncrumble the aluminum foil and attach it to a piece of cardboard of the same size.
3
Put the piece of cardboard in front of the object you want to measure. Make sure that the side
with aluminum foil points to the camera.
4
Set the emissivity to 1.0.
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20 – Thermographic measurement techniques
5
Measure the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil and write it down.
10727003;a2
Figure 20.4 Measuring the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil
20.2.1.2
Step 2: Determining the emissivity
1
Select a place to put the sample.
2
Determine and set reflected apparent temperature according to the previous procedure.
3
Put a piece of electrical tape with known high emissivity on the sample.
4
Heat the sample at least 20 K above room temperature. Heating must be reasonably even.
5
Focus and auto-adjust the camera, and freeze the image.
6
Adjust Level and Span for best image brightness and contrast.
7
Set emissivity to that of the tape (usually 0.97).
8
Measure the temperature of the tape using one of the following measurement functions:
■
■
■
Isotherm (helps you to determine both the temperature and how evenly you have heated
the sample)
Spot (simpler)
Box Avg (good for surfaces with varying emissivity).
9
Write down the temperature.
10
Move your measurement function to the sample surface.
11
Change the emissivity setting until you read the same temperature as your previous measurement.
12
Write down the emissivity.
Note:
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20 – Thermographic measurement techniques
■
■
■
■
Avoid forced convection
Look for a thermally stable surrounding that will not generate spot reflections
Use high quality tape that you know is not transparent, and has a high emissivity
you are certain of
This method assumes that the temperature of your tape and the sample surface
are the same. If they are not, your emissivity measurement will be wrong.
20.3
Reflected apparent temperature
This parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected in the object. If the
emissivity is low and the object temperature relatively far from that of the reflected it
will be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent temperature correctly.
20.4
Distance
The distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. This
parameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:
■
■
That radiation from the target is absorbed by the athmosphere between the object
and the camera.
That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.
20.5
Relative humidity
The camera can also compensate for the fact that the transmittance is also dependent
on the relative humidity of the atmosphere. To do this set the relative humidity to the
correct value. For short distances and normal humidity the relative humidity can normally be left at a default value of 50%.
20.6
Other parameters
In addition, some cameras and analysis programs from FLIR Systems allow you to
compensate for the following parameters:
■
■
■
Atmospheric temperature – i.e. the temperature of the atmosphere between the
camera and the target
External optics temperature – i.e. the temperature of any external lenses or windows
used in front of the camera
External optics transmittance – i.e. the transmission of any external lenses or windows used in front of the camera
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21
History of infrared technology
Before the year 1800, the existence of the infrared portion of the electromagnetic
spectrum wasn't even suspected. The original significance of the infrared spectrum,
or simply ‘the infrared’ as it is often called, as a form of heat radiation is perhaps less
obvious today than it was at the time of its discovery by Herschel in 1800.
10398703;a1
Figure 21.1 Sir William Herschel (1738–1822)
The discovery was made accidentally during the search for a new optical material.
Sir William Herschel – Royal Astronomer to King George III of England, and already
famous for his discovery of the planet Uranus – was searching for an optical filter
material to reduce the brightness of the sun’s image in telescopes during solar observations. While testing different samples of colored glass which gave similar reductions
in brightness he was intrigued to find that some of the samples passed very little of
the sun’s heat, while others passed so much heat that he risked eye damage after
only a few seconds’ observation.
Herschel was soon convinced of the necessity of setting up a systematic experiment,
with the objective of finding a single material that would give the desired reduction in
brightness as well as the maximum reduction in heat. He began the experiment by
actually repeating Newton’s prism experiment, but looking for the heating effect rather
than the visual distribution of intensity in the spectrum. He first blackened the bulb of
a sensitive mercury-in-glass thermometer with ink, and with this as his radiation detector he proceeded to test the heating effect of the various colors of the spectrum
formed on the top of a table by passing sunlight through a glass prism. Other thermometers, placed outside the sun’s rays, served as controls.
As the blackened thermometer was moved slowly along the colors of the spectrum,
the temperature readings showed a steady increase from the violet end to the red
end. This was not entirely unexpected, since the Italian researcher, Landriani, in a
similar experiment in 1777 had observed much the same effect. It was Herschel,
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21 – History of infrared technology
however, who was the first to recognize that there must be a point where the heating
effect reaches a maximum, and that measurements confined to the visible portion of
the spectrum failed to locate this point.
10398903;a1
Figure 21.2 Marsilio Landriani (1746–1815)
Moving the thermometer into the dark region beyond the red end of the spectrum,
Herschel confirmed that the heating continued to increase. The maximum point, when
he found it, lay well beyond the red end – in what is known today as the ‘infrared
wavelengths’.
When Herschel revealed his discovery, he referred to this new portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as the ‘thermometrical spectrum’. The radiation itself he sometimes
referred to as ‘dark heat’, or simply ‘the invisible rays’. Ironically, and contrary to
popular opinion, it wasn't Herschel who originated the term ‘infrared’. The word only
began to appear in print around 75 years later, and it is still unclear who should receive
credit as the originator.
Herschel’s use of glass in the prism of his original experiment led to some early
controversies with his contemporaries about the actual existence of the infrared
wavelengths. Different investigators, in attempting to confirm his work, used various
types of glass indiscriminately, having different transparencies in the infrared. Through
his later experiments, Herschel was aware of the limited transparency of glass to the
newly-discovered thermal radiation, and he was forced to conclude that optics for
the infrared would probably be doomed to the use of reflective elements exclusively
(i.e. plane and curved mirrors). Fortunately, this proved to be true only until 1830,
when the Italian investigator, Melloni, made his great discovery that naturally occurring
rock salt (NaCl) – which was available in large enough natural crystals to be made
into lenses and prisms – is remarkably transparent to the infrared. The result was that
rock salt became the principal infrared optical material, and remained so for the next
hundred years, until the art of synthetic crystal growing was mastered in the 1930’s.
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21 – History of infrared technology
10399103;a1
Figure 21.3 Macedonio Melloni (1798–1854)
Thermometers, as radiation detectors, remained unchallenged until 1829, the year
Nobili invented the thermocouple. (Herschel’s own thermometer could be read to
0.2 °C (0.036 °F), and later models were able to be read to 0.05 °C (0.09 °F)). Then
a breakthrough occurred; Melloni connected a number of thermocouples in series
to form the first thermopile. The new device was at least 40 times as sensitive as the
best thermometer of the day for detecting heat radiation – capable of detecting the
heat from a person standing three meters away.
The first so-called ‘heat-picture’ became possible in 1840, the result of work by Sir
John Herschel, son of the discoverer of the infrared and a famous astronomer in his
own right. Based upon the differential evaporation of a thin film of oil when exposed
to a heat pattern focused upon it, the thermal image could be seen by reflected light
where the interference effects of the oil film made the image visible to the eye. Sir
John also managed to obtain a primitive record of the thermal image on paper, which
he called a ‘thermograph’.
10399003;a2
Figure 21.4 Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906)
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The improvement of infrared-detector sensitivity progressed slowly. Another major
breakthrough, made by Langley in 1880, was the invention of the bolometer. This
consisted of a thin blackened strip of platinum connected in one arm of a Wheatstone
bridge circuit upon which the infrared radiation was focused and to which a sensitive
galvanometer responded. This instrument is said to have been able to detect the heat
from a cow at a distance of 400 meters.
An English scientist, Sir James Dewar, first introduced the use of liquefied gases as
cooling agents (such as liquid nitrogen with a temperature of -196 °C (-320.8 °F)) in
low temperature research. In 1892 he invented a unique vacuum insulating container
in which it is possible to store liquefied gases for entire days. The common ‘thermos
bottle’, used for storing hot and cold drinks, is based upon his invention.
Between the years 1900 and 1920, the inventors of the world ‘discovered’ the infrared.
Many patents were issued for devices to detect personnel, artillery, aircraft, ships –
and even icebergs. The first operating systems, in the modern sense, began to be
developed during the 1914–18 war, when both sides had research programs devoted
to the military exploitation of the infrared. These programs included experimental
systems for enemy intrusion/detection, remote temperature sensing, secure communications, and ‘flying torpedo’ guidance. An infrared search system tested during this
period was able to detect an approaching airplane at a distance of 1.5 km (0.94 miles),
or a person more than 300 meters (984 ft.) away.
The most sensitive systems up to this time were all based upon variations of the
bolometer idea, but the period between the two wars saw the development of two
revolutionary new infrared detectors: the image converter and the photon detector.
At first, the image converter received the greatest attention by the military, because
it enabled an observer for the first time in history to literally ‘see in the dark’. However,
the sensitivity of the image converter was limited to the near infrared wavelengths,
and the most interesting military targets (i.e. enemy soldiers) had to be illuminated
by infrared search beams. Since this involved the risk of giving away the observer’s
position to a similarly-equipped enemy observer, it is understandable that military
interest in the image converter eventually faded.
The tactical military disadvantages of so-called 'active’ (i.e. search beam-equipped)
thermal imaging systems provided impetus following the 1939–45 war for extensive
secret military infrared-research programs into the possibilities of developing ‘passive’
(no search beam) systems around the extremely sensitive photon detector. During
this period, military secrecy regulations completely prevented disclosure of the status
of infrared-imaging technology. This secrecy only began to be lifted in the middle of
the 1950’s, and from that time adequate thermal-imaging devices finally began to be
available to civilian science and industry.
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22
Theory of thermography
22.1
Introduction
The subjects of infrared radiation and the related technique of thermography are still
new to many who will use an infrared camera. In this section the theory behind thermography will be given.
22.2
The electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is divided arbitrarily into a number of wavelength regions, called bands, distinguished by the methods used to produce and detect the
radiation. There is no fundamental difference between radiation in the different bands
of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are all governed by the same laws and the
only differences are those due to differences in wavelength.
10067803;a1
Figure 22.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. 1: X-ray; 2: UV; 3: Visible; 4: IR; 5: Microwaves; 6: Radiowaves.
Thermography makes use of the infrared spectral band. At the short-wavelength end
the boundary lies at the limit of visual perception, in the deep red. At the long-wavelength end it merges with the microwave radio wavelengths, in the millimeter range.
The infrared band is often further subdivided into four smaller bands, the boundaries
of which are also arbitrarily chosen. They include: the near infrared (0.75–3 μm), the
middle infrared (3–6 μm), the far infrared (6–15 μm) and the extreme infrared (15–100
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μm). Although the wavelengths are given in μm (micrometers), other units are often
still used to measure wavelength in this spectral region, e.g. nanometer (nm) and
Ångström (Å).
The relationships between the different wavelength measurements is:
22.3
Blackbody radiation
A blackbody is defined as an object which absorbs all radiation that impinges on it
at any wavelength. The apparent misnomer black relating to an object emitting radiation is explained by Kirchhoff’s Law (after Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1824–1887), which
states that a body capable of absorbing all radiation at any wavelength is equally
capable in the emission of radiation.
10398803;a1
Figure 22.2 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824–1887)
The construction of a blackbody source is, in principle, very simple. The radiation
characteristics of an aperture in an isotherm cavity made of an opaque absorbing
material represents almost exactly the properties of a blackbody. A practical application
of the principle to the construction of a perfect absorber of radiation consists of a box
that is light tight except for an aperture in one of the sides. Any radiation which then
enters the hole is scattered and absorbed by repeated reflections so only an infinitesimal fraction can possibly escape. The blackness which is obtained at the aperture
is nearly equal to a blackbody and almost perfect for all wavelengths.
By providing such an isothermal cavity with a suitable heater it becomes what is
termed a cavity radiator. An isothermal cavity heated to a uniform temperature generates blackbody radiation, the characteristics of which are determined solely by the
temperature of the cavity. Such cavity radiators are commonly used as sources of
radiation in temperature reference standards in the laboratory for calibrating thermographic instruments, such as a FLIR Systems camera for example.
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22 – Theory of thermography
If the temperature of blackbody radiation increases to more than 525°C (977°F), the
source begins to be visible so that it appears to the eye no longer black. This is the
incipient red heat temperature of the radiator, which then becomes orange or yellow
as the temperature increases further. In fact, the definition of the so-called color
temperature of an object is the temperature to which a blackbody would have to be
heated to have the same appearance.
Now consider three expressions that describe the radiation emitted from a blackbody.
22.3.1
Planck’s law
10399203;a1
Figure 22.3 Max Planck (1858–1947)
Max Planck (1858–1947) was able to describe the spectral distribution of the radiation
from a blackbody by means of the following formula:
where:
Wλb
Blackbody spectral radiant emittance at wavelength λ.
c
Velocity of light = 3 × 108 m/s
h
Planck’s constant = 6.6 × 10-34 Joule sec.
k
Boltzmann’s constant = 1.4 × 10-23 Joule/K.
T
Absolute temperature (K) of a blackbody.
λ
Wavelength (μm).
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➲ The factor 10-6 is used since spectral emittance in the curves is expressed in
Watt/m2, μm.
Planck’s formula, when plotted graphically for various temperatures, produces a
family of curves. Following any particular Planck curve, the spectral emittance is zero
at λ = 0, then increases rapidly to a maximum at a wavelength λmax and after passing
it approaches zero again at very long wavelengths. The higher the temperature, the
shorter the wavelength at which maximum occurs.
10327103;a4
Figure 22.4 Blackbody spectral radiant emittance according to Planck’s law, plotted for various absolute
temperatures. 1: Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 × 103(μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm)
22.3.2
Wien’s displacement law
By differentiating Planck’s formula with respect to λ, and finding the maximum, we
have:
This is Wien’s formula (after Wilhelm Wien, 1864–1928), which expresses mathematically the common observation that colors vary from red to orange or yellow as the
temperature of a thermal radiator increases. The wavelength of the color is the same
as the wavelength calculated for λmax. A good approximation of the value of λmax for
a given blackbody temperature is obtained by applying the rule-of-thumb 3 000/T
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22 – Theory of thermography
μm. Thus, a very hot star such as Sirius (11 000 K), emitting bluish-white light, radiates
with the peak of spectral radiant emittance occurring within the invisible ultraviolet
spectrum, at wavelength 0.27 μm.
10399403;a1
Figure 22.5 Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928)
The sun (approx. 6 000 K) emits yellow light, peaking at about 0.5 μm in the middle
of the visible light spectrum.
At room temperature (300 K) the peak of radiant emittance lies at 9.7 μm, in the far
infrared, while at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) the maximum of the almost
insignificant amount of radiant emittance occurs at 38 μm, in the extreme infrared
wavelengths.
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10327203;a4
Figure 22.6 Planckian curves plotted on semi-log scales from 100 K to 1000 K. The dotted line represents
the locus of maximum radiant emittance at each temperature as described by Wien's displacement law.
1: Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 (μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm).
22.3.3
Stefan-Boltzmann's law
By integrating Planck’s formula from λ = 0 to λ = ∞, we obtain the total radiant
emittance (Wb) of a blackbody:
This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula (after Josef Stefan, 1835–1893, and Ludwig
Boltzmann, 1844–1906), which states that the total emissive power of a blackbody is
proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. Graphically, Wb represents
the area below the Planck curve for a particular temperature. It can be shown that the
radiant emittance in the interval λ = 0 to λmax is only 25% of the total, which represents
about the amount of the sun’s radiation which lies inside the visible light spectrum.
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22 – Theory of thermography
10399303;a1
Figure 22.7 Josef Stefan (1835–1893), and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)
Using the Stefan-Boltzmann formula to calculate the power radiated by the human
body, at a temperature of 300 K and an external surface area of approx. 2 m2, we
obtain 1 kW. This power loss could not be sustained if it were not for the compensating
absorption of radiation from surrounding surfaces, at room temperatures which do
not vary too drastically from the temperature of the body – or, of course, the addition
of clothing.
22.3.4
Non-blackbody emitters
So far, only blackbody radiators and blackbody radiation have been discussed.
However, real objects almost never comply with these laws over an extended wavelength region – although they may approach the blackbody behavior in certain
spectral intervals. For example, a certain type of white paint may appear perfectly
white in the visible light spectrum, but becomes distinctly gray at about 2 μm, and
beyond 3 μm it is almost black.
There are three processes which can occur that prevent a real object from acting like
a blackbody: a fraction of the incident radiation α may be absorbed, a fraction ρ may
be reflected, and a fraction τ may be transmitted. Since all of these factors are more
or less wavelength dependent, the subscript λ is used to imply the spectral dependence of their definitions. Thus:
■
■
■
The spectral absorptance αλ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power absorbed by
an object to that incident upon it.
The spectral reflectance ρλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power reflected by
an object to that incident upon it.
The spectral transmittance τλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power transmitted
through an object to that incident upon it.
The sum of these three factors must always add up to the whole at any wavelength,
so we have the relation:
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For opaque materials τλ = 0 and the relation simplifies to:
Another factor, called the emissivity, is required to describe the fraction ε of the radiant
emittance of a blackbody produced by an object at a specific temperature. Thus, we
have the definition:
The spectral emissivity ελ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power from an object to
that from a blackbody at the same temperature and wavelength.
Expressed mathematically, this can be written as the ratio of the spectral emittance
of the object to that of a blackbody as follows:
Generally speaking, there are three types of radiation source, distinguished by the
ways in which the spectral emittance of each varies with wavelength.
■
■
■
A blackbody, for which ελ = ε = 1
A graybody, for which ελ = ε = constant less than 1
A selective radiator, for which ε varies with wavelength
According to Kirchhoff’s law, for any material the spectral emissivity and spectral absorptance of a body are equal at any specified temperature and wavelength. That is:
From this we obtain, for an opaque material (since αλ + ρλ = 1):
For highly polished materials ελ approaches zero, so that for a perfectly reflecting
material (i.e. a perfect mirror) we have:
For a graybody radiator, the Stefan-Boltzmann formula becomes:
This states that the total emissive power of a graybody is the same as a blackbody
at the same temperature reduced in proportion to the value of ε from the graybody.
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22 – Theory of thermography
10401203;a2
Figure 22.8 Spectral radiant emittance of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral radiant emittance; 2:
Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Selective radiator; 5: Graybody.
10327303;a4
Figure 22.9 Spectral emissivity of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral emissivity; 2: Wavelength; 3:
Blackbody; 4: Graybody; 5: Selective radiator.
22.4
Infrared semi-transparent materials
Consider now a non-metallic, semi-transparent body – let us say, in the form of a thick
flat plate of plastic material. When the plate is heated, radiation generated within its
volume must work its way toward the surfaces through the material in which it is
partially absorbed. Moreover, when it arrives at the surface, some of it is reflected
back into the interior. The back-reflected radiation is again partially absorbed, but
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some of it arrives at the other surface, through which most of it escapes; part of it is
reflected back again. Although the progressive reflections become weaker and
weaker they must all be added up when the total emittance of the plate is sought.
When the resulting geometrical series is summed, the effective emissivity of a semitransparent plate is obtained as:
When the plate becomes opaque this formula is reduced to the single formula:
This last relation is a particularly convenient one, because it is often easier to measure
reflectance than to measure emissivity directly.
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23
The measurement formula
As already mentioned, when viewing an object, the camera receives radiation not
only from the object itself. It also collects radiation from the surroundings reflected
via the object surface. Both these radiation contributions become attenuated to some
extent by the atmosphere in the measurement path. To this comes a third radiation
contribution from the atmosphere itself.
This description of the measurement situation, as illustrated in the figure below, is so
far a fairly true description of the real conditions. What has been neglected could for
instance be sun light scattering in the atmosphere or stray radiation from intense radiation sources outside the field of view. Such disturbances are difficult to quantify,
however, in most cases they are fortunately small enough to be neglected. In case
they are not negligible, the measurement configuration is likely to be such that the
risk for disturbance is obvious, at least to a trained operator. It is then his responsibility to modify the measurement situation to avoid the disturbance e.g. by changing
the viewing direction, shielding off intense radiation sources etc.
Accepting the description above, we can use the figure below to derive a formula for
the calculation of the object temperature from the calibrated camera output.
10400503;a1
Figure 23.1 A schematic representation of the general thermographic measurement situation.1: Surroundings; 2: Object; 3: Atmosphere; 4: Camera
Assume that the received radiation power W from a blackbody source of temperature
Tsource on short distance generates a camera output signal Usource that is proportional
to the power input (power linear camera). We can then write (Equation 1):
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23 – The measurement formula
or, with simplified notation:
where C is a constant.
Should the source be a graybody with emittance ε, the received radiation would
consequently be εWsource.
We are now ready to write the three collected radiation power terms:
1 – Emission from the object = ετWobj, where ε is the emittance of the object and τ
is the transmittance of the atmosphere. The object temperature is Tobj.
2 – Reflected emission from ambient sources = (1 – ε)τWrefl, where (1 – ε) is the reflectance of the object. The ambient sources have the temperature Trefl.
It has here been assumed that the temperature Trefl is the same for all emitting surfaces
within the halfsphere seen from a point on the object surface. This is of course
sometimes a simplification of the true situation. It is, however, a necessary simplification
in order to derive a workable formula, and Trefl can – at least theoretically – be given
a value that represents an efficient temperature of a complex surrounding.
Note also that we have assumed that the emittance for the surroundings = 1. This is
correct in accordance with Kirchhoff’s law: All radiation impinging on the surrounding
surfaces will eventually be absorbed by the same surfaces. Thus the emittance = 1.
(Note though that the latest discussion requires the complete sphere around the object
to be considered.)
3 – Emission from the atmosphere = (1 – τ)τWatm, where (1 – τ) is the emittance of
the atmosphere. The temperature of the atmosphere is Tatm.
The total received radiation power can now be written (Equation 2):
We multiply each term by the constant C of Equation 1 and replace the CW products
by the corresponding U according to the same equation, and get (Equation 3):
Solve Equation 3 for Uobj (Equation 4):
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23 – The measurement formula
This is the general measurement formula used in all the FLIR Systems thermographic
equipment. The voltages of the formula are:
Figure 23.2 Voltages
Uobj
Calculated camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Tobj i.e. a voltage that can be directly converted into true requested
object temperature.
Utot
Measured camera output voltage for the actual case.
Urefl
Theoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Trefl according to the calibration.
Uatm
Theoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Tatm according to the calibration.
The operator has to supply a number of parameter values for the calculation:
■
■
■
■
■
■
the object emittance ε,
the relative humidity,
Tatm
object distance (Dobj)
the (effective) temperature of the object surroundings, or the reflected ambient
temperature Trefl, and
the temperature of the atmosphere Tatm
This task could sometimes be a heavy burden for the operator since there are normally
no easy ways to find accurate values of emittance and atmospheric transmittance for
the actual case. The two temperatures are normally less of a problem provided the
surroundings do not contain large and intense radiation sources.
A natural question in this connection is: How important is it to know the right values
of these parameters? It could though be of interest to get a feeling for this problem
already here by looking into some different measurement cases and compare the
relative magnitudes of the three radiation terms. This will give indications about when
it is important to use correct values of which parameters.
The figures below illustrates the relative magnitudes of the three radiation contributions
for three different object temperatures, two emittances, and two spectral ranges: SW
and LW. Remaining parameters have the following fixed values:
■
■
■
τ = 0.88
Trefl = +20°C (+68°F)
Tatm = +20°C (+68°F)
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It is obvious that measurement of low object temperatures are more critical than
measuring high temperatures since the ‘disturbing’ radiation sources are relatively
much stronger in the first case. Should also the object emittance be low, the situation
would be still more difficult.
We have finally to answer a question about the importance of being allowed to use
the calibration curve above the highest calibration point, what we call extrapolation.
Imagine that we in a certain case measure Utot = 4.5 volts. The highest calibration
point for the camera was in the order of 4.1 volts, a value unknown to the operator.
Thus, even if the object happened to be a blackbody, i.e. Uobj = Utot, we are actually
performing extrapolation of the calibration curve when converting 4.5 volts into temperature.
Let us now assume that the object is not black, it has an emittance of 0.75, and the
transmittance is 0.92. We also assume that the two second terms of Equation 4 amount
to 0.5 volts together. Computation of Uobj by means of Equation 4 then results in Uobj
= 4.5 / 0.75 / 0.92 – 0.5 = 6.0. This is a rather extreme extrapolation, particularly when
considering that the video amplifier might limit the output to 5 volts! Note, though,
that the application of the calibration curve is a theoretical procedure where no electronic or other limitations exist. We trust that if there had been no signal limitations in
the camera, and if it had been calibrated far beyond 5 volts, the resulting curve would
have been very much the same as our real curve extrapolated beyond 4.1 volts, provided the calibration algorithm is based on radiation physics, like the FLIR Systems
algorithm. Of course there must be a limit to such extrapolations.
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23 – The measurement formula
10400603;a2
Figure 23.3 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (SW camera).
1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere
radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).
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10400703;a2
Figure 23.4 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (LW camera).
1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere
radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
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24
Emissivity tables
This section presents a compilation of emissivity data from the infrared literature and
measurements made by FLIR Systems.
24.1
References
1
Mikaél A. Bramson: Infrared Radiation, A Handbook for Applications, Plenum press,
N.Y.
2
William L. Wolfe, George J. Zissis: The Infrared Handbook, Office of Naval Research,
Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.
3
Madding, R. P.: Thermographic Instruments and systems. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin – Extension, Department of Engineering and Applied Science.
4
William L. Wolfe: Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, Office of Naval Research,
Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.
5
Jones, Smith, Probert: External thermography of buildings..., Proc. of the Society of
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, vol.110, Industrial and Civil Applications of
Infrared Technology, June 1977 London.
6
Paljak, Pettersson: Thermography of Buildings, Swedish Building Research Institute,
Stockholm 1972.
7
Vlcek, J: Determination of emissivity with imaging radiometers and some emissivities
at λ = 5 µm. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.
8
Kern: Evaluation of infrared emission of clouds and ground as measured by weather
satellites, Defence Documentation Center, AD 617 417.
9
Öhman, Claes: Emittansmätningar med AGEMA E-Box. Teknisk rapport, AGEMA 1999.
(Emittance measurements using AGEMA E-Box. Technical report, AGEMA 1999.)
10
Matteï, S., Tang-Kwor, E: Emissivity measurements for Nextel Velvet coating 811-21
between –36°C AND 82°C.
11
Lohrengel & Todtenhaupt (1996)
12
ITC Technical publication 32.
13
ITC Technical publication 29.
24.2
Important note about the emissivity tables
The emissivity values in the table below are recorded using a shortwave (SW) camera.
The values should be regarded as recommendations only and used with caution.
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24.3
Tables
Figure 24.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3: Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6: Reference
1
2
3
4
5
6
3M type 35
Vinyl electrical
tape (several colors)
< 80
LW
Ca. 0.96
13
3M type 88
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 105
LW
Ca. 0.96
13
3M type 88
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 105
MW
< 0.96
13
3M type Super
33+
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 80
LW
Ca. 0.96
13
Aluminum
anodized, black,
dull
70
LW
0.95
9
Aluminum
anodized, black,
dull
70
SW
0.67
9
Aluminum
anodized, light
gray, dull
70
LW
0.97
9
Aluminum
anodized, light
gray, dull
70
SW
0.61
9
Aluminum
anodized sheet
100
T
0.55
2
Aluminum
as received, plate
100
T
0.09
4
Aluminum
as received, sheet
100
T
0.09
2
Aluminum
cast, blast cleaned
70
LW
0.46
9
Aluminum
cast, blast cleaned
70
SW
0.47
9
Aluminum
dipped in HNO3,
plate
100
T
0.05
4
Aluminum
foil
27
3 µm
0.09
3
Aluminum
foil
27
10 µm
0.04
3
Aluminum
oxidized, strongly
50–500
T
0.2–0.3
1
Aluminum
polished
50–100
T
0.04–0.06
1
Aluminum
polished, sheet
100
T
0.05
2
Aluminum
polished plate
100
T
0.05
4
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24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Aluminum
roughened
27
3 µm
0.28
3
Aluminum
roughened
27
10 µm
0.18
3
Aluminum
rough surface
20–50
T
0.06–0.07
1
Aluminum
sheet, 4 samples
differently
scratched
70
LW
0.03–0.06
9
Aluminum
sheet, 4 samples
differently
scratched
70
SW
0.05–0.08
9
Aluminum
vacuum deposited
20
T
0.04
2
Aluminum
weathered, heavily
17
SW
0.83–0.94
5
20
T
0.60
1
Aluminum bronze
Aluminum hydroxide
powder
T
0.28
1
Aluminum oxide
activated, powder
T
0.46
1
Aluminum oxide
pure, powder (alumina)
T
0.16
1
Asbestos
board
T
0.96
1
Asbestos
fabric
T
0.78
1
Asbestos
floor tile
35
SW
0.94
7
Asbestos
paper
40–400
T
0.93–0.95
1
Asbestos
powder
T
0.40–0.60
1
Asbestos
slate
20
T
0.96
1
4
LLW
0.967
8
Asphalt paving
20
Brass
dull, tarnished
20–350
T
0.22
1
Brass
oxidized
70
SW
0.04–0.09
9
Brass
oxidized
70
LW
0.03–0.07
9
Brass
oxidized
100
T
0.61
2
Brass
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.59–0.61
1
Brass
polished
200
T
0.03
1
Brass
polished, highly
100
T
0.03
2
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Brass
rubbed with 80grit emery
20
T
0.20
2
Brass
sheet, rolled
20
T
0.06
1
Brass
sheet, worked with
emery
20
T
0.2
1
Brick
alumina
17
SW
0.68
5
Brick
common
17
SW
0.86–0.81
5
Brick
Dinas silica,
glazed, rough
1100
T
0.85
1
Brick
Dinas silica, refractory
1000
T
0.66
1
Brick
Dinas silica,
unglazed, rough
1000
T
0.80
1
Brick
firebrick
17
SW
0.68
5
Brick
fireclay
20
T
0.85
1
Brick
fireclay
1000
T
0.75
1
Brick
fireclay
1200
T
0.59
1
Brick
masonry
35
SW
0.94
7
Brick
masonry, plastered
20
T
0.94
1
Brick
red, common
20
T
0.93
2
Brick
red, rough
20
T
0.88–0.93
1
Brick
refractory, corundum
1000
T
0.46
1
Brick
refractory, magnesite
1000–1300
T
0.38
1
Brick
refractory, strongly
radiating
500–1000
T
0.8–0.9
1
Brick
refractory, weakly
radiating
500–1000
T
0.65–0.75
1
Brick
silica, 95% SiO2
1230
T
0.66
1
Brick
sillimanite, 33%
SiO2, 64% Al2O3
1500
T
0.29
1
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Brick
waterproof
17
SW
0.87
5
Bronze
phosphor bronze
70
LW
0.06
9
Bronze
phosphor bronze
70
SW
0.08
9
Bronze
polished
50
T
0.1
1
Bronze
porous, rough
50–150
T
0.55
1
Bronze
powder
T
0.76–0.80
1
Carbon
candle soot
T
0.95
2
Carbon
charcoal powder
T
0.96
1
Carbon
graphite, filed surface
T
0.98
2
Carbon
graphite powder
T
0.97
1
Carbon
lampblack
20–400
T
0.95–0.97
1
Chipboard
untreated
20
SW
0.90
6
Chromium
polished
50
T
0.10
1
Chromium
polished
500–1000
T
0.28–0.38
1
Clay
fired
70
T
0.91
1
Cloth
black
20
T
0.98
1
20
T
0.92
2
Concrete
20
20
Concrete
dry
36
SW
0.95
7
Concrete
rough
17
SW
0.97
5
Concrete
walkway
5
LLW
0.974
8
Copper
commercial, burnished
20
T
0.07
1
Copper
electrolytic, carefully polished
80
T
0.018
1
Copper
electrolytic, polished
–34
T
0.006
4
Copper
molten
1100–1300
T
0.13–0.15
1
Copper
oxidized
50
T
0.6–0.7
1
Copper
oxidized, black
27
T
0.78
4
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Copper
oxidized, heavily
20
T
0.78
2
Copper
oxidized to blackness
T
0.88
1
Copper
polished
50–100
T
0.02
1
Copper
polished
100
T
0.03
2
Copper
polished, commercial
27
T
0.03
4
Copper
polished, mechanical
22
T
0.015
4
Copper
pure, carefully
prepared surface
22
T
0.008
4
Copper
scraped
27
T
0.07
4
Copper dioxide
powder
T
0.84
1
Copper oxide
red, powder
T
0.70
1
T
0.89
1
80
T
0.85
1
20
T
0.9
1
Ebonite
Emery
coarse
Enamel
Enamel
lacquer
20
T
0.85–0.95
1
Fiber board
hard, untreated
20
SW
0.85
6
Fiber board
masonite
70
LW
0.88
9
Fiber board
masonite
70
SW
0.75
9
Fiber board
particle board
70
LW
0.89
9
Fiber board
particle board
70
SW
0.77
9
Fiber board
porous, untreated
20
SW
0.85
6
Gold
polished
130
T
0.018
1
Gold
polished, carefully
200–600
T
0.02–0.03
1
Gold
polished, highly
100
T
0.02
2
Granite
polished
20
LLW
0.849
8
Granite
rough
21
LLW
0.879
8
Granite
rough, 4 different
samples
70
LW
0.77–0.87
9
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
69
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Granite
rough, 4 different
samples
70
SW
0.95–0.97
9
20
T
0.8–0.9
1
Gypsum
Ice: See Water
Iron, cast
casting
50
T
0.81
1
Iron, cast
ingots
1000
T
0.95
1
Iron, cast
liquid
1300
T
0.28
1
Iron, cast
machined
800–1000
T
0.60–0.70
1
Iron, cast
oxidized
38
T
0.63
4
Iron, cast
oxidized
100
T
0.64
2
Iron, cast
oxidized
260
T
0.66
4
Iron, cast
oxidized
538
T
0.76
4
Iron, cast
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.64–0.78
1
Iron, cast
polished
38
T
0.21
4
Iron, cast
polished
40
T
0.21
2
Iron, cast
polished
200
T
0.21
1
Iron, cast
unworked
900–1100
T
0.87–0.95
1
Iron and steel
cold rolled
70
LW
0.09
9
Iron and steel
cold rolled
70
SW
0.20
9
Iron and steel
covered with red
rust
20
T
0.61–0.85
1
Iron and steel
electrolytic
22
T
0.05
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic
100
T
0.05
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic
260
T
0.07
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic, carefully polished
175–225
T
0.05–0.06
1
Iron and steel
freshly worked
with emery
20
T
0.24
1
Iron and steel
ground sheet
950–1100
T
0.55–0.61
1
Iron and steel
heavily rusted
sheet
20
T
0.69
2
70
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Iron and steel
hot rolled
20
T
0.77
1
Iron and steel
hot rolled
130
T
0.60
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
100
T
0.74
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
100
T
0.74
4
Iron and steel
oxidized
125–525
T
0.78–0.82
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
200
T
0.79
2
Iron and steel
oxidized
1227
T
0.89
4
Iron and steel
oxidized
200–600
T
0.80
1
Iron and steel
oxidized strongly
50
T
0.88
1
Iron and steel
oxidized strongly
500
T
0.98
1
Iron and steel
polished
100
T
0.07
2
Iron and steel
polished
400–1000
T
0.14–0.38
1
Iron and steel
polished sheet
750–1050
T
0.52–0.56
1
Iron and steel
rolled, freshly
20
T
0.24
1
Iron and steel
rolled sheet
50
T
0.56
1
Iron and steel
rough, plane surface
50
T
0.95–0.98
1
Iron and steel
rusted, heavily
17
SW
0.96
5
Iron and steel
rusted red, sheet
22
T
0.69
4
Iron and steel
rusty, red
20
T
0.69
1
Iron and steel
shiny, etched
150
T
0.16
1
Iron and steel
shiny oxide layer,
sheet,
20
T
0.82
1
Iron and steel
wrought, carefully
polished
40–250
T
0.28
1
Iron galvanized
heavily oxidized
70
LW
0.85
9
Iron galvanized
heavily oxidized
70
SW
0.64
9
Iron galvanized
sheet
92
T
0.07
4
Iron galvanized
sheet, burnished
30
T
0.23
1
Iron galvanized
sheet, oxidized
20
T
0.28
1
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
71
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Iron tinned
sheet
24
T
0.064
4
Krylon Ultra-flat
black 1602
Flat black
Room temperature
up to 175
LW
Ca. 0.96
12
Krylon Ultra-flat
black 1602
Flat black
Room temperature
up to 175
MW
Ca. 0.97
12
Lacquer
3 colors sprayed
on Aluminum
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Lacquer
3 colors sprayed
on Aluminum
70
SW
0.50–0.53
9
Lacquer
Aluminum on
rough surface
20
T
0.4
1
Lacquer
bakelite
80
T
0.83
1
Lacquer
black, dull
40–100
T
0.96–0.98
1
Lacquer
black, matte
100
T
0.97
2
Lacquer
black, shiny,
sprayed on iron
20
T
0.87
1
Lacquer
heat–resistant
100
T
0.92
1
Lacquer
white
40–100
T
0.8–0.95
1
Lacquer
white
100
T
0.92
2
Lead
oxidized, gray
20
T
0.28
1
Lead
oxidized, gray
22
T
0.28
4
Lead
oxidized at 200°C
200
T
0.63
1
Lead
shiny
250
T
0.08
1
Lead
unoxidized, polished
100
T
0.05
4
Lead red
100
T
0.93
4
Lead red, powder
100
T
0.93
1
T
0.75–0.80
1
T
0.3–0.4
1
Leather
tanned
Lime
Magnesium
22
T
0.07
4
Magnesium
260
T
0.13
4
72
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
Magnesium
Magnesium
polished
3
4
5
6
538
T
0.18
4
20
T
0.07
2
T
0.86
1
Magnesium powder
Molybdenum
600–1000
T
0.08–0.13
1
Molybdenum
1500–2200
T
0.19–0.26
1
700–2500
T
0.1–0.3
1
17
SW
0.87
5
Molybdenum
filament
Mortar
Mortar
dry
36
SW
0.94
7
Nextel Velvet 81121 Black
Flat black
–60–150
LW
> 0.97
10 and
11
Nichrome
rolled
700
T
0.25
1
Nichrome
sandblasted
700
T
0.70
1
Nichrome
wire, clean
50
T
0.65
1
Nichrome
wire, clean
500–1000
T
0.71–0.79
1
Nichrome
wire, oxidized
50–500
T
0.95–0.98
1
Nickel
bright matte
122
T
0.041
4
Nickel
commercially
pure, polished
100
T
0.045
1
Nickel
commercially
pure, polished
200–400
T
0.07–0.09
1
Nickel
electrolytic
22
T
0.04
4
Nickel
electrolytic
38
T
0.06
4
Nickel
electrolytic
260
T
0.07
4
Nickel
electrolytic
538
T
0.10
4
Nickel
electroplated, polished
20
T
0.05
2
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, polished
22
T
0.045
4
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, unpolished
20
T
0.11–0.40
1
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
73
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, unpolished
22
T
0.11
4
Nickel
oxidized
200
T
0.37
2
Nickel
oxidized
227
T
0.37
4
Nickel
oxidized
1227
T
0.85
4
Nickel
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.37–0.48
1
Nickel
polished
122
T
0.045
4
Nickel
wire
200–1000
T
0.1–0.2
1
Nickel oxide
500–650
T
0.52–0.59
1
Nickel oxide
1000–1250
T
0.75–0.86
1
Oil, lubricating
0.025 mm film
20
T
0.27
2
Oil, lubricating
0.050 mm film
20
T
0.46
2
Oil, lubricating
0.125 mm film
20
T
0.72
2
Oil, lubricating
film on Ni base: Ni
base only
20
T
0.05
2
Oil, lubricating
thick coating
20
T
0.82
2
Paint
8 different colors
and qualities
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Paint
8 different colors
and qualities
70
SW
0.88–0.96
9
Paint
Aluminum, various
ages
50–100
T
0.27–0.67
1
Paint
cadmium yellow
T
0.28–0.33
1
Paint
chrome green
T
0.65–0.70
1
Paint
cobalt blue
T
0.7–0.8
1
Paint
oil
17
SW
0.87
5
Paint
oil, black flat
20
SW
0.94
6
Paint
oil, black gloss
20
SW
0.92
6
Paint
oil, gray flat
20
SW
0.97
6
Paint
oil, gray gloss
20
SW
0.96
6
Paint
oil, various colors
100
T
0.92–0.96
1
74
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Paint
oil based, average
of 16 colors
100
T
0.94
2
Paint
plastic, black
20
SW
0.95
6
Paint
plastic, white
20
SW
0.84
6
Paper
4 different colors
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Paper
4 different colors
70
SW
0.68–0.74
9
Paper
black
T
0.90
1
Paper
black, dull
T
0.94
1
Paper
black, dull
70
LW
0.89
9
Paper
black, dull
70
SW
0.86
9
Paper
blue, dark
T
0.84
1
Paper
coated with black
lacquer
T
0.93
1
Paper
green
T
0.85
1
Paper
red
T
0.76
1
Paper
white
20
T
0.7–0.9
1
Paper
white, 3 different
glosses
70
LW
0.88–0.90
9
Paper
white, 3 different
glosses
70
SW
0.76–0.78
9
Paper
white bond
20
T
0.93
2
Paper
yellow
T
0.72
1
17
SW
0.86
5
Plaster
Plaster
plasterboard, untreated
20
SW
0.90
6
Plaster
rough coat
20
T
0.91
2
Plastic
glass fibre laminate (printed circ.
board)
70
LW
0.91
9
Plastic
glass fibre laminate (printed circ.
board)
70
SW
0.94
9
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
75
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Plastic
polyurethane isolation board
70
LW
0.55
9
Plastic
polyurethane isolation board
70
SW
0.29
9
Plastic
PVC, plastic floor,
dull, structured
70
LW
0.93
9
Plastic
PVC, plastic floor,
dull, structured
70
SW
0.94
9
Platinum
17
T
0.016
4
Platinum
22
T
0.03
4
Platinum
100
T
0.05
4
Platinum
260
T
0.06
4
Platinum
538
T
0.10
4
Platinum
1000–1500
T
0.14–0.18
1
Platinum
1094
T
0.18
4
Platinum
pure, polished
200–600
T
0.05–0.10
1
Platinum
ribbon
900–1100
T
0.12–0.17
1
Platinum
wire
50–200
T
0.06–0.07
1
Platinum
wire
500–1000
T
0.10–0.16
1
Platinum
wire
1400
T
0.18
1
Porcelain
glazed
20
T
0.92
1
Porcelain
white, shiny
T
0.70–0.75
1
Rubber
hard
20
T
0.95
1
Rubber
soft, gray, rough
20
T
0.95
1
T
0.60
1
20
T
0.90
2
Sand
Sand
Sandstone
polished
19
LLW
0.909
8
Sandstone
rough
19
LLW
0.935
8
Silver
polished
100
T
0.03
2
Silver
pure, polished
200–600
T
0.02–0.03
1
76
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Skin
human
32
T
0.98
2
Slag
boiler
0–100
T
0.97–0.93
1
Slag
boiler
200–500
T
0.89–0.78
1
Slag
boiler
600–1200
T
0.76–0.70
1
Slag
boiler
1400–1800
T
0.69–0.67
1
Soil
dry
20
T
0.92
2
Soil
saturated with water
20
T
0.95
2
Stainless steel
alloy, 8% Ni, 18%
Cr
500
T
0.35
1
Stainless steel
rolled
700
T
0.45
1
Stainless steel
sandblasted
700
T
0.70
1
Stainless steel
sheet, polished
70
LW
0.14
9
Stainless steel
sheet, polished
70
SW
0.18
9
Stainless steel
sheet, untreated,
somewhat
scratched
70
LW
0.28
9
Stainless steel
sheet, untreated,
somewhat
scratched
70
SW
0.30
9
Stainless steel
type 18-8, buffed
20
T
0.16
2
Stainless steel
type 18-8, oxidized at 800°C
60
T
0.85
2
Stucco
rough, lime
10–90
T
0.91
1
Styrofoam
insulation
37
SW
0.60
7
T
0.79–0.84
1
Snow: See Water
Tar
Tar
paper
20
T
0.91–0.93
1
Tile
glazed
17
SW
0.94
5
Tin
burnished
20–50
T
0.04–0.06
1
Tin
tin–plated sheet
iron
100
T
0.07
2
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
77
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
200
T
0.40
1
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
500
T
0.50
1
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
1000
T
0.60
1
Titanium
polished
200
T
0.15
1
Titanium
polished
500
T
0.20
1
Titanium
polished
1000
T
0.36
1
Tungsten
200
T
0.05
1
Tungsten
600–1000
T
0.1–0.16
1
Tungsten
1500–2200
T
0.24–0.31
1
Tungsten
filament
3300
T
0.39
1
Varnish
flat
20
SW
0.93
6
Varnish
on oak parquet
floor
70
LW
0.90–0.93
9
Varnish
on oak parquet
floor
70
SW
0.90
9
Wallpaper
slight pattern, light
gray
20
SW
0.85
6
Wallpaper
slight pattern, red
20
SW
0.90
6
Water
distilled
20
T
0.96
2
Water
frost crystals
–10
T
0.98
2
Water
ice, covered with
heavy frost
0
T
0.98
1
Water
ice, smooth
–10
T
0.96
2
Water
ice, smooth
0
T
0.97
1
Water
layer >0.1 mm
thick
0–100
T
0.95–0.98
1
Water
snow
T
0.8
1
Water
snow
–10
T
0.85
2
Wood
17
SW
0.98
5
Wood
19
LLW
0.962
8
T
0.5–0.7
1
Wood
78
ground
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
24 – Emissivity tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Wood
pine, 4 different
samples
70
LW
0.81–0.89
9
Wood
pine, 4 different
samples
70
SW
0.67–0.75
9
Wood
planed
20
T
0.8–0.9
1
Wood
planed oak
20
T
0.90
2
Wood
planed oak
70
LW
0.88
9
Wood
planed oak
70
SW
0.77
9
Wood
plywood, smooth,
dry
36
SW
0.82
7
Wood
plywood, untreated
20
SW
0.83
6
Wood
white, damp
20
T
0.7–0.8
1
Zinc
oxidized at 400°C
400
T
0.11
1
Zinc
oxidized surface
1000–1200
T
0.50–0.60
1
Zinc
polished
200–300
T
0.04–0.05
1
Zinc
sheet
50
T
0.20
1
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
79
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List of effective files
20235103.xml a24
20235203.xml a21
20235303.xml a18
20236703.xml a56
20237103.xml a10
20238503.xml a9
20238703.xml b8
20250403.xml a21
20254903.xml a65
20257003.xml a40
20287303.xml a9
20292403.xml a5
20297703.xml a4
20297803.xml a4
20297903.xml a4
20298003.xml a5
20298103.xml a4
20298203.xml a5
20298303.xml a5
20298403.xml a6
20298603.xml a7
20298903.xml a5
20299003.xml a4
20299103.xml a2
20299203.xml a1
20299303.xml a2
20299403.xml a3
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80
Publ. No. T559600 Rev. a511 – ENGLISH (EN) – March 2, 2011
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FLIR Systems, Inc.
27700 SW Parkway Avenue
Wilsonville, OR 97070
USA
Telephone: +1-800-727-3547
Website: http://www.flir.com
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