USER MANUAL - Galil Motion Control

USER MANUAL - Galil Motion Control
USER MANUAL
DMC-1200
Manual Rev. 1.0f
By Galil Motion Control, Inc.
Galil Motion Control, Inc.
270 Technology Way
Rocklin, California 95765
Phone: (916) 626-0101
Fax: (916) 626-0102
Internet Address: [email protected]
URL: www.galilmc.com
Rev 08/2011
Using This Manual
This user manual provides information for proper operation of the DMC-1200 controller. A separate
supplemental manual, the Command Reference, contains a description of the commands available for
use with this controller.
Your DMC-1200 motion controller has been designed to work with both servo and stepper type
motors. Installation and system setup will vary depending upon whether the controller will be used
with stepper motors or servo motors. To make finding the appropriate instructions faster and easier,
icons will be next to any information that applies exclusively to one type of system. Otherwise,
assume that the instructions apply to all types of systems. The icon legend is shown below.
Attention: Pertains to servo motor use.
Attention: Pertains to stepper motor use.
Attention: Pertains to controllers with more than 4 axes.
Please note that many examples are written for the DMC-1240 four-axes controller or the DMC-1280
eight axes controller. Users of the DMC-1230 3-axis controller, DMC-1220 2-axes controller or
DMC-1210 1-axis controller should note that the DMC-1230 uses the axes denoted as XYZ, the DMC1220 uses the axes denoted as XY, and the DMC-1210 uses the X-axis only.
Examples for the DMC-1280 denote the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H. Users of the DMC-1250 5-axes
controller. DMC-1260 6-axes controller or DMC-1270, 7-axes controller should note that the DMC1250 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E, the DMC-1260 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F and the DMC1270 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F,G. The axes A,B,C,D may be used interchangeably with
X,Y,Z,W.
This manual was written for the DMC-1200 firmware revision 1.1 and later. For controller with
firmware previous to revision 1.1, please consult the original manual for your hardware.
12X8
Attention: Pertains to 1 thru 4-axes controllers with a DB-12064 daughter board. The DB-12064
provides an additional 64 I/O points.
WARNING: Machinery in motion can be dangerous! It is the responsibility of the user to design
effective error handling and safety protection as part of the machine. Galil shall not be liable or
responsible for any incidental or consequential damages.
Contents
Contents
i
Chapter 1 Overview
1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1
Overview of Motor Types.......................................................................................................... 2
Standard Servo Motor with +/- 10 Volt Command Signal .......................................... 2
Brushless Servo Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation................................................ 2
Stepper Motor with Step and Direction Signals .......................................................... 2
DMC-1200 Functional Elements ............................................................................................... 3
Microcomputer Section ............................................................................................... 3
Motor Interface............................................................................................................ 3
Communication ........................................................................................................... 3
General I/O .................................................................................................................. 3
System Elements ......................................................................................................... 4
Motor........................................................................................................................... 4
Amplifier (Driver) ....................................................................................................... 4
Encoder........................................................................................................................ 5
Watch Dog Timer ........................................................................................................ 5
Chapter 2 Getting Started
7
The DMC-1200 Main Board...................................................................................................... 7
The DMC-1200 Daughter Board ............................................................................................... 8
Elements You Need ................................................................................................................... 9
Installing the DMC-1200 ......................................................................................................... 10
Step 1. Determine Overall Motor Configuration ....................................................... 11
Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1200................................................................. 11
Step 3. Install the DMC-1200 in the PC .................................................................... 12
Step 4. Install the Communications Software............................................................ 13
Step 5. Establishing Communication between the DMC-1200 and the host PC ....... 13
Step 6. Determine the Axes to be Used for Sinusoidal Commutation....................... 22
Step 7. Make Connections to Amplifier and Encoder. .............................................. 22
Step 8a. Connect Standard Servo Motors .................................................................. 25
Step 8b. Connect Sinusoidal Commutation Motors................................................... 29
Step 8C. Connect Step Motors .................................................................................. 32
Step 9. Tune the Servo System.................................................................................. 32
Design Examples ..................................................................................................................... 33
Example 1 - System Set-up ....................................................................................... 33
Example 2 - Profiled Move ....................................................................................... 34
Example 3 - Multiple Axes........................................................................................ 34
Example 4 - Independent Moves ............................................................................... 34
DMC-1200
Contents • i
Example 5 - Position Interrogation............................................................................ 34
Example 6 - Absolute Position .................................................................................. 35
Example 7 - Velocity Control.................................................................................... 35
Example 8 - Operation Under Torque Limit ............................................................. 36
Example 9 - Interrogation.......................................................................................... 36
Example 10 - Operation in the Buffer Mode ............................................................. 36
Example 11 - Using the On-Board Editor ................................................................. 36
Example 12 - Motion Programs with Loops.............................................................. 37
Example 13 - Motion Programs with Trippoints ....................................................... 37
Example 14 - Control Variables ................................................................................ 38
Example 15 - Linear Interpolation............................................................................. 38
Example 16 - Circular Interpolation .......................................................................... 38
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
42
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 42
Inputs ....................................................................................................................................... 42
Limit Switch Input..................................................................................................... 42
Home Switch Input.................................................................................................... 43
Abort Input ................................................................................................................ 43
Uncommitted Digital Inputs ...................................................................................... 44
Analog Inputs .......................................................................................................................... 44
Amplifier Interface .................................................................................................................. 44
TTL Outputs ............................................................................................................................ 45
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
48
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 48
Galil SmartTERM.................................................................................................................... 50
Communication Settings for ISA............................................................................................. 55
Windows Servo Design Kit (WSDK) ...................................................................................... 57
Creating Custom Software Interfaces ...................................................................................... 58
DOS, Linux, and QNX tools.................................................................................................... 61
Command Format and Controller Response............................................................................ 62
Binary Command Format .......................................................................................... 62
Controller Event Interrupts and User Interrupts ...................................................................... 64
Hardware Level Communications for ISA .............................................................................. 66
DMC-1700 Communication Registers....................................................................... 66
Data Record ............................................................................................................................. 67
Data Record Memory Map ...................................................................................................... 68
Explanation of Status Information and Axis Switch Information.............................. 70
Chapter 5 Command Basics
72
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 72
Command Syntax - ASCII....................................................................................................... 72
Coordinated Motion with more than 1 axis ............................................................... 73
Command Syntax - Binary ...................................................................................................... 74
Binary Command Format .......................................................................................... 74
Binary command table............................................................................................... 75
Controller Response to DATA ................................................................................................ 76
Interrogating the Controller ..................................................................................................... 76
Interrogation Commands ........................................................................................... 76
Summary of Interrogation Commands ...................................................................... 76
Interrogating Current Commanded Values................................................................ 77
Operands.................................................................................................................... 77
Command Summary.................................................................................................. 77
ii • Contents
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion
78
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 78
Independent Axis Positioning.................................................................................................. 79
Command Summary - Independent Axis .................................................................. 80
Independent Jogging................................................................................................................ 82
Command Summary - Jogging .................................................................................. 82
Operand Summary - Independent Axis ..................................................................... 83
Linear Interpolation Mode ....................................................................................................... 83
Specifying the Coordinate Plane ............................................................................... 84
Specifying Linear Segments...................................................................................... 84
Command Summary - Linear Interpolation............................................................... 86
Operand Summary - Linear Interpolation.................................................................. 86
Example - Linear Move............................................................................................. 87
Example - Multiple Moves........................................................................................ 88
Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation Motion......................................................... 89
Specifying the Coordinate Plane ............................................................................... 89
Specifying Vector Segments ..................................................................................... 89
Additional commands................................................................................................ 90
Command Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence .............................................. 92
Operand Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence................................................. 92
Electronic Gearing ................................................................................................................... 93
Command Summary - Electronic Gearing ................................................................ 94
Electronic Cam ........................................................................................................................ 95
Command Summary - Electronic CAM .................................................................... 99
Operand Summary - Electronic CAM ..................................................................... 100
Contour Mode........................................................................................................................ 101
Specifying Contour Segments ................................................................................. 101
Additional Commands............................................................................................. 103
Command Summary - Contour Mode ..................................................................... 103
Virtual Axis ........................................................................................................................... 106
ECAM Master Example .......................................................................................... 106
Sinusoidal Motion Example .................................................................................... 107
Stepper Motor Operation ....................................................................................................... 107
Specifying Stepper Motor Operation....................................................................... 107
Using an Encoder with Stepper Motors................................................................... 108
Command Summary - Stepper Motor Operation..................................................... 109
Operand Summary - Stepper Motor Operation........................................................ 109
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder) ............................................................................................. 113
Backlash Compensation .......................................................................................... 114
Motion Smoothing ................................................................................................................. 115
Using the IT and VT Commands............................................................................. 115
Using the KS Command (Step Motor Smoothing):................................................. 117
Homing .................................................................................................................................. 117
Command Summary - Homing Operation............................................................... 119
Operand Summary - Homing Operation.................................................................. 119
High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function) .............................................................. 119
Fast Update Rate Mode ......................................................................................................... 120
Chapter 7 Application Programming
122
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 122
Using the DMC-1200 Editor to Enter Programs.................................................................... 122
Edit Mode Commands............................................................................................. 123
Program Format ..................................................................................................................... 124
Using Labels in Programs ....................................................................................... 124
DMC-1200
Contents • iii
Special Labels.......................................................................................................... 124
Commenting Programs............................................................................................ 125
Executing Programs - Multitasking ....................................................................................... 126
Debugging Programs ............................................................................................................. 127
Program Flow Commands ..................................................................................................... 129
Event Triggers & Trippoints.................................................................................... 129
Event Trigger Examples:......................................................................................... 131
Conditional Jumps ................................................................................................... 133
Using If, Else, and Endif Commands ...................................................................... 135
Subroutines.............................................................................................................. 137
Stack Manipulation.................................................................................................. 137
Auto-Start Routine .................................................................................................. 137
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions ................................................. 138
Mathematical and Functional Expressions ............................................................................ 141
Mathematical Operators .......................................................................................... 141
Bit-Wise Operators.................................................................................................. 141
Functions ................................................................................................................. 142
Variables................................................................................................................................ 143
Programmable Variables ......................................................................................... 143
Operands................................................................................................................................ 145
Special Operands (Keywords) ................................................................................. 145
Arrays .................................................................................................................................... 146
Defining Arrays....................................................................................................... 146
Assignment of Array Entries ................................................................................... 146
Automatic Data Capture into Arrays ....................................................................... 147
Deallocating Array Space........................................................................................ 149
Input of Data (Numeric and String) ....................................................................................... 149
Input of Data............................................................................................................ 149
Output of Data (Numeric and String) .................................................................................... 150
Sending Messages ................................................................................................... 150
Displaying Variables and Arrays............................................................................. 151
Interrogation Commands ......................................................................................... 151
Formatting Variables and Array Elements .............................................................. 153
Converting to User Units......................................................................................... 154
Hardware I/O ......................................................................................................................... 155
Digital Outputs ........................................................................................................ 155
Digital Inputs........................................................................................................... 156
Input Interrupt Function .......................................................................................... 156
Analog Inputs .......................................................................................................... 157
Example Applications............................................................................................................ 158
Wire Cutter .............................................................................................................. 158
X-Y Table Controller .............................................................................................. 159
Speed Control by Joystick ....................................................................................... 161
Position Control by Joystick.................................................................................... 162
Backlash Compensation by Sampled Dual-Loop .................................................... 162
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
164
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 164
Hardware Protection .............................................................................................................. 164
Output Protection Lines........................................................................................... 164
Input Protection Lines ............................................................................................. 165
Software Protection ............................................................................................................... 165
Programmable Position Limits ................................................................................ 165
Off-On-Error ........................................................................................................... 166
Automatic Error Routine ......................................................................................... 166
iv • Contents
DMC-1200
Limit Switch Routine .............................................................................................. 166
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
168
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 168
Installation ............................................................................................................................. 168
Communication...................................................................................................................... 169
Stability.................................................................................................................................. 169
Operation ............................................................................................................................... 169
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
170
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 170
Operation of Closed-Loop Systems ....................................................................................... 172
System Modeling ................................................................................................................... 173
Motor-Amplifier...................................................................................................... 174
Encoder.................................................................................................................... 176
DAC ........................................................................................................................ 177
Digital Filter ............................................................................................................ 177
ZOH......................................................................................................................... 178
System Analysis..................................................................................................................... 178
System Design and Compensation......................................................................................... 180
The Analytical Method............................................................................................ 180
Appendices
184
Electrical Specifications ........................................................................................................ 184
Servo Control .......................................................................................................... 184
Stepper Control........................................................................................................ 184
Input/Output ............................................................................................................ 184
Power Requirements................................................................................................ 184
Performance Specifications ................................................................................................... 185
Connectors for DMC-1200 Main Board ................................................................................ 186
Pin-Out Description for DMC-1200 ...................................................................................... 188
Jumper Description for DMC-1200 ....................................................................................... 189
Jumper Address Settings........................................................................................................ 190
Accessories and Options........................................................................................................ 193
PC/AT Interrupts and Their Vectors...................................................................................... 194
ICM-1900 Interconnect Module ............................................................................................ 194
ICM-1900 Drawing ............................................................................................................... 198
AMP-19X0 Mating Power Amplifiers................................................................................... 198
Opto-Isolated Outputs ICM-1900 / ICM-2900 (-Opto option) .............................................. 199
Standard Opto-isolation and High Current Opto-isolation: ..................................... 199
Extended I/O of the DB-12064 Daughter Board ................................................................... 199
Configuring the I/O of the DB-12064 Daughter Board ........................................... 200
Connector Description:............................................................................................ 201
IOM-1964 Opto-Isolation Module for the Extended I/O....................................................... 204
Description: ............................................................................................................. 204
Overview ................................................................................................................. 205
Configuring Hardware Banks.................................................................................. 207
Digital Inputs........................................................................................................... 207
High Power Digital Outputs .................................................................................... 209
Standard Digital Outputs ......................................................................................... 210
Electrical Specifications .......................................................................................... 211
Relevant DMC Commands...................................................................................... 212
Screw Terminal Listing ........................................................................................... 212
CB-50-100-1200 Adapter Board............................................................................................ 215
DMC-1200
Contents • v
Connectors:.............................................................................................................. 215
CB-50-100 Drawing: ............................................................................................... 218
CB-50-80 Adapter Board....................................................................................................... 219
Connectors:.............................................................................................................. 220
CB-50-80 Drawing: ................................................................................................. 223
Coordinated Motion - Mathematical Analysis....................................................................... 225
DMC-1200/DMC-1000 Comparison ..................................................................................... 228
List of Other Publications ...................................................................................................... 228
Training Seminars.................................................................................................................. 228
Contacting Us ........................................................................................................................ 229
WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................ 230
Index
vi • Contents
231
DMC-1200
Chapter 1 Overview
Introduction
The DMC-1200 series motion control cards install directly into the PC-104 bus. These controller
series offers many enhanced features including high speed communications, non-volatile program
memory and faster encoder speeds.
The latest generation in PC-104 motion control allows for high speed servo control up to 12 million
encoder counts/sec and step motor control up to 3 million steps per second. Sample rates as low as
62.5μsec per axis are available.
A 2 Meg Flash EEPROM provides non-volatile memory for storing application programs, parameters,
arrays and firmware. New firmware revisions are easily upgraded in the field without removing the
controller from the PC.
The DMC-1200 is available with up to eight axes. The DMC-1210 through DMC-1240 can control
one through 4 axes, using 2 stacked PC-104 cards. The DMC-1250 through DMC-1280 can control 5
through 8 axes, using 3 stacked PC-104 cards. The DMC-12x8 controller refers to any version of the
DMC-1200 controller with the DB-12064. This daughter board provides an additional 64 I/O points.
Designed to solve complex motion problems, the DMC-1200 can be used for applications involving
jogging, point-to-point positioning, vector positioning, electronic gearing, multiple move sequences,
and contouring. The controller eliminates jerk by programmable acceleration and deceleration with
profile smoothing. For smooth following of complex contours, the DMC-1200 provides continuous
vector feed of an infinite number of linear and arc segments. The controller also features electronic
gearing with multiple master axes as well as gantry mode operation.
For synchronization with outside events, the DMC-1200 provides uncommitted I/O, including 8 digital
inputs (16 inputs for DMC-1250 through DMC-1280) , 8 digital outputs (16 outputs for DMC-1250
through DMC-1280), and 8 analog inputs for interface to joysticks, sensors, and pressure transducers.
Dedicated TTL inputs are provided for forward and reverse limits, abort, home, and definable input
interrupts. Commands can be sent in either Binary or ASCII. Additional software is available to
autotune, view trajectories on a PC screen, translate CAD.DXF files into motion, and create powerful,
application-specific operator interfaces with Visual Basic. Drivers for DOS, Windows 3.1, 95, 98, NT
4.0, 98SE, ME, 2000 and XP are available.
DMC-1200
Chapter 1 Overview • 1
Overview of Motor Types
The DMC-1200 can control the following types of motors:
1.
Standard servo motors with +/- 10 volt command signals
2.
Brushless servo motors with sinusoidal commutation
3.
Step motors with step and direction signals
4.
Other actuators such as hydraulics - For more information, contact Galil.
The user can configure each axis for any combination of motor types, providing maximum flexibility.
Standard Servo Motor with +/- 10 Volt Command Signal
The DMC-1200 achieves superior precision through use of a 16-bit motor command output DAC and a
sophisticated PID filter that features velocity and acceleration feedforward, an extra pole filter and
integration limits.
The controller is configured by the factory for standard servo motor operation. In this configuration,
the controller provides an analog signal (+/- 10Volt) to connect to a servo amplifier. This connection
is described in Chapter 2.
Brushless Servo Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation
The DMC-1200 can provide sinusoidal commutation for brushless motors (BLM). In this
configuration, the controller generates two sinusoidal signals for connection with amplifiers
specifically designed for this purpose.
Note: The task of generating sinusoidal commutation may be accomplished in the brushless motor
amplifier. If the amplifier generates the sinusoidal commutation signals, only a single command signal
is required and the controller should be configured for a standard servo motor (described above).
Sinusoidal commutation in the controller can be used with linear and rotary BLMs. However, the
motor velocity should be limited such that a magnetic cycle lasts at least 6 milliseconds with a standard
update rate of 1 msecond*. For faster motors, please contact the factory.
To simplify the wiring, the controller provides a one-time, automatic set-up procedure. When the
controller has been properly configured, the brushless motor parameters may be saved in non-volatile
memory.
The DMC-1200 can control BLMs equipped with Hall sensors as well as without Hall sensors. If hall
sensors are available, once the controller has been setup, the brushless motor parameters may be saved
in non-volatile memory. In this case, the controller will automatically estimates the commutation
phase upon reset. This allows the motor to function immediately upon power up. The hall effect
sensors also provides a method for setting the precise commutation phase. Chapter 2 describes the
proper connection and procedure for using sinusoidal commutation of brushless motors.
Stepper Motor with Step and Direction Signals
The DMC-1200 can control stepper motors. In this mode, the controller provides two signals to
connect to the stepper motor: Step and Direction. For stepper motor operation, the controller does not
require an encoder and operates the stepper motor in an open loop fashion. Chapter 2 describes the
proper connection and procedure for using stepper motors.
2 • Chapter 1 Overview
DMC-1200
DMC-1200 Functional Elements
The DMC-1200 circuitry can be divided into the following functional groups as shown in Figure 1.1
and discussed below.
WATCHDOG TIMER
68331
MICROCOMPUTER
WITH
2 Meg RAM
2 Meg FLASH EEPROM
FIFOS
HIGH-SPEED
MOTOR/ENCODER
INTERFACE
FOR
X,Y,Z,W
8 UNCOMMITTED
ANALOG INPUTS
PC104
8 PROGRAMMABLE,
INPUTS, 16 FOR
1250-1280
+/- 10 VOLT OUTPUT FOR
SERVO MOTORS
PULSE/DIRECTION OUTPUT
FOR STEP MOTORS
HIGH SPEED ENCODER
COMPARE OUTPUT
I/O INTERFACE
INTERRUPTS
ISOLATED LIMITS AND
HOME INPUTS
MAIN ENCODERS
AUXILIARY ENCODERS
8 PROGRAMMABLE
OUTPUTS
HIGH-SPEED LATCH FOR EACH AXIS
Figure 1.1 - DMC-1200 Functional Elements
Microcomputer Section
The main processing unit of the DMC-1200 is a specialized 32-bit Motorola 68331 Series
Microcomputer with 2 Meg RAM and 2 Meg Flash EEPROM. The RAM provides memory for
variables, array elements and application programs. The flash EEPROM provides non-volatile storage
of variables, programs, and arrays. It also contains the DMC-1200 firmware.
Motor Interface
Galil’s GL-1800 custom, sub-micron gate array performs quadrature decoding of each encoder at up to
12 MHz. For standard servo operation, the controller generates a +/-10 Volt analog signal (16 Bit
DAC). For sinusoidal commutation operation, the controller uses 2 DACs to generate 2 +/-10Volt
analog signals. For stepper motor operation, the controller generates a step and direction signal.
Communication
The communication interface uses a bi-directional FIFO (AM4701) and includes PC interrupt handling
circuitry.
General I/O
The DMC-1200 provides interface circuitry for 8 bidirectional, TTL inputs, 8 TTL outputs and 8
analog inputs with 12-Bit ADC (16-bit optional). The general inputs can also be used as high speed
latches for each axes. A high speed encoder compare output is also provided.
DMC-1200
Chapter 1 Overview • 3
1280
The DMC-1250 through DMC-1280 controller provides interface circuitry for 16 TTL inputs, 16 TTL
outputs and 8 analog inputs with 12-Bit ADC (16-bit optional). The general inputs can also be used as
high speed latches for each axes. A high speed encoder compare output is also provided.
The optional DB-12064 daughter board provides 64 additional general I/O points. The user can
configure these I/O points as inputs or outputs in blocks of 8.
System Elements
As shown in Fig. 1.2, the DMC-1200 is part of a motion control system which includes amplifiers,
motors and encoders. These elements are described below.
Power Supply
Computer
DMC-1200 Controller
Amplifier (Driver)
Encoder
Motor
Figure 1.2 - Elements of Servo systems
Motor
A motor converts current into torque which produces motion. Each axis of motion requires a motor
sized properly to move the load at the required speed and acceleration. (Galil's "Motion Component
Selector" software can help you with motor sizing). Contact Galil at 800-377-6329 if you would like
this product.
The motor may be a step or servo motor and can be brush-type or brushless, rotary or linear. For step
motors, the controller can be configured to control full-step, half-step, or microstep drives. An encoder
is not required when step motors are used.
Amplifier (Driver)
For each axis, the power amplifier converts a +/-10 Volt signal from the controller into current to
drive the motor. For stepper motors, the amplifier converts step and direction signals into current.
The amplifier should be sized properly to meet the power requirements of the motor. For brushless
motors, an amplifier that provides electronic commutation is required or the controller must be
configured to provide sinusoidal commutation. The amplifiers may be either pulse-width-modulated
(PWM) or linear. They may also be configured for operation with or without a tachometer. For
current amplifiers, the amplifier gain should be set such that a 10 Volt command generates the
maximum required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should
be 1 A/V. For velocity mode amplifiers, 10 Volts should run the motor at the maximum speed.
4 • Chapter 1 Overview
DMC-1200
Encoder
An encoder translates motion into electrical pulses which are fed back into the controller. The DMC1200 accepts feedback from either a rotary or linear encoder. Typical encoders provide two channels in
quadrature, known as CHA and CHB. This type of encoder is known as a quadrature encoder.
Quadrature encoders may be either single-ended (CHA and CHB) or differential (CHA,CHA,CHB,CHB-). The DMC-1200 decodes either type into quadrature states or four times the number of
cycles. Encoders may also have a third channel (or index) for synchronization.
For stepper motors, the DMC-1200 can also interface to encoders with pulse and direction signals.
There is no limit on encoder line density, however, the input frequency to the controller must not
exceed 3,000,000 full encoder cycles/second (12,000,000 quadrature counts/sec). For example, if the
encoder line density is 10000 cycles per inch, the maximum speed is 300 inches/second. If higher
encoder frequency is required, please consult the factory.
The standard voltage level is TTL (zero to five volts), however, voltage levels up to 12 Volts are
acceptable. (If using differential signals, 12 Volts can be input directly to the DMC-1200. Singleended 12 Volt signals require a bias voltage input to the complementary inputs).
The DMC-1200 can accept analog feedback instead of an encoder for any axis. For more information
see description of analog feedback in Chapter 2 under section entitled "Test the encoder operation".
To interface with other types of position sensors such as resolvers or absolute encoders, Galil can
customize the controller and command set. Please contact Galil to talk to one of our applications
engineers about your particular system requirements.
Watch Dog Timer
The DMC-1200 provides an internal watch dog timer which checks for proper microprocessor
operation. The timer toggles the Amplifier Enable Output (AEN) which can be used to switch the
amplifiers off in the event of a serious DMC-1200 failure. The AEN output is normally high. During
power-up and if the microprocessor ceases to function properly, the AEN output will go low. The
error light will also turn on at this stage. A reset is required to restore the DMC-1200 to normal
operation. Consult the factory for a Return Materials Authorization (RMA) Number if your DMC1200 is damaged.
DMC-1200
Chapter 1 Overview • 5
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
6 • Chapter 1 Overview
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started
The DMC-1200 Main Board
PIN 1
JP4
UPGRD
M RST
FEN
EEPROM
Motorola
68331
J1
RAM
ERROR
LED
RAM
JP5
ADR 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
JP3
IRQ5
IRQ9
IRQ10
IRQ11
IRQ12
IRQ15
PC/104 Bus Connectors
B
A
P1
C
D
P2
Figure 2-1 - Outline of the main board of the DMC-1200
JP3
IRQ jumper.
JP4
Master reset & UPGRD jumpers
DMC-1200
JP5
Address jumper.
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 7
The DMC-1200 Daughter Board
PIN 1
PIN 1
PIN 1
J6
J1
GL-1800
J8
JP21
O PT
SMW
SMZ
SMY
SMX
E-H
PC/104 Bus Connectors
B
A
P1
C
D
P2
Figure 2-2 - Outline of the DMC-1204 daughter card providing 1-4 Axes of motion control.
JP21
Jumpers used for configuring stepper motor operation on axes 5-8. (DMC1250-1280 only)
8 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
Elements You Need
ICM-1900
CABLE-100-1M (1 METER)
CB-50-100-1200
Adapts 2 50 Pin Ribbon Cables
for CABLE-100
(Ribbon Cables Included)
OR
CABLE-100-4M (4 METER)
CABLE-20-25
Provides Connection for Auxiliary Encoder Signals
20 Pin IDC to 25 Pin D-Type
Note: This cable is only required if the Auxiliary
Encoder Inputs will be used.
J8
J6
Cable is
folded back
on itself
J2
ICM-1900
Provides Access to Controller Signals via Screw Terminals
DMC-1240
1-4 Axes PC-104 Controller
Note: The DMC-1250-1280
require an additional set of
cables and interconnect
module.
Figure 2-3 - Recommended Connections of the DMC-1200 Controller
Before you start, you must get all the necessary system elements. These include:
1a. DMC-1210, 1220, 1230, or DMC-1240 Motion Controller
or
1b. DMC-1250, 1260, 1270 or DMC-1280.
Note: The DMC-1200 provides (2) 50 pin IDC connectors for access to the signals on the
DMC-1204 Daughter Card. These signals can be accessed by using the Galil ICM-1900
Interconnect module. One ICM-1900 provides screw terminals for up to 4 axes of
motion control and a DMC-1250 or higher requires (2) ICM-1900s.
2a. (1) ICM-1900, (1) CABLE-100, (1) CB-50-100 Adapter boards for use with the
controllers DMC-1210 through DMC-1240.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 9
or
2b. (2) ICM-1900's, (2) CABLE-100’s, (2) CB-50-100 Adapter boards for use with the
controllers DMC-1250 through DMC-1280.
or
2c. An interconnect board provided by the user.
3.
Power Amplifiers.
4.
Power Supply for Amplifiers.
5.
PC (Personal Computer - ISA bus – PC/104 stack).
6.
DMC SmartTerm software.
7.
WSDK is optional but recommend for first time users.
The motors may be servo (brush type or brushless) or steppers. The amplifiers should be suitable for
the motor and may be linear or pulse-width-modulated. An amplifier may have current feedback,
voltage feedback or velocity feedback.
For servo motors in current mode, the amplifiers should accept an analog signal in the +/-10 Volt range
as a command. The amplifier gain should be set such that a +10V command will generate the
maximum required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should
be 1 A/V. For velocity mode amplifiers, a command signal of 10 Volts should run the motor at the
maximum required speed. Set the velocity gain so that an input signal of 10V, runs the motor at the
maximum required speed.
For step motors, the amplifiers should accept step and direction signals. For start-up of a step motor
system refer to “Connect Step Motors” on page 25.
The WSDK software is highly recommended for first time users of the DMC-1200. It provides stepby-step instructions for system connection, tuning and analysis.
Installing the DMC-1200
Installation of a complete, operational DMC-1200 system consists of 9 steps.
Step 1. Determine overall motor configuration.
Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1200.
Step 3. Install the DMC-1200 in the PC.
Step 4. Install the communications software.
Step 5. Establish communications with the Galil Communication Software.
Step 6. Determine the Axes to be used for sinusoidal commutation.
Step 7. Make connections to amplifier and encoder.
Step 8a. Connect standard servo motors.
Step 8b. Connect sinusoidal commutation motors
Step 8c. Connect step motors.
Step 9. Tune the servo system
10 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
Step 1. Determine Overall Motor Configuration
Before setting up the motion control system, the user must determine the desired motor configuration.
The DMC-1200 can control any combination of standard servo motors, sinusoidally commutated
brushless motors, and stepper motors. Other types of actuators, such as hydraulics can also be
controlled, please consult Galil.
The following configuration information is necessary to determine the proper motor configuration:
Standard Servo Motor Operation:
The DMC-1200 has been setup by the factory for standard servo motor operation providing an analog
command signal of +/- 10V. No hardware or software configuration is required for standard servo
motor operation.
Sinusoidal Commutation:
Sinusoidal commutation is configured through a single software command, BA. This configuration
causes the controller to reconfigure the number of available control axes.
Each sinusoidally commutated motor requires two DAC's. In standard servo operation, the DMC-1200
has one DAC per axis. In order to have the additional DAC for sinusoidal commutation, the controller
must be designated as having one additional axis for each sinusoidal commutation axis. For example,
to control two standard servo axes and one axis of sinusoidal commutation, the controller will require a
total of four DAC's and the controller must be a DMC-1240.
Sinusoidal commutation is configured with the command, BA. For example, BAX sets the X axis to
be sinusoidally commutated. The second DAC for the sinusoidal signal will be the highest available
DAC on the controller. For example: Using a DMC-1240, the command BAX will configure the X
axis to be the main sinusoidal signal and the 'W' axis to be the second sinusoidal signal.
The BA command also reconfigures the controller to indicate that the controller has one less axis of
'standard' control for each axis of sinusoidal commutation. For example, if the command BAX is
given to a DMC-1240 controller, the controller will be re-configured to a DMC-1230 controller. By
definition, a DMC-1230 controls 3 axes: X,Y and Z. The 'W' axis is no longer available since the
output DAC is being used for sinusoidal commutation.
Further instruction for sinusoidal commutation connections are discussed in Step 6.
Stepper Motor Operation:
To configure the DMC-1200 for stepper motor operation, the controller requires a jumper for each
stepper motor and the command, MT, must be given. The installation of the stepper motor jumper is
discussed in the following section entitled "Installing Jumpers on the DMC-1200". Further instruction
for stepper motor connections are discussed in Step 8c on page 25.
Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1200
Master Reset and Upgrade Jumpers
JP4 contains two jumpers, MRST and UPGRD. The MRST jumper is the Master Reset jumper. When
MRST is connected, the controller will perform a master reset upon PC power up or upon the reset
input going low. Whenever the controller has a master reset, all programs, arrays, variables, and
motion control parameters stored in EEPROM will be ERASED.
The UPGRD jumper enables the user to unconditionally update the controller’s firmware. This jumper
is not necessary for firmware updates when the controller is operating normally, but may be necessary
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 11
in cases of corrupted EEPROM. EEPROM corruption should never occur, however, it is possible if
there is a power fault during a firmware update. If EEPROM corruption occurs, your controller may
not operate properly. In this case, install the UPGRD Jumper and use the update firmware function on
the Galil Terminal to re-load the system firmware.
Stepper Motor Jumpers
For each axis that will used for stepper motor operation, the corresponding stepper mode (SM) jumper
must be connected. The stepper mode jumpers, labeled JP21, are located directly beside the GL-1800
IC (see figure 2-2). The individual jumpers are labeled SMX, SMY, SMZ, and SMW and configure
the controller for ‘Stepper Motors’ for the corresponding X, Y, Z and W axes when installed. The
jumper labeled, OPT, is for use by Galil technicians only.
Communications Jumpers:
The procedure for setting IRQ’s and Address is outlined below:
Step A. If an interrupt is required, place a jumper on one of the JP3 jumper to select the
appropriate IRQ setting.
Step B. Place jumpers on JP5 for the Address selection.
The DMC-1200 address is selectable by installing the Address Jumpers A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7, and A8
on JP5. Each jumper represents a digit of the binary number that is equivalent to N minus 512, where
N is the selected address. A ”1” is indicated by the absence of a jumper and a “0” is indicated by the
presence of a jumper. Address 9 is always a “1” and Address 1 and Address 0 are always 0. Jumper
A2 represents the 22 digit (the 3rd binary digit from the right), switch A3 represents the 23 digit (the
4th binary digit from the right), and so on up to the most significant digit which is represented by
jumper A8. Remember: An INSTALLED jumper means that the value of the digit represented by that
jumper is “0”; if the jumper is NOT INSTALLED, the digit is “1”.
Because the least significant digit represented by the Address jumpers is the 22 digit (jumper A2), only
addresses divisible by 4 are configurable on the DMC-1200. The DMC-1200 can be configured for
any 4th address between 512 and 1020. To configure an address you must do the following:
1. Select an address, N, between 512 and 1020, divisible by 4. Example: 516.
2. Subtract 512 from N. Example: 516 - 512 = 4.
3. Convert the resultant number into a 9-digit binary number being sure to represent all
leading zeros. Using our example: Converting 4 to binary results in 100. As a 9-digit
binary number, this is represented by 000000100.
4. Truncate the 2 least significant (rightmost) digits. Example: 0000001.
5. Set the jumpers as described above. In the example, jumpers should be placed on A2-A7
To simplify this task, we have included a complete list of jumper settings corresponding to all
configurable addresses between 512 and 1020. This is in the table entitled “Jumper Address Settings”
on page 163 in the Appendix.
Step 3. Install the DMC-1200 in the PC
The DMC-1200 is installed directly into the PC-104 stack. The procedure is outlined below.
Step A. Make sure the PC is in the power-off condition.
Step B. Insert DMC-1200 card onto the PC-104 stack.
12 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
Step C. Attach (2) 50-pin cables to your controller card. If you are using a Galil ICM-1900
or AMP-19X0, you will need the CB-50-100-1200 adapter. This adapter provides a
connector to attach a 100-pin cable. This cable connects into the J2 connection on the
interconnect module. If you are not using a Galil interconnect module, you will need to
appropriately terminate the cable to your system components, see the appendix for cable
pin outs. The auxiliary encoder connections are accessed through the 20-pin IDC
connector, J2.
1280
If you are using a controller with more than 4 axes and the ICM-1900 or AMP-19x0, you will need (2)
CB-50-100 converter boards and (2) ICM-1900's or AMP-19x0's.
Step 4. Install the Communications Software
After applying power to the computer, you should install the Galil software that enables
communication between the controller and PC.
Using Win98SE, ME, NT4.0, 2000, and XP
Install the Galil Software Products CD-ROM into your CD drive. A Galil .htm page should
automatically appear with links to the software products. Select “DMC SmartTerm”, and click
“Install…” Follow the installation procedure as outlined.
Using DOS:
Using the Galil Software CD-ROM, go to the directory, D:\July2000 CD\DMCDOS\Disk1. Type
"INSTALL" at the DOS prompt and follow the directions.
Note: Galil software is also available for download at: http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html
Restart computer after installation.
Step 5. Establishing Communication between the DMC-1200 and the
host PC
Using Galil Software for DOS
To communicate with the DMC-1200, type DMCTERM at the prompt. You will need to provide
information about your controller such as controller type (DMC-1200), address and IRQ. Once you
have established communication, the terminal display should show a colon “:”. If you do not receive a
colon, press the carriage return.
If you still do not received a colon, the most likely cause is an address conflict in your computer. If the
default of address 1000 causes a conflict, Galil recommends the addresses of 816 and 824, since they
are likely to avoid conflict.
Using Galil Software for Windows 98 SE, ME, XP, and 2000
Using a DMC-1200 card in a plug and play OS (Win 98 SE, 2000, ME, XP) will require adding the
controller to the system in the Windows Device Manager. In Win 98 SE and ME this feature is
accessed through the Start\Settings\Control Panel\Add New Hardware shortcut. In Win 2000 and XP
it can be accessed through My Computer\Properties\Hardware\Hardware Wizard. The procedures on
the two operating systems are nearly identical, but the dialog boxes look a little different.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 13
Windows 2000 Hardware Wizard
Note: All the pictures in this Hardware Wizard section are from Windows 2000 unless specified
otherwise.
1.
On the first dialog, select Add/Troubleshoot
2.
Let the Hardware Wizard try to detect a new Plug and Play device.
14 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
DMC-1200
3.
If a device is found, the Hardware Wizard will then ask if the device is on a list of found
devices. Say no and proceed to the next dialog box. In Win 2000, the next window will
display a list of devices. Select “Add a new device” from the top of the list.
4.
The Hardware Wizard prompts for Windows to search for the new device. This feature is for
devices such as modems that can be found by ‘random’ queries of all available
communication ports. Select, ‘No’ and proceed to the next dialog.
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 15
5.
With DMC SmartTerm already installed, the following window will say, “Select the type of
hardware you want to install”. Click on the Diamond with either “Galil” or “Galil Motion
Control” written to the side of it, and the list of Galil controllers will be displayed.
Note: If this is the first time a Galil controller has been installed, there will be no Galil
diamond on the Hardware Type window, click on Other Devices instead. At that point, the
list of Galil controller models cards will appear.
16 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
6.
Galil DMC-12x0 Motion Controller - With the device selected, the OS then needs to allocate
any required resources.
In Win 98 SE and ME the OS automatically assigns resources that are most likely
incompatible.
Automatically Assigned resources in Win 98 SE
At this point the user must reboot and go to the Device Manager under My
Computer\Properties.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 17
Device Manager in Win 98 SE
Select the device from the list, go to the resource tab, and reassign the resources to those that match the
address and interrupt (IRQ) jumpers on the controller (see the appendix for ‘Address Settings’ and
Step 3 for installing jumpers).
Changing the Resources in Win 98 SE
18 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
NOTE: For Version 7 Drivers and ISA/PC-104 controllers with new firmware, a jumper MUST be
installed on one of the IRQ jumper pins in order to use Interrupt Communication (the default method
of communication). Match the IRQ jumper on the board with an IRQ Setting that displays “No
Conflicts” in the Device Manager.
If No IRQ lines are available or Interrupt Communication is not desired, the user must go to the
“Controller Registration” menu and uncheck the “Interrupt Communication” method. Stall or Delay
methods of communication will then be used. A Communication Timeout error will occur if this is not
done.
Edit Input/Output Range in Win 98 SE
When changing the settings, the operating system will inform the user of any resource
conflicts. If there are resource conflicts, it is necessary to compare the available
resources to those on the jumpers, and select a configuration that is compatible. If all
configurations have a resource conflict, then the user will have to reconfigure or remove
another card to free up some resources. This is most likely to happen with IRQs, as they
can be scarce.
Note: The “Input/Output Range” is used to assign a communication address to the
controller. This address is given in hexadecimal, which means the user should use the
scientific calculator in Start\Programs\Accessories to convert the decimal address desired
into its hexadecimal equivalent. The user can just enter a single hexidecimal number into
the ‘Value:’ box and the OS will assign an I/O range to it.
i.
DMC-1200
In Win 2000, the procedure is the same except the user has the opportunity to set
resources/examine conflicts without rebooting first. Highlight the “Interrupt Request”
and “Input/Output Range” individually and select ‘Change Setting…’ to make the
appropriate adjustments. Similar to Windows 98, the “Input/Output Range” must be
assigned as a hexadecimal number.
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 19
7.
Once the controller is properly entered into the Windows registry, it should also be present in
the Galil Registry. The address and IRQ jumpers on the controllermay need to be changed
depending on the resources available in Windows (see Step 3 for setting address and IRQ
jumpers). Connect to the controller through the Terminal utility in DMCWIN32, WSDK32,
or DMCTERM.
Using Galil Software for Windows NT 4
Add the DMC-1200 controller using the Galil Registry dialog. To access the registry in DMC
SmartTERM, click on the Tools menu and “Controller Registration…”
Once in the Galil Registry, click New Controller under Non-PnP Tools. Select the DMC-1200
controller from the pull down menu and click Next to continue. Follow the screens to set the
properties for timeout, address and interrupt.
20 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
The registry information for the DMC-1200 card will show a default address of 1000. This
information should be changed as necessary to reflect any changes to the controller’s address jumpers.
Hardware interrupts may also be set in the registry, although for initial communication these are not
necessary. The default interrupt selection is “None”.
Once the appropriate Registry information has been entered, Select OK and close the registry window.
After rebooting the computer, communication to the DMC-1200 card can be established. Reopen one
of the communication programs and select the controller from the registry list.
If there are communication problems, the program will pause for 3-15 seconds. The top of the dialog
box will display the message “Status: not connected with Galil motion controller” and the following
error will appear: “STOP - Unable to establish communication with the Galil controller. A time-out
occurred while waiting for a response from the Galil controller.”
If this error occurs in Windows NT 4, the most likely cause is an address conflict in the computer. If
the default of address 1000 causes a conflict, Galil recommends the addresses of 816 and 824, since
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 21
they are likely to avoid conflict. Please refer to Step-2 Communications Jumpers to change the
address. If the address jumpers are changed, the Galil registry must be modified to reflect these
changes.
Once communication is established, click on the menu for terminal and you will receive a colon
prompt. Communicating with the controller is described in later sections.
Sending Test Commands to the Terminal:
After you connect your terminal, press <carriage return> or the <enter> key on your keyboard. In
response to carriage return (CR), the controller responds with a colon “:”.
Now type
TPX (CR)
This command directs the controller to return the current position of the X-axis. The controller should
respond with a number such as
0000000
Step 6. Determine the Axes to be Used for Sinusoidal Commutation
* This step is only required when the controller will be used to control a brushless motor(s) with
sinusoidal commutation.
The command, BA is used to select the axes of sinusoidal commutation. For example, BAXZ sets X
and Z as axes with sinusoidal commutation.
Notes on Configuring Sinusoidal Commutation:
The command, BA, reconfigures the controller such that it has one less axis of 'standard' control for
each axis of sinusoidal commutation. For example, if the command BAX is given to a DMC-1240
controller, the controller will be re-configured to be a DMC-1230 controller. In this case the highest
axis is no longer available except to be used for the 2nd phase of the sinusoidal commutation. Note that
the highest axis on a controller can never be configured for sinusoidal commutation.
The DAC associated with the selected axis represents the first phase. The second phase uses the
highest available DAC. When more than one axis is configured for sinusoidal commutation, the
controller will assign the second phases to the DAC's which have been made available through the axes
reconfiguration. The highest sinusoidal commutation axis will be assigned to the highest available
DAC and the lowest sinusoidal commutation axis will be assigned to the lowest available DAC. Note
that the lowest axis is the X axis and the highest axis is the highest available axis for which the
controller has been configured.
Example: Sinusoidal Commutation Configuration using a DMC-1270
BAXZ
This command causes the controller to be reconfigured as a DMC-1250 controller. The X and Z axes
are configured for sinusoidal commutation. The first phase of the X axis will be the motor command
X signal. The second phase of the X axis will be F signal. The first phase of the Z axis will be the
motor command Z signal. The second phase of the Z axis will be the motor command G signal.
Step 7. Make Connections to Amplifier and Encoder.
Once you have established communications between the software and the DMC-1200, you are ready to
connect the rest of the motion control system. The motion control system typically consists of an
ICM-1900 Interface Module, an amplifier for each axis of motion, and a motor to transform the current
22 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
from the amplifier into torque for motion. Galil also offers the AMP-19X0 series Interface Modules
which are ICM-1900’s equipped with servo amplifiers for brush type DC motors.
If you are using an ICM-1900, connect the 100-pin ribbon cable to the DMC-1200 and to the connector
located on the AMP-19x0 or ICM-1900 board. The ICM-1900 provides screw terminals for access to
the connections described in the following discussion.
1280
Motion Controllers with more than 4 axes require a second ICM-1900 or AMP-19x0 and second 100pin cable.
System connection procedures will depend on system components and motor types. Any combination
of motor types can be used with the DMC-1200. If sinusoidal commutation is to be used, special
attention must be paid to the reconfiguration of axes.
Here are the first steps for connecting a motion control system:
Step A. Connect the motor to the amplifier with no connection to the controller. Consult the
amplifier documentation for instructions regarding proper connections. Connect and
turn-on the amplifier power supply. If the amplifiers are operating properly, the motor
should stand still even when the amplifiers are powered up.
Step B. Connect the amplifier enable signal.
Before making any connections from the amplifier to the controller, you need to verify
that the ground level of the amplifier is either floating or at the same potential as earth.
WARNING: When the amplifier ground is not isolated from the power line or when it has a different potential
than that of the computer ground, serious damage may result to the computer controller and amplifier.
If you are not sure about the potential of the ground levels, connect the two ground
signals (amplifier ground and earth) by a 10 KΩ resistor and measure the voltage across
the resistor. Only if the voltage is zero, connect the two ground signals directly.
The amplifier enable signal is used by the controller to disable the motor. This signal is
labeled AMPENX for the X axis on the ICM-1900 and should be connected to the enable
signal on the amplifier. Note that many amplifiers designate this signal as the INHIBIT
signal. Use the command, MO, to disable the motor amplifiers - check to insure that the
motor amplifiers have been disabled (often this is indicated by an LED on the amplifier).
This signal changes under the following conditions: the watchdog timer activates, the
motor-off command, MO, is given, or the OE1 command (Enable Off-On-Error) is given
and the position error exceeds the error limit. As shown in Figure 3-4 on page 36, AEN
can be used to disable the amplifier for these conditions.
The standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active high. In other words, the
AEN signal will be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled. The
polarity and the amplitude can be changed if you are using the ICM-1900 interface board.
To change the polarity from active high (5 volts = enable, zero volts = disable) to active
low (zero volts = enable, 5 volts = disable), replace the 7407 IC with a 7406. Note that
many amplifiers designate the enable input as ‘inhibit’.
To change the voltage level of the AEN signal, note the state of the resistor pack on the
ICM-1900. When Pin 1 is on the 5V mark, the output voltage is 0-5V. To change to 12
volts, pull the resistor pack and rotate it so that Pin 1 is on the 12 volt side. If you
remove the resistor pack, the output signal is an open collector, allowing the user to
connect an external supply with voltages up to 24V.
Step C. Connect the encoders
For stepper motor operation, an encoder is optional.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 23
For servo motor operation, if you have a preferred definition of the forward and reverse
directions, make sure that the encoder wiring is consistent with that definition.
The DMC-1200 accepts single-ended or differential encoder feedback with or without an
index pulse. If you are not using the AMP-19x0 or the ICM-1900 you will need to
consult the appendix for the encoder pinouts for connection to the motion controller. The
AMP-19x0 and the ICM-1900 can accept encoder feedback from a 10-pin ribbon cable or
individual signal leads. For a 10-pin ribbon cable encoder, connect the cable to the
protected header connector labeled X ENCODER (repeat for each axis necessary). For
individual wires, simply match the leads from the encoder you are using to the encoder
feedback inputs on the interconnect board. The signal leads are labeled CHA (channel
A), CHB (channel B), and INDEX. For differential encoders, the complement signals are
labeled CHA-, CHB-, and INDEX-.
Note: When using pulse and direction encoders, the pulse signal is connected to CHA
and the direction signal is connected to CHB. The controller must be configured for
pulse and direction with the command CE. See the command summary for further
information on the command CE.
Step D. Verify proper encoder operation.
Start with the X encoder first. Once it is connected, turn the motor shaft and interrogate
the position with the instruction TPX <return>. The controller response will vary as the
motor is turned.
At this point, if TPX does not vary with encoder rotation, there are three possibilities:
1.
The encoder connections are incorrect - check the wiring as necessary.
2.
The encoder has failed - using an oscilloscope, observe the encoder signals. Verify
that both channels A and B have a peak magnitude between 5 and 12 volts. Note
that if only one encoder channel fails, the position reporting varies by one count
only. If the encoder failed, replace the encoder. If you cannot observe the encoder
signals, try a different encoder.
3.
There is a hardware failure in the controller - connect the same encoder to a different
axis. If the problem disappears, you probably have a hardware failure. Consult the
factory for help.
Step E. Connect Hall Sensors if available.
Hall sensors are only used with sinusoidal commutation and are not necessary for proper
operation. The use of hall sensors allows the controller to automatically estimate the
commutation phase upon reset and also provides the controller the ability to set a more
precise commutation phase. Without hall sensors, the commutation phase must be
determined manually.
The hall effect sensors are connected to the digital inputs of the controller. These inputs
can be used with the general use inputs (bits 1-8), the auxiliary encoder inputs (bits 8196), or the extended I/O inputs of the Dmc-12x8 controller (bits 17-80). Note: The
general use inputs are optoisolated and require a voltage connection at the INCOM point
- for more information regarding the digital inputs, see Chapter 3, Connecting Hardware.
Each set of sensors must use inputs that are in consecutive order. The input lines are
specified with the command, BI. For example, if the Hall sensors of the Z axis are
connected to inputs 6, 7 and 8, use the instruction:
BI ,, 6
or
BIZ = 6
24 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
Step 8a. Connect Standard Servo Motors
The following discussion applies to connecting the DMC-1200 controller to standard servo motor
amplifiers:
The motor and the amplifier may be configured in the torque or the velocity mode. In the torque
mode, the amplifier gain should be such that a 10 Volt signal generates the maximum required current.
In the velocity mode, a command signal of 10 Volts should run the motor at the maximum required
speed.
Step by step directions on servo system setup are also included on the optional WSDK (Windows
Servo Design Kit) software offered by Galil. Refer to the WSDK manual for more details.
Check the Polarity of the Feedback Loop
It is assumed that the motor and amplifier are connected together and that the encoder is operating
correctly (Step B). Before connecting the motor amplifiers to the controller, read the following
discussion on setting Error Limits and Torque Limits. Note that this discussion only uses the X axis as
an example.
Step A. Set the Error Limit as a Safety Precaution
Usually, there is uncertainty about the correct polarity of the feedback. The wrong
polarity causes the motor to run away from the starting position. Using a terminal
program, such as DMCTERM, the following parameters can be given to avoid system
damage:
Input the commands:
ER 2000 <CR> Sets error limit on the X axis to be 2000 encoder counts
OE 1 <CR>
Disables X axis amplifier when excess position error exists
If the motor runs away and creates a position error of 2000 counts, the motor amplifier
will be disabled. Note: This function requires the AEN signal to be connected from the
controller to the amplifier.
Step B. Set Torque Limit as a Safety Precaution
To limit the maximum voltage signal to your amplifier, the DMC-1200 controller has a
torque limit command, TL. This command sets the maximum voltage output of the
controller and can be used to avoid excessive torque or speed when initially setting up a
servo system.
When operating an amplifier in torque mode, the voltage output of the controller will be
directly related to the torque output of the motor. The user is responsible for determining
this relationship using the documentation of the motor and amplifier. The torque limit
can be set to a value that will limit the motors output torque.
When operating an amplifier in velocity or voltage mode, the voltage output of the
controller will be directly related to the velocity of the motor. The user is responsible for
determining this relationship using the documentation of the motor and amplifier. The
torque limit can be set to a value that will limit the speed of the motor.
For example, the following command will limit the output of the controller to 1 volt on
the X axis:
TL 1 <CR>
Note: Once the correct polarity of the feedback loop has been determined, the torque limit
should, in general, be increased to the default value of 9.99. The servo will not operate
properly if the torque limit is below the normal operating range. See description of TL in
the command reference.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 25
Step C. Enable Off-On-Error as a safety precaution. To limit the maximum distance the
motor will move from the commanded position, enable the Off-On-Error function using
the command , OE 1. If the motor runs away due to positive feedback or another
systematic problem the controller will disable the amplifier when the position error
exceeds the value set by the command, ER.
Step D. Disable motor with the command MO (Motor off).
Step E. Connect the Motor and issue SH
Once the parameters have been set, connect the analog motor command signal (ACMD)
to the amplifier input.
To test the polarity of the feedback, command a move with the instruction:
PR 1000 <CR>
Position relative 1000 counts
BGX <CR>
Begin motion on X axis
When the polarity of the feedback is wrong, the motor will attempt to run away. The
controller should disable the motor when the position error exceeds 2000 counts. If the
motor runs away, the polarity of the loop must be inverted.
Inverting the Loop Polarity
When the polarity of the feedback is incorrect, the user must invert the loop polarity and this may be
accomplished by several methods. If you are driving a brush-type DC motor, the simplest way is to
invert the two motor wires (typically red and black). For example, switch the M1 and M2 connections
going from your amplifier to the motor. When driving a brushless motor, the polarity reversal may be
done with the encoder. If you are using a single-ended encoder, interchange the signal CHA and CHB.
If, on the other hand, you are using a differential encoder, interchange only CHA+ and CHA-. The
loop polarity and encoder polarity can also be affected through software with the MT, and CE
commands. For more details on the MT command or the CE command, refer to the Command
Reference manual.
Sometimes the feedback polarity is correct (the motor does not attempt to run away) but the direction
of motion is reversed with respect to the commanded motion. If this is the case, reverse the motor
leads AND the encoder signals.
If the motor moves in the required direction but stops short of the target, it is most likely due to
insufficient torque output from the motor command signal ACMD. This can be alleviated by reducing
system friction on the motors. The instruction:
TTX (CR)
Tell torque on X
reports the level of the output signal. It will show a non-zero value that is below the friction level.
Once you have established that you have closed the loop with the correct polarity, you can move on to
the compensation phase (servo system tuning) to adjust the PID filter parameters, KP, KD and KI. It is
necessary to accurately tune your servo system to ensure fidelity of position and minimize motion
oscillation as described in the next section.
26 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
J6
U7
RP4
VC
C
VC
C
RP3
U8
U6
RP1
7407
LSCO
M
INCO
M
U1 RP2
J7
J51
X ENCODER
Y ENCODER
Z ENCODER
W ENCODER
ADG2
02
AMP-1900 Circuit Board
Layout
red wire
+
black wire
-
CPS Power Supply
Encoder
+
(Typically Red Connector)
Galil
DC Servo Motor
-
(Typically Black Connector)
Figure 2-2 - System Connections with the AMP-1900 Amplifier. Note: this figure shows a Galil Motor and
Encoder which uses a flat ribbon cable for connection to the AMP-1900 unit.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 27
J6
U1 RP2
J7
J51
ADG2
02
-MAX
-MBX
-INX
+VCC
RP4
U7
GND
+INX
+MBX
+MAX
RP3
U8
LSCO
M
INCO
M
7407
VC
C
VC
C
RP1
U6
ICM-1900
Encoder Wire Connections
Encoder:
ICM-1100:
Channel A(+)
XA+
Channel B(+)
XB+
Channel AXAChannel BXBIndex Pulse
XI+
Index Pulse XI-
Motor + 1
Motor - 2
Inhibit* 11
+Ref In 4
Power Gnd 4
High Volt 5
+
Signal Gnd 2
+
-
CPS Power
Supply
Encoder
MSA 12-80
DC Servo Motor
Figure 2-3 System Connections with a separate amplifier (MSA 12-80). This diagram shows the connections for a
standard DC Servo Motor and encoder
28 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
Step 8b. Connect Sinusoidal Commutation Motors
When using sinusoidal commutation, the parameters for the commutation must be determined
and saved in the controllers non-volatile memory. The servo can then be tuned as
described in Step 9.
Step A. Disable the motor amplifier
Use the command, MO, to disable the motor amplifiers. For example, MOX will turn the
X axis motor off.
Step B. Connect the motor amplifier to the controller.
The sinusoidal commutation amplifier requires 2 signals, usually denoted as Phase A &
Phase B. These inputs should be connected to the two sinusoidal signals generated by the
controller. The first signal is the axis specified with the command, BA (Step 6). The
second signal is associated with the highest analog command signal available on the
controller - note that this axis was made unavailable for standard servo operation by the
command BA.
When more than one axis is configured for sinusoidal commutation, the controller will
assign the second phase to the command output which has been made available through
the axes reconfiguration. The 2nd phase of the highest sinusoidal commutation axis will
be the highest command output and the 2nd phase of the lowest sinusoidal commutation
axis will be the lowest command output.
It is not necessary to be concerned with cross-wiring the 1st and 2nd signals. If this wiring
is incorrect, the setup procedure will alert the user (Step D).
Example: Sinusoidal Commutation Configuration using a
DMC-1270
BAXZ
This command causes the controller to be reconfigured as a DMC-1250 controller. The
X and Z axes are configured for sinusoidal commutation. The first phase of the X axis
will be the motor command X signal. The second phase of the X axis will be the motor
command the motor command F signal. The first phase of the Z axis will be the motor
command Z signal. The second phase of the Z axis will be the motor command G signal.
Step C. Specify the Size of the Magnetic Cycle.
Use the command, BM, to specify the size of the brushless motors magnetic cycle in
encoder counts. For example, if the X axis is a linear motor where the magnetic cycle
length is 62 mm, and the encoder resolution is 1 micron, the cycle equals 62,000 counts.
This can be commanded with the command:
BM 62000
On the other hand, if the Z axis is a rotary motor with 4000 counts per revolution and 3
magnetic cycles per revolution (three pole pairs) the command is
BM,, 1333.333
Step D. Test the Polarity of the DACs and Hall Sensor Configuration.
Use the brushless motor setup command, BS, to test the polarity of the output DACs.
This command applies a certain voltage, V, to each phase for some time T, and checks to
see if the motion is in the correct direction.
The user must specify the value for V and T. For example, the command
BSX = 2,700
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 29
will test the X axis with a voltage of 2 volts, applying it for 700 millisecond for each
phase. In response, this test indicates whether the DAC wiring is correct and will
indicate an approximate value of BM. If the wiring is correct, the approximate value for
BM will agree with the value used in the previous step.
Note: In order to properly conduct the brushless setup, the motor must be allowed to
move a minimum of one magnetic cycle in both directions.
Note: When using Galil Windows software, the timeout must be set to a minimum of 10
seconds (time-out = 10000) when executing the BS command. This allows the software
to retrieve all messages returned from the controller.
If Hall Sensors are Available:
Since the Hall sensors are connected randomly, it is very likely that they are wired in the
incorrect order. The brushless setup command indicates the correct wiring of the Hall
sensors. The hall sensor wires should be re-configured to reflect the results of this test.
The setup command also reports the position offset of the hall transition point and the
zero phase of the motor commutation. The zero transition of the Hall sensors typically
occur at 0°, 30° or 90° of the phase commutation. It is necessary to inform the
controller about the offset of the Hall sensor and this is done with the instruction, BB.
Step E. Save Brushless Motor Configuration
It is very important to save the brushless motor configuration in non-volatile memory.
After the motor wiring and setup parameters have been properly configured, the burn
command, BN, should be given.
If Hall Sensors are Not Available:
Without hall sensors, the controller will not be able to estimate the commutation phase of
the brushless motor. In this case, the controller could become unstable until the
commutation phase has been set using the BZ command (see next step). It is highly
recommended that the motor off command be given before executing the BN command.
In this case, the motor will be disabled upon power up or reset and the commutation
phase can be set before enabling the motor.
Step F. Set Zero Commutation Phase
When an axis has been defined as sinusoidally commutated, the controller must have an
estimate for commutation phase. When hall sensors are used, the controller automatically
estimates this value upon reset of the controller. If no hall sensors are used, the controller
will not be able to make this estimate and the commutation phase must be set before
enabling the motor.
If Hall Sensors are Not Available:
To initialize the commutation without Hall effect sensor use the command, BZ. This
function drives the motor to a position where the commutation phase is zero, and sets the
phase to zero.
The BZ command argument is a real number which represents the voltage to be applied
to the amplifier during the initialization. When the voltage is specified by a positive
number, the initialization process ends up in the motor off (MO) state. A negative
number causes the process to end in the Servo Here (SH) state.
30 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
WARNING: This command must move the motor to find the zero commutation phase. This movement is
instantaneous and will cause the system to jerk. Larger applied voltages will cause more severe motor jerk.
The applied voltage will typically be sufficient for proper operation of the BZ command. For systems with
significant friction, this voltage may need to be increased and for systems with very small motors, this value
should be decreased.
For example,
BZ -2, 0, 1
will drive both the X and Z axes to zero, using 2V and 1V signal, respectively. The
controller will then leave motor X enabled (SH) and motor Z in the off state (MO). For
systems that have external forces working against the motor, such as gravity, the BZ
argument must provide a torque 10x the external force. If the torque is not sufficient, the
commutation zero may not be accurate.
If Hall Sensors are Available:
The estimated value of the commutation phase is good to within 30°. This estimate can
be used to drive the motor but a more accurate estimate is needed for efficient motor
operation. There are 3 possible methods for commutation phase initialization:
Method 1. Use the BZ command as described above.
Method 2. Drive the motor close to commutation phase of zero and then use BZ
command. This method decreases the amount of system jerk by moving the motor close
to zero commutation phase before executing the BZ command. The controller makes an
estimate for the number of encoder counts between the current position and the position
of zero commutation phase. This value is stored in the operand _BZx. Using this
operand the controller can be commanded to move the motor. The BZ command is then
issued as described above. For example, to initialize the X axis motor upon power or
reset, the following commands may be given:
SHX
;Enable X axis motor
PRX=-1*(_BZX)
;Move X motor close to zero commutation phase
BGX
;Begin motion on X axis
AMX
;Wait for motion to complete on X axis
BZX=-1
;Drive motor to commutation phase zero and leave
;motor on
Method 3. Use the command, BC. This command uses the hall transitions to determine
the commutation phase. Ideally, the hall sensor transitions will be separated by exactly
60° and any deviation from 60° will affect the accuracy of this method. If the hall
sensors are accurate, this method is recommended. The BC command monitors the hall
sensors during a move and monitors the Hall sensors for a transition point. When that
occurs, the controller computes the commutation phase and sets it. For example, to
initialize the X axis motor upon power or reset, the following commands may be given:
SHX
;Enable X axis motor
BCX
;Enable the brushless calibration command
PRX=50000
;Command a relative position movement on X axis
BGX
;Begin motion on X axis. When the hall sensors
; detect a phase transition, the commutation phase is
;re-set.
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 31
Step 8C. Connect Step Motors
In Stepper Motor operation, the pulse output signal has a 50% duty cycle. Step motors operate open
loop and do not require encoder feedback. When a stepper is used, the auxiliary encoder for the
corresponding axis is unavailable for an external connection. If an encoder is used for position
feedback, connect the encoder to the main encoder input corresponding to that axis. The commanded
position of the stepper can be interrogated with RP or DE. The encoder position can be interrogated
with TP.
The frequency of the step motor pulses can be smoothed with the filter parameter, KS. The KS
parameter has a range between 0.5 and 8, where 8 implies the largest amount of smoothing. See
Command Reference regarding KS.
The DMC-1200 profiler commands the step motor amplifier. All DMC-1200 motion commands apply
such as PR, PA, VP, CR and JG. The acceleration, deceleration, slew speed and smoothing are also
used. Since step motors run open-loop, the PID filter does not function and the position error is not
generated.
To connect step motors with the DMC-1200 you must follow this procedure:
Step A. Install SM jumpers
Each axis of the DMC-1200 that will operate a stepper motor must have the
corresponding stepper motor jumper installed. For a discussion of SM jumpers, see
section Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1200.
Step B. Connect step and direction signals from controller to motor amplifier
from the controller to respective signals on your step motor amplifier. (These signals are
labeled PULSX and DIRX for the x-axis on the ICM-1900). Consult the documentation
for your step motor amplifier.
Step C. Configure DMC-1200 for motor type using MT command. You can configure the
DMC-1200 for active high or active low pulses. Use the command MT 2 for active high
step motor pulses and MT -2 for active low step motor pulses. See description of the MT
command in the Command Reference.
Step 9. Tune the Servo System
Adjusting the tuning parameters is required when using servo motors (standard or sinusoidal
commutation). The system compensation provides fast and accurate response and the following
presentation suggests a simple and easy way for compensation. More advanced design methods are
available with software design tools from Galil, such as the Servo Design Kit (WSDK software )
The filter has three parameters: the damping, KD; the proportional gain, KP; and the integrator, KI.
The parameters should be selected in this order.
To start, set the integrator to zero with the instruction
KI 0 (CR)
Integrator gain
and set the proportional gain to a low value, such as
KP 1 (CR)
Proportional gain
KD 100 (CR)
Derivative gain
For more damping, you can increase KD (maximum is 4095). Increase gradually and stop after the
motor vibrates. A vibration is noticed by audible sound or by interrogation. If you send the command
32 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
TE X (CR)
Tell error
a few times, and get varying responses, especially with reversing polarity, it indicates system vibration.
When this happens, simply reduce KD.
Next you need to increase the value of KP gradually (maximum allowed is 1023). You can monitor the
improvement in the response with the Tell Error instruction
KP 10 (CR)
Proportion gain
TE X (CR)
Tell error
As the proportional gain is increased, the error decreases.
Again, the system may vibrate if the gain is too high. In this case, reduce KP. Typically, KP should
not be greater than KD/4. (Only when the amplifier is configured in the current mode).
Finally, to select KI, start with zero value and increase it gradually. The integrator eliminates the
position error, resulting in improved accuracy. Therefore, the response to the instruction
TE X (CR)
becomes zero. As KI is increased, its effect is amplified and it may lead to vibrations. If this occurs,
simply reduce KI. Repeat tuning for the Y, Z and W axes.
For a more detailed description of the operation of the PID filter and/or servo system theory, see
Chapter 10 - Theory of Operation.
Design Examples
Here are a few examples for tuning and using your controller. These examples have remarks next to
each command - these remarks must not be included in the actual program.
Example 1 - System Set-up
This example assigns the system filter parameters, error limits and enables the automatic error shut-off.
1280
DMC-1200
Instruction
Interpretation
KP10,10,10,10
Set gains for a,b,c,d (or X,Y,Z,W axes)
KP*=10
Alternate method for setting gain on all axes
KPX=10
Alternate method for setting X (or A) axis gain
KPA=10
Alternate method for setting A (or X) axis gain
KP, 20
Set Y axis gain only
When using controllers with 5 or more axes, the X,Y,Z and W axes can also be referred to as the
A,B,C,D axes.
Instruction
Interpretation
OE 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1
Enable automatic Off on Error function for all axes
ER*=1000
Set error limit for all axes to 1000 counts
KP10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10
Set gains for a,b,c,d,e,f,g, and h axes
KP*=10
Alternate method for setting gain on all axes
KPX=10
Alternate method for setting X (or A) axis gain
KPA=10
Alternate method for setting A (or X) axis gain
KP,,10
Set Z axis gain only
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 33
KPZ=10
Alternate method for setting Z axis gain
KPD=10
Alternate method for setting D axis gain
KPH=10
Alternate method for setting H axis gain
Example 2 - Profiled Move
Objective: Rotate the X axis a distance of 10,000 counts at a slew speed of 20,000 counts/sec and an
acceleration and deceleration rates of 100,000 counts/s2. In this example, the motor turns and stops:
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 10000
Distance
SP 20000
Speed
DC 100000
Deceleration
AC 100000
Acceleration
BG X
Start Motion
Example 3 - Multiple Axes
Objective: Move the four axes independently.
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 500,1000,600,-400
Distances of X,Y,Z,W
SP 10000,12000,20000,10000
Slew speeds of X,Y,Z,W
AC 100000,10000,100000,100000
Accelerations of X,Y,Z,W
DC 80000,40000,30000,50000
Decelerations of X,Y,Z,W
BG XZ
Start X and Z motion
BG YW
Start Y and W motion
Example 4 - Independent Moves
The motion parameters may be specified independently as illustrated below.
Instruction
Interpretation
PR ,300,-600
Distances of Y and Z
SP ,2000
Slew speed of Y
DC ,80000
Deceleration of Y
AC, 100000
Acceleration of Y
SP ,,40000
Slew speed of Z
AC ,,100000
Acceleration of Z
DC ,,150000
Deceleration of Z
BG Z
Start Z motion
BG Y
Start Y motion
Example 5 - Position Interrogation
The position of the four axes may be interrogated with the instruction, TP.
34 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
Instruction
Interpretation
TP
Tell position all four axes
TP X
Tell position - X axis only
TP Y
Tell position - Y axis only
TP Z
Tell position - Z axis only
TP W
Tell position - W axis only
The position error, which is the difference between the commanded position and the actual position
can be interrogated with the instruction TE.
Instruction
Interpretation
TE
Tell error - all axes
TE X
Tell error - X axis only
TE Y
Tell error - Y axis only
TE Z
Tell error - Z axis only
TE W
Tell error - W axis only
Example 6 - Absolute Position
Objective: Command motion by specifying the absolute position.
Instruction
Interpretation
DP 0,2000
Define the current positions of X,Y as 0 and 2000
PA 7000,4000
Sets the desired absolute positions
BG X
Start X motion
BG Y
Start Y motion
After both motions are complete, the X and Y axes can be command back to zero:
PA 0,0
Move to 0,0
BG XY
Start both motions
Example 7 - Velocity Control
Objective: Drive the X and Y motors at specified speeds.
Instruction
Interpretation
JG 10000,-20000
Set Jog Speeds and Directions
AC 100000, 40000
Set accelerations
DC 50000,50000
Set decelerations
BG XY
Start motion
after a few seconds, command:
JG -40000
New X speed and Direction
TV X
Returns X speed
and then
JG ,20000
New Y speed
TV Y
Returns Y speed
These cause velocity changes including direction reversal. The motion can be stopped with the
instruction
ST
DMC-1200
Stop
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 35
Example 8 - Operation Under Torque Limit
The magnitude of the motor command may be limited independently by the instruction TL.
Instruction
Interpretation
TL 0.2
Set output limit of X axis to 0.2 volts
JG 10000
Set X speed
BG X
Start X motion
In this example, the X motor will probably not move since the output signal will not be sufficient to
overcome the friction. If the motion starts, it can be stopped easily by a touch of a finger.
Increase the torque level gradually by instructions such as
Instruction
Interpretation
TL 1.0
Increase torque limit to 1 volt.
TL 9.98
Increase torque limit to maximum, 9.98 Volts.
The maximum level of 9.998 volts provides the full output torque.
Example 9 - Interrogation
The values of the parameters may be interrogated. Some examples …
Instruction
Interpretation
KP ?
Return gain of X axis.
KP ,,?
Return gain of Z axis.
KP ?,?,?,?
Return gains of all axes.
Many other parameters such as KI, KD, FA, can also be interrogated. The command reference denotes
all commands which can be interrogated.
Example 10 - Operation in the Buffer Mode
The instructions may be buffered before execution as shown below.
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 600000
Distance
SP 10000
Speed
WT 10000
Wait 10000 milliseconds before reading the next instruction
BG X
Start the motion
Example 11 - Using the On-Board Editor
Motion programs may be edited and stored in the controllers on-board memory. When the command,
ED is given from the Galil DOS terminal (such as DMCTERM), the controllers editor will be started.
The instruction
ED
Edit mode
moves the operation to the editor mode where the program may be written and edited. The editor
provides the line number. For example, in response to the first ED command, the first line is zero.
Line #
Instruction
Interpretation
000
#A
Define label
001
PR 700
Distance
002
SP 2000
Speed
36 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
003
BGX
Start X motion
004
EN
End program
To exit the editor mode, input <cntrl>Q. The program may be executed with the command.
XQ #A
Start the program running
If the ED command is issued from the Galil Windows terminal software (such as DTERM32), the
software will open a Windows based editor. From this editor a program can be entered, edited,
downloaded and uploaded to the controller.
Example 12 - Motion Programs with Loops
Motion programs may include conditional jumps as shown below.
Instruction
Interpretation
#A
Label
DP 0
Define current position as zero
V1=1000
Set initial value of V1
#Loop
Label for loop
PA V1
Move X motor V1 counts
BG X
Start X motion
AM X
After X motion is complete
WT 500
Wait 500 ms
TP X
Tell position X
V1=V1+1000
Increase the value of V1
JP #Loop,V1<10001
Repeat if V1<10001
EN
End
After the above program is entered, quit the Editor Mode, <cntrl>Q. To start the motion, command:
XQ #A
Execute Program #A
Example 13 - Motion Programs with Trippoints
The motion programs may include trippoints as shown below.
Instruction
Interpretation
#B
Label
DP 0,0
Define initial positions
PR 30000,60000
Set targets
SP 5000,5000
Set speeds
BGX
Start X motion
AD 4000
Wait until X moved 4000
BGY
Start Y motion
AP 6000
Wait until position X=6000
SP 2000,50000
Change speeds
AP ,50000
Wait until position Y=50000
SP ,10000
Change speed of Y
EN
End program
To start the program, command:
XQ #B
DMC-1200
Execute Program #B
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 37
Example 14 - Control Variables
Objective: To show how control variables may be utilized.
Instruction
Interpretation
#A;DP0
Label; Define current position as zero
PR 4000
Initial position
SP 2000
Set speed
BGX
Move X
AMX
Wait until move is complete
WT 500
Wait 500 ms
#B
V1 = _TPX
Determine distance to zero
PR -V1/2
Command X move 1/2 the distance
BGX
Start X motion
AMX
After X moved
WT 500
Wait 500 ms
V1=
Report the value of V1
JP #C, V1=0
Exit if position=0
JP #B
Repeat otherwise
#C
Label #C
EN
End of Program
To start the program, command
XQ #A
Execute Program #A
This program moves X to an initial position of 1000 and returns it to zero on increments of half the
distance. Note, _TPX is an internal variable which returns the value of the X position. Internal
variables may be created by preceding a DMC-1200 instruction with an underscore, _.
Example 15 - Linear Interpolation
Objective: Move X,Y,Z motors distance of 7000,3000,6000, respectively, along linear trajectory.
Namely, motors start and stop together.
Instruction
Interpretation
LM XYZ
Specify linear interpolation axes
LI 7000,3000,6000
Relative distances for linear interpolation
LE
Linear End
VS 6000
Vector speed
VA 20000
Vector acceleration
VD 20000
Vector deceleration
BGS
Start motion
Example 16 - Circular Interpolation
Objective: Move the XY axes in circular mode to form the path shown on Fig. 2-4. Note that the
vector motion starts at a local position (0,0) which is defined at the beginning of any vector motion
sequence. See application programming for further information.
Instruction
38 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
Interpretation
DMC-1200
VM XY
Select XY axes for circular interpolation
VP -4000,0
Linear segment
CR 2000,270,-180
Circular segment
VP 0,4000
Linear segment
CR 2000,90,-180
Circular segment
VS 1000
Vector speed
VA 50000
Vector acceleration
VD 50000
Vector deceleration
VE
End vector sequence
BGS
Start motion
Y
(-4000,4000)
(0,4000)
R=2000
(-4000,0)
(0,0) local zero
X
Figure 2-4 Motion Path for Example 16
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 39
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40 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1200
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
DMC-1200
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 41
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
Overview
The DMC-1200 provides TTL digital inputs for forward limit, reverse limit, home, and abort
signals. The controller also has 8 TTL, uncommitted TTL inputs (for general use) as well as 8 TTL
outputs and 8 analog inputs configured for voltages between +/- 10 volts.
Controllers with 5 or more axes have an additional 8 TTL uncommitted inputs and an additional 8 TTL
outputs.
This chapter describes the inputs and outputs and their proper connection.
If you plan to use the auxiliary encoder feature of the DMC-1200, you must also connect CABLE-2025 to the AMP-19X0 or ICM-1900. This cable is ordered separately.
Inputs
Limit Switch Input
The forward limit switch (FLSx) inhibits motion in the forward direction immediately upon activation
of the switch. The reverse limit switch (RLSx) inhibits motion in the reverse direction immediately
upon activation of the switch. If a limit switch is activated during motion, the controller will make a
decelerated stop using the deceleration rate previously set with the DC command. The motor will
remain on (in a servo state) after the limit switch has been activated and will hold motor position.
When a forward or reverse limit switch is activated, the current application program that is running
will be interrupted and the controller will automatically jump to the #LIMSWI subroutine if one exists.
This is a subroutine which the user can include in any motion control program and is useful for
executing specific instructions upon activation of a limit switch. Automatic subroutines are discussed
in Chapter 6.
After a limit switch has been activated, further motion in the direction of the limit switch will not be
possible until the logic state of the switch returns back to an inactive state. This usually involves
42 •
DMC-1200
physically opening the tripped switch. Any attempt at further motion before the logic state has been
reset will result in the following error: “022 - Begin not possible due to limit switch” error.
The operands, _LFx and _LRx, contain the state of the forward and reverse limit switches, respectively
(x represents the axis, X,Y,Z,W etc.). The value of the operand is either a ‘0’ or ‘1’ corresponding to
the logic state of the limit switch. Using a terminal program, the state of a limit switch can be printed
to the screen with the command, MG _LFx or MG _LFx. This prints the value of the limit switch
operands for the 'x' axis. The logic state of the limit switches can also be interrogated with the TS
command. For more details on TS see the Command Reference.
Home Switch Input
Homing inputs are designed to provide mechanical reference points for a motion control application.
A transition in the state of a Home input alerts the controller that a particular reference point has been
reached by a moving part in the motion control system. A reference point can be a point in space or an
encoder index pulse.
The Home input detects any transition in the state of the switch and toggles between logic states 0 and
1 at every transition. A transition in the logic state of the Home input will cause the controller to
execute a homing routine specified by the user.
There are three homing routines supported by the DMC-1200: Find Edge (FE), Find Index (FI), and
Standard Home (HM).
The Find Edge routine is initiated by the command sequence: FEX <return>, BGX <return>. The Find
Edge routine will cause the motor to accelerate, then slew at constant speed until a transition is
detected in the logic state of the Home input. The direction of the FE motion is dependent on the state
of the home switch. High level causes forward motion. The motor will then decelerate to a stop. The
acceleration rate, deceleration rate and slew speed are specified by the user, prior to the movement,
using the commands AC, DC, and SP. It is recommended that a high deceleration value be used so the
motor will decelerate rapidly after sensing the Home switch.
The Find Index routine is initiated by the command sequence: FIX <return>, BGX <return>. Find
Index will cause the motor to accelerate to the user-defined slew speed (SP) at a rate specified by the
user with the AC command and slew until the controller senses a change in the index pulse signal from
low to high. The motor then decelerates to a stop at the rate previously specified by the user with the
DC command. Although Find Index is an option for homing, it is not dependent upon a transition in
the logic state of the Home input, but instead is dependent upon a transition in the level of the index
pulse signal.
The Standard Homing routine is initiated by the sequence of commands HMX <return>, BGX
<return>. Standard Homing is a combination of Find Edge and Find Index homing. Initiating the
standard homing routine will cause the motor to slew until a transition is detected in the logic state of
the Home input. The motor will accelerate at the rate specified by the command, AC, up to the slew
speed. After detecting the transition in the logic state on the Home Input, the motor will decelerate to
a stop at the rate specified by the command, DC. After the motor has decelerated to a stop, it switches
direction and approaches the transition point at the speed of 256 counts/sec. When the logic state
changes again, the motor moves forward (in the direction of increasing encoder count) at the same
speed, until the controller senses the index pulse. After detection, it decelerates to a stop and defines
this position as 0. The logic state of the Home input can be interrogated with the command MG
_HMX. This command returns a 0 or 1 if the logic state is low or high, respectively. The state of the
Home input can also be interrogated indirectly with the TS command.
For examples and further information about Homing, see command HM, FI, FE of the Command
Reference and the section entitled ‘Homing’ in the Programming Motion Section of this manual.
Abort Input
The function of the Abort input is to immediately stop the controller upon transition of the logic state.
DMC-1200
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware • 43
NOTE: The response of the abort input is significantly different from the response of an activated
limit switch. When the abort input is activated, the controller stops generating motion commands
immediately, whereas the limit switch response causes the controller to make a decelerated stop.
NOTE: The effect of an Abort input is dependent on the state of the off-on-error function for each
axis. If the Off-On-Error function is enabled for any given axis, the motor for that axis will be turned
off when the abort signal is generated. This could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop since it is no
longer under servo control. If the Off-On-Error function is disabled, the motor will decelerate to a stop
as fast as mechanically possible and the motor will remain in a servo state.
All motion programs that are currently running are terminated when a transition in the Abort input is
detected. For information on setting the Off-On-Error function, see the Command Reference, OE.
Uncommitted Digital Inputs
The DMC-1200 has 8 TTL inputs. These inputs can be read individually using the function @IN[x]
where x specifies the input number (1 thru 8). These inputs are uncommitted and can allow the user to
create conditional statements related to events external to the controller. For example, the user may
wish to have the x-axis motor move 1000 counts in the positive direction when the logic state of IN1
goes high.
Controllers with more than 4 axes have 16 TTL inputs which are denoted as inputs 1 through 16.
For controllers with more than 4 axes, the inputs 9-16 and the limit switch inputs for the additional
axes are accessed through the 2nd DMC-1204 daughter board.
IN9-IN16
FLE,RLE,HOMEE
FLF,RLF,HOMEF
FLG,RLG,HOMEG
FLH,RLH,HOMEH
The DMC-1200 optional daughter-board, the DB-12064, provides an additional 64 TTL I/O points.
The CO commands configures each set of 8 I/O as inputs or outputs. The DB-12064 uses two 50 pin
headers which connect directly via ribbon cable to an OPTO 22 (24 I/O) or Grayhill Opto rack (32
I/O).
The function “@IN[n]” (where n is 1-80) can be used to check the state of the inputs 1 thru 80.
Analog Inputs
The DMC-1200 has eight analog inputs configured for the range between -10V and 10V. The inputs
are decoded by a 12-bit A/D decoder giving a voltage resolution of approximately .005V. A 16-bit
ADC is available as an option. The impedence of these inputs is 10 KΩ. The analog inputs are
specified as AN[x] where x is a number 1 thru 8.
Amplifier Interface
The DMC-1200 analog command voltage, ACMD, ranges between +/-10V. This signal, along with
GND, provides the input to the power amplifiers. The power amplifiers must be sized to drive the
motors and load. For best performance, the amplifiers should be configured for a current mode of
operation with no additional compensation. The gain should be set such that a 10 Volt input results in
the maximum required current.
The DMC-1200 also provides an amplifier enable signal, AEN. This signal changes under the
following conditions: the watchdog timer activates, the motor-off command, MO, is given, or the
44 • Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
DMC-1200
OE1command (Enable Off-On-Error) is given and the position error exceeds the error limit. As
shown in Figure 3-4, AEN can be used to disable the amplifier for these conditions.
The standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active high. In other words, the AEN signal will
be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled. The polarity and the amplitude can be
changed if you are using the ICM-1900 interface board. To change the polarity from active high (5
volts = enable, zero volts = disable) to active low (zero volts = enable, 5 volts = disable), replace the
7407 IC with a 7406. Note that many amplifiers designate the enable input as ‘inhibit’.
To change the voltage level of the AEN signal, note the state of the resistor pack on the ICM-1900.
When Pin 1 is on the 5V mark, the output voltage is 0-5V. To change to 12 volts, pull the resistor pack
and rotate it so that Pin 1 is on the 12 volt side. If you remove the resistor pack, the output signal is an
open collector, allowing the user to connect an external supply with voltages up to 24V.
DMC-1200
DMC-1700/1800
ICM-1900/2900
+12V
Connection to +5V or +12V made through Resistor
pack RP1. Removing the resistor pack allows the
user to connect their own resistor to the desired
voltage level (Up to24V). Accessed by removing
Interconnect cover.
+5V
AMPENX
SERVO MOTOR
AMPLIFIER
GND
100-PIN
HIGH
DENSITY
CABLE
MOCMDX
7407 Open Collector Buffer.
The Enable signal can be
inverted by using a 7406.
Accessed by removing
Interconnect cover.
Analog Switch
Figure 3-4 - Connecting AEN to the motor amplifier
TTL Outputs
The DMC-1200 provides eight general use outputs, an output compare and an error signal output.
The general use outputs are TTL and are accessible through the ICM-1900 as OUT1 thru OUT8.
These outputs can be turned On and Off with the commands, SB (Set Bit), CB (Clear Bit), OB (Output
Bit), and OP (Output Port). For more information about these commands, see the Command
Summary. The value of the outputs can be checked with the operand _OP and the function @OUT[]
(see Chapter 7, Mathematical Functions and Expressions).
DMC-1200
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware • 45
1280
Controllers with 5 or more axes have an additional eight general use TTL outputs.
NOTE: For systems using the ICM-1900 interconnect module, the ICM-1900 has an option to provide
optoisolation on the outputs. In this case, the user provides a an isolated power supply (+5volts to
+24volts and ground). For more information, consult Galil.
The output compare signal is TTL and is available on the ICM-1900 as CMP. Output compare is
controlled by the position of any of the main encoders on the controller. The output can be
programmed to produce an active low pulse (1usec) based on an incremental encoder value or to
activate once when an axis position has been passed. For further information, see the command OC in
the Command Reference.
The error signal output is available on the interconnect module as ERROR. This is a TTL signal which
is low when the controller has an error.
Note: When the error signal is low, the LED on the controller will be on, indicating one of the
following error conditions:
1.
At least one axis has a position error greater than the error limit. The error limit is set by using the
command ER.
2.
The reset line on the controller is held low or is being affected by noise.
3.
There is a failure on the controller and the processor is resetting itself.
4.
There is a failure with the output IC which drives the error signal.
46 • Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
DMC-1200
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
DMC-1200
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware • 47
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and
Communications
Introduction
Galil software is available for PC computers running Microsoft Windows® to communicate with the DMC-1200
controller via the ISA bus structure. Standard Galil communications software utilities are available for Windows
operating systems, which includes SmartTERM and WSDK. These software packages are developed to operate under
Windows 98SE, ME, NT4.0, 2000, and XP, and include all the necessary drivers to communicate with the DMC-1200.
In addition, Galil offers software development tools ( CToolkit and ActiveX Toolkit) to allow users to create their own
application interfaces using programming environments such as C, C++, Visual Basic, and LabVIEW.
Galil also offers some basic software drivers and utilities for non-Windows environments such as DOS, Linux, and
QNX. For users who prefer to develop there own drivers, details are provided in this chapter describing the ISA
communications registers used on the Galil DMC-1200 controller.
The following sections in this chapter are a brief introduction to the software tools and communication techniques used
by Galil. Figure-1 illustrates the software hierarchy that Galil communications software employs. At the application
level, SmartTERM and WSDK are the basic programs that the majority of users will need to communicate with the
controller, to perform basic setup, and to develop application code (.DMC programs) that is downloaded to the
controller. At the Galil API level, Galil provides software tools (ActiveX and API functions) for advanced users, who
wish to develop their own custom application programs to communicate to the controller. Custom application programs
can utilize API function calls directly to our DLL’s, or use our ActiveX COM objects, which simplifies programming. At
the driver level, we provide fundamental hardware interface information for users who desire to create their own drivers.
48 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
SmartTERM
/
WSDK
Application
Level
Galil ActiveX Controls (DMCShell.ocx,
DMCReg.ocx, DMCTerm.ocx, etc.)
DMC32.dll
Galil API Level
DMCBUS32.dll
GLWDMISA.sys
Driver Level
Hardware
Interface
DMC-1200
FIFO
Figure 1 - Software Communications Hierarchy
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 49
Galil SmartTERM
SmartTERM is Galil’s basic communications utility that allows the user to perform basic tasks such as sending
commands directly to the controller, editing, downloading, and executing DMC programs, uploading and downloading
arrays, and updating controller firmware. The latest version of SmartTERM can be downloaded from the Galil website at
http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html
Figure 4.1 - Galil SmartTERM layout
The following SmartTERM File menu items briefly describe some basic features of the application.
Download File...
50 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
Launches a file-open dialog box that
selects a file (usually a DMC file) to
be downloaded to the controller. This
command uses the DL command to
download the file, clearing all
programs in the controller's RAM.
DMC-1200
DMC-1200
Upload File...
Opens a file save-as dialog that creates
a file for saving the DMC program
that is in the controller's RAM. This
command uses the UL command to
upload the file.
Send File...
Launches a file-open dialog box that
selects a file (usually a DMC file) to
be sent to the controller. Each line of
the file is sent to the controller as a
command and is executed
immediately.
Download Array...
Opens the "Download Array" dialog
box that allows an array in the
controller's RAM to be defined and
populated with data. The dialog box
uses the DMC32.dll 's
DMCArrayDownload function to
download the array. The controller's
firmware must be recent enough to
support the QD command. Array
values specified in the data file must
be comma separated or CRLF
deliminated.
Upload Array...
Opens the "Upload Array" dialog box
that allows an array in the controller's
RAM to be saved to a file on the hard
disk. The dialog box uses the
DMC32.dll 's DMCArrayUpload
function to upload the array. The
controller's firmware must be recent
enough to support the QU command.
Convert File ASCII to Binary...
Opens a dialog box that allows a file
containing Galil ASCII language
commands to Galil binary commands
and saves the result to the specified
file name.
Convert File Binary to ASCII...
Opens a dialog box that allows a file
containing Galil binary language
commands to Galil ASCII commands
and saves the result to the specified
file name.
Send Binary File...
Launches a file-open dialog box that
selects a file (usually a DMC file) to
be sent to the controller. This file can
contain binary commands. Each line of
the file is sent to the controller as a
command and executed immediately.
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 51
Additionally, the Tools menu items described below provide some advanced tasks such as updating firmware,
diagnostics, accessing the registry editor, and resetting the controller.
Select Controller...
Opens the "Select Controller" dialog box
that displays the currently registered Galil
Motion Controllers. Selecting a controller
from the list and clicking on the OK button
or double-clicking a controller will cause
the application to close any current
connections to a controller and open a new
connection to the selected controller.
DMCTerminal only connects to a single
controller at a time. However, multiple
instances of the application can be open at
once.
Disconnect from Controller
Causes the currently open connection to a
Galil Motion Controller to be closed.
Controller Registration...
Opens the "Edit Registry" dialog box,
which allows the Galil Registry entries to
be edited or new entries for non Plug-andPlay controllers to be created or deleted.
DMC Program Editor...
Causes the terminal to enter "Smart
Terminal with Editor" mode. This is the
same as clicking on the "Smart Terminal
with Editor" mode button on the terminal
window's toolbar.
Reset Controller
Offers three "reset" options. "Reset
Controller" sends an RS command to the
controller. The RS command does not
clear any saved variables, programs, or
parameters. "Master Reset" performs a
master reset on the controller. A Master
Reset does clear any saved variables,
programs, or parameters. "Clear
Controller's FIFO" causes the controller's
output FIFO to be cleared of data.
Device Driver
The Device Driver menu selection is
available to operating systems and/or
controllers that have device drivers that
can be stopped and started. This includes
drivers on NT4.0 and serial and Ethernet
controllers on all operating systems.
Diagnostics
The "Diagnostics" menu allows
diagnostics to be stopped and started. It
also will load the diagnostics output file
specified in the Tools/Options menu to be
loaded into the editor window for analysis.
The "Test Controller" command tests the
52 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
current controller with a series of standard
communication tests.
Update Firmware...
The "Update Firmware" command allows
new firmware to be downloaded to the
currently connected controller. Selecting
this command will cause a file-open dialog
box to open, allowing the user to specify a
*.HEX file to be specified for download.
The latest firmware files can be
downloaded from Galil's website.
Display Data Record
Causes the Data Record dialog box to be
displayed for the currently connected
controller. The dialog automatically
configures itself to display the data record
for each type of Galil Motion Controller.
Options
The Options menu command causes the
Options dialog to be displayed. The
Options dialog box allows several
application options to be set. These option
settings are preserved between uses.
DMC Program Editor Window
The Program Editor Window is used to create application programs (.DMC) that are downloaded to the controller. The
editor window is also useful for uploading and editing programs already residing in the controller memory. This window
has basic text editing features such as copy, cut, paste, etc. Also the editor window File function allows an application
program to be downloaded with compression (80 characters wide) This allows the user to write an application program
in the editor window that is longer than the normal line limitation (1000 lines) and download it to the controller.
Additionally, dynamic syntax help is available by activating the syntax help button (“:A->” icon).
DMC Data Record Display
The DMC SmartTERM utility program includes a “Data Record” display window that is useful for observing the current
status of all the major functions of the controller including axis specific data, I/O status, application program status, and
general status.
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 53
To display the Data Record (shown in Fig 4.2), select Display Data Record under the Tools menu of DMC
SmartTERM.
Figure 4.2 - Data Record Display for a DMC-1240
The Data Record display is user customizable so that all, or just parts, of the record can be displayed. To modify the
display, right click on an object to access the options. For detailed information about the features of the Galil DMC
SmartTERM including the Data Record, please consult Help Topics under the Help menu.
54 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
Communication Settings for ISA
The Galil SmartTERM application installation (as well as WSDK, ActiveX, and DMCWIN32
installations) includes the necessary drivers and .DLL files required to communicate with the Galil
controller. The drivers are automatically installed and default communications settings are applied to
the device by the driver when a card is installed as per the installation procedure outlined in Ch.2.
However, some advanced settings are available to modify the communications methods and data
record access. These settings are accessed through the Galil Registry Editor after the card is properly
installed.
Galil Registry Editor
The “Edit Registry” dialog box (shown in Fig 4.3) can be accessed by selecting Controller
Registration… under the Tools menu (or by selecting the toolbar icon with the magnifying glass)
within DMC SmartTERM. The Edit Registry dialog shows the current controller models installed to
the PC along with their associated I/O addresses, interrupt lines, and controller serial numbers. The
Galil Registry is part of the DMCReg.ocx ActiveX object (refer to Fig 4.1). This ActiveX control is
used to create, maintain, and modify the critical communication parameters, which are discussed next.
Figure 4.3 - Galil Registry Editor
Setting Communications Parameters and Methods
To access the Controller Communication Parameters dialog, highlight the desired controller in the
Galil Registry Editor accessed through SmartTERM and select the Properties command button.
The timeout property under the General Parameters tab (shown in Fig 4.4) allows the user to select
the timeout period that the Galil software waits for a response from the controller before generating an
error. If the controller does not reply with the data response and a colon (or just a colon for commands
that do not invoke responses), then the Galil software API will generate the timeout error code -1 (A
time-out occurred while waiting for a response from the Galil controller). The default setting for the
timeout is 5000ms, which should be sufficient for most cases.
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 55
Figure 4.4 - General Communications Parameters Dialog
Advanced communications settings are available under the Communications Method tab to allow
different methods of communications to be utilized (shown in Fig 4.5). The version 7 (and higher)
drivers and .DLL’s allow for three different methods of communications: Interrupt, Stall, and Delay.
Figure 4.5 - Controller Communications Method Dialog Box
56 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
Interrupt Communications Method
The interrupt method overall is the most efficient of the three methods. The software communications
method uses a hardware interrupt to notify the application that a response or unsolicited data is
available. This allows for greater efficiency and response time, since the drivers do not have to “poll”
the buffers for the data. Additionally, the interrupt method allows for data record caching.
The interrupt method uses bus level interrupts (IRQ) from the controller to notify the PC that data is
available. This requires that the Controller be configured with a valid interrupt line. For DMC-1800
controllers the interrupt is configured automatically. For DMC-1700 controllers, the interrupt is
manually set with a jumper specified during the installation procedure (see Ch.2). Firmware version
2.0m (and greater) is required for the “communications interrupt” method to be available. For
complete information on the different communications methods, select the More Info button on the
Communications parameters dialog box.
Stall Thread and Delay Thread Methods
Users can also choose between "Delay" and "Stall" methods. These two methods are available for both
the DMC-1700 and DMC-1800 controllers and affect how the software "waits" for a response from the
controller when a command is sent. If a controller is configured with the "Delay" method, the thread
waiting for a command response gives up its time slice, allowing other processes running on the
operating system to proceed. This method can slow communication, but results in negligible CPU
utilization. The second method, the "Stall" method, uses the opposite strategy. The thread that
performs I/O with the controller maintains ownership of the CPU and polls the controller until a
response is received. This approach is essentially the same method employed in previous
versions (< V7) of the Galil communication DLLs and drivers. While the "Stall" method does not have
to wait for its thread to become eligible for execution, it does result in 100% CPU utilization while
communicating with the controller.
Windows Servo Design Kit (WSDK)
The Galil Windows Servo Design Kit includes advanced tuning and diagnostic tools that allows the user to maximize the
performance of their systems, as well as aid in setup and configuration of Galil controllers. WSDK is recommended for
all first time users of Galil controllers. WSDK has an automatic servo tuning function that adjusts the PID filter
parameters for optimum performance and displays the resulting system step response. A four-channel storage scope
provides a real-time display of the actual position, velocity, error and torque. WSDK also includes impulse, step and
frequency response tests, which are useful for analyzing system stability, bandwidth and resonances. WSDK can be
purchased from Galil via the web at http://store.yahoo.com/galilmc/wsdk32.html.
Features Include:
•
•
•
•
•
DMC-1200
Automatic tuning for optimizing controller PID filter parameters
Provides impulse, step and frequency response tests of actual hardware
Four-channel storage scope for displaying real-time position, velocity, error and torque
Displays X versus Y position for viewing actual 2-D motion path
Terminal editor and program editor for easy communication with the controller
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 57
Figure 4.6- WSDK Main Screen
Creating Custom Software Interfaces
Galil provides programming tools so that users can develop their own custom software interfaces to a Galil controller.
These tools include the ActiveX Toolkit and DMCWin.
ActiveX Toolkit
Galil's ActiveX Toolkit is useful for the programmer who wants to easily create a custom operator interface to a Galil
controller. The ActiveX Toolkit includes a collection of ready-made ActiveX COM controls for use with Visual Basic,
Visual C++, Delphi, LabVIEW and other ActiveX compatible programming tools. The most common environment is
Visual Basic 6, but Visual Basic.NET, Visual C++, Wonderware, LabVIEW and HPVEE have all been tested by Galil to
work with the .OCX controls.
The ActiveX Toolkit can be purchased from Galil at http://store.yahoo.com/galilmc/actoolsoffor.html
The ActiveX toolkit can save many hours of programming time. Built-in dialog boxes are provided for quick parameter
setup, selection of color, size, location and text. The toolkit controls are easy to use and provide context sensitive help,
making it ideal for even the novice programmer.
58 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
ActiveX Toolkit Includes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a terminal control for sending commands and editing programs
a polling window for displaying responses from the controller such as position and speed
a storage scope control for plotting real time trajectories such as position versus time or X versus Y
a send file control for sending contour data or vector DMC files
a continuous array capture control for data collection, and for teach and playback
a graphical display control for monitoring a 2-D motion path
a diagnostics control for capturing current configurations
a display control for input and output status
a vector motion control for tool offsets and corner speed control
For more detailed information on the ActiveX Toolkit, please refer to the user manual at
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/activex.pdf.
DMCWin Programmers Toolkit
DMCWin is a programmer's toolkit for C/C++ and Visual Basic users. The toolkit includes header files for the Galil
communications API, as well as source code and examples for developing Windows® programs that communicate to
Galil Controllers. The Galil communications API includes functions to send commands, download programs,
download/upload arrays, access the data record, etc. For a complete list of all the functions, refer to the DMCWin user
manual at http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/dmcwin.pdf.
This software package is free for download and is available at http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html.
Galil Communications API with C/C++
When programming in C/C++, the communications API can be used as included functions or through a
class library. All Galil communications programs written in C must include the DMCCOM.H file and
access the API functions through the declared routine calls. C++ programs can use the DMCCOM.H
routines or use the class library defined in DMCWIN.H.
After installing DMCWin into the default directory, the DMCCOM.H header file is located in
C:\Program Files\Galil\DMCWIN\INCLUDE. C++ programs that use the class library need the files
DMCWIN.H and DMCWIN.CPP, which contain the class definitions and implementations
respectively. These can be found in the C:\ProgramFiles\Galil\DMCWIN\CPP directory.
To link the application with the DLL’s, the DMC32.lib file must be included in the project and is
located at C:\Program Files\Galil\DMCWIN\LIB
Example: A simple console application that sends commands to the controller
To initiate communication, declare a variable of type HANDLEDMC (a long integer) and pass the address of that
variable in the DMCOpen() function. If the DMCOpen() function is successful, the variable will contain the handle to the
Galil controller, which is required for all subsequent function calls. The following simple example program written as a
Visual C console application tells the controller to move the X axis 1000 encoder counts. Remember to add DMC32.LIB
to your project prior to compiling.
#include <windows.h>
#include <dmccom.h>
long rc;
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 59
HANDLEDMC hDmc;
HWND hWnd;
int main(void)
{
// Connect to controller number 1
rc = DMCOpen(1, hWnd, &hDmc);
if (rc == DMCNOERROR)
{
char szBuffer[64];
// Move the X axis 1000 counts
rc = DMCCommand(hDmc, "PR1000;BGX;", szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer));
// Disconnect from controller number 1 as the last action
rc = DMCClose(hDmc);
}
return 0;
}
Galil Communications API with Visual Basic
Declare Functions
To use the Galil communications API functions, add the module file included in the
C:\ProgramFiles\Galil\DMCWIN\VB directory named DMCCOM40.BAS. This module declares the
routines making them available for the VB project. To add this file, select ‘Add Module’ from the
‘Project’ menu in VB5/6.
Sending Commands in VB
Most commands are sent to the controller with the DMCCommand() function. This function allows
any Galil command to be sent from VB to the controller. The DMCCommand() function will return the
response from the controller as a string. Before sending any commands the DMCCOpen() function
must be called. This function establishes communication with the controller and is called only once.
This example code illustrates the use of DMCOpen() and DMCCommand(). A connection is made to
controller #1 in the Galil registry upon launching the application. Then, the controller is sent the
command ‘TPX’ whenever a command button is pressed. The response is then placed in a text box.
When the application is closed, the controller is disconnected.
To use this example, start a new Visual Basic project, place a Text Box and a Command Button on a
Form, add the DMCCOM40.BAS module, and type the following code:
Dim m_nController As Integer
Dim m_hDmc As Long
Dim m_nRetCode As Long
Dim m_nResponseLength As Long
Dim m_sResponse As String * 256
Private Sub Command1_Click()
m_nRetCode = DMCCommand(m_hDmc, "TPX", m_sResponse, m_nResponseLength)
Text1.Text = Val(m_sResponse)
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Load()
60 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
m_nResponseLength = 256
m_nController = 1
m_nRetCode = DMCOpen(m_nController, 0, m_hDmc)
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)
m_nRetCode = DMCClose(m_hDmc)
End Sub
Where:
‘m_nController’ is the number for the controller in the Galil registry.
‘m_hDmc’ is the DMC handle used to identify the controller. It is returned by DMCOpen.
‘m_nRetCode’ is the return code for the routine.
‘m_nResponseLength’ is the response string length which must be set to the size of the response string.
‘m_sResponse’ is the string containing the controller response to the command.
DOS, Linux, and QNX tools
Galil offers unsupported code examples that demonstrate communications to the controller using the following operating
systems.
DOS
DOS based utilities & Programming Libraries for Galil controllers, which includes a terminal, utilities to upload and
download programs, and source code for BASIC and C programs. Download DMCDOS at
http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html#dos.
Linux
Galil has developed code examples for the Linux operating system. The installation includes sample drivers to establish
communication with Galil PCI and ISA controllers. The current version of the software has been tested under Redhat 6.X
O.S. All source codes for the drivers and other utilities developed for Linux are available to customers upon request.
Linux drivers are available for ISA and PCI cards under Kernal 2.2. Drivers are also available for the PCI card only for
Kernal 2.4.
For more information on downloading and installing the Linux drivers for Galil controllers, download the Linux manual
at: http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/lnxmanual.pdf.
QNX
Galil offers sample drivers for ISA and PCI cards for the QNX 4.24 operating system. We also offer drivers and utilities
for QNX 6.2 for PCI only. Download at http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html#linux.
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 61
Command Format and Controller Response
Instructions to the DMC-1200 may be sent in Binary or ASCII format. Binary communication allows for faster data
processing since the controller does not have to first decode the ASCII characters.
ASCII Command mode
In the ASCII mode, instructions are represented by two characters followed by the appropriate parameters. Each
instruction must be terminated by a carriage return or semicolon.
The DMC-1200 decodes each ASCII character (one byte) one at a time. It takes approximately .350 msec for the
controller to decode each command and execute it.
After the instruction is decoded, the DMC-12 returns a colon (:) if the instruction was valid or a question mark (?) if the
instruction was not valid.
For instructions that return data, such as Tell Position (TP), the DMC-1200 will return the data followed by a carriage
return, line feed, and colon (:).
An echo function is also provided to enable associating the DMC-1200 response with the command sent. The echo is
enabled by sending the command EO 1 to the controller.
Binary Command Mode
Some commands have an equivalent binary value for the controllers. These values are listed in the Command Reference
next to the command in parentheses in hexadecimal format . Binary communication mode can be executed much faster
than ASCII commands since the controller does not have to first decode the ASCII characters. Binary format can only
be used when commands are sent from the PC and cannot be embedded in an application program.
Binary Command Format
All binary commands have a 4 byte header followed by data fields. The 4 bytes are specified in hexadecimal format.
Binary Header Format:
Byte 1 specifies the hexadecimal command number between 80 to FF.
Byte 2 specifies the # of bytes in each field as 0, 1, 2, 4 or 6 as follows:
00
No datafields (i.e. SH or BG)
01
One byte per field
02
One word (2 bytes per field)
04
One long word (4 bytes) per field
06
Galil real format (4 bytes integer and 2 bytes fraction)
Byte 3 specifies whether the command applies to coordinated motion on the “S” or “T” axis as follows:
Bit 1 =
Bit 0 =
T axis coordinated motion movement
S axis coordinated motion movement
62 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
For example, the command STS commands motion to stop on the S axis vector motion. The third byte for the
equivalent binary command would then be 01.
Byte 4 specifies the axis # or data field as follows
Bit 7 = H axis or 8th data field
Bit 6 = G axis or 7th data field
Bit 5 = F axis or 6th data field
Bit 4 = E axis or 5th data field
Bit 3 = D axis or 4th data field
Bit 2 = C axis or 3rd data field
Bit 1 = B axis or 2nd data field
Bit 0 = A axis or 1st data field
Data Fields Format
Data fields must be consistent with the format byte and the axes byte. For example, the command
“PR 1000,, -500” would be:
A7 02 00 05 03 E8 xx xx FE 0C
where
A7 is the command number for PR
02 specifies 2 bytes for each data field
00 coordinated motion is not active for PR
05 specifies bit 0 is active for A axis and bit 2 is active for C axis (20 + 22=5)
03 E8 represents 1000
xx xx represents inactive data for the B axis (xx xx can be any values since byte 4 was configured to ignore it)
FE OC represents -500
Example
The command “STABC” to stop motion on just axis A, B, and C would be:
A1 00 00 07
where
A1 is the command number for ST
00 specifies 0 data fields
00 specifies the command does not apply to the coordinated motion
07 specifies stop A (bit 0), B (bit 1) and C (bit 2) (20+21+22 =7)
For more information and a complete list of all Galil binary commands, please refer to the Optima
Series Command Reference at http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/manc2000.pdf.
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 63
Controller Event Interrupts and User Interrupts
The DMC-1200 provides a hardware interrupt line that will, when enabled, interrupt the PC bus, which will allow the
controller to notify the host application of particular events occurring on the controller. Interrupts free the host from
having to poll for the occurrence of certain events such as motion complete or excess position error.
The DMC-1200 uses only one of the PC’s interrupts; however, it is possible to interrupt on multiple conditions. For this
reason, the controller provides a status byte register that contains a byte designating each condition.
The DMC-1200 provides an interrupt buffer that is 16 deep. This allows for multiple interrupt conditions to be stored in
sequence of occurrence without loss of data.
The DMC-1200 provides two command forms of interrupt functionality, EI and UI. Specific interrupt conditions can be
enabled using the EI command, or explicit user defined interrupts can be sent using the UI command.
Enabling Event Interrupts (EI command)
To enable certain conditions, use the command EIm,n. Where the first field “m” represents a 16-bit
value of conditions described in the table below. For example, to enable interrupts on X and Y motion
complete and position error, set EI515 (i.e. 515=20+21+29). Once the EI command is enabled for a
specific condition, an interrupt will occur for every instance of that condition, except for the items
marked with an asterisk (*), they must be re-enabled after every occurrence.
Bit Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Condition
X motion complete
Y motion complete
Z motion complete
W motion complete
E motion complete
F motion complete
G motion complete
H motion complete
All axes motion complete
Excess position error*
Limit switch
Watchdog timer
Reserved
Application program stopped
Command done †
Inputs* (uses n for mask)
†Not used when using new version 7 drivers.
The argument “n” enables interrupts for the first 8 general inputs. To enable interrupts for the desired inputs, set bit 15 of
the “m” argument, then set the desired inputs using the 8-bit mask for the “n” argument. For example, to enable interrupt
on inputs 1-4, set EI32768,15. Note that the input interrupts must be reset for all inputs after any input has caused an
interrupt.
64 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
Bit number
Input
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Input 4
Input 5
Input 6
Input 7
Input 8
User Interrupts (UI command)
The DMC-1200 also provides 16 User Interrupts which can be sent by executing the command UIn to the DMC-1200,
where n is an integer between 0 and 15. The UI command does not require the EI command. UI commands are useful in
DMC programs to let the host application know that certain points within the DMC program have occurred.
Servicing Interrupts
Once an interrupt occurs, the host computer sends an associated Status Byte along with the interrupt vector. The Status
Byte returned denotes what condition has occurred, as described in the table below.
Status Byte (hex)
00
D9
DA
DB
F0 thru FF
E1 thru E8
C0
C8
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Condition
No interrupt
Watchdog timer activated
Command done
Application program done
User interrupt
Input interrupt
Limit switch occurred
Excess position error
All axis motion complete
H axis motion complete
G axis motion complete
F axis motion complete
E axis motion complete
W axis motion complete
Z axis motion complete
Y axis motion complete
X axis motion complete
The recommended method to utilize the interrupts in a host application is to use a pre-defined interrupt service routine.
Where the event routine, on interrupt, will automatically execute and return the Status Byte. For example, when using
the ActiveX toolkit DMCShell control with VB, the DMCShell1_DMCInterrupt() event procedure (shown below) will
automatically execute and return the StatusByte in the argument. This StausByte can then be used in a case structure as
the key to notify the host application of a specific event or condition.
In this VB example below, the event procedure will display a message box every time the X-axis motion is complete,
assuming the command EI1 was sent to the controller. Note: the argument is returned as 208 since the status byte is
returned as an integer (i.e. D0 hex = 208 decimal).
Private Sub DMCShell1_DMCInterrupt(StatusByte As Integer)
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 65
If StatusByte = 208 Then
MsgBox "X axis complete"
End If
End Sub
Hardware Level Communications for ISA
This section of the chapter describes in detail the structures used to communicate with the DMC-1200 controller at the
register interface level. The information in this section is intended for advanced programmers with extensive knowledge
of ISA bus operation.
Communications with the DMC-1200
The DMC-1200 controller provides dual FIFO (first in first out) buffers, where a primary read/write FIFO is used for the
main command input and response, and a secondary FIFO is used for read-only access to the data record. The primary
read and write buffers are 512 characters deep, which permits sending commands at high speeds ahead of their actual
command processing by the DMC-1200.
The DMC-1200 provides four I/O registers beginning at the base address N, where the base address N is set with the
address jumpers as described in Ch.2. The Main Communications FIFO register occupies address N and is used for the
main communications to the controller (i.e. sending commands and getting data responses). The CONTROL register
occupies address N+1 and is used to monitoring status of the main communications.
DMC-1700 Communication Registers
Register
Address
Read/Write
Description
Main
Communications FIFO
N
Read and Write
Send commands and receive responses
Main Control
N+1
Read and Write
For main FIFO status control
Simplified Communications Procedure
The simplest approach for communicating with the DMC-1200 is to monitor bits 5 and 6 of the control register at
address N+1. Bit 5 is for read status and bit 6 is for write status.
Control Register N+1
Status Bit
Action
Logic State
Meaning
5
Read
0
Data to be read
5
Read
1
No data to be read
6
Read
0
Buffer not full, OK to write
6
Read
1
Buffer full. Do not write data
Read Procedure-To receive data from the DMC-1200, read the control register at address
N+1 and check bit 5. If bit 5 is zero, the DMC-1200 has data to be read in the READ register at
address N. Bit 5 must be checked for every character read.
66 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
Write Procedure-To send data to the DMC-1200, read the control register at address N+1 and
check bit 6. If bit 6 is zero, the DMC-1200 FIFO buffer is not full and 1 character may be written to
the register at address N. If bit 6 is one, the buffer is full and no additional data should be written. Bit
6 of N+1 must be checked before every character is written to address N.
Any high-level computer language such as C, Basic, Pascal or Assembly may be used to communicate
with the DMC-1200 as long as the READ/WRITE procedure is followed as described above.
Clearing FIFO Buffer
Clearing the FIFO is useful for emergency resets or Abort. For example, to reset the controller, clear
the FIFO, then send the RS command to the controller. All data, including data from the DMC-1200,
will then be cleared.
The FIFO buffer may be cleared by writing the following sequence:
1.
Read N+1 address
2.
Write 01H to N+1 address
3.
Write 80H to N+1 address
4.
Write 01H to N+1 address
5.
Write 80H to N+1 address
6.
Read N+1 address
It is a good idea to clear any control data before attempting this procedure. Send a no-op instruction,
by reading N+1 address, before you start. Note: Clearing the FIFO will also reset the configuration for
the interrupt mask register. Refer to “Interrupt Service for the DMC-1200” below for re-enabling the
IRQ.
Interrupt Service for the DMC-1200
The hardware interrupt line (IRQ) provides a mechanism for the controller to alert the host application
of certain events. This alleviates the need to constantly poll the controller for status using the main
FIFO. Upon servicing the interrupt, a status byte is returned with a specific event designator. Refer to
the previous section “Controller Event Interrupts…” in this chapter for a complete list of the events
and conditions.
Before an interrupt can be serviced and the status byte read, the interrupt register on the FIFO chip
(MailBox) must first be configured and enabled. Also, a valid IRQ line must be selected (refer to Ch.2
for proper jumper settings for IRQ). Assuming a valid IRQ line has been selected, the following
procedure outlines the steps needed to configure, enable, and service the interrupt.
1.
Configure the FIFO interrupt register by writing a 2 and then a 4 to N+1. This configures the FIFO chip for
mailbox interrupt. Note: this should also be done any time after clearing the FIFO.
2.
Enable the interrupt by writing a 6 to N+1 then reading back from N+1. This effectively clears the interrupt
register and allows new interrupts to enter.
3.
Upon interrupt, Service the interrupt by writing a 6 to N+1 then reading back from N+1. The returned status
byte from N+1 will then contain the event designator that initiated the interrupt.
Data Record
The DMC-1200 can provide a block of status information with the use of a single command, QR. This
command, along with the QZ command, can be very useful for accessing complete controller status.
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 67
The QR command will return 4 bytes of header information and specific blocks of information as
specified by the command arguments: QR ABCDEFGHST
Each argument corresponds to a block of information according to the Data Record Map below. If no
argument is given, the entire data record map will be returned. Note that the data record size will
depend on the number of axes.
Data Record Memory Map
ADDR
TYPE
ITEM
00-01
UW
sample number
02
UB
general input block 0 (inputs 1-8)
03
UB
general input block 1 (inputs 9-16)
04
UB
general input block 2 (inputs 17-24)
05
UB
general input block 3 (inputs 25-32)
06
UB
general input block 4 (inputs 33-40)
07
UB
general input block 5 (inputs 41-48)
08
UB
general input block 6 (inputs 49-56)
09
UB
general input block 7 (inputs 57-64)
10
UB
general input block 8 (inputs 65-72)
11
UB
general input block 9 (inputs 73-80)
12
UB
general output block 0 (outputs 1-8)
13
UB
general output block 1 (outputs 9-16)
14
UB
general output block 2 (outputs 17-24)
15
UB
general output block 3 (outputs 25-32)
16
UB
general output block 4 (outputs 33-40)
17
UB
general output block 5 (outputs 41-48)
18
UB
general output block 6 (outputs 49-56)
19
UB
general output block 7 (outputs 57-64)
20
UB
general output block 8 (outputs 65-72)
21
UB
general output block 9 (outputs 73-80)
22
UB
error code
23
UB
general status
24-25
UW
segment count of coordinated move for S plane
26-27
UW
coordinated move status for S plane
28-31
SL
distance traveled in coordinated move for S plane
32-33
UW
segment count of coordinated move for T plane
34-35
UW
coordinated move status for T plane
36-39
SL
distance traveled in coordinated move for T plane
40-41
UW
x,a axis status
42
UB
x,a axis switches
43
UB
x,a axis stopcode
44-47
SL
x,a axis reference position
48-51
SL
x,a axis motor position
52-55
SL
x,a axis position error
56-59
SL
x,a axis auxiliary position
68 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1200
60-63
DMC-1200
SL
x,a axis velocity
64-65
SW
x,a axis torque
66-67
SW
x,a axis analog input
68-69
UW
y,b axis status
70
UB
y,b axis switches
71
UB
y,b axis stopcode
72-75
SL
y,b axis reference position
76-79
SL
y,b axis motor position
80-83
SL
y,b axis position error
84-87
SL
y,b axis auxiliary position
88-91
SL
y,b axis velocity
92-93
SW
y,b axis torque
94-95
SW
y,b axis analog input
96-97
UW
z,c axis status
98
UB
z,c axis switches
99
UB
z,c axis stopcode
100-103
SL
z,c axis reference position
104-107
SL
z,c axis motor position
108-111
SL
z,c axis position error
112-115
SL
z,c axis auxiliary position
116-119
SL
z,c axis velocity
120-121
SW
z,c axis torque
122-123
SW
z,c axis analog input
124-125
UW
w,d axis status
126
UB
w,d axis switches
127
UB
w,d axis stop code
128-131
SL
w,d axis reference position
132-135
SL
w,d axis motor position
136-139
SL
w,d axis position error
140-143
SL
w,d axis auxiliary position
144-147
SL
w,d axis velocity
148-149
SW
w,d axis torque
150-151
SW
w,d axis analog input
152-153
UW
e axis status
154
UB
e axis switches
155
UB
e axis stop code
156-159
SL
e axis reference position
160-163
SL
e axis motor position
164-167
SL
e axis position error
168-171
SL
e axis auxiliary position
172-175
SL
e axis velocity
176-177
SW
e axis torque
178-179
SW
e axis analog input
180-181
UW
f axis status
182
UB
f axis switches
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 69
183
UB
f axis stopcode
184-187
SL
f axis reference position
188-191
SL
f axis motor position
192-195
SL
f axis position error
196-199
SL
f axis auxiliary position
200-203
SL
f axis velocity
204-205
SW
f axis torque
206-207
SW
f axis analog input
208-209
UW
g axis status
210
UB
g axis switches
211
UB
g axis stopcode
212-215
SL
g axis reference position
216-219
SL
g axis motor position
220-223
SL
g axis position error
224-227
SL
g axis auxiliary position
228-231
SL
g axis velocity
232-233
SW
g axis torque
234-235
SW
g axis analog input
236-237
UW
h axis status
238
UB
h axis switches
239
UB
h axis stopcode
240-243
SL
h axis reference position
244-247
SL
h axis motor position
248-251
SL
h axis position error
252-255
SL
h axis auxiliary position
256-259
SL
h axis velocity
260-261
SW
h axis torque
262-263
SW
h axis analog input
Note: UB = Unsigned Byte, UW = Unsigned Word, SW = Signed Word, SL = Signed Long Word
Explanation of Status Information and Axis Switch Information
General Status Information (1 Byte)
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Program
Running
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Trace on
Echo On
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Latch
Occurred
State of
Latch
Input
N/A
N/A
State of
Forward
Limit
State of
Reverse
Limit
State of
Home
Input
SM
Jumper
Installed
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
Axis Switch Information (1 Byte)
Axis Status Information (1 Word)
Move in
Progress
Mode of
Motion
PA or
BIT 13
Mode of
Motion
PA only
BIT 12
(FE)
Find
Edge in
70 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
BIT 11
Home
(HM) in
Progress
st
1 Phase
of HM
complete
nd
2 Phase
of HM
complete
Mode of
Motion
Coord.
DMC-1200
PR
Progress
or FI
command
issued
Motion
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Negative
Direction
Move
Mode of
Motion
Motion
is
slewing
Motion
is
stopping
due to
ST of
Limit
Switch
Motion
is
making
final
decel.
Latch is
armed
Off-OnError
enabled
Motor
Off
Contour
Coordinated Motion Status Information for S or T Plane (2 Byte)
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
Move in
Progress
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
N/A
N/A
Motion
is
slewing
Motion
is
stopping
due to
ST or
Limit
Switch
Motion
is
making
final
decel.
N/A
N/A
N/A
Notes Regarding Velocity, Torque and Analog Input Data
The velocity information that is returned in the data record is 64 times larger than the value returned when using
the command TV (Tell Velocity). See command reference for more information about TV.
The torque information is represented as a number in the range of +/-32544. Maximum negative torque of –
9.9982 V is represented by –32544. Maximum positive torque of 9.9982 V is represented by 32544. Torque
information is then scaled linearly as 1v=~3255.
The analog input is stored as a 16-bit value (+/-32768), which represents an analog voltage range of +/- 10V.
DMC-1200
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 71
Chapter 5 Command Basics
Introduction
The DMC-1200 provides over 100 commands for specifying motion and machine parameters.
Commands are included to initiate action, interrogate status and configure the digital filter. These
commands can be sent in ASCII or binary.
In ASCII, the DMC-1200 instruction set is BASIC-like and easy to use. Instructions consist of two
uppercase letters that correspond phonetically with the appropriate function. For example, the
instruction BG begins motion, and ST stops the motion. In binary , commands are represented by a
binary code ranging from 80 to FF.
ASCII commands can be sent "live" over the bus for immediate execution by the DMC-1200, or an
entire group of commands can be downloaded into the DMC-1200 memory for execution at a later
time. Combining commands into groups for later execution is referred to as Applications
Programming and is discussed in the following chapter. Binary commands cannot be used in
Applications programming.
This section describes the DMC-1200 instruction set and syntax. A summary of commands as well as
a complete listing of all DMC-1200 instructions is included in the Command Reference manual.
Command Syntax - ASCII
DMC-1200 instructions are represented by two ASCII upper case characters followed by applicable
arguments. A space may be inserted between the instruction and arguments. A semicolon or <enter>
is used to terminate the instruction for processing by the DMC-1200 command interpreter. Note: If
you are using a Galil terminal program, commands will not be processed until an <enter> command is
given. This allows the user to separate many commands on a single line and not begin execution until
the user gives the <enter> command.
IMPORTANT: All DMC-1200 commands are sent in upper case.
For example, the command
PR 4000 <enter>
Position relative
PR is the two character instruction for position relative. 4000 is the argument which represents the
required position value in counts. The <enter> terminates the instruction.
For specifying data for the X,Y,Z and W axes, commas are used to separate the axes. If no data is
specified for an axis, a comma is still needed as shown in the examples below. If no data is specified
for an axis, the previous value is maintained.
To view the current values for each command, type the command followed by a ? for each axis
requested.
72 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1200
PR 1000
Specify X only as 1000
PR ,2000
Specify Y only as 2000
PR ,,3000
Specify Z only as 3000
PR ,,,4000
Specify W only as 4000
PR 2000, 4000,6000, 8000
Specify X Y Z and W
PR ,8000,,9000
Specify Y and W only
PR ?,?,?,?
Request X,Y,Z,W values
PR ,?
Request Y value only
The DMC-1200 provides an alternative method for specifying data. Here data is specified individually
using a single axis specifier such as X,Y,Z or W. An equals sign is used to assign data to that axis.
For example:
PRX=1000
Specify a position relative movement for the X axis of 1000
ACY=200000
Specify acceleration for the Y axis as 200000
Instead of data, some commands request action to occur on an axis or group of axes. For example, ST
XY stops motion on both the X and Y axes. Commas are not required in this case since the particular
axis is specified by the appropriate letter X Y Z or W. If no parameters follow the instruction, action
will take place on all axes. Here are some examples of syntax for requesting action:
BG X
Begin X only
BG Y
Begin Y only
BG XYZW
Begin all axes
BG YW
Begin Y and W only
BG
Begin all axes
For controllers with 5 or more axes, the axes are referred to as A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H. The specifiers
X,Y,Z,W and A,B,C,D may be used interchangeably:
BG ABCDEFGH
Begin all axes
BG D
Begin D only
Coordinated Motion with more than 1 axis
When requesting action for coordinated motion, the letter S is used to specify the coordinated motion.
For example:
DMC-1200
BG S
Begin coordinated sequence
BG SW
Begin coordinated sequence and W axis
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 73
Command Syntax - Binary
Some commands have an equivalent binary value. Binary communication mode can be executed much
faster than ASCII commands. Binary format can only be used when commands are sent from the PC
and cannot be embedded in an application program.
Binary Command Format
All binary commands have a 4 byte header and is followed by data fields. The 4 bytes are specified in
hexadecimal format.
Header Format:
Byte 1 specifies the command number between 80 to FF. The complete binary command number table
is listed below.
Byte 2 specifies the # of bytes in each field as 0,1,2,4 or 6 as follows:
00
No datafields (i.e. SH or BG)
01
One byte per field
02
One word (2 bytes per field)
04
One long word (4 bytes) per field
06
Galil real format (4 bytes integer and 2 bytes fraction)
Byte 3 specifies whether the command applies to a coordinated move as follows:
00
No coordinated motion movement
01
Coordinated motion movement
For example, the command STS designates motion to stop on a vector motion. The third byte for the
equivalent binary command would be 01.
Byte 4 specifies the axis # or data field as follows
Bit 7 = H axis or 8th data field
Bit 6 = G axis or 7th data field
Bit 5 = F axis or 6th data field
Bit 4 = E axis or 5th data field
Bit 3 = D axis or 4th data field
Bit 2 = C axis or 3rd data field
Bit 1 = B axis or 2nd data field
Bit 0 = A axis or 1st data field
Datafields Format
Datafields must be consistent with the format byte and the axes byte. For example, the command PR
1000,, -500 would be
A7 02 00 05 03 E8 FE OC
where
A7 is the command number for PR
74 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1200
02 specifies 2 bytes for each data field
00 S is not active for PR
05 specifies bit 0 is active for A axis and bit 2 is active for C axis (20 + 22=5)
03 E8 represents 1000
FE 0C represents -500
Example
The command ST XYZS would be
A1 00 01 07
where
A1 is the command number for ST
00 specifies 0 data fields
01 specifies stop the coordinated axes S
07 specifies stop X (bit 0), Y (bit 1) and Z (bit 2) 20+21+23 =7
Binary command table
DMC-1200
COMMAND
NO.
COMMAND
NO.
COMMAND
NO.
Reserved
KP
KI
KD
DV
AF
KF
PL
ER
IL
TL
MT
CE
OE
FL
BL
AC
DC
SP
IT
FA
FV
GR
DP
DE
OF
GM
reserved
reserved
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8a
8b
8c
8d
8e
8f
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9a
9b
9c
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
LM
LI
VP
CR
TN
LE, VE
VT
VA
VD
VS
VR
reserved
reserved
CM
CD
DT
ET
EM
EP
EG
EB
EQ
EC
reserved
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
B0
B1
B2
A3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
reserved
reserved
RP
TP
TE
TD
TV
RL
TT
TS
TI
SC
reserved
reserved
reserved
TM
CN
LZ
OP
OB
SB
CB
II
EI
AL
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
d6
d7
d8
d9
da
db
dc
dd
de
df
e0
e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6
e7
e8
e9
ea
eb
ec
ed
ee
ef
f0
f1
f2
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 75
reserved
reserved
reserved
BG
ST
AB
HM
FE
FI
PA
PR
JG
MO
SH
9d
9e
9f
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
a7
a8
a9
aa
AM
MC
TW
MF
MR
AD
AP
AR
AS
AI
AT
WT
WC
reserved
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
reserved
f3
f4
f5
f6
f7
f8
f9
fa
fb
fc
fd
fe
ff
Controller Response to DATA
The DMC-1200 returns a : for valid commands.
The DMC-1200 returns a ? for invalid commands.
For example, if the command BG is sent in lower case, the DMC-1200 will return a ?.
:bg <enter>
invalid command, lower case
?
DMC-1200 returns a ?
When the controller receives an invalid command the user can request the error code. The error code
will specify the reason for the invalid command response. To request the error code type the
command: TC1 For example:
?TC1 <enter>
Tell Code command
1 Unrecognized command
Returned response
There are many reasons for receiving an invalid command response. The most common reasons are:
unrecognized command (such as typographical entry or lower case), command given at improper time
(such as during motion), or a command out of range (such as exceeding maximum speed). A complete
listing of all codes is listed in the TC command in the Command Reference manual.
Interrogating the Controller
Interrogation Commands
The DMC-1200 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When the command is
entered, the requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by a carriage return
and line feed. The format of the returned data can be changed using the Position Format (PF), Variable
Format (VF) and Leading Zeros (LZ) command. See Chapter 7 and the Command Reference.
Summary of Interrogation Commands
RP
Report Command Position
RL
Report Latch
76 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1200
∧
R ∧V
Firmware Revision Information
SC
Stop Code
TB
Tell Status
TC
Tell Error Code
TD
Tell Dual Encoder
TE
Tell Error
TI
Tell Input
TP
Tell Position
TR
Trace
TS
Tell Switches
TT
Tell Torque
TV
Tell Velocity
For example, the following example illustrates how to display the current position of the X axis:
TP X <enter>
Tell position X
0000000000
Controllers Response
TP XY <enter>
Tell position X and Y
0000000000,0000000000
Controllers Response
Interrogating Current Commanded Values.
Most commands can be interrogated by using a question mark (?) as the axis specifier. Type the
command followed by a ? for each axis requested.
PR ?,?,?,?
Request X,Y,Z,W values
PR ,?
Request Y value only
The controller can also be interrogated with operands.
Operands
Most DMC-1200 commands have corresponding operands that can be used for interrogation.
Operands must be used inside of valid DMC expressions. For example, to display the value of an
operand, the user could use the command:
MG ‘operand’
where ‘operand’ is a valid DMC operand
All of the command operands begin with the underscore character (_). For example, the value of the
current position on the X axis can be assigned to the variable ‘V’ with the command:
V=_TPX
The Command Reference denotes all commands which have an equivalent operand as "Used as an
Operand". Also, see description of operands in Chapter 7.
Command Summary
For a complete command summary, see Command Reference manual.
DMC-1200
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 77
Chapter 6 Programming Motion
Overview
The DMC-1200 provides several modes of motion, including independent positioning and jogging,
coordinated motion, electronic cam motion, and electronic gearing. Each one of these modes is
discussed in the following sections.
The DMC-1210 is a single axis controller and uses X-axis motion only. Likewise, the DMC-1220 uses
X and Y, the DMC-1230 uses X,Y and Z, and the DMC-1240 uses X,Y,Z and W. The DMC-1250
uses A,B,C,D, and E. The DMC-1260 uses A,B,C,D,E, and F. The DMC-1270 uses A,B,C,D,E,F and
G. The DMC-1280 uses the axes A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and H.
The example applications described below will help guide you to the appropriate mode of motion.
1280
For controllers with 5 or more axes, the specifiers, ABCDEFGH, are used. XYZ and W may be
interchanged with ABCD.
EXAMPLE APPLICATION
MODE OF MOTION
COMMANDS
Absolute or relative positioning where each axis is
independent and follows prescribed velocity profile.
Independent Axis Positioning
PA,PR
SP,AC,DC
Velocity control where no final endpoint is prescribed.
Motion stops on Stop command.
Independent Jogging
JG
AC,DC
ST
Motion Path described as incremental position points versus
time.
Contour Mode
CM
CD
DT
WC
2,3 or 4 axis coordinated motion where path is described by
linear segments.
Linear Interpolation
LM
LI,LE
VS,VR
VA,VD
78 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
2-D motion path consisting of arc segments and linear
segments, such as engraving or quilting.
Coordinated Motion
VM
VP
CR
VS,VR
VA,VD
VE
Third axis must remain tangent to 2-D motion path, such as
knife cutting.
Coordinated motion with tangent axis specified
VM
VP
CR
VS,VA,VD
TN
VE
Electronic gearing where slave axes are scaled to master axis Electronic Gearing
which can move in both directions.
GA
GR
GM (if gantry)
Master/slave where slave axes must follow a master such as
conveyer speed.
Electronic Gearing
GA
GR
Moving along arbitrary profiles or mathematically
prescribed profiles such as sine or cosine trajectories.
Contour Mode
CM
CD
DT
WC
Teaching or Record and Play Back
Contour Mode with Automatic Array Capture
CM
CD
DT
WC
RA
RD
RC
Backlash Correction
Dual Loop
DV
Following a trajectory based on a master encoder position
Electronic Cam
EA
EM
EP
ET
EB
EG
EQ
Smooth motion while operating in independent axis
positioning
Independent Motion Smoothing
IT
Smooth motion while operating in vector or linear
interpolation positioning
Vector Smoothing
VT
Smooth motion while operating with stepper motors
Stepper Motor Smoothing
KS
Gantry - two axes are coupled by gantry
Gantry Mode
GR
GM
Independent Axis Positioning
In this mode, motion between the specified axes is independent, and each axis follows its own profile.
The user specifies the desired absolute position (PA) or relative position (PR), slew speed (SP),
acceleration ramp (AC), and deceleration ramp (DC), for each axis. On begin (BG), the DMC-1200
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 79
profiler generates the corresponding trapezoidal or triangular velocity profile and position trajectory.
The controller determines a new command position along the trajectory every sample period until the
specified profile is complete. Motion is complete when the last position command is sent by the
DMC-1200 profiler. Note: The actual motor motion may not be complete when the profile has been
completed, however, the next motion command may be specified.
The Begin (BG) command can be issued for all axes either simultaneously or independently. XYZ or
W axis specifiers are required to select the axes for motion. When no axes are specified, this causes
motion to begin on all axes.
The speed (SP) and the acceleration (AC) can be changed at any time during motion, however, the
deceleration (DC) and position (PR or PA) cannot be changed until motion is complete. Remember,
motion is complete when the profiler is finished, not when the actual motor is in position. The Stop
command (ST) can be issued at any time to decelerate the motor to a stop before it reaches its final
position.
An incremental position movement (IP) may be specified during motion as long as the additional move
is in the same direction. Here, the user specifies the desired position increment, n. The new target is
equal to the old target plus the increment, n. Upon receiving the IP command, a revised profile will be
generated for motion towards the new end position. The IP command does not require a begin. Note:
If the motor is not moving, the IP command is equivalent to the PR and BG command combination.
Command Summary - Independent Axis
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PR X,Y,Z,W
Specifies relative distance
PA x,y,z,w
Specifies absolute position
SP x,y,z,w
Specifies slew speed
AC x,y,z,w
Specifies acceleration rate
DC x,y,z,w
Specifies deceleration rate
BG XYZW
Starts motion
ST XYZW
Stops motion before end of move
IP x,y,z,w
Changes position target
IT x,y,z,w
Time constant for independent motion smoothing
AM XYZW
Trippoint for profiler complete
MC XYZW
Trippoint for "in position"
The lower case specifiers (x,y,z,w) represent position values for each axis.
The DMC-1200 also allows use of single axis specifiers such as PRY=2000
80 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Operand Summary - Independent Axis
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_ACx
Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_DCx
Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_SPx
Returns the speed for the axis specified by ‘x’
_Pax
Returns current destination if ‘x’ axis is moving, otherwise returns the current commanded
position if in a move.
_PRx
Returns current incremental distance specified for the ‘x’ axis
Example - Absolute Position Movement
PA 10000,20000
Specify absolute X,Y position
AC 1000000,1000000
Acceleration for X,Y
DC 1000000,1000000
Deceleration for X,Y
SP 50000,30000
Speeds for X,Y
BG XY
Begin motion
Example - Multiple Move Sequence
Required Motion Profiles:
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
500 counts
Position
10000 count/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec2
Acceleration
1000 counts
Position
15000 count/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec2
Acceleration
100 counts
Position
5000 counts/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec
Acceleration
This example will specify a relative position movement on X, Y and Z axes. The movement on each
axis will be separated by 20 msec. Fig. 6.1 shows the velocity profiles for the X,Y and Z axis.
DMC-1200
#A
Begin Program
PR 2000,500,100
Specify relative position movement of 1000, 500 and 100 counts for X,Y and Z
axes.
SP 15000,10000,5000
Specify speed of 10000, 15000, and 5000 counts / sec
AC 500000,500000,500000
Specify acceleration of 500000 counts / sec2 for all axes
DC 500000,500000,500000
Specify deceleration of 500000 counts / sec2 for all axes
BG X
Begin motion on the X axis
WT 20
Wait 20 msec
BG Y
Begin motion on the Y axis
WT 20
Wait 20 msec
BG Z
Begin motion on Z axis
EN
End Program
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 81
VELOCITY
(COUNTS/SEC)
X axis velocity profile
20000
Y axis velocity profile
15000
Z axis velocity profile
10000
5000
TIME (ms)
0
20
40
60
80
100
Figure 6.1 - Velocity Profiles of XYZ
Notes on fig 6.1: The X and Y axis have a ‘trapezoidal’ velocity profile, while the Z axis has a
‘triangular’ velocity profile. The X and Y axes accelerate to the specified speed, move at this constant
speed, and then decelerate such that the final position agrees with the command position, PR. The Z
axis accelerates, but before the specified speed is achieved, must begin deceleration such that the axis
will stop at the commanded position. All 3 axes have the same acceleration and deceleration rate,
hence, the slope of the rising and falling edges of all 3 velocity profiles are the same.
Independent Jogging
The jog mode of motion is very flexible because speed, direction and acceleration can be changed
during motion. The user specifies the jog speed (JG), acceleration (AC), and the deceleration (DC)
rate for each axis. The direction of motion is specified by the sign of the JG parameters. When the
begin command is given (BG), the motor accelerates up to speed and continues to jog at that speed
until a new speed or stop (ST) command is issued. If the jog speed is changed during motion, the
controller will make a accelerated (or decelerated) change to the new speed.
An instant change to the motor position can be made with the use of the IP command. Upon receiving
this command, the controller commands the motor to a position which is equal to the specified
increment plus the current position. This command is useful when trying to synchronize the position
of two motors while they are moving.
Note that the controller operates as a closed-loop position controller while in the jog mode. The DMC1200 converts the velocity profile into a position trajectory and a new position target is generated every
sample period. This method of control results in precise speed regulation with phase lock accuracy.
Command Summary - Jogging
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
AC x,y,z,w
Specifies acceleration rate
BG XYZW
Begins motion
DC x,y,z,w
Specifies deceleration rate
IP x,y,z,w
Increments position instantly
IT x,y,z,w
Time constant for independent motion smoothing
82 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
JG +/-x,y,z,w
Specifies jog speed and direction
ST XYZW
Stops motion
Parameters can be set with individual axes specifiers such as JGY=2000 (set jog speed for Y axis to
2000) or ACYH=400000 (set acceleration for Y and H axes to 400000).
Operand Summary - Independent Axis
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_ACx
Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_DCx
Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_SPx
Returns the jog speed for the axis specified by ‘x’
_TVx
Returns the actual velocity of the axis specified by ‘x’ (averaged over .25 sec)
Example - Jog in X only
Jog X motor at 50000 count/s. After X motor is at its jog speed, begin jogging Z in reverse direction at
25000 count/s.
#A
AC 20000,,20000
Specify X,Z acceleration of 20000 cts / sec
DC 20000,,20000
Specify X,Z deceleration of 20000 cts / sec
JG 50000,,-25000
Specify jog speed and direction for X and Z axis
BG X
Begin X motion
AS X
Wait until X is at speed
BG Z
Begin Z motion
EN
Example - Joystick Jogging
The jog speed can also be changed using an analog input such as a joystick. Assume that for a 10 Volt
input the speed must be 50000 counts/sec.
#JOY
Label
JG0
Set in Jog Mode
BGX
Begin motion
#B
Label for loop
V1 [email protected][1]
Read analog input
VEL=V1*50000/10
Compute speed
JG VEL
Change JG speed
JP #B
Loop
Linear Interpolation Mode
The DMC-1200 provides a linear interpolation mode for 2 or more axes. In linear interpolation mode,
motion between the axes is coordinated to maintain the prescribed vector speed, acceleration, and
deceleration along the specified path. The motion path is described in terms of incremental distances
for each axis. An unlimited number of incremental segments may be given in a continuous move
sequence, making the linear interpolation mode ideal for following a piece-wise linear path. There is
no limit to the total move length.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 83
The LM command selects the Linear Interpolation mode and axes for interpolation. For example, LM
YZ selects only the Y and Z axes for linear interpolation.
When using the linear interpolation mode, the LM command only needs to be specified once unless the
axes for linear interpolation change.
Specifying the Coordinate Plane
The DMC-1200 allows for 2 separate sets of coordinate axes for linear interpolation mode or vector
mode. These two sets are identified by the letters S and T.
To specify vector commands the coordinate plane must first be identified. This is done by issuing the
command CAS to identify the S plane or CAT to identify the T plane. All vector commands will be
applied to the active coordinate system until changed with the CA command.
Specifying Linear Segments
The command LI x,y,z,w or LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h specifies the incremental move distance for each axis.
This means motion is prescribed with respect to the current axis position. Up to 511 incremental move
segments may be given prior to the Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once motion has begun,
additional LI segments may be sent to the controller.
The clear sequence (CS) command can be used to remove LI segments stored in the buffer prior to the
start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS or AB. The command, ST, causes a
decelerated stop. The command, AB, causes an instantaneous stop and aborts the program, and the
command AB1 aborts the motion only.
The Linear End (LE) command must be used to specify the end of a linear move sequence. This
command tells the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last LI command. If an LE command
is not given, an Abort AB1 must be used to abort the motion sequence.
It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough LI segments in the DMC-1200 sequence buffer to
ensure continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional LI segments and no LE command,
the controller will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled deceleration.
LM? or _LM returns the available spaces for LI segments that can be sent to the buffer. 511 returned
means the buffer is empty and 511 LI segments can be sent. A zero means the buffer is full and no
additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not full, additional LI segments can be sent at
PC bus speeds.
The instruction _CS returns the segment counter. As the segments are processed, _CS increases,
starting at zero. This function allows the host computer to determine which segment is being
processed.
Additional Commands
The commands VS n, VA n, and VD n are used to specify the vector speed, acceleration and
deceleration. The DMC-1200 computes the vector speed based on the axes specified in the LM mode.
For example, LM XYZ designates linear interpolation for the X,Y and Z axes. The vector speed for
this example would be computed using the equation:
2
2
2
2
VS =XS +YS +ZS , where XS, YS and ZS are the speed of the X,Y and Z axes.
The controller always uses the axis specifications from LM, not LI, to compute the speed.
VT is used to set the S-curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves. The command AV n is the
‘After Vector’ trippoint, which halts program execution until the vector distance of n has been reached.
84 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
An Example of Linear Interpolation Motion:
#LMOVE
label
DP 0,0
Define position of X and Y axes to be 0
LMXY
Define linear mode between X and Y axes.
LI 5000,0
Specify first linear segment
LI 0,5000
Specify second linear segment
LE
End linear segments
VS 4000
Specify vector speed
BGS
Begin motion sequence
AV 4000
Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 4000 is reached
VS 1000
Change vector speed
AV 5000
Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 5000 is reached
VS 4000
Change vector speed
EN
Program end
In this example, the XY system is required to perform a 90° turn. In order to slow the speed around
the corner, we use the AV 4000 trippoint, which slows the speed to 1000 count/s. Once the motors
reach the corner, the speed is increased back to 4000 cts / s.
Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment
The instruction VS has an immediate effect and, therefore, must be given at the required time. In some
applications, such as CNC, it is necessary to attach various speeds to different motion segments. This
can be done by two functions: < n and > m
For example:
LI x,y,z,w < n >m
The first command, < n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and will
cause an acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.
The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the segment.
Note that the function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during previous
segments, as needed to meet the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA and VD.
Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one
function may be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000, and
the distance for deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The controller will
attempt to lower the speed to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.
As an example, consider the following program.
#ALT
DMC-1200
Label for alternative program
DP 0,0
Define Position of X and Y axis to be 0
LMXY
Define linear mode between X and Y axes.
LI 4000,0 <4000 >1000
Specify first linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
LI 1000,1000 < 4000 >1000
Specify second linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
LI 0,5000 < 4000 >1000
Specify third linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
LE
End linear segments
BGS
Begin motion sequence
EN
Program end
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 85
Changing Feedrate:
The command VR n allows the feedrate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of .0001.
This command takes effect immediately and causes VS to be scaled. VR also applies when the vector
speed is specified with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feedrate override. VR does not
ratio the accelerations. For example, VR .5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be divided in half.
Command Summary - Linear Interpolation
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
LM xyzw
LM abcdefgh
Specify axes for linear interpolation
(same) controllers with 5 or more axes
LM?
Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-1200 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer full. 512 means buffer empty.
LI x,y,z,w < n
Specify incremental distances relative to current position, and assign vector speed n.
LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h <
n
VS n
Specify vector speed
VA n
Specify vector acceleration
VD n
Specify vector deceleration
VR n
Specify the vector speed ratio
BGS
Begin Linear Sequence
CS
Clear sequence
LE
Linear End- Required at end of LI command sequence
LE?
Returns the length of the vector (resets after 2147483647)
AMS
Trippoint for After Sequence complete
AV n
Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance, n
VT
S curve smoothing constant for vector moves
Operand Summary - Linear Interpolation
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_AV
Return distance traveled
_CS
Segment counter - returns number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.
_LE
Returns length of vector (resets after 2147483647)
_LM
Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-1200 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer full. 512 means buffer empty.
_VPm
Return the absolute coordinate of the last data point along the trajectory.
(m=X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G or H)
To illustrate the ability to interrogate the motion status, consider the first motion segment of our
example, #LMOVE, where the X axis moves toward the point X=5000. Suppose that when X=3000,
the controller is interrogated using the command ‘MG _AV’. The returned value will be 3000. The
value of _CS, _VPX and _VPY will be zero.
Now suppose that the interrogation is repeated at the second segment when Y=2000. The value of
_AV at this point is 7000, _CS equals 1, _VPX=5000 and _VPY=0.
86 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Example - Linear Move
Make a coordinated linear move in the ZW plane. Move to coordinates 40000,30000 counts at a
vector speed of 100000 counts/sec and vector acceleration of 1000000 counts/sec2.
LM ZW
Specify axes for linear interpolation
LI,,40000,30000
Specify ZW distances
LE
Specify end move
VS 100000
Specify vector speed
VA 1000000
Specify vector acceleration
VD 1000000
Specify vector deceleration
BGS
Begin sequence
Note that the above program specifies the vector speed, VS, and not the actual axis speeds VZ and
VW. The axis speeds are determined by the DMC-1200 from:
VS = VZ 2 + VW 2
The resulting profile is shown in Figure 6.2.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 87
30000
27000
POSITION W
3000
0
0
4000
36000
40000
POSITION Z
FEEDRATE
0
0.1
0.5
0.6
TIME (sec)
VELOCITY
Z-AXIS
TIME (sec)
VELOCITY
W-AXIS
TIME (sec)
Figure 6.2 - Linear Interpolation
Example - Multiple Moves
This example makes a coordinated linear move in the XY plane. The Arrays VX and VY are used to
store 750 incremental distances which are filled by the program #LOAD.
#LOAD
Load Program
DM VX [750],VY [750]
Define Array
COUNT=0
Initialize Counter
88 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
N=10
Initialize position increment
#LOOP
LOOP
VX [COUNT]=N
Fill Array VX
VY [COUNT]=N
Fill Array VY
N=N+10
Increment position
COUNT=COUNT+1
Increment counter
JP #LOOP,COUNT<750
Loop if array not full
#A
Label
LM XY
Specify linear mode for XY
COUNT=0
Initialize array counter
#LOOP2;JP#LOOP2,_LM=0
If sequence buffer full, wait
JS#C,COUNT=500
Begin motion on 500th segment
LI VX[COUNT],VY[COUNT]
Specify linear segment
COUNT=COUNT+1
Increment array counter
JP #LOOP2,COUNT<750
Repeat until array done
LE
End Linear Move
AMS
After Move sequence done
MG "DONE"
Send Message
EN
End program
#C;BGS;EN
Begin Motion Subroutine
Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation Motion
The DMC-1200 allows a long 2-D path consisting of linear and arc segments to be prescribed. Motion
along the path is continuous at the prescribed vector speed even at transitions between linear and
circular segments. The DMC-1200 performs all the complex computations of linear and circular
interpolation, freeing the host PC from this time intensive task.
The coordinated motion mode is similar to the linear interpolation mode. Any pair of two axes may be
selected for coordinated motion consisting of linear and circular segments. In addition, a third axis can
be controlled such that it remains tangent to the motion of the selected pair of axes. Note that only one
pair of axes can be specified for coordinated motion at any given time.
The command VM m,n,p where ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the coordinated pair and p is the tangent axis (Note:
the commas which separate m,n and p are not necessary). For example, VM XWZ selects the XW
axes for coordinated motion and the Z-axis as the tangent.
Specifying the Coordinate Plane
The DMC-1280 allows for 2 separate sets of coordinate axes for linear interpolation mode or vector
mode. These two sets are identified by the letters S and T.
To specify vector commands the coordinate plane must first be identified. This is done by issuing the
command CAS to identify the S plane or CAT to identify the T plane. All vector commands will be
applied to the active coordinate system until changed with the CA command.
Specifying Vector Segments
The motion segments are described by two commands; VP for linear segments and CR for circular
segments. Once a set of linear segments and/or circular segments have been specified, the sequence is
ended with the command VE. This defines a sequence of commands for coordinated motion.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 89
Immediately prior to the execution of the first coordinated movement, the controller defines the current
position to be zero for all movements in a sequence. Note: This ‘local’ definition of zero does not
affect the absolute coordinate system or subsequent coordinated motion sequences.
The command, VP xy specifies the coordinates of the end points of the vector movement with respect
to the starting point. Non-sequential axes do not require comma delimitation. The command, CR r,q,d
define a circular arc with a radius r, starting angle of q, and a traversed angle d. The notation for q is
that zero corresponds to the positive horizontal direction, and for both q and d, the counter-clockwise
(CCW) rotation is positive.
Up to 511 segments of CR or VP may be specified in a single sequence and must be ended with the
command VE. The motion can be initiated with a Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once motion
starts, additional segments may be added.
The Clear Sequence (CS) command can be used to remove previous VP and CR commands which
were stored in the buffer prior to the start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS
or AB1. ST stops motion at the specified deceleration. AB1 aborts the motion instantaneously.
The Vector End (VE) command must be used to specify the end of the coordinated motion. This
command requires the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last motion requirement. If a VE
command is not given, an Abort (AB1) must be used to abort the coordinated motion sequence.
It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough motion segments in the DMC-1200 sequence buffer
to ensure continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional motion segments and no VE
command, the controller will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled
deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the available spaces for motion segments that can be sent to the
buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and 511 segments can be sent. A zero means the
buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not full, additional
segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.
The operand _CS can be used to determine the value of the segment counter.
Additional commands
The commands VS n, VA n and VD n are used for specifying the vector speed, acceleration, and
deceleration.
VT is the s curve smoothing constant used with coordinated motion.
Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment:
The vector speed may be specified by the immediate command VS. It can also be attached to a motion
segment with the instructions
VP x,y < n >m
CR r,θ,δ < n >m
The first command, <n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and will
cause an acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.
The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the segment.
Note that the function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during previous
segments, as needed to meet the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA and VD.
Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one
function may be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000, and
the distance for deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The controller will
attempt to lower the speed to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.
.
90 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Changing Feedrate:
The command VR n allows the feedrate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of .0001.
This command takes effect immediately and causes VS scaled. VR also applies when the vector speed
is specified with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feedrate override. VR does not ratio the
accelerations. For example, VR .5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be divided by 2.
Compensating for Differences in Encoder Resolution:
By default, the DMC-1200 uses a scale factor of 1:1 for the encoder resolution when used in vector
mode. If this is not the case, the command, ES can be used to scale the encoder counts. The ES
command accepts two arguments which represent the number of counts for the two encoders used for
vector motion. The smaller ratio of the two numbers will be multiplied by the higher resolution
encoder. For more information, see ES command in Chapter 11, Command Summary.
Trippoints:
The AV n command is the After Vector trippoint, which waits for the vector relative distance of n to
occur before executing the next command in a program.
Tangent Motion:
Several applications, such as cutting, require a third axis (i.e. a knife blade), to remain tangent to the
coordinated motion path. To handle these applications, the DMC-1200 allows one axis to be specified
as the tangent axis. The VM command provides parameter specifications for describing the
coordinated axes and the tangent axis.
VM m,n,p
m,n specifies coordinated axes, p specifies tangent axis such as X,Y,Z,W
p=N turns off tangent axis
Before the tangent mode can operate, it is necessary to assign an axis via the VM command and define
its offset and scale factor via the TN m,n command. m defines the scale factor in counts/degree and n
defines the tangent position that equals zero degrees in the coordinated motion plane. The operand
_TN can be used to return the initial position of the tangent axis.
Example:
Assume an XY table with the Z-axis controlling a knife. The Z-axis has a 2000 quad counts/rev
encoder and has been initialized after power-up to point the knife in the +Y direction. A 180° circular
cut is desired, with a radius of 3000, center at the origin and a starting point at (3000,0). The motion is
CCW, ending at (-3000,0). Note that the 0° position in the XY plane is in the +X direction. This
corresponds to the position -500 in the Z-axis, and defines the offset. The motion has two parts. First,
X,Y and Z are driven to the starting point, and later, the cut is performed. Assume that the knife is
engaged with output bit 1.
#EXAMPLE
DMC-1200
Example program
VM XYZ
XY coordinate with Z as tangent
TN 2000/360,-500
2000/360 counts/degree, position -500 is 0 degrees in XY plane
CR 3000,0,180
3000 count radius, start at 0 and go to 180 CCW
VE
End vector
CB1
Disengage knife
PA 3000,0,_TN
Move X and Y to starting position, move Z to initial tangent position
BG XYZ
Start the move to get into position
AM XYZ
When the move is complete
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 91
SB1
Engage knife
WT50
Wait 50 msec for the knife to engage
BGS
Do the circular cut
AMS
After the coordinated move is complete
CB1
Disengage knife
MG "ALL DONE"
EN
End program
Command Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION.
VM m,n
Specifies the axes for the planar motion where m and n represent the planar axes and p is
the tangent axis.
VP m,n
Return coordinate of last point, where m=X,Y,Z or W.
CR r,Θ, ±ΔΘ
Specifies arc segment where r is the radius, Θ is the starting angle and ΔΘ is the travel
angle. Positive direction is CCW.
VS s,t
Specify vector speed or feedrate of sequence.
VA s,t
Specify vector acceleration along the sequence.
VD s,t
Specify vector deceleration along the sequence.
VR s,t
Specify vector speed ratio
BGST
Begin motion sequence, S or T
CSST
Clear sequence, S or T
AV s,t
Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance.
AMST
Holds execution of next command until Motion Sequence is complete.
TN m,n
Tangent scale and offset.
ES m,n
Ellipse scale factor.
VT s,t
S curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves
LM?
Return number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-1700
sequence buffer. Zero means buffer is full. 512 means buffer is empty.
CAS or CAT
Specifies which coordinate system is to be active (S or T)
Operand Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_VPM
The absolute coordinate of the axes at the last intersection along the sequence.
_AV
Distance traveled.
_LM
Number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-1200 sequence
buffer. Zero means buffer is full. 512 means buffer is empty.
_CS
Segment counter - Number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.
_VE
Vector length of coordinated move sequence.
When AV is used as an operand, _AV returns the distance traveled along the sequence.
The operands _VPX and _VPY can be used to return the coordinates of the last point specified along
the path.
92 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Example:
Traverse the path shown in Fig. 6.3. Feedrate is 20000 counts/sec. Plane of motion is XY
VM XY
Specify motion plane
VS 20000
Specify vector speed
VA 1000000
Specify vector acceleration
VD 1000000
Specify vector deceleration
VP -4000,0
Segment AB
CR 1500,270,-180
Segment BC
VP 0,3000
Segment CD
CR 1500,90,-180
Segment DA
VE
End of sequence
BGS
Begin Sequence
The resulting motion starts at the point A and moves toward points B, C, D, A. Suppose that we
interrogate the controller when the motion is halfway between the points A and B.
The value of _AV is 2000
The value of _CS is 0
_VPX and _VPY contain the absolute coordinate of the point A
Suppose that the interrogation is repeated at a point, halfway between the points C and D.
The value of _AV is 4000+1500π+2000=10,712
The value of _CS is 2
_VPX,_VPY contain the coordinates of the point C
C (-4000,3000)
D (0,3000)
R = 1500
B (-4000,0)
A (0,0)
Figure 6.3 - The Required Path
Electronic Gearing
This mode allows up to 8 axes to be electronically geared to some master axes. The masters may rotate
in both directions and the geared axes will follow at the specified gear ratio. The gear ratio may be
different for each axis and changed during motion.
The command GAX yzw or GA ABCDEFGH specifies the master axes. GR x,y,z,w specifies the
gear ratios for the slaves where the ratio may be a number between +/-127.9999 with a fractional
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 93
resolution of 0.0001 (higher resolution available as an option). There are two modes: standard gearing
and gantry mode. The gantry mode is enabled with the command GM. GR 0,0,0,0 turns off gearing in
both modes. A limit switch or ST command disable gearing in the standard mode but not in the gantry
mode.
The command GM x,y,z,w select the axes to be controlled under the gantry mode. The parameter 1
enables gantry mode, and 0 disables it.
GR causes the specified axes to be geared to the actual position of the master. The master axis is
commanded with motion commands such as PR, PA or JG.
When the master axis is driven by the controller in the jog mode or an independent motion mode, it is
possible to define the master as the command position of that axis, rather than the actual position. The
designation of the commanded position master is by the letter, C. For example, GACX indicates that
the gearing is the commanded position of X.
An alternative gearing method is to synchronize the slave motor to the commanded vector motion of
several axes performed by GAS. For example, if the X and Y motor form a circular motion, the Z axis
may move in proportion to the vector move. Similarly, if X,Y and Z perform a linear interpolation
move, W can be geared to the vector move.
Electronic gearing allows the geared motor to perform a second independent or coordinated move in
addition to the gearing. For example, when a geared motor follows a master at a ratio of 1:1, it may be
advanced an additional distance with PR, or JG, commands, or VP, or LI.
Command Summary - Electronic Gearing
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
GA n
Specifies master axes for gearing where:
n = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master
n = CX,CY,CZ or CW or AC, BC, CC, DC, EC, FC,GC,HC for commanded position.
n = DX,DY,DZ or DW or DA, DB, DC, DD, DE, DF,DG,DH for auxiliary encoders
n = S or T for gearing to coordinated motion.
GR x,y,z,w
Sets gear ratio for slave axes. 0 disables electronic gearing for specified axis.
GR a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
Sets gear ratio for slave axes. 0 disables electronic gearing for specified axis.
GM a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
X = 1 sets gantry mode, 0 disables gantry mode
MR x,y,z,w
Trippoint for reverse motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.
MF x,y,z,w
Trippoint for forward motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.
Example - Simple Master Slave
Master axis moves 10000 counts at slew speed of 100000 counts/sec. Y is defined as the master.
X,Z,W are geared to master at ratios of 5,-.5 and 10 respectively.
GA Y,,Y,Y
Specify master axes as Y
GR 5,,-.5,10
Set gear ratios
PR ,10000
Specify Y position
SP ,100000
Specify Y speed
BGY
Begin motion
Example - Electronic Gearing
Objective: Run two geared motors at speeds of 1.132 and -0.045 times the speed of an external master.
The master is driven at speeds between 0 and 1800 RPM (2000 counts/rev encoder).
94 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Solution: Use a DMC-1230 controller, where the Z-axis is the master and X and Y are the geared
axes.
MO Z
Turn Z off, for external master
GA Z, Z
Specify Z as the master axis for both X and Y.
GR 1.132,-.045
Specify gear ratios
Now suppose the gear ratio of the X-axis is to change on-the-fly to 2. This can be achieved by
commanding:
GR 2
Specify gear ratio for X axis to be 2
Example - Gantry Mode
In applications where both the master and the follower are controlled by the DMC-1200 controller, it
may be desired to synchronize the follower with the commanded position of the master, rather than the
actual position. This eliminates the coupling between the axes which may lead to oscillations.
For example, assume that a gantry is driven by two axes, X,Y, on both sides. This requires the gantry
mode for strong coupling between the motors. The X-axis is the master and the Y-axis is the follower.
To synchronize Y with the commanded position of X, use the instructions:
GA, CX
Specify the commanded position of X as master for Y.
GR,1
Set gear ratio for Y as 1:1
GM,1
Set gantry mode
PR 3000
Command X motion
BG X
Start motion on X axis
You may also perform profiled position corrections in the electronic gearing mode. Suppose, for
example, that you need to advance the slave 10 counts. Simply command
IP ,10
Specify an incremental position movement of 10 on Y axis.
Under these conditions, this IP command is equivalent to:
PR,10
Specify position relative movement of 10 on Y axis
BGY
Begin motion on Y axis
Often the correction is quite large. Such requirements are common when synchronizing cutting knives
or conveyor belts.
Example - Synchronize two conveyor belts with trapezoidal velocity
correction.
GA,X
Define X as the master axis for Y.
GR,2
Set gear ratio 2:1 for Y
PR,300
Specify correction distance
SP,5000
Specify correction speed
AC,100000
Specify correction acceleration
DC,100000
Specify correction deceleration
BGY
Start correction
Electronic Cam
The electronic cam is a motion control mode which enables the periodic synchronization of several
axes of motion. Up to 7 axes can be slaved to one master axis. The master axis encoder must be input
through a main encoder port.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 95
The electronic cam is a more general type of electronic gearing which allows a table-based relationship
between the axes. It allows synchronizing all the controller axes. For example, the DMC-1280
controller may have one master and up to seven slaves.
To illustrate the procedure of setting the cam mode, consider the cam relationship for the slave axis Y,
when the master is X. Such a graphic relationship is shown in Figure 6.8.
3000
2250
1500
0
2000
4000
6000
Master X
Figure 6.8: Electronic Cam Example
Step 1. Selecting the master axis
The first step in the electronic cam mode is to select the master axis. This is done with the instruction
EAp where p = X,Y,Z,W
p is the selected master axis
For the given example, since the master is x, we specify EAX
Step 2. Specify the master cycle and the change in the slave axis (es).
In the electronic cam mode, the position of the master is always expressed modulo one cycle. In this
example, the position of x is always expressed in the range between 0 and 6000. Similarly, the slave
position is also redefined such that it starts at zero and ends at 1500. At the end of a cycle when the
master is 6000 and the slave is 1500, the positions of both x and y are redefined as zero. To specify the
master cycle and the slave cycle change, we use the instruction EM.
EM x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w specify the cycle of the master and the total change of the slaves over one cycle.
96 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
The cycle of the master is limited to 8,388,607 whereas the slave change per cycle is limited to
2,147,483,647. If the change is a negative number, the absolute value is specified. For the given
example, the cycle of the master is 6000 counts and the change in the slave is 1500. Therefore, we use
the instruction:
EM 6000,1500
Step 3. Specify the master interval and starting point.
Next we need to construct the ECAM table. The table is specified at uniform intervals of master
positions. Up to 256 intervals are allowed. The size of the master interval and the starting point are
specified by the instruction:
EP m,n
where m is the interval width in counts, and n is the starting point.
For the given example, we can specify the table by specifying the position at the master points of 0,
2000, 4000 and 6000. We can specify that by
EP 2000,0
Step 4. Specify the slave positions.
Next, we specify the slave positions with the instruction
ET[n]=x,y,z,w
where n indicates the order of the point.
The value, n, starts at zero and may go up to 256. The parameters x,y,z,w indicate the corresponding
slave position. For this example, the table may be specified by
ET[0]=,0
ET[1]=,3000
ET[2]=,2250
ET[3]=,1500
This specifies the ECAM table.
Step 5. Enable the ECAM
To enable the ECAM mode, use the command
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 97
EB n
where n=1 enables ECAM mode and n=0 disables ECAM mode.
Step 6. Engage the slave motion
To engage the slave motion, use the instruction
EG x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slaves must be engaged.
If the value of any parameter is outside the range of one cycle, the cam engages immediately. When
the cam is engaged, the slave position is redefined, modulo one cycle.
Step 7. Disengage the slave motion
To disengage the cam, use the command
EQ x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slave axes are disengaged.
This disengages the slave axis at a specified master position. If the parameter is outside the master
cycle, the stopping is instantaneous.
To illustrate the complete process, consider the cam relationship described by
the equation:
Y = 0.5 * X + 100 sin (0.18*X)
where X is the master, with a cycle of 2000 counts.
The cam table can be constructed manually, point by point, or automatically by a program. The
following program includes the set-up.
The instruction EAX defines X as the master axis. The cycle of the master is
2000. Over that cycle, Y varies by 1000. This leads to the instruction EM 2000,1000.
Suppose we want to define a table with 100 segments. This implies increments of 20 counts each. If
the master points are to start at zero, the required instruction is EP 20,0.
98 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
The following routine computes the table points. As the phase equals 0.18X and X varies in
increments of 20, the phase varies by increments of 3.6°. The program then computes the values of Y
according to the equation and assigns the values to the table with the instruction ET[N] = ,Y.
Instruction
Interpretation
#SETUP
Label
EAX
Select X as master
EM 2000,1000
Cam cycles
EP 20,0
Master position increments
N=0
Index
#LOOP
Loop to construct table from equation
P = N∗3.6
Note 3.6 = 0.18∗20
S = @SIN [P] *100
Define sine position
Y = N *10+S
Define slave position
ET [N] =, Y
Define table
N = N+1
JP #LOOP, N<=100
Repeat the process
EN
Now suppose that the slave axis is engaged with a start signal, input 1, but that both the engagement
and disengagement points must be done at the center of the cycle: X = 1000 and Y = 500. This
implies that Y must be driven to that point to avoid a jump.
This is done with the program:
Instruction
Interpretation
#RUN
Label
EB1
Enable cam
PA,500
starting position
SP,5000
Y speed
BGY
Move Y motor
AM
After Y moved
AI1
Wait for start signal
EG,1000
Engage slave
AI - 1
Wait for stop signal
EQ,1000
Disengage slave
EN
End
Command Summary - Electronic CAM
DMC-1200
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
EA p
Specifies master axes for electronic cam where:
p = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master
EB n
Enables the ECAM
EC n
ECAM counter - sets the index into the ECAM table
EG x,y,z,w
Engages ECAM
EM x,y,z,w
Specifies the change in position for each axis of the CAM cycle
EP m,n
Defines CAM table entry size and offset
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 99
EQ m,n
Disengages ECAM at specified position
ET[n]
Defines the ECAM table entries
EW
Widen segment (see Application Note #2444)
Operand Summary - Electronic CAM
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
_EB
Contains State of ECAM
_EC
Contains current ECAM index
_EGx
Contains ECAM status for each axis
_EM
Contains size of cycle for each axis
_EP
Contains value of the ECAM table interval
_Eqx
Contains ECAM status for each axis
Example - Electronic CAM
The following example illustrates a cam program with a master axis, Z, and two slaves, X and Y.
Instruction
Interpretation
#A;V1=0
Label; Initialize variable
PA 0,0;BGXY;AMXY
Go to position 0,0 on X and Y axes
EA Z
Z axis as the Master for ECAM
EM 0,0,4000
Change for Z is 4000, zero for X, Y
EP400,0
ECAM interval is 400 counts with zero start
ET[0]=0,0
When master is at 0 position; 1st point.
ET[1]=40,20
2nd point in the ECAM table
ET[2]=120,60
3rd point in the ECAM table
ET[3]=240,120
4th point in the ECAM table
ET[4]=280,140
5th point in the ECAM table
ET[5]=280,140
6th point in the ECAM table
ET[6]=280,140
7th point in the ECAM table
ET[7]=240,120
8th point in the ECAM table
ET[8]=120,60
9th point in the ECAM table
ET[9]=40,20
10th point in the ECAM table
ET[10]=0,0
Starting point for next cycle
EB 1
Enable ECAM mode
JGZ=4000
Set Z to jog at 4000
EG 0,0
Engage both X and Y when Master = 0
BGZ
Begin jog on Z axis
#LOOP;JP#LOOP,V1=0
Loop until the variable is set
EQ2000,2000
Disengage X and Y when Master = 2000
MF,, 2000
Wait until the Master goes to 2000
ST Z
Stop the Z axis motion
EB 0
Exit the ECAM mode
EN
End of the program
100 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
The above example shows how the ECAM program is structured and how the commands can be given
to the controller. The next page provides the results captured by the WSDK program. This shows how
the motion will be seen during the ECAM cycles. The first graph is for the X axis, the second graph
shows the cycle on the Y axis and the third graph shows the cycle of the Z axis.
Contour Mode
The DMC-1200 also provides a contouring mode. This mode allows any arbitrary position curve to be
prescribed for 1 to 8 axes. This is ideal for following computer generated paths such as parabolic,
spherical or user-defined profiles. The path is not limited to straight line and arc segments and the path
length may be infinite.
Specifying Contour Segments
The Contour Mode is specified with the command, CM. For example, CMXZ specifies contouring on
the X and Z axes. Any axes that are not being used in the contouring mode may be operated in other
modes.
A contour is described by position increments which are described with the command, CD x,y,z,w
over a time interval, DT n. The parameter, n, specifies the time interval. The time interval is defined
n
as 2 ms, where n is a number between 1 and 8. The controller performs linear interpolation between
the specified increments, where one point is generated for each millisecond.
Consider, for example, the trajectory shown in Fig. 6.4.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 101
POSITION
(COUNTS)
336
288
240
192
96
48
TIME (ms)
0
4
SEGMENT 1
8
12
16
SEGMENT 2
20
24
28
SEGMENT 3
Figure 6.4 - The Required Trajectory
The position X may be described by the points:
Point 1
X=0 at T=0ms
Point 2
X=48 at T=4ms
Point 3
X=288 at T=12ms
Point 4
X=336 at T=28ms
The same trajectory may be represented by the increments
Increment 1
CDX=48
Time=4
DT=2
Increment 2
Increment 3
CDX=240
Time=8
DT=3
CDX=48
Time=16
DT=4
When the controller receives the command to generate a trajectory along these points, it interpolates
linearly between the points. The resulting interpolated points include the position 12 at 1 msec,
position 24 at 2 msec, etc.
The programmed commands to specify the above example are:
#A
CMX
Specifies X axis for contour mode
DT 2
Specifies first time interval, 22 ms
CD 48;WC
Specifies first position increment
DT 3
Specifies second time interval, 23 ms
CD 240;WC
Specifies second position increment
DT 4
Specifies the third time interval, 24 ms
CD 48;WC
Specifies the third position increment
DT0;CD0
Exits contour mode
EN
102 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Additional Commands
The command, WC, is used as a trippoint "When Complete". This allows the DMC-1200 to use the
next increment only when it is finished with the previous one. Zero parameters for DT followed by
zero parameters for CD exit the contour mode.
If no new data record is found and the controller is still in the contour mode, the controller waits for
new data. No new motion commands are generated while waiting. If bad data is received, the
controller responds with a ?.
Command Summary - Contour Mode
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
CM XYZW
Specifies which axes for contouring mode. Any non-contouring axes may be operated in
other modes.
CM
ABCDEFGH
Contour axes for DMC-1280
CD x,y,z,w
Specifies position increment over time interval. Range is +/-32,000. Zero ends contour
mode.
CD
a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
Position increment data for DMC-1280
DT n
Specifies time interval 2n msec for position increment, where n is an integer between 1 and
8. Zero ends contour mode. If n does not change, it does not need to be specified with each
CD.
WC
Waits for previous time interval to be complete before next data record is processed.
General Velocity Profiles
The Contour Mode is ideal for generating any arbitrary velocity profiles. The velocity profile can be
specified as a mathematical function or as a collection of points.
The design includes two parts: Generating an array with data points and running the program.
Generating an Array - An Example
Consider the velocity and position profiles shown in Fig. 6.5. The objective is to rotate a motor a
distance of 6000 counts in 120 ms. The velocity profile is sinusoidal to reduce the jerk and the system
vibration. If we describe the position displacement in terms of A counts in B milliseconds, we can
describe the motion in the following manner:
(1 − cos( 2π
ω=
Α
Β
Χ=
AT
B
−
A
2π
Β))
sin( 2 π B )
Note: ω is the angular velocity; X is the position; and T is the variable, time, in milliseconds.
In the given example, A=6000 and B=120, the position and velocity profiles are:
X = 50T - (6000/2π) sin (2π T/120)
Note that the velocity, ω, in count/ms, is
ω = 50 [1 - cos 2π T/120]
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 103
Figure 6.5 - Velocity Profile with Sinusoidal Acceleration
The DMC-1200 can compute trigonometric functions. However, the argument must be expressed in
degrees. Using our example, the equation for X is written as:
X = 50T - 955 sin 3T
A complete program to generate the contour movement in this example is given below. To generate an
array, we compute the position value at intervals of 8 ms. This is stored at the array POS. Then, the
difference between the positions is computed and is stored in the array DIF. Finally the motors are run
in the contour mode. During program execution, enter XQ #POINTS to generate and store the position
array. Upon completion, enter XQ #RUN to move the motor along the calculated contour.
Contour Mode Example
Instruction
Interpretation
#POINTS
Program defines X points
DM POS[16]
Allocate memory
DM DIF[15]
C=0
Set initial conditions, C is index
T=0
T is time in ms
#A
V1=50*T
V2=3*T
Argument in degrees
V3=-955*@SIN[V2]+V1
Compute position
[email protected][V3]
Integer value of V3
POS[C]=V4
Store in array POS
T=T+8
C=C+1
JP #A,C<16
104 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
#B
Program to find position differences
C=0
#C
D=C+1
DIF[C]=POS[D]-POS[C]
Compute the difference and store
C=C+1
JP #C,C<15
EN
End first program
#RUN
Program to run motor
CMX
Contour Mode
DT3
8 millisecond intervals
C=0
#E
CD DIF[C]
Contour Distance is in DIF
WC
Wait for completion
C=C+1
JP #E,C<15
DT0
CD0
Stop Contour
EN
End the program
Teach (Record and Play-Back)
Several applications require teaching the machine a motion trajectory. Teaching can be accomplished
using the DMC-1200 automatic array capture feature to capture position data. The captured data may
then be played back in the contour mode. The following array commands are used:
DM C[n]
Dimension array
RA C[]
Specify array for automatic record (up to 4 for DMC-1240)
RD _TPX
Specify data for capturing (such as _TPX or _TPZ)
RC n,m
Specify capture time interval where n is 2n msec, m is number of records to be
captured
RC? or _RC
Returns a 1 if recording
Record and Playback Example:
DMC-1200
#RECORD
Begin Program
DM XPOS[501]
Dimension array with 501 elements
RA XPOS[]
Specify automatic record
RD _TPX
Specify X position to be captured
MOX
Turn X motor off
RC2
Begin recording; 4 msec interval
#A;JP#A,_RC=1
Continue until done recording
#COMPUTE
Compute DX
DM DX[500]
Dimension Array for DX
C=0
Initialize counter
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 105
#L
Label
D=C+1
DELTA=XPOS[D]XPOS[C]
Compute the difference
DX[C]=DELTA
Store difference in array
C=C+1
Increment index
JP #L,C<500
Repeat until done
#PLAYBCK
Begin Playback
SMX
CMX
Specify contour mode
DT2
Specify time increment
I=0
Initialize array counter
#B
Loop counter
CD DX[I];WC
Specify contour data
I=I+1
To Increment array counter
JP #B,I<500
To Loop until done
DT 0;CD0
End contour mode
EN
End program
For additional information about automatic array capture, see Chapter 7, Arrays.
Virtual Axis
The DMC-1200 controller has an additional virtual axis designated as the N axis. This axis has no
encoder and no DAC. However, it can be commanded by the commands:
AC, DC, JG, SP, PR, PA, BG, IT, GA, VM, VP, CR, ST, DP, RP, EA.
The main use of the virtual axis is to serve as a virtual master in ECAM modes, and to perform an
unnecessary part of a vector mode. These applications are illustrated by the following examples.
ECAM Master Example
Suppose that the motion of the XY axes is constrained along a path that can be described by an
electronic cam table. Further assume that the ecam master is not an external encoder but has to be a
controlled variable.
This can be achieved by defining the N axis as the master with the command EAN and setting the
modulo of the master with a command such as EMN= 4000. Next, the table is constructed. To move
the constrained axes, simply command the N axis in the jog mode or with the PR and PA commands.
For example,
PAN = 2000
BGN
will cause the XY axes to move to the corresponding points on the motion cycle.
106 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Sinusoidal Motion Example
The x axis must perform a sinusoidal motion of 10 cycles with an amplitude of 1000 counts and a
frequency of 20 Hz.
This can be performed by commanding the X and N axes to perform circular motion. Note that the
value of VS must be
VS=2p * R * F
where R is the radius, or amplitude and F is the frequency in Hz.
Set VA and VD to maximum values for the fastest acceleration.
Instruction
Interpretation
VMXN
Select axes
VA 68000000
Maximum Acceleration
VD 68000000
Maximum Deceleration
VS 125664
VS for 20 Hz
CR 1000, -90, 3600
Ten cycles
VE
BGS
Stepper Motor Operation
When configured for stepper motor operation, several commands are interpreted differently than from
servo mode. The following describes operation with stepper motors.
Specifying Stepper Motor Operation
In order to command stepper motor operation, the appropriate stepper mode jumpers must be installed.
See chapter 2 for this installation.
Stepper motor operation is specified by the command MT. The argument for MT is as follows:
2 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses
-2 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulses
2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses and reversed direction
-2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulse and reversed direction
Stepper Motor Smoothing
The command, KS, provides stepper motor smoothing. The effect of the smoothing can be thought of
as a simple Resistor-Capacitor (single pole) filter. The filter occurs after the motion profiler and has
the effect of smoothing out the spacing of pulses for a more smooth operation of the stepper motor.
Use of KS is most applicable when operating in full step or half step operation. KS will cause the step
pulses to be delayed in accordance with the time constant specified.
When operating with stepper motors, you will always have some amount of stepper motor smoothing,
KS. Since this filtering effect occurs after the profiler, the profiler may be ready for additional moves
before all of the step pulses have gone through the filter. It is important to consider this effect since
steps may be lost if the controller is commanded to generate an additional move before the previous
move has been completed. See the discussion below, Monitoring Generated Pulses vs Commanded
Pulses.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 107
The general motion smoothing command, IT, can also be used. The purpose of the command, IT, is to
smooth out the motion profile and decrease 'jerk' due to acceleration.
Monitoring Generated Pulses vs Commanded Pulses
For proper controller operation, it is necessary to make sure that the controller has completed
generating all step pulses before making additional moves. This is most particularly important if you
are moving back and forth. For example, when operating with servo motors, the trippoint AM (After
Motion) is used to determine when the motion profiler is complete and is prepared to execute a new
motion command. However when operating in stepper mode, the controller may still be generating
step pulses when the motion profiler is complete. This is caused by the stepper motor smoothing filter,
KS. To understand this, consider the steps the controller executes to generate step pulses:
First, the controller generates a motion profile in accordance with the motion commands.
Second, the profiler generates pulses as prescribed by the motion profile. The pulses that are generated
by the motion profiler can be monitored by the command, RP (Reference Position). RP gives the
absolute value of the position as determined by the motion profiler. The command, DP, can be used to
set the value of the reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference position of the X axis
to be zero.
Third, the output of the motion profiler is filtered by the stepper smoothing filter. This filter adds a
delay in the output of the stepper motor pulses. The amount of delay depends on the parameter which
is specified by the command, KS. As mentioned earlier, there will always be some amount of stepper
motor smoothing. The default value for KS is 2 which corresponds to a time constant of 6 sample
periods.
Fourth, the output of the stepper smoothing filter is buffered and is available for input to the stepper
motor driver. The pulses which are generated by the smoothing filter can be monitored by the
command, TD (Tell Dual). TD gives the absolute value of the position as determined by actual output
of the buffer. The command, DP sets the value of the step count register as well as the value of the
reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference position of the X axis to be zero.
Motion Profiler
Stepper Smoothing Filter
(Adds a Delay)
Reference Position (RP)
Output Buffer
Output
(To Stepper Driver)
Step Count Register (TD)
Motion Complete Trippoint
When used in stepper mode, the MC command will hold up execution of the proceeding commands
until the controller has generated the same number of steps out of the step count register as specified in
the commanded position. The MC trippoint (Motion Complete) is generally more useful than AM
trippoint (After Motion) since the step pulses can be delayed from the commanded position due to
stepper motor smoothing.
Using an Encoder with Stepper Motors
An encoder may be used on a stepper motor to check the actual motor position with the commanded
position. If an encoder is used, it must be connected to the main encoder input. Note: The auxiliary
encoder is not available while operating with stepper motors. The position of the encoder can be
interrogated by using the command, TP. The position value can be defined by using the command,
DE.
Note: Closed loop operation with a stepper motor is not possible.
108 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Command Summary - Stepper Motor Operation
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
DE
Define Encoder Position (When using an encoder)
DP
Define Reference Position and Step Count Register
IT
Motion Profile Smoothing - Independent Time Constant
KS
Stepper Motor Smoothing
MT
Motor Type (2,-2,2.5 or -2.5 for stepper motors)
RP
Report Commanded Position
TD
Report number of step pulses generated by controller
TP
Tell Position of Encoder
Operand Summary - Stepper Motor Operation
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_DEx
Contains the value of the step count register
_DPx
Contains the value of the main encoder
_ITx
Contains the value of the Independent Time constant for the 'x' axis
_KS
Contains the value of the Stepper Motor Smoothing Constant for the 'x' axis
_MT
Contains the motor type value for the 'x' axis
_RP
Contains the commanded position generated by the profiler
_TD
Contains the value of the step count register
_TP
Contains the value of the main encoder
Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM)
The Galil controller can be set into the Stepper Position Maintenance (SPM) mode to handle the event
of stepper motor position error. The mode looks at position feedback from the main encoder and
compares it to the commanded step pulses. The position information is used to determine if there is
any significant difference between the commanded and the actual motor positions. If such error is
detected, it is updated into a command value for operator use. In addition, the SPM mode can be used
as a method to correct for friction at the end of a microstepping move. This capability provides closedloop control at the application program level. SPM mode can be used with Galil and non-Galil step
drives.
SPM mode is configured, executed, and managed with seven commands. This mode also utilizes the
#POSERR automatic subroutine allowing for automatic user-defined handling of an error event.
Internal Controller Commands (user can query):
QS
Error Magnitude (pulses)
User Configurable Commands (user can query & change):
DMC-1200
OE
Profiler Off-On Error
YA
Step Drive Resolution (pulses / full motor step)
YB
Step Motor Resolution (full motor steps / revolution)
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 109
YC
Encoder Resolution (counts / revolution)
YR
Error Correction (pulses)
YS
Stepper Position Maintenance enable, status
A pulse is defined by the resolution of the step drive being used. Therefore, one pulse could be a full
step, a half step or a microstep.
When a Galil controller is configured for step motor operation, the step pulse output by the controller
is internally fed back to the auxiliary encoder register. For SPM the feedback encoder on the stepper
will connect to the main encoder port. Enabling the SPM mode on a controller with YS=1 executes an
internal monitoring of the auxiliary and main encoder registers for that axis or axes. Position error is
then tracked in step pulses between these two registers (QS command).
QS = TD −
TP × YA × YB
YC
Where TD is the auxiliary encoder register(step pulses) and TP is the main encoder register(feedback
encoder). Additionally, YA defines the step drive resolution where YA = 1 for full stepping or YA = 2
for half stepping. The full range of YA is up to YA = 9999 for microstepping drives.
Error Limit
The value of QS is internally monitored to determine if it exceeds a preset limit of three full motor
steps. Once the value of QS exceeds this limit, the controller then performs the following actions:
1.
The motion is maintained or is stopped, depending on the setting of the OE command. If OE=0
the axis stays in motion, if OE=1 the axis is stopped.
2.
YS is set to 2, which causes the automatic subroutine labeled #POSERR to be executed.
Correction
A correction move can be commanded by assigning the value of QS to the YR correction move
command. The correction move is issued only after the axis has been stopped. After an error
correction move has completed and QS is less than three full motor steps, the YS error status bit is
automatically reset back to 1; indicating a cleared error.
Example: SPM Mode Setup
The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for a full step drive, a half
step drive, and a 1/64th microstepping drive for an axis with a 1.8o step motor and 4000 count/rev
encoder. Note the necessary difference is with the YA command.
Full-Stepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA1;
Step resolution of the full-step drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
110 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
Half-Stepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA2;
Step resolution of the half-step drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
1/64th Step Microstepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA64;
Step resolution of the microstepping drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
Example: Error Correction
The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for the X axis, detect error,
stop the motor, correct the error, and return to the main code. The drive is a full step drive, with a 1.8o
step motor and 4000 count/rev encoder.
#SETUP
OE1;
DMC-1200
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2,-2,-2,-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA2;
Step resolution of the drive
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 111
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT100;
Allow slight settle time
#MOTION
Perform motion
SP512;
Set the speed
PR1000;
Prepare mode of motion
BGX;
Begin motion
#LOOP;JP#LOOP;
Keep thread zero alive for #POSERR to run in
REM When error occurs, the axis will stop due to OE1. In REM #POSERR, query
the status YS and the error QS, correct, REM and return to the main code.
#POSERR;
Automatic subroutine is called when YS=2
WT100;
Wait helps user see the correction
spsave=_SPX;
Save current speed setting
JP#RETURN,_YSX<>2;
Return to thread zero if invalid error
SP64;
Set slow speed setting for correction
MG”ERROR= “,_QSX
YRX=_QSX;
Else, error is valid, use QS for correction
MCX;
Wait for motion to complete
MG”CORRECTED, ERROR NOW= “,_QSX
WT100;
Wait helps user see the correction
#RETURN
SPX=spsave;
Return the speed to previous setting
REO;
Return from #POSERR
Example: Friction Correction
The following example illustrates how the SPM mode can be useful in correcting for X axis friction
after each move when conducting a reciprocating motion. The drive is a 1/64th microstepping drive
with a 1.8o step motor and 4000 count/rev encoder.
#SETUP;
Set the profiler to continue upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2,-2,-2,-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA64;
Step resolution of the microstepping drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
112 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
#MOTION;
Perform motion
SP16384;
Set the speed
PR10000;
Prepare mode of motion
BGX;
Begin motion
MCX
JS#CORRECT;
Move to correction
#MOTION2
SP16384;
Set the speed
PR-10000;
Prepare mode of motion
BGX;
Begin motion
MCX
JS#CORRECT;
Move to correction
JP#MOTION
#CORRECT;
Correction code
spx=_SPX
#LOOP;
Save speed value
SP2048;
Set a new slow correction speed
WT100;
Stabilize
JP#END,@ABS[_QSX]<10; End correction if error is within defined tolerance
YRX=_QSX;
Correction move
MCX
WT100;
Stabilize
JP#LOOP;
Keep correcting until error is within tolerance
#END;
End #CORRECT subroutine, returning to code
SPX=spx
EN
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)
The DMC-1200 provides an interface for a second encoder for each axis except for axes configured for
stepper motor operation and axis used in circular compare. When used, the second encoder is typically
mounted on the motor or the load, but may be mounted in any position. The most common use for the
second encoder is backlash compensation, described below.
The second encoder may be a standard quadrature type, or it may provide pulse and direction. The
controller also offers the provision for inverting the direction of the encoder rotation. The main and
the auxiliary encoders are configured with the CE command. The command form is CE x,y,z,w (or
a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h for controllers with more than 4 axes) where the parameters x,y,z,w each equal the sum
of two integers m and n. m configures the main encoder and n configures the auxiliary encoder.
Using the CE Command
DMC-1200
m=
Main Encoder
n=
Second Encoder
0
Normal quadrature
0
Normal quadrature
1
Pulse & direction
4
Pulse & direction
2
Reverse quadrature
8
Reversed quadrature
3
Reverse pulse & direction
12
Reversed pulse & direction
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 113
For example, to configure the main encoder for reversed quadrature, m=2, and a second encoder of
pulse and direction, n=4, the total is 6, and the command for the X axis is
CE 6
Additional Commands for the Auxiliary Encoder
The command, DE x,y,z,w, can be used to define the position of the auxiliary encoders. For example,
DE 0,500,-30,300
sets their initial values.
The positions of the auxiliary encoders may be interrogated with the command, DE?. For example
DE ?,,?
returns the value of the X and Z auxiliary encoders.
The auxiliary encoder position may be assigned to variables with the instructions
V1= _DEX
The command, TD XYZW, returns the current position of the auxiliary encoder.
The command, DV XYZW, configures the auxilliary encoder to be used for backlash compensation.
Backlash Compensation
There are two methods for backlash compensation using the auxiliary encoders:
1.
Continuous dual loop
1.
Sampled dual loop
To illustrate the problem, consider a situation in which the coupling between the motor and the load
has a backlash. To compensate for the backlash, position encoders are mounted on both the motor and
the load.
The continuous dual loop combines the two feedback signals to achieve stability. This method
requires careful system tuning, and depends on the magnitude of the backlash. However, once
successful, this method compensates for the backlash continuously.
The second method, the sampled dual loop, reads the load encoder only at the end point and performs a
correction. This method is independent of the size of the backlash. However, it is effective only in
point-to-point motion systems which require position accuracy only at the endpoint.
Continuous Dual Loop - Example
Connect the load encoder to the main encoder port and connect the motor encoder to the dual encoder
port. The dual loop method splits the filter function between the two encoders. It applies the KP
(proportional) and KI (integral) terms to the position error, based on the load encoder, and applies the
KD (derivative) term to the motor encoder. This method results in a stable system.
The dual loop method is activated with the instruction DV (Dual Velocity), where
DV
1,1,1,1
activates the dual loop for the four axes and
DV
0,0,0,0
disables the dual loop.
Note that the dual loop compensation depends on the backlash magnitude, and in extreme cases will
not stabilize the loop. The proposed compensation procedure is to start with KP=0, KI=0 and to
114 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
maximize the value of KD under the condition DV1. Once KD is found, increase KP gradually to a
maximum value, and finally, increase KI, if necessary.
Sampled Dual Loop - Example
In this example, we consider a linear slide which is run by a rotary motor via a lead screw. Since the
lead screw has a backlash, it is necessary to use a linear encoder to monitor the position of the slide.
For stability reasons, it is best to use a rotary encoder on the motor.
Connect the rotary encoder to the X-axis and connect the linear encoder to the auxiliary encoder of X.
Assume that the required motion distance is one inch, and that this corresponds to 40,000 counts of the
rotary encoder and 10,000 counts of the linear encoder.
The design approach is to drive the motor a distance, which corresponds to 40,000 rotary counts. Once
the motion is complete, the controller monitors the position of the linear encoder and performs position
corrections.
This is done by the following program.
Instruction
Interpretation
#DUALOOP
Label
CE 0
Configure encoder
DE0
Set initial value
PR 40000
Main move
BGX
Start motion
#Correct
Correction loop
AMX
Wait for motion completion
V1=10000-_DEX
Find linear encoder error
V2=-_TEX/4+V1
Compensate for motor error
JP#END,@ABS[V2]<2
Exit if error is small
PR V2*4
Correction move
BGX
Start correction
JP#CORRECT
Repeat
#END
EN
Motion Smoothing
The DMC-1200 controller allows the smoothing of the velocity profile to reduce the mechanical
vibration of the system.
Trapezoidal velocity profiles have acceleration rates which change abruptly from zero to maximum
value. The discontinuous acceleration results in jerk which causes vibration. The smoothing of the
acceleration profile leads to a continuous acceleration profile and reduces the mechanical shock and
vibration.
Using the IT and VT Commands
When operating with servo motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the IT and VT
command. These commands filter the acceleration and deceleration functions to produce a smooth
velocity profile. The resulting velocity profile, known as S curve, has continuous acceleration and
results in reduced mechanical vibrations.
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 115
The smoothing function is specified by the following commands:
IT x,y,z,w
Independent time constant
VT n
Vector time constant
The command, IT, is used for smoothing independent moves of the type JG, PR, PA and the command,
VT, is used to smooth vector moves of the type VM and LM.
The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0 and 1 and determine the degree of
filtering. The maximum value of 1 implies no filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity profiles.
Smaller values of the smoothing parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.
The following example illustrates the effect of smoothing. Fig. 6.6 shows the trapezoidal velocity
profile and the modified acceleration and velocity.
Note that the smoothing process results in longer motion time.
Example - Smoothing
PR 20000
Position
AC 100000
Acceleration
DC 100000
Deceleration
SP 5000
Speed
IT .5
Filter for Smoothing
BG X
Begin
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
Figure 6.6 - Trapezoidal velocity and smooth velocity profiles
116 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Using the KS Command (Step Motor Smoothing):
When operating with step motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the command, KS.
The KS command smoothes the frequency of step motor pulses. Similar to the commands, IT and VT,
this produces a smooth velocity profile.
The step motor smoothing is specified by the following command:
KS x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w is an integer from 0.5 to 8 and represents the amount of smoothing
The command, IT, is used for smoothing independent moves of the type JG, PR, PA and the command,
VT, is used to smooth vector moves of the type VM and LM.
The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0.5 and 8 and determine the degree of
filtering. The minimum value of 0.5 implies no filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity profiles.
Larger values of the smoothing parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.
Note that KS is valid only for step motors.
Homing
The Find Edge (FE) and Home (HM) instructions may be used to home the motor to a mechanical
reference. This reference is connected to the Home input line. The HM command initializes the motor
to the encoder index pulse in addition to the Home input. The configure command (CN) is used to
define the polarity of the home input.
The Find Edge (FE) instruction is useful for initializing the motor to a home switch. The home switch
is connected to the Homing Input. When the Find Edge command and Begin is used, the motor will
accelerate up to the slew speed and slew until a transition is detected on the Homing line. The motor
will then decelerate to a stop. A high deceleration value must be input before the find edge command
is issued for the motor to decelerate rapidly after sensing the home switch. The velocity profile
generated is shown in Fig. 6.7.
The Home (HM) command can be used to position the motor on the index pulse after the home switch
is detected. This allows for finer positioning on initialization. The command sequence HM and BG
causes the following sequence of events to occur.
DMC-1200
1.
Upon begin, motor accelerates to the slew speed. The direction of its motion is
determined by the state of the homing input. A zero (GND) will cause the motor to start
in the forward direction; +5V will cause it to start in the reverse direction. The CN
command is used to define the polarity of the home input.
2.
Upon detecting the home switch changing state, the motor begins decelerating to a stop.
3.
The motor then traverses very slowly back until the home switch toggles again.
4.
The motor then traverses forward until the encoder index pulse is detected.
5.
The DMC-1200 defines the home position (0) as the position at which the index was
detected.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 117
Example:
HOME SENSOR
HOME SWITCH
_HMX=1
_HMX=0
POSITION
VELOCITY
(1)
MOTION BEGINS
TOWARD HOME
DIRECTION
POSITION
VELOCITY
(2)
MOTION REVERSE
TOWARD HOME
DIRECTION
POSITION
VELOCITY
(3)
MOTION TOWARD
INDEX
DIRECTION
POSITION
INDEX PULSES
POSITION
Figure 6.7 – Motion intervals in the Home sequence
118 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
FE Y
Find edge command
BG Y
Begin motion
AM Y
After complete
MG "FOUND HOME"
Send message
DP,0
Define position as 0
EN
End
Command Summary - Homing Operation
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
FE XYZW
Find Edge Routine. This routine monitors the Home Input
FI XYZW
Find Index Routine – This routine monitors the Index Input
HM XYZW
Home Routine - This routine combines FE and FI as Described Above
SC XYZW
Stop Code
TS XYZW
Tell Status of Switches and Inputs
Operand Summary - Homing Operation
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_HMx
Contains the value of the state of the Home Input
_SCx
Contains stop code
_TSx
Contains status of switches and inputs
High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function)
Often it is desirable to capture the position precisely for registration applications. The DMC-1200
provides a position latch feature. This feature allows the position of the main or auxiliary encoders of
X,Y,Z or W to be captured within 0.1 microseconds of an external low input signal. The general
inputs 1 through 4 and 9 thru 12 correspond to each axis.
1 through 4:
9 through 12
IN1 X-axis latch
IN9
E-axis latch
IN2 Y-axis latch
IN10
F-axis latch
IN3 Z-axis latch
IN11
G-axis latch
IN4 W-axis latch
IN12
H-axis latch
Note: To insure a position capture within 25 microseconds, the input signal must be a transition from
high to low.
The DMC-1200 software commands, AL and RL, are used to arm the latch and report the latched
position. The steps to use the latch are as follows:
DMC-1200
1.
Give the AL XYZW command or ABCDEFGH for DMC-1280, to arm the latch for the
main encoder and ALSXSYSZSW for the auxiliary encoders.
2.
Test to see if the latch has occurred (Input goes low) by using the _AL X or Y or Z or W
command. Example, V1=_ALX returns the state of the X latch into V1. V1 is 1 if the
latch has not occurred.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 119
3.
After the latch has occurred, read the captured position with the RL XYZW command or
_RL XYZW.
Note: The latch must be re-armed after each latching event.
Example:
#Latch
Latch program
JG,5000
Jog Y
BG Y
Begin motion on Y axis
AL Y
Arm Latch for Y axis
#Wait
#Wait label for loop
JP #Wait,_ALY=1
Jump to #Wait label if latch has not occured
Result=_RLY
Set value of variable ‘Result’ equal to the report position of y axis
Result=
Print result
EN
End
Fast Update Rate Mode
The DMC-1200 can operate with much faster servo update rates. This mode is known as 'fast mode'
and allows the controller to operate with the following update rates:
DMC-1210
125 usec
DMC-1220
125 usec
DMC-1230
250 usec
DMC-1240
250 usec
DMC-1250
375 usec
DMC-1260
375 usec
DMC-1270
500 usec
DMC-1280
500 usec
In order to run the DMC-1200 motion controller in fast mode, the fast firmware must be uploaded.
This can be done through the Galil terminal software such as DMCTERM and WSDK. The fast
firmware is included with the original DMC-1200 utilities.
In order to set the desired update rates, use the command TM.
When the controller is operating with the fast firmware, the following functions are disabled:
Gearing mode
Ecam mode
Pole (PL)
Analog Feedback (AF)
Stepper Motor Operation (MT 2,-2,2.5,-2.5)
Trippoints in thread 2-7
DMA channel
Tell Velocity Interrogation Command (TV)
Notch Filter (NF)
120 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1200
Aux Encoder (TD)
Dual Velocity (DV)
Peak Torque Limit (TK)
Notch Filter (NB, NF, NZ)
Second Field of ET
DMC-1200
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 121
Chapter 7 Application Programming
Overview
The DMC-1200 provides a powerful programming language that allows users to customize the
controller for their particular application. Programs can be downloaded into the DMC-1200 memory
freeing the host computer for other tasks. However, the host computer can send commands to the
controller at any time, even while a program is being executed. Only ASCII commands can be used
for application programming.
In addition to standard motion commands, the DMC-1200 provides commands that allow the DMC1200 to make its own decisions. These commands include conditional jumps, event triggers and
subroutines. For example, the command JP#LOOP, n<10 causes a jump to the label #LOOP if the
variable n is less than 10.
For greater programming flexibility, the DMC-1200 provides user-defined variables, arrays and
arithmetic functions. For example, with a cut-to-length operation, the length can be specified as a
variable in a program which the operator can change as necessary.
The following sections in this chapter discuss all aspects of creating applications programs. The
program memory size is 80 characters x 1000 lines.
Using the DMC-1200 Editor to Enter Programs
Galil's SmartTerm and WSDK software (see chapter 4) provide an editor and UPLOAD and
DOWNLOAD utilities. Application programs for the DMC-1200 may also be created and edited either
locally using the DMC-1200 editor or remotely using another editor and then downloading the
program into the controller.
The DMC-1200 provides a line Editor for entering and modifying programs. The Edit mode is entered
with the ED instruction. (Note: The ED command can only be given when the controller is in the nonedit mode, which is signified by a colon prompt).
122 •
DMC-1200
In the Edit Mode, each program line is automatically numbered sequentially starting with 000. If no
parameter follows the ED command, the editor prompter will default to the last line of the last program
in memory. If desired, the user can edit a specific line number or label by specifying a line number or
label following ED.
ED
Puts Editor at end of last program
:ED 5
Puts Editor at line 5
:ED #BEGIN
Puts Editor at label #BEGIN
NOTE: ED command only accepts a parameter (e.g., #BEGIN) in DOS Window. For general
purposes, the editing features described in this section are not applicable when not in DOS mode.
Line numbers appear as 000,001,002 and so on. Program commands are entered following the line
numbers. Multiple commands may be given on a single line as long as the total number of characters
doesn't exceed 80 characters per line.
While in the Edit Mode, the programmer has access to special instructions for saving, inserting and
deleting program lines. These special instructions are listed below:
Edit Mode Commands
<RETURN>
Typing the return key causes the current line of entered instructions to be saved. The editor will
automatically advance to the next line. Thus, hitting a series of <RETURN> will cause the editor to
advance a series of lines. Note, changes on a program line will not be saved unless a <return> is given.
<cntrl>P
The <cntrl>P command moves the editor to the previous line.
<cntrl>I
The <cntrl>I command inserts a line above the current line. For example, if the editor is at line
number 2 and <cntrl>I is applied, a new line will be inserted between lines 1 and 2. This new line will
be labelled line 2. The old line number 2 is renumbered as line 3.
<cntrl>D
The <cntrl>D command deletes the line currently being edited. For example, if the editor is at line
number 2 and <cntrl>D is applied, line 2 will be deleted. The previous line number 3 is now
renumbered as line number 2.
<cntrl>Q
The <cntrl>Q quits the editor mode. In response, the DMC-1200 will return a colon.
After the Edit session is over, the user may list the entered program using the LS command. If no
operand follows the LS command, the entire program will be listed. The user can start listing at a
specific line or label using the operand n. A command and new line number or label following the
start listing operand specifies the location at which listing is to stop.
Example:
DMC-1200
Instruction
Interpretation
:LS
List entire program
:LS 5
Begin listing at line 5
:LS 5,9
List lines 5 thru 9
:LS #A,9
List line label #A thru line 9
:LS #A, #A +5
List line label #A and additional 5 lines
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 123
Program Format
A DMC-1200 program consists of DMC-1200 instructions combined to solve a machine control
application. Action instructions, such as starting and stopping motion, are combined with Program
Flow instructions to form the complete program. Program Flow instructions evaluate real-time
conditions, such as elapsed time or motion complete, and alter program flow accordingly.
Each DMC-1200 instruction in a program must be separated by a delimiter. Valid delimiters are the
semicolon (;) or carriage return. The semicolon is used to separate multiple instructions on a single
program line where the maximum number of instructions on a line is limited by 80 characters. A
carriage return enters the final command on a program line.
Using Labels in Programs
All DMC-1200 programs must begin with a label and end with an End (EN) statement. Labels start
with the pound (#) sign followed by a maximum of seven characters. The first character must be a
letter; after that, numbers are permitted. Spaces are not permitted.
The maximum number of labels which may be defined is 254.
Valid labels
#BEGIN
#SQUARE
#X1
#BEGIN1
Invalid labels
#1Square
#123
A Simple Example Program:
#START
Beginning of the Program
PR 10000,20000
Specify relative distances on X and Y axes
BG XY
Begin Motion
AM
Wait for motion complete
WT 2000
Wait 2 sec
JP #START
Jump to label START
EN
End of Program
The above program moves X and Y 10000 and 20000 units. After the motion is complete, the motors
rest for 2 seconds. The cycle repeats indefinitely until the stop command is issued.
Special Labels
The DMC-1200 has some special labels, which are used to define input interrupt subroutines, limit
switch subroutines, error handling subroutines, and command error subroutines. See section on AutoStart Routine
The DMC-1200 has a special label for automatic program execution. A program which has been saved
into the controllers non-volatile memory can be automatically executed upon power up or reset by
beginning the program with the label #AUTO. The program must be saved into non-volatile memory
using the command, BP.
124 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions on page 137.
#ININT
Label for Input Interrupt subroutine
#LIMSWI
Label for Limit Switch subroutine
#POSERR
Label for excess Position Error subroutine
#MCTIME
Label for timeout on Motion Complete trip point
#CMDERR
Label for incorrect command subroutine
Commenting Programs
Using the command, NO
The DMC-1200 provides a command, NO, for commenting programs. This command allows the user
to include up to 87 characters on a single line after the NO command and can be used to include
comments from the programmer as in the following example:
#PATH
NO 2-D CIRCULAR PATH
VMXY
NO VECTOR MOTION ON X AND Y
VS 10000
NO VECTOR SPEED IS 10000
VP -4000,0
NO BOTTOM LINE
CR 1500,270,-180
NO HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VP 0,3000
NO TOP LINE
CR 1500,90,-180
NO HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VE
NO END VECTOR SEQUENCE
BGS
NO BEGIN SEQUENCE MOTION
EN
NO END OF PROGRAM
Note: The NO command is an actual controller command. Therefore, inclusion of the NO commands
will require process time by the controller.
Using REM Statements with the Galil Terminal Software.
If you are using Galil software to communicate with the DMC-1200 controller, you may also include
REM statements. ‘REM’ statements begin with the word ‘REM’ and may be followed by any
comments which are on the same line. The Galil terminal software will remove these statements when
the program is downloaded to the controller. For example:
#PATH
REM 2-D CIRCULAR PATH
VMXY
REM VECTOR MOTION ON X AND Y
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 125
VS 10000
REM VECTOR SPEED IS 10000
VP -4000,0
REM BOTTOM LINE
CR 1500,270,-180
REM HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VP 0,3000
REM TOP LINE
CR 1500,90,-180
REM HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VE
REM END VECTOR SEQUENCE
BGS
REM BEGIN SEQUENCE MOTION
EN
REM END OF PROGRAM
These REM statements will be removed when this program is downloaded to the controller.
Executing Programs - Multitasking
The DMC-1200 can run up to 8 independent programs simultaneously. These programs are called
threads and are numbered 0 through 7, where 0 is the main thread. Multitasking is useful for executing
independent operations such as PLC functions that occur independently of motion.
The main thread differs from the others in the following ways:
1. Only the main thread, thread 0, may use the input command, IN.
2. When input interrupts are implemented for limit switches, position errors or command errors, the
subroutines are executed as thread 0.
To begin execution of the various programs, use the following instruction:
XQ #A, n
Where n indicates the thread number. To halt the execution of any thread, use the instruction
HX n
where n is the thread number.
Note that both the XQ and HX commands can be performed by an executing program.
The example below produces a waveform on Output 1 independent of a move.
#TASK1
Task1 label
AT0
Initialize reference time
CB1
Clear Output 1
#LOOP1
Loop1 label
AT 10
Wait 10 msec from reference time
SB1
Set Output 1
AT -40
Wait 40 msec from reference time, then initialize reference
CB1
Clear Output 1
126 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
JP #LOOP1
Repeat Loop1
#TASK2
Task2 label
XQ #TASK1,1
Execute Task1
#LOOP2
Loop2 label
PR 1000
Define relative distance
BGX
Begin motion
AMX
After motion done
WT 10
Wait 10 msec
JP #LOOP2,@IN[2]=1
Repeat motion unless Input 2 is low
HX
Halt all tasks
The program above is executed with the instruction XQ #TASK2,0 which designates TASK2 as the
main thread (ie. Thread 0). #TASK1 is executed within TASK2.
Debugging Programs
The DMC-1200 provides commands and operands which are useful in debugging application
programs. These commands include interrogation commands to monitor program execution,
determine the state of the controller and the contents of the controllers program, array, and variable
space. Operands also contain important status information which can help to debug a program.
Trace Commands
The trace command causes the controller to send each line in a program to the host computer
immediately prior to execution. Tracing is enabled with the command, TR1. TR0 turns the trace
function off. Note: When the trace function is enabled, the line numbers as well as the command line
will be displayed as each command line is executed.
Data which is output from the controller is stored in an output FIFO buffer. The output FIFO buffer
can store up to 512 characters of information. In normal operation, the controller places output into the
FIFO buffer. The software on the host computer monitors this buffer and reads information as needed.
When the trace mode is enabled, the controller will send information to the FIFO buffer at a very high
rate. In general, the FIFO will become full since the software is unable to read the information fast
enough. When the FIFO becomes full, program execution will be delayed until it is cleared. If the
user wants to avoid this delay, the command CW,1 can be given. This command causes the controller
to throw away the data which can not be placed into the FIFO. In this case, the controller does not
delay program execution.
Error Code Command
When there is a program error, the DMC-1200 halts the program execution at the point where the error
occurs. To display the last line number of program execution, issue the command, MG _ED.
The user can obtain information about the type of error condition that occurred by using the command,
TC1. This command reports back a number and a text message which describes the error condition.
The command, TC0 or TC, will return the error code without the text message. For more information
about the command, TC, see the Command Reference.
Stop Code Command
The status of motion for each axis can be determined by using the stop code command, SC. This can
be useful when motion on an axis has stopped unexpectedly. The command SC will return a number
representing the motion status. See the command reference for further information. The command
SC1 will return the number and the textual explanation of the motion status.
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 127
RAM Memory Interrogation Commands
For debugging the status of the program memory, array memory, or variable memory, the DMC-1200
has several useful commands. The command, DM ?, will return the number of array elements
currently available. The command, DA ?, will return the number of arrays which can be currently
defined. For example, a standard DMC-1210 will have a maximum of 8000 array elements in up to 30
arrays. If an array of 100 elements is defined, the command DM ? will return the value 7900 and the
command DA ? will return 29.
To list the contents of the variable space, use the interrogation command LV (List Variables). To list
the contents of array space, use the interrogation command, LA (List Arrays). To list the contents of
the Program space, use the interrogation command, LS (List). To list the application program labels
only, use the interrogation command, LL (List Labels).
Operands
In general, all operands provide information which may be useful in debugging an application
program. Below is a list of operands which are particularly valuable for program debugging. To
display the value of an operand, the message command may be used. For example, since the operand,
_ED contains the last line of program execution, the command MG _ED will display this line number.
_ED contains the last line of program execution. Useful to determine where program stopped.
_DL contains the number of available labels.
_UL contains the number of available variables.
_DA contains the number of available arrays.
_DM contains the number of available array elements.
_AB contains the state of the Abort Input
_FLx contains the state of the forward limit switch for the 'x' axis
_RLx contains the state of the reverse limit switch for the 'x' axis
Debugging Example:
The following program has an error. It attempts to specify a relative movement while the X-axis is
already in motion. When the program is executed, the controller stops at line 003. The user can then
query the controller using the command, TC1. The controller responds with the corresponding
explanation:
:ED
Edit Mode
000 #A
Program Label
001 PR1000
Position Relative 1000
002 BGX
Begin
003 PR5000
Position Relative 5000
004 EN
End
<cntrl> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #A
Execute #A
?003 PR5000
Error on Line 3
:TC1
Tell Error Code
?7 Command not valid
while running.
Command not valid while running
:ED 3
Edit Line 3
003 AMX;PR5000;BGX
Add After Motion Done
128 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
<cntrl> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #A
Execute #A
Program Flow Commands
The DMC-1200 provides instructions to control program flow. The DMC-1200 program sequencer
normally executes program instructions sequentially. The program flow can be altered with the use of
event triggers, trippoints, and conditional jump statements.
Event Triggers & Trippoints
To function independently from the host computer, the DMC-1200 can be programmed to make
decisions based on the occurrence of an event. Such events include waiting for motion to be complete,
waiting for a specified amount of time to elapse, or waiting for an input to change logic levels.
The DMC-1200 provides several event triggers that cause the program sequencer to halt until the
specified event occurs. Normally, a program is automatically executed sequentially one line at a time.
When an event trigger instruction is decoded, however, the actual program sequence is halted. The
program sequence does not continue until the event trigger is "tripped". For example, the motion
complete trigger can be used to separate two move sequences in a program. The commands for the
second move sequence will not be executed until the motion is complete on the first motion sequence.
In this way, the DMC-1200 can make decisions based on its own status or external events without
intervention from a host computer.
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 129
DMC-1200 Event Triggers
Command
Function
AM X Y Z W or S
(A B C D E F G H)
Halts program execution until motion is complete on
the specified axes or motion sequence(s). AM with no
parameter tests for motion complete on all axes. This
command is useful for separating motion sequences in
a program.
AD X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halts program execution until position command has
reached the specified relative distance from the start of
the move. Only one axis may be specified at a time.
AR X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halts program execution until after specified distance
from the last AR or AD command has elapsed. Only
one axis may be specified at a time.
AP X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halts program execution until after absolute position
occurs. Only one axis may be specified at a time.
MF X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halt program execution until after forward motion
reached absolute position. Only one axis may be
specified. If position is already past the point, then
MF will trip immediately. Will function on geared
axis or aux. inputs.
MR X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halt program execution until after reverse motion
reached absolute position. Only one axis may be
specified. If position is already past the point, then
MR will trip immediately. Will function on geared
axis or aux. inputs.
MC X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halt program execution until after the motion profile
has been completed and the encoder has entered or
passed the specified position. TW x,y,z,w sets
timeout to declare an error if not in position. If
timeout occurs, then the trippoint will clear and the
stopcode will be set to 99. An application program
will jump to label #MCTIME.
AI +/- n
Halts program execution until after specified input is
at specified logic level. n specifies input line.
Positive is high logic level, negative is low level. n=1
through 8 for DMC-1210, 1220, 1230, 1240. n=1
through 24 for DMC-1250, 1260, 1270, 1280. n=1
through 80 for DMC-12X8.
AS X Y Z W S
(A B C D E F G H)
Halts program execution until specified axis has
reached its slew speed.
AT +/-n
Halts program execution until n msec from reference
time. AT 0 sets reference. AT n waits n msec from
reference. AT -n waits n msec from reference and sets
new reference after elapsed time.
AV n
Halts program execution until specified distance along
a coordinated path has occurred.
WT n
Halts program execution until specified time in msec
has elapsed.
130 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Event Trigger Examples:
Event Trigger - Multiple Move Sequence
The AM trippoint is used to separate the two PR moves. If AM is not used, the controller returns a ?
for the second PR command because a new PR cannot be given until motion is complete.
#TWOMOVE
Label
PR 2000
Position Command
BGX
Begin Motion
AMX
Wait for Motion Complete
PR 4000
Next Position Move
BGX
Begin 2nd move
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Set Output after Distance
Set output bit 1 after a distance of 1000 counts from the start of the move. The accuracy of the
trippoint is the speed multiplied by the sample period.
#SETBIT
Label
SP 10000
Speed is 10000
PA 20000
Specify Absolute position
BGX
Begin motion
AD 1000
Wait until 1000 counts
SB1
Set output bit 1
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Repetitive Position Trigger
To set the output bit every 10000 counts during a move, the AR trippoint is used as shown in the next
example.
DMC-1200
#TRIP
Label
JG 50000
Specify Jog Speed
BGX;n=0
Begin Motion
#REPEAT
# Repeat Loop
AR 10000
Wait 10000 counts
TPX
Tell Position
SB1
Set output 1
WT50
Wait 50 msec
CB1
Clear output 1
n=n+1
Increment counter
JP #REPEAT,n<5
Repeat 5 times
STX
Stop
EN
End
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 131
Event Trigger - Start Motion on Input
This example waits for input 1 to go low and then starts motion. Note: The AI command actually
halts execution of the program until the input occurs. If you do not want to halt the program
sequences, you can use the Input Interrupt function (II) or use a conditional jump on an input, such as
JP #GO,@IN[1] = -1.
#INPUT
Program Label
AI-1
Wait for input 1 low
PR 10000
Position command
BGX
Begin motion
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Set output when At speed
#ATSPEED
Program Label
JG 50000
Specify jog speed
AC 10000
Acceleration rate
BGX
Begin motion
ASX
Wait for at slew speed 50000
SB1
Set output 1
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Change Speed along Vector Path
The following program changes the feedrate or vector speed at the specified distance along the vector.
The vector distance is measured from the start of the move or from the last AV command.
#VECTOR
Label
VMXY;VS 5000
Coordinated path
VP 10000,20000
Vector position
VP 20000,30000
Vector position
VE
End vector
BGS
Begin sequence
AV 5000
After vector distance
VS 1000
Reduce speed
EN
End
132 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Event Trigger - Multiple Move with Wait
This example makes multiple relative distance moves by waiting for each to be complete before
executing new moves.
#MOVES
Label
PR 12000
Distance
SP 20000
Speed
AC 100000
Acceleration
BGX
Start Motion
AD 10000
Wait a distance of 10,000 counts
SP 5000
New Speed
AMX
Wait until motion is completed
WT 200
Wait 200 ms
PR -10000
New Position
SP 30000
New Speed
AC 150000
New Acceleration
BGX
Start Motion
EN
End
Define Output Waveform Using AT
The following program causes Output 1 to be high for 10 msec and low for 40 msec. The cycle repeats
every 50 msec.
#OUTPUT
Program label
AT0
Initialize time reference
SB1
Set Output 1
#LOOP
Loop
AT 10
After 10 msec from reference,
CB1
Clear Output 1
AT -40
Wait 40 msec from reference and reset reference
SB1
Set Output 1
JP #LOOP
Loop
EN
Conditional Jumps
The DMC-1200 provides Conditional Jump (JP) and Conditional Jump to Subroutine (JS) instructions
for branching to a new program location based on a specified condition. The conditional jump
determines if a condition is satisfied and then branches to a new location or subroutine. Unlike event
triggers, the conditional jump instruction does not halt the program sequence. Conditional jumps are
useful for testing events in real-time. They allow the DMC-1200 to make decisions without a host
computer. For example, the DMC-1200 can decide between two motion profiles based on the state of
an input line.
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 133
Command Format - JP and JS
FORMAT:
DESCRIPTION
JS destination, logical condition
Jump to subroutine if logical condition is satisfied
JP destination, logical condition
Jump to location if logical condition is satisfied
The destination is a program line number or label where the program sequencer will jump if the
specified condition is satisfied. Note that the line number of the first line of program memory is 0.
The comma designates "IF". The logical condition tests two operands with logical operators.
Logical operators:
OPERATOR
DESCRIPTION
<
less than
>
greater than
=
equal to
<=
less than or equal to
>=
greater than or equal to
<>
not equal
Conditional Statements
The conditional statement is satisfied if it evaluates to any value other than zero. The conditional
statement can be any valid DMC-1200 numeric operand, including variables, array elements, numeric
values, functions, keywords, and arithmetic expressions. If no conditional statement is given, the jump
will always occur.
Examples:
Number
V1=6
Numeric Expression
V1=V7*6
@ABS[V1]>10
Array Element
V1<Count[2]
Variable
V1<V2
Internal Variable
_TPX=0
I/O
V1>@AN[2]
_TVX>500
@IN[1]=0
Multiple Conditional Statements
The DMC-1200 will accept multiple conditions in a single jump statement. The conditional statements
are combined in pairs using the operands “&” and “|”. The “&” operand between any two conditions,
requires that both statements must be true for the combined statement to be true. The “|” operand
between any two conditions, requires that only one statement be true for the combined statement to be
true. Note: Each condition must be placed in parenthesis for proper evaluation by the controller. In
addition, the DMC-1200 executes operations from left to right. For further information on
Mathematical Expressions and the bit-wise operators ‘&’ and ‘|’, see pg 7- 141.
For example, using variables named V1, V2, V3 and V4:
JP #TEST, (V1<V2) & (V3<V4)
134 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
In this example, this statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST if V1 is less than V2
and V3 is less than V4. To illustrate this further, consider this same example with an additional
condition:
JP #TEST, ((V1<V2) & (V3<V4)) | (V5<V6)
This statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST under two conditions; 1. If V1 is
less than V2 and V3 is less than V4. OR 2. If V5 is less than V6.
Using the JP Command:
If the condition for the JP command is satisfied, the controller branches to the specified label or line
number and continues executing commands from this point. If the condition is not satisfied, the
controller continues to execute the next commands in sequence.
Conditional
Meaning
JP #Loop,COUNT<10
Jump to #Loop if the variable, COUNT, is less than 10
JS #MOVE2,@IN[1]=1
Jump to subroutine #MOVE2 if input 1 is logic level high. After the subroutine
MOVE2 is executed, the program sequencer returns to the main program location
where the subroutine was called.
JP #BLUE,@ABS[V2]>2
Jump to #BLUE if the absolute value of variable, V2, is greater than 2
JP #C,V1*V7<=V8*V2
Jump to #C if the value of V1 times V7 is less than or equal to the value of V8*V2
JP#A
Jump to #A
Example Using JP command:
Move the X motor to absolute position 1000 counts and back to zero ten times. Wait 100 msec
between moves.
#BEGIN
Begin Program
COUNT=10
Initialize loop counter
#LOOP
Begin loop
PA 1000
Position absolute 1000
BGX
Begin move
AMX
Wait for motion complete
WT 100
Wait 100 msec
PA 0
Position absolute 0
BGX
Begin move
AMX
Wait for motion complete
WT 100
Wait 100 msec
COUNT=COUNT-1
Decrement loop counter
JP #LOOP,COUNT>0
Test for 10 times thru loop
EN
End Program
Using If, Else, and Endif Commands
The DMC-1200 provides a structured approach to conditional statements using IF, ELSE and ENDIF
commands.
Using the IF and ENDIF Commands
An IF conditional statement is formed by the combination of an IF and ENDIF command. The IF
command has as it's arguments one or more conditional statements. If the conditional statement(s)
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 135
evaluates true, the command interpreter will continue executing commands which follow the IF
command. If the conditional statement evaluates false, the controller will ignore commands until the
associated ENDIF command is executed OR an ELSE command occurs in the program (see discussion
of ELSE command below).
Note: An ENDIF command must always be executed for every IF command that has been executed. It
is recommended that the user not include jump commands inside IF conditional statements since this
causes re-direction of command execution. In this case, the command interpreter may not execute an
ENDIF command.
Using the ELSE Command
The ELSE command is an optional part of an IF conditional statement and allows for the execution of
command only when the argument of the IF command evaluates False. The ELSE command must
occur after an IF command and has no arguments. If the argument of the IF command evaluates false,
the controller will skip commands until the ELSE command. If the argument for the IF command
evaluates true, the controller will execute the commands between the IF and ELSE command.
Nesting IF Conditional Statements
The DMC-1200 allows for IF conditional statements to be included within other IF conditional
statements. This technique is known as 'nesting' and the DMC-1200 allows up to 255 IF conditional
statements to be nested. This is a very powerful technique allowing the user to specify a variety of
different cases for branching.
Command Format - IF, ELSE and ENDIF
FORMAT:
DESCRIPTION
IF conditional statement(s)
Execute commands proceeding IF command (up to ELSE command) if
conditional statement(s) is true, otherwise continue executing at ENDIF
command or optional ELSE command.
ELSE
Optional command. Allows for commands to be executed when argument
of IF command evaluates not true. Can only be used with IF command.
ENDIF
Command to end IF conditional statement. Program must have an ENDIF
command for every IF command.
Example using IF, ELSE and ENDIF:
#TEST
Begin Main Program "TEST"
II,,3
Enable input interrupts on input 1 and input 2
MG "WAITING FOR INPUT 1, INPUT 2"
Output message
#LOOP
Label to be used for endless loop
JP #LOOP
Endless loop
EN
End of main program
#ININT
Input Interrupt Subroutine
IF (@IN[1]=0)
IF conditional statement based on input 1
IF (@IN[2]=0)
2nd IF conditional statement executed if 1st IF conditional true
MG "INPUT 1 AND INPUT 2 ARE ACTIVE"
Message to be executed if 2nd IF conditional is true
ELSE
ELSE command for 2nd IF conditional statement
MG "ONLY INPUT 1 IS ACTIVE
Message to be executed if 2nd IF conditional is false
ENDIF
End of 2nd conditional statement
ELSE
ELSE command for 1st IF conditional statement
MG"ONLY INPUT 2 IS ACTIVE"
Message to be executed if 1st IF conditional statement
136 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
End of 1st conditional statement
ENDIF
#WAIT
Label to be used for a loop
JP#WAIT,(@IN[1]=0) | (@IN[2]=0)
Loop until both input 1 and input 2 are not active
RI0
End Input Interrupt Routine without restoring trippoints
Subroutines
A subroutine is a group of instructions beginning with a label and ending with an end command (EN).
Subroutines are called from the main program with the jump subroutine instruction JS, followed by a
label or line number, and conditional statement. Up to 8 subroutines can be nested. After the
subroutine is executed, the program sequencer returns to the program location where the subroutine
was called unless the subroutine stack is manipulated as described in the following section.
Example:
An example of a subroutine to draw a square 500 counts per side is given below. The square is drawn
at vector position 1000,1000.
#M
Begin Main Program
CB1
Clear Output Bit 1 (pick up pen)
VP 1000,1000;LE;BGS
Define vector position; move pen
AMS
Wait for after motion trippoint
SB1
Set Output Bit 1 (put down pen)
JS #Square;CB1
Jump to square subroutine
EN
End Main Program
#Square
Square subroutine
V1=500;JS #L
Define length of side
V1=-V1;JS #L
Switch direction
EN
End subroutine
#L;PR V1,V1;BGX
Define X,Y; Begin X
AMX;BGY;AMY
After motion on X, Begin Y
EN
End subroutine
Stack Manipulation
It is possible to manipulate the subroutine stack by using the ZS command. Every time a JS
instruction, interrupt or automatic routine (such as #POSERR or #LIMSWI) is executed, the subroutine
stack is incremented by 1. Normally the stack is restored with an EN instruction. Occasionally it is
desirable not to return back to the program line where the subroutine or interrupt was called. The ZS1
command clears 1 level of the stack. This allows the program sequencer to continue to the next line.
The ZS0 command resets the stack to its initial value. For example, if a limit occurs and the #LIMSWI
routine is executed, it is often desirable to restart the program sequence instead of returning to the
location where the limit occurred. To do this, give a ZS command at the end of the #LIMSWI routine.
Auto-Start Routine
The DMC-1200 has a special label for automatic program execution. A program which has been saved
into the controllers non-volatile memory can be automatically executed upon power up or reset by
beginning the program with the label #AUTO. The program must be saved into non-volatile memory
using the command, BP.
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 137
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions
Often it is desirable to monitor certain conditions continuously without tying up the host or DMC-1200
program sequences. The DMC-1200 can monitor several important conditions in the background.
These conditions include checking for the occurrence of a limit switch, a defined input, position error,
or a command error. Automatic monitoring is enabled by inserting a special, predefined label in the
applications program. The pre-defined labels are:
SUBROUTINE
DESCRIPTION
#LIMSWI
Limit switch on any axis goes low
#ININT
Input specified by II goes low
#POSERR
Position error exceeds limit specified by ER
#MCTIME
Motion Complete timeout occurred. Timeout period set by TW command
#CMDERR
Bad command given
#AUTO
Automatically executes code on power-up
#AUTOERR
Runs in place of #AUTO when there is an error condition. Check _RS for
error.
For example, the #POSERR subroutine will automatically be executed when any axis exceeds its
position error limit. The commands in the #POSERR subroutine could decode which axis is in error
and take the appropriate action. In another example, the #ININT label could be used to designate an
input interrupt subroutine. When the specified input occurs, the program will be executed
automatically.
NOTE: An application program must be running for automatic monitoring to function.
Example - Limit Switch:
This program prints a message upon the occurrence of a limit switch. Note, for the #LIMSWI routine
to function, the DMC-1200 must be executing an applications program from memory. This can be a
very simple program that does nothing but loop on a statement, such as #LOOP;JP #LOOP;EN.
Motion commands, such as JG 5000 can still be sent from the PC even while the "dummy"
applications program is being executed.
:ED
Edit Mode
000 #LOOP
Dummy Program
001 JP #LOOP;EN
Jump to Loop
002 #LIMSWI
Limit Switch Label
003 MG "LIMIT OCCURRED"
Print Message
004 RE
Return to main program
<control> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #LOOP
Execute Dummy Program
:JG 5000
Jog
:BGX
Begin Motion
Now, when a forward limit switch occurs on the X axis, the #LIMSWI subroutine will be executed.
Notes regarding the #LIMSWI Routine:
1) The LIMSWI Routine will be activate when the Forward and Reverse Software Limits are
activated as well as the hardware limits.
1) The #LIMSWI subroutine will be re-executed if the limit switch remains active.
1) The #LIMSWI routine is only executed when the motor is being commanded to move
138 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Example - Position Error
:ED
Edit Mode
000 #LOOP
Dummy Program
001 JP #LOOP;EN
Loop
002 #POSERR
Position Error Routine
003 V1=_TEX
Read Position Error
004 MG "EXCESS POSITION ERROR"
Print Message
005 MG "ERROR=",V1=
Print Error
006 RE
Return from Error
<control> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #LOOP
Execute Dummy Program
:JG 100000
Jog at High Speed
:BGX
Begin Motion
Example - Input Interrupt:
#A
Label
II1
Input Interrupt on 1
JG 30000,,,60000
Jog
BGXW
Begin Motion
#LOOP;JP#LOOP;EN
Loop
#ININT
Input Interrupt
STXW;AM
Stop Motion
#TEST;JP #TEST, @IN[1]=0
Test for Input 1 still low
JG 30000,,,6000
Restore Velocities
BGXW
Begin motion
RI0
Return from interrupt routine to Main Program and do not re-enable trippoints
Example - Motion Complete Timeout
#BEGIN
Begin main program
TW 1000
Set the time out to 1000 ms
PA 10000
Position Absolute command
BGX
Begin motion
MCX
Motion Complete trip point
EN
End main program
#MCTIME
Motion Complete Subroutine
MG “X fell short”
Send out a message
EN
End subroutine
This simple program will issue the message “X fell short” if the X axis does not reach the commanded
position within 1 second of the end of the profiled move.
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 139
Example - Command Error
#BEGIN
Begin main program
IN "ENTER SPEED", SPEED
Prompt for speed
JG SPEED;BGX;
Begin motion
JP #BEGIN
Repeat
EN
End main program
#CMDERR
Command error utility
JP#DONE,_ED<>2
Check if error on line 2
JP#DONE,_TC<>6
Check if out of range
MG "SPEED TOO HIGH"
Send message
MG "TRY AGAIN"
Send message
ZS1
Adjust stack
JP #BEGIN
Return to main program
#DONE
End program if other error
ZS0
Zero stack
EN
End program
The above program prompts the operator to enter a jog speed. If the operator enters a number out of
range (greater than 8 million), the #CMDERR routine will be executed prompting the operator to enter
a new number.
In multitasking applications, there is an alternate method for handling command errors from different
threads. Using the XQ command along with the special operands described below allows the
controller to either skip or retry invalid commands.
OPERAND
FUNCTION
_ED1
Returns the number of the thread that generated an error
_ED2
Retry failed command (operand contains the location of the failed command)
_ED3
Skip failed command (operand contains the location of the command after the failed
command)
The operands are used with the XQ command in the following format:
XQ _ED2 (or _ED3),_ED1,1
Where the “,1” indicates a restart. This way, the existing program stack will not be removed when the
above command executes.
The following example shows an error correction routine which uses the operands.
Example - Command Error w/Multitasking
#A
Begin thread 0 (continuous loop)
JP#A
EN
End of thread 0
#B
Begin thread 1
N=-1
Create new variable
KP N
Set KP to value of N, an invalid value
140 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
TY
Issue invalid command
EN
End of thread 1
#CMDERR
Begin command error subroutine
IF _TC=6
If error is out of range (KP -1)
N=1
Set N to a valid number
XQ _ED2,_ED1,1
Retry KP N command
ENDIF
IF _TC=1
If error is invalid command (TY)
XQ _ED3,_ED1,1
Skip invalid command
ENDIF
EN
End of command error routine
Mathematical and Functional Expressions
Mathematical Operators
For manipulation of data, the DMC-1200 provides the use of the following mathematical operators:
OPERATOR
FUNCTION
+
Addition
-
Subtraction
*
Multiplication
/
Division
&
Logical And (Bit-wise)
|
Logical Or (On some computers, a solid vertical line appears as a broken line)
()
Parenthesis
The numeric range for addition, subtraction and multiplication operations is +/-2,147,483,647.9999.
The precision for division is 1/65,000.
Mathematical operations are executed from left to right. Calculations within a parentheses have
precedence.
Examples:
SPEED=7.5*V1/2
The variable, SPEED, is equal to 7.5 multiplied by V1 and divided by 2
COUNT=COUNT+2
The variable, COUNT, is equal to the current value plus 2.
RESULT=_TPX-(@COS[45]*40)
Puts the position of X - 28.28 in RESULT. 40 * cosine of 45° is 28.28
[email protected][1]&@IN[2]
TEMP is equal to 1 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high
Bit-Wise Operators
The mathematical operators & and | are bit-wise operators. The operator, &, is a Logical And. The
operator, |, is a Logical Or. These operators allow for bit-wise operations on any valid DMC-1200
numeric operand, including variables, array elements, numeric values, functions, keywords, and
arithmetic expressions. The bit-wise operators may also be used with strings. This is useful for
separating characters from an input string. When using the input command for string input, the input
variable will hold up to 6 characters. These characters are combined into a single value which is
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 141
represented as 32 bits of integer and 16 bits of fraction. Each ascii character is represented as one byte
(8 bits), therefore the input variable can hold up to six characters. The first character of the string will
be placed in the top byte of the variable and the last character will be placed in the lowest significant
byte of the fraction. The characters can be individually separated by using bit-wise operations as
illustrated in the following example:
#TEST
Begin main program
IN "ENTER",LEN{S6}
Input character string of up to 6 characters into variable ‘LEN’
[email protected][LEN]
Define variable ‘FLEN’ as fractional part of variable ‘LEN’
FLEN=$10000*FLEN
Shift FLEN by 32 bits (IE - convert fraction, FLEN, to integer)
LEN1=(FLEN&$00FF)
Mask top byte of FLEN and set this value to variable ‘LEN1’
LEN2=(FLEN&$FF00)/$100
Let variable, ‘LEN2’ = top byte of FLEN
LEN3=LEN&$000000FF
Let variable, ‘LEN3’ = bottom byte of LEN
LEN4=(LEN&$0000FF00)/$100
Let variable, ‘LEN4’ = second byte of LEN
LEN5=(LEN&$00FF0000)/$10000
Let variable, ‘LEN5’ = third byte of LEN
LEN6=(LEN&$FF000000)/$1000000
Let variable, ‘LEN6’ = fourth byte of LEN
MG LEN6 {S4}
Display ‘LEN6’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN5 {S4}
Display ‘LEN5’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN4 {S4}
Display ‘LEN4’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN3 {S4}
Display ‘LEN3’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN2 {S4}
Display ‘LEN2’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN1 {S4}
Display ‘LEN1’ as string message of up to 4 chars
EN
This program will accept a string input of up to 6 characters, parse each character, and then display
each character. Notice also that the values used for masking are represented in hexadecimal (as
denoted by the preceding ‘$’). For more information, see section Sending Messages.
To illustrate further, if the user types in the string “TESTME” at the input prompt, the controller will
respond with the following:
T
Response from command MG LEN6 {S4}
E
Response from command MG LEN5 {S4}
S
Response from command MG LEN4 {S4}
T
Response from command MG LEN3 {S4}
M
Response from command MG LEN2 {S4}
E
Response from command MG LEN1 {S4}
Functions
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
@SIN[n]
Sine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
@COS[n]
Cosine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
@TAN[n]
Tangent of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
@ASIN*[n]
Arc Sine of n, between -90° and +90°. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.
142 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
@ACOS* [n}
Arc Cosine of n, between 0 and 180°. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.
@ATAN* [n]
Arc Tangent of n, between -90° and +90°. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees
@COM[n]
1’s Complement of n
@ABS[n]
Absolute value of n
@FRAC[n]
Fraction portion of n
@INT[n]
Integer portion of n
@RND[n]
Round of n (Rounds up if the fractional part of n is .5 or greater)
@SQR[n]
Square root of n (Accuracy is +/-.0001)
@IN[n]
Return digital input at general input n (where n starts at 1)
@OUT[n]
Return digital output at general output n (where n starts at 1)
@AN[n]
Return analog input at general analog in n (where n starts at 1)
* Note that these functions are multi-valued. An application program may be used to find the correct
band.
Functions may be combined with mathematical expressions. The order of execution of mathematical
expressions is from left to right and can be over-ridden by using parentheses.
Examples:
[email protected][V7]
The variable, V1, is equal to the absolute value of variable V7.
V2=5*@SIN[POS]
The variable, V2, is equal to five times the sine of the variable, POS.
[email protected][1]
The variable, V3, is equal to the digital value of input 1.
V4=2*([email protected][5])
The variable, V4, is equal to the value of analog input 5 plus 5, then multiplied by
2.
Variables
For applications that require a parameter that is variable, the DMC-1200 provides 254 variables.
These variables can be numbers or strings. A program can be written in which certain parameters,
such as position or speed, are defined as variables. The variables can later be assigned by the operator
or determined by program calculations. For example, a cut-to-length application may require that a cut
length be variable.
Example:
PR POSX
Assigns variable POSX to PR command
JG RPMY*70
Assigns variable RPMY multiplied by 70 to JG command.
Programmable Variables
The DMC-1200 allows the user to create up to 254 variables. Each variable is defined by a name
which can be up to eight characters. The name must start with an alphabetic character, however,
numbers are permitted in the rest of the name. Spaces are not permitted. Variable names should not
be the same as DMC-1200 instructions. For example, PR is not a good choice for a variable name.
Examples of valid and invalid variable names are:
Valid Variable Names
POSX
POS1
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 143
SPEEDZ
Invalid Variable Names
REALLONGNAME
; Cannot have more than 8 characters
123
; Cannot begin variable name with a number
SPEED Z
; Cannot have spaces in the name
Assigning Values to Variables:
Assigned values can be numbers, internal variables and keywords, functions, controller parameters and
strings;
The range for numeric variable values is 4 bytes of integer (231)followed by two bytes of fraction
(+/-2,147,483,647.9999).
Numeric values can be assigned to programmable variables using the equal sign.
Any valid DMC-1200 function can be used to assign a value to a variable. For example,
[email protected][V2] or [email protected][1]. Arithmetic operations are also permitted.
To assign a string value, the string must be in quotations. String variables can contain up to six
characters which must be in quotation.
Examples:
POSX=_TPX
Assigns returned value from TPX command to variable POSX.
SPEED=5.75
Assigns value 5.75 to variable SPEED
[email protected][2]
Assigns logical value of input 2 to variable INPUT
V2=V1+V3*V4
Assigns the value of V1 plus V3 times V4 to the variable V2.
VAR="CAT"
Assign the string, CAT, to VAR
Assigning Variable Values to Controller Parameters
Variable values may be assigned to controller parameters such as GN or PR.
PR V1
Assign V1 to PR command
SP VS*2000
Assign VS*2000 to SP command
Displaying the value of variables at the terminal
Variables may be sent to the screen using the format, variable =. For example, V1= , returns the
value of the variable V1.
Example - Using Variables for Joystick
The example below reads the voltage of an X-Y joystick and assigns it to variables VX and VY to
drive the motors at proportional velocities, where
10 Volts = 3000 rpm = 200000 c/sec
Speed/Analog input = 200000/10 = 20000
#JOYSTIK
Label
JG 0,0
Set in Jog mode
BGXY
Begin Motion
#LOOP
Loop
[email protected][1]*20000
Read joystick X
144 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
[email protected][2]*20000
Read joystick Y
JG VX,VY
Jog at variable VX,VY
JP#LOOP
Repeat
EN
End
Operands
Operands allow motion or status parameters of the DMC-1200 to be incorporated into programmable
variables and expressions. Most DMC-1200 commands have an equivalent operand - which are
designated by adding an underscore (_) prior to the DMC-1200 command. The command reference
indicates which commands have an associated operand.
Status commands such as Tell Position return actual values, whereas action commands such as KP or
SP return the values in the DMC-1200 registers. The axis designation is required following the
command.
Examples of Internal Variables:
POSX=_TPX
Assigns value from Tell Position X to the variable POSX.
GAIN=_GNZ*2
Assigns value from GNZ multiplied by two to variable, GAIN.
JP #LOOP,_TEX>5
Jump to #LOOP if the position error of X is greater than 5
JP #ERROR,_TC=1
Jump to #ERROR if the error code equals 1.
Operands can be used in an expression and assigned to a programmable variable, but they cannot be
assigned a value. For example: _GNX=2 is invalid.
Special Operands (Keywords)
The DMC-1200 provides a few additional operands which give access to internal variables that are not
accessible by standard DMC-1200 commands.
KEYWORD
FUNCTION
_BGn
*Returns a 1 if motion on axis ‘n’ is complete, otherwise returns 0.
_BN
*Returns serial # of the board.
_DA
*Returns the number of arrays available
_DL
*Returns the number of available labels for programming
_DM
*Returns the available array memory
_HMn
*Returns status of Home Switch (equals 0 or 1)
_LFn
Returns status of Forward Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)
_LRn
Returns status of Reverse Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)
_UL
*Returns the number of available variables
TIME
Free-Running Real Time Clock (off by 2.4% - Resets with power-on).
Note: TIME does not use an underscore character (_) as other keywords.
* - These keywords have corresponding commands while the keywords _LF, _LR, and TIME do not
have any associated commands. All keywords are listed in the Command Summary, Chapter 11.
Examples of Keywords:
DMC-1200
V1=_LFX
Assign V1 the logical state of the Forward Limit Switch on the X-axis
V3=TIME
Assign V3 the current value of the time clock
V4=_HMW
Assign V4 the logical state of the Home input on the W-axis
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 145
Arrays
For storing and collecting numerical data, the DMC-1200 provides array space for 8000 elements.
The arrays are one dimensional and up to 30 different arrays may be defined. Each array element has a
31
numeric range of 4 bytes of integer (2 )followed by two bytes of fraction (+/-2,147,483,647.9999).
Arrays can be used to capture real-time data, such as position, torque and analog input values. In the
contouring mode, arrays are convenient for holding the points of a position trajectory in a record and
playback application.
Defining Arrays
An array is defined with the command DM. The user must specify a name and the number of entries
to be held in the array. An array name can contain up to eight characters, starting with an uppercase
alphabetic character. The number of entries in the defined array is enclosed in [ ].
Example:
DM POSX[7]
Defines an array names POSX with seven entries
DM SPEED[100]
Defines an array named speed with 100 entries
DM POSX[0]
Frees array space
Assignment of Array Entries
Like variables, each array element can be assigned a value. Assigned values can be numbers or
returned values from instructions, functions and keywords.
Array elements are addressed starting at count 0. For example the first element in the POSX array
(defined with the DM command, DM POSX[7]) would be specified as POSX[0].
Values are assigned to array entries using the equal sign. Assignments are made one element at a time
by specifying the element number with the associated array name.
NOTE: Arrays must be defined using the command, DM, before assigning entry values.
Examples:
DM SPEED[10]
Dimension Speed Array
SPEED[1]=7650.2
Assigns the first element of the array, SPEED the value 7650.2
SPEED[1]=
Returns array element value
POSX[10]=_TPX
Assigns the 10th element of the array POSX the returned value from the tell
position command.
CON[2][email protected][POS]*2
Assigns the second element of the array CON the cosine of the variable POS
multiplied by 2.
TIMER[1]=TIME
Assigns the first element of the array timer the returned value of the TIME
keyword.
Using a Variable to Address Array Elements
An array element number can also be a variable. This allows array entries to be assigned sequentially
using a counter.
For example:
#A
Begin Program
COUNT=0;DM POS[10]
Initialize counter and define array
#LOOP
Begin loop
WT 10
Wait 10 msec
146 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
POS[COUNT]=_TPX
Record position into array element
POS[COUNT]=
Report position
COUNT=COUNT+1
Increment counter
JP #LOOP,COUNT<10
Loop until 10 elements have been stored
EN
End Program
The above example records 10 position values at a rate of one value per 10 msec. The values are
stored in an array named POS. The variable, COUNT, is used to increment the array element counter.
The above example can also be executed with the automatic data capture feature described below.
Uploading and Downloading Arrays to On Board Memory
Arrays may be uploaded and downloaded using the QU and QD commands.
QU array[],start,end,delim
QD array[],start,end
where array is an array name such as A[].
Start is the first element of array (default=0)
End is the last element of array (default=last element)
Delim specifies whether the array data is seperated by a comma (delim=1) or a carriage return
(delim=0).
The file is terminated using <control>Z, <control>Q, <control>D or \.
Automatic Data Capture into Arrays
The DMC-1200 provides a special feature for automatic capture of data such as position, position
error, inputs or torque. This is useful for teaching motion trajectories or observing system
performance. Up to four types of data can be captured and stored in four arrays. The capture rate or
time interval may be specified. Recording can done as a one time event or as a circular continuous
recording.
Command Summary - Automatic Data Capture
DMC-1200
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
RA n[],m[],o[],p[]
Selects up to four arrays for data capture. The arrays must be defined with the
DM command.
RD type1,type2,type3,type4
Selects the type of data to be recorded, where type1, type2, type3, and type 4
represent the various types of data (see table below). The order of data type is
important and corresponds with the order of n,m,o,p arrays in the RA command.
RC n,m
The RC command begins data collection. Sets data capture time interval where
n is an integer between 1 and 8 and designates 2n msec between data. m is
optional and specifies the number of elements to be captured. If m is not
defined, the number of elements defaults to the smallest array defined by DM.
When m is a negative number, the recording is done continuously in a circular
manner. _RD is the recording pointer and indicates the address of the next array
element. n=0 stops recording.
RC?
Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 147
Data Types for Recording: (n = axis A)
DATA TYPE
DESCRIPTION
_DEn
2nd encoder position (dual encoder)
_TPn
Encoder position
_TEn
Position error
_SHn
Commanded position
_RLn
Latched position
_TI
Inputs
_OP
Output
_TSn
Switches (only bit 0-4 valid)
_SCn
Stop code
_NOn
Status bits
_TTn
Torque (reports digital value +/- 32544)
_AFn
Analog input (reports +/- 32767
Note: X may be replaced by Y,Z or W for capturing data on other axes.
Operand Summary - Automatic Data Capture
_RC
Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress
_RD
Returns address of next array element.
Example - Recording into An Array
During a position move, store the X and Y positions and position error every 2 msec.
#RECORD
Begin program
DM XPOS[300],YPOS[300]
Define X,Y position arrays
DM XERR[300],YERR[300]
Define X,Y error arrays
RA XPOS[],XERR[],YPOS[],YERR[]
Select arrays for capture
RD _TPX,_TEX,_TPY,_TEY
Select data types
PR 10000,20000
Specify move distance
RC1
Start recording now, at rate of 2 msec
BG XY
Begin motion
#A;JP #A,_RC=1
Loop until done
MG "DONE"
Print message
EN
End program
#PLAY
Play back
N=0
Initial Counter
JP# DONE,N>300
Exit if done
N=
Print Counter
X POS[N]=
Print X position
Y POS[N]=
Print Y position
XERR[N]=
Print X error
YERR[N]=
Print Y error
N=N+1
Increment Counter
#DONE
Done
EN
End
148 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Deallocating Array Space
Array space may be deallocated using the DA command followed by the array name. DA*[0]
deallocates all the arrays.
Input of Data (Numeric and String)
Input of Data
The command, IN, is used to prompt the user to input numeric or string data. Using the IN command,
the user may specify a message prompt by placing a message in quotations. When the controller
executes an IN command, the controller will wait for the input of data. The input data is assigned to
the specified variable or array element.
An Example for Inputting Numeric Data
#A
IN "Enter Length",LENX
EN
In this example, the message “Enter Length” is displayed on the computer screen. The controller waits
for the operator to enter a value. The operator enters the numeric value which is assigned to the
variable, LENX. (NOTE: Do not include a space between the comma at the end of the input message
and the variable name.)
Cut-to-Length Example
In this example, a length of material is to be advanced a specified distance. When the motion is
complete, a cutting head is activated to cut the material. The length is variable, and the operator is
prompted to input it in inches. Motion starts with a start button which is connected to input 1.
The load is coupled with a 2 pitch lead screw. A 2000 count/rev encoder is on the motor, resulting in a
resolution of 4000 counts/inch. The program below uses the variable LEN, to length. The IN
command is used to prompt the operator to enter the length, and the entered value is assigned to the
variable LEN.
DMC-1200
#BEGIN
LABEL
AC 800000
Acceleration
DC 800000
Deceleration
SP 5000
Speed
LEN=3.4
Initial length in inches
#CUT
Cut routine
AI1
Wait for start signal
IN "enter Length(IN)", LEN
Prompt operator for length in inches
PR LEN *4000
Specify position in counts
BGX
Begin motion to move material
AMX
Wait for motion done
SB1
Set output to cut
WT100;CB1
Wait 100 msec, then turn off cutter
JP #CUT
Repeat process
EN
End program
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 149
Inputting String Variables
String variables with up to six characters may input using the specifier, {Sn} where n represents the
number of string characters to be input. If n is not specified, six characters will be accepted. For
example, IN "Enter X,Y or Z", V{S} specifies a string variable to be input.
Output of Data (Numeric and String)
Numerical and string data can be output from the controller using several methods. The message
command, MG, can output string and numerical data. Also, the controller can be commanded to return
the values of variables and arrays, as well as other information using the interrogation commands (the
interrogation commands are described in chapter 5).
Sending Messages
Messages may be sent to the bus using the message command, MG. This command sends specified
text and numerical or string data from variables or arrays to the screen.
Text strings are specified in quotes and variable or array data is designated by the name of the variable
or array. For example:
MG "The Final Value is", RESULT
In addition to variables, functions and commands, responses can be used in the message command.
For example:
MG "Analog input is", @AN[1]
MG "The Gain of X is", _GNX
Formatting Messages
String variables can be formatted using the specifier, {Sn} where n is the number of characters, 1 thru
6. For example:
MG STR {S3}
This statement returns 3 characters of the string variable named STR.
Numeric data may be formatted using the {Fn.m} expression following the completed MG statement.
{$n.m} formats data in HEX instead of decimal. The actual numerical value will be formatted with n
characters to the left of the decimal and m characters to the right of the decimal. Leading zeros will be
used to display specified format.
For example::
MG "The Final Value is", RESULT {F5.2}
If the value of the variable RESULT is equal to 4.1, this statement returns the following:
The Final Value is 00004.10
If the value of the variable RESULT is equal to 999999.999, the above message statement returns the
following:
The Final Value is 99999.99
The message command normally sends a carriage return and line feed following the statement. The
carriage return and the line feed may be suppressed by sending {N} at the end of the statement. This is
useful when a text string needs to surround a numeric value.
150 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Example:
#A
JG 50000;BGX;ASX
MG "The Speed is", _TVX {F5.1} {N}
MG "counts/sec"
EN
When #A is executed, the above example will appear on the screen as:
The speed is 50000 counts/sec
Using the MG Command to Configure Terminals
The MG command can be used to configure a terminal. Any ASCII character can be sent by using the
format {^n} where n is any integer between 1 and 255.
Example:
MG {^07} {^255}
sends the ASCII characters represented by 7 and 255 to the bus.
Summary of Message Functions:
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
""
Surrounds text string
{Fn.m}
Formats numeric values in decimal n digits to the left of the decimal point and
m digits to the right
{$n.m}
Formats numeric values in hexadecimal
{^n}
Sends ASCII character specified by integer n
{N}
Suppresses carriage return/line feed
{Sn}
Sends the first n characters of a string variable, where n is 1 thru 6.
Displaying Variables and Arrays
Variables and arrays may be sent to the screen using the format, variable = or array[x]=. For example,
V1= , returns the value of V1.
Example - Printing a Variable and an Array element
#DISPLAY
Label
DM POSX[7]
Define Array POSX with 7 entries
PR 1000
Position Command
BGX
Begin
AMX
After Motion
V1=_TPX
Assign Variable V1
POSX[1]=_TPX
Assign the first entry
V1=
Print V1
Interrogation Commands
The DMC-1200 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When these command
are entered, the requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by a carriage
return and line feed. The format of the returned data can be changed using the Position Format (PF),
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 151
and Leading Zeros (LZ) command. For a complete description of interrogation commands, see chapter
5.
Using the PF Command to Format Response from Interrogation
Commands
The command, PF, can change format of the values returned by theses interrogation commands:
BL ?
LE ?
DE ?
PA ?
DP ?
PR ?
EM ?
TN ?
FL ?
VE ?
IP ?
TE
TP
The numeric values may be formatted in decimal or hexadecimal* with a specified number of digits to
the right and left of the decimal point using the PF command.
Position Format is specified by:
PF m.n
where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of digits
to the right of the decimal point (0 thru 4) A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format.
Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement. Hex values should be input as signed
2's complement, where negative numbers have a negative sign. The default format is PF 10.0.
If the number of decimal places specified by PF is less than the actual value, a nine appears in all the
decimal places.
Examples:
:DP21
Define position
:TPX
Tell position
0000000021
Default format
:PF4
Change format to 4 places
:TPX
Tell position
0021
New format
:PF-4
Change to hexadecimal format
:TPX
Tell Position
$0015
Hexadecimal value
:PF2
Format 2 places
:TPX
Tell Position
99
Returns 99 if position greater than 99
Removing Leading Zeros from Response to Interrogation Commands
The leading zeros on data returned as a response to interrogation commands can be removed by the use
of the command, LZ.
152 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Example - Using the LZ command
LZ0
Disables the LZ function
TP
Tell Position Interrogation Command
-0000000009, 0000000005, 0000000000, 0000000007
Response from Interrogation Command
(With Leading Zeros)
LZ1
Enables the LZ function
TP
Tell Position Interrogation Command
-9, 5, 0, 7
Response from Interrogation Command
(Without Leading Zeros)
Local Formatting of Response of Interrogation Commands
The response of interrogation commands may be formatted locally. To format locally, use the
command, {Fn.m} or {$n.m} on the same line as the interrogation command. The symbol F specifies
that the response should be returned in decimal format and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is the number of
digits to the left of the decimal, and m is the number of digits to the right of the decimal. For example:
Examples:
TP {F2.2}
Tell Position in decimal format 2.2
-05.00, 05.00, 00.00, 07.00
Response from Interrogation Command
TP {$4.2}
Tell Position in hexadecimal format 4.2
FFFB.00,$0005.00,$0000.00,$0007.00
Response from Interrogation Command
Formatting Variables and Array Elements
The Variable Format (VF) command is used to format variables and array elements. The VF
command is specified by:
VF m.n
where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of
digits to the right of the decimal point (0 thru 4).
A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format. The default format for VF is VF 10.4
Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement.
DMC-1200
:V1=10
Assign V1
:V1=
Return V1
0000000010.0000
Default format
:VF2.2
Change format
:V1=
Return V1
10.00
New format
:VF-2.2
Specify hex format
:V1=
Return V1
$0A.00
Hex value
:VF1
Change format
:V1=
Return V1
9
Overflow
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 153
Local Formatting of Variables
PF and VF commands are global format commands that effect the format of all relevant returned
values and variables. Variables may also be formatted locally. To format locally, use the command,
{Fn.m} or {$n.m} following the variable name and the ‘=’ symbol. F specifies decimal and $ specifies
hexadecimal. n is the number of digits to the left of the decimal, and m is the number of digits to the
right of the decimal. For example:
Examples:
:V1=10
Assign V1
:V1=
Return V1
0000000010.0000
Default Format
:V1={F4.2}
Specify local format
0010.00
New format
:V1={$4.2}
Specify hex format
$000A.00
Hex value
:V1="ALPHA"
Assign string "ALPHA" to V1
:V1={S4}
Specify string format first 4 characters
ALPH
Converting to User Units
Variables and arithmetic operations make it easy to input data in desired user units such as inches or
RPM.
The DMC-1200 position parameters such as PR, PA and VP have units of quadrature counts. Speed
parameters such as SP, JG and VS have units of counts/sec. Acceleration parameters such as AC, DC,
VA and VD have units of counts/sec2. The controller interprets time in milliseconds.
All input parameters must be converted into these units. For example, an operator can be prompted to
input a number in revolutions. A program could be used such that the input number is converted into
counts by multiplying it by the number of counts/revolution.
Example:
#RUN
Label
IN "ENTER # OF REVOLUTIONS",N1
Prompt for revs
PR N1*2000
Convert to counts
IN "ENTER SPEED IN RPM",S1
Prompt for RPMs
SP S1*2000/60
Convert to counts/sec
IN "ENTER ACCEL IN RAD/SEC2",A1 Prompt for ACCEL
AC A1*2000/(2*3.14)
Convert to counts/sec2
BG
Begin motion
EN
End program
154 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Hardware I/O
Digital Outputs
The DMC-1200 has an 8-bit uncommitted output port for controlling external events. The DMC-1250
through DMC-1280 has an additional 8 outputs. [The DB-12064 provides an additional 64 I/O
(configured as inputs or outputs with CO command).] Each bit on the output port may be set and
cleared with the software instructions SB (Set Bit) and CB(Clear Bit), or OB (define output bit).
For example:
Instruction
Function
SB6
Sets bit 6 of output port
CB4
Clears bit 4 of output port
The Output Bit (OB) instruction is useful for setting or clearing outputs depending on the value of a
variable, array, input or expression. Any non-zero value results in a set bit.
Instruction
Function
OB1, POS
Set Output 1 if the variable POS is non-zero. Clear Output 1 if POS equals 0.
OB 2, @IN [1]
Set Output 2 if Input 1 is high. If Input 1 is low, clear Output 2.
OB 3, @IN [1]&@IN [2]
Set Output 3 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high.
OB 4, COUNT [1]
Set Output 4 if element 1 in the array COUNT is non-zero.
The output port can be set by specifying an 8-bit word using the instruction OP (Output Port). This
instruction allows a single command to define the state of the entire 8-bit output port, where 20 is
output 1, 21 is output 2 and so on. A 1 designates that the output is on.
For example:
Instruction
Function
OP6
Sets outputs 2 and 3 of output port to high. All other bits are 0. (21 + 22 = 6)
OP0
Clears all bits of output port to zero
OP 255
Sets all bits of output port to one.
(22 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27)
The output port is useful for setting relays or controlling external switches and events during a motion
sequence.
Example - Turn on output after move
#OUTPUT
DMC-1200
Label
PR 2000
Position Command
BG
Begin
AM
After move
SB1
Set Output 1
WT 1000
Wait 1000 msec
CB1
Clear Output 1
EN
End
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 155
Digital Inputs
The DMC-1200 has eight digital inputs for controlling motion by local switches. The @IN[n] function
returns the logic level of the specified input 1 through 8.
1280
For the DMC-1250 thru DMC-1280, the @ IN [n] function is valid for inputs 1 thru 16.
For example, a Jump on Condition instruction can be used to execute a sequence if a high condition is
noted on an input 3. To halt program execution, the After Input (AI) instruction waits until the
specified input has occurred.
Example:
JP #A,@IN[1]=0
Jump to A if input 1 is low
JP #B,@IN[2]=1
Jump to B if input 2 is high
AI 7
Wait until input 7 is high
AI -6
Wait until input 6 is low
Example - Start Motion on Switch
Motor X must turn at 4000 counts/sec when the user flips a panel switch to on. When panel switch is
turned to off position, motor X must stop turning.
Solution: Connect panel switch to input 1 of DMC-1200. High on input 1 means switch is in on
position.
Instruction
Function
#S;JG 4000
Set speed
AI 1;BGX
Begin after input 1 goes high
AI -1;STX
Stop after input 1 goes low
AMX;JP #S
After motion, repeat
EN;
Input Interrupt Function
The DMC-1200 provides an input interrupt function which causes the program to automatically
execute the instructions following the #ININT label. This function is enabled using the II m,n,o
command. The m specifies the beginning input and n specifies the final input in the range. The
parameter o is an interrupt mask. If m and n are unused, o contains a number with the mask. A 1
designates that input to be enabled for an interrupt, where 20 is bit 1, 21 is bit 2 and so on. For
example, II,,5 enables inputs 1 and 3 (20 + 22 = 5).
A low input on any of the specified inputs will cause automatic execution of the #ININT subroutine.
The Return from Interrupt (RI) command is used to return from this subroutine to the place in the
program where the interrupt had occurred. If it is desired to return to somewhere else in the program
after the execution of the #ININT subroutine, the Zero Stack (ZS) command is used followed by
unconditional jump statements.
IMPORTANT: Use the RI instruction (not EN) to return from the #ININT subroutine.
Examples - Input Interrupt
#A
Label #A
II 1
Enable input 1 for interrupt function
JG 30000,-20000
Set speeds on X and Y axes
BG XY
Begin motion on X and Y axes
#B
Label #B
TP XY
Report X and Y axes positions
156 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
WT 1000
Wait 1000 milliseconds
JP #B
Jump to #B
EN
End of program
#ININT
Interrupt subroutine
MG "Interrupt has
occurred"
Displays the message
ST XY
Stops motion on X and Y axes
#LOOP;JP
#LOOP,@IN[1]=0
Loop until Interrupt cleared
JG 15000,10000
Specify new speeds
WT 300
Wait 300 milliseconds
BG XY
Begin motion on X and Y axes
RI
Return from Interrupt subroutine
Analog Inputs
The DMC-1200 provides eight analog inputs. The value of these inputs in volts may be read using the
@AN[n] function where n is the analog input 1 through 8. The resolution of the Analog-to-Digital
conversion is 12 bits (16-bit ADC is available as an option). Analog inputs are useful for reading
special sensors such as temperature, tension or pressure.
The following examples show programs which cause the motor to follow an analog signal. The first
example is a point-to-point move. The second example shows a continuous move.
Example - Position Follower (Point-to-Point)
Objective - The motor must follow an analog signal. When the analog signal varies by 10V, motor
must move 10000 counts.
Method: Read the analog input and command X to move to that point.
Instruction
Interpretation
#Points
Label
SP 7000
Speed
AC 80000;DC 80000
Acceleration
#Loop
[email protected][1]*1000
Read and analog input, compute position
PA VP
Command position
BGX
Start motion
AMX
After completion
JP #Loop
Repeat
EN
End
Example - Position Follower (Continuous Move)
Method: Read the analog input, compute the commanded position and the position error. Command
the motor to run at a speed in proportions to the position error.
Instruction
Interpretation
#Cont
Label
AC 80000;DC 80000
Acceleration rate
JG 0
Start job mode
BGX
Start motion
#Loop
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 157
[email protected][1]*1000
Compute desired position
VE=VP-_TPX
Find position error
VEL=VE*20
Compute velocity
JG VEL
Change velocity
JP #Loop
Change velocity
EN
End
Example Applications
Wire Cutter
An operator activates a start switch. This causes a motor to advance the wire a distance of 10". When
the motion stops, the controller generates an output signal which activates the cutter. Allowing 100 ms
for the cutting completes the cycle.
Suppose that the motor drives the wire by a roller with a 2" diameter. Also assume that the encoder
resolution is 1000 lines per revolution. Since the circumference of the roller equals 2π inches, and it
corresponds to 4000 quadrature, one inch of travel equals:
4000/2π = 637 count/inch
This implies that a distance of 10 inches equals 6370 counts, and a slew speed of 5 inches per second,
for example, equals 3185 count/sec.
The input signal may be applied to I1, for example, and the output signal is chosen as output 1. The
motor velocity profile and the related input and output signals are shown in Fig. 7.1.
The program starts at a state that we define as #A. Here the controller waits for the input pulse on I1.
As soon as the pulse is given, the controller starts the forward motion.
Upon completion of the forward move, the controller outputs a pulse for 20 ms and then waits an
additional 80 ms before returning to #A for a new cycle.
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
AI1
Wait for input 1
PR 6370
Distance
SP 3185
Speed
BGX
Start Motion
AMX
After motion is complete
SB1
Set output bit 1
WT 20
Wait 20 ms
CB1
Clear output bit 1
WT 80
Wait 80 ms
JP #A
Repeat the process
158 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
START PULSE I1
MOTOR VELOCITY
OUTPUT PULSE
output
TIME INTERVALS
move
wait
ready
move
Figure 7.1 - Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals
X-Y Table Controller
An X-Y-Z system must cut the pattern shown in Fig. 7.2. The X-Y table moves the plate while the Zaxis raises and lowers the cutting tool.
The solid curves in Fig. 7.2 indicate sections where cutting takes place. Those must be performed at a
feedrate of 1 inch per second. The dashed line corresponds to non-cutting moves and should be
performed at 5 inch per second. The acceleration rate is 0.1 g.
The motion starts at point A, with the Z-axis raised. An X-Y motion to point B is followed by
lowering the Z-axis and performing a cut along the circle. Once the circular motion is completed, the
Z-axis is raised and the motion continues to point C, etc.
Assume that all of the 3 axes are driven by lead screws with 10 turns-per-inch pitch. Also assume
encoder resolution of 1000 lines per revolution. This results in the relationship:
1 inch = 40,000 counts
and the speeds of
1 in/sec = 40,000 count/sec
5 in/sec = 200,000 count/sec
an acceleration rate of 0.1g equals
0.1g = 38.6 in/s2 = 1,544,000 count/s2
Note that the circular path has a radius of 2" or 80000 counts, and the motion starts at the angle of 270°
and traverses 360° in the CW (negative direction). Such a path is specified with the instruction
CR 80000,270,-360
Further assume that the Z must move 2" at a linear speed of 2" per second. The required motion is
performed by the following instructions:
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 159
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
VM XY
Circular interpolation for XY
VP 160000,160000
Positions
VE
End Vector Motion
VS 200000
Vector Speed
VA 1544000
Vector Acceleration
BGS
Start Motion
AMS
When motion is complete
PR,,-80000
Move Z down
SP,,80000
Z speed
BGZ
Start Z motion
AMZ
Wait for completion of Z motion
CR 80000,270,-360
Circle
VE
VS 40000
Feedrate
BGS
Start circular move
AMS
Wait for completion
PR,,80000
Move Z up
BGZ
Start Z move
AMZ
Wait for Z completion
PR -21600
Move X
SP 20000
Speed X
BGX
Start X
AMX
Wait for X completion
PR,,-80000
Lower Z
BGZ
AMZ
CR 80000,270,-360
Z second circle move
VE
VS 40000
BGS
AMS
PR,,80000
Raise Z
BGZ
AMZ
VP -37600,-16000
Return XY to start
VE
VS 200000
BGS
AMS
EN
160 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
Y
R=2
4
B
C
4
9.3
A
0
X
Figure 7.2 - Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals
Speed Control by Joystick
The speed of a motor is controlled by a joystick. The joystick produces a signal in the range between 10V and +10V. The objective is to drive the motor at a speed proportional to the input voltage.
Assume that a full voltage of 10 Volts must produce a motor speed of 3000 rpm with an encoder
resolution of 1000 lines or 4000 count/rev. This speed equals:
3000 rpm = 50 rev/sec = 200000 count/sec
The program reads the input voltage periodically and assigns its value to the variable VIN. To get a
speed of 200,000 ct/sec for 10 volts, we select the speed as
Speed = 20000 x VIN
The corresponding velocity for the motor is assigned to the VEL variable.
Instruction
#A
JG0
BGX
#B
[email protected][1]
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 161
VEL=VIN*20000
JG VEL
JP #B
EN
Position Control by Joystick
This system requires the position of the motor to be proportional to the joystick angle. Furthermore,
the ratio between the two positions must be programmable. For example, if the control ratio is 5:1, it
implies that when the joystick voltage is 5 Volts, corresponding to 1028 counts, the required motor
position must be 5120 counts. The variable V3 changes the position ratio.
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
V3=5
Initial position ratio
DP0
Define the starting position
JG0
Set motor in jog mode as zero
BGX
Start
#B
[email protected][1]
Read analog input
V2=V1*V3
Compute the desired position
V4=V2-_TPX-_TEX
Find the following error
V5=V4*20
Compute a proportional speed
JG V5
Change the speed
JP #B
Repeat the process
EN
End
Backlash Compensation by Sampled Dual-Loop
The continuous dual loop, enabled by the DV1 function is an effective way to compensate for
backlash. In some cases, however, when the backlash magnitude is large, it may be difficult to
stabilize the system. In those cases, it may be easier to use the sampled dual loop method described
below.
This design example addresses the basic problems of backlash in motion control systems. The
objective is to control the position of a linear slide precisely. The slide is to be controlled by a rotary
motor, which is coupled to the slide by a leadscrew. Such a leadscrew has a backlash of 4 micron, and
the required position accuracy is for 0.5 micron.
The basic dilemma is where to mount the sensor. If you use a rotary sensor, you get a 4 micron
backlash error. On the other hand, if you use a linear encoder, the backlash in the feedback loop will
cause oscillations due to instability.
An alternative approach is the dual-loop, where we use two sensors, rotary and linear. The rotary
sensor assures stability (because the position loop is closed before the backlash) whereas the linear
sensor provides accurate load position information. The operation principle is to drive the motor to a
given rotary position near the final point. Once there, the load position is read to find the position error
and the controller commands the motor to move to a new rotary position which eliminates the position
error.
Since the required accuracy is 0.5 micron, the resolution of the linear sensor should preferably be twice
finer. A linear sensor with a resolution of 0.25 micron allows a position error of +/-2 counts.
162 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1200
The dual-loop approach requires the resolution of the rotary sensor to be equal or better than that of the
linear system. Assuming that the pitch of the lead screw is 2.5mm (approximately 10 turns per inch), a
rotary encoder of 2500 lines per turn or 10,000 count per revolution results in a rotary resolution of
0.25 micron. This results in equal resolution on both linear and rotary sensors.
To illustrate the control method, assume that the rotary encoder is used as a feedback for the X-axis,
and that the linear sensor is read and stored in the variable LINPOS. Further assume that at the start,
both the position of X and the value of LINPOS are equal to zero. Now assume that the objective is to
move the linear load to the position of 1000.
The first step is to command the X motor to move to the rotary position of 1000. Once it arrives we
check the position of the load. If, for example, the load position is 980 counts, it implies that a
correction of 20 counts must be made. However, when the X-axis is commanded to be at the position
of 1000, suppose that the actual position is only 995, implying that X has a position error of 5 counts,
which will be eliminated once the motor settles. This implies that the correction needs to be only 15
counts, since 5 counts out of the 20 would be corrected by the X-axis. Accordingly, the motion
correction should be:
Correction = Load Position Error - Rotary Position Error
The correction can be performed a few times until the error drops below +/-2 counts. Often, this is
performed in one correction cycle.
Example motion program:
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
DP0
Define starting positions as zero
LINPOS=0
PR 1000
Required distance
BGX
Start motion
#B
AMX
Wait for completion
WT 50
Wait 50 msec
LIN POS = _DEX
Read linear position
ER=1000-LINPOS-_TEX
Find the correction
JP #C,@ABS[ER]<2
Exit if error is small
PR ER
Command correction
BGX
JP #B
Repeat the process
#C
EN
DMC-1200
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 163
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software
Protection
Introduction
The DMC-1200 provides several hardware and software features to check for error conditions and to
inhibit the motor on error. These features help protect the various system components from damage.
WARNING: Machinery in motion can be dangerous! It is the responsibility of the user to design
effective error handling and safety protection as part of the machine. Since the DMC-1200 is an
integral part of the machine, the engineer should design his overall system with protection against a
possible component failure on the DMC-1200. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any
incidental or consequential damages.
Hardware Protection
The DMC-1200 includes hardware input and output protection lines for various error and mechanical
limit conditions. These include:
Output Protection Lines
Amp Enable - This signal goes low when the motor off command is given, when the position error
exceeds the value specified by the Error Limit (ER) command, or when off-on-error condition is
enabled (OE1) and the abort command is given. Each axis amplifier has separate amplifier enable
lines. This signal also goes low when the watch-dog timer is activated, or upon reset. Note: The
standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active low. Both the polarity and the amplitude can
be changed if you are using the ICM-1900 interface board. To make these changes, see section
entitled ‘Amplifier Interface’ pg 3-25.
Error Output - The error output is a TTL signal which indicates an error condition in the controller.
This signal is available on the interconnect module as ERROR. When the error signal is low, this
indicates one of the following error conditions:
1.
At least one axis has a position error greater than the error limit. The error limit is set by using the
command ER.
1.
The reset line on the controller is held low or is being affected by noise.
1.
There is a failure on the controller and the processor is resetting itself.
There is a failure with the output IC which drives the error signal.
164 • Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
DMC-1200
Input Protection Lines
General Abort - A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration.
For any axis in which the Off-On-Error function is enabled, the amplifiers will be disabled. This could
cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop. If the Off-On-Error function is not enabled, the motor will
instantaneously stop and servo at the current position. The Off-On-Error function is further discussed
in this chapter.
Selective Abort - The controller can be configured to provide an individual abort for each axis.
Activation of the selective abort signal will act the same as the Abort Input but only on the specific
axis. To configure the controller for selective abort, issue the command CN,,,1. This configures the
inputs 5,6,7,8,13,14,15,16 to act as selective aborts for axes A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H respectively.
Forward Limit Switch - Low input inhibits motion in forward direction. If the motor is moving in the
forward direction when the limit switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In addition, if
the motor is moving in the forward direction, the controller will automatically jump to the limit switch
subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by the user). The CN command can be used
to change the polarity of the limit switches.
Reverse Limit Switch - Low input inhibits motion in reverse direction. If the motor is moving in the
reverse direction when the limit switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In addition, if
the motor is moving in the reverse direction, the controller will automatically jump to the limit switch
subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by the user). The CN command can be used
to change the polarity of the limit switches.
Software Protection
The DMC-1200 provides a programmable error limit. The error limit can be set for any number
between 1 and 32767 using the ER n command. The default value for ER is 16384.
Example:
ER 200,300,400,500
Set X-axis error limit for 200, Y-axis error limit to 300, Z-axis error limit to 400
counts, W-axis error limit to 500 counts
ER,1,,10
Set Y-axis error limit to 1 count, set W-axis error limit to 10 counts.
The units of the error limit are quadrature counts. The error is the difference between the command
position and actual encoder position. If the absolute value of the error exceeds the value specified by
ER, the DMC-1200 will generate several signals to warn the host system of the error condition. These
signals include:
Signal or Function
State if Error Occurs
# POSERR
Jumps to automatic excess position error subroutine
Error Light
Turns on
OE Function
Shuts motor off if OE1
AEN Output Line
Goes low
The Jump on Condition statement is useful for branching on a given error within a program. The
position error of X,Y,Z and W can be monitored during execution using the TE command.
Programmable Position Limits
The DMC-1200 provides programmable forward and reverse position limits. These are set by the BL
and FL software commands. Once a position limit is specified, the DMC-1200 will not accept position
commands beyond the limit. Motion beyond the limit is also prevented.
Example:
DP0,0,0
DMC-1200
Define Position
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection • 165
BL -2000,-4000,-8000
Set Reverse position limit
FL 2000,4000,8000
Set Forward position limit
JG 2000,2000,2000
Jog
BG XYZ
Begin
(motion stops at forward limits)
Off-On-Error
The DMC-1200 controller has a built in function which can turn off the motors under certain error
conditions. This function is know as ‘Off-On-Error”. To activate the OE function for each axis,
specify 1 for X,Y,Z and W axis. To disable this function, specify 0 for the axes. When this function is
enabled, the specified motor will be disabled under the following 3 conditions:
1.
The position error for the specified axis exceeds the limit set with the command, ER
1.
The abort command is given
1.
The abort input is activated with a low signal.
Note: If the motors are disabled while they are moving, they may ‘coast’ to a stop because they are no
longer under servo control.
To re-enable the system, use the Reset (RS) or Servo Here (SH) command.
Examples:
OE 1,1,1,1
Enable off-on-error for X,Y,Z and W
OE 0,1,0,1
Enable off-on-error for Y and W axes and disable off-on-error for W and Z axes
Automatic Error Routine
The #POSERR label causes the statements following to be automatically executed if error on any axis
exceeds the error limit specified by ER. The error routine must be closed with the RE command. The
RE command returns from the error subroutine to the main program.
NOTE: The Error Subroutine will be entered again unless the error condition is gone.
Example:
#A;JP #A;EN
"Dummy" program
#POSERR
Start error routine on error
MG "error"
Send message
SB 1
Fire relay
STX
Stop motor
AMX
After motor stops
SHX
Servo motor here to clear error
RE
Return to main program
NOTE: An applications program must be executing for the #POSERR routine to function.
Limit Switch Routine
The DMC-1200 provides forward and reverse limit switches which inhibit motion in the respective
direction. There is also a special label for automatic execution of a limit switch subroutine. The
#LIMSWI label specifies the start of the limit switch subroutine. This label causes the statements
following to be automatically executed if any limit switch is activated and that axis motor is moving in
that direction. The RE command ends the subroutine.
166 • Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
DMC-1200
The state of the forward and reverse limit switches may also be tested during the jump-on-condition
statement. The _LR condition specifies the reverse limit and _LF specifies the forward limit. X,Y,Z,
or W following LR or LF specifies the axis. The CN command can be used to configure the polarity of
the limit switches.
Limit Switch Example:
#A;JP #A;EN
Dummy Program
#LIMSWI
Limit Switch Utility
V1=_LFX
Check if forward limit
V2=_LRX
Check if reverse limit
JP#LF,V1=0
Jump to #LF if forward
JP#LR,V2=0
Jump to #LR if reverse
JP#END
Jump to end
#LF
#LF
MG "FORWARD LIMIT"
Send message
STX;AMX
Stop motion
PR-1000;BGX;AMX
Move in reverse
JP#END
End
#LR
#LR
MG "REVERSE LIMIT"
Send message
STX;AMX
Stop motion
PR1000;BGX;AMX
Move forward
#END
End
RE
Return to main program
NOTE: An applications program must be executing for #LIMSWI to function.
DMC-1200
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection • 167
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
Overview
The following discussion may help you get your system to work.
Potential problems have been divided into groups as follows:
1.
Installation
2.
Communication
3.
Stability and Compensation
4.
Operation
The various symptoms along with the cause and the remedy are described in the following tables.
Installation
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Motor runs away when connected to amplifier with
no additional inputs.
Amplifier offset too
large.
Adjust amplifier offset
Same as above, but offset adjustment does not stop
the motor.
Damaged amplifier.
Replace amplifier.
Same as above, but offset adjustment does not stop
the motor.
Damaged amplifier.
Replace amplifier.
Controller does not read changes in encoder position.
Wrong encoder
connections.
Check encoder wiring.
Same as above
Bad encoder
Check the encoder signals.
Replace encoder if necessary.
Same as above
Bad controller
Connect the encoder to
different axis input. If it works,
controller failure. Repair or
replace.
168 • Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
DMC-1200
Communication
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Using COMDISK and
TALK2BUS, cannot communicate
with controller.
Address selection in
communication does not match
jumpers.
Check address jumper positions,
and change if necessary.
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Motor runs away when the loop is
closed.
Wrong feedback polarity.
Invert the polarity of the loop by
inverting the motor leads (brush type)
or the encoder.
Motor oscillates.
Too high gain or too little
damping.
Decrease KI and KP. Increase KD.
Stability
Operation
DMC-1200
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Controller rejects command.
Responded with a ?
Anything.
Interrogate the cause with TC or
TC1.
Motor does not complete move.
Noise on limit switches stops the
motor.
To verify cause, check the stop
code (SC). If caused by limit
switch noise, reduce noise.
During a periodic operation, motor
drifts slowly.
Encoder noise
Interrogate the position
periodically. If controller states
that the position is the same at
different locations it implies
encoder noise. Reduce noise. Use
differential encoder inputs.
Same as above.
Programming error.
Avoid resetting position error at
end of move with SH command.
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting • 169
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
Overview
The following discussion covers the operation of motion control systems. A typical motion control
system consists of the elements shown in Fig 10.1.
COMPUTER
CONTROLLER
ENCODER
DRIVER
MOTOR
Figure 10.1 - Elements of Servo Systems
The operation of such a system can be divided into three levels, as illustrated in Fig. 10.2. The levels
are:
1. Closing the Loop
2. Motion Profiling
3. Motion Programming
The first level, the closing of the loop, assures that the motor follows the commanded position. This is
done by closing the position loop using a sensor. The operation at the basic level of closing the loop
involves the subjects of modeling, analysis, and design. These subjects will be covered in the
following discussions.
The motion profiling is the generation of the desired position function. This function, R(t), describes
where the motor should be at every sampling period. Note that the profiling and the closing of the loop
are independent functions. The profiling function determines where the motor should be and the
closing of the loop forces the motor to follow the commanded position
170 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1200
The highest level of control is the motion program. This can be stored in the host computer or in the
controller. This program describes the tasks in terms of the motors that need to be controlled, the
distances and the speed.
LEVEL
3
MOTION
PROGRAMMING
2
MOTION
PROFILING
1
CLOSED-LOOP
CONTROL
Figure 10.2 - Levels of Control Functions
The three levels of control may be viewed as different levels of management. The top manager, the
motion program, may specify the following instruction, for example.
PR 6000,4000
SP 20000,20000
AC 200000,00000
BG X
AD 2000
BG Y
EN
This program corresponds to the velocity profiles shown in Fig. 10.3. Note that the profiled positions
show where the motors must be at any instant of time.
Finally, it remains up to the servo system to verify that the motor follows the profiled position by
closing the servo loop.
The following section explains the operation of the servo system. First, it is explained qualitatively,
and then the explanation is repeated using analytical tools for those who are more theoretically
inclined.
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 171
X VELOCITY
Y VELOCITY
X POSITION
Y POSITION
TIME
Figure 10.3 - Velocity and Position Profiles
Operation of Closed-Loop Systems
To understand the operation of a servo system, we may compare it to a familiar closed-loop operation,
adjusting the water temperature in the shower. One control objective is to keep the temperature at a
comfortable level, say 90 degrees F. To achieve that, our skin serves as a temperature sensor and
reports to the brain (controller). The brain compares the actual temperature, which is called the
feedback signal, with the desired level of 90 degrees F. The difference between the two levels is called
the error signal. If the feedback temperature is too low, the error is positive, and it triggers an action
which raises the water temperature until the temperature error is reduced sufficiently.
The closing of the servo loop is very similar. Suppose that we want the motor position to be at 90
degrees. The motor position is measured by a position sensor, often an encoder, and the position
feedback is sent to the controller. Like the brain, the controller determines the position error, which is
the difference between the commanded position of 90 degrees and the position feedback. The
controller then outputs a signal that is proportional to the position error. This signal produces a
proportional current in the motor, which causes a motion until the error is reduced. Once the error
becomes small, the resulting current will be too small to overcome the friction, causing the motor to
stop.
The analogy between adjusting the water temperature and closing the position loop carries further. We
have all learned the hard way, that the hot water faucet should be turned at the "right" rate. If you turn
172 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1200
it too slowly, the temperature response will be slow, causing discomfort. Such a slow reaction is called
overdamped response.
The results may be worse if we turn the faucet too fast. The overreaction results in temperature
oscillations. When the response of the system oscillates, we say that the system is unstable. Clearly,
unstable responses are bad when we want a constant level.
What causes the oscillations? The basic cause for the instability is a combination of delayed reaction
and high gain. In the case of the temperature control, the delay is due to the water flowing in the pipes.
When the human reaction is too strong, the response becomes unstable.
Servo systems also become unstable if their gain is too high. The delay in servo systems is between
the application of the current and its effect on the position. Note that the current must be applied long
enough to cause a significant effect on the velocity, and the velocity change must last long enough to
cause a position change. This delay, when coupled with high gain, causes instability.
This motion controller includes a special filter which is designed to help the stability and accuracy.
Typically, such a filter produces, in addition to the proportional gain, damping and integrator. The
combination of the three functions is referred to as a PID filter.
The filter parameters are represented by the three constants KP, KI and KD, which correspond to the
proportional, integral and derivative term respectively.
The damping element of the filter acts as a predictor, thereby reducing the delay associated with the
motor response.
The integrator function, represented by the parameter KI, improves the system accuracy. With the KI
parameter, the motor does not stop until it reaches the desired position exactly, regardless of the level
of friction or opposing torque.
The integrator also reduces the system stability. Therefore, it can be used only when the loop is stable
and has a high gain.
The output of the filter is applied to a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The resulting output signal in
the range between +10 and -10 Volts is then applied to the amplifier and the motor.
The motor position, whether rotary or linear is measured by a sensor. The resulting signal, called
position feedback, is returned to the controller for closing the loop.
The following section describes the operation in a detailed mathematical form, including modeling,
analysis and design.
System Modeling
The elements of a servo system include the motor, driver, encoder and the controller. These elements
are shown in Fig. 10.4. The mathematical model of the various components is given below.
CONTROLLER
R
X
Σ
DIGITAL
FILTER
Y
ZOH
DAC
V
AMP
E
MOTOR
C
P
ENCODER
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 173
Figure 10.4 - Functional Elements of a Motion Control System
Motor-Amplifier
The motor amplifier may be configured in three modes:
1. Voltage Drive
2. Current Drive
3. Velocity Loop
The operation and modeling in the three modes is as follows:
Voltage Drive
The amplifier is a voltage source with a gain of Kv [V/V]. The transfer function relating the input
voltage, V, to the motor position, P, is
P V = KV
[ K S ( ST
t
m
]
+ 1)( STe + 1)
where
Tm = RJ K t2
[s]
Te = L R
[s]
and
and the motor parameters and units are
Kt
Torque constant [Nm/A]
R
Armature Resistance Ω
J
Combined inertia of motor and load [kg.m2]
L
Armature Inductance [H]
When the motor parameters are given in English units, it is necessary to convert the quantities to MKS
units. For example, consider a motor with the parameters:
Kt = 14.16 oz - in/A = 0.1 Nm/A
R=2Ω
J = 0.0283 oz-in-s2 = 2.10-4 kg . m2
L = 0.004H
Then the corresponding time constants are
Tm = 0.04 sec
and
Te = 0.002 sec
Assuming that the amplifier gain is Kv = 4, the resulting transfer function is
P/V = 40/[s(0.04s+1)(0.002s+1)]
Current Drive
The current drive generates a current I, which is proportional to the input voltage, V, with a gain of Ka.
The resulting transfer function in this case is
174 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1200
P/V = Ka Kt / Js2
where Kt and J are as defined previously. For example, a current amplifier with Ka = 2 A/V with the
motor described by the previous example will have the transfer function:
P/V = 1000/s2
[rad/V]
If the motor is a DC brushless motor, it is driven by an amplifier that performs the commutation. The
combined transfer function of motor amplifier combination is the same as that of a similar brush
motor, as described by the previous equations.
Velocity Loop
The motor driver system may include a velocity loop where the motor velocity is sensed by a
tachometer and is fed back to the amplifier. Such a system is illustrated in Fig. 10.5. Note that the
transfer function between the input voltage V and the velocity ω is:
ω /V = [Ka Kt/Js]/[1+Ka Kt Kg/Js] = 1/[Kg(sT1+1)]
where the velocity time constant, T1, equals
T1 = J/Ka Kt Kg
This leads to the transfer function
P/V = 1/[Kg s(sT1+1)]
V
Σ
Ka
Kt/Js
Kg
Figure 10.5 - Elements of velocity loops
The resulting functions derived above are illustrated by the block diagram of Fig. 10.6.
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 175
VOLTAGE SOURCE
E
V
1/Ke
(STm+1)(STe+1)
Kv
W
1
S
P
CURRENT SOURCE
I
V
Kt
JS
Ka
W
1
S
P
VELOCITY LOOP
V
1
Kg(ST1+1)
W
1
S
P
Figure 10.6 - Mathematical model of the motor and amplifier in three operational modes
Encoder
The encoder generates N pulses per revolution. It outputs two signals, Channel A and B, which are in
quadrature. Due to the quadrature relationship between the encoder channels, the position resolution is
increased to 4N quadrature counts/rev.
The model of the encoder can be represented by a gain of
Kf = 4N/2π
[count/rad]
For example, a 1000 lines/rev encoder is modeled as
Kf = 638
176 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1200
DAC
The DAC or D-to-A converter converts a 16-bit number to an analog voltage. The input range of the
numbers is 65536 and the output voltage range is +/-10V or 20V. Therefore, the effective gain of the
DAC is
K= 20/65536 = 0.0003
[V/count]
Digital Filter
The digital filter has three element in series: PID, low-pass and a notch filter. The transfer function of
the filter. The transfer function of the filter elements are:
PID
D(z) =
K ( Z − A) CZ
+
Z
Z −1
Low-pass
L(z) =
1− B
Z−B
Notch
N(z) =
( Z − z )( Z − z )
( Z − p )( Z − p )
The filter parameters, K, A, C and B are selected by the instructions KP, KD, KI and PL, respectively.
The relationship between the filter coefficients and the instructions are:
⋅
K = (KP + KD) 4
A = KD/(KP + KD)
C = KI/2
B = PL
The PID and low-pass elements are equivalent to the continuous transfer function G(s).
G(s) = (P + sD + I/s) ∗ a/(S+a)
P = 4KP
⋅
D = 4T KD
I = KI/2T
a=
1 ⎛1⎞
ln⎜ ⎟
T ⎝ B⎠
where T is the sampling period and B is the pole (PL) setting.
For example, if the filter parameters of the DMC-1200 are
KP = 4
KD = 36
KI = 2
PL = 0.75
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 177
T = 0.001 s
the digital filter coefficients are
K = 160
A = 0.9
C=1
a = 250 rad/s
and the equivalent continuous filter, G(s), is
G(s) = [16 + 0.144s + 1000/s} ∗ 250/ (s+250)
The notch filter has two complex zeros, Z and z, and two complex poles, P and p.
The effect of the notch filter is to cancel the resonance affect by placing the complex zeros on top of
the resonance poles. The notch poles, P and p, are programmable and are selected to have sufficient
damping. It is best to select the notch parameters by the frequency terms. The poles and zeros have a
frequency in Hz, selected by the command NF. The real part of the poles is set by NB and the real part
of the zeros is set by NZ.
The most simple procedure for setting the notch filter, identify the resonance frequency and set NF to
the same value. Set NB to about one half of NF and set NZ to a low value between zero and 5.
ZOH
The ZOH, or zero-order-hold, represents the effect of the sampling process, where the motor command
is updated once per sampling period. The effect of the ZOH can be modeled by the transfer function
H(s) = 1/(1+sT/2)
If the sampling period is T = 0.001, for example, H(s) becomes:
H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)
However, in most applications, H(s) may be approximated as one.
This completes the modeling of the system elements. Next, we discuss the system analysis.
System Analysis
To analyze the system, we start with a block diagram model of the system elements. The analysis
procedure is illustrated in terms of the following example.
Consider a position control system with the DMC-1200 controller and the following parameters:
Kt = 0.1
Nm/A
Torque constant
J = 2.10-4
kg.m2
System moment of inertia
R=2
Ω
Motor resistance
Ka = 4
Amp/Volt
Current amplifier gain
KP = 12.5
Digital filter gain
KD = 245
Digital filter zero
KI = 0
No integrator
N = 500
Counts/rev
Encoder line density
T=1
ms
Sample period
178 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1200
The transfer function of the system elements are:
Motor
M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js2 = 500/s2 [rad/A]
Amp
Ka = 4 [Amp/V]
DAC
Kd = 0.0003 [V/count]
Encoder
Kf = 4N/2π = 318 [count/rad]
ZOH
2000/(s+2000)
Digital Filter
KP = 12.5, KD = 245, T = 0.001
Therefore,
D(z) = 1030 (z-0.95)/Z
Accordingly, the coefficients of the continuous filter are:
P = 50
D = 0.98
The filter equation may be written in the continuous equivalent form:
G(s) = 50 + 0.98s = .098 (s+51)
The system elements are shown in Fig. 10.7.
V
Σ
FILTER
ZOH
DAC
AMP
MOTOR
50+0.980s
2000
S+2000
0.0003
4
500
S2
ENCODER
318
Figure 10.7 - Mathematical model of the control system
The open loop transfer function, A(s), is the product of all the elements in the loop.
A = 390,000 (s+51)/[s2(s+2000)]
To analyze the system stability, determine the crossover frequency, ωc at which A(j ωc) equals one.
This can be done by the Bode plot of A(j ωc), as shown in Fig. 10.8.
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 179
Magnitude
4
1
50
200
2000
W (rad/s)
0.1
Figure 10.8 - Bode plot of the open loop transfer function
For the given example, the crossover frequency was computed numerically resulting in 200 rad/s.
Next, we determine the phase of A(s) at the crossover frequency.
A(j200) = 390,000 (j200+51)/[(j200)2 . (j200 + 2000)]
α = Arg[A(j200)] = tan-1(200/51)-180° -tan-1(200/2000)
α = 76° - 180° - 6° = -110°
Finally, the phase margin, PM, equals
PM = 180° + α = 70°
As long as PM is positive, the system is stable. However, for a well damped system, PM should be
between 30 degrees and 45 degrees. The phase margin of 70 degrees given above indicated
overdamped response.
Next, we discuss the design of control systems.
System Design and Compensation
The closed-loop control system can be stabilized by a digital filter, which is preprogrammed in the
DMC-1200 controller. The filter parameters can be selected by the user for the best compensation.
The following discussion presents an analytical design method.
The Analytical Method
The analytical design method is aimed at closing the loop at a crossover frequency, ωc, with a phase
margin PM. The system parameters are assumed known. The design procedure is best illustrated by a
design example.
Consider a system with the following parameters:
Kt
180 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
Nm/A
Torque constant
DMC-1200
J = 2.10-4
kg.m2
System moment of inertia
R=2
Ω
Motor resistance
Ka = 2
Amp/Volt
Current amplifier gain
N = 1000
Counts/rev
Encoder line density
The DAC of the DMC-1200 outputs +/-10V for a 14-bit command of +/-8192 counts.
The design objective is to select the filter parameters in order to close a position loop with a crossover
frequency of ωc = 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45 degrees.
The first step is to develop a mathematical model of the system, as discussed in the previous system.
Motor
M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js2 = 1000/s2
Amp
Ka = 2
[Amp/V]
DAC
Kd = 10/32768 = .0003
Encoder
Kf = 4N/2π = 636
ZOH
H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)
Compensation Filter
G(s) = P + sD
The next step is to combine all the system elements, with the exception of G(s), into one function, L(s).
L(s) = M(s) Ka Kd Kf H(s) =3.17∗106/[s2(s+2000)]
Then the open loop transfer function, A(s), is
A(s) = L(s) G(s)
Now, determine the magnitude and phase of L(s) at the frequency ωc = 500.
L(j500) = 3.17∗106/[(j500)2 (j500+2000)]
This function has a magnitude of
|L(j500)| = 0.00625
and a phase
Arg[L(j500)] = -180° - tan-1(500/2000) = -194°
G(s) is selected so that A(s) has a crossover frequency of 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45 degrees.
This requires that
|A(j500)| = 1
Arg [A(j500)] = -135°
However, since
A(s) = L(s) G(s)
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 181
then it follows that G(s) must have magnitude of
|G(j500)| = |A(j500)/L(j500)| = 160
and a phase
arg [G(j500)] = arg [A(j500)] - arg [L(j500)] = -135° + 194° = 59°
In other words, we need to select a filter function G(s) of the form
G(s) = P + sD
so that at the frequency ωc =500, the function would have a magnitude of 160 and a phase lead of 59
degrees.
These requirements may be expressed as:
|G(j500)| = |P + (j500D)| = 160
and
arg [G(j500)] = tan-1[500D/P] = 59°
The solution of these equations leads to:
P = 160cos 59° = 82.4
500D = 160sin 59° = 137
Therefore,
D = 0.274
and
G = 82.4 + 0.2744s
The function G is equivalent to a digital filter of the form:
D(z) = 4KP + 4KD(1-z-1)
where
P = 4 ∗ KP
D = 4 ∗ KD ∗ T
and
4 ∗ KD = D/T
Assuming a sampling period of T=1ms, the parameters of the digital filter are:
KP = 20.6
KD = 68.6
The DMC-1200 can be programmed with the instruction:
KP 20.6
KD 68.6
In a similar manner, other filters can be programmed. The procedure is simplified by the following
table, which summarizes the relationship between the various filters.
Equivalent Filter Form
DMC-1200
182 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1200
Digital
D(z) =[K(z-A/z) + Cz/(z-1)]∗ (1-B)/(Z-B)
Digital
D(z) = [4 KP + 4 KD(1-z-1) + KI/2(1-z-1)] ∗(1-B)/(Z-B)
KP, KD, KI, PL K = (KP + KD)
⋅4
A = KD/(KP+KD)
C = KI/2
B = PL
Continuous
G(s) = (P + Ds + I/s) ∗ a/S+a
PID, T
P = 4 KP
D = 4 T*KD
I = KI/2T
a = 1/T ln 1/PL
DMC-1200
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 183
Appendices
Electrical Specifications
Servo Control
ACMD Amplifier Command:
+/-10 Volts analog signal. Resolution 16-bit DAC or .0003
Volts. 3 mA maximum
A+,A-,B+,B-,IDX+,IDX- Encoder and Auxiliary
TTL compatible, but can accept up to +/-12 Volts.
Quadrature phase on CHA,CHB. Can accept single-ended
(A+,B+ only) or differential (A+,A-,B+,B-). Maximum A,B
edge rate: 12 MHz. Minimum IDX pulse width: 80 nsec.
Stepper Control
Pulse
TTL (0-5 Volts) level at 50% duty cycle. 3,000,000
pulses/sec maximum frequency
Direction
TTL (0-5 Volts)
Input/Output
Limits, Home, Abort Inputs:
TTL
AN[1] thru AN[8] Analog Inputs:
Standard configuration is +/-10 Volt. 12-Bit Analog-to-Digital
convertor. 16-bit optional.
OUT[1] thru OUT[8] Outputs:
TTL.
OUT[9] thru OUT[16]
TTL (for DMC-1250 thru DMC-1280)
IN[1] thru IN[8]
TTL
IN[9] thru IN[16]
TTL (for DMC-1250 thru DMC-1280)
Note: The part number for the 100-pin connector is #2-178238-9 from AMP.
Power Requirements
+5V
184 • Appendices
750 mA
DMC-1200
+12V
40 mA
-12V
40mA
Performance Specifications
Normal
Fast Firmware
DMC-1210
250 μsec
125 μsec
DMC-1220
250 μsec
125 μsec
DMC-1230
375 μsec
250 μsec
DMC-1240
375 μsec
250 μsec
DMC-1250
500 μsec
375 μsec
DMC-1260
500 μsec
375 μsec
DMC-1270
625 μsec
500 μsec
DMC-1280
625 μsec
500 μsec
Position Accuracy:
+/-1 quadrature count
Minimum Servo Loop Update Time:
Velocity Accuracy:
Long Term
Phase-locked, better than .005%
Short Term
System dependent
Position Range:
+/-2147483647 counts per move
Velocity Range:
Up to 12,000,000 counts/sec servo;
3,000,000 pulses/sec-stepper
Velocity Resolution:
2 counts/sec
Motor Command Resolution:
16 bit or 0.0003 V
Variable Range:
+/-2 billion
Variable Resolution:
1 ⋅ 10-4
Array Size:
8000 elements, 30 arrays
Program Size:
1000 lines x 80 characters
DMC-1200
Appendices • 185
Connectors for DMC-1200 Main Board
J8 DMC-1240 (A-D AXES) MAIN;
50 PIN IDC:
1 Analog Gnd
2 Ground
3 +5V
4 Error Output
5 Reset
6 Encoder-Compare Output
7 Ground
8 Ground
9 Motor command D(W)
10 Sign D / Dir D(W)
11 PWM D / Step D(W)
12 Motor command C(Z)
13 Sign C / Dir C(Z)
14 PWM C / Step C(Z)
15 Motor command B(Y)
16 Sign B / Dir B(Y)
17 PWM B / Step B(Y)
18 Motor command A(X)
19 Sign A / Dir A(X)
20 PWM A / Step A(X)
21 Amp enable D(W)
22 Amp enable C(Z)
23 Amp enable B(Y)
24 Amp enable A(X)
25 A+ A(X)
26 A- A(X)
27 B+ A(X)
28 B- A(X)
29 I+ A(X)
30 I- A(X)
31 A+ B(Y)
32 A- B(Y)
33 B+ B(Y)
34 B- B(Y)
35 I+ B(Y)
36 I- B(Y)
37 A+ C(Z)
38 A- C(Z)
39 B+ C(Z)
40 B- C (Z)
41 I+ C(Z)
42 I- C(Z)
43 A+ D(W)
44 A- D(W)
45 B+ D(W)
46 B- D(W)
47 I+ D(W)
48 I- D(W)
49 +12V
50 +12V
186 • Appendices
J6 DMC-1240 (A-D AXES) MAIN;
50 PIN IDC:
1 nc
2 Ground
3 +5V
4 NC
5 Home D (W)
6 Reverse limit D(W)
7 Forward limit D(W)
8 Home C(Z)
9 Reverse limit C(Z)
10 Forward limit C(Z)
11 Home B(Y)
12 Reverse limit B(Y)
13 Forward limit B(Y)
14 Home A(X)
15 Reverse limit A(X)
16 Forward limit A(X)
17 Ground
18 +5V
19 NC
20 Latch A(X)
21 Latch B(Y)
22 Latch C(Z)
23 Latch D(W)
24 Input 5
25 Input 6
26 Input 7
27 Input 8
28 Abort
29 Output 1
30 Output 2
31 Output 3
32 Output 4
33 Output 5
34 Output 6
35 Output 7
36 Output 8
37 +5V
38 Ground
39 Ground
40 Ground
41 Analog Input 1
42 Analog Input 2
43 Analog Input 3
44 Analog Input 4
45 Analog Input 5
46 Analog Input 6
47 Analog Input 7
48 Analog Input 8
49 -12V
50 -12V
J7 DMC-1240 (A-D AXES)
AUXILIARY ENCODER;
20-PIN IDC:
1 +5V
2 Ground
3 A+ Aux A(X)
4 A- Aux A(X)
5 B+ Aux A(X)
6 B- Aux A(X)
7 A+ Aux B(Y)
8 A- Aux B(Y)
9 B+ Aux B(Y)
10 B- Aux B(Y)
11 +5V
12 Ground
13 A+ Aux C(Z)
14 A- Aux C(Z)
15 B+ Aux C(Z)
16 B- Aux C(Z)
17 A+ Aux D(W)
18 A- Aux D(W)
19 B+ Aux D(W)
20 B- Aux D(W)
Note: The axis designators A,B,C,D
can be interchanged with X,Y,Z and W
as shown in paranthesis
DMC-1200
J8 DMC-1280 (E-H AXES) MAIN;
50 PIN IDC:
J6 DMC-1280 (E-H AXES) MAIN;
50 PIN IDC:
1 Analog Gnd
2 Ground
3 nc
4 nc
5 nc
6 Encoder-Compare Output
7 Ground
8 Ground
9 Motor command H
10 Sign H / Dir H
11 PWM H / Step H
12 Motor command G
13 Sign G / Dir G
14 PWM G / Step G
15 Motor command F
16 Sign F/ Dir F
17 PWM F/ Step F
18 Motor command E
19 Sign E/ Dir E
20 PWM E / Step E
21 Amp enable H
22 Amp enable G
23 Amp enable F
24 Amp enable E
25 A+ E
26 A- E
27 B+ E
28 B- E
29 I+ E
30 I- E
31 A+ F
32 A- F
33 B+ F
34 B- F
35 I+ F
36 I- F
37 A+ G
38 A- G
39 B+ G
40 B- G
41 I+ G
42 I- G
43 A+ H
44 A- H
45 B+ H
46 B- H
47 I+ H
48 I- H
49 +12V
50 +12V
51 nc
52 Ground
53 +5V
54 NC
55 Home H
56 Reverse limit H
57 Forward limit H
58 Home G
59 Reverse limit G
60 Forward limit G
61 Home F
62 Reverse limit F
63 Forward limit F
64 Home E
65 Reverse limit E
66 Forward limit E
67 Ground
68 +5V
69 NC
70 Latch E
71 Latch F
72 Latch G
73 Latch H
74 Input 13
75 Input 14
76 Input 15
77 Input 16
78 Reserved
79 Output 9
80 Output 10
81 Output 11
82 Output 12
83 Output 13
84 Output 14
85 Output 15
86 Output 16
87 +5V
88 Ground
89 Ground
90 Ground
91 NC
92 NC
93 NC
94 NC
95 NC
96 NC
97 NC
98 NC
99 -12V
100 -12V
DMC-1200
J7 DMC-1280 (E-H AXES);
AUXILIARY ENCODER;
26-PIN IDC:
1 +5V
2 Ground
3 A+ Aux E
4 A- Aux E
5 B+ Aux E
6 B- Aux E
7 A+ Aux F
8 A- Aux F
9 B+ Aux F
10 B- Aux F
11 +5V
12 Ground
13 A+ Aux G
14 A- Aux G
15 B+ Aux G
16 B- Aux G
17 A+ Aux H
18 A- Aux H
19 B+ Aux H
20 B- Aux H
Appendices • 187
Pin-Out Description for DMC-1200
Outputs
Analog Motor Command
+/- 10 Volt range signal for driving amplifier. In servo mode, motor command
output is updated at the controller sample rate. In the motor off mode, this output is
held at the OF command level.
Amp Enable
Signal to disable and enable an amplifier. Amp Enable goes low on Abort and
OE1.
PWM/STEP OUT
PWM/STEP OUT is used for directly driving power bridges for DC servo motors or
for driving step motor amplifiers. For servo motors: If you are using a
conventional amplifier that accepts a +/-10 Volt analog signal, this pin is not used
and should be left open. The PWM output is available in two formats: Inverter and
Sign Magnitude. In the Inverter mode, the PWM signal is .2% duty cycle for full
negative voltage, 50% for 0 Voltage and 99.8% for full positive voltage (25kHz
Switching Frequency). In the Sign Magnitude Mode (Jumper SM), the PWM signal
is 0% for 0 Voltage, 99.6% for full voltage and the sign of the Motor Command is
available at the sign output (50kHz Switching Frequency).
PWM/STEP OUT
For stepmotors: The STEP OUT pin produces a series of pulses for input to a step
motor driver. The pulses may either be low or high. The pulse width is 50%.
Upon Reset, the output will be low if the SM jumper is on. If the SM jumper is not
on, the output will be Tristate.
Sign/Direction
Used with PWM signal to give the sign of the motor command for servo amplifiers
or direction for step motors.
Error
The signal goes low when the position error on any axis exceeds the value specified
by the error limit command, ER.
Output 1-Output 8
These 8 TTL outputs are uncommitted and may be designated by the user to toggle
relays and trigger external events. The output lines are toggled by Set Bit, SB, and
Clear Bit, CB, instructions. The OP instruction is used to define the state of all the
bits of the Output port.
Output 9-Output 16
Inputs
Encoder, A+, B+
Position feedback from incremental encoder with two channels in quadrature, CHA and
CHB. The encoder may be analog or TTL. Any resolution encoder may be used as long
as the maximum frequency does not exceed 12,000,000 quadrature states/sec. The
controller performs quadrature decoding of the encoder signals resulting in a resolution of
quadrature counts (4 x encoder cycles). Note: Encoders that produce outputs in the
format of pulses and direction may also be used by inputting the pulses into CHA and
direction into Channel B and using the CE command to configure this mode.
Encoder Index, I+
Once-Per-Revolution encoder pulse. Used in Homing sequence or Find Index command
to define home on an encoder index.
Encoder, A-, B-, I-
Differential inputs from encoder. May be input along with CHA, CHB for noise
immunity of encoder signals. The CHA- and CHB- inputs are optional.
Auxiliary Encoder, Aux A+, Inputs for additional encoder. Used when an encoder on both the motor and the load is
Aux B+, Aux I+, Aux A-, Aux required. Not available on axes configured for step motors.
B-, Aux I-
188 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Abort
A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration. Also
aborts motion program.
Reset
A low input resets the state of the processor to its power-on condition. The previously
saved state of the controller, along with parameter values, and saved sequences are
restored.
Forward Limit Switch
When active, inhibits motion in forward direction. Also causes execution of limit switch
subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may be set with the CN
command.
Reverse Limit Switch
When active, inhibits motion in reverse direction. Also causes execution of limit switch
subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may be set with the CN
command.
Home Switch
Input for Homing (HM) and Find Edge (FE) instructions. Upon BG following HM or
FE, the motor accelerates to slew speed. A transition on this input will cause the motor to
decelerate to a stop. The polarity of the Home Switch may be set with the CN command.
Input 1 - Input 8
Uncommitted inputs. May be defined by the user to trigger events. Inputs are checked
with the Conditional Jump instruction and After Input instruction or Input Interrupt. Input
1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input 3 is latch Z and Input 4 is latch W if the
Input 9 - Input 16
Latch
High speed position latch to capture axis position within 20 nano seconds on occurrence
of latch signal. AL command arms latch. Input 1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input 3 is
latch Z and Input 4 is latch W. Input 9 is latch E, input 10 is latch F, input 11 is latch G,
input 12 is latch H.
Jumper Description for DMC-1200
JUMPER
LABEL
FUNCTION (IF JUMPERED)
JP20
SMX
For each axis, the SM jumper selects the SM
SMY
magnitude mode for servo motors or selects
SMZ
stepper motors. If you are using stepper
SMW
motors, SM must always be jumpered. The Analog command is not valid with SM
jumpered.
SM E
SM F
SM G
SM H
JP21
DMC-1200
OPT
Reserved
MRST
Master Reset enable. Returns controller to factory default settings and erases
EEPROM. Requires power-on or RESET to be activated.
Appendices • 189
Jumper Address Settings
Use this table to find the jumper settings for any of the available addresses of the DMC-1200. Note: ‘x’
denotes that the corresponding jumper is installed.
Address
512
516
520
524
528
532
536
540
544
548
552
556
560
564
568
572
576
580
584
588
HEX
200
204
208
20C
210
214
218
21C
220
224
228
22C
230
234
238
23C
240
244
248
24C
JPR A8 JPR A7 JPR A6 JPR A5 JPR A4 JPR A3 JPR A2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Address
HEX
JPR A8
JPR A7
592
250
x
x
596
254
x
600
258
604
608
JPR A6
JPR A5
JPR A4
JPR A3
JPR A2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
25C
x
x
x
260
x
x
x
x
612
264
x
x
x
x
616
268
x
x
x
620
26C
x
x
x
624
270
x
x
x
628
274
x
x
x
632
278
x
x
636
27C
x
x
x
x
x
x
640
280
x
x
x
x
x
644
284
x
x
x
x
x
648
288
x
x
x
x
652
28C
x
x
x
x
656
290
x
x
x
x
660
294
x
x
x
x
190 • Appendices
x
x
x
x
DMC-1200
DMC-1200
664
298
x
x
x
x
668
29C
x
x
x
672
2A0
x
x
x
x
676
2A4
x
x
x
x
680
2A8
x
x
x
684
2AC
x
x
x
688
2B0
x
x
x
692
2B4
x
x
x
696
2B8
x
x
700
2BC
x
x
704
2C0
x
x
x
x
708
2C4
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
712
2C8
x
x
x
716
2CC
x
x
x
720
2D0
x
x
x
724
2D4
x
x
x
728
2D8
x
x
732
2DC
x
x
736
2E0
x
x
x
740
2E4
x
x
x
744
2E8
x
x
748
2EC
x
x
752
2F0
x
x
756
2F4
x
x
760
2F8
x
764
2FC
x
768
300
x
x
x
x
x
772
204
x
x
x
x
x
776
308
x
x
x
x
780
30C
x
x
x
x
784
310
x
x
x
x
788
314
x
x
x
x
792
318
x
x
x
796
31C
x
x
x
800
320
x
x
x
x
804
324
x
x
x
x
808
328
x
x
x
812
32C
x
x
x
816
330
x
x
x
820
334
x
x
x
824
338
x
x
828
33C
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Appendices • 191
832
340
x
x
x
x
836
344
x
x
x
x
840
348
x
x
x
844
34C
x
x
x
848
350
x
x
x
852
354
x
x
x
856
358
x
x
860
35C
x
x
864
360
x
x
x
868
364
x
x
x
872
368
x
x
876
36C
x
x
880
370
x
x
884
374
x
x
888
378
x
892
37C
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
896
380
x
x
x
x
900
384
x
x
x
x
904
388
x
x
x
908
38C
x
x
x
912
390
x
x
x
916
394
x
x
x
920
398
x
x
924
39C
x
x
928
3A0
x
x
x
932
3A4
x
x
x
936
3A8
x
x
940
3AC
x
x
944
3B0
x
x
948
3B4
x
x
952
3B8
x
956
3BC
x
960
3C0
x
x
x
964
3C4
x
x
x
968
3C8
x
x
972
3CC
x
x
976
3D0
x
x
980
3D4
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
984
3D8
x
988
3DC
x
992
3E0
x
x
996
3E4
x
x
192 • Appendices
x
x
x
x
DMC-1200
1000
3E8
x
x
1004
3EC
x
1008
3F0
x
1012
3F4
x
1016
3F8
1020
3FC
x
x
Accessories and Options
DMC-1210
1- axis motion controller
DMC-1220
2- axes motion controller
DMC-1230
3- axes motion controller
DMC-1240
4- axes motion controller
DMC-1250
5- axes motion controller
DMC-1260
6- axes motion controller
DMC-1270
7- axes motion controller
DMC-1280
8- axes motion controller
-16
16 Bit ADC Option
DB-12064
64 I/O daughter board for any DMC-12x0 controller
CABLE-100-1M
100-pin high density cable, 1 Meter Length
CABLE-100-2M
100-pin high density cable, 2 Meter Length
CABLE-100-4M
100-pin high density cable, 4 Meter Length
CB-50-100
50-pin to 100-pin converter board, includes two 50-pin
ribbon cables (use with ICM-1900 / AMP 19x0 / ICM2900)
ICM-1900
Interconnect module
AMP-1910
Interconnect module with 1-axis power amplifier
AMP-1920
Interconnect module with 2-axes power amplifier
AMP-1930
Interconnect module with 3-axes power amplifier
AMP-1940
Interconnect module with 4-axes power amplifier
ICM-2900
Interconnect module with detachable screw terminal
ICM-2900FL
ICM-2900 module with flanges for rack mounting
-OPTO
ICM-1900 / AMP-19x0 / ICM-2900 Option.
Provides Optoisolated digital outputs
DMCWIN
Utilities for Windows 98SE, NT 4.0, ME, 2000 and XP
WSDK-16
Servo Design Kit for Windows 3.X
WSDK
Servo Design Kit for 98SE, NT 4.0, ME, 2000 and XP
Active X Toolkit
Visual BasicTM Tool Kit (OCXs)
Setup 16
Set-up software for Windows 3.X
DMC-1200
Appendices • 193
DMC Set up
Set-up software for Windows 98SE, NT 4.0, ME, 2000 and
XP
CAD-to-DMC
AutoCADR DXF translator
HPGL
HPGL translator
PC/AT Interrupts and Their Vectors
(These occur on the first 8259)
IRQ
VECTOR
USAGE
0
8 or 08h
Timer chip (DON'T USE THIS!)
1
9 or 09h
Keyboard (DON'T USE THIS!)
2
10 or 0ah
Cascade from second 8259 (DON'T USE THIS!)
3
11 or 0bh
COM2:
4
12 or 0ch
COM1:
5
13 or 0dh
LPT2:
6
14 or 0eh
Floppy (DON'T USE THIS!)
7
15 or 0fh
LPT1:
(These occur on the second 8259)
IRQ
VECTOR
USAGE
8
104 or 70h
Real-time clock (DON'T USE THIS!)
9
105 or 71h
Redirect-cascade (DON'T USE THIS!)
10
106 or 72h
11
107 or 73h
12
108 or 74h
Mouse DSR
13
109 or 75h
Math Co-processor exception
14
110 or 76h
Fixed Disk (DON'T USE THIS!)
15
111 or 77h
ICM-1900 Interconnect Module
The ICM-1900 interconnect module provides easy connections between the DMC-1200 series controllers and other
system elements, such as amplifiers, encoders, and external switches. The ICM-1900 accepts the 100-pin main cable and
25-pin auxiliary cable and breaks them into screw-type terminals. Each screw terminal is labeled for quick connection of
system elements. An ICM-1900 is required for each set of 4 axes. (Two required for DMC-1250 thru DMC-1280).
The ICM-1900 is contained in a metal enclosure. A version of the ICM-1900 is also available with servo amplifiers (see
AMP-19X0).
Features
194 • Appendices
DMC-1200
D
Tt=+=
Ta 0.40
s
VS
D
Tt=+=
Ta 0.40
s
VS
•
•
•
Separate the DMC-1200 cables into individual screw-type terminals
Clearly identifies all terminals
Provides jumper for connecting limit and input supplies to 5 V supply from PC
Available with on-board servo drives (see AMP-19X0)
Can be configured for AEN high or low
Note: The part number for the 100-pin connector is #2-178238-9 from AMP
Terminal #
Label
I/O
Description
1
+AAX
I
X Auxiliary encoder A+
2
-AAX
I
X Auxiliary encoder A-
3
+ABX
I
X Auxiliary encoder B+
4
-ABX
I
X Auxiliary encoder B-
5
+AAY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder A+
6
-AAY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder A-
7
+ABY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder B+
8
-ABY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder B-
9
+AAZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder A+
10
-AAZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder A-
11
+ABZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder B+
12
-ABZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder B-
13
+AAW
I
W Auxiliary encoder A+
14
-AAW
I
W Auxiliary encoder A-
15
+ABW
I
W Auxiliary encoder B+
16
-ABW
I
17
GND
18
+VCC
19
OUTCOM
O
Output Common (for use with the opto-isolated output option)
20
ERROR
O
Error signal
21
RESET
I
Reset
22
CMP
O
Circular Compare output
23
MOCMDW
O
W axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
24
SIGNW
O
W axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
25
PWMW
O
W axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
26
MOCMDZ
O
Z axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
27
SIGNZ
O
Z axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
W Auxiliary encoder BSignal Ground
+ 5 Volts
28
PWMZ
O
Z axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
29
MOCMDY
O
Y axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
30
SIGNY
O
Y axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
31
PWMY
O
Y axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
32
MOCMDX
O
X axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
33
SIGNX
O
X axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
34
PWMX
O
X axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
35
GND
O
Signal Ground
36
+VCC
O
+ 5 Volts
DMC-1200
Appendices • 195
37
AMPENW
O
W axis amplifier enable
38
AMPENZ
O
Z axis amplifier enable
39
AMPENY
O
Y axis amplifier enable
40
AMPENX
O
X axis amplifier enable
41
LSCOM
I
Limit Switch Common
42
HOMEW
I
W axis home input
43
RLSW
I
W axis reverse limit switch input
44
FLSW
I
W axis forward limit switch input
45
HOMEZ
I
Z axis home input
46
RLSZ
I
Z axis reverse limit switch input
47
FLSZ
I
Z axis forward limit switch input
48
HOMEY
I
Y axis home input
49
RLSY
I
Y axis reverse limit switch input
50
FLSY
I
Y axis forward limit switch input
51
HOMEX
I
X axis home input
52
RLSX
I
X axis reverse limit switch input
53
FLSX
I
X axis forward limit switch input
54
+VCC
+ 5 Volts
55
GND
56
INCOM
I
Input common (Common for general inputs and Abort input)
57
XLATCH
I
Input 1 (Used for X axis latch input)
58
YLATCH
I
Input 2 (Used for Y axis latch input)
59
ZLATCH
I
Input 3 (Used for Z axis latch input)
60
WLATCH
I
Input 4 (Used for W axis latch input)
61
IN5
I
Input 5
62
IN6
I
Input 6
63
IN7
I
Input 7
64
IN8
I
Input 8
65
ABORT
I
Abort Input
66
OUT1
O
Output 1
67
OUT2
O
Output 2
68
OUT3
O
Output 3
69
OUT4
O
Output 4
70
OUT5
O
Output 5
71
OUT6
O
Output 6
72
OUT7
O
Output 7
73
OUT8
O
Output 8
74
GND
75
AN1
I
Analog Input 1
76
AN2
I
Analog Input 2
77
AN3
I
Analog Input 3
78
AN4
I
Analog Input 4
79
AN5
I
Analog Input 5
80
AN6
I
Analog Input 6
81
AN7
I
Analog Input 7
196 • Appendices
Signal Ground
Signal Ground
DMC-1200
82
AN8
I
Analog Input 8
83
+MAX
I
X Main encoder A+
84
-MAX
I
X Main encoder A-
85
+MBX
I
X Main encoder B+
86
-MBX
I
X Main encoder B-
87
+INX
I
X Main encoder Index +
88
-INX
I
89
GND
X Main encoder Index Signal Ground
90
+VCC
91
+MAY
I
Y Main encoder A+
+ 5 Volts
92
-MAY
I
Y Main encoder A-
93
+MBY
I
Y Main encoder B+
94
-MBY
I
Y Main encoder B-
95
+INY
I
Y Main encoder Index +
96
-INY
I
Y Main encoder Index -
97
+MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A+
98
-MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A-
99
+MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B+
100
-MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B-
101
+INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index +
102
-INZ
I
103
GND
Signal Ground
104
+VCC
+ 5 Volts
Z Main encoder Index -
105
+MAW
I
W Main encoder A+
106
-MAW
I
W Main encoder A-
107
+MBW
I
W Main encoder B+
108
-MBW
I
W Main encoder B-
109
+INW
I
W Main encoder Index +
110
-INW
I
W Main encoder Index -
111
+12V
+12 Volts
112
-12V
-12 Volts
Specifications
Dimensions: 13.5” x 2.675” x 6.88”
DMC-1200
Appendices • 197
ICM-1900 Drawing
13.500"
12.560"
11.620"
0.220"
2.000"
6.880"
4.940"
0.440"
AMP-19X0 Mating Power Amplifiers
The AMP-19X0 series are mating, brush-type servo amplifiers for the DMC-1200. The AMP-1910 contains 1 amplifier:
the AMP-1920, 2 amplifiers; the AMP-1930, 3 amplifiers; and the AMP-1940, 4 amplifiers. Each amplifier is rated for 7
amps continuous, 10 amps peak at up to 80 V. The gain of the AMP-19X0 is 1 amp/V. The AMP-19X0 requires an
external DC supply. The AMP-19X0 connects directly to the DMC-1200, and screwtype terminals are provided for
connection to motors, encoders, and external switches.
Features
•
•
•
•
•
7 amps continuous, 10 amps peak; 20 to 80V
Available with 1, 2, 3, or 4 amplifiers
Connects directly to DMC-1200 series controllers
Screw-type terminals for easy connection to motors, encoders, and switches
Steel mounting plate with 1/4” keyholes
Specifications
Minimum motor inductance: 1 mH
PWM frequency: 30 Khz
Ambient operating temperature: 0o to 70o C
Dimensions:
Weight:
Mounting: Keyholes -- 1/4” ∅
Gain: 1 amp/V
198 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Opto-Isolated Outputs ICM-1900 / ICM-2900 (-Opto option)
The ICM/AMP 1900 and ICM-2900 modules from Galil have an option for opto-isolated outputs.
Standard Opto-isolation and High Current Opto-isolation:
The Opto-isolation option on the ICM-1900 has 2 forms: ICM-1900-OPTO (standard) and ICM-1900OPTOHC (high current). The standard version provides outputs with 4ma drive current / output with
approximately 2 usec response time. The high current version provides 25ma drive current / output
with approximately 400 usec response time.
FROM
CONTROLLER
ICM-1900 / ICM-2900
CONNECTIONS
+5V
ISO OUT POWER (ICM-1900,PIN 19)
OUT POWER (ICM-2900)
RP4=10K OHMS
OUT[x] (66 - 73)
OUT[x] TTL
ISO POWER GND (ICM-1900,PIN 35)
OUT GND (ICM-2900)
The ISO OUT POWER (OUT POWER ON ICM-2900) and ISO POWER GND (OUT GND ON ICM2900) signals should be connected to an isolated power supply. This power supply should be used
only to power the outputs in order to obtain isolation from the controller. The signal "OUT[x]" is one
of the isolated digital outputs where X stands for the digital output terminals.
The default configuration is for active high outputs. If active low outputs are desired, reverse RP3 in
it's socket. This will tie RP3 to GND instead of VCC, inverting the sense of the outputs.
NOTE: If power is applied to the outputs with an isolated power supply but power is not applied to the
controller, the outputs will float high (unable to sink current). This may present a problem when using
active high logic and care should be taken. Using active low logic should avoid any problems
associated with the outputs floating high.
Extended I/O of the DB-12064 Daughter Board
This daughter board offers 64 extended I/O points which can be interfaced to Grayhill and OPTO-22
I/O mounting racks. These I/O points can be configured as inputs or outputs in 8 bit increments
through software. The I/O points are accessed through 2 50 pin IDC connectors, each with 32 I/O
points.
DMC-1200
Appendices • 199
Configuring the I/O of the DB-12064 Daughter Board
The 64 extended I/O points of the DMC-12x8 series controller can be configured in blocks of 8. The
extended I/O is denoted as blocks 2-9 or bits 17-80.
The command, CO, is used to configure the extended I/O as inputs or outputs. The CO command has
one field:
CO n
where n is a decimal value which represents a binary number. Each bit of the binary number
represents one block of extended I/O. When set to 1, the corresponding block is configured as an
output.
The least significant bit represents block 2 and the most significant bit represents block 9. The decimal
value can be calculated by the following formula. n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 8*n5 +16* n6 +32* n7 +64*
n8 +128* n9 where nx represents the block. If the nx value is a one, then the block of 8 I/O points is to
be configured as an output. If the nx value is a zero, then the block of 8 I/O points will be configured
as an input. For example, if block 4 and 5 is to be configured as an output, CO 12 is issued.
8-Bit I/O Block
Block
17-24
2
25-32
3
33-40
4
41-48
5
49-56
6
57-64
7
65-72
8
73-80
9
Binary Representation
Decimal Value for Block
0
1
1
2
2
4
3
8
4
16
5
32
6
64
7
128
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
The simplest method for determining n:
Step 1. Determine which 8-bit I/O blocks to be configured as outputs.
Step 2. From the table, determine the decimal value for each I/O block to be set as an output.
Step 3. Add up all of the values determined in step 2. This is the value to be used for n.
For example, if blocks 2 and 3 are to be outputs, then n is 3 and the command, CO3, should be issued.
Note: This calculation is identical to the formula: n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 8*n5 +16* n6 +32* n7 +64* n8
+128* n9 where nx represents the block.
Saving the State of the Outputs in Non-Volatile Memory
The configuration of the extended I/O and the state of the outputs can be stored in the EEPROM with
the BN command. If no value has been set, the default of CO 0 is used (all blocks are inputs).
Accessing extended I/O
When configured as an output, each I/O point may be defined with the SBn and CBn commands
(where n=1 through 8 and 17 through 80). Outputs may also be defined with the conditional
command, OBn (where n=1 through 8 and 17 through 80).
200 • Appendices
DMC-1200
The command, OP, may also be used to set output bits, specified as blocks of data. The OP command
accepts 5 parameters. The first parameter sets the values of the main output port of the controller
(Outputs 1-8, block 0). The additional parameters set the value of the extended I/O as outlined:
OP m,a,b,c,d
where m is the decimal representation of the bits 1-8 (values from 0 to 255) and a,b,c,d represent the
extended I/O in consecutive groups of 16 bits. (values from 0 to 65535). Arguments which are given
for I/O points which are configured as inputs will be ignored. The following table describes the
arguments used to set the state of outputs.
Argument
Blocks
Bits
Description
m
0
1-8
General Outputs
a
2,3
17-32
Extended I/O
b
4,5
33-48
Extended I/O
c
6,7
49-64
Extended I/O
d
8,9
65-80
Extended I/O
For example, if block 8 is configured as an output, the following command may be issued:
OP 7,,,,7
This command will set bits 1,2,3 (block 0) and bits 65,66,67 (block 8) to 1. Bits 4 through 8 and bits
68 through 80 will be set to 0. All other bits are unaffected.
When accessing I/O blocks configured as inputs, use the TIn command. The argument 'n' refers to the
block to be read (n=0,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 or 9). The value returned will be a decimal representation of the
corresponding bits.
Individual bits can be queried using the @IN[n] function (where n=1 through 8 or 17 through 80). If
the following command is issued;
MG @IN[17]
the controller will return the state of the least significant bit of block 2 (assuming block 2 is configured
as an input).
Connector Description:
The DMC-12x8 controller has two 50 Pin IDC header connectors. The connectors are compatible with
I/O mounting racks such as Grayhill 70GRCM32-HL and OPTO-22 G4PB24.
Note for interfacing to OPTO-22 G4PB24: When using the OPTO-22 G4PB24 I/O mounting rack,
the user will only have access to 48 of the 64 I/O points available on the controller. Block 5 and Block
9 must be configured as inputs and will be grounded by the I/O rack.
J6 DMC-12x8 50 PIN IDC
DMC-1200
Pin
Signa
l
Block
Bit @IN[n],
@OUT[n]
Bit
No
1.
I/O
4
40
7
3.
I/O
4
39
6
5
I/O
4
38
5
7.
I/O
4
37
4
9.
I/O
4
36
3
11.
I/O
4
35
2
13.
I/O
4
34
1
15.
I/O
4
33
0
Appendices • 201
202 • Appendices
17.
I/O
3
32
7
19.
I/O
3
31
6
21.
I/O
3
30
5
23.
I/O
3
29
4
25.
I/O
3
28
3
27.
I/O
3
27
2
29.
I/O
3
26
1
31.
I/O
3
25
0
33.
I/O
2
24
7
35.
I/O
2
23
6
37.
I/O
2
22
5
39.
I/O
2
21
4
41.
I/O
2
20
3
43.
I/O
2
19
2
45.
I/O
2
18
1
47.
I/O
2
17
0
49.
+5V
-
-
-
2.
I/O
5
48
0
4.
I/O
5
47
1
6.
I/O
5
46
2
8.
I/O
5
45
3
10.
I/O
5
44
4
12.
I/O
5
43
5
14.
I/O
5
42
6
16.
I/O
5
41
7
18.
GND
-
-
-
20.
GND
-
-
-
22.
GND
-
-
-
24.
GND
-
-
-
26.
GND
-
-
-
28.
GND
-
-
-
30.
GND
-
-
-
32.
GND
-
-
-
34.
GND
-
-
-
36.
GND
-
-
-
38.
GND
-
-
-
40.
GND
-
-
-
42.
GND
-
-
-
44.
GND
-
-
-
46.
GND
-
-
-
48.
GND
-
-
-
50.
GND
-
-
-
DMC-1200
J8 DMC-12x8 50 PIN IDC
DMC-1200
Pin
Signal
Block
Bit @IN[n],
@OUT[n]
Bit
No
1.
I/O
8
72
7
3.
I/O
8
71
6
5
I/O
8
70
5
7.
I/O
8
69
4
9.
I/O
8
68
3
11.
I/O
8
67
2
13.
I/O
8
66
1
15.
I/O
8
65
0
17.
I/O
7
64
7
19.
I/O
7
63
6
21.
I/O
7
62
5
23.
I/O
7
61
4
25.
I/O
7
60
3
27.
I/O
7
59
2
29.
I/O
7
58
1
31.
I/O
7
57
0
33.
I/O
6
56
7
35.
I/O
6
55
6
37.
I/O
6
54
5
39.
I/O
6
53
4
41.
I/O
6
52
3
43.
I/O
6
51
2
45.
I/O
6
50
1
47.
I/O
6
49
0
49.
+5V
-
-
-
2.
I/O
9
80
7
4.
I/O
9
79
6
6.
I/O
9
78
5
8.
I/O
9
77
4
10.
I/O
9
76
3
12.
I/O
9
75
2
14.
I/O
9
74
1
16.
I/O
9
73
0
18.
GND
-
-
-
20.
GND
-
-
-
22.
GND
-
-
-
24.
GND
-
-
-
26.
GND
-
-
-
28.
GND
-
-
-
30.
GND
-
-
-
32.
GND
-
-
-
34.
GND
-
-
-
Appendices • 203
36.
GND
-
-
-
38.
GND
-
-
-
40.
GND
-
-
-
42.
GND
-
-
-
44.
GND
-
-
-
46.
GND
-
-
-
48.
GND
-
-
-
50.
GND
-
-
-
IOM-1964 Opto-Isolation Module for the Extended I/O
Description:
204 • Appendices
•
Provides 64 optically isolated inputs and outputs, each rated for 2mA at up to 28 VDC
•
Configurable as inputs or outputs in groups of eight bits
•
Provides 16 high power outputs capable of up to 500mA each
•
Connects to controller via 100 pin shielded cable
•
All I/O points conveniently labeled
•
Each of the 64 I/O points has status LED
•
Dimensions 6.8” x 11.4”
•
Works with DMC-12x8 controllers (Requires DB-1264 daughter board)
DMC-1200
High Current
Buffer chips (16)
Screw Terminals
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
IOM-1964
REV A
GALIL MOTION CONTROL
MADE IN USA
J1
Banks 0 and 1
provide high
power output
capability.
FOR INPUTS:
UX3
UX4
RPX4
FOR OUTPUTS:
UX1
UX2
RPX2
RPX3
100 pin high
density connector
Banks 2-7 are
standard banks.
Overview
The IOM-1964 is an input/output module that connects to the DMC-12x8 motion controller cards from
Galil, providing optically isolated buffers for the extended inputs and outputs of the controller. The
IOM-1964 also provides 16 high power outputs capable of 500mA of current per output point. The
IOM-1964 splits the 64 I/O points into eight banks of eight I/O points each, corresponding to the eight
banks of extended I/O on the controller. Each bank is individually configured as an input or output
bank by inserting the appropriate integrated circuits and resistor packs. The hardware configuration of
the IOM-1964 must match the software configuration of the controller card.
The DMC-12x8 controller has a daughter board with an additional 64 digital input/output points. The
64 I/O points on the DMC-12x8 model controllers are attached via two 50 pin ribbon cable header
connectors. A CB-50-80-1200 adapter card is used to connect the two 50 pin ribbon cables to an 80
pin high density connector. An 80 pin shielded cable connects from the 80 pin connector of the CB50-80-1200 board to the 80 pin high density connector J1 on the IOM-1964.
DMC-1200
Appendices • 205
Error LED
CB-50-100
End bracket
DMC-17x8
End bracket
100 pin high density connector
used for extended I/O
100 pin high density connector J1
used for motion I/O
206 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Configuring Hardware Banks
The extended I/O on the DMC-12x8 is configured using the CO command. The banks of buffers on
the IOM-1964 are configured to match by inserting the appropriate IC’s and resistor packs. The layout
of each of the I/O banks is identical. For example, here is the layout of bank 0:
Resistor Pack for
outputs
RP03 OUT
RP04 IN
Resistor Pack for
inputs
U03
U04
Input Buffer IC's
IN
Resistor Pack for
outputs
RP02 OUT
U01
U02
Output Buffer IC's
OUT
Indicator LED's
Resistor Pack for
LED's
C6
RP01
OUT
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
D0
Bank 0
All of the banks have the same configuration pattern as diagrammed above. For example, all banks
have Ux1 and Ux2 output optical isolator IC sockets, labeled in bank 0 as U01 and U02, in bank 1 as
U11 and U12, and so on. Each bank is configured as inputs or outputs by inserting optical isolator
IC’s and resistor packs in the appropriate sockets. A group of eight LED’s indicates the status of each
I/O point. The numbers above the Bank 0 label indicate the number of the I/O point corresponding to
the LED above it.
Digital Inputs
Configuring a bank for inputs requires that the Ux3 and Ux4 sockets be populated with NEC2505
optical isolation integrated circuits. The IOM-1964 is shipped with a default configuration of banks 27 configured as inputs. The output IC sockets Ux1 and Ux2 must be empty. The input IC’s are labeled
Ux3 and Ux4. For example, in bank 0 the IC’s are U03 and U04, bank 1 input IC’s are labeled U13
and U14, and so on. Also, the resistor pack RPx4 must be inserted into the bank to finish the input
configuration.
DMC-1200
Appendices • 207
Input Circuit
I/OCn
1/8 RPx4
1/4 NEC2505
To DMC-12x8* I/O
x = bank number 0-7
n = input number 17-80
DMC-12x8* GND
I/On
Connections to this optically isolated input circuit are done in a sinking or sourcing configuration,
referring to the direction of current. Some example circuits are shown below:
Sinking
I/OCn
Sourcing
+5V
I/On
GND
I/OCn
GND
I/On
Current
+5V
Current
There is one I/OC connection for each bank of eight inputs. Whether the input is connected as sinking
or sourcing, when the switch is open no current flows and the digital input function @IN[n] returns 1.
This is because of an internal pull up resistor on the DMC-12x8*. When the switch is closed in either
circuit, current flows. This pulls the input on the DMC-12x8 to ground, and the digital input function
@IN[n] returns 0. Note that the external +5V in the circuits above is for example only. The inputs are
optically isolated and can accept a range of input voltages from 4 to 28 VDC.
Active outputs are connected to the optically isolated inputs in a similar fashion with respect to current.
An NPN output is connected in a sinking configuration, and a PNP output is connected in the sourcing
configuration.
Sinking
I/OCn
Sourcing
+5V
I/On
Current
NPN
output
I/OCn
GND
I/On
Current
PNP
output
Whether connected in a sinking or sourcing circuit, only two connections are needed in each case.
When the NPN output is 5 volts, then no current flows and the input reads 1. When the NPN output
goes to 0 volts, then it sinks current and the input reads 0. The PNP output works in a similar fashion,
but the voltages are reversed i.e. 5 volts on the PNP output sources current into the digital input and the
input reads 0. As before, the 5 volt is an example, the I/OC can accept between 4-28 volts DC.
208 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Note that the current through the digital input should be kept below 3 mA in order to minimize the
power dissipated in the resistor pack. This will help prevent circuit failures. The resistor pack RPx4 is
standard 1.5k ohm which is suitable for power supply voltages up to 5.5 VDC. However, use of 24
VDC for example would require a higher resistance such as a 10k ohm resistor pack.
*The 1-4 axis models of the DMC-12x8 all work with the IOM-1964, all have identical extended I/O
features.
High Power Digital Outputs
The first two banks on the IOM-1964, banks 0 and 1, have high current output drive capability. The
IOM-1964 is shipped with banks 0 and 1 configured as outputs. Each output can drive up to 500mA of
continuous current. Configuring a bank of I/O as outputs is done by inserting the optical isolator
NEC2505 IC’s into the Ux1 and Ux2 sockets. The digital input IC’s Ux3 and Ux4 are removed. The
resistor packs RPx2 and RPx3 are inserted, and the input resistor pack RPx4 is removed.
Each bank of eight outputs shares one I/OC connection, which is connected to a DC power supply
between 4 and 28 VDC. A 10k ohm resistor pack should be used for RPx3. Here is a circuit diagram:
I/OCn
To DMC-12x8 +5V
1/8 RPx2
1/4 NEC2505
IR6210
VCC
IN
DMC-12x8 I/O
OUT
PWROUT n
GND
1/8 RPx3
I/On
OUTCn
The load is connected between the power output and output common. The I/O connection is for test
purposes, and would not normally be connected. An external power supply is connected to the I/OC
and OUTC terminals, which isolates the circuitry of the DMC-12x8 controller from the output circuit.
I/OCn
VISO
Vpwr
Current
PWROUTn
OUTCn
DMC-1200
L
o
a
d
External
Isolated
Power
Supply
GNDISO
Appendices • 209
The power outputs must be connected in a driving configuration as shown on the previous page. Here
are the voltage outputs to expect after the Clear Bit and Set Bit commands are given:
Output Command
Result
CBn
Vpwr = Viso
SBn
Vpwr = GNDiso
Standard Digital Outputs
The I/O banks 2-7 can be configured as optically isolated digital outputs, however these banks do not
have the high power capacity as in banks 0-1. In order to configure a bank as outputs, the optical
isolator chips Ux1 and Ux2 are inserted, and the digital input isolator chips Ux3 and Ux4 are removed.
The resistor packs RPx2 and RPx3 are inserted, and the input resistor pack RPx4 is removed.
Each bank of eight outputs shares one I/OC connection, which is connected to a DC power supply
between 4 and 28 VDC. The resistor pack RPx3 is optional, used either as a pull up resistor from the
output transistor’s collector to the external supply connected to I/OC or the RPx3 is removed resulting
in an open collector output. Here is a schematic of the digital output circuit:
Internal Pullup
I/OCn
1/8 RPx3
To DMC-12x8 +5V
1/8 RPx2
1/4 NEC2505
I/On
DMC-12x8 I/O
OUTCn
The resistor pack RPx3 limits the amount of current available to source, as well as affecting the low
level voltage at the I/O output. The maximum sink current is 2mA regardless of RPx3 or I/OC voltage,
determined by the NEC2505 optical isolator IC. The maximum source current is determined by
dividing the external power supply voltage by the resistor value of RPx3.
The high level voltage at the I/O output is equal to the external supply voltage at I/OC. However,
when the output transistor is on and conducting current, the low level output voltage is determined by
three factors. The external supply voltage, the resistor pack RPx3 value, and the current sinking limit
of the NEC2505 all determine the low level voltage. The sink current available from the NEC2505 is
between 0 and 2mA. Therefore, the maximum voltage drop across RPx3 is calculated by multiplying
the 2mA maximum current times the resistor value of RPx3. For example, if a 10k ohm resistor pack
is used for RPx3, then the maximum voltage drop is 20 volts. The digital output will never drop below
the voltage at OUTC, however. Therefore, a 10k ohm resistor pack will result in a low level voltage of
.7 to 1.0 volts at the I/O output for an external supply voltage between 4 and 21 VDC. If a supply
voltage greater than 21 VDC is used, a higher value resistor pack will be required.
210 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Output Command
Result
CBn
Vout = GNDiso
SBn
Vout = Viso
The resistor pack RPx3 is removed to provide open collector outputs. The same calculations for
maximum source current and low level voltage applies as in the above circuit. The maximum sink
current is determined by the NEC2505, and is approximately 2mA.
Open Collector
To DMC-12x8 +5V
1/8 RPx2
1/4 NEC2505
I/On
DMC-12x8 I/O
OUTCn
Electrical Specifications
•
I/O points, configurable as inputs or outputs in groups of 8
Digital Inputs
•
Maximum voltage: 28 VDC
•
Minimum input voltage: 4 VDC
•
Maximum input current: 3 mA
High Power Digital Outputs
•
Maximum external power supply voltage: 28 VDC
•
Minimum external power supply voltage: 4 VDC
•
Maximum source current, per output: 500mA
•
Maximum sink current: sinking circuit inoperative
Standard Digital Outputs
DMC-1200
•
Maximum external power supply voltage: 28 VDC
•
Minimum external power supply voltage: 4 VDC
•
Maximum source current: limited by pull up resistor value
•
Maximum sink current: 2mA
Appendices • 211
Relevant DMC Commands
CO n
OP
m,n,o,p,q
SB n
CB n
OB n,m
TI n
_TI n
@IN[n]
Configures the 64 bits of extended I/O in 8 banks of 8 bits each.
n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 8*n5 + 16*n6 + 32*n7 + 64*n8 + 128*n9
where nx is a 1 or 0, 1 for outputs and 0 for inputs. The x is the bank number
m = 8 standard digital outputs
n = extended I/O banks 0 & 1, outputs 17-32
o = extended I/O banks 2 & 3, outputs 33-48
p = extended I/O banks 4 & 5, outputs 49-64
q = extended I/O banks 6 & 7, outputs 65-80
Sets the output bit to a logic 1, n is the number of the output from 1 to 80.
Clears the output bit to a logic 0, n is the number of the output from 1 to 80.
Sets the state of an output as 0 or 1, also able to use logical conditions.
Returns the state of 8 digital inputs as binary converted to decimal, n is the bank
number +2.
Operand (internal variable) that holds the same value as that returned by TI n.
Function that returns state of individual input bit, n is number of the input from 1 to
80.
Screw Terminal Listing
212 • Appendices
Term.
Label
Description
1
GND
Ground pins of J1
2
5V
5V DC out from J1
3
GND
Ground pins of J1
4
5V
5V DC out from J1
5
I/O80
I/O bit 80
6
I/O79
I/O bit 79
7
I/O78
I/O bit 78
8
I/O77
I/O bit 77
9
I/O76
I/O bit 76
10
I/O75
I/O bit 75
11
I/O74
I/O bit 74
12
I/O73
I/O bit 73
13
OUTC73-80
Out common for I/O 73-80
14
I/OC73-80
I/O common for I/O 73-80
15
I/O72
I/O bit 72
16
I/O71
I/O bit 71
17
I/O70
I/O bit 70
18
I/O69
I/O bit 69
19
I/O68
I/O bit 68
20
I/O67
I/O bit 67
21
I/O66
I/O bit 66
22
I/O65
I/O bit 65
23
OUTC65-72
Out common for I/O 65-72
24
I/OC65-72
I/O common for I/O 65-72
DMC-1200
DMC-1200
25
I/O64
I/O bit 64
26
I/O63
I/O bit 63
27
I/O62
I/O bit 62
28
I/O61
I/O bit 61
29
I/O60
I/O bit 60
30
I/O59
I/O bit 59
31
I/O58
I/O bit 58
32
I/O57
I/O bit 57
33
OUTC57-64
Out common for I/O 57-64
34
I/OC57-64
I/O common for I/O 57-64
35
I/O56
I/O bit 56
36
I/O55
I/O bit 55
37
I/O54
I/O bit 54
38
I/O53
I/O bit 53
39
I/O52
I/O bit 52
40
I/O51
I/O bit 51
41
I/O50
I/O bit 50
42
I/O49
I/O bit 49
43
*OUTC49-56
Out common for I/O 49-56
44
I/OC49-56
I/O common for I/O 49-56
45
I/O48
I/O bit 48
46
I/O47
I/O bit 47
47
I/O46
I/O bit 46
48
I/O45
I/O bit 45
49
I/O44
I/O bit 44
50
I/O43
I/O bit 43
51
I/O42
I/O bit 42
52
I/O41
I/O bit 41
53
OUTC41-48
Out common for I/O 41-48
54
I/OC41-48
I/O common for I/O 41-48
55
I/O40
I/O bit 40
56
I/O39
I/O bit 39
57
I/O38
I/O bit 38
58
I/O37
I/O bit 37
59
I/O36
I/O bit 36
60
I/O35
I/O bit 35
61
I/O34
I/O bit 34
62
I/O33
I/O bit 33
63
OUTC33-40
Out common for I/O 33-40
64
I/OC33-40
I/O common for I/O 33-40
65
I/O32
I/O bit 32
Appendices • 213
66
I/O31
I/O bit 31
67
I/O30
I/O bit 30
68
I/O29
I/O bit 29
69
I/O28
I/O bit 28
70
I/O27
I/O bit 27
71
I/O26
I/O bit 26
72
I/O25
I/O bit 25
73
OUTC25-32
Out common for I/O 25-32
74
*I/OC25-32
I/O common for I/O 25-32
75
*OUTC25-32
Out common for I/O 25-32
76
I/OC25-32
I/O common for I/O 25-32
77
PWROUT32
Power output 32
78
PWROUT31
Power output 31
79
PWROUT30
Power output 30
80
PWROUT29
Power output 29
81
PWROUT28
Power output 28
82
PWROUT27
Power output 27
83
PWROUT26
Power output 26
84
PWROUT25
Power output 25
85
I/O24
I/O bit 24
86
I/O23
I/O bit 23
87
I/O22
I/O bit 22
88
I/O21
I/O bit 21
89
I/O20
I/O bit 20
90
I/O19
I/O bit 19
91
I/O18
I/O bit 18
92
I/O17
I/O bit 17
93
OUTC17-24
Out common for I/O 17-24
94
*I/OC17-24
I/O common for I/O 17-24
95
*OUTC17-24
Out common for I/O 17-24
96
I/OC17-24
I/O common for I/O 17-24
97
PWROUT24
Power output 24
98
PWROUT23
Power output 23
99
PWROUT22
Power output 22
100
PWROUT21
Power output 21
101
PWROUT20
Power output 20
102
PWROUT19
Power output 19
103
PWROUT18
Power output 18
104
PWROUT17
Power output 17
* Silkscreen on Rev A board is incorrect for these terminals.
214 • Appendices
DMC-1200
CB-50-100-1200 Adapter Board
The CB-50-100 adapter board can be used to convert the CABLE-100 to (2) 50 Pin Ribbon Cables.
The 50 Pin Ribbon Cables provide a versatile method of accessing the controller signals without the
use of a Galil Interconnect Module.
Connectors:
DMC-1200
JC8 50 PIN IDC
J9 100 PIN HIGH DENSITY CONNECTOR
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
Appendices • 215
34
34
35
35
36
36
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
49
50
50
JC6 50 PIN IDC
J9 100 PIN HIGH DENSITY CONNECTOR
1
51
2
52
3
53
4
54
5
55
6
56
7
57
8
58
9
59
10
60
11
61
12
62
13
63
14
64
15
65
16
66
17
67
18
68
19
69
20
70
21
71
22
72
23
73
216 • Appendices
DMC-1200
DMC-1200
24
74
25
75
26
76
27
77
28
78
29
79
30
80
31
81
32
82
33
83
34
84
35
85
36
86
37
87
38
88
39
89
40
90
41
91
42
92
43
93
44
94
45
95
46
96
47
97
48
98
49
99
50
100
Appendices • 217
CB-50-100 Drawing:
15/16"
1/8"
1/8"D, 4 places
1/8"
Mounting bracket
for attaching
inside PC
CB 50-100
REV A
GALIL MOTION
CONTROL
MADE IN USA
J9
JC8
JC6, JC8 - 50 pin
shrouded headers w/
center key
JC6
JC8 - pins 1-50 of J9
JC6 - pins 51-100 of J9
1/51
J9 - 100 pin connector
AMP part # 2-178238-9
4 1/2"
21/71
41/91
1/8"
1/2"
9/16"
1 1/4"
Figure A-16
218 • Appendices
DMC-1200
JC8 (IDC 50 Pin)
Pin1 (2.975", 0.6125" )
JC6 (IDC 50 Pin)
Pin1 (2.975", 0.9875" )
1/8"D, 4 places
CB 50-100
REV A
GALIL MOTION
CONTROL
MADE IN USA
J9 - 100 pin connector
AMP part # 2-178238-9
(Pin 1)
J9
DETAIL
1
JC6, JC8 - 50 pin
shrouded headers w/
center key
JC8
51
2
JC6
3
52
53
4
JC8 - pins 1-50 of J9
JC6 - pins 51-100 of J9
Figure A-17
CB-50-80 Adapter Board
The CB-50-80 adapter board can be used to convert the CABLE-80 to (2) 50 Pin Ribbon Cables. The
50 Pin Ribbon Cables provide a versatile method of accessing the extended I/O signals without the use
of the Galil IOM-1964.
The ribbon cables provided by the CB-50-80 are compatible with I/O mounting racks such as Grayhill
70GRCM32-HL and OPTO-22 G4PB24.
When using the OPTO-22 G4PB24 I/O mounting rack, the user will only have access to 48 of the 64
I/O points available on the controller. Block 5 and Block 9 must be configured as inputs and will be
grounded by the I/O rack.
DMC-1200
Appendices • 219
Connectors:
JC8 and JC6: 50 Pin Male IDC
J9: 100 Pin High Density Connector, AMP PART #3-178238-0
jc8
j9
jc8
j9
1
1
38
GND
2
2
39
35
3
3
40
GND
4
4
41
36
5
5
42
GND
6
6
43
37
7
7
44
GND
8
8
45
38
9
9
46
GND
10
10
47
39
11
11
48
GND
12
12
49
+5V
13
13
50
GND
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
GND
19
19
20
GND
21
21
22
GND
23
23
24
GND
25
25
26
GND
27
27
28
GND
29
29
30
GND
31
31
32
GND
33
32
34
GND
35
33
36
GND
37
34
220 • Appendices
DMC-1200
DMC-1200
JC6
J9 (cONTINUED)
1
41
2
42
3
43
4
44
5
45
6
46
7
47
8
48
9
49
10
50
11
51
12
52
13
53
14
54
15
55
16
56
17
57
18
GND
19
59
20
GND
21
61
22
GND
23
63
24
GND
25
65
26
GND
27
67
28
GND
29
69
30
GND
31
71
32
GND
33
72
34
GND
35
73
36
GND
37
74
38
GND
39
75
40
GND
Appendices • 221
41
76
42
GND
43
77
44
GND
45
78
46
GND
47
79
48
GND
49
+5V
50
GND
222 • Appendices
DMC-1200
CB-50-80 Drawing:
CB-50-80 Outline
1/8"
15/16"
1/8"
1/8"D, 4 places
CB 50-80
REV A1
GALIL MOTION
CONTROL
MADE IN USA J9
JC8
JC6
Mounting bracket
for attaching
inside PC
JC6, JC8 - 50 pin
shrouded headers w/
center key
JC8 - pins 1-50 of J9
JC6 - pins 51-100 of J9
J9 - 80 pin connector
3M part # N10280-52E2VC
AMP part # 3-178238-0
4 1/2"
1/8"
1/2"
9/16"
1 1/4"
Figure A-18
DMC-1200
Appendices • 223
CB-50-80 Layout
1/8"D, 4 places
JC6 (IDC 50 Pin)
Pin1 ()
CB 50-80
REV A
GALIL MOTION
CONTROL
MADE IN USA
JC8 (IDC 50 Pin)
Pin1 ( )
J9 - 80 pin connector
AMP part # 3-178238-0
(Pin 1)
J9
DETAIL
1
JC6, JC8 - 50 pin
shrouded headers w/
center key
JC8
2
JC6
3
41
42
43
4
Figure A-19
224 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Coordinated Motion - Mathematical Analysis
The terms of coordinated motion are best explained in terms of the vector motion. The vector velocity,
Vs, which is also known as the feed rate, is the vector sum of the velocities along the X and Y axes, Vx
and Vy.
Vs = Vx 2 + Vy 2
The vector distance is the integral of Vs, or the total distance traveled along the path. To illustrate this
further, suppose that a string was placed along the path in the X-Y plane. The length of that string
represents the distance traveled by the vector motion.
The vector velocity is specified independently of the path to allow continuous motion. The path is
specified as a collection of segments. For the purpose of specifying the path, define a special X-Y
coordinate system whose origin is the starting point of the sequence. Each linear segment is specified
by the X-Y coordinate of the final point expressed in units of resolution, and each circular arc is
defined by the arc radius, the starting angle, and the angular width of the arc. The zero angle
corresponds to the positive direction of the X-axis and the CCW direction of rotation is positive.
Angles are expressed in degrees, and the resolution is 1/256th of a degree. For example, the path
shown in Fig. 12.2 is specified by the instructions:
VP
0,10000
CR
10000, 180, -90
VP
20000, 20000
Y
C
20000
10000
D
B
A
X
10000
20000
Figure 12.2 - X-Y Motion Path
DMC-1200
Appendices • 225
The first line describes the straight line vector segment between points A and B. The next segment is a
circular arc, which starts at an angle of 180° and traverses -90°. Finally, the third line describes the
linear segment between points C and D. Note that the total length of the motion consists of the
segments:
A-B
Linear
10000 units
B-C
Circular
R Δθ 2π
= 15708
360
C-D
Linear
10000
Total
35708 counts
In general, the length of each linear segment is
Lk
Xk 2 + Yk 2
=
Where Xk and Yk are the changes in X and Y positions along the linear segment. The length of the
circular arc is
L k = R k ΔΘ k 2 π 360
The total travel distance is given by
n
D = ∑ Lk
k =1
The velocity profile may be specified independently in terms of the vector velocity and acceleration.
For example, the velocity profile corresponding to the path of Fig. 12.2 may be specified in terms of
the vector speed and acceleration.
VS
100000
VA
2000000
The resulting vector velocity is shown in Fig. 12.3.
Velocity
10000
time (s)
Ta
0.05
Ts
0.357
Ta
0.407
Figure 12.3 - Vector Velocity Profile
The acceleration time, Ta, is given by
Ta =
226 • Appendices
VS
100000
=
= 0.05s
VA 2000000
DMC-1200
The slew time, Ts, is given by
Ts =
35708
D
− Ta =
− 0.05 = 0.307 s
VS
100000
The total motion time, Tt, is given by
Tt =
D
+ Ta = 0.407 s
VS
The velocities along the X and Y axes are such that the direction of motion follows the specified path,
yet the vector velocity fits the vector speed and acceleration requirements.
For example, the velocities along the X and Y axes for the path shown in Fig. 12.2 are given in Fig.
12.4.
Fig. 12.4a shows the vector velocity. It also indicates the position point along the path starting at A
and ending at D. Between the points A and B, the motion is along the Y axis. Therefore,
Vy = Vs
and
Vx = 0
Between the points B and C, the velocities vary gradually and finally, between the points C and D, the
motion is in the X direction.
B
C
(a)
A
D
(b)
(c)
time
Figure 12.4 - Vector and Axes Velocities
DMC-1200
Appendices • 227
DMC-1200/DMC-1000 Comparison
BENEFIT
DMC-1200
DMC-1000
Higher Speed communication Frees host
Two communication channels-FIFO and DMA
Only one channel- FIFO
Instant access to parameters – real time data
processing & recording
DMA-Direct Memory Access
No DMA channel
Easy to install – self-configuring
Plug and Play
No Plug and Play
Programs don’t have to be downloaded from
PC but can be stored on controller
Non-Volatile Program Storage
No storage for programs
Can capture and save array data
Variable storage
No storage for variables
Parameters can be stored
Array storage
No storage for arrays
Firmware can be upgraded in field without
removing controller from PC
Flash memory for firmware
EPROM for firmware which must be
installed on controller
Faster servo operation – good for very high
resolution sensors
12 MHz encoder speed for servos
8 MHz
Faster stepper operation
3 MHz stepper rate
2 MHz
Higher servo bandwidth
62 μsec/axis sample time
125 μsec/axis
Expanded memory lets you store more
programs
1000 lines X 80 character program memory
500 line X 40 character
Expanded variables
254 symbolic variables
126 variables
Expanded arrays for more storage—great for
data capture
8000 array elements in 30 arrays
1600 elements in 14 arrays
Higher resolution for analog inputs
8 analog inputs with 16-bit ADC option
7 inputs with 12-bit ADC only
Better for EMI reduction
100-pin high density connector
60-pin IDC, 26-pin IDC, 20-pin IDC
(x2)
For precise registration applications
Output Position Compare
Available only as a special
More flexible gearing
Multiple masters allowed in gearing mode
One master for gearing
Flexible- Binary mode is higher speed
Binary and ASCII communication modes
ASCII only
List of Other Publications
"Step by Step Design of Motion Control Systems"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
"Motion Control Applications"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
"Motion Control by Microprocessors"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
Training Seminars
Galil, a leader in motion control with over 200,000 controllers working worldwide, has a proud
reputation for anticipating and setting the trends in motion control. Galil understands your need to
keep abreast with these trends in order to remain resourceful and competitive. Through a series of
228 • Appendices
DMC-1200
seminars and workshops held over the past 15 years, Galil has actively shared their market insights in a
no-nonsense way for a world of engineers on the move. In fact, over 10,000 engineers have attended
Galil seminars. The tradition continues with three different seminars, each designed for your particular
skillset-from beginner to the most advanced.
MOTION CONTROL MADE EASY
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Those who need a basic introduction or refresher on how to successfully implement servo motion
control systems.
TIME: 4 hours (8:30 am-12:30 pm)
ADVANCED MOTION CONTROL
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Those who consider themselves a "servo specialist" and require an in-depth knowledge of motion
control systems to ensure outstanding controller performance. Also, prior completion of "Motion
Control Made Easy" or equivalent is required. Analysis and design tools as well as several design
examples will be provided.
TIME: 8 hours (8:00 am-5:00 pm)
PRODUCT WORKSHOP
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Current users of Galil motion controllers. Conducted at Galil's headquarters in Rocklin, CA, students
will gain detailed understanding about connecting systems elements, system tuning and motion
programming. This is a "hands-on" seminar and students can test their application on actual hardware
and review it with Galil specialists.
TIME: Two days (8:30 am-5:00 pm)
Contacting Us
Galil Motion Control
270 Technology Way
Rocklin, California 95765
Phone: 916-626-0101
Fax:
916-626-0102
Internet address: [email protected]
URL: www.galilmc.com
FTP: galilmc.com
DMC-1200
Appendices • 229
WARRANTY
All products manufactured by Galil Motion Control are warranted against defects in materials and
workmanship. The warranty period for controller boards is 1 year. The warranty period for all other
products is 180 days.
In the event of any defects in materials or workmanship, Galil Motion Control will, at its sole option,
repair or replace the defective product covered by this warranty without charge. To obtain warranty
service, the defective product must be returned within 30 days of the expiration of the applicable
warranty period to Galil Motion Control, properly packaged and with transportation and insurance
prepaid. We will reship at our expense only to destinations in the United States.
Any defect in materials or workmanship determined by Galil Motion Control to be attributable to
customer alteration, modification, negligence or misuse is not covered by this warranty.
EXCEPT AS SET FORTH ABOVE, GALIL MOTION CONTROL WILL MAKE NO
WARRANTIES EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO SUCH PRODUCTS,
AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
COPYRIGHT (3-97)
The software code contained in this Galil product is protected by copyright and must not be reproduced
or disassembled in any form without prior written consent of Galil Motion Control, Inc.
230 • Appendices
DMC-1200
Index
A
Abort 43–45, 68, 85, 91, 165, 167, 185, 189–90
Off-On-Error 24, 45, 46, 165, 167
Stop Motion 85, 91, 140, 168
Absolute Position 80–82, 131–32, 136
Absolute Value 98, 136, 144, 166
Acceleration 133–34, 150, 155, 158–61, 227–28
Accessories 194
Address 147–49, 170, 195, 230
Almost Full Flags 67
AMP-1100 28
Ampflier Gain 4
Amplifier Enable 45, 165
Amplifier Gain 175, 179, 182
Analog Input 3, 43, 45, 84, 144–45, 147, 151, 158, 163,
185
Analysis
SDK 123
Arithmetic Functions 123, 135, 142, 145, 155
Arm Latch 121
Array 3, 80, 89, 104–6, 123, 129, 135, 142, 146–54,
156, 186
Automatic Subroutine 125, 126, 138, 139
CMDERR 126, 139, 141
LIMSWI 43, 126, 138–39, 166–68
MCTIME 126, 131, 139, 140
POSERR 126, 138–40, 166–67
Auxiliary Encoder 43, 95, 108–16, 108–16, 108–16,
189, 196, 198
Dual Encoder 78, 115, 149
B
Backlash 80, 114–16, 163
DMC-1200
Backlash Compensation
Dual Loop 80, 108–16, 108–16, 108–16, 163
Begin Motion 125–28, 132–33, 139–40, 145, 149–50,
155, 157
Binary 1, 63, 73, 76
Bit-Wise 135, 142
Burn
EEPROM 3
C
Capture Data
Record 80, 104, 106, 147, 149
Circle 160–61
Circular Interpolation 90–93, 95, 148, 160
Clear Bit 156
Clear Sequence 85, 87, 91, 93
Clock 146
CMDERR 126, 139, 141
Code 63, 139, 146, 149–50, 159–60, 162–64
Command
Syntax 73–74
Command Summary 78, 81, 83, 87, 93, 146, 148
Commanded Position 82–83, 95–96, 140, 149, 158,
171–73
Communication 3, 49
Almost Full Flag 67
FIFO 3
COMMUNICATION
FIFO 67
Compare Function 3, 4
Compensation
Backlash 80, 114–16, 163
Conditional jump 45, 123, 130, 133–36, 157
Configuration
Index • 231
Jumper 170
Contour Mode 79–80, 102–7
Control Filter
Damping 170, 174
Gain 146, 151
Integrator 174
Proportional Gain 174
Coordinated Motion 74, 79, 90–93
Circular 90–93, 95, 148, 160
Contour Mode 79–80, 102–7
Ecam 98, 101
Electronic Cam 79–80, 96, 97
Electronic Gearing 79–80, 94–97
Gearing 79–80, 94–97
Linear Interpolation 79, 84–87, 89, 95, 102
Cosine 80, 142–44, 147
Cycle Time
Clock 146
D
DAC 174, 178–80, 178–80, 182
Damping 170, 174
Data Capture 148–49
Data Output
Set Bit 156
Debugging 128
Deceleration 150
Differential Encoder 25, 27, 170
Digital Filter 73, 178–79, 181–83
Digital Input 43, 45, 144, 157
Digital Output 144, 156
Clear Bit 156
Dip Switch 12
Address 147–49, 195, 230
Download 73, 123, 148
Dual Encoder 78, 115, 149
Backlash 80, 114–16, 163
Dual Loop 80, 108–16, 108–16, 108–16, 163
Dual Loop 80, 108–16, 108–16, 108–16, 163
Backlash 80, 114–16, 163
Auxiliary Encoder 43, 95, 108–16, 108–16, 108–16,
189, 196, 198
Differential 25, 27, 170
Dual Encoder 78, 115, 149
Index Pulse 25, 44, 118
Quadrature 5, 114, 155, 159, 166, 177
Error Code 63, 139, 146, 149–50, 159–60, 162–64
Error Handling 43, 126, 138–39, 166–68
Error Limit 24, 26, 46, 139, 165–67
Off-On-Error 24, 45, 46, 165, 167
Example
Wire Cutter 159
F
Feedrate 87, 92, 93, 133, 160–61
FIFO 3, 67
Filter Parameter
Damping 170, 174
Gain 146, 151
Integrator 174
PID 27, 174, 184
Proportional Gain 174
Stability 115–16, 163, 169–70, 174, 180
Find Edge 44, 118
Flags
Almost full 67
Formatting 151, 152–55
Frequency 5, 118, 180–82
Function 44–45, 63, 73, 85, 104–5, 115–17, 120, 123,
127–31, 133, 135, 139, 142–47, 151–52, 156–59,
161, 163–64
Functions
Arithmetic 123, 135, 142, 145, 155
G
Gain 146, 151
Proportional 174
Gear Ratio 94–96
Gearing 79–80, 94–97
E
H
Ecam 98, 101
Electronic Cam 79–80, 96, 97
Echo 63
Edit Mode 123–24, 129, 139
Editor 123–24
EEPROM 3
Electronic Cam 79–80, 96, 97
Electronic Gearing 79–80, 94–97
Ellipse Scale 93
Enable
Amplifer Enable 45, 165
Encoder
Halt 85, 127–31, 133–34, 157
Abort 43–45, 68, 85, 91, 165, 167, 185, 189–90
Off-On-Error 24, 45, 46, 165, 167
Stop Motion 85, 91, 140, 168
Hardware 43, 65, 156, 165
Address 147–49, 170, 195, 230
Amplifier Enable 45, 165
Clear Bit 156
Jumper 170
Offset Adjustment 169
Output of Data 151
Set Bit 156
232 • Index
DMC-1200
TTL 5, 43, 165
Home Input 44, 118, 146
Homing 44, 118
Find Edge 44, 118
I
I/O
Amplifier Enable 45, 165
Analog Input 84
Clear Bit 156
Digital Input 43, 45, 144, 157
Digital Output 144, 156
Home Input 44, 118, 146
Output of Data 151
Set Bit 156
TTL 5, 43, 165
ICM-1100 24, 46, 165
Independent Motion
Jog 83–84, 95, 101, 121, 132–33, 139–41, 145, 163,
167
Index Pulse 25, 44, 118
ININT 126, 139–40, 157–58
Input
Analog 84
Input Interrupt 66, 125, 133, 139–40, 157
ININT 126, 139–40, 157–58
Input of Data 150
Inputs
Analog 3, 43, 45, 144–45, 147, 151, 158, 163, 185
Installation 169
Integrator 174
Interconnect Module
ICM-1100 24, 46, 165
Interface
Terminal 73
Internal Variable 135, 145, 146
Interrogation 77–78, 87, 94, 151, 152
Interrupt 65, 125–27, 133, 138–40, 157
Invert 114, 170
J
Jog 83–84, 95, 101, 121, 132–33, 139–41, 145, 163,
167
Joystick 84, 145, 162–63
Jumper 170
K
Keyword 135, 142, 145, 146–47
TIME 146–47
DMC-1200
L
Label 84–86, 90, 100–101, 107, 116, 121, 123–29,
131–40, 145–46, 150, 152, 155–58, 161, 163–64,
167
LIMSWI 166–68
POSERR 166–67
Special Label 125, 167
Latch 77, 120
Arm Latch 121
Data Capture 148–49
Position Capture 120
Record 80, 104, 106, 147, 149
Teach 106
Limit
Torque Limit 26
Limit Switch 43–45, 65–66, 125–27, 139, 146, 166–68,
170
LIMSWI 43, 126, 138–39, 166–68
Linear Interpolation 79, 84–87, 89, 95, 102
Clear Sequence 85, 87, 91, 93
Logical Operator 135
M
Masking
Bit-Wise 135, 142
Math Function
Absolute Value 98, 136, 144, 166
Bit-Wise 135, 142
Cosine 80, 142–44, 147
Logical Operator 135
Sine 80, 100, 144
Mathematical Expression 135, 142, 144
MCTIME 126, 131, 139, 140
Memory 73, 105, 123, 129, 135, 139, 146, 148
Array 3, 80, 89, 104–6, 123, 129, 135, 142, 146–54,
156, 186
Download 73, 123, 148
Upload 123
Message 90, 128, 139–40, 143, 149–51, 158, 167–68
Modelling 171, 174–75, 179
Motion Complete
MCTIME 126, 131, 139, 140
Motion Smoothing 80, 116, 118
S-Curve 85, 117
Motor Command 27, 179
Moving
Acceleration 133–34, 150, 155, 158–61, 227–28
Begin Motion 125–28, 132–33, 139–40, 145, 149–50,
155, 157
Circular 90–93, 95, 148, 160
Multitasking 127
Halt 85, 127–31, 133–34, 157
Index • 233
O
R
OE
Off-On-Error 165, 167
Off-On-Error 24, 45, 46, 165, 167
Offset Adjustment 169
Operand
Internal Variable 135, 145, 146
Operators
Bit-Wise 135, 142
Optoisolation 43
Home Input 44, 118, 146
Output
Amplifier Enable 45, 165
ICM-1100 24, 46
Motor Command 27, 179
Output of Data 151
Clear Bit 156
Set Bit 156
Record 80, 104, 106, 147, 149
Latch 77, 120
Position Capture 120
Teach 106
Register 146
Reset 44, 68, 134, 165, 167
P
PID 27, 174, 184
Play Back 80, 149
POSERR 126, 138–40, 166–67
Position Error 26, 65–66, 126, 139–40, 146, 148–49,
158, 163
Position Capture 120
Latch 77, 120
Teach 106
Position Error 24, 26, 46, 65–66, 115, 126, 139–40,
146, 148–49, 158, 163, 165–67, 170, 173
POSERR 126, 138–40
Position Follow 158
Position Limit 166
Program Flow 125, 130
Interrupt 65, 125–27, 133, 138–40, 157
Stack 138, 141, 157
Programmable 144–46, 156, 163, 166
EEPROM 3
Programming
Halt 85, 127–31, 133–34, 157
Proportional Gain 174
Protection
Error Limit 24, 26, 46, 139, 165–67
Torque Limit 26
PWM 4
Q
Quadrature 5, 114, 155, 159, 166, 177
Quit
Abort 43–45, 68, 85, 91, 165, 167, 185, 189–90
Stop Motion 85, 91, 140, 168
234 • Index
S
SB
Set Bit 156
Scaling
Ellipse Scale 93
S-Curve 85, 117
Motion Smoothing 80, 116, 118
SDK 123
Selecting Address 147–49, 170, 195, 230
Servo Design Kit
SDK 123
Set Bit 156
Sine 80, 100, 144
Single-Ended 5, 25, 27
Slew 80, 95, 118, 131, 133, 159
Smoothing 80, 85, 87, 91, 93, 116–18
Software
SDK 123
Terminal 73
Special Label 125, 167
Specification 85–87, 92
Stability 115–16, 163, 169–70, 174, 180
Stack 138, 141, 157
Zero Stack 141, 157
Status 67, 73, 78, 87, 129, 146, 149
Interrogation 77, 87, 94, 151, 152
Stop Code 78, 149, 170
Tell Code 77
Step Motor 118
KS, Smoothing 80, 85, 87, 91, 93, 116–18
Stop
Abort 43–45, 68, 85, 91, 165, 167, 185, 189–90
Stop Code 63, 78, 139, 146, 149–50, 149, 159–60, 162–
64, 170
Stop Motion 85, 91, 140, 168
Subroutine 43, 90, 126, 134–40, 157–58, 166–67
Automatic Subroutine 125, 126, 138, 139
Synchronization 5, 96
Syntax 73–74
T
Tangent 80, 90, 92–93
Teach 106
Data Capture 148–49
Latch 77, 120
DMC-1200
Play-Back 80, 149
Position Capture 120
Record 80, 104, 106, 147, 149
Tell Code 77
Tell Error 78
Position Error 26, 65–66, 126, 139–40, 146, 148–49,
158, 163
Tell Position 78
Tell Torque 78
Terminal 44, 73, 123, 145, 152
Theory 171
Damping 170, 174
Digital Filter 73, 178–79, 181–83
Modelling 171, 174–75, 179
PID 27, 174, 184
Stability 115–16, 163, 169–70, 174, 180
Time
Clock 146
TIME 146–47
Time Interval 102–4, 106, 148
Timeout 14, 126, 131, 139, 140
MCTIME 126, 131, 139, 140
Torque Limit 26
Trigger 123, 130, 132–34, 173
Trippoint 81, 85–87, 92–93, 104, 131–32, 137, 138
Troubleshooting 169
TTL 5, 43, 165
Tuning
SDK 123
Stability 115–16, 163, 169–70, 174, 180
DMC-1200
U
Upload 123
User Unit 155
V
Variable
Internal 135, 145, 146
Vector Acceleration 87–88, 93, 161
Vector Deceleration 87–88, 93
Vector Mode
Circle 160–61
Circular Interpolation 90–93, 95, 148, 160
Clear Sequence 85, 87, 91, 93
Ellipse Scale 93
Feedrate 87, 92, 93, 133, 160–61
Tangent 80, 90, 92–93
Vector Speed 84–91, 93, 133, 161
W
Wire Cutter 159
Z
Zero Stack 141, 157
Index • 235
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