Program 60-1163--Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Introduction The simple epicyclic gear unit consists of a central external gear (sun gear) meshed with one or more external gears (planet gears). The planet gears are then meshed with an internal gear (ring gear) which encloses the system. The planet gears and planet gear support bearings are held in a carrier which rotates about the geometric center of the unit. The term “epicyclic” comes from the path of a point on a planet gear which traces out an epicycloid in space. Therefore, there are three input/output elements in simple epicyclic gear differentials. The ring/sun ratio range for which these units can be designed with reasonable proportions is about 2:1 to 11:1. Below this range the planet gears become quite small and it becomes difficult to design the gears and planet bearings for reasonable life. Above this range the sun gear becomes small and the number of planets that can be used without interference is limited. This, again, makes the design of the bearings difficult. The range can be extended using compound epicyclic differentials. (See UTS TK model 60-1164, Compound Epicyclic Differentials.) If more than one planet gear is used the number of planets that will assemble between the sun and ring is limited by the numbers of teeth in the sun and ring and by the possibility of interference between the tips of the planet gear teeth. For a number of planets to assemble equally spaced around the center, the sum of the tooth numbers in the ring and sun divided by the number of planets used must be an integer: (Nring+Nsun)/np = integer where: Nring Nsun np Number of teeth in ring gear Number of teeth in sun gear Number of planet gears = = = The distance between the planet gear centers in the carrier must, of course, be greater than the outside diameter of the planet gears or tooth tip interference will result (assuming the planet gears are in the same plane). It is not necessary that the planets be equally spaced. However, to make assembly possible, they must be spaced at multiples of the “Least mesh angle”. UTS Integrated Gear Software ep/ß = integer ß = 360°/(Nring+Nsun) where: ep ß = = Angle between adjacent planet gears, deg Least mesh angle, deg For example, suppose we have an epicyclic set with Nring = 68 teeth and Nsun = 18 teeth and we wish to use 4 planets arranged 90 degrees apart. (Nring+Nsun)/4 = 21.5 which is not an integer so we cannot arrange 4 planets 90 degrees apart. (Nring+Nsun)/2 = 43 which is an integer so we can arrange 2 planets 180 degrees apart. The least mesh angle, ß = 360°/(Nring+Nsun) = 4.186 degrees. When we attempt to place a planet 90 degrees from the first planet we find that we are at 90°/ß = 21.5 least mesh angles and cannot assemble. We can, however, place the planet at 21 or 22 least mesh angles. This would put the planet gear at 1/2 ß or 2.093 degrees from 90 degrees. Then, since we know that 2 planets will assemble 180 degrees apart, the 4 planets would be placed at 0 degrees, 87.907 degrees, 180 degrees and 267.907 degrees. The tip clearance should then be checked. Since we have two sets of planets 180 degrees apart the (theoretical) summation of the bearing loads on the sun and ring is still zero. The model will calculate the planet interference outside diameter. The planet OD must be less than this diameter. The planet tooth tip clearance will be the amount the actual planet OD is less than the interference OD. The summation of radial loads on the sun and ring will be made to determine whether or not the radial loads on the sun and planet are balanced. The result is displayed as a “Yes” or “No” under “Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?”. It is not necessary (or even desirable) that Nring = Nsun + 2*Nplanet. If this relationship is met and the center distance is “standard” then the operating pressure angles at the sun/planet external mesh, φext, and the planet/ring internal mesh, φint, will be equal to the nominal pressure angle of the system. If φext is made higher than nominal and φint lower than nominal it will increase the strength of the set and reduce the burst stress on the ring. φext and φint can be easily controlled by the number of planet teeth and the operating center distance. (If the ring gear rim thickness is 2 tooth depths or more, a high operating pressure angle will tend to reduce the bending stress. If the ring gear rim thickness is 1.5 tooth depths or less, a low operating pressure angle will tend to reduce the bending stress.) 2 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design The pitch line velocity is calculated and the minimum recommended AGMA quality class is determined is accordance with the ANSI/AGMA 6023-A88 Design Manual for Enclosed Epicyclic Gear Drives. The percent factorization is also calculated in accordance with ANSI/AGMA 6023A88. See the standard for more information on factorized tooth numbers. The fundamental meshing frequency is displayed along with the expected primary torsional variation frequency. The model contains a table of K factors and Unit Loads for use in estimating the size of the gears required to carry the necessary load. The K factor is a function of the compressive stress carried on the teeth and is proportional to the square of the stress. The Unit Load is a function of the bending stress in the root area of the gears and is directly proportional to the stress. Both factors are directly proportional to the load. Different gear materials are, of course, capable of carrying different K and Unit Load factors for a given number of cycles. These factors are approximate because they do not contain many of the elements affecting the stresses on the gears. They are close enough, however, to allow us to get a “starting place” for our design with only the information at hand. It is essential, of course, to check our preliminary design with equations containing all the factors known to affect the operation and life of the gear set. The selection of the K factor and Unit Load is, of course, based on the material used for the gears and our best estimate of the load the gears will carry. The number of cycles the gears are required to run will also be part of the selection process. The first thing we need to determine is a “service factor” which adjusts the load to account for the extra load imposed on the gears from non-uniform torques produced by the driver and driven machines. A few selected service factors are contained in the table “SF”. The number of cycles we must run will be dealt with separately from the service factor and the service factors listed do not include adjustments for duration of service. Further information on service factors can be found in various AGMA standards pertaining to specific industries and applications. The service factors usually applied sometimes are not sufficient for critical drives running at high power and/or speed and must be used with caution. AGMA Standard 427, “AGMA Information Sheet, Systems Considerations for Critical Service Gear Drives” is an excellent source for information concerning the rating of these drives. 3 UTS Integrated Gear Software The table “KUL” contains K factors and Unit Loads for a number of materials and conditions for steel gears. 4 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design The table takes into account the class of gearing, such as high speed or medium speed. The accuracy to which the gears are made is also included along with the type of gear (spur, helical) and the heat treatment used. 5 UTS Integrated Gear Software The unit loads have been adjusted for reverse bending of the planet gear teeth by reducing the unit loads usually used to 70% of the normal values. The table is “interactive” and we can change the items marked with an asterisk. The number of cycles needed is found by multiplying the speed (relative to the carrier) by the life required. (If the sun meshes with more than one planet this must be taken into account.) You may move the cursor to the appropriate location in the table and change the values for pinion cycles, service factor and ratio to suit the application. After solving the model the table will be updated to reflect the changed data. 6 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Examples If you are using model 60-1163 for the first time, you may wish to run the following examples. (Some output values shown here have been rounded off.) Example 1 Suppose we wish to design a spur gear differential planetary set with a sun gear speed of 1500 RPM, a ring gear speed of 225 RPM in the opposite direction from the sun, and a carrier speed of about 115 RPM in the same direction as the sun. The sun gear torque for this condition is 5000 lb-in. Also, the smallest number of teeth we wish to use is about 22. (The number of teeth would be selected based upon material and duty cycle; see UTS model 60-180.) Figure 1-1 shows a portion of the 60-1163 wizard form with the initial conditions entered. (If the sun and carrier speeds are input as positive the ring must be input as negative to indicate opposite rotation.) Check and uncheck the “Enable table?” checkbox in the lower right of the form and press Enter to clear the interactive table. Report 1-1 shows the solved model. 7 UTS Integrated Gear Software Fig. 1-1 8 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Report 1-1 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general Prime factors greater than 100 unknown NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 34 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance in Mid-point Center Distance in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle deg 9 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit 0.000000 deg Helix Angle Transverse Pitch 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module mm ` Transverse Module mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.2253 deg NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that will assemble without interference planets will assemble equally if (ring+sun)/planets=integer) OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL c Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear Type of unit Diff Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) Effective planets (All fixed) Effective planets Planet Interference OD in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? 10 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0735 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5368 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.6507 Unit ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear -225.000 rpm 115.000 rpm Carrier ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1385.000 rpm Ring gear -340.000 rpm Planet gear -901.244 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 5000.00 lbf-in Ring gear 20367.65 lbf-in Carrier -25367.65 lbf-in POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 119.00 HP Ring gear -72.71 HP 11 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Carrier Unit Comment -46.29 HP VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 507.83 Hz % Factorized % % Non-factorized % Torsional variation frequency Hz APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY Coefficient of Friction 0.0600 Sun/Planet Power Loss HP Ring/Planet Power Loss HP Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only) HP Approx Efficiency % With 22 teeth in the sun and the required speeds we need about 90 teeth in the ring. Enter 90 for the ring gear and blank the carrier speed, as shown in Figure 1-2. After solving again you should have the solution shown in Report 1-2. 12 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Fig. 1-2 13 UTS Integrated Gear Software Report 1-2 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general Prime factors greater than 100 none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 34 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance in Mid-point Center Distance in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle 14 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Transverse Pitch 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module mm ` Transverse Module mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.2143 deg NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that will assemble without interference planets will assemble equally if (ring+sun)/planets=integer) OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL c Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear Type of unit Diff Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) Effective planets (All fixed) Effective planets Planet Interference OD in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0909 15 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5455 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.6471 Unit ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear -225.000 rpm Carrier 113.839 rpm ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1386.161 rpm Ring gear -338.839 rpm Planet gear -896.928 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 5000.00 lbf-in Ring gear 20454.55 lbf-in Carrier -25454.55 lbf-in POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 119.00 HP Ring gear -73.02 HP Carrier -45.98 HP 16 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss HP Tooth tangential load at sun lbf Tooth tangential load at ring lbf Face width - sun/planet in K factor - sun/planet psi Unit load - sun/planet psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring in K factor - planet/ring psi Unit load - planet/ring psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet G's VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 508.26 Hz % Factorized % % Non-factorized % Torsional variation frequency Hz APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY Coefficient of Friction 0.0600 Sun/Planet Power Loss HP Ring/Planet Power Loss HP Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only) HP 17 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software With 22 and 90 teeth the carrier speed is about 114 RPM. The sun is a driver and the ring and carrier are driven. The torque and power are listed for all elements. The sun power is positive, indicating power input, and the ring and carrier power are negative, indicating power out. (This should guide any studies of approach and recess action done on the teeth. It is not always apparent. Use the speeds relative to the carrier and relative power for load analysis.) To size the unit we need to take a guess at the number of planets we will use. Let's assume for now that the number of planets is 4. Enter 4 for “Number of Planets” and solve. The effective number of planets may be different from the actual number of planets, due to errors preventing the planets from sharing the load equally. When one or two members are allowed to float radially the load sharing is better than when all members are constrained by bearings. In this case if floating is utilized the effective number of planets is 3.7. (The effective number of planets will be the same as the actual number only for 3 planets or less with float.) If all members are fixed the effective number of planets is 3. The transmitted torque is divided by the effective number of planets to determine the load for an individual planet. Enter 3.7 for “Effective Planets”. We will use a sun/planet K-factor of 700 for this load condition with about a 1-inch face for now. We want to solve for gear size and normal pitch. To do this will require iteration, so we will toggle to the TK Solver Variable Sheet and enter a “Guess” value of 3 inches for the operating pitch diameter of the sun to give the iterative solver a place to start. (See the TK Solver User's Manual for more information about “Guess” values.) Sheet 1-1 shows this entry. If you wish to watch the convergence take place, go to “Settings” under the Options menu and set “Display Intermediate Values?” to Yes. The values will display in the Status Bar as the model is solved. It will slow the program down somewhat.) The solution is shown in Report 1-3. 18 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Sheet 1-1 Report 1-3 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general Prime factors greater than 100 none 19 Unit Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 34 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 3.2095 in Mid-point Center Distance 3.2095 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 8.724047 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle Transverse Pitch 8.7240 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.911493 mm ` Transverse Module 2.9115 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.2143 deg 20 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Unit System: Program 60-1163 US Description Value Unit NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 4 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL c Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear Type of unit Diff 4 Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.7000 Effective planets (All fixed) 3.0000 Effective planets 3.7000 Planet Interference OD 4.5389 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0909 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5455 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.6471 ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear -225.000 rpm Carrier 113.839 rpm 21 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Unit System: Program 60-1163 US Description Value Unit ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1386.161 rpm Ring gear -338.839 rpm Planet gear -896.928 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 915.14 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00115 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q8 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 915.14 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00153 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 5000.00 lbf-in Ring gear 20454.55 lbf-in Carrier -25454.55 lbf-in 22 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 119.00 HP Ring gear -73.02 HP Carrier -45.98 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 29.7214 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -29.7214 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 1071.75 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 1071.75 lbf Face width - sun/planet 1.0000 in K factor - sun/planet 700.00 psi Unit load - sun/planet 9350.00 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring in K factor - planet/ring psi Unit load - planet/ring psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet 1.181 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 10.3163 in Planet with ring gear 3.8973 in Planet with sun gear 3.8973 in Sun gear 2.5218 in 23 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Unit System: Program 60-1163 US Description Value Unit Comment ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 0.40 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.26 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 508.26 Hz % Factorized % % Non-factorized % Torsional variation frequency Hz APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY Coefficient of Friction 0.0600 Sun/Planet Power Loss 1.10 HP Ring/Planet Power Loss 0.55 HP Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only) 1.65 HP Approx Efficiency 98.6 % The normal pitch for this condition is about 8.72. Four planets is OK for equally spaced assembly. (Note that the effective number of planets from a tooth load standpoint is 3.7. With more than 3 planets, even with one or two members floating, it is very difficult to share the load between planets equally. You may, of course, change the effective number of planets if you desire.) With a 700 K-factor and 1-inch face width the operating pitch diameter of the sun is about 2.5 inches. Let's suppose we wish to use a little lighter pitch and a higher face to PD ratio. Change the normal pitch to 10 and enter 20 degrees for the normal pressure angle. Blank the face width. The data entry is shown in Figure 1-3, the solved model in Report 1-4. 24 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Fig. 1-3 Report 1-4 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general none 25 Unit Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Prime factors greater than 100 Unit none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 34 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 2.8000 in Mid-point Center Distance 2.8000 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 20.0000 deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh 20.0000 deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 10.000000 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle 20.000000 deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle Transverse Pitch 10.0000 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle 20.0000 deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.540000 mm ` Transverse Module 2.5400 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.2143 deg 26 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 4 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear ‘c Type of unit Diff 4 Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.7000 Effective planets (All fixed) 3.0000 Effective planets 3.7000 Planet Interference OD 3.9598 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0909 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5455 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.6471 ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear -225.000 rpm Carrier 113.839 rpm 27 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1386.161 rpm Ring gear -338.839 rpm Planet gear -896.928 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 798.37 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00122 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 798.37 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00162 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 5000.00 lbf-in Ring gear 20454.55 lbf-in Carrier -25454.55 lbf-in 28 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 119.00 HP Ring gear -73.02 HP Carrier -45.98 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 29.7214 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -29.7214 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 1228.50 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 1228.50 lbf Face width - sun/planet 1.3139 in K factor - sun/planet 700.00 psi Unit load - sun/planet 9350.00 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring in K factor - planet/ring psi Unit load - planet/ring psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet 1.031 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 9.0000 in Planet with ring gear 3.4000 in Planet with sun gear 3.4000 in Sun gear 2.2000 in 29 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 0.60 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.39 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 508.26 Hz % Factorized 50.0000 % % Non-factorized 50.0000 % Torsional variation frequency 1016.52 Hz APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY Coefficient of Friction 0.0600 Sun/Planet Power Loss 1.10 HP Ring/Planet Power Loss 0.55 HP Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only) 1.65 HP Approx Efficiency 98.6 % With a 34 tooth planet gear and a center distance of 2.8”, φext and φint are both “standard” at 20 degrees. (The “Operating Center Distance” is defaulted to the “Mid-Point Center Distance” if the operating center distance is not entered. If the sun and ring are both odd or both even the mid-point distance will be “standard”.) We can assemble 2 or 4 planet gears with equal spacing. Fig. 1-4 30 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design We want φext to be about 25 degrees, so we need to change the number of planet teeth. (In this case, the condition Nring = Nsun + 2∙Nplanet is met.) Enter 33 for the number of planet teeth. (Changing the planet gear to an odd number of teeth will also double the torsional variation frequency and reduce the amplitude to about half.) Figure 1-4 shows the data entry; Report 1-5 is the solved model. Report 1-5 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general none Prime factors greater than 100 none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 33 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 2.8000 in Mid-point Center Distance 2.8000 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 22.6444 deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh 16.9670 deg 31 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software This brings φext up to about 22.6 degrees and φint down to about 17 degrees. A small change in operating center distance should finish the job. Enter 2.84 for the operating center distance and solve once again (Figure 1-5 and Report 1-6). Fig. 1-5 Report 1-6 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general none Prime factors greater than 100 none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 33 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 2.8400 in Mid-point Center Distance 2.8000 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 24.5066 deg 32 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh Unit 19.4381 deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 10.000000 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle 20.000000 deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle Transverse Pitch 10.0000 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle 20.0000 deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.540000 mm ` Transverse Module 2.5400 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.2143 deg NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 4 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL c Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear Type of unit Diff 4 Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.7000 33 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Effective planets (All fixed) 3.0000 Effective planets 3.7000 Planet Interference OD 4.0164 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0909 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5000 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.7273 ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear -225.000 rpm Carrier 113.839 rpm ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1386.161 rpm Ring gear -338.839 rpm Planet gear -924.107 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven 34 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 824.50 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00120 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 795.57 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00163 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 5000.00 lbf-in Ring gear 20454.55 lbf-in Carrier -25454.55 lbf-in POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 119.00 HP Ring gear -73.02 HP Carrier -45.98 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 29.7214 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -29.7214 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 1189.57 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 1232.83 lbf 35 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Face width - sun/planet 1.2466 in K factor - sun/planet 700.00 psi Unit load - sun/planet 9542.40 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring in K factor - planet/ring psi Unit load - planet/ring psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet 1.045 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 8.9684 in Planet with ring gear 3.2884 in Planet with sun gear 3.4080 in Sun gear 2.2720 in ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 0.55 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.37 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 508.26 Hz % Factorized 50.0000 % % Non-factorized 50.0000 % Torsional variation frequency 2033.04 Hz 36 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design We now have φext at about 24.5 degrees and φint at about 19.4 degrees. The face width for the sun and planet required to keep the K-factor at 700 is 1.247. Let's even the face up to 1 1/4 inch. Blank the 700 K-factor and input 1.25 for the face width of both meshes. (We could use different faces if we wish but, although the compressive stress is much less at the internal mesh, the unit load is about the same, and we should probably set the faces about the same.) The data input is shown in Figure 1-6 and the solved model in Report 1-7. Fig. 1-6 Report 1-7 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general none 37 Unit Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Prime factors greater than 100 Unit none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 33 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 2.8400 in Mid-point Center Distance 2.8000 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 24.5066 deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh 19.4381 deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 10.000000 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle 20.000000 deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle Transverse Pitch 10.0000 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle 20.0000 deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.540000 mm ` Transverse Module 2.5400 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle 3.2143 deg 38 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 4 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL c Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear Type of unit Diff 4 Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.7000 Effective planets (All fixed) 3.0000 Effective planets 3.7000 Planet Interference OD 4.0164 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0909 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5000 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.7273 ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear -225.000 rpm Carrier 113.839 rpm 39 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1386.161 rpm Ring gear -338.839 rpm Planet gear -924.107 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 824.50 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00120 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 795.57 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00163 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 5000.00 lbf-in Ring gear 20454.55 lbf-in Carrier -25454.55 lbf-in 40 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 119.00 HP Ring gear -73.02 HP Carrier -45.98 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 29.7214 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -29.7214 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 1189.57 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 1232.83 lbf Face width - sun/planet 1.2500 in K factor - sun/planet 698.10 psi Unit load - sun/planet 9516.56 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring 1.2500 in K factor - planet/ring 189.95 psi Unit load - planet/ring 9862.62 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet 1.045 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 8.9684 in Planet with ring gear 3.2884 in Planet with sun gear 3.4080 in Sun gear 2.2720 in 41 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Comment ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 0.55 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.37 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 508.26 Hz % Factorized 50.0000 % % Non-factorized 50.0000 % Torsional variation frequency 2033.04 Hz You can plot operating pitch diameters: check the “Plot pitch diameters?” checkbox and solve. Figure 1-7 is the plot. 42 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Fig. 1-7 The “planets” table in the TK Solver model gives the location of the planet bearings. Open it by selecting it in the Table Sheet or in the drop-down list on the Toolbar. Table 1-1 is the table. 43 UTS Integrated Gear Software Table 1-1 This completes the solution and all design data for the geometry of the epicyclic gear set is solved for in the model. Note that there are no error or caution messages in the error message block. Of course, this is not the only solution to this design problem. The model was solved progressively to obtain this solution. With the multipledirectional solving capability of TK you may wish to investigate other solutions. This model contains a table with which the relationship among speed, torque and power can be quickly explored. The table uses the geometric data from the model but is independent of the speed, torque and power data. To use this table, first check off the “Enable table?” checkbox and press Enter. Put the same data as before in the table just to compare results. Your screen should look like Table 1-2. 44 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Table 1-2 Solve and you should have Table 1-3. Table 1-3 45 UTS Integrated Gear Software Now let's change the speed and torque in the table. Change your table to match Table 1-4. Table 1-4 Solve and you should have Table 1-5. 46 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Table 1-5 Note that with the change of rotation entered we now have both the ring and the carrier driving and the sun as the driven. With the rotation data we originally used we had the sun as the driver and both the ring and carrier were driven. The table makes a note of driver and driven and the algebraic signs of the power for each element also indicates the direction of power flow. In many situations it can be helpful to investigate the behavior of the elements of a differential over a range of operating conditions. For example, suppose that we wish to use this differential to control the speed of a fan driven by a constant speed electric motor. We will connect the motor to the sun gear, and the carrier to the fan shaft. The motor will also drive a variable speed hydraulic pump-motor combination. The hydraulic unit will also be connected to the ring gear. (This is not meant to imply that this is a good design for this differential unit and is included to illustrate the TK Solver setup for this type of work.) The motor will run at a speed of 1500 RPM. The fan power is known to conform to this equation: Horsepower = 300(RPM/500)3 The maximum speed for the fan is 500 RPM where the power is 300 HP. In terms of the variables used in the model this equation would be written: 47 UTS Integrated Gear Software Pc = -300*(Nc/500)^3 where: Pc Nc = = the power removed from the carrier the carrier RPM To set up the model the first step is to enter the equation on the Rule Sheet. Go to the bottom of the Rule Sheet and type in the equation (Sheet 1-2). Sheet 1-2 Next go to the Variable Sheet and enter 'c for “Enable table?” to avoid waiting for the solution of the table as we proceed. To check the equation we entered on the Rule Sheet, enter 1500 for sun gear speed (electric motor) and 500 for carrier speed (max fan speed). Blank the 5000 for the sun gear torque. The solved model is shown in Report 1-8 48 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Report 1-8 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general none Prime factors greater than 100 none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 90 Planet Gear Teeth 33 Sun Gear Teeth 22 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 2.8400 in Mid-point Center Distance 2.8000 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 24.5066 deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh 19.4381 deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 10.000000 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle 20.000000 deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle 49 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Transverse Pitch 10.0000 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle 20.0000 deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.540000 mm ` Transverse Module 2.5400 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.2143 deg NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 4 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL c Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear Type of unit Diff 4 Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.7000 Effective planets (All fixed) 3.0000 Effective planets 3.7000 Planet Interference OD 4.0164 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes 50 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.0909 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5000 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.7273 Unit ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1500.000 rpm Ring gear 255.556 rpm Carrier 500.000 rpm ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 1000.000 rpm Ring gear -244.444 rpm Planet gear -666.667 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 594.81 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00138 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 573.94 ft/min 51 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00187 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q6 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 7427.95 lbf-in Ring gear 30387.05 lbf-in Carrier -37815.00 lbf-in POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 176.79 HP Ring gear 123.21 HP Carrier -300.00 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 31.8533 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -31.8533 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 1767.21 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 1831.47 lbf 1.2500 in Face width - sun/planet K factor - sun/planet 1037.10 psi Unit load - sun/planet 14137.70 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring 1.2500 in K factor - planet/ring 282.19 psi Unit load - planet/ring 14651.80 psi 52 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet 20.166 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 8.9684 in Planet with ring gear 3.2884 in Planet with sun gear 3.4080 in Sun gear 2.2720 in ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 0.55 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.37 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 366.67 Hz % Factorized 50.0000 % % Non-factorized 50.0000 % Torsional variation frequency 1466.67 Hz APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY Coefficient of Friction 0.0600 Sun/Planet Power Loss 1.18 HP Ring/Planet Power Loss 0.59 HP Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only) 1.77 HP Approx Efficiency 99.4 % 53 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software The centripetal acceleration on the planets is quite high, at 20 G's. The model warns you of this: The planet bearings would have to be capable of running under these conditions. According to the fan speed/power equation, after solving you should have -300 for the carrier horsepower. Let's check the horsepower carried by the hydraulic system as the fan is operated over a speed range of 0 to 500 RPM. (We could check anything we wish but, for this example, we will check only the hydraulic power against fan speed.) We will use TK Solver's list solving ability to obtain the information we want. The fan speed, which is the same as the carrier speed, varies from 0 to 500 RPM. In the TK Solver Variable Sheet, place the cursor in the status column for carrier speed, Nc, and type “L”, or double-click on the cell and pick “List” from the drop-down list that appears.. This will establish Nc as a list. We also need to label the ring gear power, Pr, as a list. (The ring gear power is the same as the hydraulic power as the hydraulic unit is connected to the ring gear.) Your screen should be like Sheet 1-3. 54 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Sheet 1-3 Both lists have been established but, of course, neither contains any data. We wish Nc, the carrier or fan speed, to be an input list. If there is an entry in the input column then Nc will be an input list. The value on the Variable Sheet will not be used in list solving (unless it is also in the list) but only instructs TK that Nc is an input list. The other list, Pr, the hydraulic power, will be an output list, as there is no entry in the input column. The next job is to enter the values we desire in the list for Nc. Go to the list subsheet for Nc. (See the TK Solver documentation if necessary.) Instead of typing in the RPM values we need, we will use the automatic list fill feature. Select “Add Step”, enter 0 for the first value, 10 for the step size and 500 for the last value. The list will fill with values from 0 to 500 by a step of 10. The screen should look like Sheet 1-4. 55 UTS Integrated Gear Software Sheet 1-4 Return to the variable sheet and list solve. The values from the list Nc will be used, one by one, for input. The model will solve and the solution for Pr will be placed in the list for Pr. (We could specify any variables we wish as an output list but we are, for this example, only building a list for Pr.) Now that we have a list of fan speeds, Nc, and the corresponding hydraulic power, Pr, we can quickly have a plot of these values. Go to the plot sheet and label a plot “hyd_pow”. Select “Line Chart” and type in the title “Hydraulic Power”. See Sheet 1-5. Next, dive into the plot sub-sheet for “hyd_pow,” using the right mouse button. Set “Display Zero Axes:” to X-axis, label the X and Y axes, enter Nc as the “X-Axis List” and Pr as the “Y-Axis” list, as shown in Sheet 1-6. Plot (F7 key) and you should have a screen that looks like Figure 1-8. Sheet 1-5 56 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Sheet 1-6 57 UTS Integrated Gear Software Fig. 1-8 We can see from the plot that power circulates through the differential and back through the hydraulic unit to the motor for fan speeds up to about 290 RPM. At higher fan speeds, power flows from the motor through the hydraulic unit to the differential. The maximum power the hydraulic unit must handle is about 120 HP. 58 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design If a table is useful it can be quickly made using the TK Solver Table Sheet. Go to this sheet and label a table “hyd_pow”. See Sheet 1-7. Sheet 1-7 Dive into the table subsheet for “hyd_pow,” using the right mouse button, and set up the table (Sheet 1-8). Sheet 1-8 The table should look like Sheet 1-9. 59 UTS Integrated Gear Software Sheet 1-9 Note: The relative power in an epicyclic differential is often misunderstood. The input and output torques of any gear unit must balance. The carrier of an epicyclic differential is rotating. Therefore, the meshing velocities of the teeth are different than in a non-epicyclic gear. The power carried by the teeth is a product of load and linear velocity. Since the linear velocity is different than rotation speed multiplied by pitch radius, the relative power is different than the shaft transmitted power. The relative power should be used in load calculations and, of course, the relative speed must then also be used. 60 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Example 2 This example is a planetary gear (ring fixed) with a ratio of 5.1 to 1. The ring gear has 82 teeth and the sun gear has 20 teeth. The planet gear has 30 teeth instead of the “standard” 31 teeth in order to bring the operating pressure angle of the external mesh up to about 20 degrees. This is done to increase the beam strength of the external mesh. The operating center distance has been set to “standard” for the internal mesh. (This is not a requirement but this brings the external operating pressure angle to about what we want.) The maximum K-factor Fig. 2-1B allowed is 320 psi. However, with three planets the Kfactor is about 390 psi which is too high. The sun gear aspect ratio is a little over one and we do not wish to increase it to reduce the Kfactor. Figures 2-1A and 21B show the data inputs in the wizard form; Report 2-1 shows the solved model. 61 UTS Integrated Gear Software Fig. 2-1A 62 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Report 2-1 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general none Prime factors greater than 100 none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 82 Planet Gear Teeth 30 Sun Gear Teeth 20 Plot pitch diameters? n CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES Operating Center Distance 2.6000 in Mid-point Center Distance 2.5500 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 25.3712 deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh 20.0000 deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 10.000000 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle 20.000000 deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle 63 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Transverse Pitch 10.0000 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle 20.0000 deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.540000 mm ` Transverse Module 2.5400 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.5294 deg NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 3 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear e Type of unit Planetary 3 Number of planets ck# Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.0000 Effective planets (All fixed) 2.4400 Effective planets 3.0000 Planet Interference OD 4.5033 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.1000 64 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5000 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.7333 Unit ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1200.000 rpm Ring gear 0.000 rpm Carrier 235.294 rpm ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 964.706 rpm Ring gear -235.294 rpm Planet gear -643.137 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 525.32 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00146 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 505.12 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00198 in 65 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q6 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 3413.85 lbf-in Ring gear 13996.80 lbf-in Carrier -17410.66 lbf-in POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 65.00 HP Ring gear 0.00 HP Carrier -65.00 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 17.4183 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -17.4183 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 1094.18 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 1137.95 lbf Face width - sun/planet 2.2500 in K factor - sun/planet 389.67 psi Unit load - sun/planet 4863.04 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Face width - planet/ring 2.2500 in K factor - planet/ring 106.91 psi Unit load - planet/ring 5057.56 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio 66 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Centripetal acceleration on planet Unit 4.089 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 8.2000 in Planet with ring gear 3.0000 in Planet with sun gear 3.1200 in Sun gear 2.0800 in ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 1.08 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.72 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 321.57 Hz % Factorized 0.0000 % % Non-factorized 100.0000 % Torsional variation frequency 964.71 Hz Figure 2-2 is a plot of the operating pitch diameters. 67 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Fig 2-2 68 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design A possible solution to the load problem is to go to 4 planets instead of 3. The sum of the teeth in the ring and sun is 102, which is divisible by 3 but not by 4. Therefore, 4 planets cannot be assembled with equal spacing. However, 102 is divisible by 2, so we may be able to use 2 sets of 2 planets spaced 180 at degrees. Since at least one element is floating we must make sure that the loads on the sun and ring are balanced. We will change to 4 planets and solve the model. After solving we note that the effective number of planets with at least one member floating is 3.7. Enter 3.7 for the effective number of planets and solve again. This solution is shown in Report 2-2. Report 2-2 Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit MESSAGE FIELD ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh none ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general Chk Spc Prime factors greater than 100 none NUMBER OF TEETH Ring Gear Teeth 82 Planet Gear Teeth 30 Sun Gear Teeth 20 y Plot pitch diameters? CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES 2.6000 in Operating Center Distance 69 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Mid-point Center Distance Unit 2.5500 in Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh 25.3712 deg Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh 20.0000 deg NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE Normal Pitch 10.000000 1/in ` Normal Pressure Angle 20.000000 deg 0.000000 deg Helix Angle Transverse Pitch 10.0000 1/in ` Transverse Press Angle 20.0000 deg Axial Pitch in Normal Module 2.540000 mm ` Transverse Module 2.5400 mm ` PLANET SPACING Least mesh angle (Planets must be 3.5294 deg NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS (These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that 2 will assemble without interference - 3 planets will assemble equally if # (ring+sun)/planets=integer) # OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear e Type of unit Planetary 4 Number of planets 70 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value ck# Unit Chk Spc Effective planets (1 member floating) 3.7000 Effective planets (All fixed) 3.0000 Effective planets 3.7000 Planet Interference OD 3.6199 in Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced? Yes Ring/Sun gear ratio 4.1000 Planet/Sun Ratio 1.5000 Ring/Planet Ratio 2.7333 ROTATION SPEED Sun gear 1200.000 rpm Ring gear 0.000 rpm Carrier 235.294 rpm ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER Sun gear 964.706 rpm Ring gear -235.294 rpm Planet gear -643.137 rpm Carrier 0.000 rpm DRIVER/DRIVEN Sun gear Driver Ring gear Driven Carrier Driven 71 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit SUN/PLANET Sun/Planet 525.32 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00146 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q7 RING/PLANET Ring/Planet 505.12 ft/min Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance 0.00198 in Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class Q6 TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 3413.85 lbf-in Ring gear 13996.80 lbf-in Carrier -17410.66 lbf-in POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES) Sun gear 65.00 HP Ring gear 0.00 HP Carrier -65.00 HP PER PLANET GEAR Relative power at sun mesh-no loss 14.1229 HP Relative power at ring mesh-no loss -14.1229 HP Tooth tangential load at sun 887.18 lbf Tooth tangential load at ring 922.66 lbf 72 Comment 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Model Title : Program 60-1163 Unit System: US Description Value Unit Face width - sun/planet 2.2500 in K factor - sun/planet 315.95 psi Unit load - sun/planet 3943.01 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio 2.2500 in Face width - planet/ring K factor - planet/ring 86.68 psi Unit load - planet/ring 4100.73 psi Helical (axial) contact ratio Centripetal acceleration on planet 4.089 G's OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS Ring gear 8.2000 in Planet with ring gear 3.0000 in Planet with sun gear 3.1200 in Sun gear 2.0800 in ASPECT RATIOS Sun - Face/PD 1.08 Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh) 0.72 VIBRATION Fundamental meshing frequency 321.57 Hz % Factorized % % Non-factorized % Torsional variation frequency Hz 73 Comment UTS Integrated Gear Software This brings the K-factor for the sun and planet mesh down to about 316 psi, which is less than the maximum of 320 psi. The loads on the sun and ring are balanced with this arrangement. The TK Solver table “planets” will give us the proper location for the planets to make assembly possible and insure that the sun and ring loads are balanced. See Sheet 2. Sheet 2 Figure 2-3 is a plot of the operating pitch diameters. Note that the planets are in pairs 180 degrees apart but the pairs are not at 90 degrees. 74 60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Fig 2-3 75

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