Program 60-1163--Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Introduction

Program 60-1163--Simple Epicyclic Differential Design Introduction
Program 60-1163--Simple Epicyclic
Differential Design
Introduction
The simple epicyclic gear unit consists of a central external gear (sun gear) meshed
with one or more external gears (planet gears). The planet gears are then meshed
with an internal gear (ring gear) which encloses the system. The planet gears and
planet gear support bearings are held in a carrier which rotates about the geometric
center of the unit. The term “epicyclic” comes from the path of a point on a planet
gear which traces out an epicycloid in space. Therefore, there are three input/output
elements in simple epicyclic gear differentials.
The ring/sun ratio range for which these units can be designed with reasonable
proportions is about 2:1 to 11:1.
Below this range the planet gears become quite small and it becomes difficult to
design the gears and planet bearings for reasonable life. Above this range the sun
gear becomes small and the number of planets that can be used without interference
is limited. This, again, makes the design of the bearings difficult. The range can be
extended using compound epicyclic differentials. (See UTS TK model 60-1164,
Compound Epicyclic Differentials.)
If more than one planet gear is used the number of planets that will assemble
between the sun and ring is limited by the numbers of teeth in the sun and ring and
by the possibility of interference between the tips of the planet gear teeth. For a
number of planets to assemble equally spaced around the center, the sum of the tooth
numbers in the ring and sun divided by the number of planets used must be an
integer:
(Nring+Nsun)/np =
integer
where: Nring
Nsun
np
Number of teeth in ring gear
Number of teeth in sun gear
Number of planet gears
=
=
=
The distance between the planet gear centers in the carrier must, of course, be
greater than the outside diameter of the planet gears or tooth tip interference will
result (assuming the planet gears are in the same plane).
It is not necessary that the planets be equally spaced. However, to make assembly
possible, they must be spaced at multiples of the “Least mesh angle”.
UTS Integrated Gear Software
ep/ß
=
integer
ß
=
360°/(Nring+Nsun)
where: ep
ß
=
=
Angle between adjacent planet gears, deg
Least mesh angle, deg
For example, suppose we have an epicyclic set with Nring = 68 teeth and Nsun = 18
teeth and we wish to use 4 planets arranged 90 degrees apart. (Nring+Nsun)/4 = 21.5
which is not an integer so we cannot arrange 4 planets 90 degrees apart.
(Nring+Nsun)/2 = 43 which is an integer so we can arrange 2 planets 180 degrees apart.
The least mesh angle, ß = 360°/(Nring+Nsun) = 4.186 degrees. When we attempt to
place a planet 90 degrees from the first planet we find that we are at 90°/ß = 21.5
least mesh angles and cannot assemble. We can, however, place the planet at 21 or
22 least mesh angles. This would put the planet gear at 1/2 ß or 2.093 degrees from
90 degrees. Then, since we know that 2 planets will assemble 180 degrees apart, the
4 planets would be placed at 0 degrees, 87.907 degrees, 180 degrees and 267.907
degrees. The tip clearance should then be checked. Since we have two sets of planets
180 degrees apart the (theoretical) summation of the bearing loads on the sun and
ring is still zero.
The model will calculate the planet interference outside diameter. The planet OD
must be less than this diameter. The planet tooth tip clearance will be the amount
the actual planet OD is less than the interference OD.
The summation of radial loads on the sun and ring will be made to determine
whether or not the radial loads on the sun and planet are balanced. The result is
displayed as a “Yes” or “No” under “Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?”.
It is not necessary (or even desirable) that Nring = Nsun + 2*Nplanet. If this relationship
is met and the center distance is “standard” then the operating pressure angles at the
sun/planet external mesh, φext, and the planet/ring internal mesh, φint, will be equal to
the nominal pressure angle of the system. If φext is made higher than nominal and
φint lower than nominal it will increase the strength of the set and reduce the burst
stress on the ring. φext and φint can be easily controlled by the number of planet teeth
and the operating center distance. (If the ring gear rim thickness is 2 tooth depths or
more, a high operating pressure angle will tend to reduce the bending stress. If the
ring gear rim thickness is 1.5 tooth depths or less, a low operating pressure angle will
tend to reduce the bending stress.)
2
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
The pitch line velocity is calculated and the minimum recommended AGMA quality
class is determined is accordance with the ANSI/AGMA 6023-A88 Design Manual for
Enclosed Epicyclic Gear Drives.
The percent factorization is also calculated in accordance with ANSI/AGMA 6023A88. See the standard for more information on factorized tooth numbers. The
fundamental meshing frequency is displayed along with the expected primary
torsional variation frequency.
The model contains a table of K factors and Unit Loads for use in estimating the size
of the gears required to carry the necessary load. The K factor is a function of the
compressive stress carried on the teeth and is proportional to the square of the stress.
The Unit Load is a function of the bending stress in the root area of the gears and is
directly proportional to the stress. Both factors are directly proportional to the load.
Different gear materials are, of course, capable of carrying different K and Unit Load
factors for a given number of cycles. These factors are approximate because they do
not contain many of the elements affecting the stresses on the gears. They are close
enough, however, to allow us to get a “starting place” for our design with only the
information at hand. It is essential, of course, to check our preliminary design with
equations containing all the factors known to affect the operation and life of the gear
set.
The selection of the K factor and Unit Load is, of course, based on the material used
for the gears and our best estimate of the load the gears will carry. The number of
cycles the gears are required to run will also be part of the selection process.
The first thing we need to determine is a “service factor” which adjusts the load to
account for the extra load imposed on the gears from non-uniform torques produced
by the driver and driven machines. A few selected service factors are contained in
the table “SF”. The number of cycles we must run will be dealt with separately from
the service factor and the service factors listed do not include adjustments for
duration of service. Further information on service factors can be found in various
AGMA standards pertaining to specific industries and applications. The service
factors usually applied sometimes are not sufficient for critical drives running at high
power and/or speed and must be used with caution. AGMA Standard 427, “AGMA
Information Sheet, Systems Considerations for Critical Service Gear Drives” is an
excellent source for information concerning the rating of these drives.
3
UTS Integrated Gear Software
The table “KUL” contains K factors and Unit Loads for a number of materials and
conditions for steel gears.
4
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
The table takes into account the class of gearing, such as high speed or medium
speed. The accuracy to which the gears are made is also included along with the type
of gear (spur, helical) and the heat treatment used.
5
UTS Integrated Gear Software
The unit loads have been adjusted for reverse bending of the planet gear teeth by
reducing the unit loads usually used to 70% of the normal values. The table is
“interactive” and we can change the items marked with an asterisk.
The number of cycles needed is found by multiplying the speed (relative to the
carrier) by the life required. (If the sun meshes with more than one planet this must
be taken into account.) You may move the cursor to the appropriate location in the
table and change the values for pinion cycles, service factor and ratio to suit the
application. After solving the model the table will be updated to reflect the changed
data.
6
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Examples
If you are using model 60-1163 for the first time, you may wish to run the following
examples. (Some output values shown here have been rounded off.)
Example 1
Suppose we wish to design a spur gear differential planetary set with a sun gear
speed of 1500 RPM, a ring gear speed of 225 RPM in the opposite direction from the
sun, and a carrier speed of about 115 RPM in the same direction as the sun. The sun
gear torque for this condition is 5000 lb-in. Also, the smallest number of teeth we
wish to use is about 22. (The number of teeth would be selected based upon material
and duty cycle; see UTS model 60-180.)
Figure 1-1 shows a portion of the 60-1163 wizard form with the initial conditions
entered. (If the sun and carrier speeds are input as positive the ring must be input
as negative to indicate opposite rotation.) Check and uncheck the “Enable table?”
checkbox in the lower right of the form and press Enter to clear the interactive table.
Report 1-1 shows the solved model.
7
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Fig. 1-1
8
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Report 1-1
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
Prime factors greater than 100
unknown
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
34
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
in
Mid-point Center Distance
in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
deg
9
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
Transverse Pitch
1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
mm `
Transverse Module
mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.2253 deg
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
will assemble without interference planets will assemble equally if
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
c
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
Type of unit
Diff
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
Effective planets (All fixed)
Effective planets
Planet Interference OD
in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
10
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0735
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5368
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.6507
Unit
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
-225.000 rpm
115.000 rpm
Carrier
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1385.000 rpm
Ring gear
-340.000 rpm
Planet gear
-901.244 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
5000.00 lbf-in
Ring gear
20367.65 lbf-in
Carrier
-25367.65 lbf-in
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
119.00 HP
Ring gear
-72.71 HP
11
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Carrier
Unit
Comment
-46.29 HP
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
507.83 Hz
% Factorized
%
% Non-factorized
%
Torsional variation frequency
Hz
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY
Coefficient of Friction
0.0600
Sun/Planet Power Loss
HP
Ring/Planet Power Loss
HP
Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only)
HP
Approx Efficiency
%
With 22 teeth in the sun and the required speeds we need about 90 teeth in the ring.
Enter 90 for the ring gear and blank the carrier speed, as shown in Figure 1-2. After
solving again you should have the solution shown in Report 1-2.
12
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Fig. 1-2
13
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Report 1-2
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
Prime factors greater than 100
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
34
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
in
Mid-point Center Distance
in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
14
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Transverse Pitch
1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
mm `
Transverse Module
mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.2143 deg
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
will assemble without interference planets will assemble equally if
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
c
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
Type of unit
Diff
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
Effective planets (All fixed)
Effective planets
Planet Interference OD
in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0909
15
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5455
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.6471
Unit
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
-225.000 rpm
Carrier
113.839 rpm
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1386.161 rpm
Ring gear
-338.839 rpm
Planet gear
-896.928 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
5000.00 lbf-in
Ring gear
20454.55 lbf-in
Carrier
-25454.55 lbf-in
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
119.00 HP
Ring gear
-73.02 HP
Carrier
-45.98 HP
16
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
lbf
Face width - sun/planet
in
K factor - sun/planet
psi
Unit load - sun/planet
psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
in
K factor - planet/ring
psi
Unit load - planet/ring
psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
G's
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
508.26 Hz
% Factorized
%
% Non-factorized
%
Torsional variation frequency
Hz
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY
Coefficient of Friction
0.0600
Sun/Planet Power Loss
HP
Ring/Planet Power Loss
HP
Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only)
HP
17
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
With 22 and 90 teeth the carrier speed is about 114 RPM. The sun is a driver and the
ring and carrier are driven. The torque and power are listed for all elements. The
sun power is positive, indicating power input, and the ring and carrier power are
negative, indicating power out. (This should guide any studies of approach and
recess action done on the teeth. It is not always apparent. Use the speeds relative to
the carrier and relative power for load analysis.)
To size the unit we need to take a guess at the number of planets we will use. Let's
assume for now that the number of planets is 4. Enter 4 for “Number of Planets” and
solve. The effective number of planets may be different from the actual number of
planets, due to errors preventing the planets from sharing the load equally. When
one or two members are allowed to float radially the load sharing is better than when
all members are constrained by bearings. In this case if floating is utilized the
effective number of planets is 3.7. (The effective number of planets will be the same
as the actual number only for 3 planets or less with float.) If all members are fixed
the effective number of planets is 3. The transmitted torque is divided by the
effective number of planets to determine the load for an individual planet. Enter 3.7
for “Effective Planets”.
We will use a sun/planet K-factor of 700 for this load condition with about a 1-inch
face for now. We want to solve for gear size and normal pitch. To do this will require
iteration, so we will toggle to the TK Solver Variable Sheet and enter a “Guess” value
of 3 inches for the operating pitch diameter of the sun to give the iterative solver a
place to start. (See the TK Solver User's Manual for more information about “Guess”
values.) Sheet 1-1 shows this entry. If you wish to watch the convergence take place,
go to “Settings” under the Options menu and set “Display Intermediate Values?” to
Yes. The values will display in the Status Bar as the model is solved. It will slow the
program down somewhat.) The solution is shown in Report 1-3.
18
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Sheet 1-1
Report 1-3
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
Prime factors greater than 100
none
19
Unit
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
34
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
3.2095 in
Mid-point Center Distance
3.2095 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
8.724047 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
Transverse Pitch
8.7240 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.911493 mm `
Transverse Module
2.9115 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.2143 deg
20
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Unit System:
Program 60-1163
US
Description
Value
Unit
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
4
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
c
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
Type of unit
Diff
4
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.7000
Effective planets (All fixed)
3.0000
Effective planets
3.7000
Planet Interference OD
4.5389 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0909
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5455
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.6471
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
-225.000 rpm
Carrier
113.839 rpm
21
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Unit System:
Program 60-1163
US
Description
Value
Unit
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1386.161 rpm
Ring gear
-338.839 rpm
Planet gear
-896.928 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
915.14 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00115 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q8
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
915.14 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00153 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
5000.00 lbf-in
Ring gear
20454.55 lbf-in
Carrier
-25454.55 lbf-in
22
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
119.00 HP
Ring gear
-73.02 HP
Carrier
-45.98 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
29.7214 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-29.7214 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
1071.75 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
1071.75 lbf
Face width - sun/planet
1.0000 in
K factor - sun/planet
700.00 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
9350.00 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
in
K factor - planet/ring
psi
Unit load - planet/ring
psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
1.181 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
10.3163 in
Planet with ring gear
3.8973 in
Planet with sun gear
3.8973 in
Sun gear
2.5218 in
23
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Unit System:
Program 60-1163
US
Description
Value
Unit
Comment
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
0.40
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.26
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
508.26 Hz
% Factorized
%
% Non-factorized
%
Torsional variation frequency
Hz
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY
Coefficient of Friction
0.0600
Sun/Planet Power Loss
1.10 HP
Ring/Planet Power Loss
0.55 HP
Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only)
1.65 HP
Approx Efficiency
98.6 %
The normal pitch for this condition is about 8.72. Four planets is OK for equally
spaced assembly. (Note that the effective number of planets from a tooth load
standpoint is 3.7. With more than 3 planets, even with one or two members floating,
it is very difficult to share the load between planets equally. You may, of course,
change the effective number of planets if you desire.) With a 700 K-factor and 1-inch
face width the operating pitch diameter of the sun is about 2.5 inches.
Let's suppose we wish to use a little lighter pitch and a higher face to PD ratio.
Change the normal pitch to 10 and enter 20 degrees for the normal pressure angle.
Blank the face width. The data entry is shown in Figure 1-3, the solved model in
Report 1-4.
24
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Fig. 1-3
Report 1-4
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
none
25
Unit
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Prime factors greater than 100
Unit
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
34
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
2.8000 in
Mid-point Center Distance
2.8000 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
20.0000 deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
20.0000 deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
10.000000 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
20.000000 deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
Transverse Pitch
10.0000 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
20.0000 deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.540000 mm `
Transverse Module
2.5400 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.2143 deg
26
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
4
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
‘c
Type of unit
Diff
4
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.7000
Effective planets (All fixed)
3.0000
Effective planets
3.7000
Planet Interference OD
3.9598 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0909
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5455
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.6471
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
-225.000 rpm
Carrier
113.839 rpm
27
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1386.161 rpm
Ring gear
-338.839 rpm
Planet gear
-896.928 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
798.37 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00122 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
798.37 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00162 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
5000.00 lbf-in
Ring gear
20454.55 lbf-in
Carrier
-25454.55 lbf-in
28
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
119.00 HP
Ring gear
-73.02 HP
Carrier
-45.98 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
29.7214 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-29.7214 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
1228.50 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
1228.50 lbf
Face width - sun/planet
1.3139 in
K factor - sun/planet
700.00 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
9350.00 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
in
K factor - planet/ring
psi
Unit load - planet/ring
psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
1.031 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
9.0000 in
Planet with ring gear
3.4000 in
Planet with sun gear
3.4000 in
Sun gear
2.2000 in
29
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
0.60
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.39
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
508.26 Hz
% Factorized
50.0000 %
% Non-factorized
50.0000 %
Torsional variation frequency
1016.52 Hz
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY
Coefficient of Friction
0.0600
Sun/Planet Power Loss
1.10 HP
Ring/Planet Power Loss
0.55 HP
Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only)
1.65 HP
Approx Efficiency
98.6 %
With a 34 tooth planet gear and a
center distance of 2.8”, φext and φint
are both “standard” at 20 degrees.
(The “Operating Center Distance” is
defaulted to the “Mid-Point Center
Distance” if the operating center
distance is not entered. If the sun
and ring are both odd or both even
the mid-point distance will be
“standard”.) We can assemble 2 or 4
planet gears with equal spacing.
Fig. 1-4
30
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
We want φext to be about 25 degrees, so we need to change the number of planet
teeth. (In this case, the condition Nring = Nsun + 2∙Nplanet is met.) Enter 33 for the
number of planet teeth. (Changing the planet gear to an odd number of teeth will
also double the torsional variation frequency and reduce the amplitude to about half.)
Figure 1-4 shows the data entry; Report 1-5 is the solved model.
Report 1-5
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
none
Prime factors greater than 100
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
33
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
2.8000 in
Mid-point Center Distance
2.8000 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
22.6444 deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
16.9670 deg
31
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
This brings φext up to about 22.6
degrees and φint down to about 17
degrees. A small change in
operating center distance should
finish the job. Enter 2.84 for the
operating center distance and
solve once again (Figure 1-5 and
Report 1-6).
Fig. 1-5
Report 1-6
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
none
Prime factors greater than 100
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
33
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
2.8400 in
Mid-point Center Distance
2.8000 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
24.5066 deg
32
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
Unit
19.4381 deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
10.000000 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
20.000000 deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
Transverse Pitch
10.0000 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
20.0000 deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.540000 mm `
Transverse Module
2.5400 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.2143 deg
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
4
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
c
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
Type of unit
Diff
4
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.7000
33
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Effective planets (All fixed)
3.0000
Effective planets
3.7000
Planet Interference OD
4.0164 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0909
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5000
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.7273
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
-225.000 rpm
Carrier
113.839 rpm
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1386.161 rpm
Ring gear
-338.839 rpm
Planet gear
-924.107 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
34
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
824.50 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00120 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
795.57 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00163 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
5000.00 lbf-in
Ring gear
20454.55 lbf-in
Carrier
-25454.55 lbf-in
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
119.00 HP
Ring gear
-73.02 HP
Carrier
-45.98 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
29.7214 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-29.7214 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
1189.57 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
1232.83 lbf
35
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Face width - sun/planet
1.2466 in
K factor - sun/planet
700.00 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
9542.40 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
in
K factor - planet/ring
psi
Unit load - planet/ring
psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
1.045 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
8.9684 in
Planet with ring gear
3.2884 in
Planet with sun gear
3.4080 in
Sun gear
2.2720 in
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
0.55
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.37
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
508.26 Hz
% Factorized
50.0000 %
% Non-factorized
50.0000 %
Torsional variation frequency
2033.04 Hz
36
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
We now have φext at about 24.5 degrees and φint at about 19.4 degrees. The face width
for the sun and planet required to keep the K-factor at 700 is 1.247. Let's even the
face up to 1 1/4 inch. Blank the 700 K-factor and input 1.25 for the face width of both
meshes. (We could use different faces if we wish but, although the compressive stress
is much less at the internal mesh, the unit load is about the same, and we should
probably set the faces about the same.) The data input is shown in Figure 1-6 and
the solved model in Report 1-7.
Fig. 1-6
Report 1-7
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
none
37
Unit
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Prime factors greater than 100
Unit
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
33
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
2.8400 in
Mid-point Center Distance
2.8000 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
24.5066 deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
19.4381 deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
10.000000 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
20.000000 deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
Transverse Pitch
10.0000 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
20.0000 deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.540000 mm `
Transverse Module
2.5400 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle
3.2143 deg
38
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
4
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
c
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
Type of unit
Diff
4
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.7000
Effective planets (All fixed)
3.0000
Effective planets
3.7000
Planet Interference OD
4.0164 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0909
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5000
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.7273
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
-225.000 rpm
Carrier
113.839 rpm
39
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1386.161 rpm
Ring gear
-338.839 rpm
Planet gear
-924.107 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
824.50 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00120 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
795.57 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00163 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
5000.00 lbf-in
Ring gear
20454.55 lbf-in
Carrier
-25454.55 lbf-in
40
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value Unit
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
119.00 HP
Ring gear
-73.02 HP
Carrier
-45.98 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
29.7214 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-29.7214 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
1189.57 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
1232.83 lbf
Face width - sun/planet
1.2500 in
K factor - sun/planet
698.10 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
9516.56 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
1.2500 in
K factor - planet/ring
189.95 psi
Unit load - planet/ring
9862.62 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
1.045 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
8.9684 in
Planet with ring gear
3.2884 in
Planet with sun gear
3.4080 in
Sun gear
2.2720 in
41
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Comment
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
0.55
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.37
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
508.26 Hz
% Factorized
50.0000 %
% Non-factorized
50.0000 %
Torsional variation frequency
2033.04 Hz
You can plot operating pitch diameters: check the “Plot pitch diameters?” checkbox
and solve. Figure 1-7 is the plot.
42
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Fig. 1-7
The “planets” table in the TK Solver model gives the location of the planet bearings.
Open it by selecting it in the Table Sheet or in the drop-down list on the Toolbar.
Table 1-1 is the table.
43
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Table 1-1
This completes the solution and all design data for the geometry of the epicyclic gear
set is solved for in the model. Note that there are no error or caution messages in the
error message block. Of course, this is not the only solution to this design problem.
The model was solved progressively to obtain this solution. With the multipledirectional solving capability of TK you may wish to investigate other solutions.
This model contains a table with which the relationship among speed, torque and
power can be quickly explored. The table uses the geometric data from the model but
is independent of the speed, torque and power data.
To use this table, first check off the “Enable table?” checkbox and press Enter. Put
the same data as before in the table just to compare results. Your screen should look
like Table 1-2.
44
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Table 1-2
Solve and you should have Table 1-3.
Table 1-3
45
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Now let's change the speed and torque in the table. Change your table to match
Table 1-4.
Table 1-4
Solve and you should have Table 1-5.
46
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Table 1-5
Note that with the change of rotation entered we now have both the ring and the
carrier driving and the sun as the driven. With the rotation data we originally used
we had the sun as the driver and both the ring and carrier were driven. The table
makes a note of driver and driven and the algebraic signs of the power for each
element also indicates the direction of power flow.
In many situations it can be helpful to investigate the behavior of the elements of a
differential over a range of operating conditions. For example, suppose that we wish
to use this differential to control the speed of a fan driven by a constant speed electric
motor. We will connect the motor to the sun gear, and the carrier to the fan shaft.
The motor will also drive a variable speed hydraulic pump-motor combination. The
hydraulic unit will also be connected to the ring gear. (This is not meant to imply
that this is a good design for this differential unit and is included to illustrate the TK
Solver setup for this type of work.) The motor will run at a speed of 1500 RPM. The
fan power is known to conform to this equation:
Horsepower = 300(RPM/500)3
The maximum speed for the fan is 500 RPM where the power is 300 HP. In terms of
the variables used in the model this equation would be written:
47
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Pc = -300*(Nc/500)^3
where: Pc
Nc
=
=
the power removed from the carrier
the carrier RPM
To set up the model the first step is to enter the equation on the Rule Sheet. Go to
the bottom of the Rule Sheet and type in the equation (Sheet 1-2).
Sheet 1-2
Next go to the Variable Sheet and enter 'c for “Enable table?” to avoid waiting for the
solution of the table as we proceed. To check the equation we entered on the Rule
Sheet, enter 1500 for sun gear speed (electric motor) and 500 for carrier speed (max
fan speed). Blank the 5000 for the sun gear torque. The solved model is shown in
Report 1-8
48
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Report 1-8
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
none
Prime factors greater than 100
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
90
Planet Gear Teeth
33
Sun Gear Teeth
22
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
2.8400 in
Mid-point Center Distance
2.8000 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
24.5066 deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
19.4381 deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
10.000000 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
20.000000 deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
49
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Transverse Pitch
10.0000 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
20.0000 deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.540000 mm `
Transverse Module
2.5400 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.2143 deg
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
4
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
c
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
Type of unit
Diff
4
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.7000
Effective planets (All fixed)
3.0000
Effective planets
3.7000
Planet Interference OD
4.0164 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
50
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.0909
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5000
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.7273
Unit
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1500.000 rpm
Ring gear
255.556 rpm
Carrier
500.000 rpm
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
1000.000 rpm
Ring gear
-244.444 rpm
Planet gear
-666.667 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
594.81 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00138 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
573.94 ft/min
51
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00187 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q6
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
7427.95 lbf-in
Ring gear
30387.05 lbf-in
Carrier
-37815.00 lbf-in
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
176.79 HP
Ring gear
123.21 HP
Carrier
-300.00 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
31.8533 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-31.8533 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
1767.21 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
1831.47 lbf
1.2500 in
Face width - sun/planet
K factor - sun/planet
1037.10 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
14137.70 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
1.2500 in
K factor - planet/ring
282.19 psi
Unit load - planet/ring
14651.80 psi
52
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
20.166 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
8.9684 in
Planet with ring gear
3.2884 in
Planet with sun gear
3.4080 in
Sun gear
2.2720 in
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
0.55
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.37
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
366.67 Hz
% Factorized
50.0000 %
% Non-factorized
50.0000 %
Torsional variation frequency
1466.67 Hz
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY
Coefficient of Friction
0.0600
Sun/Planet Power Loss
1.18 HP
Ring/Planet Power Loss
0.59 HP
Total Power Loss (Gear Losses Only)
1.77 HP
Approx Efficiency
99.4 %
53
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
The centripetal acceleration on the planets is quite high, at 20 G's. The model warns
you of this:
The planet bearings would have to be capable of running under these conditions.
According to the fan speed/power equation, after solving you should have -300 for the
carrier horsepower.
Let's check the horsepower carried by the hydraulic system as the fan is operated
over a speed range of 0 to 500 RPM. (We could check anything we wish but, for this
example, we will check only the hydraulic power against fan speed.) We will use TK
Solver's list solving ability to obtain the information we want. The fan speed, which
is the same as the carrier speed, varies from 0 to 500 RPM. In the TK Solver
Variable Sheet, place the cursor in the status column for carrier speed, Nc, and type
“L”, or double-click on the cell and pick “List” from the drop-down list that appears..
This will establish Nc as a list. We also need to label the ring gear power, Pr, as a
list. (The ring gear power is the same as the hydraulic power as the hydraulic unit is
connected to the ring gear.) Your screen should be like Sheet 1-3.
54
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Sheet 1-3
Both lists have been established but, of course, neither contains any data. We wish
Nc, the carrier or fan speed, to be an input list. If there is an entry in the input
column then Nc will be an input list. The value on the Variable Sheet will not be
used in list solving (unless it is also in the list) but only instructs TK that Nc is an
input list. The other list, Pr, the hydraulic power, will be an output list, as there is
no entry in the input column.
The next job is to enter the values we desire in the list for Nc. Go to the list subsheet
for Nc. (See the TK Solver documentation if necessary.) Instead of typing in the
RPM values we need, we will use the automatic list fill feature. Select “Add Step”,
enter 0 for the first value, 10 for the step size and 500 for the last value. The list will
fill with values from 0 to 500 by a step of 10. The screen should look like Sheet 1-4.
55
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Sheet 1-4
Return to the variable sheet and list
solve. The values from the list Nc will be
used, one by one, for input. The model
will solve and the solution for Pr will be
placed in the list for Pr. (We could specify
any variables we wish as an output list
but we are, for this example, only building
a list for Pr.)
Now that we have a list of fan speeds, Nc,
and the corresponding hydraulic power,
Pr, we can quickly have a plot of these
values. Go to the plot sheet and label a
plot “hyd_pow”. Select “Line Chart” and
type in the title “Hydraulic Power”. See
Sheet 1-5.
Next, dive into the plot sub-sheet for
“hyd_pow,” using the right mouse button.
Set “Display Zero Axes:” to X-axis, label
the X and Y axes, enter Nc as the “X-Axis
List” and Pr as the “Y-Axis” list, as shown
in Sheet 1-6. Plot (F7 key) and you should
have a screen that looks like Figure 1-8.
Sheet 1-5
56
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Sheet 1-6
57
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Fig. 1-8
We can see from the plot that power circulates through the differential and back
through the hydraulic unit to the motor for fan speeds up to about 290 RPM. At
higher fan speeds, power flows from the motor through the hydraulic unit to the
differential. The maximum power the hydraulic unit must handle is about 120 HP.
58
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
If a table is useful it can be quickly made using the TK Solver Table Sheet. Go to this
sheet and label a table “hyd_pow”. See Sheet 1-7.
Sheet 1-7
Dive into the table subsheet for “hyd_pow,” using the right mouse button, and set up
the table (Sheet 1-8).
Sheet 1-8
The table should look like Sheet 1-9.
59
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Sheet 1-9
Note: The relative power in an epicyclic
differential is often misunderstood. The input
and output torques of any gear unit must
balance. The carrier of an epicyclic
differential is rotating. Therefore, the
meshing velocities of the teeth are different
than in a non-epicyclic gear. The power
carried by the teeth is a product of load and
linear velocity. Since the linear velocity is
different than rotation speed multiplied by
pitch radius, the relative power is different
than the shaft transmitted power. The
relative power should be used in load
calculations and, of course, the relative speed
must then also be used.
60
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Example 2
This example is a planetary gear (ring fixed) with a ratio of 5.1 to 1. The ring gear
has 82 teeth and the sun gear has 20 teeth. The planet gear has 30 teeth instead of
the “standard” 31 teeth in order to bring the operating pressure angle of the external
mesh up to about 20 degrees. This is done to increase the beam strength of the
external mesh. The operating center distance has been set to “standard” for the
internal mesh. (This is not a requirement but this brings the external operating
pressure angle to about what we want.)
The maximum K-factor
Fig. 2-1B
allowed is 320 psi. However,
with three planets the Kfactor is about 390 psi which
is too high. The sun gear
aspect ratio is a little over
one and we do not wish to
increase it to reduce the Kfactor. Figures 2-1A and 21B show the data inputs in the wizard form; Report 2-1 shows the solved model.
61
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Fig. 2-1A
62
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Report 2-1
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
none
Prime factors greater than 100
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
82
Planet Gear Teeth
30
Sun Gear Teeth
20
Plot pitch diameters?
n
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
Operating Center Distance
2.6000 in
Mid-point Center Distance
2.5500 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
25.3712 deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
20.0000 deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
10.000000 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
20.000000 deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
63
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Transverse Pitch
10.0000 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
20.0000 deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.540000 mm `
Transverse Module
2.5400 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.5294 deg
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
3
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
e
Type of unit
Planetary
3
Number of planets
ck#
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.0000
Effective planets (All fixed)
2.4400
Effective planets
3.0000
Planet Interference OD
4.5033 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.1000
64
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5000
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.7333
Unit
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1200.000 rpm
Ring gear
0.000 rpm
Carrier
235.294 rpm
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
964.706 rpm
Ring gear
-235.294 rpm
Planet gear
-643.137 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
525.32 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00146 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
505.12 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00198 in
65
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q6
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
3413.85 lbf-in
Ring gear
13996.80 lbf-in
Carrier
-17410.66 lbf-in
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
65.00 HP
Ring gear
0.00 HP
Carrier
-65.00 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
17.4183 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-17.4183 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
1094.18 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
1137.95 lbf
Face width - sun/planet
2.2500 in
K factor - sun/planet
389.67 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
4863.04 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Face width - planet/ring
2.2500 in
K factor - planet/ring
106.91 psi
Unit load - planet/ring
5057.56 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
66
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Centripetal acceleration on planet
Unit
4.089 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
8.2000 in
Planet with ring gear
3.0000 in
Planet with sun gear
3.1200 in
Sun gear
2.0800 in
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
1.08
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.72
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
321.57 Hz
% Factorized
0.0000 %
% Non-factorized
100.0000 %
Torsional variation frequency
964.71 Hz
Figure 2-2 is a plot of the operating pitch diameters.
67
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Fig 2-2
68
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
A possible solution to the load problem is to go to 4 planets instead of 3. The sum of
the teeth in the ring and sun is 102, which is divisible by 3 but not by 4. Therefore, 4
planets cannot be assembled with equal spacing. However, 102 is divisible by 2, so
we may be able to use 2 sets of 2 planets spaced 180 at degrees. Since at least one
element is floating we must make sure that the loads on the sun and ring are
balanced. We will change to 4 planets and solve the model. After solving we note
that the effective number of planets with at least one member floating is 3.7. Enter
3.7 for the effective number of planets and solve again. This solution is shown in
Report 2-2.
Report 2-2
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
MESSAGE FIELD
ERROR MESSAGE, internal mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, external mesh
none
ERROR MESSAGE, mesh - general
Chk Spc
Prime factors greater than 100
none
NUMBER OF TEETH
Ring Gear Teeth
82
Planet Gear Teeth
30
Sun Gear Teeth
20
y
Plot pitch diameters?
CENTER DISTANCE & PRESSURE ANGLES
2.6000 in
Operating Center Distance
69
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Mid-point Center Distance
Unit
2.5500 in
Opr Press Angle - Sun/Planet Mesh
25.3712 deg
Opr Press Angle - Ring/Planet Mesh
20.0000 deg
NOMINAL PITCH & PRESSURE ANGLE
Normal Pitch
10.000000 1/in `
Normal Pressure Angle
20.000000 deg
0.000000 deg
Helix Angle
Transverse Pitch
10.0000 1/in `
Transverse Press Angle
20.0000 deg
Axial Pitch
in
Normal Module
2.540000 mm `
Transverse Module
2.5400 mm `
PLANET SPACING
Least mesh angle (Planets must be
3.5294 deg
NUMBER OF EQUALLY SPACED PLANETS
(These are the 1st 4, up to 50, that
2
will assemble without interference -
3
planets will assemble equally if
#
(ring+sun)/planets=integer)
#
OPERATION AS GEAR UNIT OR DIFFERENTIAL
Enable table? 'e=enable 'c=clear
e
Type of unit
Planetary
4
Number of planets
70
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
ck#
Unit
Chk Spc
Effective planets (1 member floating)
3.7000
Effective planets (All fixed)
3.0000
Effective planets
3.7000
Planet Interference OD
3.6199 in
Radial Loads On Sun & Ring Balanced?
Yes
Ring/Sun gear ratio
4.1000
Planet/Sun Ratio
1.5000
Ring/Planet Ratio
2.7333
ROTATION SPEED
Sun gear
1200.000 rpm
Ring gear
0.000 rpm
Carrier
235.294 rpm
ROTATION SPEED RELATIVE TO CARRIER
Sun gear
964.706 rpm
Ring gear
-235.294 rpm
Planet gear
-643.137 rpm
Carrier
0.000 rpm
DRIVER/DRIVEN
Sun gear
Driver
Ring gear
Driven
Carrier
Driven
71
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
SUN/PLANET
Sun/Planet
525.32 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00146 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q7
RING/PLANET
Ring/Planet
505.12 ft/min
Max Recommended Spacing Tolerance
0.00198 in
Min Recommended AGMA Quality Class
Q6
TORQUES ON ELEMENTS (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
3413.85 lbf-in
Ring gear
13996.80 lbf-in
Carrier
-17410.66 lbf-in
POWER (+ IN, - OUT) (NO LOSSES)
Sun gear
65.00 HP
Ring gear
0.00 HP
Carrier
-65.00 HP
PER PLANET GEAR
Relative power at sun mesh-no loss
14.1229 HP
Relative power at ring mesh-no loss
-14.1229 HP
Tooth tangential load at sun
887.18 lbf
Tooth tangential load at ring
922.66 lbf
72
Comment
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Model Title :
Program 60-1163
Unit System:
US
Description
Value
Unit
Face width - sun/planet
2.2500 in
K factor - sun/planet
315.95 psi
Unit load - sun/planet
3943.01 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
2.2500 in
Face width - planet/ring
K factor - planet/ring
86.68 psi
Unit load - planet/ring
4100.73 psi
Helical (axial) contact ratio
Centripetal acceleration on planet
4.089 G's
OPERATING PITCH DIAMETERS
Ring gear
8.2000 in
Planet with ring gear
3.0000 in
Planet with sun gear
3.1200 in
Sun gear
2.0800 in
ASPECT RATIOS
Sun - Face/PD
1.08
Planet - Face/PD (Sun/Planet Mesh)
0.72
VIBRATION
Fundamental meshing frequency
321.57 Hz
% Factorized
%
% Non-factorized
%
Torsional variation frequency
Hz
73
Comment
UTS Integrated Gear Software
This brings the K-factor for the sun and planet mesh down to about 316 psi, which is
less than the maximum of 320 psi. The loads on the sun and ring are balanced with
this arrangement. The TK Solver table “planets” will give us the proper location for
the planets to make assembly possible and insure that the sun and ring loads are
balanced. See Sheet 2.
Sheet 2
Figure 2-3 is a plot of the operating pitch diameters. Note that the planets are in
pairs 180 degrees apart but the pairs are not at 90 degrees.
74
60-1163—Simple Epicyclic Differential Design
Fig 2-3
75
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