ELCOM-90 Local Conventions

ELCOM-90 Local Conventions
TR A3933.01
ELCOM-90
Local Conventions
ELCOM Working Group
Convener Birger Stene
May 2008
TECHNICAL REPORT
SUBJECT/TASK (title)
SINTEF Energy Research
Address:
Reception:
Telephone:
Telefax:
NO-7465 Trondheim,
NORWAY
Sem Sælands vei 11
+47 73 59 72 00
+47 73 59 72 50
ELCOM-90 Local Conventions
CONTRIBUTOR(S)
Nils Eggen, Powel ASA, Lars Rindal, Siemens as, Tormod Lund, ABB,
Anne Grethe Bolsø, ABB, Birger Stene, SINTEF Energiforskning AS
www.energy.sintef.no
CLIENTS(S)
Enterprise No.:
NO 939 350 675 MVA
Statnett SF
TR NO.
DATE
CLIENT’S REF.
PROJECT NO.
TR A3933.01
2008-05-01
Anders Larsen
12X513
RESPONSIBLE (NAME, SIGN.)
CLASSIFICATION
ELECTRONIC FILE CODE
Birger Stene
Unrestricted
RESEARCH DIRECTOR (NAME, SIGN)
COPIES
PAGES
82-594-0395-1
Petter Støa
5
68
DIVISION
LOCATION
LOCAL FAX
Energy Systems
Sem Sælandsv. 11, 7465 Trondheim
+47 73 59 72 50
ISBN N0.
REPORT TYPE
RESULT (summary)
This document is one of a series of technical reports which form the complete ELCOM-90 documentation. This
is version .01 of the report with minor changes regarding responsible people and references. Future updates and
new versions will NOT be published for this reason. New versions will only be submitted when technical
changes are made.
Please see SINTEF’s homepage at: http://www.sintef.no/ELCOM-90. From here you can download the latest
version of all relevant documents as pdf-files for free.
This document contains ELCOM-90 Local Conventions for 2 new Functional Units made by SINTEF Energy
Research and Powel ASA, 4 modifications made by Siemens and 8 modifications made by ABB. There is also a
description of a Local Convention made in Argentine
The name of the 2 FU’s are:
1) Initiator Data Transfer and 2) Retransmission of Historical Values
The “name” of the 4 modifications by Siemens are:
1)Command with Quality Flags. 2) Commanded Status Change Quality Flag
3) Double Precision Floating Point Value, 4)Fleeting Alarms
The “name” of the 8 modifications by ABB are:
Transmission of alarm states from the Responder
Unknown object
Supervisory Control blocked for Initiator
Supervisory Control blocked for Responder
Data collection blockade
Transducer out of range
Adaptation to FinELCOM standard
ELCOM-90 acceptance of ELCOM-83 Supervisory Control
The “Argentine” local convention is named: Millisecond representation
The FinELCOM Conventions version 1.3 is documented
SELECTED BY
AUTHOR(S)
Data communication
Communication protocols
Control centres
Energy management
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
0
VERSION HISTORY ....................................................................................................... 5
1.
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 5
2.
ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS ........................................................................................ 5
2.1 ELCOM-83 DOCUMENTATION ............................................................................ 5
2.2 ELCOM-90 DOCUMENTATION ............................................................................ 6
3.
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................... 7
3.1 DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................... 7
3.2 ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................. 9
4.
FU DESCRIPTION TEMPLATE .................................................................................. 10
5.
CONTENTS IN APPENDIXES ..................................................................................... 11
APPENDIX A - INITIATOR DATA TRANSFER FU ......................................................... 12
A.1 FUNCTION ........................................................................................................... 12
A.2 COORDINATION RULES .................................................................................... 12
A.2.1 Association usage....................................................................................... 12
A.2.2 Relation to other FUs ................................................................................ 13
A.2.3 Invocation .................................................................................................. 13
A.2.4 Termination ............................................................................................... 14
A.3 PROCEDURES ...................................................................................................... 15
A.3.1 EASE service primitives ............................................................................ 15
A.3.2 Error handling .......................................................................................... 18
APPENDIX B - RETRANSMISSION OF HISTORICAL VALUES ................................. 22
B.1 FUNCTION ........................................................................................................... 22
B.2 CORDINATION RULES ....................................................................................... 23
B.2.1 Association usage....................................................................................... 23
B.2.2 Relation to other FUs ................................................................................ 23
B.2.3 Invocation .................................................................................................. 23
B.2.4 Termination ............................................................................................... 25
B.3.3 PROCEDURES ...................................................................................................... 25
B.3.1 EASE service primitives ............................................................................ 25
B.3.2 Error handling .......................................................................................... 29
APPENDIX C – COMMAND WITH QUALITY FLAGS .................................................... 36
C.1 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 36
C.2 STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................ 36
C.3 USER DATA TYPE ............................................................................................... 36
C.3.1 Binary command values ............................................................................ 36
C.4 QUALITY CODES ................................................................................................ 36
C.4.1 Status value quality codes ......................................................................... 37
C.4.2 Binary command value quality codes ....................................................... 38
C.5 A-DATA ................................................................................................................ 38
C.6 A-COMMAND-TRANSFER REQUEST ............................................................... 39
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APPENDIX D - COMMANDED STATUS CHANGE QUALITY FLAG ......................... 40
D.1 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 40
D.2 STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................ 40
D.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................. 40
D.3.1 Status values .............................................................................................. 40
D.4 QUALITY CODES ................................................................................................ 40
D.4.1 Status value quality codes ......................................................................... 41
D.5 A-DATA ................................................................................................................ 42
APPENDIX E - DOUBLE PRECISION FLOATING POINT VALUE .............................. 43
E.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 43
E.2 STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 43
E.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 43
E.3.1 Double Precision Floating Point Value ..................................................... 43
E.4 QUALITY CODES .................................................................................................. 44
E.4.1 Double Precision Floating Point Value ..................................................... 44
E.5 A-DATA.................................................................................................................. 45
APPENDIX F - FLEETING ALARMS ................................................................................. 46
F.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 46
F.2 STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 46
F.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 46
F.3.1 Status values ............................................................................................. 46
F.4 QUALITY CODES .................................................................................................. 46
F.4.1 Status value quality codes ......................................................................... 47
F.5 A-DATA.................................................................................................................. 48
APPENDIX G – TRANSMISSION OF ALARM STATES FROM THE RESPONDER .... 49
G.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 49
G.2 STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 49
G.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 49
G.3.1 Real values ................................................................................................. 49
G.4.1 Real value quality codes ............................................................................ 50
G.5 A-DATA.................................................................................................................. 51
APPENDIX H: LOCAL CONVENTIONS – UNKNOWN OBJECT................................... 52
H.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 52
H.2 STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 52
H.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 52
H.4 QUALITY CODES .................................................................................................. 52
H.4.1 Additional quality code for “Unknown Object” ...................................... 53
H.5 A-DATA.................................................................................................................. 53
APPENDIX I - SUPERVISORY CONTROL BLOCKED FOR INITIATOR .................... 54
I.1
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 54
I.2
STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 54
I.3
USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 54
I.4.1 Additional quality code for “Supervisory Control blocked for
Initiator” .................................................................................................... 55
I.5
A-DATA ................................................................................................................ 55
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APPENDIX J - SUPERVISORY CONTROL BLOCKED IN RESPONDER ..................... 56
J.1
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 56
J.3
USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 56
J.4
QUALITY CODES .................................................................................................. 56
J.4.1 Additional quality code for “Supervisory Control blocked in
Responder” ................................................................................................ 57
J.5 A-DATA....................................................................................................................... 57
APPENDIX K - DATA COLLECTION BLOCKED ............................................................ 58
K.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 58
K.2 STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 58
K.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 58
K.4 QUALITY CODES .................................................................................................. 58
K.4.1 Additional quality code for “Data Collection Blocked” ........................... 59
K.5 A-DATA.................................................................................................................. 59
APPENDIX L - TRANSDUCER OUT OF RANGE ............................................................. 60
L.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 60
L.2 STRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 60
L.3 USER DATA TYPES ............................................................................................... 60
L.4 QUALITY CODES .................................................................................................. 60
L.4.1 Additional quality code for “Transducer out of range” .......................... 61
L.5 A-DATA ................................................................................................................ 61
APPENDIX M - ADAPTATION TO FINELCOM STANDARD......................................... 62
M.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 62
M.2 PASSWORD ........................................................................................................... 62
M.3 RESULT CODES .................................................................................................... 62
M.4 SUFFICES ............................................................................................................. 62
M.5 RESTART CODE .................................................................................................... 62
APPENDIX N - ELCOM-90 ACCEPTANCE OF ELCOM-83 SUPERVISORY
CONTROL ...................................................................................................................... 63
N.1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 63
N.2 MODIFICATIONS.................................................................................................. 63
APPENDIX O - LOCAL CONVENTIONS MADE IN ARGENTINE................................. 64
O.1 ENCODING OF MILLISECONDS. ....................................................................... 64
P. FINELCOM CONVENTIONS VERSION 1.3 .................................................................. 65
P.1 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SELECTIVE-CYCLIC TRANSFER MODE..... 65
P.2 SUFFIXES.................................................................................................................. 65
P.3 THE ADDITIONAL REASON/RESULT CODES...................................................... 66
P.4 COMMANDS AND SET VALUES............................................................................ 66
P.5 GROUP CONFIGURATION ...................................................................................... 67
P.6 HISTORY DATA TRANSFER .................................................................................. 67
P.7 ACCESS CONTROL .................................................................................................. 67
P.8 RESOURCE CONTROL ............................................................................................ 68
P.9 SPONTANEOUS TRANSFER MODES..................................................................... 68
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VERSION HISTORY
Initial version plus one. Just some minor changes to responsible persons and references.
1. INTRODUCTION
The ELCOM-90 User Element Conventions [14], appendix B, permits Local Conventions to be
established when communication requirements can not be fulfilled by the normal Functional Units
(FU) and data types, specified in [14].
This report describes FU’s developed by Powel ASA and the owners ABB, Siemens and SINTEF
Energy Research during the period 1991 – 2003.
2. ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
2.1
ELCOM-83 documentation
[1]:
TR 3522: ELCOM-83 Application Service Definition
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1988-07-05
[2]:
TR 3528: ELCOM-83 Application Protocol Definition
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1988-07-14
[3]:
TR 3523: ELCOM-83 Definition of Local Application Interface
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1988-07-05
[4]:
TR 3524: ELCOM-83 Presentation Service Definition
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1988-07-06
[5]:
TR 3527: ELCOM-83 Presentation Protocol Definition
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1988-07-13
[6]:
TR 3532: ELCOM-83 Definition of Local Presentation Interface
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1988-09-12
[7]:
TR 3649: ELCOM-83 Conventions
Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1989-12-20
ISBN 82-594-0086-3
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2.2
ELCOM-90 documentation
This document is one of a series of technical reports which form the complete ELCOM-90
documentation. Below you will find the numbers and titles for all the associated technical reports.
New versions may be submitted when technical changes are made.
Please see SINTEF’s homepage at: http://www.sintef.no/ELCOM-90. From here you can
download the latest version of all relevant documents as pdf-files for free.
[8]:
TR 3701: ELCOM-90 Application Programming Interface Specification
[9]:
TR 3702: ELCOM-90 Application Service Element. Service Definition
[10]:
TR 3703: ELCOM-90 Application Service Element. Protocol Specification
[11]:
TR 3704: ELCOM-90 Presentation Programming Interface Specification
[12]:
TR 3705: ELCOM-90 Presentation Service Definition
[13]: TR 3706: ELCOM-90 Presentation Protocol Specification
[14]: TR 3825: ELCOM-90 User Element Conventions
[15]:
TR A3933: ELCOM-90 Local Conventions
[16]
TR A4687: PONG. The ELCOM net-watch procedure for TCP/IP networks
[17]
TR A4124: ELCOM-90 Application Service Element, User’s manual.
[18]
TR A6196: Securing ELCOM-90 with TLS.
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3. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
3.1
Definitions
ACCEPTOR address:
The unique identification, octet string, of the responding service user.
Changing a group:
Modifying one or more of the descriptor attribute values for an existing group
identity.
Composite FU:
Composite FUs act via invocation of other FUs by an Initiator UE only. They
have no associated specific EASE service primitive sequence. Neither do
they have any specific Responder part.
Configuration Set:
The currently agreed-upon group configuration database shared between
a number of INITIATOR/RESPONDER systems.
Configuring a group:
Creating and defining a group.
Congestion error:
Error situation in which the EASE is not able to receive req. or res. type
service primitives, because of heavy traffic. General rules for handling
congestion errors are given in chapter 4.2.1. Special rules per FU are given in
the individual FU descriptions.
Coordinating Function: An Elcom User Element function that controls the local Functional Unit
invocations.
Creating a group:
Making a new group identity 1 legal, allocating a new group descriptor.
Defining a group:
Attaching a set of implicitly numbered symbolic object identifiers to an empty
group identity.
Deleting a group:
Removing the group identity from the set of legal identities, deal locating the
associated group descriptor.
Disrupting a Functional Unit or procedure:
Abruptly (non-orderly) terminating that Functional Unit or procedure.
Dynamic Association:
An association between an INITIATOR UE and a RESPONDER UE, which
may be created and terminated at the discretion of the INITIATOR UE.
EASE:
Elcom Application Service Element.
Elcom partner:
An Elcom site with which a given INITIATOR UE or RESPONDER UE may
communicate via the EASE.
Elcom provider:
The software component that implements the Elcom protocol in a given
environment.
1
Group number.
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Elcom system:
The set of User Elements, or single User Element, that utilise the Elcom
provider that is addressed by the low-level part of a given Elcom
address 2. The rest of the local data processing environment of which
the User Elements (or User Element), are (is) part, is also considered to
belong to the same Elcom system.
Function Group:
A named collection of Functional Units of related functionality.
Functional Unit invocation:
A specific instance of use of the Functional Unit.
Functional Unit type:
A named collection of Functional Units of related action mechanisms.
Functional Unit, or Elcom User Element Functional Unit:
A named well-defined succession of EASE service primitives at the EAPIs of
two communicating Elcom systems, constituting a single co-operative
functional capability of an Elcom INITIATOR User Element and its peer
Elcom RESPONDER User Element 3.
Group:
A numbered set of named, and implicitly numbered, data objects in an
Elcom system.
Incarnation:
A consistent set of data values for a group or subgroup, all sampled at a
given point in time.
INITIATOR address:
The unique identification, octet string, of an Initiator User Element.
INITIATOR site:
The collection of INITIATOR systems sharing a common Configuration Set.
Equivalent to INITIATOR system, if no such sharing.
INITIATOR system:
The collection of all INITIATOR UEs in a given Elcom system, together with
the local data processing environment of which the collection is part.
INITIATOR User Element, or INITIATOR UE:
A User Element controlling associations, groups and data transfer, via the
EASE.
Low-level Elcom address:
What is left of an Elcom address if the A-suffix character pair is removed.
Managing a group:
Creating, changing or deleting a group.
Permanent Association:
An association between an INITIATOR UE and a RESPONDER UE, which
is to be maintained at all times.
Primary FU:
Primary FUs are the basic kind of FUs; these are characterized by their
individual well defined sequence of EASE service primitives, and are always
being invoked by an Initiator UE.
2
An Elcom system may be addressed by more than one low-level Elcom address. For example, a number of different
DTE numbers (which is one form of low-level Elcom addresses) will address the same Elcom system, if:
- All DTE numbers connect to X.25 lines attached to the device in which the Elcom system resides, and:
- All DTE numbers contain the single sub-address that is defined for Elcom-90.
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Procedure:
Sequence of prescribed actions in an Elcom INITIATOR UE and/or its
peer RESPONDER UE.
Redefining a group:
Modifying the existing set of object identifiers in a defined group.
RESPONDER system:
The collection of all RESPONDER UEs in a given Elcom system, together
with the local data processing environment of which the collection is part.
RESPONDER site:
The collection of RESPONDER systems sharing a common Configuration
Set. Equivalent to RESPONDER system, if no such sharing.
RESPONDER User Element:
The peer communications UE of an INITIATOR UE.
Secondary FU:
Secondary FUs have individual well defined EASE service primitive
sequences, but are always invoked by a Responder UE, as a result of local
decision in that user element.
Subgroup:
A contiguous range of objects within a group definition.
Transaction, or Elcom transaction:
A specific instance of use of an elementary EASE service.
User Element:
3.2
The ELCOM User Element is defined as that part of the Elcom Application
Entity that is not part of the EASE/EAPI. It may be of either the initiator type or
of the responder type (see chapter 4.1).
Abbreviations
ADFU: Dynamic Association FU
AE:
Application Entity
AP:
Application Process
APFU:
Permanent Association FU
ASE:
Application Service Element
ATFU:
Test Association FU
CS:
Configuration Set
CS(I):
The CS copy at the INITIATOR site
CS(R):
The CS copy at the RESPONDER site
cnf.:
confirm
DPFU:
Periodic Data Transfer FU
DPRFU:
Periodically Requested Data Transfer FU
DRFU:
Requested Data Transfer FU
DSFU:
Supervisory Control Data Transfer FU
DUFU:
Unsolicited Data Transfer FU
DUMFU:
Unsolicited Mixed Data Transfer FU
EAPI:
Elcom Application Programming Interface
EASE:
Elcom Application Service Element
3
This is the basic definition. However, an FU may act exclusively through other FUs, having no specific EASE service
primitive sequence associated with it. See about FU types, in chapter 4.2 "Functional Units (FUs)".
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FU:
(Elcom User Element) Functional Unit
GCFU:
Group Configuration FU
GDFU:
Group Definition FU
GMFU:
Group Management FU
GRFU:
Group Readout FU
ind.:
indication
PDU:
Protocol Data Unit.
RAFU: Restart Reactivate FU
req.:
request
res.:
response
RRFU:
Restart Reconfigure FU
UE:
User Element
4.
FU DESCRIPTION TEMPLATE
NAME of FU
FUNCTION
CORDINATION rules
Association usage
Relation to other FUs
Invoking FUs
Invoked FUs
Disrupting FUs
Disrupted FUs
Invocation
Prerequisites
Restrictions
Invoking events
Termination
Orderly Termination
Disrupt ion
Procedures
EASE service primitives
Sequence
Parameter values
Error handling
FU disruption
Illegal invocation attempt
Incoming EASE service primitive out of context
Timing errors
Congestion error
EASE service primitive parameter errors
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5.
CONTENTS IN APPENDIXES
The 2 Functional Unit (FU), the 4 modifications from Siemens, the 8 modifications from ABB
and the Argentine change have got names and is described in a following Appendixes. The first
two are fully described as FU’s using the template listed in chapter 4. The modifications from
Siemens and ABB are following another description template. The Argentine one is made as a
special description made up from some correspondence between the Argentine company and
SINTEF Energy Research.
The Appendix “number” and “name” of the 2 FU’s are:
A.
Initiator Data Transfer
B.
Retransmission of Historical Values
The Appendix “number” and “name” of the 4 modifications made by Siemens are:
C.
Command with Quality Flags
D.
Commanded Status Change Quality Flag
E.
Double Precision Floating Point Value
F.
Fleeting Alarms
The Appendix “number” and “name” of the 8 modifications made by ABB are:
G.
Transmission of alarm states from the Responder
H.
Unknown object
I.
Supervisory Control blocked for Initiator
J.
Supervisory Control blocked for Responder
K.
Data collection blockade
L.
Transducer out of range
M.
Adaptation to FinELCOM standard
N.
ELCOM-90 acceptance of ELCOM-83 Supervisory Control
The Appendix “number” and “name” of the “Argentine” local convention is:
O.
Millisecond representation
p.
FinELCOM Conventions version 1.3
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APPENDIX A - INITIATOR DATA TRANSFER FU
This appendix contains ELCOM-90 Local Conventions for a new Functional Unit (FU) used to
transfer data telegrams from the Initiator to the Responder. The Initiator will establish the
association as normal, but instead of asking for data, it will send data when activated.
This function is useful when data are available at random points of time, and when cost aspects
makes it impossible to use the Unsolicited Data Transfer FU with permanent associations.
The name of the FU is «Initiator Data Transfer». The short name for the FU is DINFU.
Type:
A.1
Primary.
FUNCTION
This FU transfers data in the opposite direction of the other data transfer FU's.
1.
-
-
2.
A.2
The Initiator sends data to the Responder, without any prior request for data, subject to the
following general rules:
The data are associated with one specified ELCOM group only.
The sequence of the data values is the same as in the group definition.
The sequence of the data values may be a subset of the complete sequence, and the subset
may vary from transmission to transmission.
For groups of type Text-message-group, each transmission shall contain the data value of
exactly one object. In other words, for groups of this type each object shall constitute a data
subset.
One single incarnation of the data value of any one object shall always be contained within
a single transmission.
The Initiator UE must specify acknowledged or non-acknowledged operation, on a per
transmission basis.
The Responder acknowledges reception of data, whenever such acknowledgement has been
specified by the Initiator UE (More=False).
COORDINATION RULES
A.2.1 Association usage
All ELCOM interactions that are part of one invocation of the Initiator Data Transfer FU are
conveyed by one single association. The association shall have the characteristics as specified in
the section "Prerequisites", below.
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A.2.2 Relation to other FUs
A.2.2.1
Invoking FUs
The Initiator Data Transfer FU shall not be invoked by another FU.
A.2.2.2
Invoked FUs
The Initiator Data Transfer FU shall not invoke any other FU.
A.2.2.3
Disrupting FUs
The Initiator Data Transfer FU may be disrupted by:
-
Permanent Association FU
Dynamic Association FU
Group Management FU
Group Definition FU
Restart Reconfigure FU
A.2.2.4
Disrupted FUs
The Initiator Data Transfer FU shall not disrupt any other FU.
A.2.3 Invocation
A.2.3.1
Prerequisites
The following FUs shall have been invoked preceding any invocation of the Initiator Data
transfer FU:
- The Permanent Association FU or Dynamic Association FU
- The Group Configuration FU
The Permanent Association FU or Dynamic Association FU invocation shall still be running at
the time the Initiator Data Transfer FU is invoked, and in the case of the Permanent Association
FU, the association maintained by the Permanent Association FU invocation shall be running (not
temporarily broken) at the time.
The Group Configuration FU invocation shall be terminated when the Initiator Data Transfer FU
is invoked.
The Permanent Association FU or Dynamic Association FU shall have been invoked in order to
create (and for the Permanent Association FU, also to maintain) the association to be used for the
interactions related to the current invocation of the Initiator Data Transfer FU.
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A-suffices:
Initiator UE:
Responder UE:
CH
DH
The Group Configuration FU shall have been invoked in order to define and configure the group
that is to be transmitted, prior to the current invocation of the Initiator Data Transfer FU.
A.2.3.2
Restrictions
For any given INITIATOR/RESPONDER system combination, multiple simultaneous
invocations of the Initiator Data Transfer FU for any given group are not allowed.
The Initiator Data Transfer FU must not be invoked while at least one of the following FUs are
running, for the group involved:
-
Group Configuration FU
Group Management FU
Group Definition FU
A.2.2.3
Invoking events
The INITIATOR part of the Initiator Data Transfer FU may be invoked by:
-
Local request via the Co-ordinating Function, the original source of which is outside the scope
of this document.
Invocation of the RESPONDER part of the Initiator Data Transfer FU is attempted whenever a
valid A-Data-Transfer ind. primitive is received via an association with the characteristics as
defined for Initiator Data Transfer FU.
A.2.4 Termination
A.2.4.1
Orderly termination
Orderly termination of the INITIATOR part of a Initiator Data Transfer FU invocation may only
be triggered by:
-
Local request via the Co-ordinating Function, the original source of which is outside the scope
of this document (premature termination).
Local accumulated error count becoming too great. See "Error handling", below.
Congestion error. See relevant section, below.
Reception of an A-Conf-Data ind. service primitive after issuing an A-Data (spont,
More=False) req. service primitive (normal termination).
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The RESPONDER part of a Initiator Data Transfer FU invocation always terminates itself in an
orderly manner (normal termination) upon reception of an A-Data (Transmod=spont,
More=False) ind. primitive.
By termination, except for the case of congestion error, the RESPONDER UE shall try to issue an
A-Conf-Data req. primitive.
A.2.4.2
Disruption
Both the INITIATOR and the RESPONDER part of a Data Transfer FU invocation may be
disrupted by:
-
Disruption of another FU invocation. See section "Disrupting FUs", above.
A fatal error condition encountered during operation. See section "Error handling", below.
A.3
PROCEDURES
A.3.1 EASE service primitives
The following elementary EASE services are used by the Initiator Data Transfer FU:
-
A-Data (spont)
A-Conf-Data (spont)
A.3.1.1
Sequence
The normal sequence of primitives is partitioned into 3 phases:
-
Phase 1: Data transmission 4
INITIATOR UE
A-Data (spont,T) req.
A-Data (spont,T) req.
A-Data (spont,T) req.
A-Data (spont,F) req.
1
EASE
-------- >
-------- >
.
.
-------- >
-------- >
RESPONDER UE
A-Data (spont,T) ind.
A-Data (spont,T) ind.
A-Data (spont,T) ind.
A-Data (spont,F) ind.
Notation T and F signifies, for the parameter More-D, the values true and false, respectively.
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In this phase, the following rules apply:
1)
This document places no restriction on the number of consecutive
A-Data (spont,T) req. primitives that may be issued before the terminating A-Data (spont,F)
req. is issued. However, if too much time elapses between any A-Data (spont,T) primitive and
the succeeding A-Data (spont,T) or A-Data (spont,F) primitive, an error situation occurs in
the EASE. See the section "Error handling", below.
2)
The INITIATOR UE is responsible for determining the timing of
the individual A-Data (spont) req. primitives. However, the primitives shall be issued in
without undue delay.
3)
The rules stated in section "Function", above, also apply here.
Phase 2: Orderly terminating: Data acknowledgement.
INITIATOR
A-Data (spont,T) req.
EASE
< --------
RESPONDER UE
A-Conf-Data (spont) req.
The following rules apply:
1)
The transition from phase 1 to phase 2 shall be triggered by the
RESPONDER UE receiving and A-Data (spont, F) ind. primitive: The INITIATOR UE flags
the fact that all requested data are transferred, by setting parameter More-D=false in the last
transmission.
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A.3.1.2
Parameter values
A-Data (spont) req. (INITIATOR)
Parameter
req.
Gtype
Value Measure-group, Status-group, Discrete-group, Logical-breaker
status-group, Binary-command-group, Analog-setpoint-group, Digitalsetpoint-group, or Text-message-group, depending on the type of the
group in question, as assumed in the CS(R).
Gnr
Transmod
Index1 5
Reference number for the group in question, as assumed in the CS(R).
= spontaneously
Shall be > = 0:
Equal to the lowest Object number, in accordance with the CS(R), of
the range of Object numbers whose data values are contained in the
Data parameter (below).
Shall be equal to Index2, if Gtype = Text-message-group. 6
Shall be > = value of Index1:
Equal to the highest Object number, in accordance with the CS(R), of
the range of Object numbers whose data values are contained in the
Data parameter (below).
Shall be equal to Index1, if Gtype = Text-message-group.
Index2
Table cont.
Parameter
req.
T
Time stamp, applying to the whole set of values contained in the Data
parameter below, and determined by the INITIATOR UE. The use of
UTC is recommended.
If current A-Data (spont) primitive is not the last carrying requested
data, so that another will follow shortly:
= true.
If current A-Data (spont) primitive is the last carrying requested data:
= false.
The actual ELCOM data transferred. The structure is defined in
Appendix A in ELCOM-90 User Element Conventions.
= result-ok
More-D
Data
Result
5
6
The number of values that shall be contained in the Data parameter can be computed as: Index2 – Index1 + 1.
Only one object per transmission, for such groups
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A-Conf-Data (spont) req. (RESPONDER)
Parameter
req.
Gtype
Gnr
Transmod
Result
Copy of value from request (A-Data of Phase 1)
Copy of value from request (A-Data of Phase 1)
= spontaneously
If no error detected by the RESPONDER UE:
= result-ok.
If error detected by the RESPONDER UE:
Other value. See "Error handling" (below).
A.3.2 Error handling
A.3.2.1
FU disruption
Disruption by the Permanent Association FU or the Dynamic Association FU:
Disruption of both the INITIATOR part and the RESPONDER part of the current invocation of
the Initiator Data Transfer FU shall be triggered locally, as a part of the handling of incoming AP-Abort ind. primitives in both the INITIATOR part and the RESPONDER part of the FU
invocation handling the association on which the Initiator Data Transfer FU is running.
Both parts of the current invocation of the Initiator Data Transfer FU shall be terminated
gracefully, neither part attempting to issue any primitive associated with the termination itself 7.
A.3.2.2
Illegal invocation attempt
FU not present:
If the Initiator Data Transfer FU is not present in an INITIATOR UE:
Invocation requests are always generated locally; see section "Invocation", above. Consequently,
the handling of this type of error is a local issue, outside the scope of this document.
If the Initiator Data Transfer FU is not present in a RESPONDER UE:
The RESPONDER User Element shall respond to activation attempts in one of two ways:
Either:
- Ignoring the incoming A-Data ind. primitive altogether
or:
- Issuing a Conf-Data req. primitive with Result = remote-service-user-unavailable.
7
Local clean-up procedures are not specified by this document.
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FU present, but attempt illegal:
Attempts of illegal invocations of the Initiator Data Transfer FU for any given group in an
INITIATOR UE is a local issue, outside the scope of this document.
Attempts of illegal invocations of the Requested Data Transfer FU for any given group in a
RESPONDER UE shall be handled by the RESPONDER UE in one of two ways:
Either:
- Ignoring the incoming A-Data ind. primitive altogether
or:
- Issuing an A-Conf-Data req. primitive with Result = remote-service-user-unavailable, without
actually (re)-invoking the Initiator Data Transfer FU for the group concerned, in the
RESPONDER UE.
A.3.2.3
Incoming EASE service primitive out of context
RESPONDER part:
State
A-Data (spont.) ind.
FU not running
Ignore, or:
Issue A-Conf-Data (spont.) req., with Result = remote-service-userunavailable.
(Normal)
FU running, waiting for
A-Data (spont.) ind.
INITIATOR part:
State
A-Conf-Data (spont. )ind.
FU not running
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging.
Terminate FU invocation locally,
then:
local error indication/logging
(Normal)
FU running, not waiting for
A-Conf-Data (spont) ind.
FU running, waiting for
A-Conf-Data (spont.) ind.
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A.3.2.4
Timing errors
Error in RESPONDER part:
Error
Reaction from EASE
Specified action in FU
In RESPONDER:
RESPONDER part:
(spont.) req. after receiving A-Data
Local error from eventual attempt at
Ignore, or local error indication/
(spont.,F) ind.:
issuing A-Conf- Data (spont.) req.
logging, then proceed as normal.
In INITIATOR:
INITIATOR part:
A-Conf-Data (spont.) ind., with
Terminate FU invocation locally,
Result = remote- service-user-
then:
unavailable.
local error indication/logging
Error
Reaction from EASE
Specified action in FU
UE too late issuing next A-Data
In INITIATOR:
INITIATOR part:
(spont.) req. after latest A-Data
A-Conf-Data (spont.) ind.,
Terminate FU invocation locally.
(spont.,T) req. issued
with Result = misbehaviour- of-local-
UE too late issuing A-Conf- Data
Error in INITIATOR part:
service-user.
In RESPONDER:
RESPONDER part:
A-Data (spont.) ind., with
Terminate FU invocation locally.
Result = remote-service-user
unavailable.
A.3.2.5
Congestion error
RESPONDER part of the FU:
When occurring with an A-Conf-Data (spont) reg. attempt:
Terminate FU invocation locally.
INITIATOR part of the FU:
When occurring with an A-Data req. attempt:
Terminate FU invocation locally. (RESPONDER part of FU will eventually be terminated
upon A-Conf-Data (spont.) ind. with Result ><result-ok, after time-out in the Elcom
provider.)
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A.3.2.6
EASE service primitive parameter errors
Errors in the A-Conf-Data (spont.) ind. primitive (detected by the INITIATOR part):
Error
Action in INITIATOR part of FU
Gtype value different from the value in CS(R) for the
Error indication/logging, then terminate FU invocation, as
group associated with the current FU invocation.
normal.
Result >< result-ok
Error indication/logging, then terminate FU invocation, as
normal
For security class 2: The received authentication
invalid-authentication-code-received
code >< the generated authentication code based in
the received data.
The security class 3: The received checksum >< the
decipherment-error
generated checksum during the decipherment.
Error in the A-Data (spont.) ind. primitive (detected by the RESPONDER part):
The RESPONDER part shall in all cases, except for the case of syntax error in data parameter:
1.
Terminate the current FU invocation in the INITIATOR by
issuing an A-Conf-Data (spont.) req. with Result = <Value from table below>, Transmod =
spontaneously, and the values of Gnr and Gtype as in the A-Data (spont.) ind. The data shall
be ignored.
2.
Terminate the RESPONDER part of the FU itself, optionally
incrementing local error count and/or reporting or logging the error.
In the case of syntax error in Data parameter, "invalid-authentication-code-received" or
"decipherment-error" 8, the RESPONDER part shall ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as
normal, optionally incrementing local error count and/or reporting or logging the error.
Error req.
Value of parameter Result in A-Conf-Data (spont.)
Result = result-ok, and format error in T
T-out-of-range
Result >< result-ok
8
Same value as received parameter Result.
See Appendix A in ELCOM-90 User Element Conventions for syntax definition.
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APPENDIX B - RETRANSMISSION OF HISTORICAL VALUES
This Appendix contains Elcom-90 Local Conventions for a new Functional Unit (FU) used to
perform Retransmission of Historical Values using an unsolicited data channel.
The Unsolicited Data Transfer FU (DUFU) is used to transfer online information only
(Momentanous values), while Periodically Requested Data Transfer FU (DPRFU) is used to
transfer values from the archives (Historical values). If values in the archive are updated after the
DPRFU has been performed, the DUFU can not be used to retransmit those values, since values
transmitted with DUFU are not stored in the archive. A new FU is therefore described here for
this purpose.
The name of the FU is «Retransmission of Historical Values». The short name for the FU is
DREFU.
Type: Primary
B.1
FUNCTION
This FU uses a permanent association to perform the data transfer.
A-suffices:
Initiator Suffix:
Responder Suffix:
CI
DI
The FU is a copy of the Unsolicited Data Transfer FU, with the difference that no Initial Request
shall be performed by the Initiator, and that received data shall be stored in the archive. Only
floating point values may be transmitted with this FU (Object type=1).
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Initiator establishes the association using the suffices described above.
The Initiator sends Spontaneous Management (Start) for all groups that are containing
objects for which retransmission of historical values shall take place.
The Responder will transmit values when one of the objects in one the activated groups
are updated. The actual updating of values, and the signalling between the Responder and
the updating application, is not part of this document.
The Responder will transmit one or several data telegrams to the Initiator. The last one
will contain the parameter More=False.
The Initiator will receive the data telegrams, storing the values in the archive.
If the Initator receives a telegram with the parameter More=False, the Initiator will
acknowledge the reception of data, sending a confirmation telegram.
The following rules also apply:
• The data are associated with one specified ELCOM group only.
• The sequence of the data values may be a subset of the complete sequence, and the subset
may vary from transmission to transmission.
• One single incarnation of the data value of any one object shall always be contained within
a single transmission.
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• The Initiator UE must specify acknowledged or non-acknowledged operation, on a per
transmission basis.
B.2
CORDINATION RULES
B.2.1 Association usage
All ELCOM interactions that are part of one invocation of the Retransmission of Historical
Values FU are conveyed by one single association. The association shall have the characteristics
as specified in the section "Prerequisites", below.
B.2.2 Relation to other FUs
B.2.2.1
Invoking FUs
The Retransmission of Historical Values FU shall not be invoked by another FU.
B.2.2.2
Invoked FUs
The Retransmission of Historical Values FU shall not invoke any other FU.
B.2.2.3
Disrupting FUs
The Retransmission of Historical Values FU may be disrupted by:
 Permanent Association FU
 Group Management FU
 Group Definition FU
 Restart Reconfigure FU
B.2.2.4
Disrupted FUs
The Retransmission of Historical Values FU shall not disrupt any other FU.
B.2.3 Invocation
B.2.3.1
Prerequisites
The following FUs shall have been invoked preceding any invocation of the Retransmission of
Historical Values FU:
• The Permanent Association FU
• The Group Configuration FU
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The Permanent Association FU invocation shall still be running at the time the Retransmission of
Historical Values FU is invoked, and the association maintained by the Permanent Association
FU invocation shall be running (not temporarily broken) at the time.
The Permanent Association FU shall have been invoked in order to create the association to be
used for the interactions related to the current invocation of the Retransmission of Historical
Values FU, with the following characteristics:
• A-suffix pair CI for the Initiator UE, and DI for the Responder UE.
• Spontaneous mode code as specified in the table in section «Spontaneous mode codes» in
the Elcom-90 User Element Conventions.
The Group Configuration FU shall have been invoked in order to define and configure the group
that is to be transmitted, prior to the current invocation of the Retransmission of Historical Values
FU. The Group Configuration FU invocation shall be terminated when the Retransmission of
Historical Values FU is invoked.
B.2.3.2
Restrictions
For any given INITIATOR/RESPONDER system combination, multiple simultaneous
invocations of the Retransmission of Historical Values FU for any given group are not allowed.
The Retransmission of Historical Values FU must not be invoked while at least one of the
following FUs are running, for the group involved:
• Group Configuration FU
• Group Management FU
• Group Definition FU
B.2.3.3
Invoking events
The INITIATOR part of the Retransmission of Historical Values FU may be invoked by:
• Local request via the Co-ordinating Function, the original source of which is outside the
scope of this document.
• The Restart Reactivate FU.
Invocation of the RESPONDER part of the Retransmission of Historical Values FU is attempted
whenever a valid A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. primitive is received via an association with the
characteristics as defined for Retransmission of Historical Values FU.
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B.2.4 Termination
B.2.4.1
Orderly Termination
Orderly termination of the INITIATOR part of a Retransmission of Historical Values FU
invocation may only be triggered by:
• Local request via the Co-ordinating Function, the original source of which is outside the
scope of this document (premature termination).
• Local accumulated error count becoming too great. See "Error handling", below.
• Congestion error. See relevant section, below.
Orderly termination of the Responder part of a Retransmission of Historical Values FU invocation
may only be triggered by reception of a valid A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) ind. primitive.
B.2.4.2
Disruption
Both the INITIATOR and the RESPONDER part of a Data Transfer FU invocation may be
disrupted by:
 Disruption of another FU invocation. See section "Disrupting FUs", above.
 A fatal error condition encountered during operation. See section "Error handling", below.
B.3.3 PROCEDURES
B.3.1 EASE service primitives
The following elementary EASE services are used by the Retransmission of Historical Values
FU:
• A-Spont-Mgnt
• A-Data (spont)
• A-Conf-Data (spont)
B.3.1.1
Sequence
The normal sequence of primitives is partitioned into 3 phases:
Phase 1: Granting permission to send.
INITIATOR UE
A-Spont-Mgnt (start) req.
A-Spont-Mgnt (start) cnf.
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<------------
RESPONDER UE
A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind.
A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res.
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Phase 2: Data transmission. 9
INITIATOR UE
A-Data (spont., T) ind.
A-Data (spont., T) ind.
A-Data (spont., T) ind.
A-Data (spont., T) ind.
A-Data (spont., T) ind.
A-Data (spont., F) ind.
A-Conf-Data (spont.) req.
EASE
<-----------<-----------•
•
<-----------<-----------<-----------•
•
<----------------------->
•
•
RESPONDER UE
A-Data (spont., T) req.
A-Data (spont., T) req.
A-Data (spont., T) req.
A-Data (spont., T) req.
A-Data (spont., T) req.
A-Data (spont., F) req.
A-Conf-Data (spont.) ind.
In this phase, the following rules apply:
1. For the current invocation of this FU, the A-Conf-Data (spont.) primitive is to be functionally
interpreted as acknowledgement of the data carried by all preceding A-Data (spont.) primitives
since the last A-Conf-Data (spont.) primitive.
2. This document places no restriction on the number of consecutive A-Data (spont., T) req.
primitives that may be issued before an A-Data (spont., F) req. is issued. However, if too much
time elapses between any A-Data (spont., T) primitive and the succeeding A-Data (spont., T) or AData (spont., F) primitive, an error situation occurs in the EASE. See the section "Error
handling", below.
3. The RESPONDER UE is responsible for determining the timing and ordering of the A-Data
(spont.) req. primitives for the different Retransmission of Historical Values FU invocations. The
RESPONDER UE shall order its outgoing data queue according to the attribute Priority Class of
the group10 to which the data belongs:
•
•
•
Data of a given Priority Class value may be sent prior to all pending data of greater
Priority Class value.
Data of equal Priority Class value may be sent in order of occurrence.
Priority Class equal to zero shall be interpreted as "priority function off for these data",
disabling priority check for the data concerned and always appending these at the end of
the outgoing data queue. 11
4. The RESPONDER UE may at any time choose to report data for any number of groups for
which the Retransmission of Historical Values FU is invoked, via a local Unsolicited Mixed Data
Transfer FU invocation instead of, or in addition to, the normal A-Data (spont.) req. primitives.
5. The rules stated in section "Function", above, also apply here.
9
Notation: T and F signifies, for the parameter More-D, the values true and false, respectively.
If data belong to more than one group, each occurrence of the data in the outgoing queue shall be handled
independently, according the their individual Priority Class values.
11
A RESPONDER UE altogether lacking support for the priority mechanism shall report the fact as an error whenever
an INITIATOR UE tries to create or change a group into one for which Priority Class is different from zero.
10
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Phase 3: Orderly termination: Withdrawing permission to send.
INITIATOR UE
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) req.
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) cnf.
EASE
RESPONDER UE
------------>
<------------
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) ind.
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) res.
The following rules apply:
1. The transition from phase 2 to phase 3 may follow either an A-Data (spont., T) primitive or an
A-Conf-Data (spont.) primitive. If it follows an A-Data (spont., T) primitive, the error condition
described in rule 2 of phase 2 above will eventually occur.
2. After an Retransmission of Historical Values FU invocation for a given group has been
terminated, the RESPONDER UE must not try to invoke the Unsolicited Mixed Data Transfer FU
for that group.
B.3.1.2
Parameter values
A-Spont-Mgnt :
Parameter
req. (INITIATOR)
res. (RESPONDER)
Function
Phase 1: = start
Phase 3: = stop
Copy of value from ind.
Gtype
Value Measure-group
Copy of value from ind.
Gnr
Reference number for the group in
question, as defined in the CS.
Copy of value from ind.
Result
(Not applicable)
Action performed as specified.
= result-ok
Action not performed, due to error
condition:
Other value. See section
"Error handling".
(If Function = start, this
means that the
RESPONDER part of the
Unsolicited Data Transfer
FU has not been
invoked, for the group in
question).
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A-Data (spont.,) req. (RESPONDER):
Parameter
req.
Gtype
Copy of value from A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. of Phase 1
Gnr
Copy of value from A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. of Phase 1
Transmod
= spontaneous
Index112
Shall be > 0:
Equal to the lowest Object number, in accordance with the CS(R), of the
range of Object numbers whose data values are contained in the Data
parameter (below).
Index2
Shall be >= value of Index1:
Equal to the highest Object number, in accordance with the CS(R), of the
range of Object numbers whose data values are contained in the Data
parameter (below).
T
Time stamp, applying to the whole set of values contained in the Data parameter (below), and determined by the RESPONDER UE.
The use of UTC is recommended.
More-D
If another A-Data (spont.) primitive for the group specified by the Gnr parameter (above) will follow shortly, so that data acknowledgement (A-ConfData primitive, issued by the INITIATOR) can be postponed:
= true.
If another A-Data (spont.) primitive for the group specified by the Gnr parameter (above) will NOT follow shortly, so that data acknowledgement (AConf-Data primitive) shall be issued by the INITIATOR:
= false.
Data
The actual Elcom data transferred.
Length
Length of Data in objects. Shall be computed according to the length of the
actual datatype, Index1 and Index2.
Result
= result-ok
A-Conf-Data (spont.) req. (INITIATOR):
Parameter
req.
Gtype
Copy of value from A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. of Phase 1
Gnr
Copy of value from A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. of Phase 1
Transmod
= spontaneous
Result
If no error detected by the INITIATOR UE:
= result-ok.
If error detected by the INITIATOR UE:
Other value. See "Error handling" (below).
12
The number of values that shall be contained in the Data parameter can be computed as: Index2 - Index1 + 1.
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B.3.2 Error handling
B.3.2.1
FU disruption
Disruption by the Permanent Association FU:
Disruption of both the INITIATOR part and the RESPONDER part of the current invocation of
the Retransmission of Historical Values FU shall be triggered locally, as a part of the handling of
incoming A-P-Abort ind. primitives in both the INITIATOR part and the RESPONDER part of
the Permanent Association FU invocation handling the association on which the Retransmission
of Historical Values FU is running.
Both parts of the current invocation of the Retransmission of Historical Values FU shall be
terminated gracefully, neither part attempting to issue any primitive associated with the
termination itself. 13
Following the termination, the Permanent Association FU will enter a state in which it will signal
Restart, spontaneous management lost or Restart, group management lost, the next time an association with the characteristics for Retransmission of Historical Values is established between the
same INITIATOR and RESPONDER UE pair. 14
B.3.2.2
Illegal invocation attempt
FU not present:
If the Retransmission of Historical Values FU is not present in an INITIATOR UE:
Invocation requests are always generated locally; see section "Invocation", above. Consequently,
the handling of this type of error is a local issue, outside the scope of this document.
If the Retransmission of Historical Values FU is not present in an RESPONDER UE:
The RESPONDER UE will not listen on the specified Suffix. The association will therefore never
be established, and the FU will never be activated.
FU present, but attempt illegal:
Attempts of multiple simultaneous invocations of the Retransmission of Historical Values FU for
any given group in an INITIATOR UE is a local issue, outside the scope of this document.
Attempts of multiple simultaneous invocations of the Retransmission of Historical Values FU for
any given group in a RESPONDER UE shall be handled by the RESPONDER UE in one of two
ways:
Either:
- Ignoring the incoming A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. primitive altogether
or:
13
Local clean-up procedures are not specified by this document.
The RESPONDER UE may be programmed to always signal the restart code "Restart, spontaneous management
lost" during creation of associations for Unsolicited Data Transfer, regardless of previous history.
14
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- Issuing an A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res. primitive with Result = remote-service-userunavailable without actually (re-)invoking the Retransmission of Historical Values FU
for the group concerned, in the RESPONDER UE.
B.3.2.3
Incoming EASE service primitive out of context
INITIATOR part:
State
A-Spont-Mgnt (start)
cnf.
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop)
cnf.
A-Data (spont) ind.
FU not running
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging
Ignore, or:
Simulate the entry of
Phase 3 of an
Retransmission of
Historical Values FU
invocation for the group
in question, thus terminating the (supposed)
current invocation of the
Retransmission of
Historical Values FU in
the RESPONDER UE.,
or:
Issue A-Conf-Data
(spont) req., with Result
= spontaneous-transfernot-initiated.
FU running, waiting for
A-Spont-Mgnt (start)
cnf.
(Normal)
(Parameter error)
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging
Waiting for A-Data
(spont) ind.
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging
(Normal)
Waiting for A-SpontMgnt (stop) cnf.
(Parameter error)
(Normal)
Ignore, or
local error indication/logging
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RESPONDER part:
State
A-Spont-Mgnt (start)
ind.
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop)
ind.
A-Conf-Data (spont)
ind.
FU not running
(Normal)
Ignore, or:
Issue an A-Spont-Mgnt
(stop) res. primitive with
Result = result-ok,
without terminating any
Retransmission of
Historical Values FU
invocation in the
RESPONDER UE.
Ignore, or
local error
indication/logging
FU running, not waiting
for A-Conf-Data (spont.)
ind.
Illegal invocation attempt; see relevant
section.
(Normal)
FU running, waiting for
A-Conf-Data (spont.)
ind.
Illegal invocation attempt; see relevant
section.
(Normal)
If Gnr is not active for
spont. transfer, issue an
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) res.
primitive with Result =
spontaneous-transfernot-initiated
(Normal)
B.3.2.4
(Normal)
Timing errors
Error in INITIATOR part:
Error
Reaction from EASE
Specified action in FU
UE too late issuing A-Conf-Data
(spont.) req. after receiving AData (spont., F) ind.:
In INITIATOR:
Local error from eventual attempt
at issuing A-Conf-Data (spont)
req.
INITIATOR part:
Ignore, or local error indication/logging, then proceed as
normal.
In RESPONDER:
A-Conf-Data (spont) ind., with
Result = remote-service-userunavailable.
RESPONDER part:
Enter procedure for Missing data
acknowledgement in
RESPONDER. See section on
parameter errors, below.
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Error in RESPONDER part:
Error
Reaction from EASE
Specified action in FU
UE too late responding to ASpont-Mgnt (start) ind.
In RESPONDER:
Local error from eventual attempt
at issuing A-Spont-Mgnt (start)
res.
RESPONDER part:
Terminate FU invocation locally.
In INITIATOR:
A-Spont-Mgnt (start) cnf., with
Result = remote-service-userunavailable.
UE too late issuing next A-Data
(spont.) req. after latest A-Data
(spont., T) req. issued
UE too late responding to ASpont-Mgnt (stop) ind.
In RESPONDER:
A-Conf-Data (spont) ind., with
Result = misbehaviour-of-localservice-user.
RESPONDER part:
Enter procedure for Missing data
acknowledgement in
RESPONDER. See section on
parameter errors, below.
In INITIATOR:
A-Data (spont.) ind., with Result
= remote-service-userunavailable.
INITIATOR part:
Local error indication/logging,
then proceed as normal.
In RESPONDER:
Local error from eventual attempt
at issuing A-Spont-Mgnt (stop)
res.
RESPONDER part:
Terminate FU invocation locally.
In INITIATOR:
A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) cnf., with
Result = remote-service-userunavailable.
B.3.2.5
INITIATOR part:
Terminate FU invocation locally.
INITIATOR part:
Terminate FU invocation locally.
Congestion error
INITIATOR part of the FU:
When occurring with an A-Spont-Mgnt (start) req. attempt:
Terminate FU invocation locally.
When occurring with an A-Conf-Data (spont) req. attempt:
Enter Phase 3 (Orderly Termination) of the FU, attempting to issue A-Spont-Mgnt
(stop) req., with Result = misbehaviour-of-local-service-user.
When occurring with an A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) req. attempt:
Ignore, or notify operator
RESPONDER part of the FU:
When occurring with an A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res. attempt:
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Terminate FU invocation locally. (INITIATOR part of FU will eventually be
terminated after time-out in the Elcom provider.)
When occurring with an A-Data req. attempt:
Trigger local abrupt termination of supporting association 15
When occurring with an A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) res. attempt:
Terminate FU invocation locally. (INITIATOR part of FU will eventually be
terminated after time-out in the Elcom provider.)
B.3.2.6
EASE service primitive parameter errors
For all primitives except the A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. primitive, the parameter Gnr will always be
valid within the context of this FU, provided the FU is running 16 for that group: It serves as
identification of the FU invocation to which the incoming primitive shall be directed.
Errors in the A-Spont-Mgnt (start) ind. primitive (detected by the RESPONDER part):
Error
Action in RESPONDER part of FU
Gtype value not equal to value of attribute Group
type in CS(R) for group no. Gnr. (The case of nonexisting group no. Gnr is considered below.)
Issue A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res. with Result = gtypeout-of-range, and the values of Gnr and Gtype as in
the corresponding ind. Do not invoke the FU.
Value of Gnr is illegal, or group no. Gnr does not
exist in the CS(R).
Issue A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res. with Result = gnrout-of-range, and the values of Gnr and Gtype as in
the corresponding ind. Do not invoke the FU.
Value of Gtype is illegal.
Issue A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res. with Result = gtypeout-of-range, and the values of Gnr and Gtype as in
the corresponding ind. Do not invoke the FU.
Group is created, but not defined
Issue A-Spont-Mgnt (start) res. with Result = indexout-of-range, and the values of Gnr and Gtype as in
the corresponding ind. Do not invoke the FU.
15
Such abrupt termination is effected by a local "detach" call (ADET) against the EAPI, followed by a local "attach"
call (AATT).
16
The case of the FU not being invoked for the group shall be handled outside the FU (by the Co-ordinating
Function): The natural replying primitive shall be issued, with parameter Result = gnr-out-of-range.
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Errors in the A-Conf-Data (spont) ind. primitive (detected by the RESPONDER part):
Error
Action in RESPONDER part of FU
Gtype value different from the value in CS(R) for
the group associated with the current FU invocation
Enter procedure for Missing data acknowledgement (immediately below).
Result >< result-ok
Enter procedure for Missing data acknowledgement (immediately below).
Procedure for Missing data acknowledgement:
- If Gtype OK and Result = spontaneous-transfer-not-initiated (INITIATOR part not running):
Terminate FU invocation locally
- If Gtype OK and Result = misbehaviour-of-local-service-user (RESPONDER data rate too slow,
for
More-D=T):
Proceed as normal
- If Gtype not OK or Result any other value than result-ok, spontaneous-transfer-not-initiated and
misbehaviour-of-remote-service-user:
Retry, a locally determined number of times, including 0 (no retry) and infinite (always
retry)
- Wait, for a locally determined time span
- Repeat all un-acknowledged A-Data (spont) ind.'s
Terminate retry loop on any of the conditions (and actions) above, as well as Result =
result-ok, in which case:
Proceed as normal.
If all retrials failed (Result ><result-ok, for all retrials), or local decision not to retry at all:
Proceed as normal, or:
Trigger abrupt termination of supporting association
Errors in the A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) ind. primitive (detected by the RESPONDER part):
Error
Action in RESPONDER part of FU
Gtype value different from the value in CS(R) for
the group associated with the current FU invocation
Issue A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) res. with Result = gtypeout-of-range, and the values of Gnr and Gtype as in
the corresponding ind. Do not terminate the FU.
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Errors in the A-Spont-Mgnt (start) cnf. primitive (detected by the INITIATOR part):
Error
Action in INITIATOR part of FU
Mismatch between Gnr/Gtype/Function in primitive
and Gnr/Gtype/Function in corresponding A-SpontMgnt (start) req., and Result = result-ok.
Trigger Orderly Termination of the current FU
invocation, issuing A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) req. for the
group in question, with value of Gnr/Gtype/Function
as in the corresponding A-Spont-Mgnt (start) req.
Result >< result-ok
Terminate the FU invocation locally
Errors in the A-Data (spont.) ind. primitive (detected by the INITIATOR part):
Error
Action in INITIATOR part of FU
Mismatch between Gtype in primitive and Gtype in
corresponding A-Spont-Mgnt (start) req..
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count
Invalid Index1 or Index2 (Validity conditions are
given above, in section "Parameter values".)
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count
Invalid Data (See Appendix A in this document for
validity conditions)
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count
Result = result-ok, and mismatch between Length
and Index1/index2
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count
Result = result-ok, and
format error in T
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count
Result >< result-ok
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count
The security class 2: The received authentication
code >< the generated authentication code based in
the received data.
For security class 3: The received checksum >< the
generated checksum during the decipherment.
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count.
Ignore the data, but otherwise proceed as normal,
optionally incrementing local error count.
Errors in the A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) cnf. primitive (detected by the INITIATOR part):
Error
Action in INITIATOR part of FU
Mismatch between Gtype in primitive and Gtype in
corresponding A-Spont-Mgnt (stop) req., and Result
= result-ok.
Trigger abrupt termination of supporting association
Result >< result-ok
Trigger abrupt termination of supporting association
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APPENDIX C – COMMAND WITH QUALITY FLAGS
C.1 Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR
A3825 needed to implement the new feature which allows the RESPONDERS Quality Flags to be
controlled by the INITIATOR system. Only areas which need to be described were included in
this specification. All areas left unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these
specifications for a more detailed reference.
C.2 Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission.
The bits in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated.
Codes are given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when
nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the
highest octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
C.3
User Data Type
C.3.1 Binary command values
The Binary command has been modified so that the quality byte is used to transfer quality
information along with the command. This extension allows a system to control the quality flags
on the system which is providing the data. For example, an operator could send a command from
the INITIATOR system to set the “Manually Entered” flag on the system providing the data (the
RESPONDER) such that the “Manually Entered” quality flag is set on the provider. The change
of quality flags would then trigger a spontaneous event which would set the “Manually Entered”
quality flag on the system requesting the data (the INITIATOR). The quality flags are the same as
listed for the Status Value.
C.4 Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code
denoting the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status
values the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it
is 0 the value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data. For other values bit 0 - 6 are
used to express the origin of the data.
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7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
C.4.1 Status value quality codes
The quality byte for the Status value contains the following origin codes:
x0 000 0xx
x0 000 1xx
x0 001 0xx
x0 001 1xx
x0 010 0xx
Measured
Manually entered
Estimated
Computed
Held
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Measured
Manually
entered
A point is "measured" when its value is acquired by one of several possible
measuring methods (e.g. scanning).
The value of a point is "manually entered" when its current value was provided by
input from an operator or dispatcher.
Estimated
A point is "estimated" when its value is calculated by a state estimator program.
Computed
A point is "computed" when its value is the result of a calculation using other data
(scanned, computed, and/or estimated) as input variables.
Held
A numerical point whose value is measured is "held" when the most recent update
was unsuccessful and an old value is held in the data base.
OK/Not OK
A point whose value is measured is "OK" when its value was acquired by the
previous update; i.e., the point is not off-scan, and communications with the
substation are successful.
A manually entered value is always "OK".
A point whose value is estimated by a state estimator is "OK" when the state
estimator is running at its normally assigned frequency.
A point whose value is computed is "OK" when all the independent data points
from which it is computed (measured, manually entered and/or estimated values)
are "OK".
A point whose value is held is always "Not OK".
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Bit 0 - 1 denotes the status value.
C.4.2 Binary command value quality codes
When the Binary command is issued the quality byte in the Command Indication is the same as
listed for the Status Value. The quality flags sent with the Command Indication will be processed
and set along with status. This is described in section C.3.
Once the command has been processed by the RESPONDER the quality byte is used to return
information about the success of the command. The Command Confirm message uses the
following origin codes:
x0 000 000
x0 000 001
x0 000 010
x0 000 100
x0 000 101
(OK)
Object blocked at RTU side
No connection to local device
Command has illegal value
Not authorized for supervisory control.
When the command has been handed over to the RESPONDER system's SCADA/EMS
controlling function without failure, the value will be marked "OK". When the command could
not be handed over to the RESPONDER system's SCADA/EMS controlling function or was
rejected, the value is "Not OK" and is marked with one of the origin codes.
C.5
Data
A-Data
:
User data are of five types. See C.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its
validity (See C.4).
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value
1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value
n
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C.6
Data
A-Command-Transfer request
:
User data are of three types. See C.3 for extensions to the standards:
Binary command group
Analogue setpoint group
Discrete setpoint group
Quality Code is set to match the quality of the point on the
INITIATOR.
Structure for Binary Command-Group, Analogue Setpoint-Group and
Discrete Setpoint Group:
Quality Code 1
Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code n
Value n
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APPENDIX D - COMMANDED STATUS CHANGE QUALITY FLAG
D.1 Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR
A3825 needed to implement the new Commanded Status Change Quality Flag. This extension
was found to be necessary so that dispatchers could be aware that a change was a commanded
change and not a spontaneous event. Only areas which needed to be described were included in
this specification. All areas left unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these
specifications for a more detailed reference.
D.2 Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission.
The bits in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated.
Codes are given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when
nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the
highest octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
D.3
User Data Types
D.3.1 Status values
The data type does not change for the implementation of this new quality flag. See section 9.4 for
a description of the changes made to the quality flags.
D.4 Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code
denoting the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status
values the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it
is 0 the value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data. For other values bit 0 - 6 are
used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
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OK code:
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
D.4.1 Status value quality codes
The quality byte for the Status value has been expanded to include a code signalling that the
Status value changed as the result of a command issued by the operator. The present defined
origin codes are:
x0 000 0xx
x0 000 1xx
x0 001 0xx
x0 001 1xx
x0 010 0xx
x0 011 0xx
Measured
Manually entered
Estimated
Computed
Held
Commanded
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Measured
Manually
entered
A point is "measured" when its value is acquired by one of several possible
measuring methods (e.g. scanning).
The value of a point is "manually entered" when its current value was provided by
input from an operator or dispatcher.
Estimated
A point is "estimated" when its value is calculated by a state estimator program.
Computed
A point is "computed" when its value is the result of a calculation using other data
(scanned, computed, and/or estimated) as input variables.
Held
A numerical point whose value is measured is "held" when the most recent update
was unsuccessful and an old value is held in the data base.
Commanded A point is "commanded" when its value has changed as the result of a command
issued by the operator.
OK/Not OK
A point whose value is measured is "OK" when its value was acquired by the
previous update; i.e., the point is not off-scan, and communications with the
substation are successful.
A manually entered value is always "OK".
A point whose value is estimated by a state estimator is "OK" when the state
estimator is running at its normally assigned frequency.
A point whose value is computed is "OK" when all the independent data points
from which it is computed (measured, manually entered and/or estimated values)
are "OK".
A point whose value is held is always "Not OK".
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Bit 0 - 1 denotes the status value.
D.5
Data
A-Data
:
User data are of six types. See D.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
Counter-Value Group
Value
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Double Precision Floating Point
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its
validity (See D.4).
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value
1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value
n
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APPENDIX E - DOUBLE PRECISION FLOATING POINT VALUE
E.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modification to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR
A3825 to add the new Double Precision Floating Point Value data type. This extension was
found to be necessary so that higher precision values could be sent on the link. Only areas which
needed to be described were included in this specification. All areas left unaffected are left to the
SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed reference.
E.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission.
The bits in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated.
Codes are given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when
nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the
highest octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
E.3
User Data Types
E.3.1 Double Precision Floating Point Value
A new User Defined Data Type was implemented in order to transfer values with higher precision
than is available with the standard Elcom 90 floating point representation. The new data type is
implemented using the IEEE Std 754-1985 64-bit double precision floating point format. This
new User Data type is used with the new group type Double Precision Group Type (group type
number = 100).
The data format is as follows:
Fraction:
52 bits. (0 <= f < 2)
Sign of the number: 1 bit.
Biased exponent:
11 bits. (-1021 <= e <= 1023)
One real value occupies 8 bytes in a value field:
Byte 0
1
Sign
msb
Byte 1
...
11
Byte 7
52
Exponent
Fraction
lsb
msb
lsb
For more information on the IEEE format see ANSI/IEEE 754.
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E.4
Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code
denoting the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status
values the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it
is 0 the value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data. For other values bit 0 - 6 are
used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
E.4.1 Double Precision Floating Point Value
The quality byte used by the Double Precision Floating Point Value data type is the same as the
quality byte used by the standard Elcom-90 floating point value data type. The present defined
origin codes are:
x0 000 000
x0 000 100
x0 001 000
x0 001 100
x0 010 000
Measured
Manually entered
Estimated
Computed
Held
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Measured
Manually
entered
A point is "measured" when its value is acquired by one of several possible
measuring methods (e.g. scanning).
The value of a point is "manually entered" when its current value was provided by
input from an operator or dispatcher.
Estimated
A point is "estimated" when its value is calculated by a state estimator program.
Computed
A point is "computed" when its value is the result of a calculation using other data
(scanned, computed, and/or estimated) as input variables.
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Held
A numerical point whose value is measured is "held" when the most recent update
was unsuccessful and an old value is held in the data base.
OK/Not OK
A point whose value is measured is "OK" when its value was acquired by the
previous update; i.e., the point is not off-scan, and communications with the
substation are successful.
A manually entered value is always "OK".
A point whose value is estimated by a state estimator is "OK" when the state
estimator is running at its normally assigned frequency.
A point whose value is computed is "OK" when all the independent data points
from which it is computed (measured, manually entered and/or estimated values)
are "OK".
A point whose value is held is always "Not OK".
E.5
Data
A-Data
:
User data are of six types. See E.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
Double Precision Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Double Precision Floating Point
Value
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its
validity (See E.4).
Structure for Real (Measure)-Group, Logical Breaker Status-Group,
Discrete-Group, and Double Precision Floating Point Values:
Quality Code 1
Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code n
Value n
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APPENDIX F - FLEETING ALARMS
F.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR
A3825 needed to implement the special handling for Fleeting Alarms. This extension was found
to be necessary since fleeting alarms do not have a state. Fleeting alarms are event which only
occur spontaneously. Only areas which needed to be described were included in this
specification. All areas left unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these
specifications for a more detailed reference.
F.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission.
The bits in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated.
Codes are given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when
nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the
highest octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
F.3
User Data Types
F.3.1
Status values
If a fleeting alarm indicator is included in a group being requested by a remote partner then during
the general interrogation the value will be sent as “Off”. The only time that a value of “On” is
transferred for these fleeting alarms is with a spontaneous change.
F.4
Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code
denoting the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status
values the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it
is 0 the value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data. For other values bit 0 - 6 are
used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
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OK code:
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
F.4.1 Status value quality codes
The quality byte for the Status value has been expanded to include a code signalling that the
Status value changed as the result of a command issued by the operator. The present defined
origin codes are:
x0 000 0xx
x0 000 1xx
x0 001 0xx
x0 001 1xx
x0 010 0xx
x0 011 0xx
Measured
Manually entered
Estimated
Computed
Held
Commanded
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Measured
Manually
entered
A point is "measured" when its value is acquired by one of several possible
measuring methods (e.g. scanning).
The value of a point is "manually entered" when its current value was provided by
input from an operator or dispatcher.
Estimated
A point is "estimated" when its value is calculated by a state estimator program.
Computed
A point is "computed" when its value is the result of a calculation using other data
(scanned, computed, and/or estimated) as input variables.
Held
A numerical point whose value is measured is "held" when the most recent update
was unsuccessful and an old value is held in the data base.
Commanded A point is "commanded" when its value has changed as the result of a command
issued by the operator.
OK/Not OK
A point whose value is measured is "OK" when its value was acquired by the
previous update; i.e., the point is not off-scan, and communications with the
substation are successful.
A manually entered value is always "OK".
A point whose value is estimated by a state estimator is "OK" when the state
estimator is running at its normally assigned frequency.
A point whose value is computed is "OK" when all the independent data points
from which it is computed (measured, manually entered and/or estimated values)
are "OK".
A point whose value is held is always "Not OK".
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F.5
Data
A-Data
:
User data are of five types. See F.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its
validity (See 11.4).
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value
1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value
n
12X513
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APPENDIX G – TRANSMISSION OF ALARM STATES FROM THE RESPONDER
G.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR A3825
needed to implement the new Transmission of alarm states from the Responder. This extension was found
to be necessary to transmit alarm level for a measurement, from the Responder to the Initiator. This is
achieved by implementing new quality flags.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left unaffected are left
to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed reference.
G.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission. The bits
in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated. Codes are
given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the highest
octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
G.3
User Data Types
G.3.1 Real values
The data type does not change for the implementation of this new quality flag. See section G.4
for a description of the changes made to the quality flags.
G.4
Quality codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code denoting
the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status values
the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it is 0 the
value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
For other values bit 0 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
12X513
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
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G.4.1 Real value quality codes
The quality byte for the Real value has been expanded to include a code signalling that the value is to be
regarded as an alarm. The present defined origin codes are:
x0 000 0xx
x0 000 1xx
x0 001 0xx
x0 001 1xx
x0 010 0xx
00 100 000
00 110 000
00 110 001
00 110 010
00 110 011
Measured
Manually entered
Estimated
Computed
Held
Alarm implemented, Normal value
Alarm implemented, Low alarm
Alarm implemented, Low warning
Alarm implemented, High warning
Alarm implemented, High alarm
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Measured
Manually
entered
A point is "measured" when its value is acquired by one of several possible measuring
methods (e.g. scanning).
The value of a point is "manually entered" when its current value was provided by input
from an operator or dispatcher.
Estimated
A point is "estimated" when its value is calculated by a state estimator program.
Computed
A point is "computed" when its value is the result of a calculation using other data
(scanned, computed, and/or estimated) as input variables.
Held
A numerical point whose value is measured is "held" when the most recent update was
unsuccessful and an old value is held in the data base. Attention: When Held is used, the
value is always regarded as NOT OK (Bit 7).
Alarm implemented
When bit 5 is one, and bit 7 is 0, this value is reported with an alarm state. (This
can not be in conflict with “Held”, because bit 7 is always 1 when “Held” is set). Bit 4=1
means that the object is in an alarm state. Bit 4=0 means that the object is not in an alarm
state. The alarm state itself is set in bit 0 and 1.
OK/Not OK
A point whose value is measured is "OK" when its value was acquired by the previous
update; i.e., the point is not off-scan, and communications with the substation are
successful.
A manually entered value is always "OK".
A point whose value is estimated by a state estimator is "OK" when the state estimator is
running at its normally assigned frequency.
A point whose value is computed is "OK" when all the independent data points from
which it is computed (measured, manually entered and/or estimated values) are "OK".
A point whose value is held is always "Not OK".
12X513
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G.5
Data
A-Data
:
User data are of five types. See G.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its validity
(See G.4).
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value n
12X513
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APPENDIX H: LOCAL CONVENTIONS – UNKNOWN OBJECT
H.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR A3825
needed to implement the new quality code “Unknown object” signalled from the Responder. This
extension was found to be necessary to signal that the object name is not valid when the data transfer is
active. This is achieved by implementing new quality flags.
Some responders are implemented such that they always accept every object names in the Group
Configuration FU. The check on legal object name is therefore postponed until the Data Transfer FU when
a request for values is sent to the RTU. It is therefore necessary to signal that the reason for missing values
is due to an unknow n object in the RTU.
Only areas which needed to be described were included in this specification. All areas left unaffected are
left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed reference.
H.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission. The bits
in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated. Codes are
given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the highest
octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
H.3
User Data Types
This new quality code applies to all standard data types.
H.4
Quality codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code denoting
the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status values
the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it is 0 the
value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
For other values bit 0 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
12X513
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
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H.4.1 Additional quality code for “Unknown Object”
The quality byte for all data types has been expanded to include a code signaling that the value is not given
because the requested object was unknown in the RTU. The new origin code is:
x1 xxx xxx
Unknown Object
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Unknown Object
Some responders are implemented such that they always accept every object
names in the Group Configuration FU. The check on legal object name is therefore
postponed until the Data Transfer FU when a request for values is sent to the RTU. It is
therefore necessary to signal that the reason for missing values is due to an unknow n
object in the RTU.
OK/Not OK
An Unknown Object is always “Not OK”.
H.5
Data
:
A-Data
User data are of five types. See H.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its validity
(See H.4).
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value n
12X513
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APPENDIX I - SUPERVISORY CONTROL BLOCKED FOR INITIATOR
I.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR A3825
needed to implement the new quality code “Supervisory Control Blocked for Initiator”. This extension
was found to be necessary in an implementation for Sydkraft, Banverket and CELESC. This is achieved by
implementing new quality flags.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left
unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed
reference.
I.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission. The bits
in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated. Codes are
given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the highest
octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
I.3
User Data Types
The new quality code applies to user data type 2, Status values.
I.4
Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code denoting
the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status values
the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it is 0 the
value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
For other values bit 0 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
11X05104
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
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I.4.1
Additional quality code for “Supervisory Control blocked for Initiator”
xx x1x xxx
Supervisory Control blocked for Initiator
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Supervisory Control blocked for Initiator
I.5
This object can not be controlled by the Initiator.
A-Data
Data
:
User data are of five types. See I.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its validity
(See I.4).
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value n
11X05104
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APPENDIX J - SUPERVISORY CONTROL BLOCKED IN RESPONDER
J.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR A3825
needed to implement the new quality code “Supervisory Control Blocked in Responder”. This extension
was found to be necessary in an implementation for Sydkraft, Banverket and CELESC. This is achieved by
implementing new quality flags.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left
unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed
reference.
J.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission. The bits
in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated. Codes are
given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the highest
octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
J.3
User Data Types
The new quality code applies to user data type 1 (Real value), and user data type 2 (Status values).
J.4
Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code denoting
the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status values
the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it is 0 the
value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
For other values bit 0 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
11X05104
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
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J.4.1
Additional quality code for “Supervisory Control blocked in Responder”
xx 1xx xxx
Supervisory Control blocked in Responder
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Supervisory Control blocked in Responder This object can not be controlled by the Responder.
J.5 A-Data
Data
:
User data are of five types. See J.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its validity
(See J.4).
Structure for Real (Measure)-Group, Logical Breaker Status-Group,
Discrete-Group:
Quality Code 1
Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code n
Value n
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value n
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APPENDIX K - DATA COLLECTION BLOCKED
K.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR A3825
needed to implement the new quality code “Data Collection Blocked”. This extension was found to be
necessary in an implementation for Banverket. This is achieved by implementing one new quality flag.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left
unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed
reference.
K.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission. The bits
in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated. Codes are
given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the highest
octet no.
All arrays are octet arrays.
K.3
User Data Types
The new quality code applies to user data type 1 (Real value), and user data type 2 (Status values).
K.4
Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code denoting
the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status values
the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it is 0 the
value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
For other values bit 0 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
11X05104
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
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K.4.1 Additional quality code for “Data Collection Blocked”
x1 xxx xxx
Data Collection Blocked
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Data Collection Blocked
K.5
Data collection is blocked for this object.
A-Data
Data
:
User data are of five types. See K.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its validity
(See K.4).
Structure for Real (Measure)-Group, Logical Breaker Status-Group,
Discrete-Group:
Quality Code 1
Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code n
Value n
Structure for Status-Group:
Quality Code and Status Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code and Status Value n
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APPENDIX L - TRANSDUCER OUT OF RANGE
L.1
Summary
This appendix describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF TR A3825
needed to implement the new quality code “Transducer out of range”. This extension was found to be
necessary in an implementation for REMU. This is achieved by implementing one new quality flag.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left
unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed
reference.
L.2
Structure
The octets in this appendix are numbered starting from 0 and increasing in order of transmission. The bits
in an octet are numbered from 0 to 7, where bit 0 is the low-ordered bit.
All octets are numbered in decimal. All values are given in decimal when nothing else is stated. Codes are
given in binary. All parameters are represented in twos complement integer when nothing else is stated.
Integer values represented in two octets have their least significant part stored in the octet with the highest
octet no.
L.3
User Data Types
The new quality code applies to user data type 1 (Real value).
L.4
Quality Codes
Each value transmitted, except the text message strings, is delivered together with a quality code denoting
the quality and origin of the value.
For all values, except the status values, the quality code is delivered in a separate octet. For status values
the quality code is coded in the most significant bits of the octet.
The most significant bit of the octet is used to express the validity of the corresponding value. If it is 0 the
value is regarded OK, else it is regarded not OK.
For status values bit 2 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
For other values bit 0 - 6 are used to express the origin of the data.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Origin
OK / not OK
OK code:
11X05104
0 - OK
1 - Not OK
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L.4.1
Additional quality code for “Transducer out of range”
x1 xxx xxx
Transducer out of range
The meanings of these terms are indicated as follows:
Transducer out of range:
L.5
Transducer is out of range.
A-Data
Data
:
User data are of five types. See L.3 for extensions to the standards:
Real (Measure)-Group
Discrete-Group
Status-Group
Logical Breaker
Status Group
Text Message Group
:
:
:
Floating Point Values
Integer Values
Binary Values
:
:
Binary Values
ASCII Values
Each value must be considered together with a quality code denoting its validity
(See L.4).
Structure for Real (Measure)-Group, Logical Breaker Status-Group,
Discrete-Group:
Quality Code 1
Value 1
.
.
.
Quality Code n
Value n
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APPENDIX M - ADAPTATION TO FINELCOM STANDARD
M.1 Summary
This appendix shortly describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF
TR A3825 needed to implement the adaptation to the FinElcom standard. The FinElcom standard
is used in Finland against Elcom-83 partners.
For the full description of the FinElcom standard, see appendix P. Appendix P is generated using
a scanner on the original paper document from FinELCOM SOFTWARE. It may therefore
contain some errors.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left
unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed
reference.
M.2
Password
Part of the User Data field is used to represent password during connection establishment.
M.3
Result Codes
Result codes different from the standard Elcom Result codes are used.
M.4
Suffices
Suffices different from the standard Elcom suffices are used by the Responder.
M.5
Restart code
The Restart Code (part of the User Data field in A-Connect Response) is given as number instead
of ASCII.
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APPENDIX N - ELCOM-90 ACCEPTANCE OF ELCOM-83 SUPERVISORY CONTROL
N.1
Summary
This appendix shortly describes the modifications to the standard Elcom-90 specification SINTEF
TR A3825 needed to accept Supervisory Control from an Elcom-83 Class 2, Version 0 partner.
Only areas which need to be described were included in this specification. All areas left
unaffected are left to the SINTEF specifications. See these specifications for a more detailed
reference.
N.2
Modifications
Some customers have implemented Supervisory Control Functional Unit (FU) in Elcom-83.
According to the documentation, this is not legal. Some modifications in the Elcom API, and the
Initiator and the Responder, have to be done to allow this combination of Class/Version and FU.
The modifications in the code consists of removing restrictions in the error handling part of the
code, so that Supervisory Control functions against Elcom-83 partners will be allowed.
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APPENDIX O - LOCAL CONVENTIONS MADE IN ARGENTINE
O.1
Encoding of milliseconds.
In the ELCOM-90 specifications version .01 there are some places references to twos complement
representation of integers. Due to some formulations that may be a little ambiguous, there have
been some different interpretations of the specifications regarding the encoding of milliseconds,
and thus there are implementations of the system having some unintended features. To avoid
further problems the actual formulations are rewritten in version .02 of the specifications.
The reference code of ELCOM-90 is reviewed to be sure that the reference code is not affected by
this misunderstanding. The reference code comply with version .02 of the ELCOM
specifications.
CAMMESA and four independent companies from Argentina have developed ELCOM
implementations, encoding the milliseconds in the following way:
“The milliseconds number is controlled against the range 0-999, complemented (65536-this
number) and this result is put into the PDU. “
This solution does not comply with the specifications version .02.
In order to solve part of the problem when communicating with implementations that comply with
the reference version, the software from the companies mentioned above, has been modified to
accept complemented and non-complemented numbers. The milliseconds in received PDUs are
accepted either if they fits in the range 0-999, or in its twos complement. Of course the values are
passed to the application levels encoded in a unique way. But in the transmitted PDUs, the
milliseconds are always complemented.
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APPENDIX P - FINELCOM CONVENTIONS VERSION 1.3
The FinELCOM Server Software follows mainly the conventions defined by ELCOM WG in the
document Conventions for ELCOM-83 applications 28.7.1989. Some additions to these conventions has
been defined to implement functions which are not supported by the ELCOM-83 protocol. Additions are
listed below.
P.1 The implementation of the selective-cyclic transfer mode
Selective-cyclic is defined as cyclic but the second User-data octet gets the value 10.
Second User-data octet:
0
no cyclic
1
cyclic
10
selective-cyclic.
The definition and the handling of the data are like in Cyclic Spontaneous Transmission (Conventions for
ELCOM-83 Applications, section 2.6). The only difference is that only the data which has changed it's
value is transferred.
P.2 Suffixes
Responder use a general suffix '00' to receive all connect requests.
In addition to the suffixes define in conventions by ELCOM WG (Conventions for ELCOM-83
Applications, Section 2.0) the next suffixes are used:
Function
Initiator
Responder
Group configuration
CA
Selective-cyclic
CC
DC
Special group inquiry
CP
DP
Manual inquiries
CQ
DR
Real time data
CR
DR
data transfer
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P.3 The additional reason/result codes.
128
129
130
131
132
133
command ok
command not ok
command not acknowledged
set value ok
set value not ok
set value not acknowledged
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
incompatible group type
privilege violation
incompatible time
remote locked
remote limit reached
group not exists
group not valid
remote cross reference failure
remote failure
P.4 Commands and set values
Commands and set Values are implemented by using the spontaneous transfer mode. The system, which
will receive the commands/set values, defines the group which consists command/set value data items and
defines this group into the spontaneous transfer mode. The data type of the group is a floating point type.
The data items must also be known commands/set values in the responding system. In case of data type
conflict, the result code incompatible group type is returned in the A_Data_Confirmation message.
The responder sends commands/set values as a spontaneous data and the acknowledgement status is
returned by the initiator in the result-field of the confirmation. The next additional result/reason codes are
used:
-
command ok
command not ok
command not acknowledged.
Depending on the implementation the initiator can get these result codes from the local SCADA system or
evaluate them by itself.
Only one active (not acknowledged) command/set value is allowed for one system at the same time.
It is on the Initiator's responsibility to create a logical channel for the spontaneous data transfer used
for the commands and set values (see section 2.4 Spontaneous Transmission in conventions).
The Responder's responsibilities are the same as in the case of the spontaneous transfer mode.
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The floating point data has the following interpretation when used as a control data item:
15
8
7
direc
0
func
Not_used
direc : direction of the command
1 - off
2 – on
func : function of the command
1
2
3
252
-
select
execute
cancel
immediate execute
Set values are sent as the normal floating point data types.
P.5 Group configuration
Additional result codes are used with group management definition services:
-
If the data item is not allowed to the initiating system the result code privilege
violation is returned.
If the local representation of the data items is unknown in the responder site the result
code remote cross reference failure is returned.
If the maximum number of groups allowed to the initiating system is exceeded, the
responder returns the result code remote limit reached.
In all of t he t hes e cases the handled group is deleted in the responding system.
P.6 History data transfer
The following restrictions are in force with the historic data transfer (A_Init_Data_Transfer request,
TO(1) <> -1):
-
Only integer and real type data groups can be requested.
Only one data object is allowed for one AInit-Data-Transfer request.
If the responding system can't find the requested history levels the A-Data result code incompatible time
is returned.
P.7 Access control
The 8 last octets 6..13 of the User-data field in the connect request service are reserved for the password.
The password must include exactly 8 octets. Before accepting the call the responder checks the password
in the request against the password given for the system in the local data base.
There can be one different password for each remote systems both in the initiator and responder site.
The initiator uses this password in all connect requests which are sent to that system. The responder
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accepts the connect request if the password used by the initiator is the same as defined in the
responder's site for the calling system.
If the password is not matching the responder returns the result code privilege violation in the connect
response. The responding system can reject an incoming connect request by returning the additional
result code remote locked.
P.8 Resource Control
The responder controls the resources allowed to each remote initiating system. If these resources are
exceeded the responder returns an additional result code remote limit reached (A_Spont_Mgnt,
A_Group_Mgnt).
P.9 Spontaneous transfer modes
Only one transfer mode based on spontaneous transfer (spontaneous, cyclic, selective-cyclic) is allowed for
each group at the time.
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