IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual - CTI Software
IMAQ
™
IMAQ PCI/PXI™ -1407 User Manual
High-Quality Monochrome Image Acquisition Boards
for PCI, PXI, and CompactPCI Bus
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
December 1998 Edition
Part Number 322156A-01
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© Copyright 1998 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved.
Important Information
Warranty
The IMAQ PCI-1407 and PXI-1407 are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship for a period of one
year from the date of shipment, as evidenced by receipts or other documentation. National Instruments will, at its
option, repair or replace equipment that proves to be defective during the warranty period. This warranty includes parts
and labor.
The media on which you receive National Instruments software are warranted not to fail to execute programming
instructions, due to defects in materials and workmanship, for a period of 90 days from date of shipment, as evidenced
by receipts or other documentation. National Instruments will, at its option, repair or replace software media that do not
execute programming instructions if National Instruments receives notice of such defects during the warranty period.
National Instruments does not warrant that the operation of the software shall be uninterrupted or error free.
A Return Material Authorization (RMA) number must be obtained from the factory and clearly marked on the outside
of the package before any equipment will be accepted for warranty work. National Instruments will pay the shipping costs
of returning to the owner parts which are covered by warranty.
National Instruments believes that the information in this manual is accurate. The document has been carefully reviewed
for technical accuracy. In the event that technical or typographical errors exist, National Instruments reserves the right to
make changes to subsequent editions of this document without prior notice to holders of this edition. The reader should
consult National Instruments if errors are suspected. In no event shall National Instruments be liable for any damages
arising out of or related to this document or the information contained in it.
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trademarks of National Instruments Corporation.
Product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
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user or application designer. Any use or application of National Instruments products for or involving medical or clinical
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Compliance
FCC/DOC Radio Frequency Interference
Class A Compliance
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in strict accordance
with the instructions in this manual, may cause interference to radio and television reception. Classification
requirements are the same for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Canadian
Department of Communications (DOC). This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the
following two regulatory agencies:
Federal Communications Commission
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant
to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction
manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a
residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the
interference at his own expense.
Notices to User:
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by National Instruments could void
the user’s authority to operate the equipment under the FCC Rules.
This device complies with the FCC rules only if used with shielded interface cables
of suitable quality and construction. National Instruments used such cables to test
this device and provides them for sale to the user. The use of inferior or nonshielded
interface cables could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment under the
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If necessary, consult National Instruments or an experienced radio/television technician for additional
suggestions. The following booklet prepared by the FCC may also be helpful: Interference to Home
Electronic Entertainment Equipment Handbook. This booklet is available from the U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
Canadian Department of Communications
This Class A digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment
Regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur
du Canada.
Contents
About This Manual
Organization of This Manual .........................................................................................vii
Conventions Used in This Manual.................................................................................viii
National Instruments Documentation ............................................................................viii
Related Documentation..................................................................................................ix
Customer Communication .............................................................................................ix
Chapter 1
Introduction
About Your PCI/PXI-1407 ............................................................................................1-1
Using PXI with CompactPCI.........................................................................................1-2
What You Need to Get Started ......................................................................................1-2
Software Programming Choices ....................................................................................1-3
National Instruments Application Software ....................................................1-3
NI-IMAQ Driver Software ..............................................................................1-4
Optional Equipment .......................................................................................................1-6
Unpacking ......................................................................................................................1-6
How to Set up Your IMAQ System...............................................................................1-6
Chapter 2
Installation
Installation .....................................................................................................................2-1
Chapter 3
Hardware Overview
Functional Overview......................................................................................................3-1
Video Buffer....................................................................................................3-2
Gain and Offset Circuitry ................................................................................3-2
8-Bit ADC and LUT........................................................................................3-2
CSYNC Mux ...................................................................................................3-3
Genlock SYNC Generator...............................................................................3-3
Pixel Aspect Ratio Circuitry............................................................................3-3
Acquisition and Region-of-Interest Control....................................................3-3
FIFO Buffer .....................................................................................................3-3
Scatter-Gather DMA Controllers ....................................................................3-3
PCI Interface....................................................................................................3-4
Trigger Control................................................................................................3-4
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Contents
Video Acquisition.......................................................................................................... 3-4
Start Conditions............................................................................................... 3-4
Acquisition Window Control .......................................................................... 3-5
Programming Video Parameters ..................................................................... 3-6
Acquisition Modes......................................................................................................... 3-7
Chapter 4
Signal Connections
BNC Connectors............................................................................................................ 4-1
I/O Connector Signal Connection Descriptions.............................................. 4-2
Appendix A
Specifications
Appendix B
Customer Communication
Glossary
Index
Figures
Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-2.
The Relationship between the Programming Environment,
NI-IMAQ, and Your Hardware............................................................. 1-5
How to Set up Your IMAQ System ...................................................... 1-7
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-3.
PCI/PXI-1407 Block Diagram .............................................................. 3-2
Positive Video Line............................................................................... 3-5
Video Field............................................................................................ 3-6
Figure 4-1.
PCI/PXI-1407 BNC I/O Connectors..................................................... 4-1
Tables
Table 4-1.
I/O Connector Signals .......................................................................... 4-2
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
vi
© National Instruments Corporation
About This Manual
The IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual describes the features, functions,
and operation of the IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407.
The PCI-1407 and PXI-1407 devices are high-accuracy, monochrome
image acquisition (IMAQ) boards for PCI, PXI, and CompactPCI chassis
that support RS-170 and CCIR video standards. The IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407
User Manual is intended for users with a basic knowledge of image
acquisition.
Organization of This Manual
The IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual is organized as follows:
•
Chapter 1, Introduction, describes the IMAQ PCI-1407 and PXI-1407
devices; lists what you need to get started; describes software
programming choices, optional equipment, and custom cables;
and explains how to unpack and set up your PCI/PXI-1407.
•
Chapter 2, Installation, explains how to install your PCI/PXI-1407.
•
Chapter 3, Hardware Overview, presents an overview of the hardware
functions on your PCI/PXI-1407 and explains the operation of each
functional unit making up the PCI/PXI-1407.
•
Chapter 4, Signal Connections, describes cable connections for the
PCI/PXI-1407.
•
Appendix A, Specifications, lists the specifications of the PCI-1407
and PXI-1407.
•
Appendix B, Customer Communication, contains forms you can use to
request help from National Instruments or to comment on our products
and manuals.
•
The Glossary contains an alphabetical list and description of terms
used in this manual, including abbreviations, acronyms, metric
prefixes, mnemonics, and symbols.
•
The Index contains an alphabetical list of key terms and topics in this
manual, including the page where you can find each one.
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
About This Manual
Conventions Used in This Manual
The following conventions are used in this manual:
This icon to the left of bold italicized text denotes a note, which alerts you
to important information.
This icon to the left of bold italicized text denotes a warning, which advises
you of precautions to take to avoid being electrically shocked.
italic
Italic text denotes emphasis, a cross reference, or an introduction to a key
concept. This font also denotes text for which you supply the appropriate
word or value, such as in Windows 3.x.
bold italic
Bold italic text denotes a note, caution, or warning.
National Instruments Documentation
The IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual is one piece of the documentation
set for your image acquisition system. You could have any of several types
of manuals, depending on the hardware and software in your system. Use
the different types of manuals you have as follows:
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
•
Software documentation—You may have both application software
and NI-IMAQ software documentation. National Instruments
application software includes LabVIEW and LabWindows/CVI. After
you set up your hardware system, use either the application software
(LabVIEW or LabWindows/CVI) documentation, or the NI-IMAQ
documentation to help you write your application. If you have a large
and complicated system, it is worthwhile to look through the software
documentation before you configure your hardware.
•
Accessory installation guides or manuals—If you are using accessory
products, read the terminal block and cable assembly installation
guides or accessory board user manuals. They explain how to
physically connect the relevant pieces of the system. Consult these
guides when you are making your connections.
viii
© National Instruments Corporation
About This Manual
Related Documentation
The following documents contain information that you may find helpful as
you read this manual:
•
Your computer technical reference manual
•
PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.1
Customer Communication
National Instruments wants to receive your comments on our products
and manuals. We are interested in the applications you develop with
our products, and we want to help if you have problems with them.
To make it easy for you to contact us, this manual contains comment
and configuration forms for you to complete. These forms are in
Appendix B, Customer Communication, at the end of this manual.
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
1
Introduction
This chapter describes the IMAQ PCI-1407 and PXI-1407 devices; lists
what you need to get started; describes software programming choices,
optional equipment, and custom cables; and explains how to unpack and set
up your PCI/PXI-1407.
About Your PCI/PXI-1407
The PCI-1407 and PXI-1407 are high-accuracy, monochrome IMAQ
boards for PCI, PXI, or CompactPCI chassis that support RS-170 and
CCIR video standards. The boards feature an 8-bit flash analog-to-digital
converter (ADC) that converts video signals into digital form. The
PCI/PXI-1407 acquires frames in real time and transfers them directly to
system memory.
The PCI/PXI-1407 is simple to configure so that you can easily install the
board and begin your image acquisition. The PCI/PXI-1407 ships with
NI-IMAQ, the National Instruments complete image acquisition driver
software you can use to directly control your board. Using NI-IMAQ, you
can quickly and easily start your application without having to program the
board at the register level.
Featuring low cost and high accuracy, the PCI/PXI-1407 is ideal for both
industrial and scientific environments. As a standalone board, the
PCI/PXI-1407 supports one video source and an external I/O line that you
can use as a trigger or digital I/O line. If you require more advanced
triggering or additional I/O lines (either digital or analog), you can use the
PCI/PXI-1407 and NI-IMAQ with the National Instruments data
acquisition (DAQ) product line.
Detailed specifications of the PCI/PXI-1407 are in Appendix A,
Specifications.
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Chapter 1
Introduction
Using PXI with CompactPCI
Using PXI-compatible products with standard CompactPCI products is an
important feature provided by the PXI Specification, Revision 1.0. If you
use a PXI-compatible plug-in device in a standard CompactPCI chassis,
you will be unable to use PXI-specific functions, but you can still use the
basic plug-in device functions.
The CompactPCI specification permits vendors to develop sub-buses that
coexist with the basic PCI interface on the CompactPCI bus. Compatible
operation is not guaranteed between CompactPCI devices with different
sub-buses nor between CompactPCI devices with sub-buses and PXI. The
standard implementation for CompactPCI does not include these
sub-buses. Your PXI-1407 device will work in any standard CompactPCI
chassis adhering to the PICMG 2.0 R2.1 CompactPCI core specification.
What You Need to Get Started
To set up and use your PCI/PXI-1407, you will need the following:
❑ One of the following 1407 devices:
–
PCI-1407
–
PXI-1407
❑ Set up and Test the PCI/PXI-1407
❑ NI-IMAQ for Windows 95/98/NT Release Notes
❑ IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
❑ NI-IMAQ for Windows 95/98/NT and online documentation
❑ Optional software packages and documentation:
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
–
LabVIEW
–
BridgeVIEW
–
LabWindows/CVI
–
IMAQ Vision for G
–
IMAQ Vision for LabWindows/CVI
–
ComponentWorks IMAQ Vision
1-2
© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 1
Introduction
❑ IMAQ BNC-1 shielded, 75 Ω BNC cable for VIDEO (included with
your PCI-1407)
❑ Your Pentium-based PCI, PXI, or CompactPCI computer running
Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows NT
❑ A video camera or other video source
Note
The IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 relies on your computer’s PCI interface chipset for the
highest throughput to system memory. For the best results, your computer should
have a Pentium or better processor and an Intel 430 or 440 series, or compatible
PCI interface chipset.
Software Programming Choices
You have several options to choose from when programming your
National Instruments IMAQ hardware. You can use National Instruments
application software such as LabVIEW, BridgeVIEW, and
LabWindows/CVI; National Instruments image analysis software such
as IMAQ Vision; the ComponentWorks IMAQ Vision collection of
ActiveX controls; or the NI-IMAQ driver software.
National Instruments Application Software
LabVIEW and BridgeVIEW feature interactive graphics, a state-of-the-art
user interface, and a powerful graphical programming language, G. The
NI-IMAQ VI Library for G, a series of virtual instruments (VIs) for using
LabVIEW and BridgeVIEW with the PCI/PXI-1407, is included with the
NI-IMAQ software kit. The NI-IMAQ VI Library for G is functionally
equivalent to the NI-IMAQ software.
LabWindows/CVI features interactive graphics, a state-of-the-art user
interface, and uses the ANSI standard C programming language. The
LabWindows/CVI IMAQ Library, a series of functions for using
LabWindows/CVI with the PCI/PXI-1407, is included with the NI-IMAQ
software kit. The LabWindows/CVI IMAQ Library is functionally
equivalent to the NI-IMAQ software.
IMAQ Vision for G is an image acquisition, processing, and analysis
library that consists of more than 400 VIs for using the PCI/PXI-1407 with
LabVIEW and BridgeVIEW. You can use IMAQ Vision for G functions
directly or in combination for unique image processing. There are two
versions of IMAQ Vision for G. The Base version gives you the ability to
acquire, display, manipulate, and store images. The Advanced version is a
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Chapter 1
Introduction
complete set of functions for image analysis, processing, and interpretation.
Using IMAQ Vision for G, an imaging novice or expert can perform
graphical programming of the most basic or complicated image
applications without knowledge of any algorithm implementations.
IMAQ Vision for LabWindows/CVI is an image acquisition and analysis
library consisting of a series of routines for using the PCI/PXI-1407 with
LabWindows/CVI. IMAQ Vision for LabWindows/CVI brings the same
functionality to LabWindows/CVI as IMAQ Vision for G does for
LabVIEW and BridgeVIEW.
ComponentWorks IMAQ Vision is an image acquisition, processing, and
analysis library for use in Visual Basic, Visual C++, Borland Delphi, and
Microsoft Internet Explorer. ComponentWorks IMAQ Vision brings the
same functionality to ComponentWorks as IMAQ Vision for G does for
LabVIEW and BridgeVIEW. The ComponentWorks IMAQ hardware
interface control, an ActiveX control for controlling the PCI/PXI-1407, is
included with the NI-IMAQ software kit. The ComponentWorks IMAQ
hardware interface control is functionally equivalent to the NI-IMAQ
software.
NI-IMAQ Driver Software
The NI-IMAQ driver software is included at no charge with the
PCI/PXI-1407. NI-IMAQ has an extensive library of functions that you can
call from your application programming environment. These functions
include routines for video configuration, image acquisition (continuous and
single-shot), memory buffer allocation, trigger control, and board
configuration. The NI-IMAQ driver software performs all functions
required for acquiring and saving images. The NI-IMAQ software does not
perform any image analysis. For image analysis functionality, refer to the
National Instruments Application Software section earlier in this chapter.
NI-IMAQ has both high-level and low-level functions for maximum
flexibility and performance. Examples of high-level functions include the
functions to acquire images in single-shot or continuous mode. An example
of a low-level function is configuring an image sequence since it requires
advanced understanding of the PCI/PXI-1407 and image acquisition.
NI-IMAQ also internally resolves many of the complex issues between
the computer and the PCI/PXI-1407, such as programming interrupts and
DMA controllers. NI-IMAQ is the interface path between LabVIEW,
BridgeVIEW, LabWindows/CVI, or a conventional programming
environment and the PCI/PXI-1407.
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 1
Introduction
Any platform that supports NI-IMAQ also supports NI-DAQ and a variety
of National Instruments DAQ boards, so your PCI/PXI-1407 and NI-IMAQ
development can integrate with National Instruments DAQ products.
Whether you are using conventional programming languages or National
Instruments software, your application uses the NI-IMAQ driver software,
as illustrated in Figure 1-1.
LabVIEW or BridgeVIEW
(Windows 95, 98, NT)
LabWindows/CVI
(Windows 95, 98, NT)
NI-IMAQ
Driver Software
Conventional Programming
Environment
Operating
System
Personal
Computer or
Workstation
IMAQ Hardware
DAQ Hardware
Figure 1-1. The Relationship between the Programming Environment,
NI-IMAQ, and Your Hardware
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Chapter 1
Introduction
Optional Equipment
National Instruments offers a variety of products for use with your
PCI/PXI-1407, including other National Instruments DAQ devices for
enhanced triggering, timing, or input/output.
For more specific information about these products, refer to your National
Instruments catalogue or web site, or call the office nearest you.
Unpacking
Your PCI/PXI-1407 is shipped in an antistatic package to prevent
electrostatic damage to the board. Electrostatic discharge can damage
several components on the board. To avoid such damage in handling the
board, take the following precautions:
•
Ground yourself via a grounding strap or by holding a grounded object.
•
Touch the antistatic package to a metal part of your computer chassis
before removing the board from the package.
•
Remove the board from the package and inspect the board for loose
components or any other signs of damage. Notify National Instruments
if the board appears damaged in any way. Do not install a damaged
board in your computer.
•
Never touch the exposed pins of connectors.
How to Set up Your IMAQ System
Use Figure 1-2 to install your software and hardware, configure your
hardware, and begin using NI-IMAQ in your application programs.
Follow the instructions in the Set up and Test the PCI/PXI-1407 document
to install your NI-IMAQ software and IMAQ hardware.
If you will be accessing the NI-IMAQ device drivers through LabVIEW or
BridgeVIEW, you should read the NI-IMAQ release notes and the
NI-IMAQ VI Reference Manual to help you get started.
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 1
Introduction
Read the Set up and Test the PCI/PXI-1407
document and the NI-IMAQ release notes to install
your NI-IMAQ software, IMAQ hardware,
and documentation.
Configure your hardware using the
IMAQ Configuration Utility and online help.
LabWindows/CVI
Third-Party Compilers
What
application software
are you using?
LabVIEW
BridgeVIEW
ComponentWorks
Read Chapter 1, Introduction
to NI-IMAQ, in the
NI-IMAQ User Manual.
Read the sections in
Chapters 2 and 3 in the NI-IMAQ
User Manual that apply to the
function groups you
will use in your application.
Read Getting Results with
ComponentWorks IMAQ Vision
for information on using
ComponentWorks in your
application environment.
Use the ComponentWorks
IMAQ Vision documentation
when you need specific
information about individual
NI-IMAQ functions.
Read:
• NI-IMAQ VI Reference
Manual, if you are using
LabVIEW or BridgeVIEW
• Your IMAQ Vision for G
documentation if you are
using IMAQ Vision for G
You no longer need the online
NI-IMAQ documentation.
Look at the self-documented
example source code on your
distribution CD for your
application language
and environment.
Use the NI-IMAQ Function
Reference Manual when you
need specific information about
individual NI-IMAQ functions.
If you are using IMAQ Vision for
LabWindows/CVI, read the
documentation for IMAQ Vision
for LabWindows/CVI.
Figure 1-2. How to Set up Your IMAQ System
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
2
Installation
This chapter explains how to install your PCI/PXI-1407.
Installation
Note
You must install the NI-IMAQ driver software before installing your
PCI/PXI-1407. For information on how to install NI-IMAQ, please see the Set up
and Test the PCI/PXI-1407 document and your NI-IMAQ release notes.
♦
PCI-1407
You can install the PCI-1407 in any available PCI expansion slot in your
computer. However, to achieve the best noise performance, you should
leave as much room as possible between the PCI-1407 and other boards and
hardware. The following are general instructions, but consult your
computer user manual or technical reference manual for specific
instructions and warnings.
1.
Warning
Plug in but do not turn on your computer before installing the
PCI-1407. The power cord grounds the computer and protects it from
electrical damage while you are installing the module.
To protect both yourself and the computer from electrical hazards, the computer
should remain off until you finish installing the PCI-1407.
2.
Remove the top cover or access port to the PCI bus.
3.
Select any available PCI expansion slot.
4.
Locate the metal bracket that covers the cut-out in the back panel of the
chassis for the slot you have selected. Remove and save the
bracket-retaining screw and the bracket cover.
5.
Touch the metal part of the power supply case inside the computer to
discharge any static electricity that might be on your clothes or body.
6.
Line up the PCI-1407 with the BNC connectors near the cut-out on the
back panel. Slowly push down on the top of the PCI-1407 until its
card-edge connector is resting on the expansion slot receptacle. Using
slow, evenly distributed pressure, press the PCI-1407 straight down
until it seats in the expansion slot.
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Chapter 2
Installation
7.
Reinstall the bracket-retaining screw to secure the PCI-1407 to the
back panel rail.
8.
Check the installation.
9.
Replace the computer cover.
Your PCI-1407 is now installed.
♦
PXI-1407
You can install a PXI-1407 in any available 5 V peripheral slot in your
PXI or CompactPCI chassis.
1.
Turn off and unplug your PXI or CompactPCI chassis.
2.
Choose an unused PXI or CompactPCI 5 V peripheral slot. Install the
PXI-1407 in a slot that supports bus arbitration or bus-master cards.
PXI-compliant chassis must have bus arbitration for all slots.
3.
Remove the filler panel for the peripheral slot you have chosen.
4.
Touch a metal part on your chassis to discharge any static electricity
that might be on your clothes or body.
5.
Insert the PXI-1407 in the selected 5 V slot. Use the injector/ejector
handle to fully inject the device into place.
6.
Screw the front panel of the PXI-1407 to the front panel mounting rails
of the PXI or CompactPCI chassis.
7.
Visually verify the installation.
8.
Plug in and turn on the PXI or CompactPCI chassis.
Your PXI-1407 is now installed.
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
3
Hardware Overview
This chapter presents an overview of the hardware functions on your
PCI/PXI-1407 and explains the operation of each functional unit making up
the PCI/PXI-1407.
Functional Overview
The PCI/PXI 1407 features an 8-bit flash ADC that converts analog video
signals into digital form. The board has both gain and offset circuitry to
optimize the input signal range of the ADC. It also features a PCI interface
for high-speed data transfer. The scatter-gather DMA controllers transfer
the digitized image data from a set of first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory
buffers to the computer’s system memory via the PCI bus. The board also
includes a trigger for controlling the image acquisition.
The block diagram in Figure 3-1 illustrates the key functional components
of the PCI-1407 and PXI-1407.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 3
Hardware Overview
Trigger
Control
Trigger
BNC
HSYNC and
VSYNC
CSYNC
Mux
Genlock SYNC
PCLK
Generator
CSYNC
PCI Bus
BNC
.
Acquisition and
Region-of-Interest
Control
BNC
Pixel
Aspect Ratio
Correction
Video
Buffer
Gain and
Offset
8-bit A/D
and LUT
Video
FIFO
PCI Interface
and
Scatter-Gather
DMA Controllers
Figure 3-1. PCI/PXI-1407 Block Diagram
Video Buffer
The video buffer provides a 75 Ω termination for the incoming video signal
and drives the onboard electronics.
Gain and Offset Circuitry
The PCI/PXI-1407 uses programmable gain and offset circuitry to optimize
the input signal range.
8-Bit ADC and LUT
An 8-bit flash ADC digitizes the image, which is passed to a 256-by-8 bit
lookup table (LUT) RAM. You can configure the input LUT to implement
simple imaging operations such as contrast enhancement, data inversion,
gamma manipulation, or other nonlinear transfer functions.
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Hardware Overview
CSYNC Mux
This multiplexer routes either the video signal or an external CSYNC
signal to the genlock circuit. If this circuit routes the video signal to the
genlock circuit, then the internally generated CSYNC can be routed to the
BNC as an output signal.
Genlock SYNC Generator
This circuit generates the necessary clock and synchronization signals to
digitize the incoming video signal correctly. The genlock circuit can
produce pixel clock frequencies between 11.66 MHz and 15.78 MHz,
which accommodate RS-170 and CCIR-601 video standards.
Pixel Aspect Ratio Circuitry
The pixel aspect ratio is the ratio between the horizontal size to the vertical
size of the pixel. Use this value to adjust or correct the picture aspect ratio.
For more information, see the Acquisition Window Control section later in
this chapter.
Acquisition and Region-of-Interest Control
The acquisition and region-of-interest control circuitry monitors the
incoming video signal and routes the active pixels to the FIFO buffers. The
PCI/PXI-1407 can digitize an entire frame and perform pixel and line
scaling and region-of-interest acquisition. Pixel and line scaling lets certain
multiples (2, 4, or 8) of pixels and lines to be transferred to the PCI bus. In
region-of-interest acquisition, you select an area in the acquisition window
to transfer to the PCI bus.
FIFO Buffer
The PCI/PXI-1407 uses a 4 KB FIFO buffer for temporary storage of the
image being transferred to the PCI system memory or display memory.
The buffer stores six full video lines during image acquisition.
Scatter-Gather DMA Controllers
The PCI/PXI-1407 uses three independent onboard direct memory access
(DMA) controllers. The DMA controllers transfer data between the
onboard first-in first-out (FIFO) memory buffers and the PCI bus. Each of
these controllers supports scatter-gather DMA, which allows the DMA
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Hardware Overview
controller to reconfigure on-the-fly. Thus, the PCI/PXI-1407 can perform
continuous image transfers to either contiguous or fragmented memory
buffers.
PCI Interface
The PCI/PXI-1407 implements the PCI interface with a National
Instruments custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the PCI
MITE. The PCI interface can transfer data at a maximum rate of 132
Mbytes/s in master mode, which maximizes the available PCI bandwidth.
The PCI/PXI-1407 can generate 8-, 16-, and 32-bit memory read and write
cycles, both single and multiple. In slave mode, the PCI/PXI-1407 is a
medium speed decoder that accepts both memory and configuration cycles.
The interface logic ensures that the PCI/PXI-1407 meets the loading,
driving, and timing requirements of the PCI specification.
Trigger Control
This circuit controls the direction and functionality of the external trigger
line. The trigger can start an image acquisition when used as an input
signal. As an output signal, the control circuit can drive the line asserted or
unasserted to trigger an external event. Also, it can connect internal signals
such as HSYNC and VSYNC to the trigger line.
Video Acquisition
The PCI/PXI-1407 can acquire video signals in a variety of modes and
transfer the digitized fields or frames to PCI system memory.
Start Conditions
The PCI/PXI-1407 can start acquisition on a variety of conditions:
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
•
Software control—The PCI/PXI-1407 supports software control of
acquisition start and stop. In addition, you can configure the
PCI/PXI-1407 to capture a fixed number of frames. Use this
configuration to capture single frames or a sequence of frames.
•
Trigger control—You can also start an acquisition by using the
external trigger line, which can start video acquisition on a rising or
falling edge.
•
Delayed acquisition—You can use either software or the trigger to start
and stop acquisitions instantaneously or after capturing a desired
number of frames or fields. Use this feature for trigger applications.
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•
Hardware Overview
Frame/field selection—With an interlaced camera and the
PCI/PXI-1407 in frame mode, you can program the PCI/PXI-1407
to start acquisition on any odd field or any even field.
Acquisition Window Control
You can configure numerous parameters on the PCI/PXI-1407 to control
the video acquisition window. A brief description of each parameter
follows:
•
Active pixel region—The active pixel region is the region of pixels
actively being stored. The active pixel region is defined by a pixel start
(relative to HSYNC) and a pixel count.
•
Horizontal count—The horizontal count is the total number of pixels
between two HSYNC signals. The horizontal count determines the
frequency of the pixel clock.
•
Active line region—The active line region is the region of lines
actively being stored. The active line region is defined by a line start
(relative to VSYNC) and a line count.
•
Line count—The line count is the total number of horizontal lines in
the picture.
•
Video line—A video line consists of an HSYNC, back porch, active
pixel region, and a front porch. The 1407 device requires a positive
video signal, as shown in Figure 3-2.
Front Porch
Back Porch
Horizontal Sync
Pixel Region
Figure 3-2. Positive Video Line
•
Picture aspect ratio—The picture aspect ratio is the ratio of the active
pixel region to the active line region. For standard video signals like
RS-170 or CCIR, the full-size picture aspect ratio normally is
4/3 (1.33).
•
Pixel aspect ratio—The pixel aspect ratio is the ratio between the
physical horizontal size and the vertical size of the region covered by
the pixel. An acquired pixel should optimally be square, thus the
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Hardware Overview
optimal value is 1.0, but typically it falls between 0.95 and 1.05,
depending on camera quality.
•
Field—For an interlaced video signal, a field is half the number of
horizontal lines needed to represent a frame, as shown in Figure 3-3.
The first field of a frame contains all the odd-numbered lines. The
second field contains all of the even-numbered lines.
Vertical Sync
Horizontal
Sync
Video
Line
Line Region
Figure 3-3. Video Field
•
Frame—A frame is a complete image. In interlaced formats, a frame is
composed of two fields.
Programming Video Parameters
You can program all of these video parameters on the PCI/PXI-1407:
•
Programmable pixel and line count—The PCI/PXI-1407 uses an
advanced genlock circuit to generate an internal PCLK. This circuit
generates a PCLK frequency from 11.7 to 15.8 MHz, depending on the
total number of pixels per line. The standard sampling rate for RS-170
video signals is 12.27 MHz, and the standard sampling rate for CCIR
is 14.75 MHz.
The PCI/PXI-1407 also includes a programmable line count, which
you use to switch between RS-170 (525 lines) and CCIR (625 lines).
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
•
Acquisition window—After setting the pixel and line count, you must
program the active pixel region and active line region. The active pixel
region selects the starting pixel and number of pixels to be acquired
relative to the HSYNC signal. The active line region selects the starting
line and number of lines to be acquired relative to the VSYNC signal.
•
Region of interest—The PCI/PXI-1407 uses a second level of active
pixel and active line regions for selecting a region of interest. When
you disable the region-of-interest circuitry, the board stores the entire
acquisition window in system memory. However, when you enable the
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 3
Hardware Overview
region-of-interest circuitry, the board transfers only a selected subset
of the digitized frame to system memory.
•
Scaling down—The PCI/PXI-1407 can scale down a frame by
reducing pixels, lines, or both. For active pixel selection, the
PCI/PXI-1407 can select every pixel, every other pixel, every fourth
pixel, or every eighth pixel. For active line selection, the PCI/PXI-1407
can select every line, every odd line, or multiples of odd lines, for
example, every other odd line or every fourth odd line. You can use the
scaling-down circuitry in conjunction with the region-of-interest
circuitry.
•
Interlaced video—The PCI/PXI-1407 supports both interlaced and
noninterlaced video signals. In interlaced mode, the PCI/PXI-1407
combines the odd and even field into one contiguous frame for
analysis. In noninterlaced mode, each field is treated as an independent
frame.
Acquisition Modes
The PCI/PXI-1407 supports two video acquisition modes:
•
Standard mode—In standard mode, the PCI/PXI-1407 receives an
incoming composite video signal from the external BNC connector
and generates CSYNC, HSYNC, VSYNC, and PCLK signals. The
generated CSYNC signal can be used by other image acquisition
boards or to synchronize multiple cameras.
•
CSYNC external mode—In CSYNC external mode, the
PCI/PXI-1407 receives an incoming video signal (composite or
luminance) and an external CSYNC signal from an external connector.
The PCI/PXI-1407 takes the incoming CSYNC signal and generates
HSYNC, VSYNC, and PCLK signals.
© National Instruments Corporation
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4
Signal Connections
This chapter describes cable connections for the PCI/PXI-1407.
BNC Connectors
The BNC external connectors supply an immediate connection to the
PCI/PXI-1407 VIDEO, CSYNC and TRIG inputs. Use BNC cables to
connect a camera to these inputs. You can configure the BNC connector
only for referenced single-ended (RSE) mode.
VIDEO
CSYNC
TRIG
Figure 4-1. PCI/PXI-1407 BNC I/O Connectors
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 4
Signal Connections
I/O Connector Signal Connection Descriptions
Table 4-1 describes each signal connection on the three BNC connectors.
Table 4-1. I/O Connector Signals
Signal Name
Description
VIDEO
VIDEO± allows for an RSE connection to the video channel. The incoming
video signal must be positive, as shown in Figure 3-2.
CSYNC
CSYNC is a TTL I/O line that is software programmable to be an input or an
output. When the PCI/PXI-1407 is in CSYNC external mode, use the connector
to input a CSYNC signal from the camera. In standard acquisition mode, the
internally generated CSYNC can be routed to this connector as an output
signal.
TRIG
The TRIG signal is a TTL I/O line used to start an acquisition or to control
external events. You can program the triggers to be rising or falling edge
sensitive. You can also program the triggers to be programmatically asserted or
unasserted similar to the function of a digital I/O line or to contain internal
status signals (by using the onboard events) or specific pulse widths.
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© National Instruments Corporation
A
Specifications
This appendix lists the specifications of the PCI-1407 and PXI-1407. These
specifications are typical at 25 °C, unless otherwise stated.
Formats Supported
RS-170 ................................................... 60 Hz
(Interlaced mode: 30 frames/s)
CCIR ...................................................... 50 Hz
(Interlaced mode: 25 frames/s)
Video Input
Quantity.................................................. 1 monochrome
Input impedance..................................... 75 Ω
VIDEO ................................................... RSE (BNC)
Frequency response................................ 20 MHz (–3 dB) typ
Gain ........................................................ Programmable (1, 1.33, or 2)
Black reference ...................................... Programmable (0–1.26 V)
White reference ...................................... Programmable (0–1.26 V)
A/D Conversion
Gray levels ............................................. 256 (8 bit)
RMS noise.............................................. < 0.5 LSB rms
Signal-to-noise ratio............................... 48 dB typ
Sampling rate ......................................... 5 to 20 MHz
© National Instruments Corporation
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Appendix A
Specifications
External Connections
Trigger sense...........................................TTL
Trigger level ...........................................Programmable (rising or falling)
CSYNC sense .........................................TTL
CSYNC level ..........................................Programmable (rising or falling)
Minimum pulse width.............................50 ns
VIH (TTL) ...............................................2 V
VIL (TTL)................................................0.8 V
Internal Pixel Clock
Generated frequency...............................11.66 to 15.78 MHz
Aspect correction for
standard video sources............................–5% to +7%
Pixel jitter ...............................................< 5 ns peak
PCI Interface
PCI initiator (master) capability .............Supported
PCI target (slave) capability ...................Supported
Data path.................................................32 bits
Card voltage............................................5 V only
Card type.................................................32-bit half-size card
Parity generation/checking,
error reporting.........................................Supported
Target decode speed ...............................Medium (1 clock)
Target fast back-to-back capability ........Supported
Resource locking ....................................Supported as a master and slave
PCI interrupts..........................................Interrupts passed on
INTA# signal
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Appendix A
Specifications
Expansion ROM..................................... 4 KB
PCI master performance
Ideal ............................................... 133 Mbytes/s
Sustained ........................................ 100 Mbytes/s
Power Requirements
Voltage ................................................... +5 V (1.34 A)
+12 V (100 mA)
–12 V (50 mA)
Physical
Dimensions
PCI-1407 ......................................... 10.668 by 17.463 cm
(4.2 by 6.875 in.)
PXI-1407......................................... 16 × 10 cm (6.3 × 3.9 in.)
Weight
PCI-1407 ......................................... 0.127 kg (0.028 lb.)
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Customer Communication
B
For your convenience, this appendix contains forms to help you gather the information necessary
to help us solve your technical problems and a form you can use to comment on the product
documentation. When you contact us, we need the information on the Technical Support Form and
the configuration form, if your manual contains one, about your system configuration to answer your
questions as quickly as possible.
National Instruments has technical assistance through electronic, fax, and telephone systems to quickly
provide the information you need. Our electronic services include a bulletin board service, an FTP site,
a fax-on-demand system, and e-mail support. If you have a hardware or software problem, first try the
electronic support systems. If the information available on these systems does not answer your
questions, we offer fax and telephone support through our technical support centers, which are staffed
by applications engineers.
Electronic Services
Bulletin Board Support
National Instruments has BBS and FTP sites dedicated for 24-hour support with a collection of files
and documents to answer most common customer questions. From these sites, you can also download
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Fax-on-Demand is a 24-hour information retrieval system containing a library of documents on a wide
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Country
Telephone
Fax
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Technical Support Form
Photocopy this form and update it each time you make changes to your software or hardware, and use
the completed copy of this form as a reference for your current configuration. Completing this form
accurately before contacting National Instruments for technical support helps our applications
engineers answer your questions more efficiently.
If you are using any National Instruments hardware or software products related to this problem,
include the configuration forms from their user manuals. Include additional pages if necessary.
Name __________________________________________________________________________
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Computer brand____________ Model ___________________ Processor_____________________
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IMAQ Hardware and Software Configuration Form
Record the settings and revisions of your hardware and software on the line to the right of each item.
Complete a new copy of this form each time you revise your software or hardware configuration, and
use this form as a reference for your current configuration. Completing this form accurately before
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IMAQ hardware _________________________________________________________________
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Other Products
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Documentation Comment Form
National Instruments encourages you to comment on the documentation supplied with our products.
This information helps us provide quality products to meet your needs.
Title:
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Edition Date:
December 1998
Part Number:
322156A-01
Please comment on the completeness, clarity, and organization of the manual.
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Glossary
Prefix
Meanings
Value
p-
pico
10 –12
n-
nano-
10 –9
µ-
micro-
10 – 6
m-
milli-
10 –3
k-
kilo-
10 3
M-
mega-
10 6
G-
giga-
10 9
Numbers/Symbols
%
percent
+
positive of, or plus
/
per
Ω
ohm
±
plus or minus
–
negative of, or minus
A
A
amperes
AC
alternating current
acquisition window
the image size specific to a video standard or camera resolution
active line region
the region of lines actively being stored; defined by a line start (relative to
VSYNC) and a line count
© National Instruments Corporation
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IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
Glossary
active pixel region
the region of pixels actively being stored; defined by a pixel start (relative
to HSYNC) and a pixel count
A/D
analog-to-digital
ADC
analog-to-digital converter—an electronic device, often an integrated
circuit, that converts an analog voltage to a digital number
address
character code that identifies a specific location (or series of locations)
in memory
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
API
application programming interface
AQ_DONE
signals that the acquisition of a frame or field is completed
AQ_IN_PROGRESS
signals that the acquisition of video data is in progress
area
a rectangular portion of an acquisition window or frame that is controlled
and defined by software
array
ordered, indexed set of data elements of the same type
ASIC
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit—a proprietary semiconductor
component designed and manufactured to perform a set of specific
functions for a specific customer
aspect ratio
the ratio of a picture or image’s width to its height
B
b
bit—one binary digit, either 0 or 1
B
byte—eight related bits of data, an eight-bit binary number; also used to
denote the amount of memory required to store one byte of data
back porch
the area of the video signal between the rising edge of the horizontal sync
signal and the active video information
black reference level
the level that represents the darkest an image can get. See also white
reference level.
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© National Instruments Corporation
Glossary
buffer
temporary storage for acquired data
bus
the group of conductors that interconnect individual circuitry in a
computer, such as the PCI bus; typically the expansion vehicle to which
I/O or other devices are connected
C
C
Celsius
cache
high-speed processor memory that buffers commonly used instructions or
data to increase processing throughput
CCIR
Comite Consultatif International des Radiocommunications—a committee
that developed standards for video signals
CMOS
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CompactPCI
refers to the core specification defined by the PCI Industrial Computer
Manufacturer’s Group (PICMG)
compiler
a software utility that converts a source program in a high-level
programming language, such as Basic, C or Pascal, into an object or
compiled program in machine language. Compiled programs run 10 to
1,000 times faster than interpreted programs. See also interpreter.
conversion device
device that transforms a signal from one form to another; for example,
analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for analog input and digital-to-analog
converters (DACs) for analog output
CPU
central processing unit
CSYNC
composite sync signal; a combination of the horizontal and vertical sync
pulses
D
D/A
digital-to-analog
DAC
digital-to-analog converter; an electronic device, often an integrated circuit,
that converts a digital number into a corresponding analog voltage or
current
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Glossary
DAQ
data acquisition—(1) collecting and measuring electrical signals from
sensors, transducers, and test probes or fixtures and inputting them to a
computer for processing; (2) collecting and measuring the same kinds of
electrical signals with A/D or DIO boards plugged into a computer, and
possibly generating control signals with D/A and/or DIO boards in the
same computer
dB
decibel—the unit for expressing a logarithmic measure of the ratio of two
signal levels: dB = 20log10 V1/V2, for signals in volts
DC
direct current
default setting
a default parameter value recorded in the driver; in many cases, the default
input of a control is a certain value (often 0) that means use the current
default setting
DLL
dynamic link library—a software module in Microsoft Windows
containing executable code and data that can be called or used by Windows
applications or other DLLs; functions and data in a DLL are loaded and
linked at run time when they are referenced by a Windows application or
other DLLs
DMA
direct memory access—a method by which data can be transferred to and
from computer memory from and to a device or memory on the bus while
the processor does something else; DMA is the fastest method of
transferring data to/from computer memory
DRAM
dynamic RAM
drivers
software that controls a specific hardware device such as an IMAQ or
DAQ device
dynamic range
the ratio of the largest signal level a circuit can handle to the smallest signal
level it can handle (usually taken to be the noise level), normally expressed
in decibels
E
EEPROM
electrically erasable programmable read-only memory—ROM that can be
erased with an electrical signal and reprogrammed
external trigger
a voltage pulse from an external source that triggers an event such as A/D
conversion
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Glossary
F
field
For an interlaced video signal, a field is half the number of horizontal lines
needed to represent a frame of video; the first field of a frame contains all
the odd-numbered lines, the second field contains all of the even-numbered
lines
FIFO
first-in first-out memory buffer—the first data stored is the first data sent
to the acceptor; FIFOs are used on IMAQ devices to temporarily store
incoming data until that data can be retrieved. For example, an analog input
FIFO stores the results of A/D conversions until the data can be retrieved
into system memory, a process that requires the servicing of interrupts and
often the programming of the DMA controller. This process can take
several milliseconds in some cases. During this time, data accumulates in
the FIFO for future retrieval.
flash ADC
an ADC whose output code is determined in a single step by a bank of
comparators and encoding logic
frame
a complete image; in interlaced formats, a frame is composed of two fields
front porch
the area of a video signal between the start of the horizontal blank and the
start of the horizontal sync
ft
feet
function
a set of software instructions executed by a single line of code that may
have input and/or output parameters and returns a value when executed;
examples of functions are:
y = COS (x)
status = AO_config(board, channel, range)
G
gamma
the nonlinear change in the difference between the video signal’s brightness
level and the voltage level needed to produce that brightness
genlock
circuitry that aligns the video timing signals by locking together the
horizontal, vertical, and color subcarrier frequencies and phases and
generates a pixel clock to clock pixel data into memory for display or into
another circuit for processing
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Glossary
GND
ground signal
GUI
graphical user interface—an intuitive, easy-to-use means of
communicating information to and from a computer program by means
of graphical screen displays; GUIs can resemble the front panels of
instruments or other objects associated with a computer program.
H
h
hour
hardware
the physical components of a computer system, such as the circuit boards,
plug-in boards, chassis, enclosures, peripherals, cables, and so on
HSYNC
horizontal sync signal—the synchronization pulse signal produced at the
beginning of each video scan line that keeps a video monitor’s horizontal
scan rate in step with the transmission of each new line
Hz
hertz—the number of scans read or updates written per second
I
IC
integrated circuit
ID
identification
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
in.
inches
INL
integral nonlinearity—a measure in LSB of the worst-case deviation from
the ideal A/D or D/A transfer characteristic of the analog I/O circuitry
instrument driver
a set of high-level software functions, such as NI-IMAQ, that controls
specific plug-in computer boards; instrument drivers are available in
several forms, ranging from a function callable from a programming
language to a virtual instrument (VI) in LabVIEW
interlaced
a video frame composed of two interleaved fields; the number of lines in a
field are half the number of lines in an interlaced frame
interpreter
a software utility that executes source code from a high-level language such
as Basic, C or Pascal, by reading one line at a time and executing the
specified operation See also compiler.
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Glossary
interrupt
a computer signal indicating that the CPU should suspend its current task
to service a designated activity
interrupt level
the relative priority at which a device can interrupt
I/O
input/output—the transfer of data to/from a computer system involving
communications channels, operator interface devices, and/or data
acquisition and control interfaces
IRQ
interrupt request
K
k
kilo—the standard metric prefix for 1,000, or 103, used with units of
measure such as volts, hertz, and meters
K
kilo—the prefix for 1,024, or 210, used with B in quantifying data or
computer memory
kbytes/s
a unit for data transfer that means 1,000 or 103 bytes/s
Kword
1,024 words of memory
L
library
a file containing compiled object modules, each comprised of one of more
functions, that can be linked to other object modules that make use of these
functions.
line count
the total number of horizontal lines in the picture
LSB
least significant bit
luminance
the brightness information in the video picture. The luminance signal
amplitude varies in proportion to the brightness of the video signal and
corresponds exactly to the monochrome picture.
LUT
look-up table—a selection in the IMAQ Configuration Utility that contains
formulas that let you implement simple imaging operations such as contrast
enhancement, data inversion, gamma manipulation, or other nonlinear
transfer functions
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Glossary
M
m
meters
M
(1) Mega, the standard metric prefix for 1 million or 106, when used with
units of measure such as volts and hertz; (2) mega, the prefix for 1,048,576,
or 220, when used with B to quantify data or computer memory
MB
megabytes of memory
Mbytes/s
a unit for data transfer that means 1 million or 106 bytes/s
memory buffer
See buffer.
memory window
continuous blocks of memory that can be accessed quickly by changing
addresses on the local processor
MSB
most significant bit
MTBF
mean time between failure
mux
multiplexer—a switching device with multiple inputs that selectively
connects one of its inputs to its output
N
NI-IMAQ
driver software for National Instruments IMAQ hardware
noninterlaced
a video frame where all the lines are scanned sequentially, instead of
divided into two frames as in an interlaced video frame
NVRAM
nonvolatile RAM—RAM that is not erased when a device loses power or
is turned off
O
operating system
IMAQ PCI/PXI-1407 User Manual
base-level software that controls a computer, runs programs, interacts with
users, and communicates with installed hardware or peripheral devices
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Glossary
P
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect—a high-performance expansion bus
architecture originally developed by Intel to replace ISA and EISA; it is
achieving widespread acceptance as a standard for PCs and workstations
and offers a theoretical maximum transfer rate of 132 Mbytes/s
PCLK
pixel clock signal—times the sampling of pixels on a video line
picture aspect ratio
the ratio of the active pixel region to the active line region; for standard
video signals like RS-170 or CCIR, the full-size picture aspect ratio
normally is 4/3 (1.33)
pixel
picture element—the smallest division that makes up the video scan line;
for display on a computer monitor, a pixel’s optimum dimension is square
(aspect ratio of 1:1, or the width equal to the height)
pixel aspect ratio
the ratio between the physical horizontal size and the vertical size of the
region covered by the pixel; an acquired pixel should optimally be square,
thus the optimal value is 1.0, but typically it falls between 0.95 and 1.05,
depending on camera quality
pixel clock
divides the incoming horizontal video line into pixels
pixel count
the total number of pixels between two HYSNCs; the pixel count
determines the frequency of the pixel clock
protocol
the exact sequence of bits, characters, and control codes used to transfer
data between computers and peripherals through a communications
channel
pts
points
PXI
PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation. PXI is an open specification that
builds off the CompactPCI specification by adding
instrumentation-specific features.
R
RAM
random-access memory
real time
a property of an event or system in which data is processed as it is acquired
instead of being accumulated and processed at a later time
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Glossary
relative accuracy
a measure in LSB of the accuracy of an ADC; it includes all nonlinearity
and quantization errors but does not include offset and gain errors of the
circuitry feeding the ADC
resolution
the smallest signal increment that can be detected by a measurement
system; resolution can be expressed in bits, in proportions, or in percent of
full scale. For example, a system has 12-bit resolution, one part in 4,096
resolution, and 0.0244 percent of full scale.
ROI
region of interest—a hardware-programmable rectangular portion of
the acquisition window
ROM
read-only memory
RS-170
the U.S. standard used for black-and-white television
RSE
referenced single-ended—all measurements are made with respect to a
common reference measurement system or a ground. Also called a
grounded measurement system.
RTSI bus
Real-Time System Integration Bus—the National Instruments timing bus
that connects IMAQ and DAQ boards directly, by means of connectors on
top of the boards, for precise synchronization of functions
S
s
seconds
scaling down circuitry
circuitry that scales down the resolution of a video signal
scatter-gather DMA
a type of DMA that allows the DMA controller to reconfigure on-the-fly
sync
tells the display where to put a video picture; the horizontal sync indicates
the picture’s left-to-right placement and the vertical sync indicates
top-to-bottom placement
syntax
the set of rules to which statements must conform in a particular
programming language
system RAM
RAM installed on a personal computer and used by the operating system,
as contrasted with onboard RAM
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Glossary
T
transfer rate
the rate, measured in bytes/s, at which data is moved from source to
destination after software initialization and set up operations; the maximum
rate at which the hardware can operate
TRIG
trigger signal
trigger
any event that causes or starts some form of data capture
trigger control and
mapping circuitry
circuitry that routes, monitors, and drives the external trigger line; you can
configure this line to start an acquisition on a rising or falling edge.
TTL
transistor-transistor logic
V
V
volts
VI
Virtual Instrument—(1) a combination of hardware and/or software
elements, typically used with a PC, that has the functionality of a classic
stand-alone instrument (2) a LabVIEW software module (VI), which
consists of a front panel user interface and a block diagram program
video line
a video line consists of a HSYNC, back porch, active pixel region, and a
front porch
VSYNC
vertical sync signal—the synchronization pulse generated at the beginning
of each video field that tells the video monitor when to start a new field
W
white reference level
the level that defines what is white for a particular video system. See also
black reference level.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Index
Numbers
CSYNC signal (table), 4-2
customer communication, ix, B-1 to B-2
8-bit ADC and LUT, 3-2
D
A
delayed video acquisition, 3-4
DMA controllers, 3-3
documentation
conventions used in manual, viii
National Instruments documentation, viii
organization of manual, vi
related documentation, ix
acquisition and region-of-interest control, 3-3
acquisition modes, 3-7
acquisition window
controlling, 3-4 to 3-6
programming video parameters, 3-6
active line region, 3-5
active pixel region, 3-5
A/D conversion specifications, A-1
ADC, 8-bit, 3-2
aspect ratio. See pixel aspect ratio.
E
electronic support services, B-1 to B-2
e-mail support, B-2
environment specifications, A-3 to A-4
equipment, optional, 1-6
external connection specifications, A-2
B
BNC connectors
pin assignments (figure), 4-1
signal connections, 4-2
board configuration. See configuration.
bulletin board support, B-1
F
fax and telephone support, B-2
Fax-on-Demand support, B-2
field, for interlaced video signal, 3-6
FIFO buffer, 3-3
formats supported, A-1
frame
definition, 3-6
frame/field selection, 3-5
FTP support, B-1
functional overview, 3-1 to 3-4
C
cables
optional equipment, 1-6
required cable, 1-3
CompactPCI specifications, 1-2
composite synchronization. See CSYNC.
configuration. See also installation.
setting up IMAQ system, 1-6 to 1-7
CSYNC
acquisition window control, 3-5
CSYNC mux, 3-3
external acquisition mode, 3-7
© National Instruments Corporation
G
gain and offset circuitry, 3-2
genlock synchronization generator, 3-3
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Index
H
L
hardware overview, 3-1 to 3-7
8-bit ADC and LUT, 3-2
acquisition and region-of-interest
control, 3-3
acquisition modes, 3-7
block diagram, 3-2
CSYNC mux, 3-3
FIFO buffer, 3-3
functional overview, 3-1 to 3-4
gain and offset circuitry, 3-2
genlock synchronization generator, 3-3
PCI interface, 3-4
pixel aspect ratio circuitry, 3-3
scatter-gather DMA controllers, 3-3 to 3-4
trigger control, 3-4
video acquisition, 3-4 to 3-7
acquisition window control,
3-5 to 3-6
programming video parameters,
3-6 to 3-7
start conditions, 3-4
video buffer, 3-2
video mux, 3-2
horizontal count, 3-5
HSYNC
acquisition window control, 3-5
genlock synchronization generator, 3-3
LabVIEW software, 1-3
line count
definition, 3-5
programmable pixel and line count, 3-6
line region, active, 3-5
lookup table, 8-bit ADC and LUT, 3-2
M
manual. See documentation.
N
National Instruments application software,
1-3 to 1-4
NI-IMAQ driver software, 1-4 to 1-5
P
PCI interface
overview, 3-4
specifications, A-2 to A-3
PCI/PXI-1407 devices. See also hardware
overview.
features and overview, 1-1
optional equipment, 1-6
requirements for getting started, 1-2 to 1-3
setting up IMAQ system, 1-6 to 1-7
software programming choices, 1-3 to 1-5
National Instruments application
software, 1-3 to 1-4
NI-IMAQ driver software, 1-4 to 1-5
unpacking, 1-6
PCLK
genlock synchronization generator, 3-3
internal pixel clock specifications, A-2
physical specifications, A-3
picture aspect ratio, 3-5
pin assignments
BNC connectors (figure), 4-1
I
IMAQ Vision software, 1-3 to 1-4
installation. See also configuration.
procedure for, 2-1 to 2-2
setting up IMAQ system, 1-6 to 1-7
unpacking the PCI/PXI-1407, 1-6
interlaced video, 3-7
internal pixel clock specifications, A-2
I/O connector, 4-1 to 4-2
signal descriptions (table), 4-2
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© National Instruments Corporation
Index
formats supported, A-1
internal pixel clock, A-2
PCI interface, A-2 to A-3
physical, A-3
power requirements, A-3
video input, A-1
standard acquisition mode, 3-7
start conditions, video acquisition, 3-4 to 3-5
system requirements, 1-2 to 1-3
pixel aspect ratio, defined, 3-5 to 3-6
pixel aspect ratio circuitry, 3-3
pixel clock. See PCLK.
pixels
active pixel region, 3-5
horizontal count, 3-5
line count, 3-5
programmable pixel and line count, 3-6
power requirements, A-3
programming video parameters. See video
parameters, programming.
PXI-1407 device. See also PCI/PXI-1407
devices.
using with CompactPCI, 1-2
T
technical support, B-1 to B-2
telephone and fax support, B-2
TRIG signal (table), 4-2
trigger control, 3-4
video acquisition, 3-4
R
region of interest
control circuitry, 3-3
programming video parameters,
3-6 to 3-7
V
vertical synchronization. See VSYNC.
video acquisition, 3-4 to 3-7
acquisition window control, 3-5 to 3-6
programming video parameters,
3-6 to 3-7
start conditions, 3-4 to 3-5
video buffer, 3-2
video input specifications, A-1
video line, 3-5
video parameters, programming, 3-6 to 3-7
acquisition window, 3-6
interlaced video, 3-7
programmable pixel and line count, 3-6
region of interest, 3-6 to 3-7
scaling down, 3-7
VIDEO signal (table), 4-2
VSYNC
acquisition window control, 3-5
genlock synchronization generator, 3-3
S
scaling-down circuitry, 3-7
scatter-gather DMA controllers, 3-3
signal connections, 4-1 to 4-2
BNC connectors, 4-1
external connection specifications, A-2
I/O connector, 4-1 to 4-2
pin assignments (figure), 4-1
signal descriptions (table), 4-2
software control of video acquisition, 3-4
software programming choices, 1-3 to 1-5
National Instruments application
software, 1-3 to 1-4
NI-IMAQ driver software, 1-4 to 1-5
specifications, A-1 to A-4
A/D conversion, A-1
environment, A-3 to A-4
external connections, A-2
© National Instruments Corporation
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