5300 User`s Manual

5300 User`s Manual
5300 User’s Manual
Doc. #02793 Rev 0498
OCTAGON SYSTEMS CORPORATION®
6510 W. 91st Ave. Westminster, CO 80030
Tech. Support: 303–426–4521
COPYRIGHT
Copyright 1990–94, 1997, 1998–Octagon Systems Corporation. All
rights reserved. However, any part of this document may be
reproduced, provided that Octagon Systems Corporation is cited as
the source. The contents of this manual and the specifications
herein may change without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Micro PC, PC SmartLink, Octagon Systems Corporation®, the
Octagon logo and the Micro PC logo, and CAMBASIC IV are
trademarks of Octagon Systems Corporation. QuickBASIC® is a
registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Turbo C is a
trademark of Borland International, Inc.
NOTICE TO USER
The information contained in this manual is believed to be correct.
However, Octagon assumes no responsibility for any of the circuits
described herein, conveys no license under any patent or other
right, and makes no representations that the circuits are free from
patent infringement. Octagon makes no representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the use specified
without further testing or modification.
Octagon Systems Corporation general policy does not recommend
the use of its products in life support applications where the
failure or malfunction of a component may directly threaten life or
injury. It is a Condition of Sale that the user of Octagon products
in life support applications assumes all the risk of such use and
indemnifies Octagon against all damage.
IMPOR
TANT!
IMPORT
Please read before installing your product.
Octagon’s products are designed to be high in performance while
consuming very little power. In order to maintain this advantage,
CMOS circuitry is used.
CMOS chips have specific needs and some special requirements
that the user must be aware of. Read the following to help avoid
damage to your card from the use of CMOS chips.
Using CMOS Circuitry – 1
Using CMOS Circuitry in Industrial Control
Industrial computers originally used LSTTL circuits. Because
many PC components are used in laptop computers, IC manufacturers are exclusively using CMOS technology. Both TTL and
CMOS have failure mechanisms, but they are different. This
section describes some of the common failures which are common
to all manufacturers of CMOS equipment. However, much of the
information has been put in the context of the Micro PC.
Octagon has developed a reliable database of customer-induced,
field failures. The average MTBF of Micro PC cards exceeds
11 years, yet there are failures. Most failures have been identified
as customer-induced, but there is a small percentage that cannot
be identified. As expected, virtually all the failures occur when
bringing up the first system. On subsequent systems, the failure
rate drops dramatically.
■
Approximately 20% of the returned cards are problem-free.
These cards, typically, have the wrong jumper settings or the
customer has problems with the software. This causes
frustration for the customer and incurs a testing charge from
Octagon.
■
Of the remaining 80% of the cards, 90% of these cards fail due
to customer misuse and accident. Customers often cannot
pinpoint the cause of the misuse.
■
Therefore, 72% of the returned cards are damaged through
some type of misuse. Of the remaining 8%, Octagon is unable
to determine the cause of the failure and repairs these cards at
no charge if they are under warranty.
The most common failures on CPU cards are over voltage of the
power supply, static discharge, and damage to the serial and
parallel ports. On expansion cards, the most common failures are
static discharge, over voltage of inputs, over current of outputs,
and misuse of the CMOS circuitry with regards to power supply
sequencing. In the case of the video cards, the most common
failure is to miswire the card to the flat panel display. Miswiring
can damage both the card and an expensive display.
■
Multiple component failures - The chance of a random
component failure is very rare since the average MTBF of an
Octagon card is greater than 11 years. In a 7 year study,
Using CMOS Circuitry – 2
Octagon has never found a single case where multiple IC
failures were not caused by misuse or accident. It is very
probable that multiple component failures indicate that they
were user-induced.
■
Testing “dead” cards - For a card that is “completely
nonfunctional”, there is a simple test to determine accidental
over voltage, reverse voltage or other “forced” current
situations. Unplug the card from the bus and remove all
cables. Using an ordinary digital ohmmeter on the 2,000 ohm
scale, measure the resistance between power and ground.
Record this number. Reverse the ohmmeter leads and
measure the resistance again. If the ratio of the resistances is
2:1 or greater, fault conditions most likely have occurred. A
common cause is miswiring the power supply.
■
Improper power causes catastrophic failure - If a card
has had reverse polarity or high voltage applied, replacing a
failed component is not an adequate fix. Other components
probably have been partially damaged or a failure mechanism
has been induced. Therefore, a failure will probably occur in
the future. For such cards, Octagon highly recommends that
these cards be replaced.
■
Other over-voltage symptoms - In over-voltage situations,
the programmable logic devices, EPROMs and CPU chips,
usually fail in this order. The failed device may be hot to the
touch. It is usually the case that only one IC will be
overheated at a time.
■
Power sequencing - The major failure of I/O chips is caused
by the external application of input voltage while the Micro PC
power is off. If you apply 5V to the input of a TTL chip with
the power off, nothing will happen. Applying a 5V input to a
CMOS card will cause the current to flow through the input
and out the 5V power pin. This current attempts to power up
the card. Most inputs are rated at 25 mA maximum. When
this is exceeded, the chip may be damaged.
■
Failure on power-up - Even when there is not enough
current to destroy an input described above, the chip may be
destroyed when the power to the card is applied. This is due
to the fact that the input current biases the IC so that it acts
as a forward biased diode on power-up. This type of failure is
typical on serial interface chips.
Using CMOS Circuitry – 3
■
Serial and parallel - Customers sometimes connect the serial
and printer devices to the Micro PC while the power is off.
This can cause the failure mentioned in the above section,
Failure upon power-up. Even if they are connected with the
Micro PC on, there can be another failure mechanism. Some
serial and printer devices do not share the same power (AC)
grounding. The leakage can cause the serial or parallel signals
to be 20-40V above the Micro PC ground, thus, damaging the
ports as they are plugged in. This would not be a problem if
the ground pin is connected first, but there is no guarantee of
this. Damage to the printer port chip will cause the serial
ports to fail as they share the same chip.
■
Hot insertion - Plugging cards into the card cage with the
power on will usually not cause a problem. (Octagon urges
that you do not do this!) However, the card may be damaged if the right sequence of pins contacts as the card is
pushed into the socket. This usually damages bus driver chips
and they may become hot when the power is applied. This is
one of the most common failures of expansion cards.
■
Using desktop PC power supplies - Occasionally, a customer will use a regular desktop PC power supply when
bringing up a system. Most of these are rated at 5V at 20A or
more. Switching supplies usually require a 20% load to
operate properly. This means 4A or more. Since a typical
Micro PC system takes less than 2A, the supply does not
regulate properly. Customers have reported that the output
can drift up to 7V and/or with 7-8V voltage spikes. Unless a
scope is connected, you may not see these transients.
■
Terminated backplanes - Some customers try to use Micro
PC cards in backplanes that have resistor/capacitor termination networks. CMOS cards cannot be used with termination
networks. Generally, the cards will function erratically or the
bus drivers may fail due to excessive output currents.
■
Excessive signal lead lengths - Another source of failure
that was identified years ago at Octagon was excessive lead
lengths on digital inputs. Long leads act as an antenna to pick
up noise. They can also act as unterminated transmission
lines. When 5V is switch onto a line, it creates a transient
waveform. Octagon has seen submicrosecond pulses of 8V or
more. The solution is to place a capacitor, for example 0.1 µF,
across the switch contact. This will also eliminate radio
frequency and other high frequency pickup.
Using CMOS Circuitry – 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ......................................................................... 1
Conventions Used In This Manual .................................................... 1
Symbols and Terminology .................................................................. 2
Technical Support ............................................................................... 3
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW ................................................ 5
Description .......................................................................................... 5
Major Features .................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 2: INSTALLATION ........................................ 7
Equipment ........................................................................................... 7
Installation .......................................................................................... 7
Base Address ................................................................................ 8
Interrupt Source and Request Lines .......................................... 9
Installing the Card in the Card Cage ....................................... 10
Troubleshooting ................................................................................. 12
Power Module ............................................................................. 12
Jumper Configurations .............................................................. 12
CHAPTER 3: OPERATION ........................................... 13
Description ........................................................................................ 13
Cascading ........................................................................................... 13
CTC1, CTC2, and CTC3: Addressing ............................................. 13
CTC1 and CTC2: Counters and Timers ......................................... 14
CTC2 Optically Isolated Inputs ................................................ 16
CTC1 and CTC2 Gates .............................................................. 17
CTC3: Precision Timer .................................................................... 18
82C55A: Digital I/O ......................................................................... 18
Output Drive Capabilities ......................................................... 20
Recommended Configuration for 82C55A ................................ 20
Counter/Timer and Digital I/O Interface ........................................ 20
CHAPTER 4: APPLICATIONS ..................................... 23
Example 1: Tick Timer .................................................................... 23
Example 2: Pulse Width Modulation .............................................. 27
i
APPENDIX A: COMPONENTS ..................................... 31
Schmitt Trigger ................................................................................. 31
Pulse Width Modulation ................................................................... 32
APPENDIX B: TECHNICAL DATA ............................... 33
Specifications .....................................................................................
Jumper Configurations .....................................................................
Connector Configurations .................................................................
I/O Maps ............................................................................................
33
34
36
38
APPENDIX C: 82C54 DATA SHEET ............................ 39
WARRANTY
ii
PREF
ACE
PREFA
This manual is a guide to the proper configuration and operation of
your 5300 Counter/Timer Card. Installation instructions, card
mapping information and jumpering options are described in the
main body of the manual; the schematic and technical specifications are included in the appendices.
NOTE: Additional application information is available on the
Octagon Bulletin Board: Read AN–0060. (303–427–5368)
The 5300 provides timing, counting, frequency measurement,
frequency generation, and pulse width modulation. It is designed
to be used with any Octagon Micro PC control card. This combination provides a modular system which is easy to set up, modify and
use. You can also use your 5300 in conjunction with other Micro PC
expansion cards, allowing you to tailor your system for a wide
variety of applications.
CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS MANUAL
1.
Information which appears on your screen (output from your
system or commands or data that you key in) is shown in a
different type face.
Example 1:
Octagon 5066 ROM BIOS Vers X.XX
Copyright (c) 1998, Octagon Systems, Corp.
All Rights Reserved
Example 2:
Press the <ESC> key.
2.
Italicized refers to information that is specific to your particular system or program, for example,
Enter filename
means enter the name of your file. Names of other sections or
manuals are also italicized.
Preface – 1
3.
Warnings always appear in this format:
WARNING:
The warning message appears here.
4.
Paired angle brackets are used to indicate a specific key on
your keyboard, for example, <ESC> means the escape key;
<CTRL> means the control key; <F1> means the F1 function
key.
5.
All addresses are given in hexadecimal.
SYMBOLS AND TERMINOLOGY
Throughout this manual, the following symbols and terminology
are used:
W[ – ]
Denotes a jumper block and the pins to connect.
NOTE
Information under this heading presents helpful
tips for using the 5300.
WARNING:
WARNING:
PWM
Information under this heading warns you of
situations which might cause catastrophic or
irreversible damage.
Pulse Width Modulation.
TTL Compatible 0–5V logic levels.
H
The suffix “H” denotes a hexadecimal number.
For example, 1000H in hexadecimal equals 4096
in decimal.
Preface – 2
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
If you have a question about the 5300 Counter/Timer Card and
can’t find the answer in this manual, call Technical Support. They
will be ready to give you the assistance you need.
When you call, please have the following at hand:
•
Your 5300 Counter/Timer Card User’s Manual
•
A description of your problem
The direct line to Technical Support is 303–426–4521 and the
e–mail address is [email protected]
Preface – 3
This page intentionally left blank.
Preface – 4
CHAPTER 1
OVER
VIEW
VERVIEW
DESCRIPTION
The 5300 Counter/Timer I/O Card provides timing, counting,
frequency measurement, frequency generation, and pulse width
modulation (PWM). The 5300 can be used for precision timing,
speed measurement, event counting, and related tasks. For
example, you can use the 5300 to control pick and place machines;
to measure and adjust motor speed; or to count objects on a
conveyor belt.
The 5300 measures 4.5 in. x 4.9 in. and uses one slot of the Micro
PC card cage. It is compatible with all Micro PC Control Cards.
You can use as many cards as space in the card cage will allow.
The 5300 uses three 82C54 chips for counting and timing. An
82C55 chip provides eight general–purpose digital I/O lines. The
5300 has two programmable time bases, six counters and six
counter/timer inputs. Three of the counter inputs are optically
isolated for greater safety and less interference from noise.
The counter/timers operate at 5V (TTL) levels with signal conditioning to minimize noise. They have gate inputs and counter
outputs. All clock inputs go through Schmitt trigger buffers.
MAJOR FEATURES
Time Base 0 of the two programmable time bases is an 8 MHz
source with a 16–bit divider. It can generate frequencies from
122 Hz to 4 MHz. The other time base has an 8 MHz source and is
cascaded to create a 32–bit divider. Output frequencies range from
0.0005 Hz to 2 MHz.
Counter/Timers
The six counter/timer sections have clock, gate, and output leads
available. Different modes of operation are possible by using
various clock configurations. The lines are terminated in 10– and
34–pin IDC connectors. Every other lead is ground, which minimizes the chance of cross coupling and noise. The count inputs
have signal conditioners to minimize noise effects. These inputs
and the gate inputs have pull–up resistors.
Overview – 5
Digital I/O
The 5300 has eight digital I/O lines that can be used for general
purpose control and input. The lines can be programmed as inputs
or outputs in groups of four.
Interrupts
A jumper determines whether the output of a counter or one of the
digital I/O lines is the interrupt source. The jumper can also be
configured so that there is no interrupt source. The selected source
can be jumpered to IRQ2 through IRQ7.
Access Indicator
An LED indicator flashes briefly whenever the 5300 is accessed.
This is useful when troubleshooting the card to know if a communications link has been established.
Opto–isolated inputs
Three counter inputs are optically isolated and terminated in a
screw terminal block. The isolation between channels and ground
is 2500V. However, for operator safety, no more than 32V should
be applied.
Counters
The maximum count rate input is 1 MHz. The input range is 4 to
12 volts but can be increased up to 48V when used in conjunction
with an external resistor.
Overview – 6
CHAPTER 2
INST
ALLA
TION
INSTALLA
ALLATION
This chapter includes information on setting the base address,
selecting the interrupt request line, and installing the 5300 in the
Micro PC card cage. Refer to the Operation chapter for more
information.
The 5300 Counter/Timer I/O Card uses one slot of the Micro PC
card cage. It may be used with any Micro PC Control Card. You
can use as many cards as space in the card cage will allow.
WARNING:
The 5300 contains static sensitive CMOS
components. The greatest danger occurs when
the card is plugged into a card cage. The 5300
becomes charged by the user and the static
discharges to the backplane from the pin closest
to the card connector. If that pin happens to be
an input pin, even TTL inputs may be damaged.
To avoid damaging your card and its components:
1.
Ground yourself before handling the 5300
Counter/Timer Card.
2.
Disconnect power before removing or
inserting the 5300 Card.
EQUIPMENT
You will need the following equipment (or equivalent) to use your
5300.
•
•
•
•
•
5300 Counter/Timer Card
Micro PC Control Card
Micro PC Card Cage
Power Supply or Module
Software appropriate for your system
INSTALLATION
Before installing the 5300, refer to Figure 2.1 for the location of
various connectors and jumpers.
Installation – 7
Optically isolated inputs
CTC and digital I/O
Address jumper
Interrupt selection jumper
CTC I/O
Figure 2–1—5300 Component Diagram
Base Address
Jumper block W1 determines the base address of the 5300. As
shipped, the address is set to 100H. If there is another card in your
system with a base address of 100H, you must use a different base
address for the 5300 or the other card.
To change the base address, change the jumper connections in
block W1. Connect the appropriate pins with push–on connectors.
The following table lists the jumper connections and corresponding
base addresses.
Installation – 8
5300 Base Address Select: W1
Pins Jumpered
Base I/O Address
[1-2][3-4][5-6]
100H*
[3-4][5-6]
110H
[1-2][5-6]
120H
[5-6]
130H
[1-2][3-4]
140H
[3-4]
150H
[1-2]
160H
No jumpers
170H
* = default
INTERRUPT SOURCE & INTERRUPT REQUEST LINES
As shipped, the card does not have any interrupt lines selected. In
this configuration, the pins in jumper block W2 are jumpered for
no interrupts. The following tables list the jumper configurations
and corresponding interrupt request lines and sources. Connect
appropriate pins with push–on connectors.
There are two possible interrupt sources on the 5300: The CTC 2
Output 0 signal, or the PIO 0 digital signal when configured as an
output. You can choose either signal as a source, but you can not
use both signals at the same time. Select the desired interrupt
source via jumper block W2.
There are six interrupt request lines, IRQ2 through IRQ 7, which
go to the bus. Pins 1 through 12 of jumper block W2 select the
interrupt request line; pins 13–16 select the interrupt source.
You will need to write your own interrupt handler for either
interrupt source. Refer to Example 1 programming example in the
Applications chapter.
Installation – 9
5300 Interrupt Request Lines: W2
Pins Jumpered
IRQ
[1-2]
IRQ2
[11-12]
IRQ3
[9-10]
IRQ4
[7-8]
IRQ5
[5-6]
IRQ6
[3-4]
IRQ7
[1-3]
No interrupt selected*
* = default
5300 Interrupt Sources: W2
Pins Jumpered
Base I/O Address
[13-14]
PIO 0 Output
[15-16]
CTC2 Output 0
[14-16]
No interrupt selected*
* = default
Installing the Card in the Card Cage
WARNING:
1.
Take care to correctly position the 5300 in the
card cage. The VCC and ground signals must match
those on the backplane. Figure 2–2 shows the
relative position of the 5300 as it is installed in
the card cage.
Turn card cage power off.
Installation – 10
2.
Position the cage so that the backplane is away from you, the
power module is to the right, and the open side of the cage is
closest to you. The lettering on the backplane should be right
side up (for example, you should be able to read “A31” on the
backplane), with the words OCTAGON SYSTEMS CORP.
running vertically along the left side of the backplane. This
position is “feet down” for a table mount cage and “feet back”
for a panel mount.
3.
Slide the card into the card cage. The components on the card
should face to the left. The lettering on the card (Octagon
Systems Corp.) should be on the top edge of the card and the
gold contact fingers toward the backplane. (See Figure 2–2)
A31
B31
Card Edge Pins
A31 & B31
5300
Counter/Timer
Card
Micro-PC
Motherboard
A1
B1
Card Edge Pins
A1 & B1
Figure 2–2—Card Edge Orientation
4.
Plug the card into the backplane.
5.
Turn on power to the card cage.
6.
The amber LED will light briefly whenever the card is accessed.
Installation – 11
TROUBLESHOOTING
If you have trouble getting your system to work properly, remove
all cards except the Control Card and the 5300 card from your
system. Check the power module and jumpers. If you still encounter difficulties, please contact Technical Support at either the
telephone number, 303–426–4521, or the e–mail address,
[email protected]
Power Module
Make sure the power cord is properly connected between the
power module and the power source.
Make sure the Control Card and 5300 are receiving power. The
power module voltage should be in the 5 to +/–0.25V range when
measured at the connector pins. The power module ripple should
be less than 50 mV.
Jumper Configurations
The 5300 is shipped with jumper connections in place for Base I/O
Address 100H and no interrupts selected. Jumper changes are
usually not needed to get the system running. If you changed the
jumpers and the system is not working properly, return the
system to the original jumper positions. If the system still does
not work, contact Technical Support.
Installation – 12
CHAPTER 3
OPERA
TION
OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
The 5300 Counter/Timer Card has three 82C54 counter/timer
chips. Each chip has three counters/timers. CTC1 is a general
purpose counter/timer; CTC2 has optically isolated clock inputs;
CTC3 can be used as a timer only.
All counter/timer I/O lines go to J1 and J2. You can use a UTB–34
to connect external wiring to J1. You can also use an STB–10 to
connect external wiring to J2. The clock inputs on CTC1 and J1 are
buffered with a Schmitt trigger. The clock inputs on CTC2 come
from either the optical isolator and terminal block or directly from
J1 (without optical isolation).
The 82C54 counters are all programmable. Generally, you will
program the mode (which is the function) and the number of
counts which must occur (the variable). For example, you might
specify that a certain number of counts must occur before a pulse
is generated.
CASCADING
Each counter can count from 0 to 65,535. If you need to count to a
higher number, you will need to cascade the counters—connect
them so that the count output from one counter goes to the next
counter clock input. Connections to allow cascading must be done
externally to the card through J1 and J2.
For example, if you need to count to 150,000, physically wire the
output from one counter to the clock input of another counter. One
way to do this is to connect pin 17 to pin 7 via the UTB–34, which
will send the output from counter 2 to counter 1 input on CTC1.
Operation – 13
CTC1, CTC2, AND CTC3: ADDRESSING
The CTC1, CTC2, and CTC3 chips on the 5300 card are addressed
according to the following table:
5300 Counter/Timer Chip Addresses
Description
Address
CTC1
Base + 04H
CTC2
Base + 08H
CTC3
Base + 0CH
Each CTC has a counter 0, counter 1, counter 2, and control word
register, which are all addressed in the following table:
8254 Register Addresses
Description
Address
Counter channel 0
Counter/timer chip address + 00H
Counter channel 1
Counter/timer chip address + 01H
Counter channel 2
Counter/timer chip address + 02H
Control word register
Counter/timer chip address + 03H
For example, the address of CTC1, counter 2, is Base + 06H.
CTC1 AND CTC2: COUNTERS AND TIMERS
The input and output lines of CTC1 and CTC2 connect to J1 and J2
respectively. The three clock inputs of CTC2 are also available
from the opto isolators at TB1.
Operation – 14
J1: Counter/Timer & Digital I/O Port
Pin#
Function
Direction
Pin#
Function
1
CTC1 Clock 0
In
18
Gnd
2
Gnd
19
CTC3 Output 0
3
CTC1 Gate 0
20
Gnd
4
Gnd
21
CTC3 Output 2
5
CTC1 Output 0
22
Gnd
6
Gnd
23
PIO 0
In/Out
7
CTC1 Clock 1
24
PIO 1
In/Out
8
Gnd
25
PIO 2
In/Out
9
CTC1 Gate 1
10
Gnd
11
CTC1 Output 1
12
Gnd
13
CTC1 Clock 2
14
Gnd
15
CTC1 Gate 2
16
Gnd
17
CTC1 Output 2
In
Out
In
In
Out
In
In
Out
Direction
Out
Out
26
PIO 3
In/Out
27
PIO 4
In/Out
28
PIO 5
In/Out
29
PIO 6
In/Out
30
PIO 7
In/Out
31
CTC2 Clock 2
In
32
CTC2 Clock 1
In
33
CTC2 Clock 0
In
34
+5V
Operation – 15
J2: Counter/Timer Port
Pin#
Function
Direction
1
CTC3 Output 2 / 2*
Out
2
CTC3 Output 2 / 2
Out
3
CTC2 Output 0
In
4
CTC2 Gate 0
In
5
CTC2 Output 1
Out
6
CTC2 Gate 1
In
7
CTC2 Output 2
Out
8
CTC2 Gate 2
In
9
Gnd
10
Gnd
* = Inverted output of pin 2.
CTC2 Optically Isolated Inputs
The optical isolator inputs are available at TB1 and go to the clock
inputs on CTC2. You can bypass the isolation by connecting
directly to J1.
Use the opto isolators if your environment (plant wiring, for
instance) could generate spurious ground loops or differences in
potential. Opto isolators are often used for switch inputs and
magnetic pick–ups in electrically noisy conditions, or for anything
that needs to be electrically isolated.
The isolation voltage is 48V. Opto isolator inputs require 4 to 12
volts to trigger the clock. You can use higher voltages provided that
you limit the current to 15 mA by placing a resistor in series with
the input. The following table shows which resistor to use with
different voltage levels.
Operation – 16
5300 Input Voltage Resistors
Voltage
Resistor
4.0V - 12V
No resistor
5.2V - 16V
150 ohms, 0.125W or greater
7.4V - 24V
430 ohms, 0.5W or greater
14.2V - 48V
1300 ohms, 2W or greater
Inputs are not polarity sensitive. You can apply + and – to any
input pair.
The following table shows the TB1 terminal block inputs and
corresponding clock inputs on CTC2.
TB1: Terminal Block, Opto–Isolated Inputs
Pin#
Function
Direction
1
–CTC2 Clock 2
In
2
+CTC2 Clock 2
In
3
+CTC2 Clock 1
In
4
–CTC2 Clock 1
In
5
+CTC2 Clock 0
In
6
–CTC2 Clock 0
In
7
GND
8
+5V
CTC1 and CTC2 Gates
Gate inputs are used to turn the counter/timer on and off. They
are all TTL (0–5V) compatible; all have 10K pull–up resistors. The
gate inputs are not isolated. Two of the gate inputs on CTC1 go to
port A of the 82C55A PIO chip.
Operation – 17
CTC3: PRECISION TIMER
CTC3 is configured as a programmable precision timer. The 8
MHz crystal oscillator provides high resolution, so you can precisely time events. CTC3 has two output lines which connect to J1;
no other counter lines are available. Although it is used exclusively
as a timer, you must still specify the counter mode. Two of the
counters in CTC3 are cascadable, so you can get longer (i.e., lower
frequency) time periods. For example, you can create a large
frequency divider by connecting the output from CTC3 Output 0
(pin 19 on J1) to CTC1 Clock 0 (pin 1 on J1). This is useful for
PWM output and can result in high resolution even at very low
frequencies. Precision with this system can be as fine as 0.1%.
Since the time interval can be programmed very precisely, you can
create a finely–tuned PWM output. For example, instead of
specifying that the pulse be on for 1 mS and off for 9 mS, you can
specify that it be on for .01 mS and off for .09 mS—maintaining the
same ratio but achieving a much finer resolution.
You can also configure CTC2 Output 0 as the interrupt source.
Connect the output of CTC3 Output 0 (pin 19 on J1) to CTC2 Clock
0 (pin 33 on J1). The output from CTC2 Output 0 goes to jumper
block W2, which determines the interrupt select line
(IRQ2 – IRQ7). Using your interrupt handler, you can process
precisely timed interrupts. Refer to example 1 in the Applications
chapter.
82C55A: DIGITAL I/O
82C55A general purpose, digital input/output IC. It has three
8–bit ports and a control port which is addressed according to the
following table:
Operation – 18
5300 Port Addresses
Description
Address
Port A
Base + 00H
Port B
Base + 01H
Port C
Base + 02H
Control Register
Base + 03H
On power–up or reset, all three ports are in the input state. This
configuration will not cause any operational problems or interference with the counters.
You can alter which ports are inputs or outputs by writing a
control command to the control register in the 82C55A. The
examples below assume the base address is 100H. The following
table lists the control commands for the different input/output
possibilities.
5300 I/O Control Register Commands
HEX
DEC
Port
A*
Port
B*
Upper
Port C*
Lower
Port C*
90H
144
IN
OUT
OUT
OUT
91H
145
IN
OUT
OUT
IN
92H
146
IN
IN
OUT
OUT
93H
147
IN
IN
OUT
IN
98H
152
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
99H
153
IN
OUT
IN
IN
9AH
154
IN
IN
IN
OUT
9BH
155
IN
IN
IN
IN
*Port A must be an input. Port B can be inputs or outputs. Each half
of Port C is programmable. Port C may be either inputs or outputs.
Upper C includes bits 4 through 7 and Lower C includes bits 0
through 3.
For example, if you want ports B and C to be outputs while
retaining port A as inputs, use:
Operation – 19
OUT 103H,90H
Port B will now output all “1”s after:
OUT 101H,FFH
or all “0”s after:
OUT 101H,0
Output Drive Capabilities
The output drive capacity of the 82C55A is one TTL load. Any
output on port A, B, or C can sink or source 2.5 mA.
Recommended Configuration for 82C55A
Port A:
Port B:
Port C:
all inputs
all inputs unless you intend to control all the gates on
CTC2
inputs, outputs, or both.
NOTE: Port A must be set as inputs.
COUNTER/TIMER AND DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE
The 24 programmable I/O lines of 82C55A are divided into three
addressable ports of 8 bits each plus one port which contains the
control register. The control register is used to determine the
configuration of the 24 lines. Refer to the Control Register command table in this chapter.
All outputs from CTC1 and CTC2 go to port A of the 82C55A. Port
A must be programmed as an input.
Operation – 20
5300 Port A Line Signals
Port A Line
Direction
Counter/Timer
0
In
CTC1 Output 0
1
In
CTC1 Output 1
2
In
CTC1 Output 2
3
In
CTC2 Output 0
4
In
CTC2 Output 1
5
In
CTC2 Output 2
6
In
CTC1 Gate 0
7
In
CTC1 Gate 1
Ports A and B of 82C55A can be used to read gate and output
status on CTC1 and CTC2. If you configure port B of 82C55A as an
output, you can use Port B to control the gate inputs on CTC2.
5300 Port B Line Signals
Port B Line
Direction
Counter/Timer
0
Out
CTC2 Gate 0
1
Out
CTC2 Gate 1
2
Out
CTC2 Gate 2
3-7
No Connection
Port C of 82C55A provides eight general purpose I/O lines which go
to J1 and can be programmed as all inputs, all outputs, or four
lines of each (upper and lower C).
Operation – 21
5300 Port C
Port C Line
Direction
J1 Pin #
0
In/Out
23
1
In/Out
24
2
In/Out
25
3
In/Out
26
4
In/Out
27
5
In/Out
28
6
In/Out
29
7
In/Out
30
Operation – 22
Chapter 4
APPLICA
TIONS
APPLICATIONS
EXAMPLE 1: TICK TIMER
You can also configure CTC2 Output 0 as the interrupt source.
Connect the output of CTC3 Output 0 (pin 19 on J1) to CTC2 Clock
0 (pin 33 on J1). The output from CTC2 Output 0 goes to jumper
block W2, which determines the interrupt select line (IRQ2 – IRQ7).
Using your interrupt handler, you can process precisely timed
interrupts.
The following example is a demonstration program which sets up
the 5300 to produce a 100 Hz tick timer.
NOTE: The hard disk interrupt is used for this demo. If you are
using a hard disk, you must change the interrupt to another
number.
NOTE: Additional application information is available on the
Octagon Bulletin Board: Read AN–0060 (303–427–5368)
/* Filename:
5300tick.c
Function name:
5300tick
Edit date:
10/29/90
Function:
Demonstration program setting up the 5300
to produce a 100 Hz tick timer.
NOTE: The hard disk interrupt is used for
this demo. If you are using a hard disk,
you must change the interrupt to another
number.
Compiled using Borland's Turbo–C, version
2.0.
Settings for the 5300:
Connect J1–19 to J1–33. Set jumpers
W2[15–16] and W2[7–8] to enable interrupts
Revisions:
*/
Applications – 23
/* Includes */
#include
#include
#include
"stdio.h"
"dos.h"
"time.h"
/* Definitions */
/* set up base address of 5300 */
#define BASE_5300
0x100
/* define offset addresses of components*/
#define PIO_5300
0 + BASE_5300
/* counter/timers 1 through 3
*/
#define CTC1 4+BASE_5300
#define CTC2 8+BASE_5300
#define CTC3 12+BASE_5300
/* Declarations */
/* counter for interrupt
int
irqcnt;
/* interrupt number
int
*/
*/
itrnum = 0x0d;
/* pointer to old interrupt
*/
void interrupt (*oldint)();
/* flag for interrupt routine to stop initializing
the tick counter */
int
notick;
/* Program */
/* interrupt handler
*/
/* This is the program that processes the interrupt. It must go before main when using Turbo–C and
Quick–C. */
Applications – 24
void interrupt tick() {
/* This example uses IRQ5 which is the hard disk
interrupt. If you are using a hard disk, you may
want to use another unused IRQ port. */
/* Check to see if we should continue to process
this interrupt. If not, simply exit */
if (notick == 0) {
/* send count to port C output, line 0 on the 5300.
This output should toggle at a 50 Hz rate */
outportb(PIO_5300+2,irqcnt);
/* reset counter to 0 if overflow
irqcnt++;
*/
if(irqcnt == 256)
irqcnt = 0;
/* re–initialize counter
outportb(CTC2,232);
*/
outportb(CTC2,3);
/* reset interrupt port
*/
outportb(0x20,0x20);
}
}
main() {
/* use the hard disk interrupt IRQ5 (0DH) transfer
control on each tick. */
/* get & save old interrupt vector
*/
oldint = getvect(itrnum);
/* set interrupts
setvect(itrnum,tick);
/* set 5300
for 100 times/second
Applications – 25
*/
*/
/* set CTC3O0 to mode 2 ( rate generator) and to
divide by 80 */
outportb(CTC3+3,0x34);
/* Divide by 80.
outportb(CTC3,80);
LSB first, then MSB
*/
outportb(CTC3,0);
/* set CTC2O0 for mode 4 (triggered strobe) and to
divide by 1000 (3 * 256 + 232 = 1000)
*/
outportb(CTC2+3,0x38);
outportb(CTC2,3);
outportb(CTC2,232);
/* set up 82C55A port on 5300 for A & B as inputs,
C as outputs
*/
outportb(PIO_5300+3,0x92);
/* set up for interrupts
*/
outportb(0x21,0x98);
/* main program loop. This example simply waits
for a key press. Your program would continue. */
/* check for a keyboard hit.
program */
If one, then exit
puts("Waiting for keyboard hit.\n"); while (kbhit()
== 0)
;
/* tell the interrupt handler not to reset the
timer and get the character */
notick = 1;
getch();
/* restore interrupt handler
setvect(itrnum,oldint);
}
Applications – 26
*/
EXAMPLE 2: PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
This program uses 3 of the 9 counter/timers on the 5300 card to
generate a pulse width modulated output. The first stage, CTC3
Counter 3, is used as a simple ‘divide by 8’ counter in the
‘SQUARE WAVE’ mode. This produces a 1 MHz square wave
output that is used as the CLOCK input for the other two stages.
The second stage, CTC 1 Counter 2, determines the output frequency. The third stage, CTC1 Counter 1, is used in the One Shot
mode providing the modulating element.
In the QuickBASIC example program, the following variables are
used:
•
FR = Requested frequency
FR is the frequency to be modulated. This frequency has a
maximum and minimum value. FR can be any frequency
multiple of 1 MHz that is in the range of 16 Hz to 500 KHz.
•
FD = Frequency Divisor for the requested frequency
FD is a value calculated in the program that is an integer in
the range of 2 to 65,535.
•
DU = Requested Duty cycle (that the output signal is true)
DU represents the Duty Cycle in percent. The time that the
output signal is ON verses the total available time, defines the
duty cycle.
•
DX = Decimal equivalent for duty cycle
DX is calculated in the program and is based on the input
‘DU’.
•
PD = Pulse width Divisor.
PD is a value calculated by the program that is an integer in
the range of 2 to 65,535.
Applications – 27
Note the relationship between:
• the 1 MHz clock,
• the frequency and
• the resolution of the modulation.
The resolution is expressed as follows:
RESOLUTION(%) = FREQUENCY / 1 MHz
A 100 KHz frequency can only be modulated in 10% steps. A 1
KHz frequency can be modulated in 0.1% percent steps. The lower
the value of the output frequency the higher the resolution. Also,
note that the frequency of the output is rounded to a value that
will equal 1 MHz when multiplied by the integer ‘FD’.
J1 connector
1
2
3
4
5
6
CTC1 Clock 1
7
8
CTC1 Gate 1
9
10
CTC1 Output 1
11
12
CTC1 Clock 2
13
14
15
16
CTC1 Output 2
17
18
CTC3 Output 0
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Figure 4–1—Counter Timer Wiring Connection
' These are the connections which must be made in order for the
Pulse Width Modulator to work. The connections are as follows:
' CTC3 Ch0 'OUT' (J1-19) to CTC1 Ch1 'CLOCK' (J1-7) & CTC1
Ch2 'CLOCK' (J1-13)
' CTC1 Ch2 'OUT' (J1-17) to CTC1 Ch1 'GATE' (J1-9)
' CTC1 Ch1 'OUT' (J1-11) is the Modulated Signal'
Applications – 28
'OPTION BASE 1
' Pulse Width Modulation Example using Quick Basic
' Base Address of 5300 card configured to 100 Hex
ADDBASE = &H100
CTC1 = ADDBASE + 4
CTC2 = ADDBASE + 8
CTC3 = ADDBASE + 12
' Divide on board Master clock by 4. 8 MHz divided by 4 equals 2
MHz
' Set CTC3, Ch0 to mode 3
OUT CTC3 + 3, &H36
OUT CTC3 + 0, 8
OUT CTC3 + 0, 0
' Get Frequency from user
INPUT "Enter the frequency in 'Hz'"; FR
INPUT “Enter the Duty Cycle in ‘%’”; DU
' Calculate the divisor for the 82C54 for correct frequency generation
FD = 1000000! / FR
' CTC1 Ch 2, set to Mode 3
OUT CTC1 + 3, &HB6
' Calculate low and high byte counts
LSB
MSB
OUT
OUT
= FD MOD 256
= INT(FD / 256)
CTC1 + 2, LSB
CTC1 + 2, MSB
' Calculate duty cycle in number of clock counts
DX = 1 - DU / 100
PD = FD * DX
LSB = PD MOD 256
MSB = INT(PD / 256)
Applications – 29
' Set CTC1, CH1 to Mode 1
OUT CTC1 + 3, &H72
OUT CTC1 + 1, LSB
OUT CTC1 + 1, MSB
END
Applications – 30
APPENDIX A
COMPONENTS
This appendix includes some basic information on Schmitt triggers
and pulse width modulation.
SCHMITT TRIGGER
A Schmitt trigger provides better noise immunity than a TTL
input. The output will turn on when the signal reaches VT+ but
will not turn off until the signal drops below VT–. With TTL, the
signal could be on or off between VT– and VT+.
Received signal from
transmission line with
thresholds at different
amplitudes.
VT+
Signal
Amplitude VTH
VT
Recovered signal with
CMOS Schmitt trigger,
VT+ and VT. Restores
true waveform.
1 Level
0 Level
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
TIME (µS)
Recovered signal from
Schmitt is same width as
comparator with
threshold at VTH, and is
only delayed in time.
Figure A–1—Schmitt Trigger
Components – 31
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
75%
67.5%
50%
37.5%
25%
12.5%
Pulse width modulation (PWM) is often used in controlling motor
speed, light levels, or damper opening. The width of the pulse—
how long it is on—is modulated according to the level needed.
Figure A–2 shows a general–case PWM.
Figure A–2—Pulse Width Modulation
Within a given (programmed) time interval, the pulse signal may
be on for less than 100% of the time. How long it is on—the pulse
width —is determined by the amount of “ON” you want to achieve.
Components – 32
APPENDIX B
TECHNICAL D
ATA
DA
SPECIFICATIONS
Power Specifications
5V at 50 mA typical
Environmental Specifications
–40° to 85° C operating
RH 5% to 95%, noncondensing
Clock Input
8 MHz max.
Optically Isolated Input Rate
1 MHz max.
Optically Isolated Input Current
15 mA max., 5 mA min.
Digital I/O
8 lines, programmable as 4 or 8 inputs or outputs. TTL compatible
logic.
Size
4.5 in. x 4.9 in.
For additional information, please turn to Appendix C, which
includes the data sheet for the 82C54 Counter/Timer chip.
Technical Data – 33
JUMPER CONFIGURATIONS
5300 Base Address Select: W1
Pins Jumpered
Base I/O Address
[1-2][3-4][5-6]
100H*
[3-4][5-6]
110H
[1-2][5-6]
120H
[5-6]
130H
[1-2][3-4]
140H
[3-4]
150H
[1-2]
160H
No jumpers
170H
* = default
5300 Interrupt Request Lines: W2
Pins Jumpered
IRQ
[1-2]
IRQ2
[11-12]
IRQ3
[9-10]
IRQ4
[7-8]
IRQ5
[5-6]
IRQ6
[3-4]
IRQ7
[1-3]
No interrupt selected*
* = default
Technical Data – 34
5300 Interrupt Sources: W2
Pins Jumpered
Base I/O Address
[13-14]
PIO 0 Output
[15-16]
CTC2 Output 0
[14-16]
No interrupt selected*
* = default
CONNECTOR CONFIGURATIONS
J1: Counter/Timer & Digital I/O Port
Pin#
Function
Direction
Pin#
Function
1
CTC1 Clock 0
In
18
Gnd
19
CTC3 Output 0
In
20
Gnd
21
CTC3 Output 2
22
Gnd
23
PIO 0
In/Out
24
PIO 1
In/Out
25
PIO 2
In/Out
26
PIO 3
In/Out
27
PIO 4
In/Out
28
PIO 5
In/Out
29
PIO 6
In/Out
30
PIO 7
In/Out
31
CTC2 Clock 2
In
32
CTC2 Clock 1
In
33
CTC2 Clock 0
In
34
+5V
2
Gnd
3
CTC1 Gate 0
4
Gnd
5
CTC1 Output 0
6
Gnd
7
CTC1 Clock 1
8
Gnd
9
CTC1 Gate 1
10
Gnd
11
CTC1 Output 1
12
Gnd
13
CTC1 Clock 2
14
Gnd
15
CTC1 Gate 2
16
Gnd
17
CTC1 Output 2
Out
In
In
Out
In
In
Out
Technical Data – 35
Direction
Out
Out
J2: Counter/Timer Port
Pin#
Function
Direction
1
CTC3 Output 2 / 2*
Out
2
CTC3 Output 2 / 2
Out
3
CTC2 Output 0
In
4
CTC2 Gate 0
In
5
CTC2 Output 1
Out
6
CTC2 Gate 1
In
7
CTC2 Output 2
Out
8
CTC2 Gate 2
In
9
Gnd
10
Gnd
* = Inverted output of pin 2.
Technical Data – 36
I/O MAPS
5300 I/O Map
82C55A Digital I/O Chip
Description
Address
Port A
Base + 0x00
Port B
Base + 0x01
Port C
Base + 0x02
Control
Base + 0x03
8254 CTC1
Description
Address
Counter 0
Base + 0x04
Counter 1
Base + 0x05
Counter 2
Base + 0x06
Control CTC1
Base + 0x07
8254 CTC2
Description
Address
Counter 0
Base + 0x08
Counter 1
Base + 0x09
Counter 2
Base + 0x0A
Control CTC2
Base + 0x0B
8254 CTC3
Description
Address
Counter 0
Base + 0x0C
Counter 1
Base + 0x0D
Counter 2
Base + 0x0E
Control CTC3
Base + 0x0F
Technical Data – 37
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Technical Data – 38
APPENDIX C
82C54 D
ATA SHEET
DA
CHMOS PROGRAMMABLE INTERVAL TIMER
The material in this appendix is copyright 1989, Intel Corporation.
Appendix C – 39
Appendix C – 40
Appendix C – 41
Appendix C – 42
Appendix C – 43
Appendix C – 44
Appendix C – 45
Appendix C – 46
Appendix C – 47
Appendix C – 48
Appendix C – 49
Appendix C – 50
Appendix C – 51
Appendix C – 52
Appendix C – 53
Appendix C – 54
Appendix C – 55
Appendix C – 56
WARRANTY
Octagon Systems Corporation (Octagon), warrants that its standard hardware products will be free from defects in materials and
workmanship under normal use and service for the current
established warranty period. Octagon’s obligation under this
warranty shall not arise until Buyer returns the defective product,
freight prepaid to Octagon’s facility or another specified location.
Octagon’s only responsibility under this warranty is, at its option,
to replace or repair, free of charge, any defective component part of
such products.
LIMITATIONS ON WARRANTY
The warranty set forth above does not extend to and shall not
apply to:
1.
2.
3.
Products, including software, which have been repaired or
altered by other than Octagon personnel, unless Buyer has
properly altered or repaired the products in accordance with
procedures previously approved in writing by Octagon.
Products which have been subject to power supply reversal,
misuse, neglect, accident, or improper installation.
The design, capability, capacity, or suitability for use of the
Software. Software is licensed on an “AS IS” basis without
warranty.
The warranty and remedies set forth above are in lieu of all other
warranties expressed or implied, oral or written, either in fact or
by operation of law, statutory or otherwise, including warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, which
Octagon specifically disclaims. Octagon neither assumes nor
authorizes any other liability in connection with the sale, installation or use of its products. Octagon shall have no liability for
incidental or consequential damages of any kind arising out of the
sale, delay in delivery, installation, or use of its products.
SERVICE POLICY
1.
2.
3.
Octagon’s goal is to ship your product within 5 working days of
receipt.
If a product should fail during the warranty period, it will be
repaired free of charge. For out of warranty repairs, the
customer will be invoiced for repair charges at current standard labor and materials rates.
Customers that return products for repairs, within the
warranty period, and the product is found to be free of defect,
may be liable for the minimum current repair charge.
RETURNING A PRODUCT FOR REPAIR
Upon determining that repair services are required, the customer
must:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Obtain an RMA (Return Material Authorization) number from
the Customer Service Department, 303-430–1500.
If the request is for an out of warranty repair, a purchase
order number or other acceptable information must be supplied by the customer.
Include a list of problems encountered along with your name,
address, telephone, and RMA number.
Carefully package the product in an antistatic bag. (Failure to
package in antistatic material will VOID all warranties.)
Then package in a safe container for shipping.
Write RMA number on the outside of the box.
For products under warranty, the customer pays for shipping
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shipments.
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COLLECT OR WITHOUT AN RMA NUMBER CANNOT BE
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There will be a 15% restocking charge on returned product that is
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products, non-standard products, software and printed materials
are not returnable without prior written agreement.
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