07 GPIO - Atomic Rhubarb

07 GPIO - Atomic Rhubarb
General Purpose
Input Output Pins
Real Time
Embedded Systems
www.atomicrhubarb.com/embedded
Lecture 9 – January 31, 2012
General Purpose IO
Section Topic
• Where in the books
– Catsoulis chapter 1, pg 28
– Simon chapter 4
– Zilog UM197 (ZNEO Z16F Series Flash Microcontroller Contest Kit User Manual)
– Zilog UM171 (ZiLOG Developer Studio II—ZNEO User Manual)
– Zilog PS220 (ZNEO Z16F Series Product Specification)
– Zilog UM188 (ZNEO CPU Core User Manual)
– Assorted datasheets
Address
Space
Special Function Registers
01_FFFFH
Internal RAM
Internal FLASH
memory
128KB
64KB
GPIO Port A
Peripheral Address Map

Many pages of this in the manual
GPIO


General Purpose Input Output ports
Maximum of 10 ports



8-bit ports (A – K)
Less available on physically smaller parts
(not enough pins)
Some not accessible or partially accessible
Alternate Function
GPIO
Input Register
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Output Register
Bits
A Register or Byte

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Bit 0 (LSB)

Bit 7 (MSB)

SET a bit
(turn it on or “1”)
CLEAR a bit
(turn it off or “0”)
Some folks say
they RESET a bit to
turn it off.
Port Configuration




PxDD = Data Direction - Is the port we
are interested in an input port or
output port.
PxAFH,PxAFL - Alternate Function –
GPIO or something else
PxOC- Output Control – Standard logic
or open drain
PxHDE - High Drive – Increased drive
current on outputs
Port Configuration




PxSMRE - Stop Mode Recovery – Wake
up processor on signal change
PxIN – Data Input
PxOUT – Data Output
PxPUE – Pull Up enable
PxIN
PxDD
Dan's Helpful Hint
1 looks like I(input)
0 looks like O(output)
PxAFH, PxAFL
PxAFH,PxAFL
IN, OUT
Read from IN
int i = PDIN;
Write to OUT
PDOUT = i;
And reading from OUT and writing to IN
i = PDOUT;
PDIN = i;
// what we put there
// ?
For every port
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
PAIN
PAOUT
PADD
PAHDE
PAAF
PAAFH
PAAFL
PAOC
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
(*(unsigned
char volatile near*)0xE100)
char volatile near*)0xE101)
char volatile near*)0xE102)
char volatile near*)0xE103)
short volatile near*)0xE104)
char volatile near*)0xE104)
char volatile near*)0xE105)
char volatile near*)0xE106)
Example

Set port A

Bit 0,2,4,6 as INPUTS


Bit 0 as Timer0 input
Bit 1,3,5,7 as OUTPUTS


Bit 1 as open drain
Bit 3 as high drive
Example
PADD
PAAF
PAOC
PAHDE
=
=
=
=
0x55;
0x01;
0x02;
0x04;
Another Example

Set port B, bit 3 for ANALOG input

But leave other bits alone as they are
already
set for something else.
Example
PBAF |= 0x04;
// set bit3 (00001000)
The magic of &= and |=
PDOUT |= 0x0F;
// set the lower 4 bits
PADD
// set bit 4
|= 0x10;
PDOUT &= 0xF0;
// clear the lower 4 bits
PADD
&= 0xEF;
// clear bit 4
PADD
&= ~0x10;
// clear bit 4
Output Direction

Would it ever make sense to:
read from an OUTPUT port or
write to an INPUT port?
Open Drain Output



Set port to OUTPUT as OPEN DRAIN
Write a “1”, but external device is
writing a “0”
We can test for a collision by reading
from the output port and comparing
that to the input port
Write a 1, read a 0!
Input Register
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
0
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Output Register
GPIO Recipe
GPIO
1. Determine which bits need to get set and how
2. Set port data direction
3. Set port alternate function
4. Set port output control
5. Set port drive
6. Set port stop mode recovery
Port A/D and C are special





have some additional configuration
PAIMUX1 – Configures port A or D for use
as comparator input or debug interrupt
PAIMUX – Configure port A or D for
interrupt source
PAIEDGE – Selected port A or D interrupt
as negative or positive edge
PCIMUX – Selects if port C is interrupt
source or DMA interrupt source
Example


SimpleBlinky
Show how to count on 4 bits with silly
delay
3 Versions
3 Versions



V1 = Basic code. It works.
V2 = Better. More comments.
Functions. Function prototypes. Proper
datatype.
V3 = Modular (use of .h and .c files)
Whats wrong with this?
#define byte unsigned char;
------- example_SimpleBlinky Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\main2.c
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN2.C
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN2.C
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN2.C
not defined within current scope
Linking...
WARNING (731) --> File ".\main2.obj" is not found.
Build completed.
(72,31) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
(73,33) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
(80,22) : ERROR (128) Identifier "i"
Whats wrong with this?
#define byte unsigned char;
------- example_SimpleBlinky Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\main2.c
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN2.C
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN2.C
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN2.C
not defined within current scope
Linking...
WARNING (731) --> File ".\main2.obj" is not found.
Build completed.
(72,31) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
(73,33) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
(80,22) : ERROR (128) Identifier "i"
Whats wrong with this?
#ifndef SLEEP_H
#define SLEEP_H
void sleep(int ms)
#endif
------- SimpleBlinky3 Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\sleeps.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\leds.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\main3.c
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (68,18) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (69,13) : ERROR (121) Illegal declaration spe
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (71,16) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (73,4) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (74,7) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (76,15) : ERROR (125)
Identifier "i" already declared within current scope
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (76,15) : ERROR (193) Missing "62" detected
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (76,18) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (78,18) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (79,10) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (81,26) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (82,14) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (84,6) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
Linking...
WARNING (731) --> File ".\main3.obj" is not found.
Build completed.
Whats wrong with this?
#ifndef SLEEP_H
#define SLEEP_H
void sleep(int ms);
#endif
------- SimpleBlinky3 Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\sleeps.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\leds.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_SimpleBlinky\main3.c
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (68,18) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (69,13) : ERROR (121) Illegal declaration spe
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (71,16) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (73,4) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (74,7) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (76,15) : ERROR (125)
Identifier "i" already declared within current scope
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (76,15) : ERROR (193) Missing "62" detected
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (76,18) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (78,18) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (79,10) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (81,26) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (82,14) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
E:\DAN\PROJECTS\ZNEO_PROGRAMS\EXAMPLE_SIMPLEBLINKY\MAIN3.C (84,6) : ERROR (100) Syntax error
Linking...
WARNING (731) --> File ".\main3.obj" is not found.
Build completed.
What does the Z16 “see” when
you press a button?
Example

ButtonCounter
Show how to count on 4 bits on modem
status lights. Count button presses.
Whats wrong with this?
PFDD |= C0;
-------- ButtonCounter Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\sleeps.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\leds.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\main.c
Linking...
Build completed.
Whats wrong with this?
PFDD |= 0XC0;
-------- ButtonCounter Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\sleeps.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\leds.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\main.c
Linking...
Build completed.
Whats wrong with this (to test
for button presses)?
if ((PDIN & 0x08) |
(PFIN & 0xC0) == 0xC8)
-------- ButtonCounter Configuration: Debug ------E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\sleeps.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\leds.c
E:\Dan\Projects\ZNEO_programs\example_ButtonCounter\main.c
Linking...
Build completed.
Whats wrong with this (to test
for button presses)?
if ((PDIN & 0x08) |
(PFIN & 0xC0) == 0xC8)
== has higher precedence than |
• Is that what we wanted?
(PDIN&0x08) |
((PFIN&0xC0)==0xC8)
• Will only succeed when SW1 or (SW2 &
SW3) are pressed.
What if we didn't sleep?
void main(void) {
byte i;i=0;
status_init();buttons_init();
while(1) {
if (buttons_pressed()) {
i++;
}
status_set(i);
if (i>0x0F) i=00;
sleep(250);
}
}
End of Section
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