Kapelle Intervals Tutorials

Kapelle Intervals Tutorials
Kapelle Intervals 1.0
Tutorials
Copyright © 1998 by Scott L. Foglesong
Table of Contents
I.
INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................1
A QUICK DESCRIPTION OF KAPELLE INTERVALS ........................................................................................ 1
FOR M ORE INFORMATION ............................................................................................................................... 1
II.
TUTORIAL 1: BASICS ...............................................................................................................................3
THE PARTS OF THE M AIN W INDOW ............................................................................................................... 3
OPENING TUTORIAL 01.................................................................................................................................... 4
HOW AN EXERCISE W ORKS ............................................................................................................................ 4
PLAYING THE INTERVAL.................................................................................................................................. 5
NOTATING THE NOTE....................................................................................................................................... 5
IDENTIFYING AN INTERVAL............................................................................................................................. 8
SIGNIFYING YOUR A NSWER IS READY........................................................................................................ 10
GETTING A NOTHER INTERVAL..................................................................................................................... 11
FINISHING THE EXERCISE .............................................................................................................................. 12
LOOKING AT YOUR PROGRESS REPORT ...................................................................................................... 12
III.
TUTORIAL 2: MORE PRACTICE.......................................................................................................13
OPENING TUTORIAL 2.................................................................................................................................... 13
LI STENING TO THE TONIC TRIAD.................................................................................................................. 13
LISTENING TO THE TONIC PITCHES.............................................................................................................. 14
NOTATING A CCIDENTALS ............................................................................................................................. 14
IV.
TUTORIAL 3: EVALUATING DIFFICULT INTERVALS ..........................................................16
PLAYING THE INTERVAL................................................................................................................................ 16
HOW EVALUATION W ORKS W ITH DIFFICULT INTERVALS....................................................................... 16
V.
APPENDIX: PROGRESS REPORTS ...................................................................................................18
OPENING THE PROGRESS REPORT ................................................................................................................ 18
A CTIONS THAT M AY BE TAKEN .................................................................................................................. 18
PRINTING THE REPORT ................................................................................................................................... 19
EXPORTING THE REPORT ............................................................................................................................... 19
Kapelle Intervals Tutorials
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I.
Introduction
A Quick Description of Kapelle Intervals
Kapelle Intervals is an application designed to work with the
hearing and notation of intervals of all sorts. The application
supports a wide variety of interval exercise styles—including both
harmonic and melodic intervals, and various activities including
hearing, notating, and completing intervals.
Unlike many other interval-practice programs that are available,
Kapelle Intervals does not contain hard-wired exercises. Instead,
exercises are stored as text files that contain instructions to the
program how to construct a set of intervals to use for practice. The
options that are possible with these text files are sufficiently
variable so as to ensure that Kapelle Intervals can provide interval
practice for virtually any curriculum, level, or style.
Although Kapelle Intervals is a large application, it is not difficult to
learn. It does a great deal of the work for you, so you can
concentrate exclusively on the issue at hand.
Hence this Tutorial volume is short and quite simple. In fact, if you
are already accustomed to using other notation-based applications
in the Kapelle series, such as Kapelle Dictation, you will find Kapelle
Intervals very easy to learn, indeed.
For More Information
This Tutorial volume does not cover all of the program’s features by
any means. If you are interested in learning more about this
application, consult the Kapelle Intervals User Manual, which
provides exhaustive information about every aspect of the
application.
The online help system is also quite extensive and should be
consulted for extra information.
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Context-Sensitive Help
Kapelle Intervals contains a context-sensitive help system. Click on
the icon
and then on any interface item (like a Toolbar icon or
menu selection) and the online help system will describe that item
to you. (You can also press Shift+F1 to active the system as well.)
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II.
Tutorial 1: Basics
The Parts of the Main Window
Here are the parts of the Main Window:
Toolbar
Announcements Pane
Notation Area
Exercise Pane
Answer Area
Identification Area
Comment Pane
Figure 1: The Main Window
•
Announcements Pane: contains instructions to
follow during the progression of the exercise, as
well as your current scores.
•
Notation Area: the area in which you enter any
notes which are required, if any.
•
Identification Area: the area that displays your
identification of the interval. This can become a
double-clickable button in some circumstances.
•
Answer Area: the area that displays the “correct”
answer—showing you the notation and the interval.
•
Comment Pane: a pane that displays a comment
written about this exercise, which was provided by
the author of the exercise.
•
Exercise Pane: shows all of the available
exercises in a tree-control style.
•
Toolbar: provides shortcuts to the most common
commands you need to work in the application.
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•
Status Bar: the left portion displays information
about a currently selected command. The right
portion displays the current cursor pitch, the
number of the current interval, and the name of
the current key center.
Opening Tutorial 01
Open Tutorial 01 by clicking on the plus (+) sign to the left of the
Tutorial folder in the Exercise Pane, then double-clicking on the
exercise 01 – 2nds and 3rds.
Figure 2: Opening the folder
Figure 3: Opening the exercise
NOTE: you can also left-click on the exercise and then right-click
and select Open Exercise from the Context Menu:
Figure 4: Opening the exercise with the Context Menu
Kapelle Intervals goes to work and generates an interval exercise
for you, based on the contents of the exercise file. This exercise
contains only five intervals and therefore the generation will be
instantaneous.
How an Exercise Works
A Kapelle Intervals exercise consists of a series of intervals—the
actual number depends on the instructions in the exercise—that are
presented to you, one after another.
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With each interval you are required to carry out a task—identify the
interval, write it, complete it, whatever. Once you have carried out
the task, you tell Kapelle Intervals to evaluate your work.
Kapelle Intervals shows you the evaluation, which includes your
score on the interval, the “correct” interval for comparison to your
version, and your accumulated score so far.
You ask for another interval when you’re ready, and the exercise
continues. Once you have reached the last interval in the series,
your accumulated score is recorded.
Playing the Interval
The interval was played for you, but you might want to hear it
again. Do this with the Play Interval command.
The Play Interval command may be accessed by any of the
following techniques:
•
Press the Spacebar.
•
Click the Play Interval icon
•
Select Play Interval from the Playback Menu.
on the Toolbar.
Notating the Note
The exercise for Tutorial 01 consists of a selection of major and
minor seconds and thirds. You are given the first note and are
requested to complete the interval by adding the second note, then
identifying the interval. The screen will look something like this:
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Figure 5: Tutorial 1 at the start
Moving the Caret
To enter the missing note, you will need to position the insertion
caret (blinking black square) at the pitch where the note should go.
Move the caret by either:
•
Clicking on the line or space where you would like
the caret to be, or
•
Moving the caret upwards and downwards by using
the Up and Down arrow keys on the keyboard.
Using the Status Bar
As the caret is moved up and down the staff, the Status Bar line
will change to indicate what pitch currently lies below the caret.
(This can be very useful when you’re outside the staff lines.)
The Status Bar runs along the bottom of the main window, and the
Note pane is on the right-hand side:
Figure 6: Status Bar and its panes
It’s worth noting that the Status Bar also tells you which number
interval you’re currently working in, and the name of the current
key.
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Entering a Note
Once you have positioned the caret where you would like it to be,
enter a note at that position by giving the Enter Note command.
This command may be accessed by any of the following techniques:
•
Press the Enter key.
•
Click the Enter Note
•
Select Enter Note from the Interval Menu.
•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select Enter
Note from the context menu.
icon on the Toolbar.
To Move the Note
If the note isn’t what you thought it should be, you may move it by
first positioning the caret so that it is directly over the notehead,
and then giving the Move Note Up or Move Note Down
commands.
These commands are accessed by any of the following techniques:
•
Press Ctrl+Shift+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Shift+Down
Arrow.
•
Click the Move Note Up or Move Note Down
icons
on the Toolbar.
•
Select Move Note Up or Move Note Down from
the Interval Menu.
•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select Move
Note Up or Move Note Down from the Context
Menu.
Finally, you may also move the note quickly by holding down the
Ctrl key and then dragging the mouse—the note will move upwards
or downwards depending on the direction you’re dragging the
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mouse.
To Delete the Note
It might be just as easy to delete a note and replace it. To do this,
first position the caret so it lies directly on the notehead, and then
give the Delete Note command.
The Delete Note command may be accessed by any of the
following techniques:
•
Press the Backspace key.
•
Click the Delete Note icon
•
Select Delete Note from the Interval Menu.
•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select Delete
Note from the Context Menu.
on the Toolbar.
Identifying an Interval
To identify an interval, you need to give the Identify Interval
command. This command may be accessed by any of the following:
•
Double-click on the Identification Area:
Figure 7: Double-clicking on the Identification Area
•
Press Ctrl+I.
•
Click the Identify Interval icon
Toolbar.
•
Select Identify Interval from the Interval Menu.
on the
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•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select Identify
Interval from the Context Menu.
Once the command has been given, you are shown the Identify
Interval Dialog Box:
Figure 8: Identify Interval dialog box
You select the quality of the interval from the left-hand drop-down
list box—just click on the little arrow and the list will drop open for
you to select.
Figure 9: Opening the “Quality” drop-down list
Indicate the size with the “Size” edit box. You may type in the size
or you may use the spin control (on the right side of the edit box)
to adjust the size.
Speed Techniques with the Identify Interval Dialog Box
Using the mouse is rather slow although it gets the job done.
Here’s a much faster way to deal with it:
•
When the dialog first opens, the Quality drop-down
list is selected. Type the first letter of the quality
you want and the selected item will change to
reflect that. You may need to type the letter more
than once, since some qualities begin with the
same letter (like Major and Minor).
•
Use the Tab key to select the Size edit box, and
just type in the number you want.
•
Press Enter to close the dialog.
After You’ve Identified the Interval
Once you’ve identified the interval, the Identification Area will
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change to show your identification:
Figure 10: After the interval is identified
NOTE that you can still double-click on the Identification Area to
change your identification, if you want, even if it doesn’t say so in
so many words.
Signifying Your Answer is Ready
Once you’re satisfied that you’ve identified the interval properly,
give the Answer Ready command, which signifies to Kapelle
Intervals that it should evaluate your work.
The Answer Ready command may be accessed by any of the
following techniques:
•
Press F5.
•
Click the Answer Ready icon
•
Select Answer Ready from the Interval Menu.
•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select Answer
Ready from the Context Menu.
Your evaluation is shown:
on the Toolbar.
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Figure 11: An evaluated interval
Your score for the current interval, as well as your cumulative score
for the exercise, is shown in the Announcements Pane. Also note
that the correct interval is shown in the Answer Pane. (In the
example, the quality of the interval is incorrect—it has been
identified as Minor when it was actually Major.)
Getting Another Interval
You continue working through the exercise by asking for another
interval until you’ve done the last interval in the set.
Get another interval with the New Interval command. This
command may be accessed by any of the following techniques:
•
Press Ctrl+N.
•
Click the New Interval icon
•
Select New Interval from the Interval Menu.
•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select New
Interval from the Context Menu.
on the Toolbar.
You can’t ask for a new interval until you’ve evaluated the one
you’re working on.
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Finishing the Exercise
There are four more intervals to work on in this exercise—go ahead
and do them. Don’t worry about your scores. The point here is to
learn to use the program!
Looking at Your Progress Report
After you have finished the exercise, the final score you received
was stored in your progress report.
View your progress report by selecting Show Progress Report
from the File Menu.
This Tutorial volume will not discuss the Progress Report in any
detail; it is quite similar to other Kapelle-series programs. The
Appendix, starting on page 18, gives an overview. See the Kapelle
Intervals User Manual for a full description, or consult the online
Help system.
Kapelle Intervals Tutorials
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III.
Tutorial 2: More Practice
Opening Tutorial 2
The exercise file 02 – Tonic Triad displays some more elements of
Kapelle Intervals’s exercise styles. This exercise consists of 5
intervals, all drawn from the tonic triad in major or minor keys.
In this exercise, you are obliged to notate BOTH pitches of the
interval as well as identify it, and you are also obliged to use
accidentals instead of notating within a key signature.
Listening to the Tonic Triad
Because this exercise involves a bit trickier listening, you might
want to hear a tonic triad in this key. To do this, give the Play
Tonic Triad command.
The Play Tonic Triad command may be accessed by any of the
following techniques:
•
Press Ctrl+T
•
Click the Play Tonic Triad icon
•
Select Play Tonic Triad from the Playback Menu.
on the Toolbar.
Remember to keep an eye on the Status Bar for the actual key
you’re hearing:
Figure 12: Status Bar key indication
The tonic triad is played and sustained for one second. If you would
like to change the duration, see the Options command on the File
Menu. (Check in the online help system, or the Kapelle Intervals
User Manual, for full information about setting program options.)
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Listening to the Tonic Pitches
Because you aren’t given the first note, you may not know the
correct octave for notating the interval. (Kapelle Intervals will not
evaluate an interval as correct if it’s in the wrong octave!)
So: play the tonic pitches. This command will play three tonic
pitches in the current clef—one low, one medium, and one high—
and will show you them as it plays them.
To play the tonic pitches, give the Play Tonic Pitches command.
You may access this command by any of the following techniques:
•
Press Ctrl+H
•
Click the Play Tonic Pitches icon
Toolbar.
•
Select Play Tonic Pitches from the Playback
Menu.
on the
As the pitches are played, a dialog box appears showing you each
pitch in turn—the “current” pitch is notated in red, while the others
are in black:
Figure 13: Tonic Pitch Playback dialog box
The tonic pitches are played by default with a duration of about two
seconds each. You may change that with the Options command on
the File Menu. See the Kapelle Intervals User Manual or the online
help system for more information about this command.
Notating Accidentals
You may need to notate accidentals—sharps and flats—in this
exercise. To do this, first position the caret directly over the
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notehead. Then give the Flat Note or Sharp Note command.
The Flat Note and Sharp Note commands may be accessed by
any of the following techniques:
•
Press F7 for Flat Note or F8 for Sharp Note.
•
Click on the Flat Note or Sharp Note icons
on the Toolbar.
•
Select Flat Note or Sharp Note from the Interval
Menu.
•
Right-click in the Notation Area and select Flat
Note or Sharp Note from the Context Menu.
That’s it for this tutorial—go ahead and finish up the intervals, just
to get a bit more feel for this kind of exercise. Again, don’t worry
about the score.
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IV.
Tutorial 3: Evaluating Difficult Intervals
In this tutorial, you will get a chance to see how Kapelle Intervals
deals with ambiguous situations—evaluating intervals that do not
necessary have only ONE correct answer.
This tutorial further differs from the first two in that it presents
harmonic, rather than melodic, intervals.
Open the Tutorial file 03 – Compounds. The intervals in this file
are all notated as fifths or twelfths (compound fifths). However,
they are allowed quite a large amount of chromatic modification
and may not sound as fifths or twelfths.
Playing the Interval
As you play each interval, you might note that the intervals sound
like sixths or fourths just as easily as they do fifths. Go ahead and
notate the interval as best you can, then give the Answer Ready
command.
If your interval is enharmonically correct—and the identification
matches your notation—you will not be graded down if the “actual”
interval is different.
How Evaluation Works With Difficult Intervals
Consider this interval:
Figure 14: Enharmonic equivalence
Although lower of the two notes is different, and the interval’s
Kapelle Intervals Tutorials
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identification is different, it is still given a score of 100%--perfect—
because it is enharmonically equivalent both in notation and
identification.
When an exercise file is created, the author of that file has a
number of options for dealing with enharmonic situations. This
particular tutorial exercise allows enharmonically equivalent
intervals to be treated as correct. However, it does enforce
consistency: if the interval had been written as it is (F#-D) but
identified as an Augmented Fifth, then it would have been marked
down.
Enharmonic evaluation is activated solely on an exercise-byexercise basis. It isn’t an across-the-board situation: the author of
the exercise file must explicitly enable it. Enharmonic equivalence
may be limited to just the notation, or just the identification, or
both—and consistency between notation and identification may be
enforced or not.
Kapelle Intervals Tutorials
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V.
Appendix: Progress Reports
This Appendix discusses Kapelle Interval’s progress reports in a
rather general fashion. Users who are familiar with any of the other
Kapelle applications will find the Kapelle Intervals progress report
completely familiar, and therefore may skip this general
introduction.
For more specific information, see either the Kapelle Intervals User
Manual or the online help system.
Opening the Progress Report
The Progress Report is opened with the Show Progress Report
command, located on the File Menu.
The Progress Report dialog box displays each entry in your
progress report. Each entry consists of the name of the exercise,
your score, and the date and time at which the exercise was done.
Actions That May Be Taken
Sorting
You may sort the entries in your progress report by clicking on the
column headers in the dialog box.
Deleting
You may delete entries by selecting them (click on the exercise
name) and then clicking the Delete button.
Filtering
The Filters button opens a property sheet which allows you to limit
the display of your entries by certain criteria: you may filter by
Date (limit the display to just those entries from specific dates), by
Exercise (limit to just specific exercises), or by Grade (limit to
those falling within a span of scores.)
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Printing the Report
You may print the report using the Print button. If you are
currently showing a filtered set of entries, you will be asked if you
want to print your filtered set, or the entire, non-filtered set of
entries.
Exporting the Report
You may export your progress report to a plain-text file that can be
imported into a spreadsheet or database program.
The exported file is always the complete set of entries, whether or
not they have been filtered.
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