DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board

DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 Single-Board Computers
User Manual
Order Number: EK–VME54–UM. A01
This manual provides an introduction to the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 singleboard computers (SBCs), explains how to use the console firmware, and discusses diagnostics and troubleshooting.
Revision/Update Information:
Digital Equipment Corporation
Maynard, Massachusetts
This is a new manual.
First Printing, October 1997
FCC Notice:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the
FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is
operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not
installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the user will be
required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Warning!
This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference in which case the user
may be required to take adequate measures.
Achtung!
Dieses ist ein Gerät der Funkstörgrenzwertklasse A. In Wohnbereichen können bei Betrieb dieses Gerätes
Rundfunkstörungenauftreten, in welchen Fällen der Benutzer für entsprechende Gegenmaßnahmen verantwortlich ist.
Attention!
Ceci est un produit de Classe A. Dans un environment domestique, ce produit risque de créer des interférences
radioélectriques, il appartiendra alors à l'utilisateur de prendre les mesures spécifiques appropriées.
Canadian EMC Notice:
“This Class [A] Digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulations.”
“Cet appareil numerique de la class [A] respecte toutes les exigences du Reglement sur le materiel broilleur du Canada.”
© Digital Equipment Corporation 1997. All rights reserved.
Printed in U.S.A.
The following are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation: DECchip, DECnet, DECpc, DIGITAL, OpenVMS,
ThinWire, VAX, and the DIGITAL logo.
The following are third-party trademarks:
DALLAS is a registered trademark of Dallas Systems Corporation.
DIGITAL UNIX and UNIX are registered trademarks licensed exclusively by X/Open Company Ltd.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
Intel is a trademark of Intel Corporation.
NCR is a registered trademark of NCR Corporation.
VIC64 is a trademark of Cypress Semiconductor Corporation.
VxWorks is a registered trademark of Wind River Systems, Inc.
All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Contents
Preface
Part I
Introduction
1 Specifications and Requirements
Product Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Specifications and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regulatory Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
2 Module Components
Module Component Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IO Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU and I/O Assembly Controls and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Breakout Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Breakout Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-7
2-8
2-9
3 Functional Components
Functional Component Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21164 Alpha Microprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21172 Core Logic Chipset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chipset Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chipset Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bcache Subsystem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Subsystem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clock Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PCI Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SCSI Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2
3-3
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-9
iii
Nbus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrupt Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TOY Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NVRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interval Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard and Mouse Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Super I/O Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VME Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VIP Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VIC64 and CY7C964 Chips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Address Mapping and the Scatter-Gather Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part II
3-9
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-13
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-15
The Console
4 Console Basics
Setting Up the Console for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Console Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting Console Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Online Help for Multiple Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Display of Online Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Command Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Line Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Command Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Radix of Command Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redirecting I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running Commands in Background Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Scripts Over the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-10
4-11
5 Using the Console
Summary of Console Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Values of Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Environment Variables from System Name Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Booting the System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Boot Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a Boot Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Passing Additional Boot Information to the Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Booting Over the Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invoking the Console as Soon as the Boot Image is Loaded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using TFTP to Read Files Across the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iv
5-1
5-4
5-5
5-9
5-9
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-16
5-16
Managing the TOY Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the TOY Clock’s Time and Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the TOY Clock’s Time and Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disabling the TOY Clock’s Internal Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examining and Depositing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Default Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Byte Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a Data Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depositing and Examining Data in Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depositing and Examining Data in Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing the Console, Devices, and CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initializing SBC Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping and Starting the CPU or Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exercising Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the State of Dynamic Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the System’s Virtual Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocating and Freeing Blocks of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Ownership of a Block of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graycode Memory Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing Network Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Reboot to the SROM Mini-Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running the Power-On Diagnostics Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing the Console Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Contents of the Console Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initializing the Console Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Console Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Exiting Console Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Priority of Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the CPUs on Which a Process Can Run. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspending Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Breaking from Control Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Returning a Failure Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Semaphores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Files and File Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-16
5-17
5-17
5-17
5-18
5-18
5-19
5-19
5-20
5-20
5-21
5-21
5-22
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-26
5-26
5-27
5-27
5-27
5-27
5-28
5-31
5-32
5-32
5-32
5-33
5-33
5-33
5-33
5-34
5-34
5-34
5-35
5-35
5-36
5-36
5-36
5-36
5-36
5-37
6 Console Command Reference
alloc – allocate a block of memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
boot – boot the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
break – break from a program loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cat – copy files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
chmod – change file attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
chown – change ownership of memory block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
clear – delete environment variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
clear_log – clear error log in NVRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
6-4
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-10
6-11
6-12
v
date – display or change the date and time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
deposit – write data to memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dynamic – show memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
echo – display text output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
eval – evaluate expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
examine – display memory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
exer – exercise devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
exit – exit current shell process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
false – return a failure status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
free – deallocate memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
grep – search for regular expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hd – dump file contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
help – display help on commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
init_ev – initialize environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
init – initialize a device or the processor and console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kill – delete process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
line – read a line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ls – list files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
man – help on commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
memexer – memory exerciser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
memtest – memory test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
net – perform MOP operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ps – show process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
pwrup – run power-on diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rm – remove file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
sa – set process affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
semaphore – show system semaphores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
set – set environment variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
set led – display char on LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
set reboot srom – set reboot mode to Serial ROM Mini-Console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
set toy sleep – disable TOY clock's internal oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
sh – create new shell process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
show – display system information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
show_log – display NVRAM error log
information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
sleep – suspend execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
sort – sort a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
sp – set priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
start – start program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
stop – stop CPU or device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
update – update flash ROMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-13
6-14
6-19
6-21
6-22
6-24
6-29
6-34
6-35
6-36
6-37
6-40
6-41
6-42
6-43
6-44
6-45
6-46
6-47
6-48
6-49
6-53
6-56
6-57
6-58
6-59
6-60
6-61
6-64
6-65
6-66
6-67
6-69
6-72
6-74
6-75
6-76
6-77
6-78
6-79
Part III Diagnostics
7
Diagnostics and System Initialization
POST Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Initialization Sequence and Countdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POST NVRAM and Memory Diagnostics Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POST Nonvolatile RAM Diagnostic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POST Memory Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Console Mode Diagnostics
vi
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
Console Mode Diagnostics Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heartbeat Timer Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interval Timer Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DECchip 21040 Ethernet Controller Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DALLAS DS1386 NVRAM Watchdog Timekeeper Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local Area Network Address ROM Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O Processor Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VME Interface Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
8-3
8-4
8-9
8-11
8-14
8-16
8-19
8-20
Part IV Appendixes
A Console Command Summary
B Troubleshooting
SROM Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash ROM Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Systems that Include a PMC I/O Companion Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating System and Application Use of the Dot Matrix Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Your SBC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-2
C Module Connector Pin Assignments
CPU Module Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Module Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P1 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P2 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console and Auxiliary Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard and Mouse Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Port Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 1 Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 2 Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Drive Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Keyboard and Mouse Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . .
C-1
C-1
C-1
C-2
C-4
C-4
C-5
C-6
C-7
C-8
C-9
C-9
C-13
C-15
C-17
Figures
1–1
2–1
2–2
2–3
2–4
2–5
2–6
2–7
2–8
3–1
3–2
Required Air Flow Relative to Ambient Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Module Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU Module Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Module Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controls and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Breakout Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Breakout Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Functional Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21164 Alpha Microprocessor Functional Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-6
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
3-3
3-4
vii
3–3
3–4
8–1
8–2
C–1
C–2
C–3
C–4
C–5
C–6
C–7
C–8
C–9
C–10
Level 3 Bcache Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PCI-to-VME Interface Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loopback Descriptions for Interval Timer Test 3 and 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAN Address ROM Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console and Auxiliary Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard and Mouse Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Port Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 1 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 2 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Mouse and Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments
3-6
3-14
8-8
8-15
C-4
C-4
C-6
C-7
C-8
C-9
C-9
C-13
C-17
C-18
Alpha VME5/352 and 5/480 SBC Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controls and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valid DIMM Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commonly Used Console Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Keys for Console Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Command Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of Console Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symbols Used by Examine and Deposit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Action String Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SROM Initialization and Console Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Mode Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Your SBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P1 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P2 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console and Auxiliary Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard and Mouse Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Port Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 1 J11 Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 1 J12 Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 1 VMEbus P2 Signal Connector (J14) Pin Assignments . . . . .
PMC Option 2 J21 Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC Option 2 J22 Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Drive Connector Pin Assignments . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Mouse Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . .
PMC I/O Companion Card Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments. . . . . . . .
1-1
1-4
1-5
2-5
2-6
3-12
3-13
4-4
4-5
4-6
5-1
5-5
5-20
6-30
7-2
8-1
A-1
B-2
C-1
C-2
C-4
C-4
C-5
C-7
C-8
C-10
C-11
C-12
C-13
C-14
C-15
C-17
C-17
Tables
1–1
1–2
1–3
2–1
2–2
3–1
3–2
4–1
4–2
4–3
5–1
5–2
5–3
6–1
7–1
8–1
8–2
B–1
C–1
C–2
C–3
C–4
C–5
C–6
C–7
C–8
C–9
C–10
C–11
C–12
C–13
C–14
C–15
viii
Preface
Purpose of this Manual
This manual introduces you to the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 singleboard computers (SBCs) by discussing physical, power, and environmental
requirements and describing the module and functional components. This manual
also explains how to use the console firmware and discusses diagnostics and troubleshooting.
Intended Audience
This manual is for OEM system integrators who are designing and building a
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC into specific application systems.
These systems may range in scope from a single Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC
to highly complex multiprocessor systems that include a variety of hardware.
Hardware and mechanical engineers refer to the physical and environmental specifications. Field and manufacturing technicians and support specialists use information in this manual to configure systems and diagnose problems.
This manual assumes that readers have prerequisite knowledge and experience
with the following:
•
System design
•
VMEbus design and specifications
Structure of this Manual
This manual consists of four parts and an index organized as follows:
Part I, Introduction
•
Chapter 1, Specifications and Requirements, provides product specifications;
physical, power, and environmental requirements; and FCC regulations.
•
Chapter 2, Module Components, introduces the physical components of the
SBC product.
•
Chapter 3, Functional Components, describes the SBC’s functional components.
ix
Part II, The Console
•
Chapter 4, Console Basics, gets you started with using the console.
•
Chapter 5, Using the Console to Operate the SBC, explains how to perform
various tasks, using the console.
•
Chapter 6, Console Command Reference, describes available console commands.
Part III, Diagnostics
•
Chapter 7, Diagnostics and System Initialization, introduces types of diagnostics tests, discusses system initialization, and describes the power-on self-test
(POST) diagnostics for nonvolatile RAM and memory.
•
Chapter 8, Console Mode Diagnostics, describes diagnostics that you can initiate from the console.
Part IV, Appendixes
•
Appendix A, Console Command Summary, serves as a quick reference to
available console commands.
•
Appendix B, Troubleshooting, provides some guidance with troubleshooting
a Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC system.
•
Appendix C, Module Connector Pin Assignments, describes the pin assignments for the various module connectors.
Conventions
This section defines terminology, abbreviations, and other conventions used in
this manual.
Abbreviations
•
Register access
The following list describes the register bit and field abbreviations:
Bit/Field Abbreviation
Description
MBZ (must be zero)
Bits and fields specified as MBZ must be zero.
RO (read only)
Bits and fields specified as RO can be read but not written.
RW (read/write)
Bits and fields specified as RW can be read and written.
SBZ (should be zero)
Bits and fields specified as SBZ should be zero.
WO (write only)
Bits and fields specified as WO can be written but not
read
•
x
Binary multiples
The abbreviations K, M, and G (kilo, mega, and giga) represent binary multiples
and have the following values:
Abbreviation
Binary Multiple
K
210 (1024)
M
220 (1,048,576)
G
230 (1,073,741,824)
For example:
2 KB
= 2 kilobytes
= 2 x 210 bytes
4 MB
= 4 megabytes
= 4 x 220 bytes
8 GB
= 8 gigabytes
= 8 x 230 bytes
Addresses
Unless otherwise noted, addresses and offsets are hexadecimal values.
Bit Notation
Multiple-bit fields can include contiguous and noncontiguous bits contained in
angle brackets (< >). Multiple contiguous bits are indicated by a pair of numbers
separated by a colon ( : ). For example, <9:7,5,2:0> specifies bits 9, 8, 7, 5, 2, 1,
and 0. Similarly, single bits are frequently indicated with angle brackets. For
example, <27> specifies bit 27.
Caution
Cautions indicate potential damage to equipment or loss of data.
Data Field Size
The term INTnn, where nn is one of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64, refers to a data field
of nn contiguous NATURALLY ALIGNED bytes. For example, INT4 refers to a
NATURALLY ALIGNED longword.
Data Units
The following data unit terminology is used throughout this manual.
Term
Words
Bytes
Bits
Other
Byte
1/2
1
8
−
Word
1
2
16
−
Longword
2
4
32
Longword
Quadword
4
8
64
2 Longwords
Octaword
8
16
128
2 Quadwords
Hexword
16
32
256
2 Octawords
xi
Keyboard Keys
The following keyboard key conventions are used throughout this manual.
Convention
Example
Control key sequences are represented as Ctrl/ x.
Press Ctrl while you simultaneously press the x key
Ctrl/C
In plain text, key names match the name on the actual
key.
Return key
In tables, key names match the name of the actual key and appear in
square brackets ([ ]).
[Return]
Examples
Prompts, input, and output in examples are shown in a monospaced font. Interactive input is differentiated from prompts and system output with bold type. For
example:
>>> echo This is a test.[Return]
This is a test.
Ellipsis points indicate that a portion of an example is omitted.
Names and Symbols
The following table lists typographical conventions used for names of various
items throughout this manual.
Items
Example
Bits
sysBus<32:2>
Commands
boot command
Command arguments
address argument
Command options
-sb option
Environment variables
AUTO_ACTION
Environment variable values
HALT
Files and pathnames
/usr/foo/bar
Pins
LIRQ pin
Register symbols
VIP_ICR register
Signals
iogrant signal
Variables
n, x, mydev
Note
Notes emphasize particularly important information.
xii
Numbering
Numbers are decimal or hexadecimal unless otherwise indicated. The prefix 0x
indicates a hexadecimal number. For example, 19 is decimal, but 0x19 and 0x19A
are hexadecimal (see also Addresses). Otherwise, the base is indicated by a subscript; for example, 1002 is a binary number.
Ranges and Extents
Ranges are specified by a pair of numbers separated by two periods ( .. ) and are
inclusive. For example, a range of integers 0..4 includes the integers 0, 1, 2, 3,
and 4.
Extents are specified by a pair of numbers in angle brackets (< >) separated by a
colon ( : ) and are inclusive.
Bit fields are often specified as extents. For example, bits <7:3> specifies bits 7,
6, 5, 4, and 3.
Register and Memory Figures
Register figures have bit and field position numbering starting at the right (loworder) and increasing to the left (high-order).
Memory figures have addresses starting at the top and increasing toward the bottom.
Syntax
The following syntax elements are used throughout this manual. Do not type the
syntax elements when entering information.
Element
Example
Description
[]
[-file filename]
The enclosed items are optional.
|
-|+|=
Choose one of two or more items. Select
one of the items unless the items are
optional.
{}
{- | + | =}
You must specify one (and only one) of the
enclosed items.
()
(a,b,c)
You must specify the enclosed items
together.
...
arg...
You can repeat the preceding item one or
more times.
UNPREDICTABLE and UNDEFINED
This manual uses the terms UNPREDICTABLE and UNDEFINED. Their meanings are different and must be carefully distinguished.
UNPREDICTABLE results or occurrences do not disrupt the basic operation of
the processor. The processor continues to execute instructions in its normal manner. In contrast, UNDEFINED operations can halt the processor or cause it to lose
information.
xiii
For More Information
For more information, refer to the following:
•
Your supplier
•
A DIGITAL Field Applications Engineer
•
The DIGITAL OEM web site at http://www.digital.com/oem.
•
The following DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC documentation,
which is available on the DIGITAL OEM web site:
Document
Order Number
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352
and 5/480 Board Computer
Family Data Sheet
Description
Describes the DIGITAL Alpha 5/352 and 5/480
SBCs, highlighting product features and specifications.
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 Single Board Computers
Cover Letter
EK–VME54–CL
Highlights important product information and
explains how to acquire the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/
352 and 5/480 Single Board Computers User Manual and DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single Board Computers Technical Reference.
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 Single Board Computers
Warranty and Parts Information
EK–VME54–WI
Explains the warranty of your DIGITAL Alpha
VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC and provides parts information for ordering.
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 Single Board Computers
Installation Guide
EK–VME54–UM
Explains how to install your DIGITAL Alpha VME
5/352 or 5/480 SBC. Use this guide if you need to
adjust jumper settings or remove and reinstall field
replaceable units (FRUs).
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 Single Board Computers
User Manual
EK–VME54–UM
Introduces the product by discussing product specifications and requirements and describing the module and functional components. This manual also
explains how to use the console firmware and discusses diagnostics and troubleshooting.
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 Single Board Computers
Techincal Reference
EK–VME54–TM
This manual discusses system address mapping, the
VME interface, system registers, and system interrupts.
•
xiv
The following DIGITAL documentation:
Document
Order Number
Alpha AXP Architecture Reference Manual
EY–T132E–DP
Alpha Architecture Handbook
EC–QD2KB–TE
Alpha Microprocessors SROM Mini-Debugger User’s
Guide
EC–QHUXB–TE
Answers to Common Questions about PALcode for
Alpha AXP Systems
EC–N0647–72
Digital Semiconductor Alpha 21164 Microprocessor
Product Brief
EC–QP97C–TE
Document
Order Number
Digital Semiconductor 21052 PCI–PCI Bridge Data
Sheet
EC–QHURB–TE
Digital Semiconductor 21164 Alpha Microprocessor
Data Sheet
EC–QP98B–TE
Digital Semiconductor 21172 Core Logic Chipset Prod- EC–QUQHA–TE
uct Brief
Digital Semiconductor 21164 Alpha Microprocessor
Hardware Reference Manual
EC–QP99B–TE
Digital Semiconductor 21172 Core Logic Chipset Tech- EC–QUQJA–TE
nical Reference Manual
DIGITAL UNIX Guide to Real-time Programming
AA–PS33D–TE
DIGITAL UNIX: Writing PCI Bus Device Drivers
AA–Q7RQC–TE
DIGITAL UNIX: Writing VMEbus Device Drivers
AA–Q057G–TE
Manpages on the VxWorks Real-Time Tools for Alpha
CD-ROM
Not applicable
PALcode for Alpha Microprocessors System Design
Guide
EC–QFGLC–TE
•
The following specifications, which are available through the indicated vendor or organization:
Document
Vendor or Organization
CY7C9640 Specification
Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Intel 82378ZB PCI-ISA Bridge Chip
Specification
Intel Corp.
PCI Local Bus Specification Rev 2.1
PCI Special Interest Group
Super I/O FDC37C6656T Specification Standard Microsystems Corp.
Symbios 53C810 SCSI Controller Spec- Symbios
ification
TOY clock DS1386 Specification
Dallas Semiconductor
VIC64 Specification
Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
xv
Part I
Introduction
Part I introduces the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 single-board computers (SBCs). This part consists of the following chapters:
•
Chapter 1, Specifications and Requirements
•
Chapter 2, Module Components
•
Chapter 3, Functional Components
1
Specifications and Requirements
This chapter discusses specifications and requirements for the DIGITAL Alpha
VME 5/352 and 5/480 single-board computers (SBCs). Specifically, Sections 1.1
through 1.4 discuss:
•
Product specifications, Section 1.1
•
Physical requirements, Section 1.2
•
Power requirements, Section 1.3
•
Environmental specifications and requirements, Section 1.4
Section 1.5 discusses the product’s regulatory compliance.
1.1 Product Specifications
Based on the 21164 Alpha microprocessor, the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 SBCs run at 352 MHz and 480 MHz, respectively. Unofficially, the 5/480
model achieves SPECint95 at 13.8 and SPECfp95 at 15.5 (peak geometric
means), while model 5/352 achieves SPECint95 at 10.7 and SPECfp95 at 13.7
(peak geometric means).
Other distinguishing features include improved cache and memory configurations.
The 2 MB of on-board ECC protected Level 3 backup cache (Bcache) operates at
700 MB/s. You can populate four memory connectors with 16 to 512 MB of ECC
protected dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The memory is autoconfigured for a 128- or 256-bit data bus. A 256-bit wide bus operates at 355 MB/s and a
128-bit wide bus operates at 210 MB/s.
Table 1–1 lists the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC specifications:
Table 1–1 Alpha VME5/352 and 5/480 SBC Specifications
Alpha processor
Alpha microprocessor
21164A
CPU speed
5/352 – 352 MHz
5/480 – 480 MHz
Chip cache
Level 1 8/8 KB, Level 2 96 KB unified, I/D
Performance (unofficial)
5/352 – SPECint95: 10.7, SPECfp95: 13.7
5/480 – SPECint95: 13.8, SPECfp95: 15.5
Memory
Cache
2 MB of on-board Level 3 cache
Specifications and Requirements
1–1
Table 1–1 Alpha VME5/352 and 5/480 SBC Specifications (Continued)
DRAM
16 to 512 MB
ECC protected
Autoconfiguration on 128- or 256-bit data bus
Single bit error correction
Double bit error detection
Must be configured in pairs of EDO DIMM memory
modules
Flash EPROM
4 MB (3.5 MB available to the user application)
Nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) 32 KB
Networking
Features
Interconnect
Alpha 21040 PCI Ethernet controller
DMA (bus master)
256-byte send and receive FIFO queues
Double bandwidth with full duplex Ethernet
10BASE–T Ethernet (twisted pair)
Interfaces
SCSI interface
Symbios 53C810 single-ended, 8-bit SCSI–2 with DMA
Up to 10 MB/s transfer rate
SCSI connection through VMEbus P2 connector
Serial interface
82C42PE and FDC37C665GT Super I/O chip
Two asynchronous DEC423 ports
75 to 19200 baud through two MMJ front panel connectors
Keyboard, mouse, and parallel ports
PCI I/O companion card
Accepts two PCI mezzanine cards
IEEE P1386.1 compliant
Clocks and timers
Real-time clock
DS1386 RTC with Lithium (<0.5 grams) battery backup
Timers
Three 16-bit timers
Two timers are driven at 10 MHz
One timer is clocked by external input (through the P2
connector) for event counting or synchronization
Watchdog timer
Programmable timeout
Output reset is available on the P2 connector
VME specifications
1–2
VMEbus interface
VIC64 interface chip
Conforms to ANSI/IEEE standard 1014–1987
Supports extensions for 64-bit data transfers
IEC 821 and 297
VMEbus transactions
Master: A32/24/18, D64/32/16/8
Slave: A32/24/16, D64/32/16/8
UAT, BLT, MBLT
VMEbus arbitration
System controller with configurable arbitration
PRI, RRS, SGL, FAIR
Specifications and Requirements
Table 1–1 Alpha VME5/352 and 5/480 SBC Specifications (Continued)
VMEbus interrupts
Handles all seven levels
8-bit software programmable status
Requester for all seven levels
Software-programmable vector
VMEbus connector
DIN 41612 style C
96 contacts
P1/P2 connector
Other VMEbus features
SYSCLK and SYSRESET
Physical characteristics
Single-board computer
Dual-height Eurocard format (6U8HP)
233 x 160 x 40.3 mm (9.17 x 6.3 x 1.59 in.)
Weight
1.014 kg (2.21 lbs.), including four DIMMs
Number of slots
2 (3 with the optional PMC I/O companion card)
PCI mezzanine card
150 x 75 mm (5.9 x 2.95 in.)
Breakout module
Dual-slot version
Power specifications
Configuration
CPU with 512 MB and no PMC option
5 Vdc
352 MHz – 9 A idle, 13 A peak
480 MHz – 11 A idle, 15 A peak
12 Vdc
0.2 A
-12 Vdc
<01. A
Dissipation (typical)
5/352 – 50 W
5/480 – 60 W
Environmental specifications
Operating temperature
0° C to 50 ° C with forced air cooling
Storage temperature
-40° C to 66 ° C
Temperature change
20° C/hour
Relative humidity
10% to 95% (noncondensing)
Operating systems
DIGITAL UNIX
Version 4.0A or higher
VxWorks for Alpha
Version 5.2C or higher
1.2 Physical Requirements
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs have the industry-standard 6U
VME form factor and requires two adjacent backplane slots in your VME chassis.
A third slot is required if you use the optional PMC I/O companion card.
Specifications and Requirements
1–3
Once you identify the slots, you must make sure sufficient space exists on the
back of the selected slots to install a primary breakout module. This module
requires a minimum of 38 mm (1.5 in). For a description of the primary breakout
module, see Section 2.6.
If you choose to use the secondary breakout module, you need an incremental
clearance of at least 56 mm (2.25 inches) to install the module. For a description
of the secondary breakout module, see Section 2.7.
1.3 Power Requirements
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs require power voltages of +5 V and
± 12 V. The VME backplane provides the power to the logic of the SBCs through
the P1 and P2 VMEbus connectors.The primary power for the SBCs is 5 V, which
is provided by the P1 and P2 VMEbus connectors on the CPU module and the P2
VMEbus connector on the I/O module. A required primary breakout module augments the current capacity of the backplane’s etch and connectors by shunting
power from the I/O module connectors to the CPU module connectors.
The two DC-to-DC converters — 5 V to 2.5 V and 5 V to 3.3 V — provide power
for CPU module and I/O module operation. The 5 V to 2.5 V converter provides
power for the Alpha 21164 core logic. The 5 V to 3.3 V converter provides power
for the 21172 core logic chipset, SRAM, DRAMs, SCSI chip, and Ethernet controller. Both converters operate in an 85% to 95% conversion efficiency range,
requiring no heat sink.
The required primary breakout module, which is installed on the rear of the VME
backplane directly behind the slots occupied by the CPU and I/O module assembly, provides additional current to the CPU module from the I/O module.
An optional +5 V STANDBY is available to provide power for the time-of-year
(TOY) clock and NVRAM chip.
Table 1–2 provides the power ratings for the various voltage supplies supported
by the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs.
Table 1–2 Input Power Requirements
Voltage
Supply
Tolerance
Maximum
Ripple
5/352 Idle
Current
5/352 Peak
Current
5/480 Idle
Current
5/480 Peak
Current
+5 V
+0.25 V
–0.125 V
50 mV
9A
13 A
11 A
15 A
+12 V
+0.60 V
–0.36 V
50 mV
150 mA
250 mA
150 mA
250 mA
+5 V STDBY +0.25 V
–0.125V
50 mV
25 mA
50 mA
25 mA
50 mA
-12 V
50 mV
150 mA
250 mA
150 mA
250 mA
+ 0.36 V
–0.60V
The peak current shown in Table 1–2 assumes an Alpha VME 5/480 SBC is populated with 512 MB of DRAM.
1–4
Specifications and Requirements
Warning
The +5 V tolerance and ripple specifications shown in Table 1–2 must be
met when supplying the peak current specified. If they are not met, undefined operation will result.
1.4 Environmental Specifications and Requirements
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs require a VME chassis
with sufficient cooling. Section 1.4.1 lists the environmental specifications for the SBCs. Section 1.4.2 explains cooling requirements.
1.4.1 Environmental Specifications
Table 1–3 shows the environmental specifications for the Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 SBCs.
Table 1–3 Environmental Specifications
Condition
Range or Value
Operating
Temperature range
0 ° C (32 ° F) to 50 ° C (122 ° F)
Relative humidity
5% to 90% (noncondensing)
Altitude
6,000 feet (maximum)
Maximum wet bulb
28° C (82 ° F)
Minimum dew point
2° C (36 ° F)
Vibration
5 to 500 Hz, 0.1 g, 3 axis
Shock
11 ms, 10 g, 3 axis
– 5/480
250,000 hours at 25° C
Meantime between failures1 – 5/352
300,000 hours at 25° C
Meantime between
failures1
Nonoperating
Temperature range
-40 ° C (-40 ° F) to 65 ° C (149 ° F)
Storage (shipping)
40,000 feet
Relative humidity
5% to 95% (noncondensing)
Packaging weight
0.89 kg (1.96 lb)
Maximum wet bulb
32° C (90 ° F)
Vibration
1.5 g, 3 axis
1
MTBF (MIL–HDBK–217F)
Specifications and Requirements
1–5
Notes
Real failures for MBTF figures are defined as random component failures
that are not caused by customer errors, workmanship related failures,
third-party component issues, or design related problems where corrective
action has been implemented.
The operating temperature range is 0° C to 50° C. This is dependent on processor speed and enclosure air flow (see Figure 1–1).
1.4.2 Cooling Requirements
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs provide a heat sink for CPU thermal control. The amount of cooling required is defined by the operating environment to
which the SBC assembly is subjected. The curve shown in Figure 1–1 defines the
amount of ambient air the SBC assembly requires in linear feet per minute at various ambient temperatures. Actual cooling depends on the turbulence in the air
stream as it enters the assembly volume.
Figure 1–1 Required Air Flow Relative to Ambient Temperature
Ambient Temperature C
60
55
50
45
40
200
400
600
800
Linear Feet Per Minute
1000
352 MHz Unit
480 MHz Unit
Note
The maximum temperature, when measured between the heat sink studs
on the base of the heat sink, must be less than 68 ° C.
1.5 Regulatory Compliance
The DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs have been tested and shown to
operate within a suitable enclosure with the following regulatory compliances:
1–6
Specifications and Requirements
•
EMC, CE, and VCCI limits for a Class A device
•
UL, CSA, and TUV safety limits
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used as instructed in the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board
Computers Installation Guide, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC in a residential area is
likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the interference is required to
be corrected at the user’s own risk.
When used in an appropriate enclosure, an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC can
operate at the level of a Class B device. If used as a Class B device, your application may require shielded cables for all I/O interfaces.
Note
It is incumbent upon Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to
obtain regulatory FCC approval for a consolidated system.
Specifications and Requirements
1–7
2
Module Components
The DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs consist of a single CPU module and support modules that provide I/O, memory, and power. This chapter
describes the module components. The chapter begins with an overview (Section
2.1) and then describes the following:
•
CPU module, Section 2.2
•
I/O module, Section 2.3
•
CPU and I/O assembly controls and indicators, Section 2.4
•
Memory modules, Section 2.5
•
Primary breakout module, Section
•
Secondary breakout module, Section 2.7
•
PMC I/O companion card, Section 2.8
2.1 Module Component Overview
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs can consist of two or three 6U modules
depending on whether you use an optional PMC I/O companion card. The base
SBC assembly includes a CPU module and an I/O module. The CPU module features either a 352 MHz or 480 MHz 21164 Alpha microprocessor and a supporting 21172 core logic chip set. Four DIMM sockets for DRAM and 2 MB of Level
3 SRAM Bcache also reside on the CPU module. Two DC-to-DC power converters — 5 V to 2.5 V and 5 V to3.3 V — provide power for the CPU module’s operation. The CPU module is shipped preassembled with a required I/O module. The
I/O module connects to the CPU module through a PCI–32 interface.
The I/O module provides support for your application’s I/O devices. Key components of this module include:
•
PCI-to-VME64 bridge (DC7407 VIP and VIC64)
•
PCI-to-SCSI–2 controller (53C810)
•
PCI-to-Ethernet controller (21040)
•
PCI-to Nbus bridge (82378ZB)
•
PCI–32 interface to an optional PMC I/O companion card
The Nbus supports a diskette drive, two serial-line ports, a parallel port, a keyboard and mouse, the Flash ROM, the TOY clock, and NVRAM.
The optional PMC I/O companion card provides a PCI-to-PCI bridge, two PMC
option slots, and keyboard, mouse, and diskette drive connectors.
Module Components
2–1
Figure 2–1 identifies the module components of an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480
SBC and optional PMC I/O companion card.
Figure 2–1 Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Module Components
1
2
3
5
4
6
ML013780
The numeric callouts in the figure identify the following key components:
1 PMC I/O companion card option
2 I/O module
3 CPU module
4 Memory modules
5 Secondary breakout module
6 Primary breakout module
Note
The I/O module (2) and CPU module (3) are attached and share a common front panel. These modules should be detached only to replace the
SROM. They appear separately in Figure 2–1 only to provide a view of
primary SBC module components.
2.2 CPU Module
The CPU module is the compute engine of Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs.
Figure 2–2 shows the layout and primary components.
2–2
Module Components
Figure 2–2 CPU Module Layout
1
2
3
10
4
9
5
6
8
7
ML013781
The numeric callouts in the figure identify the following key components:
1 P1 VMEbus connector
2 P2 VMEbus connector
3 64-bit PCI connector (not used)
4 J11 bus grant pass-through jumper
5 Connectors for memory DIMMs 2 and 3
6 Connectors for memory DIMMs 0 and 1
7 Power and VME slave activity/watchdog timeout LED
8 Status display
9 I/O module connector
10 SROM
2.3 IO Module
The I/O module is a required second tier module that handles all I/O activity for
the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs. This module plugs into the I/O module
connector on the CPU module.
Note
The I/O module is attached to the CPU module when you receive it. Disassemble the CPU and I/O assembly only if you need to replace the
SROM.
Figure 2–3 shows the layout and primary components.
Module Components
2–3
Figure 2–3 I/O Module Layout
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
12
11 10
9
ML013782
The numeric callouts in the figure identify the following key components:
1 P1 VMEbus connector
2 Connector to CPU module (on the back of the I/O module)
3 Debug jumper (for use with Serial ROM Mini-Console only)
4 P2 VMEbus connector
5 Configuration switchpack
6 Caterpillar insulation strip
7 PMC I/O companion card connector
8 Nonvolatile RAM/time-of-year (TOY) clock
9 Auxiliary serial port
10 Console serial port
11 Reset/Halt switch
12 Twisted-pair Ethernet connector
2.4 CPU and I/O Assembly Controls and Indicators
The CPU and I/O modules are delivered as a single assembly. The modules are
attached and share a single front panel. Figure 2–4 shows the controls and indicators on that front panel and Table 2–1 describes their functions.
2–4
Module Components
Figure 2–4 Controls and Indicators
1
2
3
4
ML013262
Table 2–1 Controls and Indicators
Callout
Control or Indicator Description
1
Reset/Halt switch
A switch that resets the SBC when pressed in the
Reset (up) direction and halts the operating system
when pressed in the Halt (down) direction. A reset
operation starts SROM execution the same way as
when you power on the system. When you use the
Halt switch, the SBC enters console mode.
Caution: Keep in mind that reset and halt operations can cause loss of data.1
2
Status display
A display that shows which test is running during
power-on self-test (POST) diagnostics. When the
POST diagnostics are complete, the display is under
control of the operating system or an application
program.
3
VME Slave Activity/Watchdog Timeout LED
An amber LED with two functions. The LED flashes
when the SBC is accessed as a slave by another
device on the VMEbus. The LED lights continuously when the watchdog timer has timed out.
Note: The LED can appear to light continuously
when the module is receiving slave accesses. Since
the LED glows for 1/3 of a second each time it
flashes, three slave accesses per second could make
the LED light continuously.
4
Power LED
A green LED that is lit when the power is on.
1
See your operating system documentation for information on how to recover from reset and halt
operations.
2.5 Memory Modules
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs support memory configurations that
range from 16 to 512 MB of dynamic random access memory (DRAM). This
memory is accessible from the CPU, PCI bus, and VMEbus.
You can plug either two or four dual integrated memory modules (DIMMs), ranging from 8 MB to 128 MB, into the memory connectors on the CPU module. Figure 2–5 shows a typical memory module.
Module Components
2–5
Figure 2–5 Memory Module
ML013783
The number of DIMMs you use determines the memory bus bandwidth, and consequently the overall speed of data write and read operations to and from memory.
DIGITAL recommends that you use four DIMMs to achieve maximum performance. No jumper changes are required. The system automatically configures
memory based on the DIMMs you install. The following table shows the width of
the memory bus and its performance when you use two and four DIMMs:
Number of DIMMs
Bus Width
Memory Bandwidth
2
128 bits
210 MB/s
4
256 bits
355 MB/s
Error correction code (ECC) is provided for single-bit errors and error detection is
provided for double-bit errors. For details on how the operating system reports
and handles ECC errors, see your operating system documentation.
In addition to the requirement of using either two or four DIMMs, all DIMMs you
use must be identical in size (number of MB), speed, and architecture (EDO).
Note
DIGITAL memory DIMMs are supplied in pairs. DIGITAL may source
the pairs of DIMMs from different memory vendors. To ensure proper
operation of your SBC, you must install the DIMMs as supplied pairs in
memory connectors 0 and 1 or 2 and 3. If you choose to use only two
DIMMs, you must populate memory connectors 0 and 1.
Table 2–2 shows valid DIMM combinations.
Table 2–2 Valid DIMM Combinations
2–6
Memory Size
(MB)
DIMM 0
(MB)
DIMM 1
(MB)
16
8
8
32
8
8
32
16
16
64
16
16
64
32
32
128
32
32
Module Components
DIMM 2
(MB)
DIMM 3
(MB)
8
8
16
16
32
32
Table 2–2 Valid DIMM Combinations (Continued)
Memory Size
(MB)
DIMM 0
(MB)
DIMM 1
(MB)
128
64
64
256
64
64
256
128
128
512
128
128
DIMM 2
(MB)
DIMM 3
(MB)
64
64
128
128
For information on memory installation, see the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
VME 5/480 Single-Board Computers Installation Guide.
2.6 Primary Breakout Module
The primary breakout module is a required module that plugs into your VMEbus
backplane behind the slots occupied by your Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC
CPU and I/O modules. This breakout module supplies additional power to the
CPU module by way of the VMEbus P2 connector and provides:
•
A connector for attaching a SCSI bus
•
Additional P2 options, such as the secondary breakout module
•
SCSI termination control
•
A connection for and control of a watchdog timeout signal
•
A connector to Alpha VME external timing signals
Figure 2–6 shows the primary breakout module.
Figure 2–6 Primary Breakout Module
1
2
3
ML013784
The numeric callouts in the figure identify the following key components:
1 SCSI termination and watchdog reset signal jumpers
2 Connector for the secondary breakout module or an external monitoring
device
3 SCSI cable connector
Module Components
2–7
A reset input signal on pin C10 of the primary breakout module’s VMEbus P2
connector is available for resetting the SBC. This signal is low during normal
operation and high during a watchdog timer reset in parallel with the Reset switch
on the SBC’s front panel. Because pin C10 is a nonbuffered input pin, you should
use shielded wiring to apply the reset input signal.
Caution
You must use the primary breakout module included in your Alpha VME
5/352 or 5/480 SBC hardware kit. Applying power to a DIGITAL Alpha
VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC WITHOUT that primary breakout module in
place, or WITH the breakout module included with the AXPvme 160,
166, or 230 (part number 54-22605-01) in place, may damage your backplane, the Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC, or both.
For information on primary breakout module jumper settings, see the DIGITAL
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board Computers Installation Guide.
2.7 Secondary Breakout Module
The secondary breakout module is an optional module that connects to the primary breakout module. Connectors on the secondary breakout module include a
PS/2 keyboard and mouse Y-cable connector and a parallel port connector. The
primary use of this module is to add a serial-line (keyboard and mouse) connector
and parallel port to the rear of the VME chassis.
Figure 2–7 shows the secondary breakout module.
Figure 2–7 Secondary Breakout Module
2
3
1
4
ML013785
The numeric callouts in the figure identify the following key components:
1 PS/2 keyboard and mouse connector
2–8
Module Components
2 PS/2 keyboard and mouse Y-cable (supplied in PMC I/O companion card kits,
EBV1P)
3 Keyboard and mouse jumper
4 Parallel port
Note
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs support a PS/2-type 101-compatible keyboard and mouse.
2.8 PMC I/O Companion Card
The PMC I/O companion card is an optional third tier module that plugs into a
connector on the I/O module. Using the PMC I/O companion card, you can
expand your SBC’s I/O capabilities by adding interfaces, such as a second Ethernet interface or a graphics card. Primary components on the companion card
include connectors for two PMC options, a PCI-to-PCI bridge chip, keyboard and
mouse connectors, two VMEbus connectors, and a VMEbus P2 signal connector.
The VMEbus P2 signal connector provides a way of sending I/O signals from a
PMC option to a device attached to the VMEbus P2 connector instead of to the
front panel of the PMC option card.
To use the PMC I/O companion card, you must have three adjacent slots available
in your VME chassis.
Figure 2–8 shows the layout of the card.
Figure 2–8 PMC I/O Companion Card Layout
1
2
10
3
11
9
8
7
6
5
4
ML013786
The numeric callouts in the figure identify the following key components:
Module Components
2–9
1 P1 VMEbus connector
2 P2 VMEbus connector
3 VMEbus P2 signal connector for PMC option 1
4 I/O module connector (on the back of the PMC I/O companion card)
5 Power LED
6 Keyboard connector
7 Mouse connector
8 Diskette drive connector
9 Signaling level jumper (jumper MUST be set to 5.0 V)
10 PMC option 2 connector
11 PMC option 1 connector
Note
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs support a PS/2-type 101-compatible keyboard and mouse.
The 34-pin diskette drive connector (see item 8 in Figure 2–8) provides a way of
attaching a diskette drive (for example, an RX23 or RX26). To use this connector,
you must make or buy a cable that is best suited for your application. DIGITAL
supplies only the pin assignments for the connector.
For a description of the connector pin assignments, see Appendix C.
2–10
Module Components
3
Functional Components
This chapter describes the functional components associated with the DIGITAL
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs. The chapter begins with an overview (Section 3.1) and then describes the following:
•
21164 Alpha microprocessor chip, Section 3.2
•
21172 core logic chipset, Section 3.3
•
Bcache subsystem, Section 3.4
•
Memory subsystem, Section 3.5
•
SROM, Section 3.6
•
Clock interface, Section 3.7
•
PCI interface, Section 3.8
•
Nbus interface, Section 3.9
•
VME interface, Section 3.10
For information on the address mapping, registers, and system interrupts associated with these components, see the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board Computers Technical Reference.
Functional Components
3–1
3.1 Functional Component Overview
Figure 3–1 identifies the functional components of the Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 SBCs. The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 CPU modules are based on the
21164 Alpha microprocessor, and run at 352 MHz and 480 MHz, respectively.
The 21172 core logic chip set consists of the 21172–CA control, I/O interface, and
address (CIA) chip and four 21172–BA data switch (DSW) chips. Nine SRAMs
provide 2 MB of Bcache and two or four main memory DIMMs provide from 16
to 512 MB of EDO memory. The system clock uses a phase lock loop
(PLL)/buffer circuit to provide SYSCLK signals to 10 system components at 32
MHz.
The CPU module interfaces with the I/O module through a 32-bit PCI bus. As
Figure 3–1 shows, the I/O module provides a:
•
PCI-to-VME64 bridge (DC7407 VIP and VIC64), which provides an interface to the VMEbus
•
PCI-to-SCSI controller (53C810), which provides an interface to SCSI
devices
•
PCI-to-Ethernet controller (21040), which provides a network interface
•
PCI-to-Nbus bridge (82378ZB), which provides access to the system’s 8-bit
Nbus and includes interrupt controller and interval timer support
•
PCI–32 interface to an optional PMC I/O companion card
The I/O module’s Nbus is a resource bus that is based on the ISA bus. The Nbus
handles the read and write cycles for the following:
•
4M of flash ROM
•
Super I/O chip (FDC37C6656T) resources, which include console and parallel ports and a diskette drive
•
TOY clock, watchdog timer, and NVRAM chip (DS1386) resources
•
Keyboard and mouse controller (82C42PE)
The I/O module interfaces to an optional PMC I/O companion card through the
32-bit PCI bus. The PMC I/O companion card uses a DEC 21052 PCI-to-PCI
bridge to provide access to two PMC option slots. This optional card also provides
keyboard, mouse, and diskette drive connectors.
3–2
Functional Components
Figure 3–1 Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Functional Components
CPU Module
Memory Data, ECC,
256 or 128 Bits
21172-BA
Data Path
(4 chips)
System Bus Data, ECC, Tag, 128 Bits
352 or
480 MHz
CPU
Clock
21164
Microprocessor
21172-CA
Memory
Controller
and I/O
Interface
System Bus Address, Tag_Dirty, Tag_Ctl
Control
SYSCLK
Main
Memory
(2 or 4)
8 to 128 MB
DIMMs
2 MB
Bcache
Control
Phase
Lock Loop
10
Memory Control
SYSCLK <9:0>
32 MHz
SROM
PCI Bus, 64 Bits
I/O Module
4 MB Flash
S10 Chip 82378ZB
Super I/O
FDC37C6656T
Console and
Parallel Ports
Diskette
Console
Console
Parallel Port
Interrupt Controller
Nbus, 8 Bits
PCI-to-Nbus Bridge
Interval Timer
DS1386
82C42PE
TOY Clock
Watchdog Timer
Keyboard
and Mouse
Controller
Keyboard
Mouse
32 KB NVRAM
PCI Bus, 32 Bits
VIP/VIC64
PCI-to-VME
Bridge
VMEbus
53C510
SCSI
Controller
DEC21040
Ethernet
Controller
SCSI
Ethernet
DEC21052
PCI-to-PCI
Bridge
32
Bits
PMC
Option
Slot 0
PMC I/O
Companion
Card
32
Bits
PMC
Option
Slot 2
= Uses system clock (32 MHz)
ML014166
3.2 21164 Alpha Microprocessor
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs are based on the 21164 Alpha microprocessor, which is a superscalar pipelined processor manufactured using 0.35 µ m
CMOS technology. It is packaged in a 499-pin IPGA carrier.
The 21164 microprocessor can issue four Alpha instructions in a single cycle,
thereby minimizing the average cycles per instruction (CPI). A number of lowlatency and/or high-throughput features in the instruction issue unit and the
onchip components of the memory subsystem further reduce the average CPI.
The 21164 microprocessor and associated PALcode implements IEEE single-precision and double-precision, VAX F_floating and G_floating data types, and supports longword (32-bit) and quadword (64-bit) integers. Byte (8-bit) and word
(16-bit) support is provided by byte-manipulation instructions. Limited hardware
Functional Components
3–3
support is provided for the VAX D_floating data type. Partial hardware implementation is provided for the architecturally optional FETCH and FETCH_M instructions.
Other features of the microprocessor include:
•
An onchip, demand-paged memory-management unit with a translation buffer
•
Two onchip, high-throughput pipelined floating-point units, capable of executing both DIGITAL and IEEE floating-point data types
•
An onchip, 8 KB virtual instruction cache (Icache) with 7-bit ASNs
(MAX_ASN=127
•
An onchip, dual-read-ported, 8 KB data cache (Dcache)
•
An onchip, write buffer with six 32-byte entries
•
An onchip, 96 KB, 3-way, set-associative, write-back, second level (level 2)
mixed instruction and data cache
•
A 128-bit data bus with onchip parity and error correction code (ECC) support
•
An external third level (level 3) synchronous 2 MB backup cache (Bcache)
•
An internal clock generator providing a high-speed clock used by the 21164
microprocessor, and a pair of programmable system clocks for use by the
CPU module
•
Onchip performance counters to measure and analyze CPU and system performance
•
Chip and module level test support, including an Icache test interface to support chip and module level testing
•
A 3.3 V external interface and 2.5 V core power for reduced power consumption
Figure 3–2 shows the microprocessor’s functional units and caches in a functional
block diagram.
Figure 3–2 21164 Alpha Microprocessor Functional Block Diagram
21164
Microprocessor
Instruction
Cache
8 KB
40-Bit Address
Integer
Instruction
Fetch/
Decode
and
Branch
Unit
Integer
Merge
Logic
FPX
FPX
Data Cache
8 KB
Write-Through
SecondLevel
Cache
96 KB
WriteBack
Bus
Interface
Unit
2 MB
Backup
Cache
128-Bit Data
ML014168
For more detailed information on the microprocessor, see the Digital Semiconductor 21164 Alpha Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual.
3–4
Functional Components
3.3 21172 Core Logic Chipset
The DIGITAL 21172 core logic chipset supports the 21164 Alpha microprocessor
in high-performance uniprocessor systems. The chipset includes an interface to
the 64-bit peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus, and associated control
and data paths for the 21164 microprocessor chip, memory, and level 3 Bcache.
Sections 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 discuss the chipset components and features. For more
detailed information on the 21172 core logic chipset, see the Digital Semiconductor 21172 Core Logic Chipset Technical Reference Manual.
3.3.1 Chipset Components
The chipset consists of:
•
A control, I/O interface, and address (CIA) chip − 21172-CA chip
The CIA chip is a 388-pin plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package that
provides control functions for main memory, a bridge to the 64-bit PCI
bus, and control functions for the DSW chips and part of the I/O data
path.
•
Four data switch (DSW) chips − 21172-BA chips
The DSW chips are 208-pin plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) packages that
provide bidirectional data paths between the 21164 microprocessor, main
memory, Bcache, the CIA chip, and part of the I/O data path. The majority of the DSW logic consists of data buffers and multiplexers. Using two
encoded control fields, the CIA chip directs data flow to and from the
DSW chips.
3.3.2 Chipset Features
The chipset includes the majority of functions required to develop high performance systems that require minimum discrete logic on the module. Features
include:
•
Support for the 21164 Alpha microprocessor chip
•
A 64-bit, ECC-protected data path (IOD bus) between the CIA and DSW
chips
•
A 128-bit ECC-protected data path (system bus) between the 21164 and DSW
chips
•
A 256-bit ECC-protected memory data path (memory bus) between the DSW
chips and memory
•
A 32 MHz system bus interface
•
Support for 2 MB of write-back, ECC-protected, level 3 Bcache using the
flush cache coherency protocol
•
Support for 16 to 512 MB of EDO memory
•
PCI bus support that includes 64-bit multiplexed address and data paths, 64bit PCI address handling, and scatter-gather mapping
Functional Components
3–5
•
32 MHz PCI clock frequency
•
DSW chips that provide a victim buffer for read miss/victim transitions
3.4 Bcache Subsystem
The DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs provides 2 MB of direct
mapped Bcache. The Bcache is populated with nine 9 nanosecond, 64K-bit X 36bit synchronous static random access memories (SRAMs). Bcache features
include:
•
A block size of 64 bytes
•
System bus Bcache private read/write transfer rate of 700 MB/s
•
ECC protection
•
Use of the flush cache coherency protocol as described in the Digital Semiconductor 21164 Alpha Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual
The 21164 Alpha microprocessor controls the level 3 Bcache array as shown in
Figure 3–3.
Figure 3–3 Level 3 Bcache Array
21164
Microprocessor
index_h<20:4>
un_data_ram_oe_h
Bcache
SRAM
un_data_ram_we_h
un_tag_ram_oe_h
un_tag_ram_we_h
index_h<20:6>
tag_data_h<38:30>
Tag
Array
tag_data_h<29:20>
tag_data_par_h
Data
Array
tag_ctl_par_h
tag_valid_h
tag_dirty_h
data_h<127:0>
data_check_h<15:0>
st_clk1_h
idle_bc
Buffer
st_clk1_<9:1>_h
(From CIA Chip)
ML013816
3.5 Memory Subsystem
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs support two or four dynamic random
access memory (DRAM) DIMMs for up to a total of 512 MB of 60 nanosecond,
EDO main memory. The memory resides in a single bank. Table 2–2 lists valid
DIMM combinations.
Quadword error checking and correction (ECC) is supported on the memory and
system buses. The 21172 core logic chipset controls and routes all CPU-to-memory caching and PCI direct memory access (DMA) operations. The DSW and CIA
components of the chipset provide a high-speed memory data path that has a
width of either 128 or 256 bits, depending on the mode in which the SBC is oper-
3–6
Functional Components
ating. When you use two DIMMs, the SBC operates in 128-bit mode; when you
use four DIMMs the SBC operates in 256-bit mode. The memory bus bandwidth
in 128-bit mode is 210 MB/s, while the bandwidth in 256-bit mode is 355 MB/s.
The memory subsystem optimizes its cache read miss with victim write cycle to
improve memory and system bus bandwidth. The optimizations are achieved by
partitioning the the memory row and column addressing such that the read miss
row and victim row addresses match.
The cache read miss cycle begins when the 21164 Alpha microprocessor recognizes a cache read miss with victim. When a read miss with victim is identified,
the microprocessor instructs the CIA chip to take the victim and then get the read
miss data. The CIA chip places the victim data in a DSW buffer while initiating a
memory read cycle (RAS–CAS–RAS). The CIA and DSW chips then supply the
read data to the microprocessor and cache then write the victim data to memory
(CAS–CAS). The resulting memory cycle — CAS – RAS (read 32 bytes) – RAS
(read 32 bytes) – RAS (write 32 bytes) – RAS (write 32 bytes) — completes in
360 ns or 355 MB/s.
3.6 SROM
The SROM for the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs contains 8 KB of code that
is loaded into the Alpha 21164 microprocessor’s Icache serially when the system
powers up or during a reset. Execution is passed to this code in PAL mode. SROM
initialization is explained in detail in Chapter 7.
The SROM is socketed to allow future firmware upgrades.
3.7 Clock Interface
The CPU clock circuit used by the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs multiplies
a 16 MHz clock frequency by 22 or 30 and buffers the results, supplying the
Alpha 21164 microprocessor with a 352 MHz or 480 MHz clock speed. The
microprocessor divides the input value 352 or 480 by 11 or 15, respectively, to
generate the system clock.
The 21164 system clock signal (SYSCLK) drives a phase lock loop (PLL)/buffer
circuit. That circuit, in turn, generates 10 copies of the 32 MHz SYSCLK signal
for the 21172 core logic chip set components and all PCI devices.
The 21172 core logic chipset generates its own 1x and 2x clock signals on each
DSW and CIA chip.
3.8 PCI Interface
The PCI interface consists of a PCI bus that serves as the base of the I/O subsystem, connecting all of the system’s PCI devices. The I/O subsystem consists of
the 21172 core logic CIA and DSW chips and the following PCI devices:
•
Ethernet controller
•
SCSI controller
•
PMC I/O companion card
Functional Components
3–7
•
Nbus interface
•
VME interface
Sections 3.8.1 to 3.8.3 briefly discuss Ethernet, SCSI, and PCI Expansion Card
support. For introductions to the Nbus and VME interfaces, see Sections 3.9 and
3.10.
3.8.1 Ethernet Controller
The Ethernet controller for the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs is based on the
DECchip 21040-AA. This chip keeps processor intervention in local area network
(LAN) control to a minimum. The chip behaves:
•
As a bus slave when communicating with the PCI bus to gain access to configuration and control/status registers
•
As a bus master when communicating with memory
The Ethernet controller handles the following types of cycle termination:
•
Target-initiated retry
•
Abort
•
DEVSEL abort
Target-aborted terminations cause an interrupt.
The physical connection to the network is through the Ethernet 10BASE–T
twisted-pair connector located on the front panel of the CPU and I/O subassembly.
The Ethernet ID address for the Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC assembly is
stored in a 20-pin socketed PLCC.
For more information on programming and using the DECchip 21040-AA, see the
DECchip 21040-AA Specification.
3.8.2 SCSI Controller
The SCSI controller for the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs is based on the
Symbios 53C810 chip. This controller allows you to attach up to seven SCSI
devices to your SBC.
The primary breakout module provides an interface to a standard SCSI cable. This
module brings the SCSI bus to a standard 50-pin SCSI connector pinning for
direct connection to an unshielded SCSI A-cable. A 6-pin jumper block on the
module controls SCSI termination as follows:
•
Enables SCSI termination when the jumper is set across pins 1 and 3
•
Disables SCSI termination when the jumper is set across pins 3 and 5
The controller can affect high-level SCSI operations with very little intervention
from the processor. The controller accomplishes this through its low-level register
interface or by applying Symbios SCSI scripts.
Once the controller is configured in PCI address space, programming of the Symbios 53C810 chip is compatible with the Symbios 53C720 chip.
3–8
Functional Components
For more information on programming the Symbios 53C720 chip, see the chip’s
programming guide.
3.8.3 PMC I/O Companion Card
The optional PMC I/O companion card provides a 21052 PCI-to-PCI bridge chip
and two sets of PMC connectors for adding one double-width or two single-width
PMC option modules. One of the PMC connector sets includes a third connector
that allows I/O access through the P2 connector.
PCI bus arbitration supports two PMC devices with up to four interrupt request
lines. The PCI clock is driven from the CPU and I/O subassembly at a frequency
of 32 MHz. The card connectors provide 3V and 5V supply voltages. Although
you can have mixed supply voltages between cards, the PCI bus signaling voltage
must be configured to 5 V when the card is installed.
3.9 Nbus Interface
The Nbus interface is a simple nonmultiplexed resource bus that is based on the
ISA bus and supports 8-bit data transfers and 16-bit addressing. This bus provides
an interface to the PCI bus through an Intel System I/O chip (82378ZB). The
interface translates PCI I/O references to the Nbus into simple read and write
cycles for resources attached to the Nbus lines. Such resources include the system’s:
•
Interrupt controllers
•
Flash ROM
•
TOY clock
•
Watchdog timer
•
NVRAM
•
Interval timer
•
Keyboard and mouse controller
•
Super I/O chip
3.9.1 Interrupt Controllers
Most interrupts on Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs are routed through the following interrupt controllers:
•
Xilinx interrupt controller
•
VIC64 chip system interrupt controller
•
SIO chip (82378ZB) programmable interrupt controller
The Xilinx interrupt controller handles CPU interrupts. This controller consists of
four interrupt mask registers that generate CPU interrupt request signals.
Functional Components
3–9
The VIC64 chip interrupt controller handles VMEbus interrupts. It controls two
external/system interrupt sources: DC7407 status and DC7407 errors. Each of
these sources has an associated interrupt control register (ICR) that allows the
interrupt to be programmed with an interrupt priority level (IPL) or disabled.
Use of the VIC64 chip in Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs as an interrupt controller is modified slightly by the operation of the DC7407, the SIO chip, and the
interrupt/mask registers.
The SIO chip interrupt controller delivers interrupts from the mouse, keyboard,
and Super I/O chip (37C665) to the interrupt/mask register.
For more information about the interrupt controllers and the handling of system
interrupts, see the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board Computers Technical Reference .
3.9.2 Flash ROM
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs have a total of 4 MB of electrically erasable and writable flash ROM. The flash ROM is segmented into 1 MB windows,
using bits <1:0> of a module control register. The system console firmware is prewritten into the first 512 KB, providing you with 3.5 MB of additional space to
use for your application.
To protect the contents of the flash ROM from unauthorized or accidental updates,
you must close DIP Switch 2 on the I/O module before enabling write operations.
That switch must always be open unless you are updating the flash ROM. (The
state of the switch is stored in Flash Switch bit <3> of the module control register.) Independent of the state of the switch, you can overwrite the setting in the
software to enable automatic updates.
3.9.3 TOY Clock
The Dallas Semiconductor DS1386 chip provides the SBC’s time-of-year (TOY)
clock functionality. This chip also supports the watchdog and SRAM functionality
as nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM).
Note
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs do not support the DS1386 chip’s
alarm features.
The TOY clock maintains the system’s time: year, month, date, day, hour, minute,
second, 110th of a second, and 1/100th of a second. The clock corrects the date for
months with fewer than 31 days and for leap years. In addition, the clock can
maintain the time in 24-hour or 12-hour AM/PM format.
The square wave output of the chip generates a fixed 1024 Hz interval and timekeeping accuracy is better than +/- minute/month at 25 ° C.
The clock maintains time in the absence of Vcc by using an internal lithium (less
than 0.5 grams) energy cell that has an active life of at least 10 years. In addition,
internally the clock protects against spurious accesses during power transitions.
3–10
Functional Components
Some applications may require the TOY clock and NVRAM to operate from an
external uninterruptable power supply (UPS). The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480
SBCs have an onboard switch (J3 switch 1) to allow a connection to the 5 V
standby connection (5VSTDBY) on the VMEbus. When Switch 1 is closed, the
VME 5VSTDBY is connected to the TOY supply through isolation diodes.
The chip is socketed to allow:
•
Replacement when the internal power source is no longer functional
•
Physical removal of the NVRAM
The TOY clock registers are updated every 0.01 seconds. You gain access to the
clock to examine or set the current time by using the console date command (see
Section 5.5).
3.9.4 Watchdog Timer
The watchdog timer resides on the Dallas Semiconductor DS1386 chip. The
watchdog timer allows hardware to bring the system back to a known state when a
software failure occurs.
An application can initialize the watchdog timer with a value in the range 0.01 to
99.9 seconds. If left unaccessed, the timer decrements towards 0. If the timer
reaches 0, the watchdog timer halts the system (jump to Halt entry in firmware)
and then forces the module hardware to be reset (some 300 ms later). The application can maintain the module by periodically accessing the watchdog timer registers. When you access these registers, the watchdog timer resets back to the
initialization value. Therefore, as long as the worst-case time between watchdog
timer access is less than the programmed timeout value, the module functions normally.
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs indicate the status of the on-board watchdog timer with the signal WD_STATUS_OC on pin C6. This signal is driven low
when an on-board watchdog timer expires. The device that drives the signal is a
74LS05 open-collector inverter. This device is capable of sinking the signal a
maximum of 8 mA (IOL). You can pull up the WD_STATUS_OC signal to the 5
V rail by using a 2 K Ω resistor and setting the primary breakout module jumper
across pins 4 and 6 (default). To disconnect the resistor from the 5 V rail, set the
jumper across pins 2 and 4.
In addition to the hardware support for watchdog timer operation, you can configure the firmware to dispatch to user code or continue with its default reset action
on watchdog timeout. The firmware can detect the expiration of the watchdog
timer during a reset operation by examining the hardware reset reason register.
The jump to the Halt code just before the reset enables the firmware to record a
snapshot of the processor’s state before the hardware reset is complete.
3.9.5 NVRAM
Within the TOY clock, the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs offer just under 32
KB of on-board SRAM that is backed up by battery. The RAM is provided by the
Dallas Semiconductor DS1386 chip and is held nonvolatile by a built-in lithium
battery source.
Functional Components
3–11
The nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) is accessible for read and write operations in
Nbus space. The DS1386 chip contains 32 KB read/write byte elements. The lowest 14 of these bytes have special register functions for operation of the TOY clock
and watchdog timer. You can use the remaining bytes, 32754 bytes, as generalpurpose bytewide read/write RAM.
3.9.6 Interval Timer
The interval timer for the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs is based on the
82C54 chip. On power up, the 82C54 chip is in an undefined state and must be initialized before being used. For information on how to initialize the chip, see the
DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board Computers Technical Reference.
3.9.6.1 Timers
This chip is made up of three independent 16-bit counter/timers that are functionally identical:
Table 3–1 Timers
Timer
Description
Timer 0
Must be clocked externally by P2 pin C13. Optionally, this timer’s
gate input can be driven by P2 pin C14. When this timer makes a lowto-high transition, its output causes the assertion of an input request
(IRQ). To dismiss the IRQ, you need to access the timer interrupt status register.
Timer 1
Operates as a rate generator with its output being driven off-module by
P2 pin C12. This timer is clocked by a fixed 10 MHz. The output is
also routed directly to the VIC local IRQ input <3>.
Timer 2
Operates as a rate generator with its output connected to P2 pin C11.
This timer is clocked with the same fixed 10 MHz. You can also use
the output on the module to generate an IRQ. If enabled, Timer #0’s
output during a transition from low-to-high causes the assertion of an
IRQ. To dismiss the IRQ, you need to access the timer interrupt status
register.
The timers are implemented by register/interrupt logic. The programming interface is byte wide in the Nbus region of PCI I/O space.
3–12
Functional Components
3.9.6.2 Timer Modes
In addition to supporting the three timers discussed in Section 3.9.6.1, the Alpha
VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs implement two timer modes (modes 1 and 3) provided by the 82C54 chip for timers 1 and 2. The hardware connections for the
timer output are available on the P2 VMEbus connector. The timers are driven
from an internally generated 10 MHz asynchronous clock.
Table 3–2 Timer Modes
Mode
Description
1
Allows the application to write a value n to the timer. An external
hardware trigger causes the timer to count down from n to zero. If a
new value n is written to an associated mode 1 register before the
countdown reaches zero, the timer begins counting from the new value
at clock n+1.
3
Allows the application to write a value n to the timer. The timer uses
the value to generate a square wave with a period equal to n times the
10 MHz clock period.
Applications can uses these timers for a variety of off-module functions. For more
information about how to use the timers and timer modes, see the DIGITAL Alpha
VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board Computers Technical Reference.
3.9.7 Keyboard and Mouse Controller
The keyboard and mouse controller is provided by an Intel 82C42PE single-chip
microcomputer. The controller is programmed to be IBM PC/AT compatible and
can drive the keyboard and PS/2 type mouse supported by DECpc systems. The
keyboard and mouse ports are female 6-pin mini-DIN, PS/2 type connectors. The
controller is programmed to allow either device to operate in either port.
3.9.8 Super I/O Chip
The FDC37C665GT Super I/O chip (not to be confused with the standard I/O, or
SIO, chip) supports serial-line port channels A and B (16550 UARTS) and a parallel port. It provides first-in-first-out (FIFO) data access for the serial ports and
EPP/ECP modes for the parallel port.
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs use channel A for the console. The firmware configures this channel as an asynchronous line, using baud rate, parity, data
bit, and stop bit configuration data that you define and is stored in NVRAM. If
NVRAM does not contain valid data on power-up, the SBC configures channel A
with defaults of 9600 baud, no parity, eight bits, and one stop bit.
The system firmware does not commit or initialize channel B.
3.10 VME Interface
The PCI-to-VME interface for the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs conforms
to the IEC 821, IEEE1014–1987, and D64 sections of IEEE1014 Rev.D (draft)
standards. The interface is implemented using the following components:
•
VIP ASIC (DC7047B) chip
Functional Components
3–13
•
The Cypress Semiconductor VIC64 VMEbus interface chip set
•
Three CY7C964 bus interface chips
•
Static scatter-gather RAM for address mapping
•
Support logic implemented with programmable logic devices (PLDs)
The VIP/VIC64 chip combination accepts and generates VMEbus D08, D16,
D32, and D64 data transfers and protocols. The chip combination supports
addressing modes A16, A24, and A32 as a master or slave on the VMEbus.
The VIP chip uses information stored in the scatter-gather RAM to perform bigto-little endian data translation (byte swapping) and address mapping when data
moves to and from the VMEbus.
Figure 3–4 shows the interface components and the address and data paths
between them.
Figure 3–4 PCI-to-VME Interface Components
VIP
VIP Registers
Scatter/Gather
RAM
PCI Bus
A<31:0> D<31:0> A<27:13> D<31:5>
VIC64
A<7:0>
<A<31:0>
D<7:0>
<D<31:0>
VIC CSRs
CY7C964
A,D<31:24>
VME_A,D
<31:24>
CY7C964
A,D<23:16>
VME_A,D
<23:16>
CY7C964
A,D<15:8>
VME_A,D
<15:8>
VME_A,D<7:0>
VME_D[31:0]
VME_A[31:1]
ML014167
3.10.1 VIP Chip
The VIP chip controls the 32-bit wide PCI bus. Its PCI configuration registers
allow it to function as the PCI bus target and initiator. The VIP chip:
3–14
•
Functions as a PCI slave to all processor I/O read and write operations that
target the VIP registers, the CY7C964 chip registers, the scatter/gather RAM,
or VME memory space
•
Responds to PCI interrupt acknowledge cycles when set up as the PCI interrupt responder
•
Functions as a PCI master in response to the VIC64 chip requesting data from
or sending data to PCI memory
Functional Components
•
Performs address translation between the PCI bus and the VMEbus for transfers to and from the VMEbus
3.10.2 VIC64 and CY7C964 Chips
The VIC64 and CY7C964 chips control the VMEbus. The VIC64 chip functions
as a VMEbus slave in response to VME addresses that match those set up by the
address base and address base mask registers. This chip functions as VMEbus
master:
•
In response to the processor reading from and writing to VME memory (programmed I/O)
•
To execute DMA transactions (master block transfers) set up by the processor
in the VIP/VIC64 interface
For more information on the VIC64 and CY7C964 chips, see the Cypress Semiconductor VIC068 User’s Guide, VIC64 design notes, and CY7C964 User’s
Guide.
3.10.3 Address Mapping and the Scatter-Gather Map
The VIP chip translates addresses by using a mapping table in scatter-gather RAM
called the scatter-gather map. The scatter-gather map translates addresses for outbound and inbound VMEbus transactions.
For outbound transactions, the VIP chip maps a 512 MB region of PCI memory
space to the VMEbus. The outbound scatter-gather map translates a maximum of
2K naturally aligned 256 KB pages within that 512 MB region to 256 KB of naturally aligned pages on the VMEbus (A32, A24, or A16). A PCI address is used as
an index into the scatter-gather map to give the corresponding VME address.
For inbound transactions, the VIP chip maps naturally aligned 8 KB regions of
VMEbus A32 and A24 address spaces to naturally aligned 8 KB regions of PCI
address space (memory or I/O). The inbound scatter-gather map consists of two
parts. One part translates up to 2K pages (8 KB) of VMEbus A24 address space to
8 KB pages of PCI address space. The other part maps up to 16K pages (8 KB) of
VMEbus A32 address space to 8 KB pages of PCI address space. An incoming
VME address is used as the index to select the PCI address.
The scatter-gather map may be accessed from the PCI bus (written to or read
from) under VIP control. Scatter-gather entries also contain information to control
inbound accesses and byte swapping.
The VIP chip contains a single entry scatter-gather cache and a set of registers.
The cache stores the last accessed outbound scatter-gather entry and its corresponding scatter-gather address index. The registers provide mapping for inbound
and outbound transactions (one mapping in each direction).
For more information about VME interface address mapping, see the DIGITAL
Alpha VME 5/352 and VME 5/480 Single-Board Computers Technical Reference.
Functional Components
3–15
Part II
The Console
Part II discusses the console interface for the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and
5/480 single-board computers (SBCs). This part consists of the following chapters:
•
Chapter 4, Console Basics
•
Chapter 5, Using the Console
•
Chapter 6, Console Command Reference
4
Console Basics
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console provides an interface to the SBC
firmware. From a video terminal or video terminal emulator, you can use console
firmware commands to perform operations such as configuring your system,
debugging your application, embedding script code in the NVRAM, or updating
the firmware.
This chapter introduces you to console basics by:
•
Explaining required serial-line settings, Section 4.1
•
Identifying console features, Section 4.2
•
Explaining how to enter console mode, Section 4.3
•
Explaining how to exit console mode, Section 4.4
•
Discussing online help, Section 4.5
•
Providing an overview of console commands, Chapter 4.6
•
Describing special keys, Section 4.7
•
Discussing command line characteristics, Section 4.8
•
Describing console command operators, Section 4.9
•
Explaining how to control the radix of command input, Section 4.10
•
Explaining how to use flow control, Section 4.11
•
Explaining how to filter output, Section 4.12
•
Explaining how to redirect I/O, Section 4.13
•
Explaining how to run commands in background mode, Section 4.14
•
Discussing the use of scripts, Section 4.15
•
Explaining how to copy scripts over the network, Section 4.16
4.1 Setting Up the Console for Use
To use the console firmware, you need to connect your SBC to a console device.
The console device can be a video terminal connected with a serial line or a PC or
workstation connected to the system through the network running a terminal emulator.
For information on installing serial-line or network cables, see the DIGITAL
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 Single-Board Computers Installation Guide.
Once you have connected the SBC to a console device, set up the device to use the
following parameters:
Console Basics
4–1
•
Send/receive 9600 baud
•
DEC VT100 (ANSI)
•
Eight (8) bit data word
•
No parity
•
One (1) stop bit
•
Xon/Xoff
4.2 Console Features
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console environment is extremely powerful and features:
•
An operator interface
•
An operating system bootstrap mechanism
•
Operating system restarts
•
Self-test and extended functional diagnostics
You can use UNIX command methods, such as piping, I/O redirection, and command-level scripting. Because the console is built around a multitasking kernel, it
can support more complex functions, such as system exercisers, the Maintenance
Operations Protocol (MOP) listener, and remote console operations.
4.3 Entering Console Mode
Console mode provides the user interface to the SBC’s firmware. You enter this
mode automatically when the power-on self-test (POST) completes. Upon entering console mode, the system displays the following prompt:
>>>
The system also enters console mode when:
4–2
•
You press the Halt/Reset switch on the front panel.
•
The SBC receives a VMEbus reset signal and configuration switch 3 on the
I/O module is enabled.
•
You use the operating system command for entering console mode.
•
The operating system executes a HALT instruction.
•
The watchdog timer is enabled, and the system software allows the timer to
time out.
•
You initiate an external hardware reset by using pin C10 on the P2 VMEbus
connector.
Console Basics
Note
Depending on the operating system and applications running at the time,
pressing the Halt/Reset switch or receiving a VMEbus reset signal with
configuration switch 3 enabled could damage application files.
4.4 Exiting Console Mode
To exit console mode, use the console command boot.
4.5 Online Help
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console provides online help for each console command. Sections 4.5.1 through 4.5.3 discuss:
•
How to display online help
•
How to display help for multiple commands
•
How to control the display of online help
4.5.1 Displaying Online Help
To display online help, specify the help or the man command with the name of
the command for which you are seeking help. If you do not specify a command
name, the console displays a complete listing of console commands.
For help on the help or man command, including help on the symbols used to represent syntax, specify help or man with the help command as shown in the following example:
>>> help help
4.5.2 Displaying Online Help for Multiple Commands
You can request help on multiple commands in a single command line by separating the command names with a space or by using wildcards. The following example shows how to display help on the examine and deposit commands:
>>> help examine deposit
NAME
examine
FUNCTION
Display data at a specified address.
SYNOPSIS
examine [-{b,w,l,q,o,h,d}] [-{physical,virtual,gpr,fpr,ipr}]
[-n <count>] [-s <step>]
[<)device>:]<address>
NAME
deposit
FUNCTION
Write data to a specified address.
SYNOPSIS
deposit [-{b,w,l,q,o,h}] [-{physical,virtual,gpr,fpr,ipr}]
[-n <count>] [-s <step>]
[<device>:]<address> <data>
Console Basics
4–3
To display help on all commands that begin with “st”, such as start and stop,
specify an asterisk (*) as follows:
>>> help st*
4.5.3 Controlling the Display of Online Help
If full help is available, the commands help * and man * display all information
on all commands. To control the amount of help text that the console displays at a
time, combine the help or man command with the more command. The following
example combines the help and more commands:
>>> help * | more
This command combination displays a screen of text at a time. Press the spacebar
to continue the display or press Ctrl/C to terminate the display.
4.6 Console Command Overview
The Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console interface consists of a set of commands for operating a system, running diagnostics, and verifying application
design. Some of the commands are similar in function to UNIX commands.
Chapter 6 describes the console commands in detail. Table 4–1 shows a sampling
of the most commonly used commands.
Table 4–1 Commonly Used Console Commands
4–4
Command
Description
boot
Bootstraps the system
cat
Copies the contents of files to standard output
deposit
Writes data to a specified address
echo
Sends specified text to the current output device
eval
Evaluates a specified expression
examine
Displays the contents of a specified address
exer
Exercises system devices with read, write, and comparison operations
grep
Searches for expressions and writes the search results to standard output
hd
Dumps the contents of a file
help
Displays the definition and syntax for specified commands
ls
Displays a listing of files in the system
man
Displays the definition and syntax for specified commands
memexer
Executes memory test processes in the background
memtest
Executes memory tests
ps
Displays the status and statistics associated with system processes
sa
Specifies the processors on which a specified process can run
Console Basics
Table 4–1 Commonly Used Console Commands (Continued)
Command
Description
set
Sets the value of an environment variable
show
Displays information about the system
sleep
Suspends execution of a console process
Most console commands require that you specify arguments. In most cases, you
can also specify options that give you a finer level of control over the command’s
execution. Options have a hyphen (-) prefix, as in -b. When specifying options,
you must separate the option from the command and arguments with spaces. For
example, you must specify e -b 0. If you enter e-b 0, the console issues an
error message.
4.7 Special Keys
Table 4–2 lists special key and key combinations that perform specific console
operations.
Table 4–2 Special Keys for Console Operation
Keys
Operation
Ctrl/U
Ignores the current command line.
Backspace/Delete
Deletes a character within the command line.
Ctrl/S
Suspends command output to the console terminal.
Ctrl/Q
Resumes command output to the console.
Ctrl/C
Aborts the current command, if possible.
The console program has no control of an abort once it passes
control to another program, such as an operating system or
loadable diagnostic.
Ctrl/R
Retypes the current command line.
Ctrl/O
Causes the console to throw away output characters rather
than send them to the terminal.
Entering another Ctrl/O resumes sending output characters to
the terminal.
Up and down arrows
Recall command lines.
4.8 Command Line Characteristics
The character sequence used for the console prompt (>>>) is:
0Dh 0Ah 0Dh 3Eh 3Eh 3Eh 20h
This translates to:
<CR>
<LF> <CR>
> > >
<SP>
Host system software executing a binary load operation on the console terminal
port can look for this character string to determine when to respond.
Console Basics
4–5
Commands are limited to 80 characters. Characters that you enter beyond the 80character limit replace the last character in the buffer. Depending on your terminal, the lost characters may be displayed, but they are not included in the actual
command line.
The command interpreter is not case-sensitive. Lowercase ASCII characters a
through z are treated as uppercase characters.
The parser rejects characters with codes greater than 0x7F. However, such characters are acceptable in comments.
The console does not provide type-ahead buffer support. The console checks characters received before the console prompt appears for special characters (Ctrl/S,
Ctrl/Q, Ctrl/C), but otherwise discards the characters.
4.9 Console Command Operators
Table 4–3 lists operators that extend the console command interface.
Table 4–3 Console Command Operators
Operator Name
Description
>
Writes output to a specified destination, such as a
file.
Output creation
Form: > destination
>>
Output append
Adds output to a specified destination, such as a file.
Form: >> destination
<
Input redirection
Reads input from a specified source.
Form: < source
<<
Here document
Reads input from standard input until a specified
string is found at the beginning of a line.
Form: << string
|
Pipe
Uses the output of the first command as the input for
the second command.
Form: cmd1 | cmd2
;
Sequence
Runs the first command to completion before running the second command.
Form: cmd1; cmd2
\
Line continuation
Continues the command on the next line. The
prompt changes to _> until the command is completed.
Form: cmd1 \
_> cmd2
4–6
Console Basics
Table 4–3 Console Command Operators (Continued)
Operator Name
Description
#
Ignores the text that follows the operator. Used for
embedding comments in command scripts or logs.
Line comment
Form: # text
&
Background
Runs the command in a background process. The
command line remains available for a new command.
Form: cmd1 &
&a
Affinity
Runs the process on the CPU that is allowed by the
processor affinity mask, m. You can specify multiple
processors by using a list or range.
Form: &a m
( ), { }, ‘ ‘ Grouping
Shows which commands are grouped together in
complex command lines. These operators override
the precedence of pipe, sequence, and background
operators.
Form: {cmd1; cmd2} | cmd3
*, ?, [...]
Pattern specifiers
Specifies a character or group of characters to match
in character strings.
* matches any characters or none
? matches any single character
[...] matches any of the enclosed characters
Form: str*, arg?, [1 2 3]
4.10 Controlling the Radix of Command Input
By default, the console interprets numbers that you enter in a console command
line as hexadecimal. To change the radix of command input to decimal, precede
the input value with %d. To explicitly specify a hexadecimal radix, precede the
input value with %x.
4.11 Using Flow Control
The console provides reserved words that you can use in flow control structures. The reserved words include:
case
elif
fi
in
do
else
for
then
done
esac
if
until
while
The syntax for valid control structures follows:
•
while command_sequence done
Console Basics
4–7
•
while command_sequence do command_sequence done
•
until command_sequence done
•
until command_sequence do command_sequence done
•
for name do command_sequence done
•
for name in list do command_sequence done
•
case word in case_part_list
pattern) command_sequence ;;
[ pattern ) command_sequence ;; ]
esac
•
if command_sequence
then command_sequence
[ elif command_sequence then command_sequence) ]
[ else command_sequence ]
fi
The console determines conditional branching in if, while, and until loops by
checking the exit status of the command sequence that follows the control structure. In general, an exit status of zero indicates success and results in the execution
of the true path.
The following example uses the eval command to extract an exit status from variable junk. The console command set initializes the variable.
>>> set junk 0
>>> show junk
junk
0
>>> eval junk
0
>>> if (eval junk) then (echo true) else (echo false) fi
0
true
>>> set junk 1
>>> if (eval junk) then (echo true) else (echo false) fi
1
false
>>> set junk 2
>>> if (eval junk)
_> then (echo true)
_> else (echo false) fi
2
false
>>>
4.12 Filtering Output
You can search for specific values in a device by using a pipe with the grep command. A pipe (|) enables the output of one command to be the input for the next
command without creating an intermediate file. The grep command filters its
input according to the command argument. Because the grep command requires
input, a pipe is used to channel the output of the examine command into the grep
command.
4–8
Console Basics
The following example uses grep to search for a pattern in memory. In this case,
grep parses all the output lines from the examine command, but only permits
lines that contain ABCDEF12 to reach the display. You can also use the grep command to search for patterns that do not match the model provided; that is, it
searches for every line that does not contain the input pattern. The following
example sets up memory and then uses grep to filter the output.
>>> d pmem:3fff000 0 –n 8
# Clear some memory.
>>> d 3fff020 ABCDEF12
# Drop in a target.
>>> e 3fff000 –n 8
# Display memory.
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
3FFF000
3FFF008
3FFF010
3FFF018
3FFF020
3FFF028
3FFF030
3FFF038
3FFF040
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
00000000ABCDEF12
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
>>> e 3fff000 -n 8 | grep ABCDEF12# Display only lines with ABCDEF12.
pmem:
3FFF020 00000000ABCDEF12
4.13 Redirecting I/O
By default, console commands display on the console terminal. You can redirect
output to other devices or files by using the redirection operator (>). In the following example, the output of the examine command is redirected to file foo, which
is created dynamically from the console’s memory heap. The console command
cat, displays the contents of the new file. The rm command deletes the foo file.
>>> ls foo
# Check to see if foo exists.
foo no such file
>>> e 3fff000 -n 1 > foo# Redirect examine output to file foo.
>>> ls foo
# Check to see if foo exists.
foo
>>> cat foo
pmem:
pmem:
# Display foo.
3FFF000 0000000000000000
3FFF008 0000000000000000
>>> rm foo
# Delete (remove) file foo.
>>> ls foo
# Check to see if foo exists.
foo no such file
4.14 Running Commands in Background Mode
You have the option of executing console commands in background mode. When
a command executes in background mode, the console creates a process for executing the command and leaves the main process available for you to enter a new
command. You can execute any console command in the background by placing
the background operator & at the end of the command.
Console Basics
4–9
The following example starts three processes in the background. The exer command invokes the first process, which reads data from block 0 of a disk. Then, the
memtest command creates two processes that perform console memory tests. In
all three cases, the console immediately returns with the console prompt and waits
for you to enter another command.
>>> show device
dka0.2.0.1.0
eza0.0.0.0.0
ezb0.0.0.1.0
pka0.7.0.2.0
# See what devices are available.
dka0
EZA0
EZB0
PKA0
dka0
08-00-2B-1D-02-91
08-00-2B-1D-02-92
SCSI Bus ID 7
>>> exer dka0 -sb 0 -p 0 & # Read block 0 forever.
>>> memtest -p 0 &
# Start up the memory test forever.
>>> memtest -p 0 &
# Start up another memory test task.
>>>
4.15 Creating Scripts
A script is a file that contains a sequence of console commands. The console firmware contains many scripts, such as the power-up script, that you can run by typing the name of the script file.
If you have a complex command or a series of commands that you have to use frequently, you can write a script for your convenience. Use the echo command and
the output creation operator (>) to write characters to a file. The file is the script.
The following example creates the script foo, which invokes the examine command.
>>> echo e pmem:3fff000 > foo# Write "e 0" to file foo.
>>> cat foo
# List foo.
e pmem:3fff000
>>> foo
pmem:
# Execute script foo.
3FFF000 0000000000000000
To add another command to the script, use the append operator (>>). If the command you are appending contains characters that could be interpreted by the echo
command, specify the characters with a grouping operator. The following example
uses the single quote (’) grouping character to prevent the command-separator
operator (;) in the appended command from terminating the echo command.
>>> echo ’d 3fff000 5 ; e 3fff000’ >> foo # Append "d 0 5 ; e 0" to
foo.
>>> cat foo
# List foo.
e pmem:3fff000
d 3fff000 5 ; e 3fff000
>>> foo
pmem:
pmem:
4–10
Console Basics
# Execute foo.
3FFF000 0000000000000000
3FFF000 0000000000000005
You can also use a grouping operator to create a script that contains many commands. You have to rearrange the echo command so that the appended characters
are at the end. Then, use the open grouping operator to open the character string
and take as many lines as needed to create the script before specifying the close
grouping operator. The following example shows how to create a long script using
grouping operators:
>>> echo > foo ’ex 3fff000
_>
_>
_>
_>
d
e
d
e
3fff000 7
3fff000
3fff000 5
3fff000’
>>> cat foo
ex 3fff000
d 3fff000 7
e 3fff000
d 3fff000 5
e 3fff000
>>> foo
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
3FFF000 0000000000000000
3FFF000 0000000000000007
3FFF000 0000000000000005
4.16 Copying Scripts Over the Network
The console provides a mechanism for transferring command scripts over the network. You can create scripts on an OpenVMS system and then fetch them from
the console of an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC by using the following procedure:
1. Create a file of console commands in the OpenVMS environment, using your
favorite editor. The following example shows the OpenVMS create command
being used to create a script file called sample.
$ create sample.
show version
ls –l sample
(Control-Z exit)
$
2. Make the script file compatible with the MOP load protocol. To accomplish
this, run the add_header.exe program to append a one-block header to the
file, making it compatible with the MOP load server. This executable program
is on the Firmware Update CD at [ALPHAVME]ADD_HEADER.EXE. If
you prefer, copy the file to the SYS$LOGIN area and define it as a foreign
command, for example, addhead. To run the program, invoke addhead and
supply the file name as input and a name for the resulting output file.
Note
The current MOP load protocol only supports 15-character file names. To
make use of all 15 characters in the name, do not specify a file extension.
The MOP server defaults to a file extension of.sys.
Console Basics
4–11
3. Place the output file in the MOP server’s load file directory, MOP$LOAD.
Whenever MOP gets a request for the script, it searches in its service area.
At this point, the script file is available on the Ethernet segment of the MOP
server. If the Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC is on the same Ethernet segment as
the MOP server, the following example copies the script file over the network.
The string, mopdl:sample.sys/eza0, specifies that the file, sample.sys, can be
accessed over the Ethernet device, eza0, using the MOP download protocol
driver, mopdl:.
>>> cat mopdl:sample.sys/eza0# Be patient! The MOP protocol is slow.
show version
ls –l sample
>>>
You can then use the redirection operator (>) to redirect the output of the cat command to a local file. The following cat command redirects output to sample.
>>> cat mopdl:sample/eza0 > sample# Remember be patient!
When the console prompt returns, the copy operation is complete. You can then
display and execute the resident script file, sample, by using the following
sequence of console commands:
>>> cat sample
show version
ls –l sample
>>> sample
version
rwx-
4–12
Console Basics
rd
V1.1-0 Jul 1 1996 10:16:59
512/2048
0
sample
5
Using the Console
This chapter explains how to use the console command interface to:
•
Manage environment variables, Section 5.2
•
Boot the system, Section 5.3
•
Use TFTP to read files across the network, Section 5.4
•
Manage the TOY clock, Section 5.5
•
Get system information, Section 5.6
•
Update firmware, Section 5.7
•
Examine and deposit data, Section 5.8
•
Manage the console, devices, and processor, Section 5.9
•
Manage memory, Section 5.10
•
Perform network operations, Section 5.11
•
Set reboot to the SROM Mini-Console, Section 5.12
•
Control the LED, Section 5.13
•
Run the power-up diagnostics script, Section 5.14
•
Manage the error log in NVRAM, Section 5.15
•
Evaluate expressions, Section 5.16
•
Manage console processes, Section 5.17
•
Manage files and file content, Section 5.19
5.1 Summary of Console Operations
The DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console interface consists of
commands for managing the operation of your SBC, running diagnostics, and verifying the integrity of your system design. Table 5–1 lists the types of operations
you can perform by using the console commands.
Table 5–1 Summary of Console Operations
Operation
Command
Managing Environment Variables
Set the value of an environment variable
set
Set all environment variables to their default values
init_ev
Delete an environment variable from the system’s name space
clear
Using the Console
5–1
Table 5–1 Summary of Console Operations (Continued)
Operation
Command
Booting the System
Boot the system
boot
Managing the TOY Clock
Set or display the date and time stored in the TOY clock
date
Disable the TOY clock’s internal oscillator
set toy sleep
Getting System Information
Display the value of a specified environment variable
show
Display the system configuration
show config
Display the devices and controllers in the system
show device
Display the address of the Alpha hardware restart parameter block show hwrpb
(HWRPB)
Display the character illuminated on the LED
show led
Display a map of the system’s virtual memory
show map
Updating Firmware
Update firmware in the system’s flash ROMs
update
Examining and Depositing Data
Write data to a specified memory location, register, device, or file deposit
Display the contents of a memory location, register, device, or file examine
Managing the Console, Devices, and the CPU
Initialize the a device or the CPU
init
Stop the CPU or system devices
stop
Start system devices
start
Exercise system devices with read, write, and comparison operations
exer
Managing Memory
Allocate a block of memory from the system’s heap
alloc
Free a block of memory that has been allocated from the system’s free
heap
Change the ownership of a block of memory
chown
Display the state of dynamic memory
dynamic
Display the system’s virtual memory map
show map
Test memory
memtest
Start a specified number of memory test processes that are to run
in the background
memexer
Performing Network Operations
5–2
Using the Console
Table 5–1 Summary of Console Operations (Continued)
Operation
Command
Perform maintenance operations protocol (MOP) operations, such net
as loopbacks, ID requests, and remote file loads
Setting Reboot to the SROM Mini-Console
Enter Serial ROM Mini-Console after the next reboot
set reboot srom
Controlling the LED
Specify a character to be displayed on the front panel LED
set led
Show the character currently being displayed on the front panel
LED
show led
Running the Power-Up Diagnostics Script
Run the power-up script
pwrup
Managing the Error Log in NVRAM
Clear and initialize the area of NVRAM used for console error
logging
clear_log
Display error log information stored in NVRAM
show_log
Evaluating Expressions
Evaluate expressions
eval
Managing Console Processes
Create a new shell process
sh
Exit the current shell process
exit
Start the execution of a program or driver at a
specified address
start
Display console process status and statistics
ps
Delete specified console processes
kill
Break from a for, while, or until control loop
break
Return a failure status
false
Specify the processors on which a console process
can run
sa
Display the semaphores known to the system
semaphore
Set the priority of a console process
sp
Suspend the execution of a console process
sleep
Managing Files and File Content
Copy specified files to standard output
cat
Change the attributes of a specified file
chmod
Dump the contents of a file
hd
List the files and inodes that are in the system
ls
Remove specified files from the system
rm
Using the Console
5–3
Table 5–1 Summary of Console Operations (Continued)
Operation
Command
Sort the content of a file
sort
Writes specified text to standard output
echo
Search for expressions in specified files
grep
Copy a line from the input channel of a file to
the standard output channel for that file
line
5.2 Managing Environment Variables
Environment variables define the following types of configuration information for
a system’s firmware and operating system:
•
Boot parameters
•
Console terminal characteristics
•
Options associated with diagnostic tests
•
Network protocols and associated characteristics and data
•
Values for storage bus adapters
•
Versions of PALcode and console firmware
•
PCI bus settings
•
Use of TGA video cards
•
VMEbus settings
•
VxWorks boot file
The data defined by the environment variables is stored in memory. Some of the
data is stored in volatile memory and some is stored in nonvolatile memory.
You can use console commands to set and display the values of environment variables and delete environment variables from the system’s name space.
5–4
Using the Console
5.2.1 Environment Variable Summary
Table 5–2 lists the environment variables with possible values and brief descriptions.
Table 5–2 Environment Variables
Variable
Parameter Values
Description
AUTO_ACTION
BOOT, HALT, or RESET Defines the action of the console following an error,
halt, or power-up. Default is HALT.
BOOT_DEV
–
Specifies the device list to be used by the last, or currently in progress, bootstrap attempt. The console
modifies BOOT_DEV at console initialization and
when a bootstrap is initiated by a boot command.
The value of BOOT_DEV is set from the device list
specified by the boot command or, if no deivce list
is specified, BOOTDEF_DEV. The console uses
BOOT_DEV without change on all bootstrap
attempts that are not initiated by a boot command.
BOOT_FILE
file-name
Specifies the file name to be used when a bootstrap
requires a file name, when the bootstrap is not the
result of a boot command, or when no file name is
specified with the boot command. The console
passes the value between the console presentation
layer and system software without interpretation.
BOOT_OSFLAGS
For use with UNIX:
a (automatic boot)
s (stop in single-user
mode)
i (interactive boot)
D (full dump and s)
Specifies arguments to be passed to system software
when the bootstrap is not the result of a boot command or when no arguments are specified with the
boot command. The console passes the value
between the console presentation layer and system
software without interpretation. The default is
NULL.
BOOTDEF_DEV
device-list
Specifies the device list from which bootstrapping is
to be attempted when no path is specified with the
boot command.
BOOTED_DEV
A device in the
BOOT_DEV list
Specifies devices to be used by the last or currently
in progress bootstrap attempt.
BOOTED_FILE
Derived from
BOOT_FILE or the current boot command
Specifies the file name to be used by the last or currently in progress bootstrap attempt. The console
passes the value between the console presentation
layer and system software without interpretation.
BOOTED_OSFLAGS
Derived from
BOOT_OSFLAGS or
the current boot command
Specifies arguments to be passed to system software
during the last or currently in progress bootstrap
attempt. The console passes the value between the
console presentation layer and system software
without interpretation.
CHAR_SET
0 (ISO-LATIN_1)
Specifies current console terminal character-set
encoding.
CONSOLE
–
Specifies whether console input and output are to
use the console serial line or a graphics console, if
present.
Using the Console
5–5
Table 5–2 Environment Variables (Continued)
Variable
Parameter Values
Description
D_BELL
ON or OFF
Specifies whether the bell is to sound on error. The
default is OFF.
D_CLEANUP
ON or OFF
Specifies whether cleanup code is to be executed at
the end of diagnostics. The default is ON.
D_COMPLETE
ON or OFF
Specifies whether a diagnostic completion message
is to be displayed. The default is OFF.
D_EOP
ON or OFF
Specifies whether end-of-pass messages are to be
displayed. The default is OFF.
D_GROUP
FIELD, MFG, or other
(up to 32 characters)
Specifies the diagnostic group to be executed. The
default is FIELD.
D_HARDERR
CONTINUE, HALT, or
LOOP
Defines the action that is to be taken following a
hard error detection. The default is HALT.
D_OPER
ON or OFF
Specifies whether an operator is present. The default
is OFF.
D_PASSES
0 (run indefinitely), 1
(pass), or a user-defined
value
Specifies the diagnostic pass count. The default is 1.
D_REPORT
SUMMARY, FULL, or
OFF
Specifies the level of information to be provided by
diagnostic error reports. The default value is FULL.
D_SOFTERR
CONTINUE, HALT, or
LOOP
Defines the action that is to be taken following soft
error detection. The default is CONTINUE.
D_STARTUP
ON or OFF
Specifies whether a diagnostic startup message is to
be displayed. The default is OFF.
D_TRACE
ON or OFF
Specifies whether trace messages are to be displayed. The default is OFF.
DUMP_DEV
device
Specifies that a device is to write operating system
crash dumps.
ENABLE_AUDIT
ON or OFF
Specifies whether audit trail messages are to be generated during bootstrap. The default is ON.
EWA0_ARP_TRIES
n
Specifies the number of transmissions to be
attempted before the Internet Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) fails. Values less than 1 cause the
protocol to fail immediately. The default is 3, which
translates to an average of 12 seconds before failing.
Interfaces on busy networks may need higher values.
EWA0_BOOTP_FILE
file-name
Specifies a generic file name to be included in an
Internet Boot Protocol (BOOTP) request. The
BOOTP server returns a fully qualified file name for
booting. There is no default.
EWA0_BOOTP_SERVER
server-name
Specifies a server name to be included in a BOOTP
request. This can be set to the name of the server
from which the machine is to be booted, or left
empty.
5–6
Using the Console
Table 5–2 Environment Variables (Continued)
Variable
Parameter Values
Description
EWA0_BOOTP_TRIES
n
Specifies the number of transmissions that are to be
attempted before BOOTP fails. Values less than 1
cause the protocol to fail immediately. The default is
3, which translates to an average of 12 seconds
before failing. Interfaces on busy networks may
need higher values.
EWA0_DEF_GINETADDR
–
Specifies the initial value for EWA0_GINETADDR
when the interface's internal Internet database is initialized from BOOTP (EWA0_INET_INIT is set to
BOOTP).
EWA0_DEF_INETADDR
–
Specifies the initial value for EWA0_INETADDR
when the interface's internal Internet database is initialized from BOOTP (EWA0_INET_INIT is set to
BOOTP).
EWA0_DEF_INETFILE
–
Specifies the initial value for EWA0_INETFILE
when the interface's internal Internet database is initialized from BOOTP (EWA0_INET_INIT is set to
BOOTP).
EWA0_DEF_SINETADDR
–
Specifies the initial value for EWA0_SINETADDR
when the interface's internal Internet database is initialized from BOOTP (EWA0_INET_INIT is set to
BOOTP).
EWA0_INET_INIT
NVRAM and default
BOOTP
Specifies whether the interface's internal Internet
database is to be initialized from non-volatile RAM
(NVRAM) or from a network server (by way of
BOOTP).
EWA0_LOOP_COUNT
x
Specifies the number of times each message is
looped. The default is 0x3e8.
EWA0_LOOP_INC
x
Specifies the amount the message size is to be
increased from message to message. The default is
0xa.
EWA0_LOOP_PATT
0xffffffff = all patterns
0 = all zeros
1= all ones
2 = all fives
3 = all as
4 = incrementing
5 = decrementing
Specifies the type of data pattern that is to be used
for loopback.
EWA0_LOOP_SIZE
x
Specifies the size of the loop data to be used. The
default is 0x2e.
EWA0_LP_MSG_NODE
n
Specifies the number of messages to be sent to each
node originally. The default is 7.
EWA0_MODE
TWISTED-PAIR or
FULL (full-duplex
twisted-pair)
Specifies the operating mode of the embedded
Ethernet controller.
Using the Console
5–7
Table 5–2 Environment Variables (Continued)
Variable
Parameter Values
Description
EWA0_PROTOCOLS
BOOTP, MOP, or
BOOTP,MOP
Specifies the network protocol to be enabled for
booting and other functions. The default is MOP. A
null value is equivalent to BOOTP,MOP.
EWA0_TFTP_TRIES
n
Specifies the number of transmissions that are to be
attempted before the Trivial File Transfer Protocol
(TFTP) fails. Values less than 1 cause the protocol to
fail immediately. The default value is 3, which translates to an average of 12 seconds before failing.
Interfaces on busy networks may need higher values.
LANGUAGE
00 none (cryptic)
Specifies the current console terminal language
30 Dansk
(integer ID).
32 Deutsch
34 Deutsch (Schweiz)
36 English (American)
38 English (British/Irish)
3A Espanol
3C Francais
3E Francais (Canadian)
40 Francais (Suisse
Romande)
42 Italiano
44 Nederlands
46 Norsk
48 Portugues
4A Suomi
4C Svenska
4E Vlaams
Other reserved
LANGUAGE_NAME
language-name
Specifies the ASCII string of the current console terminal language code as defined by LANGUAGE.
LICENSE
MU – multi-user system
SU – single-user system
Specifies whether a software license is in effect.
MODE
FASTBOOT or
NOFASTBOOT
Specifies whether diagnostics are to be run when the
firmware is initialized.
PAL
n
Specifies versions of VMS and OSF PALcode in the
firmware.
TGA_SYNC_GREEN
x
Specifies a hexadecimal byte indicating whether
video synchronization should be driven on the green
channel for up to eight TGA video cards. Video card
0 corresponds to bit 0, card 1 to bit 1, and so on. Use
with the CONSOLE environment variable.
TTY_DEV
n
Specifies the current console terminal unit. Indicates
which entry of the CTP Table corresponds to the
actual console terminal. The default is 0 (30 hex).
VERSION
version
Specifies the version of the console code firmware.
VME_A32_BASE
address
Specifies the base address of VMEbus A32 space.
VME_A32_SIZE
n
Specifies the size of VMEbus A32 space.
5–8
Using the Console
Table 5–2 Environment Variables (Continued)
Variable
Parameter Values
Description
VME_A24_BASE
address
Specifies the base address of VMEbus A24 space.
VME_A24_SIZE
n
Specifies the size of VMEbus A24 space.
VME_A16_BASE
address
Specifies the base address of VMEbus A16 space.
VME_CONFIG
mode
Specifies the VME setup mode. This variable is used
by the operating systems for storing VME configuration information for the initialization of the VME
corner. See your operating system documentation
for more information.
VX_BOOTLINE
file-name
Specifies the name of the file to be used for the
VxWorks bootstrap.
5.2.2 Setting Environment Variables
To set the values of environment variables, use the set command. This command
requires that you specify the name of an environment variable and either a
numeric or ASCII string value. Section 5.2.1 provides a complete listing of available environment variables.
If at any time you need to restore a variable to its default value, you can do so by
using the set command’s -default option. Or, if you want to set all environment
variables to their default values at the same time, use the init_ev command.
For any environment variable changes that you make with the set or init_ev command to take effect, you must reset the system or issue the init command.
Note
Before you change the value of an environment variable, you should
understand the implications of the change.
5.2.3 Displaying the Values of Environment Variables
You can display the values of environment variables by using the show command.
As indicated in the following table, the extent of this command’s output depends
on the argument that you specify.
To display...
Specify...
The value of a specific variable
The name of that variable
The values of a group of related variables
A name that includes a wildcard (*);
for example, BOOT*
The values of all variables
No argument
To see the changes to variables that you reset, you must reset the system or issue
the init command before using show.
Using the Console
5–9
5.2.4 Removing Environment Variables from System Name Space
If a subset of the environment variables do not apply to your system configuration, you may want to consider removing them from the system name space. To
remove a variable from the name space, specify the variable as an argument to the
clear command. If you specify a variable name that includes a wildcard, such as
EWA0_*, the command removes a group of related variables from the name
space. In the case of the EWA0_* example, the command removes all environment variables that begin with EWA0_.
Note
Some environment variables are permanent and are not affected by this
clear command.
5.3 Booting the System
You boot your SBC to initialize the processor, load a program image, and transfer
control to that image. To initiate a boot operation, use the boot command. In the
command line, you have the option of specifying:
•
One or more devices from which the system is to be booted
•
A program image to be booted
•
Boot flags for passing additional information along to the operating system
•
The protocol to be used for booting over the network
•
That the console gain control immediately after the boot image is loaded
5.3.1 Specifying Boot Devices
You can specify the boot device for an SBC by setting the value of the environment variable BOOTDEF_DEV or by specifying one or more devices with the
boot command. BOOTDEF_DEV defines a default boot device list.
To override the default boot device list, specify one or more devices with the boot
command. If you specify multiple devices, separate device names with a comma
(without spaces). The console firmware attempts to boot the system from each
device in order. When a device boots successfully, the firmware passes control to
the boot image on that device.
Note
If you include network devices in the boot device list, place them at the
end of the list. This is necessary because network boots terminate only if a
fatal error occurs or an image loads successfully.
5–10
Using the Console
5.3.2 Specifying a Boot Image
When an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC boots successfully, the console firmware passes control to a boot image. You can specify the boot image that is to be
used by setting the value of the environment variable BOOT_FILE or by specifying the file name of a boot image with the boot command. BOOT_FILE defines
the default boot image. To override the default, specify a boot image file name
with the -file option in the boot command line.
5.3.3 Passing Additional Boot Information to the Operating System
You have the option of passing boot information, in addition to the boot image, to
the operating system. You can specify the additional information as longword data
in the definition for the BOOT_OSFLAGS (or BOOTED_OSFLAGS) environment variable or with the boot command. The information can consist of one or
more longword values. If you specify multiple values, separate the values with a
comma (without spaces). The environment variables define the default boot information. To override the default, specify boot information with the boot command’s -flags option.
5.3.4 Booting Over the Network
If you choose to boot an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC over the network, you
need to define the Ethernet protocol that is to be used. Depending on your system
configuration, you can use the DECnet maintenance operation protocol (MOP),
the Internet boot protocol (BOOTP), or both.
You can specify the protocols to be used by setting the value of the environment
variable EWAn_PROTOCOLS (n identifies the network interface) or the boot
command’s -protocols option to MOP or BOOTP. If you specify both protocols,
the console firmware tries to use each protocol in the order listed to solicit a boot
server. If you do not define EWAn_PROTOCOLS, both protocols are enabled.
The following example causes the console firmware to try to use BOOTP and then
MOP to complete a network boot using interface ewa0:
>>> set EWA0_PROTOCOLS BOOTP,MOP
5.3.4.1 Internet Protocols
For the Internet environment, the console uses the protocols BOOTP and TFTP to
support network booting and file transfers. An Internet network boot occurs as
follows:
1. BOOTP broadcasts a boot request.
BOOTP copies the values of the environment variables
EWAn_BOOTP_SERVER and EWAn_BOOTP_FILE to the fields
sname and file in the request packet. The sname field specifies the
host from which the SBC wants to boot. If it does not matter which server
responds to the request, you can leave EWAn_BOOTP_SERVER undefined.
Using the Console
5–11
The file field identifies the boot file the server is to include in its
response. For example, if the file is specified generically as “unix” or
“lat”, the boot server would respond with a fully qualified file path to be
used with TFTP. If a machine will always be booting the same file, you
can leave EWAn_BOOTP_FILE undefined.
BOOTP establishes a connection with a boot server, which in turn provides the SBC with the information it needs to obtain the boot image from
the server. The BOOTP server delivers the information in a message
packet. Using the same format, the SBC stores the information in a 300byte Internet database. When the SBC receives the BOOTP packet, the
database is marked as initialized.
2. The SBC uses TFTP to acquire the boot image.
TFTP uses the remote host address and the file name of the boot image to
get the boot image file from the boot server (host system). TFTP gets this
information from the BOOTP packet, the boot command’s file-name
argument, or the BOOT_FILE environment variable.
If the value of BOOT_FILE is not specified in the correct format, TFTP
fails. A common practice used to avoid this failure is to leave
BOOT_FILE undefined. This causes TFTP to default to using the values
of EWAn_DEF_SINETADDR and EWAn_DEF_INETFILE.
Both BOOTP and TFTP use the Internet user datagram protocol (UDP) as their
primary transport mechanism. UDP is an unreliable, connectionless datagram
delivery service.
For complete descriptions of the Internet protocols, see Douglas Comer’s Internetworking with TCP/IP, Vol I, Principles, Protocols and Architecture, Second
edition, Prentice Hall.
5.3.4.2 Defining Fields of the Internet Database
BOOTP and TFTP rely on Internet configuration information that you define for
the system by setting network environment variables. You must define a set of
variables for each network interface in the system. The system stores the configuration information for each interface in a separate 300-byte Internet database.
These databases have the same format as BOOTP packets; the BOOTP driver
reads from and writes to the databases in binary form directly.
5–12
Using the Console
The following table lists the environment variables that define the most important
work data. Unlike other environment variables, these variables are nonvolatile.
Environment Variable
Description
EWAn_DEF_INETADDR
The Internet address of a network interface on the
SBC. The Internet protocols TFTP and address resolution protocol (ARP) require the correct Internet
address to operate properly. Enter the address in dotted decimal notation (n.n.n.n).
EWAn_DEF_SINETADDR
The Internet address of the remote host system to be
contacted by TFTP. The remote host system might
not be on the local area network (LAN). Enter the
address in dotted decimal notation (n.n.n.n).
EWAn_DEF_GINETADDR
The Internet address of a remote Internet gateway on
the LAN. TFTP cannot communicate beyond the
LAN if this address is incorrect. Enter the address in
dotted decimal notation (n.n.n.n).
EWAn_DEF_SUBNETMASK
The Internet subnet mask to be used. Enter the mask
in dotted decimal notation (n.n.n.n).
EWAn_DEF_INETFILE
The file to be booted. The value that you specify
must be a valid file name or path name for the TFTP
server on the remote host system.
Each network interface must have its own set of variable definitions. The variable
n in the names of the preceding environment variables, identifies a specific interface. For example, all variables associated with network interface 0 have the prefix EWA0.
Note
If you misconfigure the Internet network parameters, the Internet protocols are robust enough to work intermittently, making it difficult to debug
failures.
5.3.4.3 Internet Database Initialization
The Internet database on an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC is initialized each
time the system is booted as a result of a TFTP or BOOTP invocation.
TFTP Initialization
A TFTP invocation is the more common form of Internet database initialization. If
TFTP is invoked and the Internet database has not yet been marked as initialized,
initialization occurs automatically, based on the definition of the environment
variable EWAn_INET_INIT. If this variable is set to BOOTP (the default), the
BOOTP protocol driver broadcasts a BOOTP request and stores the response in
the database, initializing it.
If EWZn_INET_INIT is set to NVRAM, the values of the following nonvolatile
Internet environment variables are copied to corresponding fields in the Internet
database:
Using the Console
5–13
EWAn_DEF_INETADDR
EWAn_DEF_SINETADDR
EWAn_DEF_GINETADDR
EWAn_DEF_SUBNETMASK
EWAn_DEF_INETFILE
TFTP assumes that you have set the values of these variables in advance of its
invocation. For example:
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
SET
SET
SET
SET
SET
SET
EWA0_DEF_INETADDR 16.123.16.53
EWA0_DEF_SINETADDR 16.123.16.242
EWA0_DEF_GINETADDR 16.123.16.242
EWA0_DEF_SUBNETMASK 255.255.255.0
EWA0_DEF_INETFILE bootfiles/alphavme5
EWA0_INET_INIT NVRAM
BOOTP Initialization
Alternatively, the Internet database might be initialized by BOOTP. This may
result from an explicit invocation of BOOTP or as a consequence of invoking
TFTP. Generally, BOOTP copies the reply packet it receives into the Internet database, initializing it. However, if BOOTP is invoked with the NOBROADCAST
parameter, as shown below, no request is broadcast, no reply is received, and no
data is placed in the database:
bootp:nobroadcast/ewa0
5.3.4.4 Using Retransmission to Improve Robustness
The Internet protocols ARP, BOOTP, and TFTP retransmit failed message packets
to improve robustness. If the initial transmission of a packet is not answered
appropriately, the protocol software retransmits the packet. By default, the protocols attempt three transmissions.
If your Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC is on a busy network or is associated with
servers that handle heavy network loads, you may need to increase the retransmission count. You can adjust the number of retransmissions associated with a given
protocol by setting the following environment variables:
EWAn_ARP_TRIES
EWAn_BOOTP_TRIES
EWAn_TFTP_TRIES
If you set one of these variables to a value that is less than one, the protocol fails
immediately.
Three retries translates to an average of 12 seconds before failing. The retransmission algorithms use a randomized exponential backoff delay. If the first try fails, a
second try occurs about 4 seconds later. A third try occurs after another 8 seconds,
a fourth after 16 seconds, and so on, up to 64 seconds. These times are averages
since random jitter of about +/- 50% is added to each delay. For example, if
EWA0_ARP_TRIES is 3, ARP fails if it does not get a response within 12 seconds on the average; the actual timeout is between 6 and 18 seconds.
EWAn_TFTP_TRIES, EWAn_BOOTP_TRIES, or EWAn_ARP_TRIES.
5–14
Using the Console
5.3.4.5 Different Ways of Booting Over the Internet
The following list shows the priority of the different ways of booting an initialized
system over the Internet:
1. Specify the file name of the image to be booted and a network boot device in
the boot command line. For example:
>>> boot -file filename ewa0
If the pathname for the file includes slashes (/), specify each slash as a
double slash (//). For example:
>>> boot -file //var//adm//ris//ris0.alpha//alphavme5 ewa0
2. Assign the file name of the image to be booted to the environment variable
BOOT_FILE and then specify the network device in the boot command line.
If the pathname for the file includes slashes (/), specify each slash as a double
slash (//). For example:
>>> set BOOT_FILE //var//adm//ris//ris0.alpha//alphavme5
>>> boot ewa0
3. Assign the file name of the image to be booted to the environment variable
EWA0_INETFILE and then specify the network device in the boot command
line. For example:
>>> set EWA0_INETFILE/var/adm/ris/ris0.alpha/alphavme5.exe
>>> boot ewa0
This method uses only the TFTP protocol. All other fields in the BOOTP
packet must already be initialized with valid information from a previous
Internet boot.
4. Assign the file name of the image to be booted to the environment variable
EWA0_BOOTP_FILE and then specify the network device in the boot command line. For example:
>>> set EWA0_BOOTP_FILE /var/adm/ris/ris0.alpha/alphavme5.exe
>>> boot ewa0
The file name defined by EWA0_BOOTP_FILE becomes the file name in
the outgoing BOOTP request packet.
5. Do not define or specify an image to be booted. Just execute the boot command as follows:
>>> boot ewa0
With this method, because none of the environment variables are defined,
the boot process runs through both the BOOTP and TFTP stages of an
Internet network boot (see Section 5.3.4.1). Any server that receives the
boot request replies.
Note
In the client-server paradigm, the way the firmware acts is affected by the
software running on the server. Thus, the format of the file specification
used with TFTP depends on the server. For example, if you are booting
from a UNIX server, you must specify a complete pathname. See your
operating system documentation for details about your server software.
Using the Console
5–15
5.3.5 Invoking the Console as Soon as the Boot Image is Loaded
Normally, when you boot an image, that image takes control of the system as soon
as the image is loaded and the associated page tables and other data structures are
set up. If you have a need to interact with the system after booting (for example, to
debug the system or change environment variable settings), use the boot command’s -halt option. This option forces the boot code to invoke the console program once the boot image is loaded and all associated page tables and data
structures are set up.
Note
The -halt option does not shut down console device drivers.
5.4 Using TFTP to Read Files Across the Network
In addition to serving as a boot protocol, the TFTP driver provides a mechanism
for reading files across the network. For example, you can use a TFTP specification when issuing the cat command to copy the contents of a remote file to standard output.
The syntax for a TFTP specification follows:
tftp:n.n.n.n:pathname/network-interface
The n.n.n.n represents an Internet address in dotted decimal notation. This
must be the Internet address of the remote system from which you want to read the
file. The colon (:) separates the Internet address from the pathname for the file to
be read. If the pathname includes slash (/) characters, you must replace them with
double slashes (//) in the specification. Specify network-interface as ewan,
where n identifies the interface. The following example displays the file
/usr/foo/bar, which is on a remote system with address 16.123.16.242, using network interface ewa0:
>>> cat tftp:16.123.16.242://usr//foo//bar/ewa0
For convenience, you can save the Internet address in an environment variable.
For example:
>>> set ktrose 16.123.16.242
>>> cat tftp:$ktrose://usr//foo//bar/ewa0
If you omit the address and file specification, TFTP uses the server address and
file names defined by EWAn_DEF_SINETADDR and EWAn_DEF_INETFILE.
5.5 Managing the TOY Clock
The time-of-year (TOY) clock maintains the SBC’s time, including the year,
month, date, day, hour, minute, second, 1/10th of a second, and 1/100th of a second. Using console commands, you can:
5–16
•
Display the clock’s time and date
•
Set the clock’s time and date
Using the Console
•
Disable the clock’s internal oscillator
5.5.1 Displaying the TOY Clock’s Time and Date
To display the TOY clock’s time and date, use the date command without any
arguments. For example:
>>> date
10:29:04
August
3, 1997
5.5.2 Setting the TOY Clock’s Time and Date
If the internal oscillator for the TOY clock becomes disabled due to use of the set
toy sleep command or another cause, you may need to reset the clock’s time and
date the next time you power up the system.
To set the time and date, issue the date command with a time specification of the
form yyymmddhhmm.ss., which specifies:
Time Component...
As...
With a Value in the Range...
Year
yyyy
0000 to 9999
Month
mm
01 to 12
Day
dd
01 to 31
Hour
hh
00 to 23
Minute
mm
00 to 59
Second
ss
00 to 59
When you reset the time and date, you must specify at least four digits, which are
interpreted as hours and minutes. If you specify six digits, the digits specify the
day, hours, and minutes.
5.5.3 Disabling the TOY Clock’s Internal Oscillator
If you are testing an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC TOY clock or if you are
planning to put one of these SBCs in storage, you may want to use the set toy
sleep command to disable the TOY clock’s internal oscillator. Disabling the oscillator before storing the SBC can extend the shelf life of the oscillator’s lithium
battery. The oscillator is reenabled and the clock starts counting time again the
next time you power up the SBC. Once the system is powered up again, you must
reset the SBC’s time and date.
Note
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs are shipped with sleep mode enabled
to conserve battery life.
Using the Console
5–17
5.6 Getting System Information
You can acquire information about your system by using the show command. You
specify this command with an environment variable or a predefined keyword
argument. When you specify an environment variable, the command displays the
value of that variable. For example, the following command displays the default
system power-up action as defined by the environment variable AUTO_ACTION:
>>> show auto_action
boot
>>>
For a complete listing of environment variables, see Section 5.2.1.
By specifying the show command with a keyword argument, you can display the
following information on your console terminal:
Information
Keyword
The system configuration
config
Devices and controllers on the system
device
The Alpha HWRPB
hwrpb
The character illuminated on the system’s LED
LED
A map of the system’s virtual memory
map
The following example displays information about the devices that are known to
the system:
>>> show device
dkb0.0.0.1.0 DKB0
mke0.0.0.4.0 MKE0
eza0.0.0.6.0 EZA0
ezb0.0.0.7.0 EZB0
p_a0.7.0.0.0
p_c0.7.0.2.0
pkb0.7.0.1.0 PKB0
pke0.7.0.4.0 PKE0
RZ57
TZ85
08-00-2B-19-60-31
08-00-2B-1A-2C-06
Bus ID 7
Bus ID 7
SCSI Bus ID 7
SCSI Bus ID 7
5.7 Updating Firmware
During the life of your SBC, you may receive one or more update kits for loading
new firmware into the flash ROMs (FEPROMs). The documentation provided in
the firmware update kit will guide you through the update procedure. A summary
of the procedure follows:
1. Close DIP switch #2 on the I/O module to allow the update image to write to
the FEPROM.
2. Issue the boot command.
3. Issue the update command.
The update command loads the FEPROM update image from a specified
device into system memory. Once the image is loaded, the console
prompts for confirmation for the update to continue.
5–18
Using the Console
4. Respond to the confirmation prompt.
If you respond with No, the update process terminates. If you respond
with Yes, the update image erases, programs, and verifies the target
FEPROMs.
Note
Once you commit to the update at this point, you must not interrupt program execution. Doing so may result in the SBC being placed in an inoperable state.
The update image verifies each byte of the FEPROM. Each step provides
for a certain number of retries to perform the operation successfully on a
particular byte of the EPROM. If a failure occurs during any of the steps,
the console displays an error message.
5. Reset or power the system off and on to run the new image in the FEPROMs.
6. Open DIP switch #2 on the I/O module to disable write operations to the
FEPROM.
Using update command options, you can specify the name of the FEPROM
update image, whether MOP or TFTP is to be used as the source transport protocol, the device from which the image is to be loaded (ewa0), and whether the console or user flash is to be upgraded.
For more information about firmware updates, see the documentation provided in
your firmware update kit.
5.8 Examining and Depositing Data
If you need to manipulate data within an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC, you
can do so by using the examine and deposit commands. These commands manipulate byte streams (extents of memory, sets of registers, physical devices, or files)
and address spaces, which this discussion collectively refers to as devices.
5.8.1 The Default Device
Unless otherwise specified, the default device is physical memory. If you specify
another device, that device becomes the default. A default device is sticky, in
that all subsequent commands affect that device until you explicitly specify
another device.
Using the Console
5–19
5.8.2 Console Device Drivers
The console uses drivers as the mechanism for referring to various devices and
provides drivers for the following Alpha devices:
Device Name
Description
pmem
Physical memory
vmem
Virtual memory
gpr
General-purpose registers
fpr
Floating-point registers
ipr
Internal processor registers
pt
PAL temporary register set
pcicfg
PCI configuration space
pcidmem
PCI dense memory space
pcismem
PCI sparse memory space
pciio
PCI I/O space
eerom
Environment variable and error log NVRAM
ferom
Intel 28F020 firmware FEPROM
toy
DS1386 registers, clock chip, and NVRAM
You can direct the examine or deposit command towards a specific device by
specifying the corresponding device name in the command line.
5.8.3 Device Byte Offsets
One of the arguments that you must specify with the deposit and examine commands is the address of the data to be examined or the address at which data is to
be deposited. Because the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs treat an address
space as a device, the address argument that you specify becomes a byte offset.
For example, pmem:0 refers to the location in physical memory at offset zero,
that is, physical address 0. If you do not supply a device name, the offset applies
to the last device referenced (physical memory by default). However, in the
remaining discussions, the terms address and offset are used synonymously.
The examine and deposit commands act on a physical address. You can specify
the actual address or use a symbol in Table 5–3 to point to the address.
Table 5–3 Symbols Used by Examine and Deposit Commands
5–20
Symbol
Description
+
Next address
*
Current address
–
Previous address
Using the Console
These symbols work because the console keeps track of the last referenced
address. If you issue an examine or a deposit command without an address, the
console firmware uses the next address. The console computes the next address as
the last referenced address plus the current data size.
5.8.4 Specifying a Data Size
You have the option of explicitly specifying the size of the data to be examined or
deposited by including one of the following options in the command line:
Option
Data Size
-b
Byte
-w
Word
-l
Longword
-q
Quadword
-o
Octaword
-h
Hexaword
5.8.5 Depositing and Examining Data in Memory
The steps for gaining access to and manipulating data in memory are as follows:
1. Find an unused block of memory.
To find a block of memory, use the alloc command (see Section 5.10.3 for
more information).
Note
Because the console itself and other critical data structures reside in memory, be careful not to alter them.
The alloc command in the following example finds an unused 1000-byte
block of memory:
>>> alloc 1000
03FFF000
The address of the allocated block is, in this case, 0x03FFF000.
2. Add a value to physical memory.
Use the deposit command to add a value to physical memory. The following command adds a value of 1:
>>> deposit pmem:3fff000 1
3. Check the contents of the address.
Use the examine command to check the contents of the address. For
example:
>>> examine pmem:3fff000
pmem:
3FFF000 00000001
Using the Console
5–21
You can abbreviate commands and you do not need to specify the device if you
are referring to the default device. The following example shows the deposit and
examine commands in an abbreviated form. The current device is still physical
memory.
>>> d 3fff000 abcdef12
# Deposit new data there.
>>> e 3fff000
# Check it out.
pmem:
3FFF000 ABCDEF12
You can also specify command options. The following example shows how to use
the –n option to specify a repeat count. The command is executed over n+1 successive addresses.
>>> d 3fff000 aaaa5555 –n 3 # Write to 4 locations, yes 4!
>>> e 3fff000 –n 3
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
pmem:
# Notice that –n 3 yields n+1 or 4!
3FFF000
3FFF004
3FFF008
3FFF00C
AAAA5555
AAAA5555
AAAA5555
AAAA5555
An alternate method for examining memory (or other devices or files) is to use the
hex dump command, hd. The –l option for that command specifies the number of
bytes to display.
>>> hd pmem:3fff000 –l 10
# Dump the allocated memory.
00000000 55 55 aa aa 55 55 aa aa 55 55 aa aa 55 55 aa aa
UUªªUUªªUUªªUUªª
>>> hd –l 20 show_status
00000000
>$$ss
00000010
>>$$
# Dump part of SHOW_STATUS script.
65 63 68 6f 20 27 64 2f 53 27 20 3e 24 24 73 73 echo ’d/S’
0a 65 63 68 6f 20 27 2d 2d 2d 27 20 3e 3e 24 24 .echo ’---’
Note
Both –l and –n give the same result, but –l works only with hd and –n
works only with examine.
5.8.6 Depositing and Examining Data in Registers
You can use the deposit and examine commands to manipulate data in registers.
To operate on a register, include the address of the register in the command line in
one of the following ways:
•
Symbolically, for example, r0 or ksp
•
Explicitly, as offsets within device address space, for example, gpr:0 or ipr:0
You can also use the symbolic addresses +, *, –, and the implied address increment (no address specified). The following examples show the different ways to
include an address:
>>> e r0
5–22
Using the Console
# Examine R0 symbolically,...
gpr:
>>> e gpr:0
gpr:
>>> e 0
gpr:
>>> e 8
gpr:
>>> e
gpr:
>>> e ipr:0
ipr:
>>> e
ipr:
>>> e +
ipr:
>>> e *
ipr:
>>> e –
ipr:
>>> e ksp
ipr:
>>> e
ipr:
0 (
R0) 0000000000000002
#...explicitly as device offset,...
0 (
R0) 0000000000000002
#
...or implicitly as device offset.
0 (
R0) 0000000000000002
# Examine R1...
8 (
R1) 000000000000C408
#
...and the next R2.
10 (
R2) 0000000000000000
# Examine an IPR...
0 (
ASN) 0000000000000000
#
...and the next...
1 ( ASTEN) 0000000000000000
#
...and the next...
2 ( ASTSR) 0000000000000000
#
...and the current...
2 ( ASTSR) 0000000000000000
#
...and the previous one.
1 ( ASTEN) 0000000000000000
# Examine an IPR by name...
12 (
KSP) 0000000000000F30
# ...and the next one.
13 (
ESP) 0000000000000000
The examine and deposit commands support symbolic representation of the following processor registers:
Register
Meaning
pc
Program counter
sp
Stack pointer
ps
Processor status longword
−
Previous address
>>> e pc
PC psr:
>>> e ps
ipr:
>>> e sp
gpr:
# Program Counter
0 (
PC) 0000000000000D30
# Process Status
17 (
PS) 0000000000001F00
# Stack Pointer
F0 (
R30) 0000000000000F30
Using the Console
5–23
5.9 Managing the Console, Devices, and CPU
Console commands are available for managing the console, devices, and CPU of
an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC. Using console commands you can:
•
Initialize the console, a device, or the CPU
•
Stop the CPU or a specified device
•
Exercise devices with read, write, and comparison operations
5.9.1 Initializing SBC Components
Use the init command to initialize your SBC’s devices or CPU. To initialize a
specific device, specify the command with the -d option and the name of the
device to be initialized. For example to initialize the network interface ewa0,
enter:
>>> init -d ewa0
If you need to initialize the processor, specify the init command without any
options as follows:
>>> init
5.9.2 Stopping and Starting the CPU or Devices
If you need to stop and start an Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC CPU or the system devices, you can use the stop and start commands. To stop the CPU, enter
just the command name stop on the command line. You can then restart the CPU
by specifying the start command with the address at which execution is to begin.
To stop and start one or more devices, specify the stop and start commands with
the -drivers option and one of the following:
Option Parameter
Stops or Starts
Specific device name
The specified device
Device prefix (for example, ewa)
All devices of the specified class
None
All system devices
5.9.3 Exercising Devices
You can exercise your SBC’s devices with various read, write, and comparison
operations by using the exer command. This command also can report performance statistics.
5.9.3.1 Exercise Buffers
The exer command uses two buffers in the “memzone” heap of main memory to
perform the exercise operations. The command:
5–24
•
Reads from a device to a buffer
•
Writes from a buffer to a device
•
Compares the contents of the two buffers
Using the Console
Prior to initiating any I/O operations, the command initializes the buffers with
data patterns. By default, the data pattern for each buffer consists of 0x5A in every
byte. Alternatively, you can specify your own data patterns with the -d1 and -d2
options. These options take a postfix string argument. For each byte in a given
buffer, starting with the first byte:
1. exer passes the postfix string to the eval command
2. eval evaluates the string and returns a value
3. exer writes the value to the buffer
Note
The exer command never reinitializes the buffers, even after completing
one or more exercise passes.
5.9.3.2 Exercise Operations
The types of I/O operations that the exerciser performs include the following:
•
Read to a specific buffer
•
Write from a specific buffer
•
Write from a specific buffer without a lock
•
Compare the contents of the two buffers
•
Seek to the file offset prior to the last read or write
•
Seek to varying device locations, using the console firmware’s random number generator, before performing read and write operations
•
Sleep for a specified number of milliseconds
5.9.3.3 Tailoring the Exercises
You can tailor the behavior of the exer command by using options to specify the
following:
•
The address range to exercise
•
The packet size (number of bytes) to be used in each I/O operation
•
The number of passes to run
•
The number of seconds to run
•
The sequence of I/O operations to be performed
5.9.3.4 Seeking to Random Device Locations
You can instruct the exerciser to seek to random device locations prior to performing I/O operations. You specify this action by including the action string ? with the
exer command’s -a option. The exerciser achieves randomization by using the
console firmware’s random number generator, which uses a linear congruential
generator to generate the random numbers. The LCG algorithm is not truly random, but it comes closest to meeting the needs of the exer command. Each time
Using the Console
5–25
the exerciser calls the random number generator, it returns a number from a specified range. If the range of numbers is a power of two, then each subsequent call to
the random number generator is guaranteed to return a different number from the
range until all possible numbers within the range have been chosen. If the range of
numbers is not a power of two, the exerciser uses the console firmware’s random
number generator with an upper bound that is greater than the actual range size
but is a power of two. Then the exerciser uses the range size to perform a modulus
operation on the number that the random number generator returns, thereby ensuring that a random number is generated within the random range size.
5.9.3.5 Returning Error Codes On I/O Failures
If you want the exer command to return an error code immediately after a read,
write, or comparison error, set the environment variable D_HARDERR to HALT.
If an error occurs and D_HARDERR is set to CONTINUE or LOOP, subsequent
operations specified by the action string option can occur except for comparisons.
For example, if a read error occurs, a subsequent comparison is skipped since a
read failure preceding a comparison guarantees that the comparison fails. If subsequent block I/O operations succeed, comparisons of those blocks occur.
5.10 Managing Memory
The console interface includes commands you can use to:
•
Display the state of dynamic memory
•
Display a map of the system’s virtual memory
•
Allocate and free blocks of memory
•
Change the ownership of a block of memory
•
Test memory
5.10.1 Displaying the State of Dynamic Memory
Display the state of your SBC’s dynamic memory by using the dynamic command. By default, the command displays state information for two heaps: a private console heap and remaining memory heap. The state information listed for
each heap (or zone) includes:
•
Starting address
•
Size
•
Used blocks
•
Used bytes
•
Free blocks
•
Free bytes
•
Utilization
•
High water mark
To display information about a specific heap of memory, specify the address of
that heap with the -z option.
5–26
Using the Console
A number of other options are available for controlling the information that the
command displays and the operations it performs. Depending on the options you
specify, the command may:
•
Perform consistency checking on the heap
•
Repair corrupted heap by flooding free blocks
•
Include block headers in the display output
•
Display state information on a per process basis
•
Perform a validation test on the heap
•
Set the size of the total memory for the system
•
Extend the size of the default memory zone by a specified number of bytes
5.10.2 Displaying the System’s Virtual Memory Map
To display your SBC’s virtual memory map, use the show map command. The
virtual memory map is empty after console initialization. If the command generates an empty map, you can fill the page tables by issuing the command boot halt.
5.10.3 Allocating and Freeing Blocks of Memory
To allocate and free blocks of memory, use the alloc and free commands. The
arguments that you specify with these commands must be hexadecimal values.
When you allocate a block of memory, you must specify at least the number of
bytes to allocate. Other arguments allow you to specify the modulus and remainder to be used for computing the beginning address of the requested block of
memory.
A -flood option lets you flood the block of allocated memory with zeros. If you
want to allocate memory starting at a specific heap address (for example, an
address displayed by the dynamic command), you can specify that address with
the -z option.
The free command returns the memory identified by specified addresses to the
appropriate heap.
5.10.4 Changing the Ownership of a Block of Memory
Your SBC identifies the owner of a block of memory by associating that block
with a process identifier (PID). To change the ownership of blocks of memory,
specify the chown command with the PID of the new owner process and the starting addresses of blocks of memory that process is to own.
To display a listing of PIDs, issue the ps command.
5.10.5 Testing Memory
The following tests are available for exercising memory:
•
Graycode memory test
•
March memory test
Using the Console
5–27
•
Random memory test
•
Victim block test
To run the tests, issue the memtest command. By default, this command runs all
four tests, starting at the address of the first free space in the memory zone. You
can run a subset of the available tests by specifying the tests of interest with the -t
option.
Note
If you use memtest to test large sections of memory, it might take a while
for testing to complete.
5.10.5.1 Specifying the Range of Addresses to be Tested
Using various options, you can specify the range of memory addresses that are to
be tested. You identify an address range by specifying a starting address with the
-sa option and either an ending address, length, or block size (for the random
memory test only) with the -ea, -l, or -bs option. Block size equals the specified
length for all tests except the random memory test. The default block size is 1892
bytes.
Specify the length or block size in bytes. If you specify the length of the address
range, the ending address equals the starting address plus the length.
When you specify a starting address, memtest calls the malloc function to allocate the specified amount of memory plus 32 bytes, beginning at that starting
address. The extra 32 bytes are reserved for malloc header information. Therefore, if you specify starting address 0xa00000 and a length of 0x100000, memtest
allocates from address 0x9fffe0 through 0xb00000. Generally, this is transparent.
However, it could be confusing if you begin two memtest processes simultaneously with one beginning at address 0xa00000 for length 0x100000 and the
other at 0xb00000 for length 0x100000. This will result in the second memtest
process displaying the following message:
“Unable to allocate memory of length 100000 at starting address b00000.”
The second process should use the starting address 0xb00020.
5.10.6 Graycode Memory Test
The graycode memory test uses the following algorithm to test a specified section
of memory:
data = (x>>1)^x
The variable x is an incremented value.
5–28
Using the Console
The test makes three passes over the memory being tested:
For Pass
The Test
1
Writes a data pattern that alternates graycode and inversed graycode to
each longword. This causes all but one data bit to toggle between each
longword write. For example, graycode(0)=0x00000000 while the inverse
of graycode(1)=0xFFFFFFFE.
2
Reads the data at each location, verifies the data, and writes the inverse of
the data. The test performs these operations one longword at a time to
ensure that:
•
•
•
3
All data bits are written as a one and zero.
All but one data bit toggle between longword writes.
Address shorts are identified.
Reads and verifies each location.
You can instruct the graycode memory test to:
•
Perform pass 1 only by specifying the fast mode option -f. When you use this
option, the test detects ECC/EDC errors only.
•
Increment through the memory being tested by a specified number of quadwords. For example, an increment of 1 tests every other quadword. Specify
the increment with the -i option. This option is useful for testing the same
physical address range on multiple CPUs.
•
Serialize access to memory by setting up a memory barrier after each memory
access. The memory barrier option, -mb, is available only if you are running
the test in fast mode.
5.10.6.1 March Memory Test
The march memory test uses a marching 1s and 0s algorithm to test a specified
section of memory. The default data patterns that the test uses are 0x55555555
and its inverse 0xAAAAAAAA. You can specify an alternative data pattern with
the memtest command’s -d option.
The march memory test makes three passes over the memory being tested:
For Pass
The Test
1
Writes the default or a specified data pattern to the specified memory location, starting at the specified starting address and repeating through the
specified length.
2
Reads the data pattern that has been written to memory, starting at the specified starting address, and writes back the inverse. The test operates on the
data pattern a longword at a time until it reaches the specified length.
3
Reads back the inverse of the data pattern, starting at the end of the memory region being tested, and writes back 0s. The test operates on the data
pattern a longword at a time until it reaches the specified starting address.
Using the Console
5–29
5.10.6.2 Random Memory Test
The random memory test writes random data to random addresses using random
data sizes, lengths, and alignments. The test gains access to every memory location in the specified range of addresses to be tested so long as the length does not
exceed 8 MB. When the length exceeds 8 MB, the test applies a modulo function
to the seed, which can result in some addresses being tested multiple times and
others not being tested at all.
The random memory test proceeds as follows:
1. Gets an address index into the random number generator’s LCG structure
based on the length of the address range being tested.
2. Gets a data index based on a random data seed that you specify with the
memtest command’s -rs option and the size of the address range.
3. Calls the random number generator with the acquired address index and an
initial address seed of 0 to get a random address.
4. Calls the random number generator with the acquired data index and the specified data seed to get the longword of data to be used during testing. The lower
bit of the random data determines whether the test performs longword or
quadword transactions. (Use of the lower bit speeds up the test by eliminating
the need for another call to the random number generator.)
5. Stores the random data at the random address.
6. Flushes the data out to the Bcache.
7. Reads the data back into memory.
8. Compares the data that was written and read. In the case of quadword write
and read operations, the test forms the quadword by shifting the longword of
random data to the left by 32 and ORing it with the original data’s complement.
Note
The run time of the random memory test can be noticeably longer than
that of the other memory tests because the test requires two calls to the
console firmware’s random number generator every time the test writes
data.
5.10.6.3 Victim Eject Memory Test
The victim eject memory test exercises memory using a specified block of data.
By default, the test uses a block containing four longwords of 0xFs, four longwords of 0s, four longwords of 0xFs, and 4 longwords of 0s, in that order. You
have the option of instructing the test to use a block of data that you set up prior to
running the test. You specify the address of the block of data with the memtest
command’s -ba option.
The victim eject memory test proceeds as follows:
1. Writes the specified block of data to the specified starting address.
5–30
Using the Console
2. Adds 4 MB to the starting address.
3. Writes arbitrary data to the new resulting address. This causes the original
data to be victimized to memory.
4. Reads data starting at the original starting address.
5. Verifies that the data is correct.
6. Increments the starting address by a block.
7. Repeats steps 1 through 6 for the remainder of the specified address range.
5.10.6.4 Specifying Other Test Options
Other memory test options are available for:
•
Requesting that all specified memory be allocated and tested randomly
•
Timing the memory tests
•
Requesting that the tests use the specified memory without an allocation
•
Allocating memory to be tested from the firmware heap
•
Using a memory barrier after each memory access to serialize access to the
memory
•
Specifying a group name
•
Specifying a soft error threshold
5.10.6.5 Running Multiple Memory Tests
You can start multiple memory tests running in the background by using the
memexer command. Issue this command with an integer value indicating the
number of test processes you want to start.
5.11 Performing Network Operations
The console interface’s net command provides a way of initiating basic maintenance operations protocol (MOP) operations for a specified network port. The
default port is ewa0. By using various command options, you can:
•
Display the status of the network port, including the values of MOP counters
•
Display the network port’s Ethernet station address
•
Reinitialize port drivers
•
Initialize MOP counters
•
Send a MOP request ID to a specified node
•
Send an Ethernet loopback to a specified node
•
Request a MOP loopback and specify the number of seconds to wait for the
loopback messages
•
Send a reboot request to a remote boot node
•
Display the values of Ethernet port CSRs
•
Enable and disable the extended design verification test (DVT) loop service
Using the Console
5–31
•
Change the mode of the port device
•
Specify a remote node address to be used for Ethernet loopbacks, MOP
requests, and remote boot requests
•
Broadcast a MOP load request for a specified file
•
Set the version of MOP to be used
5.12 Setting Reboot to the SROM Mini-Console
Generally, when you power on or reboot your Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC,
the SBC enters console mode after the POST diagnostics complete. Under certain
conditions it may be necessary for you to enter SROM Mini-Console mode
instead. For example, you may want to do this to debug the PCI bus. While in
SROM Mini-Console mode there is less activity on the bus and you do not have to
be concerned with interrupts generated by other system devices.
To enter this mode, use the set reboot srom command. After issuing the command, the SBC enters SROM Mini-Console mode the next time you power on or
reboot the system.
Note
If the I/O module’s debug jumper is installed, the system displays the
SROM Mini-Debugger prompt every time you power on the system.
While in the SROM Mini-Debugger, you can start the SROM console by
entering the st command and then entering address 0x8000 at the address
prompt as follows:
SROM> st
a> 8000
5.13 Controlling the LED
The console commands set led and show led are available for you to display characters on the system’s front panel LED and to check the current value being illuminated on the LED. When using set led, you specify the character you want
displayed. You can also indicate that the character be displayed in bright mode by
specifying the -b option. By default, characters are displayed in dim mode.
5.14 Running the Power-On Diagnostics Script
You can start the system’s power-on self-test (POST) diagnostics from the console
by entering the pwrup command. This command initializes the network environment variables, runs memory tests, and executes the contents of the NVRAM
script.
For more information about the POST diagnostics, see Chapter 8.
5–32
Using the Console
5.15 Managing the Console Error Log
The console firmware logs console errors in an area of NVRAM. Using console
commands, you can display the contents of and initialize the log.
5.15.1 Displaying the Contents of the Console Error Log
To display the contents of the console error log, use the show_log command.
Options allow you to control whether the command displays information about a
specified number of most recent errors (-n), all errors (-all), or new (-new) errors.
The command displays the following types of information associated with each
error:
•
Date and time of the error
•
The diagnostic that was running at the time of the error
•
The pass count
•
The test number
•
The failing point
•
Error message text
5.15.2 Initializing the Console Error Log
At any time, you can clear and initialize the console error log by issuing the
clear_log command. This command sets the entire log area to zero and resets all
error logging pointers, counters, and initialization flags accordingly.
Prior to initializing the error log area, the command displays the following confirmation message:
Error Log data in NVRAM will be destroyed!!
Continue (y/n)?
If you prefer not to be prompted for confirmation, specify the command’s -nc
option.
5.16 Evaluating Expressions
The console firmware evaluates postfix expressions that you specify with the eval
command. The expression must consist of two numeric operands and an operator,
in that order. Valid operators include:
Operator
Meaning
+
Add the operands.
-
Subtract the second operand from the first.
*
Multiply the operands.
/
Divide the first operand by the second.
Using the Console
5–33
The default radix for operands and command output is decimal. Command options
-ib, -io, -id, and -ix allow you to specify the radix as binary, octal, decimal, or
hexadecimal, respectively. Similarly, the options -b, -o, -d, and -x specify the
radix of the command’s output.
5.17 Managing Console Processes
At any given time, you can have multiple console processes running on your
Alpha VME 5/352 or 5/480 SBC. Each console process is a shell process that
implements most of the functionality that is offered by the UNIX Bourne shell.
The console interface provides commands that help you manage your console processes. Commands are available for:
•
Creating and exiting console processes
•
Monitoring the status of system processes
•
Setting the priority of a console process
•
Specifying the CPU on which a console process can run
•
Suspending the execution of a console process
•
Stopping and deleting processes from the system
•
Breaking from control loops
•
Returning a failure status
•
Displaying the semaphores known to the system
5.17.1 Creating and Exiting Console Processes
Create (spawn) new console processes by using the sh command. You can pass
arguments to the new process and use options to control whether:
•
Lines are to be displayed as they are read
•
A command should be displayed just before being executed
•
The contents of standard input (stdin) should be deleted when the process
exits
•
Lexical elements (tokens) should be displayed as they are recognized
•
Rules should be displayed as they are executed
•
The names of routines should be displayed as they are called
When you are ready to exit a console process, you can do so by using the exit
command. You can specify a status value to be returned on exit. If you choose not
to specify an exit status, the command returns the status of the last command executed.
5.17.2 Monitoring Processes
The console monitors all processes while they are executing. To see the status of
all the processes, use the ps command. This command displays the following
information for each console process in the system:
5–34
Using the Console
•
Process identifier (PID)
•
Address of the process control block (PCB)
•
Process priority
•
CPU time
•
Processor affinity
•
CPU
•
Program running
•
Process state
To see the status of a specific process, use the grep command with a pipe to filter
the output, as shown at the end of the following example:
>>> ps
ID
-------0000006c
0000005c
0000005b
00000059
00000058
00000056
00000055
00000054
0000004f
# Display complete process status.
PCB
Pri CPU Time Affinity CPU Program
State
-------- - ----- -------- --- -------- -----------------001423a0 3
2 00000001 0
ps running
00144b40 2 19253 00000001 0
memtest ready
00147a60 2
9 00000001 0
sh_bg waiting on 00144B40
0014c060 2 21750 00000001 0
memtest ready
0014edc0 2
5 00000001 0
sh_bg waiting on 0014C060
00152860 2
3 00000001 0
exer_kid waiting on mscp_rsp
00153ae0 2
2 00000001 0
exer waiting on exer_tqe
00181580 2
6 00000001 0
sh_bg waiting on 00153AE0
00154d60 5
38 ffffffff 0 pke0_poll waiting on tqe
.
.
.
>>> ps | grep exer
00000056 00152860 2
mscp_rsp
00000055 00153ae0 2
exer_tqe
# Check exer.
6 00000001 0
exer_kid waiting on
2 00000001 0
exer waiting on
5.17.3 Setting the Priority of Processes
If the system is running multiple processes, you may find it necessary to set process priorities to ensure proper system operation. Set a process’ priority by specifying the PID and a priority value with the sp command. Priority values range
from 0 to 7 with 7 being the highest. To determine the PID of a process use the ps
command.
5.17.4 Specifying the CPUs on Which a Process Can Run
If your application environment consists of multiple CPUs, you can specify an
affinity mask that indicates on which CPUs a process can run. Bits 0 and 1 of the
mask correspond to CPUs 0 and 1, respectively.
Suppose a process is in the ready state on CPU 0 and CPU 1 is idle. You might
consider changing the CPU affinity so that the process can run on CPU 1. To do
this, use the sa command. Specify the command with the PID of the process and a
mask value. For example, to set the mask such that a process can execute on CPU
1, specify a mask value of 2.
Using the Console
5–35
5.17.5 Suspending Processes
You can suspend the execution of the current console process for a specified
amount of time by using the sleep command. By default, the command suspends
the process for one second. When the console process is suspended, another console process that is in the ready state can start executing.
If the default sleep time is insufficient, you can specify a different value and you
can use the -v option to specify milliseconds.
5.17.6 Stopping Processes
To stop a process and delete it from the system, use the kill command. You must
specify the process identifier (PID) for each process that is to be stopped. If you
do not know the PID for a given process, acquire it by using the ps command.
The following example uses the ps command to acquire the PIDs for processes
running memtest, stops and deletes the process that has PID 59, and then reissues
the ps command to check whether the process associated with that PID was
deleted.
>>> ps | grep memtest# Find a process to kill.
0000005c 00144b40 2
00000059 0014c060 2
>>> kill 59
135733 00000001 0
138258 00000001 0
memtest ready
memtest ready
# Kill one of the memtests.
>>> ps | grep memtest# Display our background tasks.
0000005c 00144b40 2
135733 00000001 0
memtest ready
5.17.7 Breaking from Control Loops
To break from a for, while, or until program loop, use the break command. This
command exits the current console process and returns a status code. You can
specify the status code that is to be returned. If you omit the status code, break
returns the status of the last console command executed.
5.17.8 Returning a Failure Status
You can return a failure status from the console by using the false command.
5.18 Displaying Semaphores
To display information about all the semaphores known to the system, use the
semaphore command. The command traverses the semaphore queue and for each
known semaphore, displays the following:
5–36
•
Name
•
Value
•
Address
•
Address of the first waiting process
Using the Console
5.19 Managing Files and File Content
Several console commands are available for managing files and file content. You
can:
•
Display the contents of a file (standard output)
•
Change the attributes of a file
•
Dump the contents of a file
•
List the files and inodes in the system
•
Delete files from the system
•
Sort the contents of a file
•
Write text to a file (standard output)
•
Search for expressions within files
•
Copy a file from the standard input channel of the current process to the standard output channel of that process
For more information on performing these operations, see descriptions of the cat,
chmod, echo, grep, hd, line, ls, rm, and sort commands in Chapter 6.
Using the Console
5–37
6
Console Command Reference
This chapter describes the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console
commands. The descriptions are ordered alphabetically by command name for
quick reference. The command descriptions include the following information:
•
Explanation of usage
•
Syntax
•
Arguments
•
Options
•
Examples
•
Related commands
Console Command Reference
6–1
alloc – allocate a block of memory
Allocates a block of memory from heap. Once allocated, test routines can write to
and read from the allocated memory. Only one routine can write to the memory at
a time, but multiple routines can read from the memory simultaneously.
Syntax
alloc size [modulus] [remainder] [-flood]
[-z heap_address]
Arguments
size
Specifies the number of bytes of memory to be allocated. Specify the size as a
hexadecimal value.
modulus
Specifies the modulus for the beginning address of the block of memory being
allocated. Specify the modulus as a hexadecimal value.
remainder
Specifies the remainder to be used with the modulus for computing the beginning
address of the block of memory being allocated. Specify the modulus as a hexadecimal value.
Options
–flood
Flood the allocated block of memory with zeros.
–z heap_address
Allocate memory from the memory zone that starts at the specified heap address.
To view the starting addresses of the system’s memory zones, use the dynamic
command.
Example
>>> alloc 200
00FFFE00
>>> free fffe00
>>> set base ‘alloc 400‘
>>> show base
base
>>> memtest $base
>>> free $base
>>> clear base
See Also
6–2
Console Command Reference
00FFFC00
dynamic, free
Console Command Reference
6–3
boot – boot the system
Initializes the processor, loads a program image from a boot device, and transfers
control to that image.
Syntax
boot [-file boot_file] [-flags longword ,...]
[-protocols enet_protocol] [-halt] [boot_device]
Argument
boot_device
The path for a device or list of devices from which the console firmware is to boot
the system. If you specify a list of devices, separate the device names with commas (,) and no spaces. For example:
>>> boot ewa0,dka0
The firmware tries to boot the system from each device in the list in order. When
one of the devices boots successfully, control passes to the booted image.
Note
Place network devices at the end of a boot device list. This is necessary
because network bootstraps only terminate if a fatal error occurs or an
image is successfully loaded.
If you omit boot_device, the firmware uses a boot specification previously
defined with an environment variable. For example, if you used the set command
to associate the environment variable BOOTDEF_DEV with a boot device, the
firmware will use that boot device as the default.
Note
When you specify a boot device with the boot command, that device
specification overrides the current default boot device for the current boot
request, but does not change the setting of the corresponding environment
variable.
Options
–file boot_file
Load the specified boot file image into the system. If you do not specify this
option, the console firmware loads a boot file previously associated with the environment variable BOOT_FILE.
–flags longword, ...
6–4
Console Command Reference
Use the specified longwords as additional boot information for the operating system. If you do not specify this option, the firmware loads flags previously associated with the environment variable BOOT_FLAGS or BOOTED_FLAGS.
Note
If you specify flags in the boot command line, the flags override the current default values for the current boot request, but do not change the setting of the corresponding environment variable.
–protocols enet_protocol
Use the specified Ethernet protocols for a network boot. Specify MOP for a DECnet MOP boot, BOOTP for a TCP/IP boot, or both. If you specify both, the firmware attempts to use each protocol to solicit a boot server. If you do not specify a
protocol, the firmware uses the protocol previously associated with the environment variable, EWA0_PROTOCOLS.
–halt
Forces the boot operation to halt and invoke the console program once the boot
image is loaded and page tables and other data structures are set up. Console
device drivers are not shut down when you specify this option.
Examples
1. >>> boot
The system tries to boot from a default boot device. If you have not set up
a default boot device, the console program returns an error message.
2. >>> boot ewa0
The system boots from the Ethernet port EWA0.
3. >>> boot -file avme.sys ewa0
The system boots the file avme.sys from Ethernet port EWA0.
4. >>> boot -fi //usr//local//bootfile//alphavme_v1_1-0
-protocol bootp ewa0
The system uses TCP/IP BOOTP to perform a network boot from Ethernet port EWA0.
5. >>> boot -flags 0,1
The system boots from a previously defined default boot device with boot
flag settings 0 and 1.
6. >>> boot -halt dka0
The system boots from the SCSI disk, dka0, but remains in console
mode.
See Also
set, show
Console Command Reference
6–5
break – break from a program loop
Breaks from a for, while, or until loop. The console firmware exits the current
shell with a status or returns the status of the last command.
Syntax
break [break_level]
Argument
break_level
Specifies the status code to be returned by the shell.
Example
>>> for i in 1 2 3 4 5 ; do
1
>>>
6–6
Console Command Reference
echo $i ; break ; done
cat – copy files
Copies specified files to standard output. You also can use this command to copy
or append one file to another by specifying I/O redirection.
Syntax
cat [-l length] [file ...]
Arguments
file ...
Specifies the names of one or more input files to be copied. If you do not specify
a file on the command line, the command copies standard input to standard output.
Options
–l length
Copy the specified number of bytes of each input file. Specify the length as a decimal value.
Examples
1. >>> echo > foo ’this is a test.’
>>> cat foo
this is a test.
>>>
Creates the file foo with the echo command, and then uses the cat command to send the contents of the file to the standard output.
2. >>> cat -l 6 foo
this i
>>>
Sends the first six bytes of the file foo to the standard output.
See Also
echo, ls, rm
Console Command Reference
6–7
chmod – change file attributes
Changes the attributes of files or inodes. This command provides a subset of the
capabilities of the equivalent UNIX command.
Syntax
chmod [[{- + =}{r w x b z}]...] file...
Arguments
file ...
Specifies the files or inodes for which the attributes are to be modified.
Options
-
Clear the specified attributes.
+
Set the specified attributes.
=
Set the specified attributes and clear all other attributes not included in the command line.
r
Set or clear the read attribute.
w
Set or clear the write attribute.
x
Set or clear the execute attribute.
b
Set or clear the binary attribute.
z
Set or clear the expand attribute.
Examples
1. >>> chmod +x script
Sets the executable attribute for the file script.
2. >>> chmod =r errlog
Sets the file errlog to read only and clears all other attributes.
3. >>> chmod -w dk*
Makes all SCSI disks nonwriteable.
6–8
Console Command Reference
See Also
chown, ls –l
Console Command Reference
6–9
chown – change ownership of memory block
Changes the ownership of a memory block to a specified process.
Syntax
chown pid address ...
Arguments
pid
Specifies the hexadecimal process identifier (PID) of the new owner process. To
display the PIDs of the system’s current processes, use the ps command.
address ...
Specifies the hexadecimal addresses of the memory blocks for which ownership is
to be changed.
Example
>>> chown ‘ps | grep idle | find 0‘ ‘alloc 200‘
Uses the ps command to display the system’s current processes, pipes the output
to the grep command to find an idle process, and then uses the alloc command
to return the starting address of the first free block of 200 bytes.
See Also
alloc, dynamic, ps
6–10
Console Command Reference
clear – delete environment variable
Deletes an environment variable from the system’s name space.
Note
Some environment variables, such as BOOTDEF_DEV, are permanent
and cannot be deleted.
Syntax
clear envar
Argument
envar
Specifies the name of the environment variable to be deleted.
Example
>>> clear foo
>>>
Deletes the environment variable foo.
See Also
set, show
Console Command Reference
6–11
clear_log – clear error log in NVRAM
Clears and initializes the area of NVRAM used for console error logging. The
console firmware clears the entire area of NVRAM where fault information is
stored and resets miscellaneous pointers, counters, and initialization flags used in
the error logging process.
Notes
When you use clear_log, the current contents of the NVRAM error log
area is destroyed and lost forever.
Console error logging is completely independent of the operating system’s
error logging.
Syntax
clear_log
Options
–nc
Do not prompt for confirmation before starting the clear operation. By default,
the firmware prompts for confirmation before starting the clear operation. Specify
the –nc option if you do not want the firmware to prompt you.
Example
>>> clear_log
Error Log data in NVRAM will be destroyed!!
Continue (y/n)?
y
Initializing NVRAM Error Log...
Prompts for confirmation to continue with the clear operation. When the user repsponds with y, the firmware clears and initializes the NVRAM error log.
See Also
show_log
6–12
Console Command Reference
date – display or change the date and time
Displays or changes the date and time stored in the system’s time-of-year (TOY)
clock.
Note
The date and time are not preserved if the TOY clock battery has been
disabled with the set toy sleep command. The next time the system is
powered on the firmware reenables the battery, but you may need to reinitialize the date and time.
The format of the date and time registers for the console is as described in the
DS1386 specification, except that the year register contains the number of years
1858. This is done to retain compatibility with the openVMS and UNIX operating
systems.
Syntax
date [[[[yyyy]mm]dd]hhmm[.ss]]
Arguments
yyyymmddhhmm.ss
Specifies the new date and time as follows:
Field
Meaning
Valid Range of Values
yyyy
Year
0000 to 9999
mm
Month
01 to 12
dd
Day
01 to 31
hh
Hour
00 to 23
mm
Minutes
00 to 59
ss
Seconds
00 to 59
If you omit this argument, the command displays the current date and time.
To modify the date or time, you must specify at least the hour and minute fields
(four digits). If you include six digits, the command interprets the input as the day,
hour, and minute fields. The command inherits values for fields that you omit
from the specification.
Example
>>> date 199708031029.00
>>> date
10:29:04 August 3, 1997
>>>
Console Command Reference
6–13
deposit – write data to memory
Writes data to a memory location, register, device, or file.
After initialization, if you have not specified a data address or size, the default
address space is physical memory, the default data size is a quadword, and the
default address is zero.
You specify an address or device by concatenating the device name with the
address, for example, pmem:0, and by specifying the size of the space to which to
write.
If you do not specify an address, the data is written to the current address in the
current data size (the last previously specified address and data size).
If you specify a conflicting device, address, or data size, the console ignores the
command and issues an error.
Syntax
deposit [-b -w -l -q -o -h] [-physical -virtual -gpr -fpr
-ipr] [-n count] [-s step] [device] address data
6–14
Console Command Reference
Arguments
device
Specifies the device name or address space to which the data is to be written.
Specify one of the following:
Value
Description
pmem:
Physical memory.
vmem:
Virtual memory. The console firmware checks on accessibility and protection. If the access would not be allowed to a program running with the current program stack, the firmware issues an error message. If memory
mapping is not enabled, virtual addresses are equal to physical addresses.
gpr:
General purpose register. The data size defaults to quadword. When you
specify this value, you can specify the following symbols for address: r0,
r1 through r31, ai, ra, pv, fp, sp, or rz.
fpr:
Floating-point register set. The data size defaults to quadword. When you
specify this value, you can specify the following symbols for address: f0
through f31.
ipr:
Internal processor register set. The data size defaults to quadword. When
you specify this value, you can specify the following symbols for address:
ps, asn, asten, astsr, at, fen, apir, ipl, mces, pcbb, prbr, ptbr, scbb, sirr,
sisr, tbchk, tbia, tbiap, tbis, esp, ssp, usp, or whami.
pt:
PAL Temporary register set. The data size defaults to quadword. When you
specify this value, you can specify the following symbols for address: PT:0
through PT:31 or PT0: through PT31:.
pcicfg:
PCI configuration space.
pcidmem:
PCI dense memory space.
pcismem:
PCI sparse memory space.
pciio:
PCI I/O space.
eerom:
Environment variable and error log NVRAM.
ferom:
Intel 28F020 firmware FEPROM.
toy:
DS1386 registers, clock chip, and NVRAM.
Console Command Reference
6–15
address
Specifies the address to which the data is to be written. The address can be:
•
Any valid hexadecimal offset in the address space of the specified device
•
A symbolic address (if you omit the device argument)
For hexadecimal addresses that start with “f”, you must add a leading zero (0) to
prevent recognition as a floating-point register. For example, 0f0 is a valid memory address while f0 is not.
If you do not specify the device argument, you can specify one of the following symbolic addresses:
Value
Description
gpr
General purpose register 0.
fpr
Floating-point register 1.
ipr
Internal processor register.
pt or pt0 -pt31
PAL Temporary registers 0 through 31. The data size defaults to quadword; the address space defaults to pt.
PC
Program counter (execution address register). The last address, size,
and type are unchanged.
+
The location immediately following the last location referred to by the
examine or deposit command. For references to physical or virtual
memory, the location is the last address plus the size of the last reference. For other address spaces, the address is the last address referred
to plus one.
–
The location immediately preceding the last location referred to by the
examine or deposit command. For references to physical or virtual
memory, the location is the last address minus the size of the last reference. For other address spaces, the address is the last address referred
to minus one.
*
The location last referred to by the examine or deposit command.
@
Uses the data at the last address referred to by the examine or deposit
command.
data
The data to be written. If the specified data is larger than the specified size, the
console firmware ignores the command and issues an error. If the data is smaller
than the specified size, the firmware pads the data with leading zeros before writing it.
Options
–b
Use a data size of byte.
–w
6–16
Console Command Reference
Use a data size of word.
–l
Use a data size of longword.
–q
Use a data size of quadword.
–o
Use a data size of octaword.
–h
Use a data size of hexaword.
–physical
Write the data to physical memory. Using this option is the same as specifying
pmem: for device.
–virtual
Write the data to virtual memory. Using this option is the same as specifying
vmem: for device.
–gpr
Write the data to the general purpose registers. Using this option is the same as
specifying gpr: for device.
–fpr
Write the data to the floating-point registers. Using this option is the same as specifying fpr: for device.
–ipr
Write the data to the internal processor registers. Using this option is the same as
specifying ipr: for device.
–n count
Write to the specified number of consecutive locations. The console firmware
deposits to the first address, then to the specified number of succeeding addresses.
Specify count as a hexadecimal value.
–s step
Increment the address location by the specified size. By default, the address
increment size is the data size. Use this option to override the default. This option
is not inherited. Specify step as a hexadecimal value.
Examples
1. >>> d -b -n 1FF pmem:0 0
Clears the first 512 bytes of physical memory.
2. >>> d -l -n 3 vmem:1234 5
Deposits 5 into four longwords starting at virtual memory address 1234.
3. >>> d -n 8 R0 FFFFFFFF
Console Command Reference
6–17
Loads general purpose registers R0 through R8 with –1.
4. >>> d -l -n 10 -s 200 pmem:0 8
Deposits 8 into the first longword of each of the first 17 pages in physical
memory.
See Also
examine
6–18
Console Command Reference
dynamic – show memory
Shows the state of dynamic memory. Dynamic memory is split into two main
heaps: the console’s private heap and the remaining memory heap.
Syntax
dynamic [-c [-r]] [-h] [-p] [-v] [-extend byte_count]
[-z heap_address]
Options
–c
Perform a consistency check on the default heap or the heap specified with option
–z.
–r
Repair a broken heap by flooding free blocks with DYN$K_FLOOD_FREE if
and only if the free blocks have been corrupted. Repairing broken heaps is dangerous at best, as it masks underlying errors. This flag takes effect only if a consistency check is being done.
–h
Display the headers of the blocks in the default heap or the heap specified with
option –z.
–p
Display dynamic memory statistics on a per process basis.
–v
Perform a validation test on the default heap or the heap specified with option –z.
–extend byte_count
Extend the default memory zone by the specified byte count at the expense of the
main memory zone. The command assumes that the two memory zones are physically adjacent.
–z heap_address
Operate on the heap at the specified address.
Examples
1. >>> dynamic
zone
address
---------00097740
001D2B80
zone
used
used
free
free
utili- high
size
blocks bytes
blocks bytes
zation water
---------- ------- ---------- ------- ---------- ------- -----1048576
14805504
389
1
358944
32
17
1
689664
14805504
free
free
34 %
0 %
371872
0
2. >>> dynamic -cv -z 97740
zone
zone
used
used
utili-
Console Command Reference
high
6–19
address size
blocks bytes
blocks bytes
zation water
-------- ---------- ------- ---------- ------- ---------- ------- -------00097740 1048576
398
359520
17
689088
34 %
371872)
3. >>> dynamic -h
zone
zone
used
used
free
address size
blocks bytes
blocks
-------- ---------- ------- ---------- --------00097740 1048576
392
359136
17
a 00097740 000E1600_001E0600 000E1608_001BF628
f 000E1600 0017E600_00097740 00189E68_00097748
a 0017E600 001823C0_000E1600 001BF448_001B0D6C
.
.
.
>>>
See Also
alloc, free
6–20
Console Command Reference
free
utili- high
bytes
zation water
---------- ------- -----689472
34 %
389280
00000000 00097740 32
FFFFFFFF 000E1600 643072)
00000023 0017E600 15808)
echo – display text output
Sends a line of text that you enter on the command line to the standard output. By
default, standard output is your console screen. The echo command separates
arguments (words) in the line with blanks and adds a new line character to the end
of the line.
Syntax
echo [-n] args ...
Arguments
args ...
Specifies the character strings to be displayed.
The character strings can include pipes and I/O redirection. However, if you use
them, enclose the characters strings within single quotes.
Options
–n
Suppress new lines characters from the output.
Examples
1. >>> echo this is a test.
this is a test.
>>>
Sends a character string to your console screen.
2. >>> echo -n this is a test.
this is a test.>>>
Sends a character string to your console screen, but with no new line separating the string from the next console prompt >>> .
3. >>> echo ’this is a test’ > foo
>>> cat foo
this is a test
>>>
Pipes a string to the file foo. Typing the contents of the file foo then
shows the string.
4. >>> echo > foo ’this is the simplest way
_>to create a long file. All characters will be echoed
_>to file foo until the closing single quote.’
>>> cat foo
this is the simplest way
to create a long file. All characters will be echoed
to file foo until the closing single quote.
>>>
Shows how you can use echo to create a file that is several lines long.
See Also
cat
Console Command Reference
6–21
eval – evaluate expression
Evaluates a postfix expression.
Syntax
eval [-ib -io -id -ix] [-b -o -d -x] operand1 operand2
operator
Arguments
operand1
Specifies the first numeric value to be evaluated.
operand2
Specifies the second numeric value to be evaluated.
operator
Specifies one of the following:
Operator
Description
+
Adds the operands.
-
Subtracts operand2 from operand1.
*
Multiplies the operands.
/
Divides operand1 by operand2.
Options
–ib
Use the operands as binary values.
–io
Use the operands as octal values.
–id
Use the operands as decimal values.
–ix
Use the operands as hexadecimal values.
–b
Display the output as a binary value.
–o
Display the output as an octal value.
–d
Display the output as a decimal value.
–x
6–22
Console Command Reference
Display the output as a hexadecimal value.
Examples
1. >>> eval 5 10 +
15
Adds 5 and 10 and displays 15 as the result.
2. >>> eval -ix -d 5 10 +
21
Adds the hexadecimal values 0x5 and 0x10 and displays the result as
decimal value 21.
Console Command Reference
6–23
examine – display memory data
Displays the content of a memory location, register, device, or file.
After initialization, if you have not specified a data address or size, the default
address space is physical memory, the default data size is a quadword, and the
default address is zero.
You specify an address or device by concatenating the device name with the
address, for example, pmem:0, and by specifying the size of the data to be displayed.
If you do not specify an address, the data at the current address is displayed in the
current data size (the last previously specified address and data size).
If you specify a conflicting device, address, or data size, the console ignores the
command and issues an error.
The information that the command displays consists of the device name, the
address (or offset within the device) in hexadecimal, and the examined data in
hexadecimal.
The examine command uses the same options as the deposit command. Additionally, the examine command supports instruction decoding (see option –d), which
disassembles instructions beginning at the current address.
Syntax
examine [-b -w -l -q -o -h -d] [physical -virtual -gpr -fpr
-ipr] [-n count] [-s step] [device] address
6–24
Console Command Reference
Arguments
device
Specifies the device name or address space to access. The following devices are
supported:
Value
Description
pmem:
Physical memory.
vmem:
Virtual memory. The console firmware checks on accessibility and protection. If the access would not be allowed to a program running with the current program stack, the firmware issues an error message. If memory
mapping is not enabled, virtual addresses are equal to physical addresses.
gpr:
General purpose register. The data size defaults to quadword. When you
specify this value, you can specify the following symbols for address: r0
through r31. The default data size is quadword.
fpr:
Floating-point register set. The data size defaults to quadword. When you
specify this value, you can specify the following symbols for address: f0
through f31. The default data size is quadword.
ipr:
Internal processor register set.
pt:
PAL Temporary register set. The data size defaults to quadword.
pcicfg:
PCI configuration space.
pcidmem:
PCI dense memory space.
pcismem:
PCI sparse memory space.
pciio:
PCI I/O space.
eerom:
Environment variable and error log NVRAM.
ferom:
Intel 28F020 firmware FEPROM.
toy:
DS1386 registers, clock chip, and NVRAM.
address
Specifies the address of the data that is to be examined. The address can be:
•
Any valid hexadecimal offset in the address space of the specified device
•
A symbolic address (if you omit the device argument)
For hexadecimal addresses that start with “f,” you must add a leading zero (0) to
prevent recognition as a floating-point register. For example, 0f0 is a valid memory address while f0 is not.
Console Command Reference
6–25
If you do not specify the device argument, you can specify one of the following
symbolic addresses:
Value
Description
gpr- name
Names a general purpose register. The data size defaults to quadword
and the address space defaults to gpr. Symbols you can specify as
valid names include r0 through r31, ai, ra, pv, fp, sp, and rz.
fpr- name
Names a floating-point register. The data size defaults to quadword
and the address space defaults to fpr. Symbols you can specify as
valid names include f0 through f31.
ipr- name
Names an internal processor register. The data size defaults to quadword and the address space defaults to ipr. Symbols you can specify
as valid names include ps, asn, asten, astsr, at, fen, ipir, ipl, mces,
pcbb, prbr, ptbr, scbb, sirr, sisr, tbchk, tbia, tbiap, tbis, esp, ssp,
usp, and whami.
pt- name
Names a PAL Temporary register. The data size defaults to quadword
and the address space defaults to pt. Symbols you can specify as valid
names include pt0 through pt31.
PC
Names the program counter (execution address register). The last
address, size, and type are unchanged.
+
Names the location immediately following the last location referred to
by the examine or deposit command. For references to physical or
virtual memory, the location is the last address plus the size of the last
reference. For other address spaces, the address is the last address
referred to plus one.
–
Names the location immediately preceding the last location referred to
by the examine or deposit command. For references to physical or
virtual memory, the location is the last address minus the size of the
last reference. For other address spaces, the address is the last address
referred to minus one.
*
Names the location last referred to by the examine or deposit command.
@
Uses the data at the last address referred to by the examine or deposit
command as the address.
Options
–b
Use a data size of byte.
–w
Use a data size of word.
–l
Use a data size of longword.
–q
Use a data size of quadword.
–o
6–26
Console Command Reference
Use a data size of octaword.
–h
Use a data size of hexaword.
–d
Display the decoded macro instruction. This option does not recognize machinespecific PAL instructions.
–physical
Display data that is at an address in physical memory. Using this option is the
same as specifying pmem: for device.
–virtual
Display data that is at an address in virtual memory. Using this option is the same
as specifying vmem: for device.
–gpr
Display data that is in the general purpose registers. Using this option is the same
as specifying gpr: for device.
–fpr
Display data that is in the floating-point registers. Using this option is the same as
specifying fpr: for device.
–ipr
Display data that is in the internal processor registers. Using this option is the
same as specifying ipr: for device.
–n count
Display the data at the specified number of consecutive locations.
–s step
Increment the address location by the specified size. By default, the address
increment size is the data size. Use this option to override the default. This option
is not inherited. Specify step as a hexadecimal value.
1. >>> e r0
gpr:
0 (
R0) 0000000000000002
Examine general purpose register R0 by symbolic address.
2. >>> e -g 0
gpr:
0 (
R0) 0000000000000002
Examine general purpose register R0 by address space (–gpr option).
3. >>> e gpr:0
gpr:
0 (
R0) 0000000000000002
Examine R0 by device name.
4. >>> examine pc
gpr: 0000000F (
PC) FFFFFFFC
Examine the program counter.
5. >>> examine sp
gpr: 0000000E (
SP) 00000200
Console Command Reference
6–27
Examine the GPR stack pointer register.
6. >>> examine -n 5 R7
gpr: 00000007 (
R7) 00000000
gpr: 00000008 (
R8) 00000000
gpr: 00000009 (
R9) 801D9000
gpr: 0000000A (
R10) 00000000
gpr: 0000000B (
R11) 00000000
gpr: 0000000C (
AP) 00000000
Examine register R7 plus the 5 following general purpose registers.
7. >>> examine ipr:11
ipr: 00000011 ( SCBB) 2004A000
Examine the SCBB, internal processor register 17 (decimal).
8. >>> examine scbb
ipr: 00000011 ( SCBB) 2004A000
Examine the SCBB using the symbolic name.
9. >>> examine pmem:0
pmem: 00000000 00000000
Examine physical address 0.
10. >>> examine -d 40000
pmem: 00040000
11 BRB
20040019
Examine address 40000 with macro instruction decode.
11. >>> examine
pmem: 20040048
DB MFPR
Look at the next instruction.
See Also
deposit
6–28
Console Command Reference
S^#2B,B^48(R1)
exer – exercise devices
Exercises one or more devices by performing read, write, and comparison operations. Optionally, this command reports performance statistics.
A read operation reads data from a device and places the data in a buffer. A write
operation writes data that resides in a buffer to a device. A comparison operation
compares the contents of two buffers.
The exer command uses two buffers in “memzone” heap of main memory,
buffer1 and buffer2. A read or write operation can use either buffer. A compare operation uses both buffers.
The total number of bytes read or written on each pass of the exerciser is specified
by the length (in blocks) or starting and ending block address options.
Syntax
exer [-sb start_block] [-eb end_block] [-p pass_count]
[-l blocks] [-bs block_size] [-bc block_per_io]
[-d1 buf1_string] [-d2 buf2_string] [-a
action_string]
[-sec seconds] [-m] [-v] [-delay milliseconds]
[device...]
Arguments
device...
Specifies the names of one or more devices or file streams to be exercised.
Options
–sb start_block
Use the specified hexadecimal value as the starting block number within the file
stream. The default is 0.
–eb end_block
Use the specified hexadecimal value as the ending block number within the file
stream. The default is 0.
–p pass_count
Run the exerciser for the specified number of passes. If you specify 0, the exerciser runs forever or until you enter Ctrl/C. The default is 1.
–l blocks
Exercise the specified number of blocks. Specify the block value as hexadecimal.
This option has precedence over the –eb option. If the exerciser is reading only,
and you do not specify –l or –eb, the exerciser reads until it reaches the end-of-file
(EOF). If the exerciser is writing, and you do not specify –l or –eb, the exerciser
writes for the size of the device. The default is 1.
–bs block_size
Console Command Reference
6–29
Use the specified block size. Specify the block size in bytes as a hexadecimal
value. The default is 0x200 except for tape drives, which default to 0x800. The
maximum block size allowed with variable length block reads is 0x800 bytes.
–bc block_per_io
Use the specified number of blocks per I/O operation. Specify the number of
blocks as a hexadecimal value. The default is 1.
–d1 buf1_string
Evaluate the specified character string and initialize buffer1 with the results.
By default, the console firmware loads the buffer with alternating 5s and As
(hexadecimal).
–d2 buf2_string
Evaluate the specified character string and initialize buffer2 with the results.
By default, the console firmware loads the buffer with alternating 5s and As
(hexadecimal).
–a action_string
Use the specified “action string,” which determines the sequence of read, write,
and comparison operations that are to be performed on various buffers. The console firmware processes each command code character in the action string from
left to right. Each time the exer command completes all of the operations specified by the action string, the command reduces the remaining amount of device
data to be processed by the size of the last packet processed by the action string.
The exer command processes the action string repeatedly until the specified
amount of device data has been processed.
Lowercase action string characters specify operations that use buffer1. Uppercase action string characters specify operations that use buffer2. The action
string character c requires the use of both buffers. The action string characters “?”
and “-” do not use a buffer.
Table 6–1 lists the action string characters and corresponding actions. The default
action string is “?r.”:
Table 6–1 Action String Characters
6–30
Character
Action
r
Read data from a device and place the data in buffer1.
w
Write data that is in buffer1 to a device.
R
Read data from a device and place the data in buffer2.
W
Write data that is in buffer2 to a device.
n
Write data that is in buffer1 without using locking to maintain mutual
exclusion.
N
Write data that is in buffer2 without using locking to maintain mutual
exclusion.
c
Compare the contents of buffer1 and buffer2.
Console Command Reference
Table 6–1 Action String Characters (Continued)
Character
Action
-
Seek to a file offset prior to performing the last read or write operation.
?
Seek to a random block offset within a specified range of blocks, call
the random function to create each of a set of numbers once, and
then choose a set that is a power of two and is greater than or equal to
the block range.
Each call to random results in a number that is then mapped to the
set of numbers in the block range. The exer command seeks to that
location in the file stream.
Since the exer command starts with the same random number seed,
the set of random numbers generated is always over the same set of
block range numbers.
s
Sleep for the number of milliseconds specified by the delay option. If
you do not specify the delay option, the console sleeps for 1 millisecond.
Note: Times reported in verbose mode are not necessarily accurate
when this action character is used.
The action string can specify any combination or sequence of read, write, and
comparison operations on buffer1 and buffer2. Depending on the option arguments that you use, you can omit one or two of the three operations without affecting the execution of the other operations.
If the exer command writes to a file, the number of bytes processed per pass
equals the allocation size of the file. The allocation size is usually larger than the
length of the file for RAM disk files, but equal to the length for disk devices.
Note
Disk device I/O fails if the block size is not equal to 1 or a multiple of
512. Partial block read or write operations are not supported; therefore, a
length that is not a multiple of the block size results in no errors, but the
last partial block I/O operation on the data does not occur.
–sec seconds
Terminate the exercise after the specified number of seconds have elapsed. By
default, the exerciser continues until the specified number of blocks or passcount are processed.
–m
Use metrics mode and report throughput at the end of the exercise.
–v
Use verbose mode for read operations and write the data that is read to standard
output (STDOUT). This option does not apply to write and comparison operations.
Console Command Reference
6–31
Delay processing by the specified number of milliseconds if “s” appears in the
action string.
Examples
1. >>> exer dk*.* -p 0 -secs 36000
Read all SCSI type disks for the entire length of each disk. Repeat this for
36000 seconds (10 hours). All disks are read concurrently. Each block
read occurs at a random block number on each disk.
2. >>> exer -l 2 dka0
Read block numbers 0 and 1 from device dka0.
3. >>> exer -sb 1 -eb 3 -bc 4 -a ’w’ -d1 ’0x5a’ dka0
Write 0x5as to every byte of blocks 1, 2, and 3. The packet size is
bc * bs, 4 * 512, 2048 for all writes.
4. >>> ls -l du*.* dk*.*
d**.* no such file
r--dk
0/0
0
>>> exer dk*.* -bc 10 -sec 20 -m -a ’r’
dka0.0.0.0.0 exer completed
packet
size
IOs
8192 3325
bytes read
27238400
bytes written
0
dka0.0.0.0.0
IOs
elapsed idle
/sec bytes/sec seconds secs
166
1360288
20
19
5. >>> exer -eb 64 -bc 4 -a ’?w-Rc’ dka0
Perform a destructive write test on blocks 0 through 100 on disk dka0.
The packet size is 2048 bytes. The action string specifies the following
sequence of operations:
a. Set the current block address to a random block number on the disk
between 0 and 97. A 4-block packet, starting at block number 98, 99, or
100, will access blocks beyond the end of the length to be processed.
Thus, 97 is the largest possible starting block address of a packet.
b. Write from buffer1, which contains the previously read data, to the
current block address.
c. Set the current block address to what it was just prior to the previous write
operation.
d. From the current block address, read a packet into buffer2.
e. Compare buffer1 with buffer2 and report any discrepancies.
f.
Repeat steps a through e until enough packets have been written to satisfy
the length requirement of 101 blocks.
6. >>> exer -a ’?r-w-Rc’ dka0
Perform a nondestructive write test with packet sizes of 512 bytes. The
action string specifies the following sequence of operations:
a. Set the current block address to a random block number on the disk.
b. From the current block address on the disk, read a packet into buffer1.
c. Set the current block address to the device address, where it was just
before the previous read operation occurred.
6–32
Console Command Reference
d. Write a packet of 0x5as from buffer1 to the current block address.
e. Set the current block address to what it was just prior to the previous write
operation.
f.
From the current block address on the disk, read a packet into buffer2.
g. Compare buffer1 with buffer2 and report any discrepancies.
h. Repeat the preceding steps until each block on the disk has been written
once and read twice.
7. >>> set myd 0
>>> exer -bs 1 -bc a -l a -a ’w’ -d1 ’myd myd ~ =’ foo
>>> clear myd
>>> hd foo -l a
00000000 ff 00 ff 00 ff 00 ff 00 ff 00 ..........
Use an environment variable myd as a counter. Write 10 bytes of the pattern ff 00 ff 00... to RAM disk file foo, using a packet size of 10 bytes.
Because the length specified is also 10 bytes, only one write occurs.
Delete the environment variable myd.
The hd, hexadecimal dump, of foo shows the contents of foo after the
exer command runs.
8. >>> set myd 0
>>> exer -bs 1 -bc a -l a -a ’w’ -d1 ’myd myd 1 + =’ foo
>>> hd foo -l a
00000000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a ..........
Write a pattern of 01 02 03 ... 0a to file foo.
9. >>> set myd 0
>>> exer -bs 1 -bc 4 -l a -a ’w’ -d1 ’myd myd 1 + =’ foo -m
foo exer completed
packet
IOs
elapsed idle
size
IOs bytes read bytes written
/sec bytes/sec seconds secs
4
3
0
10
3001
10001
0
0
>>> hd foo
00000000 01 02 03 04 01 02 03 04 01 02 ..........
>>> show myd
myd
4
10. >>> echo ’0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstAB’ -n > foo3
>>> exer -bs 1 -v -m foo3
b2lkfmp8jatsnA1gri54B69o3qdc7eh0foo3 exer completed
packet
size
IOs
1
32
bytes read
32
IOs
elapsed idle
bytes written
/sec bytes/sec seconds secs
0
5333
5333
0
0
See Also
memexer
Console Command Reference
6–33
exit – exit current shell process
Exits the current shell process with the specified status or returns the status of the
last command executed.
Syntax
exit exit_value
Argument
exit_value
Specifies the status code to be returned by the shell process.
Examples
1. >>> exit
Exits and returns the status of the previously executed command.
2. >>> exit 0
Exits with a success status.
3. >>> test || exit
Runs test and exits if there is an error.
6–34
Console Command Reference
false – return a failure status
Returns a failure status.
Syntax
false
Example
>>> while false ; do echo foo; done
>>>
Console Command Reference
6–35
free – deallocate memory
Frees a block of memory that has been allocated from heap. The block is returned
to the appropriate heap.
Syntax
free address...
Argument
address ...
Specifies the addresses of blocks of memory that are to be returned to the heap. If
you specify more than one address, separate the addresses with a space.
Example
>>> alloc 200
00FFFE00
>>> free fffe00
>>> free ‘alloc 10‘ ‘alloc 20‘ ‘alloc 30‘
>>>
See Also
alloc, dynamic
6–36
Console Command Reference
grep – search for regular expressions
Globally searches for regular expressions and displays any lines containing occurrences of those expressions. A regular expression is a shorthand way of specifying
a wildcard type of string comparison. Since the grep command is line-oriented, it
works only on ASCII files.
Syntax
grep [-c] [-i] [-n] [-v] {expression -f file} [file ...]
Arguments
expression
Console Command Reference
6–37
Specifies the regular expression for which to search. If the expression includes
any of the metacharacters listed in the following table, enclose the expression
within quotes to avoid interpretation by the shell.
Metacharacter
Description
^
Matches the beginning of a line.
$
Matches the end of a line.
.
Matches any single character.
[]
Matches a specified set of characters, for example, [ABC]
matches A or B or C. The following rules also apply for these
sets:
•
A dash other than the first or last character denotes a range
of characters: [A-Z] matches any uppercase letter.
•
If the first character of the set is ^, then the sense of match
is reversed: [^0-9] matches any non-digit.
•
You must precede the backslash (\), right square bracket
(]), dash (-), and circumflex (^) characters with a backslash ( \ ) if they occur in a set.
*
Matches repeatedly. When you place an asterisk (*) after a pattern, the asterisk indicates that the pattern should match any number of times. For example, [a-z][0-9]* matches a lowercase
letter followed by zero or more digits.
+
Matches repeatedly. When you place a plus sign (+) after a pattern, the plus sign indicates that the pattern should match one or
more times. For example, [0-9]+ matches any sequence of one
or more digits.
?
Matches optionally. When you place a question mark (?) after a
pattern, the question mark indicates that the pattern can match
zero or one times. For example, [a-z][0-9]? matches a lowercase letter alone or followed by a single digit.
\x’
Prevents the character (denoted by x) following the backslash
from having special meaning.
file ...
Specifies the files to be searched. If you do not specify a file, the command
searches standard input (STDIN).
Options
–c
Print only the number of lines that matched.
–i
Ignore case during the search. By default, the grep command is case-sensitive.
–n
6–38
Console Command Reference
Print the line numbers of the matching lines.
–v
Print all lines that do not contain the specified expression.
–f file
Use the regular expression in the specified file instead of the expression specified
on the command line.
Examples
1. >>> ps | grep ewa0
0000001f 0019e220 3
mop_ewa0_cnw
00000019 0018e220 2
00000018 0018f900 3
mop_ewa0_dlw
00000015 0019c320 5
ewa0_isr_tx
00000013 001a2ce0 5
ewa0_isr_rx
2 ffffffff 0
mopcn_ewa0 waiting on
1 ffffffff 0
3 ffffffff 0
mopid_ewa0 waiting on tqe
mopdl_ewa0 waiting on
0 ffffffff 0
tx_ewa0 waiting on
2 ffffffff 0
rx_ewa0 waiting on
Search the output of the ps command (standard input) for lines containing EWA0.
2. >>> alloc 20
00FFFFE0
>>> deposit -q pmem:fffff0 0
>>> e -n 3 ffffe0
pmem:
FFFFE0 EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF
pmem:
FFFFE8 EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF
pmem:
FFFFF0 0000000000000000
pmem:
FFFFF8 EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF
>>> e -n 3 ffffe0 | grep -v 0000000000000000
pmem:
FFFFE0 EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF)
pmem:
FFFFE8 EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF)
pmem:
FFFFF8 EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF)
>>> free ffffe0
>>>
Using grep, search for all quadwords in a range of memory that are nonzero.
Console Command Reference
6–39
hd – dump file contents
Dumps the contents of a file in hexadecimal and ASCII format.
Syntax
hd [-byte -word -long -quad] file ...
Arguments
file ...
Specifies the files to be displayed.
Options
–byte
Print the data in bytes.
–word
Print the data in words.
–long
Print the data in longwords.
–quad
Print the data in quadwords.
Examples
1. >>> echo -n ’the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog’ >foo
>>> hd foo
00000000 74 68 65 20 71 75 69 63 6B 20 62 72 6P 77 6E 20 the quick
brown
00000010 66 6F 78 20 6A 75 6D 70 65 64 20 6F 76 65 72 20 fox jumped
over
00000020 74 68 65 20 6C 61 7A 79 20 64 6F 67
the lazy dog
2. >>> -byte foo
00000000 74 68 65 20 71 75 69 63 6B 20 62 72 6P 77 6E 20
brown
00000010 66 6F 78 20 6A 75 6D 70 65 64 20 6F 76 65 72 20
over
00000020 74 68 65 20 6C 61 7A 79 20 64 6F 67
fox jumped
the lazy dog
3. >>> -word foo
00000000 6874 2065 7571 6369 206B 7262 776F 206E
00000010 6F66 2078 756A 706D 6465 6F20 6576 2072
00000020 6874 2065 616C 797A 6420 676F
the quick brown
fox jumped over
the lazy dog
4. >>> -long foo
00000000 20656874
00000010 20786F66
00000020 20656874
the quick brown
fox jumped over
the lazy dog
63697571 7262206B
706D756A 6F206465
797A616C 676F6420
5. >>> -quad foo
00000000 6369757120656874
00000010 706D756A20786F66
00000020 797A616C20656874
>>>
6–40
the quick
Console Command Reference
206E776F
20726576
206E776F7262206B
207265766F206465
00000000676F6420
the quick brown
fox jumped over
the lazy dog
help – display help on commands
Displays the syntax for Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console firmware commands. If you do not specify a command, the help command displays information
about itself and lists the commands for which additional information is available.
The following conventions are used for the command syntax that the help command displays:
Convention
Description
<item>
Angle brackets denote an item for which you must specify a
value.
[<item>]
Square brackets enclose optional arguments, options, or values.
{a, b, c }
Braces enclosing items separated by commas indicate mutually
exclusive items. Choose only one of a, b, or c.
{a | b | c }
Braces enclosing items separated by vertical bars indicate combinatorial items. Choose any combination of a, b, and c.
You can use the help and man commands interchangeably.
Syntax
help [command-spec ...]
Arguments
command-spec ...
Specifies the commands or topics for which you request help.
For each command specification that you specify, the help command tries to find
all topics that match. For example, if you specify a ex as the command specification, help displays information about the exit and examine commands.
The help command supports wildcards. Use an asterisk (*) as the wildcard character. For example, enter help * to display help on all console commands.
The help command treats command specifications as regular expressions. For
more information on regular expressions, see the grep command. Help command
specifications are case-sensitive.
Examples
1. >>> help
Display a list of console commands for which help is available.
2. >>> help *
Display help on all console commands.
3. >>> help ex
Display help on all commands that begin with “ex.”
4. >>> help boot
Display help on the boot command.
Console Command Reference
6–41
init_ev – initialize environment variables
Sets all environment variables to default values. For the new variable settings to
take effect, you must reset the system or issue the initialize command.
Syntax
init_ev
Example
>>> init_ev
Note: A System Reset or init command must be issued immediately
after this command to set all environment variables to their
default values!!
>>>
Reset the system or issue the init command to ensure that the new default environment variable settings take effect.
6–42
Console Command Reference
init – initialize a device or the processor and console
Initializes a device or the processor and console.
Syntax
init [-d device]
Option
–d device
Initialize the specified device.
Example
1. >>> init
Initialize the processor and console.
2. >>> init -d ewa0
Initialize device ewa0.
Console Command Reference
6–43
kill – delete process
Deletes the specified processes.
Syntax
kill pid ...
Arguments
pid ...
Specifies the process IDs (PIDs) of the processes to be deleted. To acquire a listing of PIDs associated with your system, use the ps command.
Example
>>> memtest -p 0 &
>>> ps | grep memtest
000000f1 00217920 2
>>> kill f1
>>> ps | grep memtest
9357 ffffffff 0
memtest ready
Run memtest and display the test’s PID (f1) with the ps and grep commands.
Using the displayed data, delete the process with the kill command. Try to display
the test process again. The command output shows that the process is gone.
See Also
ps
6–44
Console Command Reference
line – read a line
Copies a line (up to the new line character) from the standard input channel of the
current process to the standard output channel of that process. This command
always writes at least the new line character as output.
Use this command in scripts to read from the user’s terminal, or to read lines from
a pipeline while in a for/while/until loop.
Syntax
line
Examples
1. >>> line
type a line of input followed by carriage return
type a line of input followed by carriage return
Copy the line of typed input to the terminal screen.
2. >>> line >foo
type a line of input followed by carriage return
>>> cat foo
type a line of input followed by carriage return
Use the line command interactively.
3. >>> echo -n ’continue [Y, (N)]? ’
>>> line <tt >tee:foo/nl
>>> if grep <foo ’[yY]’ >nl; then echo yes; else echo no; fi
>>>
Use the line command within a script.
Console Command Reference
6–45
ls – list files
Lists the files or inodes in the system. Inodes are RAM disk files, open channels,
and some drivers. RAM disk files include script files, diagnostics, and executable
shell commands.
Syntax
ls [-l] [file ...]
Argument
file ...
Specifies the files and inodes to be listed. You can use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard
character. If you use a wildcard, the command lists all files and inodes that match
the specification. If you omit the argument, the command lists all files and inodes
on the system.
Option
–l
Lists the files and inodes in long format. When using long format, the command
lists each file and inode on a line with additional information. By default, the command lists just names.
Examples
1. >>> ls examine
examine
Lists the file named examine.
2. >>> ls d*
d
date
debug1
deposit
dg_pidlist
dka0.0.0.0.0
dub0.0.0.1.0
dynamic
Lists files and inodes that start with d.
6–46
Console Command Reference
debug2
decode
dke100.1.0.4.0
man – help on commands
Displays the syntax for Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console firmware commands. If you do not specify a command, the man command displays information
about itself and lists the commands for which additional information is available.
The following conventions are used for the command syntax that the man command displays:
Convention
Description
<item>
Angle brackets denote an item for which you must specify a
value.
[<item>]
Square brackets enclose optional arguments, options, or values.
{a, b, c }
Braces enclosing items separated by commas indicate mutually
exclusive items. Choose only one of a, b, or c.
{a | b | c }
Braces enclosing items separated by vertical bars indicate combinatorial items. Choose any combination of a, b, and c.
You can use the help and man commands interchangeably.
Syntax
man [command-spec ...]
Arguments
command-spec ...
Specifies the commands or topics for which you request help.
For each command specification that you specify, the man command tries to find
all topics that match. For example, if you specify a ex as the command specification, man displays information about the exit and examine commands.
The man command supports wildcards. Use an asterisk (*) as the wildcard character. For example, enter man * to display help on all console commands.
The man command treats command specifications as regular expressions. For
more information on regular expressions, see the grep command. Help command
specifications are case sensitive.
Examples
1. >>> man
Display a list of console commands for which help is available.
2. >>> man *
Display help on all console commands.
3. >>> man ex
Display help on all commands that begin with “ex.”
4. >>> man boot
Display help on the boot command.
Console Command Reference
6–47
memexer – memory exerciser
Starts a specified number of graycode memory test processes running in the background. Each test randomly allocates and tests blocks of memory twice the size of
the Bcache, using all available memory.
The command does not display any output unless an error occurs.
Syntax
memexer [number_of_tests]
Argument
number_of_tests
Specifies the number of memory test processes to start. The default is 1. To run
tests indefinitely, specify 0.
Example
>>> memexer 2 &
>>>
Run two memory tests in the background. The tests run in blocks of two times the
backup cache size across all available memory.
See Also
memtest
6–48
Console Command Reference
memtest – memory test
Tests memory with any or all of four tests:
Test
Description
Graycode memory test
Writes, reads, and verifies a graycode pattern and an inverse
graycode pattern for the specified address range.
Writes, reads, and verifies a marching pattern and an inverse
marching pattern for the specified address range.
Exercises random addresses within the specified range with
random data of random length.
Writes blocks of data to the specified address, victimizes the
data, and then reads back and verifies the block.
March memory test
Random memory test
Victim block test
Notes
If you use memtest to test large sections of memory, it might take a while
for testing to complete.
If you issue a Ctrl/C or the kill command with a PID in the middle of testing, the memtest process might not abort right away. To increase speed
of execution, check for a Ctrl/C or kill command done outside of any test
loops. If this is not satisfactory, you can run concurrent memtest processes in the background with shorter lengths within the target range.
Syntax
memtest [-sa start_address] [-ea end_address] [-l
length]
[-ba block_address] [-bs block_size]
[-i address_inc] [-p pass_count]
[-d data_pattern] [-rs random_seed] [-rb] [-f] [m]
[-z] [-h] [-mb] [-t] [-g] [-se]
Options
–sa start_address
Use the specified address as the starting address for the test. The default is the first
free space in the memory zone.
–ea end_address
Use the specified address as the ending address for the test. The default is
start_address plus length.
–l length
Test the specified length (in bytes) of memory. The default length is equal to
block_size, except with the –rb option, which uses the zone size. The –l
option has precedence over the –ea option.
–ba block_address
Console Command Reference
6–49
Test the block of memory at the specified address using the victim eject memory
test. This option applies victim eject memory test only.
–bs block_size
Test the specified amount of memory (in bytes). Specify the size as a hexadecimal
value. The default is 8192 bytes. This option applies to the random block test only.
For all other tests, the block size equals length.
–i address_inc
Test memory at increments specified by the increment. The default is 0, which
implies no incrementation. This option applies to the graycode test only. The
increment value is in quadwords (that is, an increment of one tests every other
quadword). This option is useful if multiple CPUs test the same physical memory.
To test an unaligned starting address, you must also specify the –z option.
–d data_pattern
Use the specified test pattern. The default pattern is 5s.
–p pass_count
Execute the test the number of times specified by the pass count. If you specify 0,
the command runs forever or until you enter Ctrl/C. The default is 1.
–rs random_seed
Use the specified random seed. Use this option only with the –rb option. The
default is 0.
–rb
Randomly allocate and test all of the specified memory address range. Allocations
are done of size block_size.
–f
Use fast mode. If you specify this option, the data comparison is omitted. The
console firmware detects only ECC/EDC errors.
–m
Time the memory test and at the end of the test, display the elapsed time. By
default, the timer is off.
–z
Use the specified memory address without an allocation. This bypasses all checking, but allows testing in addresses outside of the main memory heap. It also
allows unaligned testing.
Caution
This flag allows you to test and corrupt any memory.
–h
6–50
Console Command Reference
Allocate the memory to be tested from the firmware heap.
–mb
Use memory barriers after each memory access. Use this option only for fast
mode (-f) graycode tests. When you specify this flag, the console firmware executes an Alpha MB instruction after every memory access. This guarantees serial
access to memory.
–t
Run the specified tests. By default, the command runs all tests in the group specified by the -g option. The individual tests are as follows:
Test
Test Number
Graycode test
1
March test
2
Random test
3
Victim eject test
4
–g
Use the specified group. Currently, the only group supported is MFG.
–se
Use a soft error threshold.
Examples
1. >>> memtest -sa 200000 -l 1000
Test memory starting at address 0x200000 (–sa) for 0x1000 bytes (–l).
2. >>> memtest -sa 200000 -l 1000 -f
Test memory starting at address 0x200000 for 0x1000 bytes, using fast
mode. Fast mode eliminates data verification.
3. >>> memtest -sa 300000 -p 10
Write a default block size of 8192 bytes starting at address 0x300000 for
10 passes (–p).
4. >>> memtest -f -mb
Test memory in arbitrary 8192 byte blocks, without data verification.
After each read and write operation, execute a memory barrier (MB)
instruction.
5. >>> memtest -sa 200000 -ea 400000 -rb
Test memory starting at address 0x200000 and ending at address 0x3fffff.
Randomly allocate every block within this range.
Console Command Reference
6–51
Note
The memtest command does not generate an error with the –rb option if
a block within the range cannot be allocated.
6. >>> memtest -h -rb -bs 100
Test the console heap by randomly allocating memory in blocks of size
0x100 bytes.
7. >>> memtest -rb -p 0
Test memory across all of the memory zone (all memory excluding the
HWRPB, the PAL area, the console, and the console heap). The test runs
in the foreground until you enter Ctrl/C.
See Also
memexer
6–52
Console Command Reference
net – perform MOP operations
Using a specified Ethernet port, performs basic maintenance operations protocol
(MOP) operations, such as loopbacks, ID requests, and remote file loads. This
command also allows you to observe the status of a network port. Specifically,
when you use net with the –s option, the command displays the current status of a
port, including the contents of MOP counters. This command is useful for monitoring port activity and trying to isolate network failures.
Syntax
net [-s] [-sa] [-ri] [-ic] [-id] [-l0] [-l1] [-rb] [-csr]
[-els] [-kls] [-cm mode] [-da node_address]
[-l file_name] [-lw wait_in_secs] [-sv mop_version]
port
Arguments
port
Specifies the name of the Ethernet port on which to operate. If you do not specify
a port, the command uses the default port, EWA0.
Options
–s
Display port status information, including MOP counters.
–sa
Display the port’s Ethernet station address.
–ri
Reinitialize the port’s drivers.
–ic
Initialize the MOP counters.
–id
Send a MOP request ID to the destination node specified with the –da option.
–l0
Send an Ethernet loopback to the destination node specified with the –da option.
This option, –l0, is “l” for loopback and zero.
–l1
Request a MOP loopback.
–rb
Request a system reboot by sending a MOP V4 request boot message to the
remote boot node specified with the –da option.
–csr
Console Command Reference
6–53
Display the values of the Ethernet port control/status registers (CSRs).
–els
Enable the extended design verification test (DVT) loop service.
–kls
Disable the extended DVT loop service.–cm mode
Change the mode of the port device. Valid modes and their corresponding values
include the following:
Mode
Symbol
Normal
nm
Internal loopback
in
External loopback
ex
Normal filter
nf
Promiscuous
pr
Multicast
mc
Internal loopback and promiscuous
ip
Force collisions
fc
No force collisions
nofc
Default
df
–da node_address
Use the specified destination node address with the –l0, –id, or –rb option.
–l file_name
Broadcast a MOP load request for the specified load file.
–lw wait_in_secs
Wait the specified number of seconds for loop messages from the –l1 option to
return. If the messages do not return in the specified time period, the console firmware generates an error message.
–sv mop_version
Set the preferred version of MOP to be used. Valid version numbers are 3 and 4.
Examples
1. >>> net -sa
-ewa0: 08-00-2b-1d-02-91
Display the local Ethernet port station address.
6–54
Console Command Reference
2. >>> net -s
DEVICE SPECIFIC:
TI: 203 RI: 42237 RU: 4 ME: 0 TW: 0 RW: 0 BO: 0
HF: 0 UF: 0 TN: 0 LE: 0 TO: 0 RWT: 39967 RHF: 39969
TC: 54
PORT INFO:
tx full: 0 tx index in: 10 tx index out: 10
rx index in: 11
MOP BLOCK:
Network list size: 0
MOP COUNTERS:
Time since zeroed (Secs): 2815
TX:
Bytes: 116588 Frames: 204
Deferred: 2 One collision: 52 Multi collisions: 14
TX Failures:
Excessive collisions: 0 Carrier check: 0 Short circuit: 0
Open circuit: 0 Long frame: 0 Remote defer: 0
Collision detect: 0
RX:
Bytes: 116564 Frames: 194
Multicast bytes: 13850637 Multicast frames: 42343
RX Failures:
Block check: 0 Framing error: 0 Long frame: 0
Unknown destination: 42343 Data overrun: 0 No system buffer: 22
No user buffers: 0
>>>
Display the EWA0 port status, including the MOP counters.
Console Command Reference
6–55
ps – show process
Displays the system state in the form of process status and statistics.
Syntax
ps
Example
>>> ps
ID
PCB
-------- --------0000008f 0010e8a0
00000020 00110160
0000001f 0013cb60
puu_receive
0000001c 0013ed00
0000001b 0014fc00
puu_receive
0000001a 00111a20
00000015 001176a0
mop_ewa0_cnw
00000014 00119140
00000013 0011ac20
mop_ewa0_dlw
00000012 0011f6a0
ewa0_isr_tx
00000011 00121140
ewa0_isr_rx
00000010 00122ac0
0000000f 001244e0
pua_receive
00000009 00147460
00000008 00148f00
00000007 0014a9a0
00000006 0014e1a0
00000004 001516e0
00000003 00153140
00000002 00158740
tt_control
00000001 0005cfd8
>>>
See Also
sa, sp
6–56
Console Command Reference
CPU
Pri Time
Affinity CPU Program
State
--- ------ -------- --- --------- -------------------3
1
6
0 00000001 0
ps running
0 ffffffff 0
puc_poll waiting on tqe
0 ffffffff 0 puc_receive waiting on
1
6
0 ffffffff 0
pub_poll waiting on tqe
0 ffffffff 0 pub_receive waiting on
3
2
0 00000001 0
0 ffffffff 0
sh ready
mopcn_ewa0 waiting on
2
2
0 ffffffff 0
0 ffffffff 0
mopid_ewa0 waiting on tqe
mopdl_ewa0 waiting on
6
0 ffffffff 0
tx_ewa0 waiting on
6
0 ffffffff 0
rx_ewa0 waiting on
1
6
0 ffffffff 0
pua_poll waiting on tqe
0 ffffffff 0 pua_receive waiting on
5
0 ffffffff
5
0 ffffffff
5
0 ffffffff
5
0 00000001
2
0 ffffffff
7 11759330 ffffffff
6
0 ffffffff
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 00000001 0
lad_poll
dup_poll
mscp_poll
entry_00
dead_eater
timer
tt_control
waiting
waiting
waiting
waiting
waiting
waiting
waiting
idle ready
on
on
on
on
on
on
on
tqe
tqe
tqe
entry_00
dead_pcb
timer
pwrup – run power-on diagnostics
Runs the power-on diagnostics script. The pwrup command initializes network
environment variables and runs diagnostic tests.
Syntax
pwrup
Example
>>> pwrup
Runs the power-on script.
Console Command Reference
6–57
rm – remove file
Removes specified files from the file system. Allocated memory associated with
the removed files is returned to memory heap.
Syntax
rm file...
Arguments
file ...
Specifies the files to be removed.
Example
>>>
foo
>>>
>>>
foo
>>>
ls foo
rm foo
ls foo
no such file
List file foo to show that it exists, remove the file, and then try to list the file
again to show that it is gone.
See Also
cat, ls
6–58
Console Command Reference
sa – set process affinity
Change the affinity mask of a process. The affinity mask specifies the processors
on which the process can run.
Syntax
sa process_id affinity_mask
Arguments
process_id
Specifies the process ID (PID) of the process for which the affinity mask is to be
modified.
affinity_mask
Specifies the new affinity mask, which indicates on which processors the process
can run. Bits 0 and 1 of the mask correspond to processors 0 and 1, respectively.
Example
>>> memtest -p 0 &
>>> ps | grep memtest
00000025 001a9700 2
23691 00000001 0
>>> sa 25 2
>>> ps | grep memtest
00000025 001a9700 2
125955 00000002 1
>>>
memtest ready
memtest running
See Also
ps, sp
Console Command Reference
6–59
semaphore – show system semaphores
Shows all the semaphores known to the system by traversing the semaphore
queue.
Syntax
semaphore
Example
>>> semaphore
Name
Value
Address First Waiter
-------------------------------- -------- -------- ----------------------dyn_sync 00000001 00050378
dyn_release 00000001 000503A0
shell_iolock 00000001 0015D684
exit_iolock 00000001 0015D770
grep_iolock 00000001 0015DB20
eval_iolock 00000001 0015DC0C
chmod_iolock 00000001 0015DCF8
^C
>>>
6–60
Console Command Reference
set – set environment variable
Sets the value of an environment variable. Use environment variables to pass configuration information between the console firmware and the operating system.
Some environment variables are stored in nonvolatile memory.
For a listing of predefined environment variables, see Table 5–2.
Syntax
set envar value [-default] [-integer] [-string]
Arguments
envar
Specifies the name of the environment variable to be assigned a new value. For a
listing of predefined environment variables, see Table 5–2.
value
Specifies the value to be assigned to the environment variable. Depending on the
environment variable, the value must be a numeric value or an ASCII string.
Options
–default
Restore the environment variable to its default value.
–integer
Create an environment variable that is set to an integer value.
–string
Create an environment variable that is set to an ASCII string value.
Examples
1. >>> set MODE FASTBOOT
Set the mode for controlling the level of testing done at power-on or after
console initialization to FASTBOOT. The FASTBOOT value indicates
that you want the system to execute minimal console diagnostics.
2. >>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
set
set
set
set
set
VME_A16_BASE
VME_A24_BASE
VME_A24_SIZE
VME_A32_BASE
VME_A32_SIZE
0
a00000
400
80000000
4000
Set the following:
•
•
•
•
The base address of the VMEbus A16 address space to be %x0
The base address of the VMEbus A24 address space to be %x0xa00000
The size of the VMEbus A24 address space to be 1 MB
The base address of the VMEbus A32 address space to be %x80000000
Console Command Reference
6–61
•
The size of the VMEbus A32 address space to be 16 MB
3. >>> set EWA0_PROTOCOLS BOOTP
Set the network protocol for booting and other network functions to be
BOOTP.
4. >>> set BOOTDEF_DEV ewa0
Set the default device from which the system attempts to boot to EWA0.
6–62
Console Command Reference
5. >>> set AUTO_ACTION BOOT
Set the system’s default console action to boot after an error, halt, or
power-on.
6. >>> set BOOT_FILE avme.sys
Set the file name to be used when the system’s boot requires a file name.
7. >>> set BOOT_OSFLAGS 0,1
Set the system’s default boot flags to 0,1.
8. >>> set foo 5
Create environment variable foo and set its value to 5.
See Also
clear, show
Console Command Reference
6–63
set led – display char on LED
Displays a character on the front panel light emitting diode (LED).
Syntax
set led char [-b]
Argument
char
Specifies the character to be displayed on the front panel LED. Specify the character in quotation marks (""). You must specify a metacharacter with a backslash
(\ ) prefix.
Options
–b
Display the character in bright mode. The default is dim mode.
Example
>>> set LED W -b
Display an uppercase W on the LED panel at full brightness.
See Also
show led
6–64
Console Command Reference
set reboot srom – set reboot mode to Serial ROM
Mini-Console
Enters the Serial ROM (SROM) Mini-Console.
When you issue this command, the module enters the SROM Mini-Console the
next time you reset or power on the system. Once issued, the command prevents
you from rebooting from the console until you alter NVRAM bytes using the
SROM Mini-Console.
Note
If the I/O module’s debug jumper is installed, the system displays the
SROM Mini-Debugger prompt every time you power on the system.
While in the SROM Mini-Debugger, you can start the SRM console by
entering the st command and then entering address 0x8000 at the address
prompt as follows:
SROM> st
a> 8000
Syntax
set reboot srom
Example
>>> set reboot srom
Set the reboot flag to enter Serial ROM Mini-Console the next time you reset or
power on the system.
Console Command Reference
6–65
set toy sleep – disable TOY clock's internal oscillator
Disables the DS1386 TOY clock’s internal oscillator. When you execute this command, bit 8 of the MONTH register of the device is set to 1, disabling the TOY
clock’s oscillator. This prevents the TOY clock’s time registers from advancing
and lengthens the life of the device’s internal lithium battery. The next time you
power on the system, the console firmware automatically reenables the oscillator,
enabling the clock to count time again.
This command is useful for final testing during manufacturing or for preparing the
system for storage.
Note
Reset the time and date once the module is powered on after disabling the
battery.
Syntax
set toy sleep
Example
>>> set toy sleep
Set the TOY clock into storage mode. The clock is automatically reenabled on
subsequent initialization.
6–66
Console Command Reference
sh – create new shell process
Creates a new shell process. Each shell process implements most of the functionality of the Bourne shell.
Syntax
sh [-v] [-x] [-d] [-l] [-r] [-p] [arg ...]
Arguments
arg ...
Specifies one or more arguments that are to be passed to the new shell process.
Specify the arguments as text strings terminated with white space.
Options
–v
Print lines as they are read.
–x
Show commands just before executing them.
–d
Delete standard input (STDIN) when the shell is done.
–l
Trace the lexical analyzer (show tokens as they are recognized).
–r
Trace the parser (show rules as they execute).
–p
Trace the execution engine (show routines called).
Console Command Reference
6–67
Example
>>> sh
>>>
# start a new shell\bold))
# the new shell’s prompt\bold))
>>> sh -v <foo # execute command file "foo" and show lines as read in
>>> sh -x <foo # print out commands as they are executed and after
>>>
# all substitutions have been performed.
6–68
Console Command Reference
show – display system information
Displays the current value of an environment variable or other system parameter.
Syntax
show [system_param] [envar]
Arguments
system_param
Specifies the type of information that is to be displayed. Specify one of the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
config
Displays the system configuration.
device [device-name]
Displays information about devices and controllers in the system.
hwrpb
Displays the Alpha hardware restart parameter block
(HWRPB).
led [-hex]
Displays a character on the LED panel. The -hex option displays the contents of the LED register instead of the character
that is set to be displayed.
map
Displays system virtual memory map.
mode
Displays the current mode, FASTBOOT or NOFASTBOOT.
pal
Displays the version of PALcode for VMS and OSF (UNIX).
version
Displays the version of the console firmware.
You can specify a device name with the device parameter. The name that you
specify can include abbreviations or an asterisk (*) as a wildcard character. The
naming convention for system devices is as follows:
dka0.0.0.0.0
| || | | | |
| || | | | +-- Hose #
| || | | +---- Slot #
| || | |
| || | +--- Channel #
| || +---- Bus Node #
| |+--- Device Unit #
| +---- Controller ID
+---------- Driver ID
: Always zero for Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs
: On PCI System =
<PCI bus * 1000>+<PCI function *100>+<PCI slot>
: Always zero.
: Device’s bus ID (i.e. SCSI node ID plug #).
: Device’s unique system unit number.
: One letter controller designator.
: Two letter port or class driver designator.
PK - SCSI port, DK - SCSI class
EW - Ethernet Port
envar
Displays the value of the specified environment variable. For a listing of predefined environment variables, see Table 5–2.
Examples
Console Command Reference
6–69
1. >>> show version
version
>>>
V1.1-0 Jul 1 1996 10:16:59
Display the version of the firmware running on the system.
2. >>> show auto_action
boot
>>>
Display the default system power-on action.
3. >>> show bootdef_dev
ewa0
>>>
Display the system’s default boot device. In this example, the default boot
device is EWA0.
4. >>> show config
Digital Equipment Corporation
AlphaVME 5/480
SRM Console T1.0-0
VMS PALcode V1.19-8, OSF PALcode V1.21-8
MEMORY:
System Controller:
Hose 0, PCI
slot
slot
slot
slot
0
1
2
3
128 Meg of system memory
VIC64 Enabled
DECchip 7407
DECchip 21040-AA ewa0.0.0.1.0 00-00-F8-23-B7-8E
NCR 53C810
pka0.7.0.2.0 SCSI Bus ID 7
Intel 82378
>>>
5. >>> show device
dva0.0.0.0.1
ewa0.0.0.1.0
pka0.7.0.2.0
>>>
DVA0
EWA0
PKA0
08-00-2B-1D-27-AA
SCSI Bus ID 7
Display all devices and controllers in the system. The display output
includes the device name, device ID, device type, and device internal
firmware revision information (if available).
6. >>> show device e
ewa0.0.0.6.0
EWA0
08-00-2B-1D-27-AA
Display devices that start with “e.”
7. >>> show device dk
dkc0.0.0.2.0
# Show SCSI disks.
DKC0
RZ57
Display all devices starting with “dk” (all SCSI disks).
8. >>> show device mk
mke0.0.0.4.0
>>>
# Show SCSI tape drives.
MKE0
TLZ04
Display all devices starting with “mk” (all SCSI tapes).
9. >>> show hwrpb
HWRPB is at 2000
.
.
.
display of the contents of HWRPB registers
6–70
Console Command Reference
.
.
.
>>>
Display the system’s HWRPB address and register data.
10. >>> show led
Display the current character being displayed on the LED panel.
11. >>> show led -hex
Display the contents of the LED register.
12. >>>
>>>
pte
FW
pte
FW
pte
FW
pte
FW
pte
FW
pte
FW
pte
FW
pte
FW
>>>
boot -halt
show map
00001020 v FFFFFC0902408000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001028 v FFFFFC090240A000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001020 v FFFFFC0902C08000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001028 v FFFFFC0902C0A000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001020 v FFFFFC0B02408000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001028 v FFFFFC0B0240A000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001020 v FFFFFC0B02C08000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
00001028 v FFFFFC0B02C0A000 p 00000000 V KR
SR
FR
FR
FR
FR
Note
The map is empty after all console initialization. To fill in the page table
entries, enter the boot command with the –halt option.
See Also
set, set led
Console Command Reference
6–71
show_log – display NVRAM error log
information
Displays console-detected fault information that was previously stored in the error
log area of NVRAM. If you do not specify command-line options, the command
displays the most recent fault.
Before using the show_log command, you must initialize the error log by issuing
the clear_log command.
Note
Console error logging is completely independent of the operating system’s
error logging.
Syntax
show_log [{-n [count]} -all -new]
Options
–n [count]
Display the specified number of most-recent faults that are logged into the
NVRAM error log area. The default value for count is 1.
–all
Display all faults logged into the NVRAM error log area. All faults are marked as
seen so you can display new faults easily by using the –new option. This option
always causes the command to display all logged faults.
–new
Display new faults logged into the NVRAM error log area; displays faults that
have not been previously displayed with the –all option.
6–72
Console Command Reference
Examples
1. >>> show_log
============================= F A U L T #1
============================
Time of Error:
Diagnostic
:
Pass Count
:
Error Message:
>>>
13:08:39 9-AUG-1997
Interval Timer
1
Test Number: 4
Failing Point: 18
Interrupt not invoked and should have been
Display the most recent fault.
2. >>> show_log -n 3
============================= F A U L T #1
============================
Time of Error:
Machine Check:
SCB Vector
:
IOC Status 0 :
IOC Status 1 :
PC
:
13:10:06 9-AUG-1997
IOC Controller
67
0400031604000316
0400000004000000
0000000000064c40
============================= F A U L T #2
============================
Time of Error:
Diagnostic
:
Pass Count
:
Error Message:
13:08:39 9-AUG-1997
Interval Timer
1
Test Number: 4
Failing Point: 18
Interrupt not invoked and should have been
=====================================================================
==
No more faults found
=====================================================================
==
>>>
Display the two most-recent faults since they are the only ones logged
into NVRAM.
See Also
clear_log
Console Command Reference
6–73
sleep – suspend execution
Suspends execution of a console process for a specified number of seconds. The
console process temporarily wakes up every second to check for and kill pending
bits.
Syntax
sleep [-v] time
Argument
time
Specifies the number of seconds to sleep. The default is one second.
Option
–v
Use a time value of milliseconds. The default is 1000 milliseconds (one second).
Examples
1. >>> ((sleep 10; echo hi there)&)
>>>
(10 seconds elapse...)
hi there
Sleep for 10 seconds, then execute the echo command.
2. >>> sleep -v 20
Sleep for 20 milliseconds.
This command does not function if set toy sleep has been issued.
6–74
Console Command Reference
sort – sort a file
Arranges the lines of a file in lexicographic order and writes the results to standard
output (STDOUT). The size of the file that sort can handle is limited by the size of
memory.
Syntax
sort file
Argument
file
Specifies the file to be sorted.
Example
>>> echo > foo ’banana
_>pear
_>apple
_>orange’
Create file foo with 4 lines.
>>> sort foo
apple
banana
orange
pear
Sort file foo and display the output.
Console Command Reference
6–75
sp – set priority
Modifies the priority of a process.
Note
Changing the priority of the process impacts the behavior of the process
and the rest of the system.
Syntax
sp process_id priority
Arguments
process_id
Specifies the process ID (PID) of the process for which the priority is being set.
priority
Specifies the new priority for the specified process. Priority values range from 0
to 7, with 7 being the highest priority.
Example
>>> memtest -p 0 &
>>> ps | grep memtest
00000025 001a9700 2
23691 00000001 0
>>> sp 25 3
>>> ps | grep memtest
00000025 001a9700 3
125955 00000001 0
>>>
Raise the priority of process 25 from 2 to 3.
See Also
ps, sa
6–76
Console Command Reference
memtest ready
memtest ready
start – start program
Starts program execution at the specified address or starts drivers.
Syntax
start [-drivers [device_prefix]] [address]
Argument
address
Specifies the PC address at which to start execution.
Options
–drivers [device_prefix]
Specifies the name of the device or class of devices to stop. If you do not specify a
device prefix, the command starts all drivers.
Examples
1. >>> start -driver ewa 400
Start program execution at address 400.
2. >>> start -drivers
Start all the drivers in the system.
See Also
continue, init, stop
Console Command Reference
6–77
stop – stop CPU or device
Stops the CPU or a specified device.
Syntax
stop [-drivers [device_prefix]] [processor_num]
Argument
processor_num
Specifies the processor to stop. If you use this argument, specify 0.
Option
–drivers [device_prefix]
Stop the specified device or all devices of the specified device class. If you do not
specify a device prefix, the command stops all drivers.
Example
>>> stop
Stop the processor.
See Also
continue, init, start
6–78
Console Command Reference
update – update flash ROMs
Loads updated firmware into the system’s flash ROMs (FEPROMs). Prior to
using this command, you must close DIP switch #2 on your Alpha VME 5/352 or
5/480 SBC’s I/O module and you must issue the boot command.
During the update process, each byte of the FEPROM is verified. Each step provides for a certain number of retries to perform the operation successfully on a
particular byte of the FEPROM. If a failure occurs in any of the steps, an error
message is displayed on the console.
If the update is successful, a success message is displayed on the console.
Notes
You must reset or power on the system to run the new image in the
FEPROMs; otherwise, the previous console image executes out of memory.
Be sure to disable FEPROM writing after completing the update process
by setting switch #2 back to the open position.
For more information about updating firmware, see Section 5.7.
Syntax
update [-file filename] [-protocol transport]
[-device source_device] [-target target_device]
Options
–file filename
Update the FEPROM with the specified image.
–protocol transport
Use the specified source transport protocol. Valid protocols are MOP and TFTP.
See Section 5.4 for more information on using the TFTP protocol to read files
across the network.
Console Command Reference
6–79
–device source_device
Load the new FEPROM update image from the specified device. Currently, the
only valid device is EWA0.
–target target_device
Use the specified target device for the upgrade operation. Valid target devices are
CONSOLE and USERFLASH.
Example
>>> boot -fi alphavme5_v1_0 -prot mop ewa0
(boot ewa0.0.0.1.0 -file alphavme5_v1_0 -flags 0)
Trying MOP boot.
...............
Network load complete.
Host name: oemert
Host address: aa-00-04-00-56-4b
bootstrap code read in
base = 1c2000, image_start = 0, image_bytes = db000
initializing HWRPB at 2000
initializing page table at 1b4000
initializing machine state
setting affinity to the primary CPU
jumping to bootstrap code
starting console on CPU 0
initialized idle PCB
initializing semaphores
initializing heap
initial heap 200c0
memory low limit= 1b2000
heap = 200c0, 17fc0
initializing driver structures
initializing idle process PID
XDELTA not enabled.
initializing file system
initializing timer data structures
lowering IPL
CPU 0 speed is 2.08 ns (481MHz)
create dead_eater
create poll
create timer
create powerup
128 Meg of system memory
2MB Bcache
probing hose 0, PCI
bus 0, slot 1 -- ewa -- DECdhip 21040-AA
bus 0, slot 2 -- pka -- NCR 53C810
entering idle loop
Skipping powerup tests...
AlphaVME 5/480 Common Console V1.0-0, built on Sep 24 1997 at
09:20:32
>>> update
(update -path noname -target console)
new: 1.0-0
Note: Module DIP Switch #2 must be CLOSED to enable Updates!
6–80
Console Command Reference
FEPROM UPDATE UTILITY
--->CAUTION<--EXECUTING THIS PROGRAM WILL CHANGE YOUR CURRENT ROM!
Do you really want to continue[Y/N]?:y
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO INTERRUPT PROGRAM EXECUTION!
DOING SO MAY RESULT IN LOSS OF OPERARBLE STATE.
The program will take at most several minutes.
Erasing the target flash device...
.......
Erasure completed.
Programming...
.......
Programming completed
Verifying...
Update successfu
Note: Module DIP Switch #2 should be OPENED to disable Updates!
>>>
Console Command Reference
6–81
Part III
Diagnostics
Part III discusses the diagnostics for DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 single-board computers (SBCs). This part consists of the following chapters:
•
Chapter 7, Diagnostics and System Initialization
•
Chapter 8, Console Mode Diagnostics
7
Diagnostics and System Initialization
Diagnostics for the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs provide a fast, high coverage suite of power-on self-test (POST) diagnostics to be invoked automatically at
power-on and system reset. In addition to the POST diagnostics, there are ROMbased console mode diagnostics that provide additional testing and fault isolation.
You invoke the console mode diagnostics by entering commands at your terminal.
You also have the option of using diagnostic environment variables to gain more
control over your test environment.
This chapter introduces you to DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC diagnostics by discussing the:
•
POST diagnostics, Section 7.1
•
System initialization sequence and countdown, Section 7.2
•
POST NVRAM and memory diagnostics descriptions, Section 7.3
7.1 POST Diagnostics
Your SBC invokes POST diagnostics when you apply power to or reset the system. In this mode, a sequence of diagnostics is executed without operator intervention.
Once the SROM code has been loaded into the 8 KB internal instruction cache, a
very basic system initialization is performed in preparation for starting the console
firmware. After enough of the system has been initialized, the flash ROM-based
console is loaded into system memory and execution is transferred to it. During
this phase of console startup, the system automatically invokes several more diagnostics and executes them without operator intervention.
The system LED display indicates progress of the SROM initialization by showing a countdown from 8 to 1.
If a failure is detected by the SROM-based tests, the test sequence halts and the
LED displays the number of the failing test. If the Intel SIO is successfully configured and the console UART test passes, the SROM does all I/O through the console UART.
Failures detected beyond the SROM do not halt the POST sequence. Instead, the
display freezes at the first failing test, and the sequence attempts to continue to
console mode. An attempt is also made to write the diagnostic log to the console
terminal.
You can affect the POST sequence by using certain user-selectable, control
parameters (implemented as environment variables) that allow the initialization to
continue, despite the existence of some errors that you may not wish to treat as
fatal.
Diagnostics and System Initialization
7–1
7.2 System Initialization Sequence and Countdown
During SROM initialization and console tests, the LED display shows a countdown indicating progress. The console serial output also reports the countdown if
the environment variable CONSOLE is set to SERIAL. The SROM initialization
and console tests execute and display output as shown in Table 7–1.
Table 7–1 SROM Initialization and Console Tests
Initialization Procedures
LED
Display
Console Display
8
8..
7
7..
6
6..
5
5..
4
4..
2
2..
1
1..
0
starting console on
CPU 0
Read the SROM and initialize the CPU, the CIA
chip, the PCI bus, COMM1 port, and the SIO chip.
Detect the CPU speed, initialize the CPU and CIA
Bcache registers, and turn off the Bcache.
Initialize CIA memory control registers, wake up the
DRAMs, and determine the amount of memory that
is installed.
Enable the Dcache and Bcache. Disable ECC reporting, read from memory, and then write back to memory with a good ECC. Clear the CPU and CIA error
registers.
Write to memory (data=address), read from memory, and compare. Check the ECC error status. Load
the SRM console and perform a checksum.
Enable all Scache. Set and flush the Icache.
Jump to the console.
Initialize console, test memory and NVRAM, and
probe the PCI bus
7–2
See sample output
below
Perform console SCSI test.
A
SCSI Tests...
Perform console heartbeat test.
B
Heartbeat Test...
Perform console interval timer tests.
C
Interval Timer
Tests...
Perform console TOY clock tests.
D
Time-of-Year Test...
Perform console serial com port tests.
E
Diagnostics and System Initialization
Table 7–1 SROM Initialization and Console Tests (Continued)
Initialization Procedures
LED
Display
Perform console Ethernet ROM tests.
F
Ethernet ROM
Tests...
Perform console internal loopback tests.
G
NI Loopback Test...
Perform console watchdog test.
H
Watchdog Test...
Perform console VIP/VIC65 tests.
I
VIP Tests...
Console Display
>>>
A sample of actual console output follows. Note that the SROM version, CPU
speed, memory size, cache size, and SRM version appear in boldface type. You
should record and store this information for safekeeping. You will be asked for
this in the event that you call for support.
Alpha VME 5xxx V1.0
8..7..6..5..4..2..1..starting console on CPU 0
initialized idle PCB
initializing semaphores
initializing heap
initial heap 200c0
memory low limit = 12c000
heap = 200c0, 17fc0
initializing driver structures
initializing idle process PID
XDELTA not enabled.
initializing file system
initializing time data structures
lowering IPL
CPU 0 speed is 2.08 ns (481MHz)
64 Meg of system memory
2MB Bcache
probing hose 0, PCI
bus 0, slot 1 -- ewa -- DECchip 21040-AA
bus 0, slot 2 -- pka -- NCR 53C810
entering idle loop
SCSI Tests...
Heartbeat Tests...
Interval Timer Tests...
Time-of-Year Test...
Ethernet ROM Tests...
NI Loopback Test...
Watchdog Test...
VIP Tests...
.................
Alpha VME 5/480 Common Console V0.0-1, built on Feb 14 1997 at 12:55:07
7.3 POST NVRAM and Memory Diagnostics Descriptions
This section provides details on the POST NVRAM and memory diagnostics.
These diagnostics run during system initialization testing.
Diagnostics and System Initialization
7–3
POST Nonvolatile RAM Diagnostic
The POST NVRAM Diagnostic verifies the SBC’s NVRAM. It performs a data
integrity test, through power cycles, and performs write, read, and comparison
operations on specific NVRAM locations used for diagnostics. This diagnostic
also checks for uninitialized NVRAM by comparing the stored checksum with the
calculated checksum.
Description
This test executes at the beginning of console boot before the console drivers and
devices have been initialized.
Test Name: None; executes when the power is turned on
7–4
Diagnostics and System Initialization
POST Memory Diagnostic
The POST Memory Diagnostic verifies system memory. It runs with ECC
enabled. If the test detects a memory error that cannot be corrected with ECC, it
logs the error in the error logging area of NVRAM.
Description
The POST Memory Diagnostic executes at the beginning of console boot before
the console drivers and devices have been initialized. The test provides the following coverage:
Memory bits
Decoder logic
Sense amplifier logic
Component and path coverage
Stuck bits, bit transition fault, or bit coupling fault.
An address selects no memory, two or more addresses
select the same memory cell, or one address selects
more than one cell.
Stuck fault or coupling fault.
The CPU memory control logic, etch from the CPU to
the daughter card connectors, etch from the CPU
backup cache control to the backup cache and from
backup cache to the memory bus. The daughter card is
assumed good since it is tested separately in manufacturing.
See also the description of the memtest console command in Chapter 6.
Note
This test is dependent upon the setting of the environment variable
MODE. Setting MODE to FASTBOOT results in a quick memory verification test. NOFASTBOOT results in a full memory test.
Test Name: None; executes when the power is turned on
Diagnostics and System Initialization
7–5
8
Console Mode Diagnostics
This chapter describes the following console mode diagnostic tests, which might
be run during system initialization testing or from the console:
•
Heartbeat Timer Test
•
Interval timer tests
•
DECchip 21040 Ethernet controller tests
•
DALLAS DS1386 RAMified watchdog timekeeper tests
•
LAN Address ROM Test
•
NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O processor tests
•
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test
•
VME interface tests
Section 8.1 provides a summary of the dianostics.
8.1 Console Mode Diagnostics Summary
You can invoke some diagnostics directly from the console terminal, and you can
control them by using command options and diagnostic environment variables.
These tests may require operator intervention.
Table 8–1 shows the console mode diagnostic tests and the command you can use
to invoke them. You can invoke the majority of these tests at the console prompt.
Table 8–1 Console Mode Diagnostic Tests
HW Under Test
Command
Description
Device Exerciser
exer device
Exercises one or more devices
Memory and Cache
– Memory exerciser test
memtest or
mem_ex
Network Interface
– DECchip 21040 internal loopback test
niil_diag -t 1
– DECchip 21040 external loopback test
niil_diag -t 2
–DECchip 21040
nicsr_diag -t 1
Reads the configuration register
–DECchip 21040 CSR tests
nicsr_diag -t 2
nicsr_diag -t 3
Command/status register read test
Register write/read test
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–1
Table 8–1 Console Mode Diagnostic Tests (Continued)
HW Under Test
Command
Description
– NVRAM tests
ds1386_diag -t 1
ds1386_diag -t 2
ds1386_diag -t 3
NVRAM write/read test
NVRAM unique address test
NVRAM march test
– Time-of-year (TOY) clock register tests
ds1386_diag -t 4
ds1386_diag -t 5
Bit pattern test on TOY clock register
Time keeper test
ncr810 -t 1
ncr810 -t 2
ncr810 -t 3
ncr810 -t 4
ncr810 -t 5
ncr810 -t 6
ncr810 -t 7
MBLT write/read test
Prints command/status registers
Register read/write test
Chip reset test
Internal loopback test
External loopback test
SCSI interrupt test (drives must be
removed)
– Heartbeat timer test
hbeat_diag -t 1
Verifies heartbeat frequency=1024 Hz
– Interval timer tests
i8254_diag -t 1
i8254_diag -t 2
i8254_diag -t 3 *
i8254_diag -t 4 *
i8254_diag -t 5
i8254_diag -t 6
Timer 2 interrupt test
Data line test with Timer 2
P2 connector test using Timers 0, 1, and 2
Master/slave timer test
Timer 2 noninterrupt test
Periodic real-time test using VIC64 chip
– Watchdog timer test
wdog_diag -t 1
Timer interrupt test
NVRAM + TOY Clock
SCSI
– SCSI device tests
Timers
*Requires
external loopback connector
configured as shown in Figure 8–1.
VME InterfaceTests
– VIP PCI configuration register test
vip_diag -t 1
– VIP register write/read test
– VIC64 register write/read test
vip_diag -t 2
vip_diag -t 3
– Scatter-gather RAM test
vip_diag -t 4
MISC
– Ethernet hardware address test
8–2
Console Mode Diagnostics
enet_diag -t 1
enet_diag -t 2
Displays LAN address ROM
LAN address ROM test
Heartbeat Timer Test
The Heartbeat Timer Diagnostic Test verifies that a heartbeat interrupt is generated at the correct interval (1024 Hz) and is properly dismissed by way of the
module clear heartbeat register.
This test checks for the following logic:
•
Heartbeat timer and interrupt delivery mechanism
•
Module clear heartbeat register
Heartbeat Timer Test
Console Command: hbeat_diag -t 1
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
Miscellaneous Notes
•
This is a POST diagnostic.
•
The test expects timer interrupts to be enabled. If they are not enabled, an
interrupt count of zero results.
•
You cannot run this test concurrently with other tests.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–3
Interval Timer Tests
The Interval Timer Tests test the functionality of the 8254 interval timer chip and
surrounding external circuitry, including latches, programmable-array logic (PAL)
devices and printed circuit board module etch. The intent of the tests is to verify
that timers 0, 1, and 2 can generate a CPU interrupt, if properly enabled, at the
programmed frequency. Since all three interval timers of the 8254 chip have different external configurations, several tests are required for complete test coverage.
These tests require that you properly program both timer 0 and 1 and connect
them externally for successful operation.
Timer 2 Terminal Count Test
The Timer 2 Terminal Count Test exercises Timer 2 with timer interrupts enabled.
The gate input for Timer 2 is always enabled and the clock input is connected to a
10 MHz (100 ns period) clock source.
Timer 2 is programmed to mode 0, interrupt on terminal count. After the timer is
initially programmed to mode 0 and loaded with a count value, the OUT output is
low and remains low until the internal count value reaches zero. When the count
value reaches zero, OUT output is asserted high and remains high until Timer 2 is
reprogrammed. The event of OUT transitioning from low to high should generate
a CPU interrupt.
The interrupt service routine (ISR) invoked due to the timer generated interrupt
sets a global flag indicating the interrupt took place and that software was dispatched to the correct point.
Console Comman: i8254_diag -t 1
Miscellaneous Notes
•
The interrupt enable bits for Timers 0 and 2 (bits 4 and 5 of the interrupt status
register at address 0x4010) are not writable directly. You toggle bits 4 and 5
by writing to addresses 0x4010 and 0x4014, respectively. In both cases, the
data written is Don’t Care.
•
A read of the interrupt status register at address 0x4014 causes both interrupt
status bits (bits 0 and 1) to be cleared.
•
Due to hardware limitations on interrupt detection, the value programmed for
Timer 2 must be greater than 2.
•
See the Intel 8254 interval timer sheet for more details.
Timer 2 Square Wave Test
The Time 2 Square Wave Test exercises Timer 2. The gate input for Timer 2 is
always enabled and the clock input is connected to a 10 MHz (100 ns period)
clock source.
8–4
Console Mode Diagnostics
Timer 2 is programmed to mode 3, square wave mode. After the timer is initially
programmed for mode 3 and then loaded with a count value, the OUT output produces a continuous, square wave output whose period is equal to the count value
multiplied by the period of the clock input. The count values are chosen such that
they check stuck NDATA lines.
The event of OUT transitioning from low to high should generate a CPU interrupt,
provided the timer 2 interrupt enable bit is set.
The ISR invoked due to the timer generated interrupt increments an interrupt
counter and sets a global flag indicating the interrupt took place and that software
was dispatched to the correct point. The test verifies that the interrupt count is
within a certain range, based on the count value the timer was programmed with
and the duration of time that interrupts were enabled.
Console Command: i8254_diag -t 2
Miscellaneous Notes
•
The interrupt enable bits for Timers 0 and 2 (bits 4 and 5 of the interrupt status
register at address 0x4010) are not directly writable. You toggle bits 4 and 5
by writing to addresses 0x4010 and 0x4014, respectively. In both cases, the
data written is Don’t Care.
•
A read of the interrupt status register at address 0x4014 causes both interrupt
status bits (bits 0 and 1) to be cleared.
•
Due to hardware limitations on interrupt detection, the value programmed into
Timer 2 must be greater than 2.
•
See the Intel 8254 interval timer sheet for more details.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–5
3 Timers Loopback Test
The 3 Timers Loopback Test exercises Timer 2, Timer 1, and Timer 0. The gate
input for Timer 2 and Timer 1 is always enabled and the clock input is connected
to a 10 MHz (100 ns period) clock source. Timer 0 accepts its input through a P2
loopback connector to which the output of Timer 1 and Timer 2 is tied. Timer 2 is
the gate input and Timer 1 provides the clock.
This test essentially emulates the real-time time provider and slave scheme found
in the Real-Time Clock and Interval Device Driver functional specification.
Note
A VMEbus P2 loopback connector is required. See Figure 8–1 for a
description of the loopback connections.
The –lp option enables the timers indefinitely, making the SBC the master time
provider for Test #4.
Timer 2 and Timer 1 are programmed to mode 3, square wave mode. Timer 0 is
programmed to mode 1. After you program the timers with the appropriate mode
and load them with a count value, the OUT output produces a continuous, square
wave output that has a period equal to the count value multiplied by the period of
the clock input. In this test Timer 2 provides a major clock, which basically provides the start time of Timer 0, and Timer 1 produces a much faster clock called
the minor clock, which controls the rate that Timer 0 counts down.
Timer 0 is the only interrupt that is enabled during this test. The event of OUT
transitioning from low to high should generate a CPU interrupt.
The ISR invoked due to the timer generated interrupt increments an interrupt
counter and sets a global flag indicating the interrupt took place and that software
was dispatched to the correct point. The test verifies that the interrupt occurs, and
that no more than one interrupt occurs per major clock cycle.
Console Command: i8254_diag -t 3
Command Options:
•
–np: Do not print a P2 connector message.
•
–lp: Prevent timers from being stopped at the end of the test. This option is
required before you invoke Test #4.
Timer 0 Loopback Test
The Timer 0 Loopback Test exercises only Timer 0. Timer 0 accepts its clock and
gate input from the P2 loopback connector. In this test, you can cause Timer 0
inputs on the P2 connector to be driven by a master Alpha VME SBC running Test
3 by specifying the –lp option on the command line.
This test essentially emulates the slave system found in the Real-Time Clock and
Interval Device Driver functional specification.
8–6
Console Mode Diagnostics
This test enables only Timer 0 as is done in Test 3, but does not use Timer 1 or
Timer 2. The clock and gate come from the timers on the master Alpha VME
SBC. Timer 0 interrupts when the gate is received and its count is decremented to
0.
Note
A VMEbus P2 loopback connector is required. See Figure 8–1 for a
description of the loopback connections.
Console Command: i8254_diag -t 4
Command Option:
•
–np: Do not print a P2 connector message.
Miscellaneous Notes
Test #3 must be invoked with the –lp option on the master Alpha VME SBC prior
to invoking this test.
Timer 2 Interrupt Test
The Timer 2 Interrupt Test exercises Timer 2 with the timer interrupt disabled.
The gate input for Timer 2 is always enabled and the clock input is connected to a
10 MHz (100 ns period) clock source.
Timer 2 is programmed to mode 0, interrupt on terminal count. After the timer is
initially programmed to mode 0 and loaded with a count value, OUT output is low
and remains low until the internal count value reaches zero. When the count value
reaches zero, OUT output is asserted high and remains high until Timer 2 is reprogrammed. The event of OUT transitioning from low to high should set the Timer 2
status bit and not generate a CPU interrupt.
The ISR global flag is checked verifying that the ISR was not invoked. The Timer
2 status bit is checked to indicate the interrupt took place.
Console Command: i8254_diag -t 5
Miscellaneous Notes
•
The interrupt enable bits for Timers 0 and 2 (bits 4 and 5 of the interrupt status
register at address 0x4010) are not directly writable. Bits 4 and 5 are toggled
by writing to addresses 0x4010 and 0x4014, respectively. In both cases, the
data written is Don’t Care.
•
A read of the interrupt status register at address 0x4014 causes both interrupt
status bits (bits 0 and 1) to be cleared.
•
Due to hardware limitations on interrupt detection, the value programmed into
Timer 2 must be greater than 2.
•
See the Intel 8254 interval timer sheet for more details.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–7
Timer 1 Interrupt Test
The Timer 1 Interrupt Test verifies the interrupt path of Timer 1 (periodic realtime timer). Timer 1 is programmed to mode 3, square wave mode. After the
timer is initially programmed to mode 3 and loaded with a count value, OUT output is low and remains low until the internal count value reaches zero. When the
count value reaches zero, OUT output is asserted high and remains high until
timer 1 is reprogrammed.
A global interrupt count flag is checked verifying whether the ISR was invoked.
Console Command: i8254_diag -t 6
Figure 8–1 Loopback Descriptions for Interval Timer Test 3 and 4
Configuration for Interval Timer test 3
To make a loopback for test 3 connect pin C11 to C14. With a second jumper,
connect C12 to C13.
(VMEbus P2 Connector)
row C
B
A
14 13
12 11
Configuration for Interval Timer test 4 (MASTER/SLAVE Alpha VME)
For test 4, the MASTER signals must be the input for the second Alpha VME
module. Connect pins C11 and C14 of the MASTER to C14 of the SLAVE.
With a second jumper, connect C12 and C13 of the MASTER to C13 of the
SLAVE.
(VMEbus P2 Connector, SLAVE)
row C
B
A
14 13
(VMEbus P2 Connector, MASTER)
C
B
A
14 13
12 11
ML013463
8–8
Console Mode Diagnostics
DECchip 21040 Ethernet Controller Tests
The DECchip 21040 Ethernet Controller diagnostics verify that the internal and
external loopback mechanisms of the DECchip 21040 Ethernet controller chip
are operating properly and are performing write and read operations on behalf of
all configuration registers.
Ethernet Internal Loopback Test
The Ethernet Internal Loopback Test transmits Ethernet packets from the transmit
ring in main memory, loops them back at the MAC layer, and returns them to the
receive ring in main memory. No traffic is put on the network cable.
This test transmits Ethernet packets from the transmit ring in main memory and
places them on the network medium (twisted-pair cable). It concurrently listens
to the line that carries its own transmissions and returns them to the receive ring in
main memory. Received packets not identified as test packets are discarded for the
duration of the test.
Note
To run the external loopback test, you must use a 10baseT loopback connector (H4082-AA). The external loopback test does not run if the device
is connected to an open network.
This test checks the following logic respectively:
•
The device’s internal logic up to but not including the Ethernet transmission
logic
•
The on-chip transmit/receive circuitry and the passive external components
that connect to the twisted-pair interface
Console Command
•
For internal loopback: niil_diag -t 1
•
For external loopback: niil_diag -t 2
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
DECchip 21040 PCI Configuration Register Dump
The DECchip 21040 PCI Configuration Register Dump Test reads the PCI configuration registers of the DECchip 21040 and prints them to the standard output.
Console Command: nicsr_diag -t 1
DECchip 21040 Control/Status Register Dump
The DECchip 21040 Control/Status Register (CSR) Dump Test reads the CSRs of
the DECchip 21040 and prints them to standard output.
Console Command: nicsr_diag -t 2
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–9
DECchip 21040 Configuration Register Test
The DECchip 21040 Configuration Register Test performs write and read operations on the chip’s configuration registers with data patterns of all 1s, all 0s, and
alternating 1s and 0s. Upon exiting, the test returns the configuration registers to
their initial values.
Console Command: nicsr_diag -t 3
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
Miscellaneous Notes
This test runs only when you power on the system.
8–10
Console Mode Diagnostics
DALLAS DS1386 NVRAM Watchdog Timekeeper
Tests
The DALLAS DS1386 NVRAM Watchdog Timekeeper tests verify the 32 KB of
NVRAM and the real-time clock of the DALLAS DS1386. Tests 1 through 3
exercise the NVRAM and Tests 4 and 5 exercise the real-time clock. The tests test
the DS1386, and decoders.
The functionality of the watchdog feature is tested by a separate diagnostic test.
No alarm features are tested, since the alarms are not used.
The NVRAM is tested on a page basis; there are 128 pages each containing 256
bytes. However, the first page has reserved addresses for the real-time clock registers.
NVRAM March I Test
The NVRAM March I Test writes, reads, and compares all 32 KB of NVRAM
with data patterns of all 1s, all 0s, alternating 1s and 0s, and shifting 1s and 0s. If
the quick verify option is set (default), only the first location of each page is
tested. The no quick verify option tests every location (32 KB) of the NVRAM.
Note
The contents of the NVRAM are overwritten by this diagnostic and
restored on test completion. If the module is reset during this test, the
NVRAM contents are undefined.
Console Command: ds1386_diag -t 1
Command Options:
•
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
•
–nqv: Test every location in NVRAM. The default is to test one location per
page.
Miscellaneous Notes
This diagnostic is an extended test.
NVRAM Address-On-Address Test
The NVRAM Address-On-Address Test writes, reads, and compares all 32 KB of
NVRAM using this unique page offset for test data. Locations in the DS1386 are
byte wide. Therefore, you do not have enough room to write the unique address
into each corresponding location. However, this test writes the unique page offset
to its corresponding location in NVRAM.
If you set the quick verify option (default), only the first location of each page is
tested. The no quick verify option tests every location (32 KB) of the NVRAM.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–11
Note
The contents of the NVRAM are overwritten by this diagnostic and
restored on test completion. If the module is reset during this test the
NVRAM contents are undefined.
Console Command: ds1386_diag -t 2
Command Options:
•
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
•
–nqv: Test every location in NVRAM. The default is to test one location per
page.
Miscellaneous Notes
This diagnostic is an extended test.
NVRAM March II Test
The NVRAM March II Test verifies NVRAM addressing by marching (writing,
reading, and comparing) a 0x00 byte value through a field of 0xFF. Each iteration
reads the entire 32 KB for background pattern of 0xFF. If you set the quick verify
option (default), only the first location of each page is tested. The no quick verifyoption, -nqv, tests every location (32 KB) of the NVRAM.
Note
The contents of the NVRAM are overwritten by this diagnostic test and
restored on test completion. If the SBC is reset during this test, the
NVRAM contents are undefined.
Console Command: ds1386_diag -t 3
Command Options:
•
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
•
–nqv: Test every location in NVRAM. The default is to test one location per
page.
Miscellaneous Notes
This diagnostic is an extended test.
TOY Clock Bitwalk Test
The TOY Clock Bitwalk Test does a walking 1, walking 0, and A5 on the TOY
clock registers. It also tests the rollover cases associated with keeping time.
The watchdog reset enable bit in the module control register is set to zero to
ensure that a watchdog expiration does not cause a hardware reset to occur. Secondly, the contents of the command register is saved and the transfer enable bit is
set to 0 to disable updates to the registers while the diagnostic is in progress.
8–12
Console Mode Diagnostics
The diagnostic bit patterns are then walked through all 14 registers. Next, the seconds, minutes, hours, day, month, and year registers are programmed such that the
next clock tick rolls over for each of these parameters. The updates to the registers
are started and updated for a three second time period. After the three second
update period, the registers are then examined to verify that each parameter did
indeed roll over to the appropriate value.
The diagnostic test cleans up by reenabling the watchdog reset bit in the module
control register and restoring the original contents of the TOY clock command
register.
Note
The current date and time has to be reset after invoking this diagnostic test
since approximately 3 seconds of time is lost for each pass.
Console Command: ds1386_diag -t 4
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
Miscellaneous Notes
This diagnostic is an extended test.
TOY Clock Time Advancement Test
The TOY Clock Time Advancement Test is a power-on diagnostic. It verifies that
the TOY clock registers are advancing with clock ticks.
The test reads the current value of the seconds register. Then the test sleeps for 1.2
seconds and reads the seconds register again expecting it to have incremented
with the exception of the rollover case. The rollover case is where the seconds
register advances from 59 to 0. If the rollover case is encountered, the test sleeps
for another second and reads the register again. This is repeated four times.
Console Command: ds1386_diag -t 5
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
Miscellaneous Notes
This diagnostic is a POST diagnostic.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–13
Local Area Network Address ROM Tests
The Local Area Network (LAN) Address ROM tests test the integrity of the LAN
address ROM, decoders, and printed circuit board module etch. The LAN address
ROM contains the Ethernet station address of the module.
LAN Address ROM Dump Test
The LAN Address ROM Dump Test dumps the contents of the 32 octets within
the LAN address ROM to the screen. No verification of the data is performed.
Console Command: enet_diag -t 1
Command Options:
–dd: Print the LAN address ROM to screen.
–np: Do not print the LAN address ROM to screen.
Miscellaneous Notes
•
The LAN address ROM octets must be read by using longword aligned byte
accesses.
•
This diagnostic is an extended test.
LAN Address ROM Verification Test
The LAN Address ROM Verification Test verifies the format of the data in the
LAN address ROM. It verifies that the octets are ordered appropriately and that
the checksums are correctly calculated based on the LAN address.
Console Command: enet_diag -t 2
Command Option:
–dd: Print the LAN ROM address to screen.
Miscellaneous Notes
8–14
•
The LAN address ROM octets must be read by using longword aligned byte
accesses.
•
This test is considered a POST diagnostic.
Console Mode Diagnostics
Figure 8–2 LAN Address ROM Format
Address Octet 0
Address Octet 1
Address Octet 2
Address Octet 3
Address Octet 4
Address Octet 5
Checksum Octet 1
Checksum Octet 2
Checksum Octet 2
Checksum Octet 1
Address Octet 5
Address Octet 4
Address Octet 3
Address Octet 2
Address Octet 1
Address Octet 0
Address Octet 0
Address Octet 1
Address Octet 2
Address Octet 3
Address Octet 4
Address Octet 5
Checksum Octet 1
Checksum Octet 2
Test Pattern = FF
Test Pattern = 00
Test Pattern = 55
Test Pattern = AA
Test Pattern = FF
Test Pattern = 00
Test Pattern = 55
Test Pattern = AA
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–15
NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O Processor Tests
The NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O processor tests check the NCR810 SCSI controller chip. The tests do not require a drive to be attached to the SCSI port and are
meant to be a power-on check of the NCR810 chip’s low-level modes through programmed I/O issued from the CPU. No NCR810 scripts execute during these
tests.
All tests set up the diagnostic support environment, allocate memory, set up the
PCI configuration registers, and check for the default values in the command/status registers as defined by the NCR810 53C810 chip specification.
Note
If any of these tests fails, the console SCSI driver does not restart after the
test. This causes SCSI devices connected to the system to be removed
from the device list, and any attempts to run the disk exerciser or boot
from a disk fails. (The console command show device lists the currently
installed devices.)
NCR810 PCI Configuration Register Test
The NCR810 PCI Configuration Register Test prints the current setting of the
NCR810 PCI configuration registers to the console screen using formatted output.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 1
Command Option:
–np: Do not print the contents of the configuration register.
NCR810 Command/Status Register Dump
The NCR810 Command/Status Register Dump Test displays the contents of all of
the control/status registers (CSRs) on your screen. No test of the contents is performed.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 2
Command Option:
–np: Do not print the contents of the configuration register.
8–16
Console Mode Diagnostics
NCR810 Command/Status Register Test
The NCR810 Command/Status Register Test writes, reads, and compares the contents of all NCR810 CSRs that can be tested. When the test finishes, it returns the
registers to their initialized values.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 3
Command Option:
–lp: Loop on write and read operations.
NCR810 Command/Status Register Reset Value Test
The NCR810 Command/Status Register Test checks that a reset of the NCR810
sets the CSRs to their default values as defined by the NCR810 53C810 chip
specification.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 4
NCR810 Internal Loopback Test
The NCR810 Internal Loopback Test performs a SCSI loopback internal to the
NCR810 chip. The following data patterns are used: all 1s, all 0s, alternating 1s
and 0s. The test also verifies parity checking and that the SCSI reset control lines
can be toggled internally.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 5
NCR810 Internal Live Bus Loopback Test
The NCR810 Internal Live Bus Loopback Test performs an internal SCSI loopback that also drives the signal lines on the SCSI bus.
You must remove all devices from the SCSI bus before running this test. Devices
on the bus interfere with the test and cause false error reports. Also, the test data
may produce invalid device instructions and cause the devices to hang.
First, the test places the SCSI bus in a high impedance state by loading a data pattern that causes the output drivers to draw no current. Then the test checks the output latches for the correct data. The test also verifies parity checking and that the
SCSI reset control lines can be toggled internally. The following data patterns are
used: all 1s, all 0s, alternating 1s and 0s.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 6
NCR810 Interrupt Test
The NCR810 Interrupt Test verifies the interrupt connection between the NCR810
and the SIO controller to the CPU. The test enables a general-purpose timer,
which generates an interrupt that is dispatched to the CPU through the SIO controller. The console PALcode dispatches to the NCR810_diag ISR, which clears
the interrupt.
Console Command: ncr810_diag -t 7
Miscellaneous Notes
•
These tests do not run in parallel with the SCSI exerciser tests.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–17
8–18
•
No external loopback connectors are needed for the loopback tests.
•
References - NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O Processor specification Revision
2.1
Console Mode Diagnostics
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test
The Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test verifies the functionality of the watchdog
timer by checking its ability to handle a user programmed watchdog timer reset.
The test checks logic associated with the:
•
Watchdog timer
•
Some reset logic
•
DS1386 TOY clock
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test
The Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test sets the diagnostic-in-progress bit and invokes
a watchdog timeout by loading a short time value into the watchdog timeout register. The test queries you to be sure the watchdog LED is off. Upon expiration of
the timeout value, a HALT interrupt is expected. After the expected time, the test
evaluates the reset reason register. If the HALT interrupt did not occur, or the
watchdog reason was not set, the test calls out an error. Also, the test asks you to
verify that the watchdog LED is now on. At the end of the test, the watchdog timer
and diagnostic-in-progress bit are disabled.
Console Command: wdog_diag -t 1
Command Options:
•
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
•
–nc: Do not prompt user to verify the state of the LED.
•
–np: Override the -nc option by prompting user to verify the state of the LED.
Miscellaneous Notes
The purpose of setting the diagnostic-in-progress bit is to avoid an actual system
reset when the watchdog timer expires. The watchdog expiration first causes a
HALT interrupt. Approximately 300 ms later an actual system reset occurs, unless
the diagnostic-in-progress bit is set. The reset reason register shows a watchdog
reset reason whether or not the diagnostic-in-progress bit is set. The HALT interrupt and the reset reason are used for this diagnostic. User interaction can be suppressed with the –nc option.
Console Mode Diagnostics
8–19
VME Interface Tests
The VME Interface Tests verify the VME interface logic on the Alpha VME
5/352 and 5/480 SBCs, including the VME interface processor (VIP), the Cypress
VIC064 chip, the scatter/gather RAMs, and some of the interrupt paths from the
VME corner to the Alpha processor. These tests perform no VMEbus transactions
and, therefore, require no additional VMEbus modules.
VIP PCI Configuration Register Test
The VIP PCI Configuration Register Test reads the first 8 longwords of the VIP
PCI configuration space. Only the device and vendor ID, and base addresses 0, 1,
2, and 3 are compared to an expected value. The remaining longwords are always
read and displayed only if you specify the –dd option.
Console Command: vip_diag -t 1
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information.
VIP Register Write/Read Test
The VIP Register Write/Read Test ensures that the bits of a VIP register can be
written and read correctly; verifying the data path and internal access.
Console Command: vip_diag -t 2
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information.
VIC Register Write/Read Test
The VIC Register Write/Read Test ensures that the bits of a VIC register can be
written and read correctly; verifying the data path and internal access.
Console Command: vip_diag -t 3
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information.
VME Scatter/Gather RAM Test
The VME Scatter/Gather RAM Test verifies the integrity of the scatter/gather
RAM by performing write, read, and verify operations of various patterns to the
entire scatter/gather RAM.
Console Command: vip_diag -t 4
Command Option:
–dd: Print detailed test information on each pass.
8–20
Console Mode Diagnostics
Part IV
Appendixes
Part IV consists of the following appendixes:
•
Appendix A, Console Command Summary
•
Appendix B, Troubleshooting
•
Appendix C, Module Connector Pin Assignments
A
Console Command Summary
Table A–1 summarizes the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC console
commands.
Table A–1 Console Command Summary
Command
Options
Arguments
alloc
[-flood] [–z heap_address]
size [modulus] [remainder]
boot
[–file boot_file] [–flags longword,...]
[-protocols enet_protocol] [–halt]
[ boot_device ]
break
[break_level]
cat
[-l length]
[file...]
chmod
[[{– + =} {r w x b z}]...]
file...
chown
pid address ...
clear
envar
clear_log
date
[[[[yyyy]mm]dd]hhmm[.ss]]
deposit
[-b -w -l -q -o -h]
[-physical -virtual -gpr -fpr -ipr] [–n count]
[–s step]
dynamic
[–c [-r]] [–h] [-p] [–v] [-extend byte_count]
[–z heap_address]
echo
[–n]
args...
eval
[-ib -io -id -ix] [-b -o -d -x]
operand1 operand2
examine
[-b -w -l -q -o -h -d]
[-physical -virtual -gpr -fpr -ipr] [–n count]
[–s step]
[ device] address
exer
[–sb start_block] [–eb end_block] [–p pass_count]
[–l blocks] [–bs block_size] [–bc block_per_io]
[–d1 buf1_string] [–d2 buf2_string]
[–a action_string] [–sec seconds] [–m] [–v]
[-delay milliseconds]
[device...]
exit
[ device] address data
operator
exit_value
false
free
address...
grep
[-c] [-i] [-n] [-v] [–f file]
expression [file...]
hd
[ -byte -word -long -quad]
file...
Console Command Summary
A–1
Table A–1 Console Command Summary (Continued)
Command
Options
help
Arguments
[command-spec...]
init_ev
init
[–d device]
kill
pid...
line
ls
[–l]
[file...]
man
[command-spec...]
memexer
[number_of_tests]
memtest
[-sa start_address] [-ea end_address] [-l length]
[-ba block_address] [-bs block size]
[-i address_inc] [-p pass_count] [-d data_pattern]
[-rs random_seed] -rb] [-f] [-m] [-z] [-h] [-mb]
[-t] [-g] [-se]
net
[-s] [-sa] [-ri] [-ic] [-id] [-l0] [-l1] [-rb] [-csr]
[-els] [-kls] [-cm mode] [-se] [-da node_address]
[-l file_name] [-lw wait_in_seconds]
[-sv mop_version]
[port]
ps
pwrup
rm
file...
sa
process_id affinity_mask
semaphore
set
[-default] [-integer] [-string]
envar value
set led
[-b]
char
[-v] [-x] [-d] [-l] [-r] [-p]
[arg ...]
set reboot srom
set toy sleep
sh
show
system_param envar
show log
[{-n [count]} -all -new]
sleep
[-v]
time
sort
file
sp
process_id priority
start
[-drivers [device_prefix]]
address
stop
[-drivers [device_prefix]]
processor_num
update 1
[-file filename] [-protocol transport]
[-device source_device] [-target target_device]
1
You must issue the boot command before using update.
A–2
Console Command Summary
B
Troubleshooting
The DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs include extensive diagnostic
capabilities that execute when you power on the system. These include both
SROM and flash ROM code. This appendix:
•
Briefly discusses SROM and flash ROM diagnostics, Sections B.1 and B.2
•
Provides guidance on troubleshooting systems that include a PMC I/O companion card, B.3
•
Briefly discusses use of the dot matrix display by operating systems and
applications, B.4
•
Provides troubleshooting tips, B.5
For details about system diagnostics, see Chapter 7.
B.1 SROM Diagnostics
SROM diagnostics execute when you power on the system and display decreasing
numeric codes (8, 7, ...1) on the dot matrix display to indicate status. All SROM
tests must pass successfully before the flash ROM and console diagnostics run. If
one or more SROM diagnostics fail, the flash ROM and console diagnostics are
not loaded and a single right angle bracket prompt (SROM>) appears on the console terminal. The code of the failing diagnostic appears on the dot matrix display.
In some cases, additional information appears on the console terminal.
B.2 Flash ROM Diagnostics
When the SROM diagnostics complete successfully, the flash ROM diagnostics
are loaded, decompressed, and executed. Flash ROM diagnostics use an ascending (A, B,..., I) character-based code to indicate progress. If one or more flash
ROM-based diagnostics fail, the code representing the first error remains on the
dot matrix display and alternates between dim and bright intensity.
If all SROM and flash ROM diagnostics pass, and you have not set any
AUTO_ACTION environment variables, the console prompt (>>>) appears on
the console terminal, and a “rotating bar” appears on the dot matrix display.
Troubleshooting
B–1
B.3 Troubleshooting Systems that Include a PMC I/O Companion
Card
A problem in the PMC I/O companion card that hangs the PCI bus signal lines
could cause diagnostics to report problems throughout the I/O subsystem and in
the PCI controller of the processor chip. If you have a PMC I/O companion card
installed and you are experiencing diagnostic failures, remove it and rerun the
POST diagnostics.
B.4 Operating System and Application Use of the Dot Matrix
Display
Operating system and application software can use the dot matrix display. Once
the system boots, the dot matrix display is no longer under control of the console
code and can change. The console automatically clears the display before booting
an image.
B.5 Troubleshooting Your SBC
Table B–1 lists symptoms and corrective actions you can use to troubleshoot
Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBCs. See the DIGITAL Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/
480 Single-Board Computers User Manual for more information on system diagnostics.
Table B–1 Troubleshooting Your SBC
Symptom
Corrective Action
No LEDs are lit and a prompt does not
appear on the console.
Check the power source. If 5 V power is
out of specification, the SBC is held in
reset. Check that all modules are seated
properly.
The green LED is lit and the number 4
Check the seating of the memory modules.
appears on the dot matrix display when you
power on the system.
The green LED is lit and the number 0
Ensure that the console terminal is not in
appears on the dot matrix display when you “hold screen” mode.
power on the system.
The green LED is lit and a flashing A
Check the SCSI termination, the seating of
appears on the dot matrix display when you the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC CPU
power on the system.
and I/O module assembly, the seating of the
breakout modules, the seating of the SCSI
cable, and the seating of all SCSI devices.
The green LED is lit and a flashing D
Check that the TOY Clock/NVRAM
appears on the dot matrix display when you device is seated properly.
power on the system.
The green LED is lit and a flashing F
Check the seating of the network address
appears on the dot matrix display when you ROM.
power on the system.
B–2
Troubleshooting
Table B–1 Troubleshooting Your SBC (Continued)
Symptom
Corrective Action
The green LED is lit and a flashing G
Check the seating of the twisted-pair cable
appears on the dot matrix display when you and the nearest network transceiver.
power on the system.
The green LED is lit and a flashing I
Check the seating of the Alpha VME 5/352
appears on the dot matrix display when you and 5/480 SBC CPU and I/O module
power on the system.
assembly, the seating of the breakout modules, and the seating of all VME devices.
Diagnostics pass but the SCSI tests take
more than 10 seconds to complete.
Check the SCSI termination, the seating of
the Alpha VME 5/352 and 5/480 SBC CPU
and I/O module assembly, the seating of the
breakout modules, the seating of the SCSI
cable, and the seating of all SCSI devices.
Diagnostics pass but there are no (or
unreadable) characters displayed on the
console.
Check the console terminal connections
and settings (9600 baud, 8-bits, no parity).
The terminal should be plugged into the
console (CON) port.
Troubleshooting
B–3
C
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Sections C.1 through C.5 provide pin assignment information for the Alpha VME
5/352 and 5/480 SBC:
•
CPU module connector, C.1
•
I/O Type 1 module connector, C.2
•
Primary breakout module connector, C.3
•
Secondary breakout module connector, C.4
•
PMC I/O companion card connector, C.5
C.1 CPU Module Connector Pin Assignments
The CPU module (54–24827–xx) P2 connector has the following power/ground
pin assignments:
Row A
Row B
Row C
Ground
1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 2, 12, 22, 31
16, 18-23, 28-30
3, 4, 7-11, 14-17, 20-22,
24-27, 30
VCC
3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 17, 24-27, 31,
32
1, 2, 5, 6, 12, 13, 18, 19,
23, 28, 29, 31, 32
1, 13, 32
C.2 I/O Module Connector Pin Assignments
Sections C.2.1 through C.2.4 show the pin assignments for the VMEbus connector, console and serial connectors, and the Ethernet connector on the I/O module
(54-24319-01).
C.2.1 P1 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–1 lists the pin assignments for the P1 VMEbus connector.P2 Connector
Table C–1 P1 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Row A
Row B
Row C
1
VME_D0
VME_BBSY_L
VME_D08
2
VME_D1
VME_BCLR_L
VME_D09
3
VME_D2
VME_ACFAIL_L
VME_D10
4
VME_D3
VME_BGIN0_L
VME_D11
5
VME_D4
VME_BGOUT0_l
VME_D12
6
VME_D5
VME_BGIN1_L
VME_D13
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–1
Table C–1 P1 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments (Continued)
Pin
Row A
Row B
Row C
7
VME_D6
VME_BGOUT1_L
VME_D14
8
VME_D7
VME_BGIN2_L
VME_D15
9
Ground
VME_BGOUT2_L
Ground
10
VME_SYSCLK
VME_BGIN3_L
VME_SYSFAIL_L
11
Ground
VME_BGOUT3_l
VME_BERR_L
12
VME_DS1_L
VME_BR0_L
VME_SYSRESET_L
13
VME_DS0_L
VME_BR1_L
VME_LWORD_l
14
VME_WRITE_L
VME_BR2_L
VME_AM5
15
Ground
VME_BR3_L
VME_A23
16
VME_DTACK_L
VME_AM0
VME_A22
17
Ground
VME_AM1
VME_A21
18
VME_AS_L
VME_AM2
VME_A20
19
Ground
VME_AM3
VME_A19
20
VME_IACK_L
Ground
VME_A18
21
VME_IACKIN_L
N/C
VME_A17
22
VME_IACKOUT_L
N/C
VME_A16
23
VME_AM4
Ground
VME_A15
24
VME_A7
VME_IRQ7_L
VME_A14
25
VME_A6
VME_IRQ6_L
VME_A13
26
VME_A5
VME_IRQ5_L
VME_A12
27
VME_A4
VME_IRQ4_L
VME_A11
28
VME_A3
VME_IRQ3_L
VME_A10
29
VME_A2
VME_IRQ2_L
VME_A09
30
VME_A1
VME_IRQ1_L
VME_A08
31
PWRN12
VME_5VSTBY
PWRP12
32
VCC
VCC
VCC
C.2.2 P2 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–2 lists the pin assignments for the P2 VMEbus connector.
Table C–2 P2 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments
C–2
Pin
Row A
Row B
Row C
1
SCSI_DATA0_L
VCC
MSDATA
2
SCSI_DATA1_L
Ground
MSCLK
3
SCSI_DATA2_L
N/C
Ground
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–2 P2 VMEbus Connector Pin Assignments (Continued)
Pin
Row A
Row B
Row C
4
SCSI_DATA3_L
VME_A24
KBDATA
5
SCSI_DATA4_L
VME_A25
KBCLK
6
SCSI_DATA5_L
VME_A26
WD_STATUS_OC
7
SCSI_DATA6_L
VME_A27
BREAKOUT0
8
SCSI_DATA7_L
VME_A28
BREAKOUT1
9
SCSI_DP_L
VME_A29
Ground
10
SCSI_ATN_L
VME_A30
EXT_RESET_L
11
SCSI_BSY_L
VME_A31
TMR2_EXT_OP_L
12
SCSI_ACK_L
Ground
TMR1_EXT_OP_L
13
SCSI_RST_L
VCC
TMR_MINOR_IP_L
14
SCSI_MSG_L
VME_D16
TRM_MAJOR_IP_L
15
SCSI_SEL_L
VME_D17
Ground
16
SCSI_CD_L
VME_D18
PP_STB_L
17
SCSI_REQ_L
VME_D19
PP_ERR_L
18
SCSI_IO_L
VME_D20
PP_DATA0
19
Ground
VME_D21
PP_DATA1
20
Ground
VME_D22
PP_DATA2
21
Ground
VME_D23
PP_DATA3
22
Ground
Ground
PP_DATA4
23
VME_MASTER_SW_L VME_D24
PP_DATA5
24
VCC
VME_D25
PP_DATA6
25
VCC
VME_D26
PP_DATA7
26
VCC
VME_D27
PP_SLCT
27
VCC
VME_D28
PP_PE
28
Ground
VME_D29
PP_BUSY
29
Ground
VME_D30
PP_ACK_L
30
Ground
VME_D31
PP_AFD_L
31
VCC
Ground
PP_INIT_L
32
VCC
VCC
PP_SLIN_L
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–3
C.2.3 Console and Auxiliary Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–3 lists the pin assigments for the console and auxiliary connectors. Figure
C–1 shows a pin assignment diagram.
Table C–3 Console and Auxiliary Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Signal
1
Ready out (always asserted, tied high with a 150 Ω resistor)
2
Transmit +
3
Transmit – (send common, tied to ground)
4
Receive +
5
Receive –
6
Ready in (tied to ground with 3.01K Ω resistor)
Figure C–1 Console and Auxiliary Connector Pin Assignments
Pin 1
Pin 6
Front view mating side
MLO-013549
C.2.4 Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–4 lists the pin assignments for the Ethernet connector. Figure C–2 shows
a pin assignment diagram.
Table C–4 Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Signal
1
Transmit +
2
Transmit –
3
Receive +
4
No connection
5
No connection
6
Receive –
7
No connection
8
No connection
Figure C–2 Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments
Pin 1
Pin 8
Front view mating side
MLO-013550
C–4
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C.3 Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–5 lists the pin assignments for the primary breakout module (54-2466301). Figure C–3 shows a pin assignment diagram.
Table C–5 Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Row A
Row B
Row C
1
SCSI_DATA0_L
VCC
MSDATA
2
SCSI_DATA1_L
Ground
MSCLK
3
SCSI_DATA2_L
N/C
Ground
4
SCSI_DATA3_L
N/C
KBDATA
5
SCSI_DATA4_L
N/C
KBCLK
6
SCSI_DATA5_L
N/C
WD_STATUS_OC
7
SCSI_DATA6_L
N/C
BREAKOUT0
8
SCSI_DATA7_L
N/C
BREAKOUT1
9
SCSI_DP_L
N/C
Ground
10
SCSI_ATN_L
N/C
EXT_RESET_L
11
SCSI_BSY_L
N/C
TMR2_EXT_OP_L
12
SCSI_ACK_L
Ground
TMR1_EXT_OP_L
13
SCSI_RST_L
VCC
TMR_MINOR_IP_L
14
SCSI_MSG_L
N/C
TRM_MAJOR_IP_L
15
SCSI_SEL_L
N/C
Ground
16
SCSI_CD_L
N/C
PP_STB_L
17
SCSI_REQ_L
N/C
PP_ERR_L
18
SCSI_IO_L
N/C
PP_DATA0
19
Ground
N/C
PP_DATA1
20
Ground
N/C
PP_DATA2
21
Ground
N/C
PP_DATA3
22
Ground
Ground
PP_DATA4
23
VME_MASTER_SW_L
N/C
PP_DATA5
24
VCC
N/C
PP_DATA6
25
VCC
N/C
PP_DATA7
26
VCC
N/C
PP_SLCT
27
VCC
N/C
PP_PE
28
Ground
N/C
PP_BUSY
29
Ground
N/C
PP_ACK_L
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–5
Table C–5 Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments
(Continued)
Pin
Row A
Row B
Row C
30
Ground
N/C
PP_AFD_L
31
VCC
Ground
PP_INIT_L
32
VCC
VCC
PP_SLIN_L
Figure C–3 Primary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments
Side 1
J1
XP2
C32
B32
A32
C1
B1
A1
49
1
50
2
J2 (SCSI)
Side 2
C1
B1
A1
C32
B32
A32
J3
C1
B1
A1
C32
B32
A32
J4
MLO-013551
C.4 Secondary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments
Figure C–4 shows the layout of the pin assignments for the secondary breakout
module. Note the positions of the J1 (keyboard and mouse) and J6 (parallel port)
connectors.
C–6
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Figure C–4 Secondary Breakout Module Connector Pin Assignments
A1
A32
C1
C32
J2
14
26
1
13
J6
J1
2 4 2 4
J4
J5
1 3 1 3
P2
C1
B1
A1
C32
B32
A32
MLO-01355
Sections C.4.1 and C.4.2 provide more detail on the J1 and J6 connectors, respectively.
C.4.1 Keyboard and Mouse Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–6 lists the pin assignments for the keyboard and mouse (J1) connector.
Figure C–5 shows a pin assignment diagram.
Table C–6 Keyboard and Mouse Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Signal
1
MOUSE_DATA
2
KBRD_DATA
3
Ground
4
VCC
5
MOUSE_CLOCK
6
KBRD_CLOCK
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–7
Figure C–5 Keyboard and Mouse Pin Assignments
5
6
3
4
Front view mating side
1
2
MLO-013553
C.4.2 Parallel Port Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–7 lists the pin assignments for the parallel port (J6) connector. Figure C–
6 shows a pin assignment diagram.
Table C–7 Parallel Port Connector Pin Assignments
C–8
Pin
Signal
1
PP_STB_L
2
PP_DATA0
3
PP_DATA1
4
PP_DATA2
5
PP_DATA3
6
PP_DATA4
7
PP_DATA5
8
PP_DATA6
9
PP_DATA7
10
PP_ACK_L
11
PP_BUSY
12
PP_PE
13
PP_SLCT
14
PP_AFD_L
15
PP_ERR_L
16
PP_INIT_L
17
PP_SLIN_L
18–25
Ground
26
N/C
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Figure C–6 Parallel Port Connector Pin Assignments
J2
14
26
1
13
J6
Front view mating side
MLO-013554
C.5 PMC I/O Companion Card Connector Pin Assignments
Sections C.5.3 through C.5.3 identify the pin assignments for the following PMC
I/O companion card (54-24665-01) connectors:
•
PMC option 1 connectors
•
PMC option 2 connectors
•
Diskette drive connector
•
Mouse and keyboard connector
C.5.1 PMC Option 1 Connector Pin Assignments
Figure C–7 shows the locations of the PMC option 1 connectors J11, J12, and
J14(the P2 VMEbus signal connector). Tables C–8 through C–10 list the pin
assignments for the connectors.
Figure C–7 PMC Option 1 Connectors
P1
P2
2
J12 64 2 J14
64
1
2
631
J11 64
63
1
63
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–9
Table C–8 PMC Option 1 J11 Pin Assignments
C–10
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
Ground
1
2
PWRN12
Ground
3
4
BPCIOPT0_IRQA_L
BPCIOPT0_IRQB_L
5
6
BPCIOPT0_IRQC_L
N/C
7
8
VCC
BPCIOPT0_IRQD_L
9
10
N/C
Ground
11
12
N/C
PCICLK_OPT0_L
13
14
Ground
Ground
15
16
SGNT0_L
SSREQ0_L
17
18
VCC
SVIO
19
20
BPCI_AD31
BPCI_AD28
21
22
BPCI_AD27
PBCI_AD25
23
24
Ground
Ground
25
26
BPCI_CBE3_L
BPCI_AD22
27
28
BPCI_AD21
BPCI_AD19
29
30
VCC
SVIO
31
32
BPCI_AD17
BPCI_FRAME_L
33
34
Ground
Ground
35
36
BPCI_IRDY_L
BPCI_DEVSEL_L
37
38
VCC
Ground
39
40
BPCI_LOCK_L
SVIO
41
42
SVIO
BPCI_PAR
43
44
Ground
SVIO
45
46
BPCI_AD15
BPCI_AD12
47
48
BPCI_AD11
BPCI_AD9
49
50
VCC
Ground
51
52
BPCI_CBE0_L
BPCI_AD6
53
54
BPCI_AD5
BPCI_AD4
55
56
Ground
SVIO
57
58
BPCI_AD3
BPCI_AD2
59
60
BPCI_AD1
BPCI_AD0
61
62
VCC
Ground
63
64
SVIO
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–9 PMC Option 1 J12 Pin Assignments
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
PWRP12
1
2
Ground
SVIO
3
4
N/C
SVIO
5
6
Ground
Ground
7
8
N/C
N/C
9
10
N/C
VCC
11
12
+3V
S_RST_L
13
14
Ground
+3V
15
16
Ground
N/C
17
18
Ground
BPCI_AD30
19
20
BPCI_AD29
Ground
21
22
BPCI_AD26
BPCI_AD24
23
24
+3V
BPCI_AD17
25
26
BPCI_AD23
+3V
27
28
BPCI_AD20
BPCI_AD18
29
30
Ground
BPCI_AD16
31
32
BPCI_CBE2_L
Ground
33
34
N/C
BPCI_TRDY_L
35
36
+3V
Ground
37
38
BPCI_STOP_L
BPCI_PERR_L
39
40
Ground
+3V
41
42
BPCI_SERR_L
BPCI_CBE1_L
43
44
Ground
BPCI_AD14
45
46
BPCI_AD13
Ground
47
48
BPCI_AD10
BPCI_AD8
49
50
+3V
BPCI_AD7
51
52
N/C
+3V
53
54
N/C
N/C
55
56
Ground
N/C
57
58
N/C
Ground
59
60
N/C
SVIO
61
62
+3V
Ground
63
64
N/C
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–11
Table C–10 PMC Option 1 VMEbus P2 Signal Connector (J14) Pin Assignments
C–12
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
P2_1C
1
2
P2_1A
P2_2C
3
4
P2_2A
P2_3C
5
6
P2_3A
P2_4C
7
8
P2_4A
P2_5C
9
10
P2_5A
P2_6C
11
12
P2_6A
P2_7C
13
14
P2_7A
P2_8C
15
16
P2_8A
P2_9C
17
18
P2_9A
P2_10C
19
20
P2_10A
P2_11C
21
22
P2_11A
P2_12C
23
24
P2_12A
P2_13C
25
26
P2_13A
P2_14C
27
28
P2_14A
P2_15C
29
30
P2_15A
P2_16C
31
32
P2_16A
P2_17C
33
34
P2_17A
P2_18C
35
36
P2_18A
P2_19C
37
38
P2_19A
P2_20C
39
40
P2_20A
P2_21C
41
42
P2_21A
P2_22C
43
44
P2_22A
P2_23C
45
46
P2_23A
P2_24C
47
48
P2_24A
P2_25C
49
50
P2_25A
P2_26C
51
52
P2_26A
P2_27C
53
54
P2_27A
P2_28C
55
56
P2_28A
P2_29C
57
58
P2_29A
P2_30C
59
60
P2_30A
P2_31C
61
62
P2_31A
P2_32C
63
64
P2_32A
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C.5.2 PMC Option 2 Connector Pin Assignments
Figure C–8 shows the locations of the PMC option 2 connectors J21 and J22.
Tables C–11 and C–12 list the pin assignments for the connectors.
Figure C–8 PMC Option 2 Connectors
P1
2
P2
J22 64
1
63
2
J21 64
1
63
Table C–11 PMC Option 2 J21 Pin Assignments
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
Ground
1
2
PWRN12
Ground
3
4
BPCIOPT1_IRQA_L
BPCIOPT1_IRQB_L
5
6
BPCIOPT1_IRQC_L
N/C
7
8
VCC
BPCIOPT1_IRQD_L
9
10
N/C
Ground
11
12
N/C
PCICLK_OPT1_L
13
14
Ground
Ground
15
16
SGNT1_L
SSREQ1_L
17
18
VCC
SVIO
19
20
BPCI_AD31
BPCI_AD28
21
22
BPCI_AD27
PBCI_AD25
23
24
Ground
Ground
25
26
BPCI_CBE3_L
BPCI_AD22
27
28
BPCI_AD21
BPCI_AD19
29
30
VCC
SVIO
31
32
BPCI_AD17
BPCI_FRAME_L
33
34
Ground
Ground
35
36
BPCI_IRDY_L
BPCI_DEVSEL_L
37
38
VCC
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–13
Table C–11 PMC Option 2 J21 Pin Assignments (Continued)
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
Ground
39
40
BPCI_LOCK_L
SVIO
41
42
SVIO
BPCI_PAR
43
44
Ground
SVIO
45
46
BPCI_AD15
BPCI_AD12
47
48
BPCI_AD11
BPCI_AD9
49
50
VCC
Ground
51
52
BPCI_CBE0_L
BPCI_AD6
53
54
BPCI_AD5
BPCI_AD4
55
56
Ground
SVIO
57
58
BPCI_AD3
BPCI_AD2
59
60
BPCI_AD1
BPCI_AD0
61
62
VCC
Ground
63
64
SVIO
Table C–12 PMC Option 2 J22 Pin Assignments
C–14
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
PWRP12
1
2
Ground
SVIO
3
4
N/C
SVIO
5
6
Ground
Ground
7
8
N/C
N/C
9
10
N/C
VCC
11
12
+3V
S_RST_L
13
14
Ground
+3V
15
16
Ground
N/C
17
18
Ground
BPCI_AD30
19
20
BPCI_AD29
Ground
21
22
BPCI_AD26
BPCI_AD24
23
24
+3V
BPCI_AD17
25
26
BPCI_AD23
+3V
27
28
BPCI_AD20
BPCI_AD18
29
30
Ground
BPCI_AD16
31
32
BPCI_CBE2_L
Ground
33
34
N/C
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–12 PMC Option 2 J22 Pin Assignments (Continued)
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
BPCI_TRDY_L
35
36
+3V
Ground
37
38
BPCI_STOP_L
BPCI_PERR_L
39
40
Ground
+3V
41
42
BPCI_SERR_L
BPCI_CBE1_L
43
44
Ground
BPCI_AD14
45
46
BPCI_AD13
Ground
47
48
BPCI_AD10
BPCI_AD8
49
50
+3V
BPCI_AD7
51
52
N/C
+3V
53
54
N/C
N/C
55
56
Ground
N/C
57
58
N/C
Ground
59
60
N/C
SVIO
61
62
+3V
Ground
63
64
N/C
C.5.3 PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Drive Connector Pin Assignments
Table C–13 lists the pin assignments for the PMC I/O companion card diskette
drive connector. Figure C–9 shows a pin assignment diagram for the connector.
Table C–13 PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Drive Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Signal
1
Ground
2
DENSEL
3
Ground
4
No connection
5
Ground
6
DRATE0_L
7
Ground
8
INDEX_L
9
Ground
10
MTR0_L
11
Ground
12
DS1_L
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–15
Table C–13 PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Drive Connector Pin Assignments (Continued)
C–16
Pin
Signal
13
Ground
14
DS0_L
15
Ground
16
MTR1_L
17
Ground
18
DIR_L
19
Ground
20
STEP_L
21
Ground
22
WRDATA_L
23
Ground
24
WGATE_L
25
Ground
26
TR0_L
27
Ground
28
WRTPRT_L
29
Ground
30
RDATA
31
Ground
32
HDSEL_L
33
Ground
34
RDSKCHG
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Figure C–9 PMC I/O Companion Card Diskette Connector Pin Assignments
J6
Pin 33
Pin 34
J7
Pin 2
Pin 1
C.5.4 PMC I/O Companion Card Keyboard and Mouse Connector Pin
Assignments
Tables C–14 and C–15 list the pin assignments for the PMC I/O companion card
mouse and keyboard connectors, respectively. Figure C–10 shows a pin assignment diagram for the connectors.
Table C–14 PMC I/O Companion Card Mouse Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Signal
1
MOUSE_DATA
2
KBRD_DATA
3
Ground
4
VCC
5
MOUSE_CLOCK
6
KBRD_CLOCK
Table C–15 PMC I/O Companion Card Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments
Pin
Signal
1
KBRD_DATA
2
MOUSE_DATA
3
Ground
4
VCC
5
KBRD_CLOCK
6
N/C
Module Connector Pin Assignments
C–17
Figure C–10 PMC I/O Companion Card Mouse and Keyboard Connector Pin
Assignments
6
4
5
3
Front view mating side
2
1
MLO-013553
C–18
Module Connector Pin Assignments
Index
Symbols
# operator, 4-7
& operator, 4-7
&a operator, 4-7
( ) operator, 4-7
* operator, 4-7
; operator, 4-6
< operator, 4-6
<< operator, 4-6
<kcommand>update command, 6-79
> operator, 4-6
>> operator, 4-6
? operator, 4-7
[ ] operator, 4-7
\ operator, 4-6
{ } operator, 4-7
| operator, 4-6
’ ’ operator, 4-7
Numerics
10BASE-T twisted-pair Ethernet connector, 2-4, 3-8
checking the seating of, B-3
pinout assignments for, C-4
See also 21040 Ethernet controller; Networking,
1-2
21040 Configuration Register Test, 8-10
21040 Control/Status Dump, 8-9
21040 Ethernet controller, 2-1, 3-2, 3-8
PCI configuration registers, reading and printing,
8-9
21040 Ethernet Controller Tests, 8-1, 8-9
21040 PCI Configuration Register Dump, 8-9
21164 Alpha microprocessor, 1-1, 2-1, 3-2
chip cache for, 1-1
description of, 3-3
functional block diagram, 3-4
initializing, 5-2, 6-43
managing, 5-24
performance of, 1-1
speed of, 1-1
stopping, 5-2, 6-78
stopping and starting, 5-24
21172 core logic chip set, 3-2
21172 core logic chipset, 2-1
components of, 3-5
description of, 3-5
features of, 3-5
21172-BA chips, 3-5
21172-CA chip, 3-5
3 Timers Loopback Test, 8-6
32, 3-6
5 V standby connection, 3-11
53C810 SCSI chip, 1-2
82378ZB chip, 3-9
82C42PE chip, 1-2
A
Address mapping, VMEbus , 3-15
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), 5-6
Addresses, symbolic, 5-22
Addressing modes, VMEbus, 3-14
Affinity mask, processor, 4-7, 6-59
alloc command, 5-2, 5-27, 6-2
Alpha hardware restart parameter block
displaying the address of, 5-2
Alpha microprocessor
Index–1
See 21164 Alpha microprocessor
Altitude specification, 1-5
Ambient air required, 1-6
Arguments, boot, 5-5
passing, 5-11
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 5-6
Arrow keys, 4-5
Audit trail messages, 5-6
AUTO_ACTION environment variable, 5-5
Auxiliary serial port, 2-4
connector pin assignments for, C-4
B
Background mode, console, 4-7, 4-9
Backplane slots, 1-3
Backspace key, 4-5
Backup cache (Bcache)
See Bcache
Battery, 3-10
Bcache, 1-1, 3-4
array, 3-6
operating speed of, 1-1
See also Memory
subsystem, 3-6
Bell, sounding on error, 5-6
Boot
network, 5-15
Boot arguments, 5-5, 6-4
passing, 5-11
boot command, 4-3, 5-2, 5-10, 6-4
for firmware update, 5-18
with -halt option, 5-16
Boot device, 6-4
Boot devices, 5-10
Boot file, 5-13, 6-4
Boot image, 5-11
Boot protocols
Boot Protocol (BOOTP), 5-6, 5-11
initialization, 5-14
Protocols
boot, 6-5
Boot, network, 5-11
BOOT_DEV environment variable , 5-5
BOOT_FILE environment variable, 5-5
BOOT_OSFLAGS environment variable, 5-5
BOOTDEF_DEV environment variable, 5-5
BOOTED_DEV environment variable, 5-5
BOOTED_FILE environment variable, 5-5
BOOTED_OSFLAGS environment variable, 5-5
BOOTP (Boot Protocol), 5-6, 5-11
Index–2
initialization, 5-14
break command, 5-3, 5-36, 6-6
Breakout modules
See Primary breakout module; Secondary breakout module
Buffers, exercise, 5-24
Bus grant pass-through jumper, 2-3
C
Cache
Bcache, 1-1, 3-4
array, 3-6
operating speed of, 1-1
See also Memory
subsystem, 3-6
data, 3-4
instruction, 3-4
second level, 3-4
third level, 3-4
case reserved word, 4-7
cat command, 5-3, 6-7
Caterpillar insulation strip, 2-4
Channels, 3-13
CHAR_SET environment variable, 5-5
Characters, deleting, 4-5
chmod command, 5-3, 6-8
chown, 5-2
chown command, 5-27, 6-10
CIA chip, 3-5
Circuit board module etch, testing, 8-4
Cleanup code, 5-6
clear command, 5-1, 5-10, 6-11
clear log command, 5-3
clear_log command, 5-33, 6-12
Clock interface, 3-7
Clocks, 1-2
real-time clock, 1-2
system clock, 3-2
Command
operators, 4-6
Command input, redirecting, 4-9
Command line
aborting, 4-5
characteristics of, 4-5
continuing, 4-6
deleting characters from, 4-5
ignoring, 4-5
recalling, 4-5
retyping, 4-5
Command output
disgarding, 4-5
filtering, 4-8
redirecting, 4-9
resuming, 4-5
Commands
alloc, 5-2, 5-27, 6-2
boot, 4-3, 5-2, 5-10, 6-4
for firmware update, 5-18
with -halt option, 5-16
break, 5-3, 5-36, 6-6
cat, 5-3, 6-7
chmod, 5-3, 6-8
chown, 5-27, 6-10
chown command, 5-2
clear, 5-1, 5-10, 6-11
clear log, 5-3
clear_log, 5-33, 6-12
commenting, 4-7
commonly used, 4-4
date, 5-2, 5-17, 6-13
deposit, 5-2, 6-14
descriptions of, 6-1
ds1368_diag, 8-11, 8-12, 8-13
ds1386_diag, 8-2
dynamic, 5-2, 5-26, 6-19
echo, 5-4, 6-21
enet_diag, 8-2, 8-14
eval, 5-3, 5-33, 6-22
examine, 5-2, 5-19, 6-24
executing in sequence, 4-6
exer, 5-2, 5-24, 6-29, 8-1
exit, 5-3, 6-34
false, 5-3, 5-36, 6-35
free, 5-2, 5-27, 6-36
grep, 4-8, 5-4, 6-37
grouping, 4-7
hbeat_diag, 8-2, 8-3
hd, 5-3, 5-22, 6-40
help, 4-3, 6-41
i8254_diag, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5
i8524_diag, 8-6, 8-7, 8-8
including in files, 4-10
init, 5-2, 5-24
init_ev, 5-1, 5-9, 6-42
initialize, 6-43
kill, 5-3, 5-36, 6-44
line, 5-4, 6-45
ls, 5-3, 6-46
man, 4-3, 6-47
mem_ex, 8-1
memexer, 5-2, 6-48
memtest, 5-2, 5-28, 6-49, 8-1
more, 4-4
ncr810, 8-2
ncr810_diag, 8-16, 8-17
ncr810_diag, 8-16
net, 5-3, 5-31, 6-53
nicsr_diag, 8-1, 8-9, 8-10
niil_diag, 8-1, 8-9
overview of, 4-4
piping, 4-6
ps, 5-3, 5-34, 6-56
pwrup, 5-3, 5-32, 6-57
redirecting I/O with, 4-9
rm, 5-3, 6-58
running in background mode, 4-7, 4-9
sa, 5-3, 6-59
scripts of, 4-10
semaphore, 5-3, 5-36, 6-60
set, 5-1, 5-9, 6-61
set led, 5-3, 5-32, 6-64
set reboot srom, 5-3, 5-32, 6-65
set toy sleep, 5-2, 5-17, 6-66
sh, 5-3, 5-34, 6-67
show, 5-2, 5-9, 5-18, 6-69
show LED , 5-3
show led, 5-32
show log, 5-3
show map, 5-27
show_log, 5-33, 6-72
sleep, 5-3, 5-36, 6-74
sort, 5-4, 6-75
sp, 5-3, 5-35, 6-76
specifying arguments with, 4-5
specifying options with, 4-5
specifying patterns with, 4-7
specifying radix in, 4-7
start, 5-2, 5-24, 6-77
stop, 5-2, 5-24, 6-78
summary of, A-1
summary of console, A-1
update, 5-2, 5-18, 6-79
Index–3
using reserved words with, 4-7
using with flow control, 4-7
vip_diag, 8-2, 8-20
wdog_diag, 8-2, 8-19
Component and path coverage, testing, 7-5
Components
functional, 3-1
figure of, 3-3
module, 2-1
system
initializing, 5-24
Configuration switchpack, 2-4
Connectors
10BASE-T twisted-pair Ethernet connector, 1-2,
3-8
64-bit PCI connector, 2-3
at rear of VME chassis, 2-8
checking the seating of, B-3
CPU module connector, C-1
CPU module connector on I/O module, 2-4
DIMM connectors, 2-3
diskette drive connector, 2-10
pin assignements for, C-15
Ethernet connector, 2-4
pin assignments for, C-4
external monitoring device connector, 2-7
I/O module connector, C-1
on CPU module, 2-3
on PMC I/O companion card, 2-10
keyboard and mouse connector
pin assignments for, C-7, C-17
keyboard connector, 2-8, 2-10
memory module connectors, 2-3
mouse connector, 2-8, 2-10
P1 VMEbus connector
on CPU module, 2-3
on I/O module, 2-4
on PMC I/O companion card, 2-10
pin assignments for, C-1
P2 VMEbus connector
on CPU module, 2-3
on I/O module, 2-4
on PMC I/O companion card, 2-10
pin assignments for, C-2
signal, PMC option 2, 2-10
parallel port connector , 2-8
pin assignments for, C-8
Index–4
pin assignments for, C-1
PMC I/O companion card connector on I/O module, 2-4
PMC I/O companion card connectors, C-9
PMC option connectors, 2-9, 2-10
primary breakout module connector, C-5
SCSI bus connector, 2-7
secondary breakout module connector, 2-7
pin assignments for, C-6
serial port connectors
pin assignments for, C-4
VMEbus connector, 1-3
VMEbus connectors
pin assignments for, C-1
Y-cable connector, 2-8
Console
basics, 4-1
case sensitivity, 4-6
command arguments, 4-5
command operators, 4-6
command options, 4-5
command summary, A-1
commands
See Commands
defining action following an error, halt or powerup, 5-5
device, 4-1
device drivers, 5-20
error log
displaying contents of, 5-33
initializing, 5-33
managing, 5-33
features, 4-2
filtering output for, 4-8
flow control, 4-7
graphics, 5-5
heap, 5-26
initializing, 5-2, 6-43
invoking immediately after boot, 5-16
managing, 5-24
mode
entering, 4-2
exiting, 4-3
operations, 5-1
parser, 4-6
processes
creating, 5-34
deleting, 5-3, 6-44
displaying the state of, 6-56
displaying the status of, 5-3
exiting, 5-34, 6-34
managing, 5-3, 5-34
monitoring, 5-34
setting priority of, 5-35, 6-76
setting processor affinity, 6-59
setting the priority of, 5-3
specifying CPU for, 5-35
stopping, 5-36
suspending, 5-3, 5-36, 6-74
prompt, 4-2
character sequence for, 4-5
redirecting I/O for, 4-9
reserved words, 4-7
scripts, 4-10
serial-line, 5-5
setting up for use, 4-1
special keys for, 4-5
specifying the language of, 5-8
type-ahead buffer support, 4-6
UART, 7-1
using, 5-1
CONSOLE environment variable, 5-5, 7-2
Console firmware
See Console
Console mode diagnostics, 8-1
21040 Configuration Register Test, 8-10
21040 Control/Status Register Dump, 8-9
21040 Ethernet Controller Tests, 8-9
21040 PCI Configuration Register Dump, 8-9
3 Timers Loopback Test, 8-6
DALLAS DS1386 NVRAM Watchdog Timekeeper Tests, 8-11
Ethernet Internal Loopback Test, 8-9
Heartbeat Timer Test, 8-1
Interval Timer Tests, 8-4
LAN Address ROM Dump Test, 8-14
LAN Address ROM Tests, 8-14
LAN Address ROM Verification Test, 8-14
NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O Processor Tests, 816
NCR810 Command/Status Register Dump, 8-16
NCR810 Command/Status Register Reset Value
Test, 8-17
NCR810 Command/Status Register Test , 8-17
NCR810 Internal Live Bus Loopback Test, 8-17
NCR810 Internal Loopback Test, 8-17
NCR810 Interrupt Test, 8-17
NCR810 PCI Configuration Register Test, 8-16
NVRAM Address-On-Address Test, 8-11
NVRAM March I Test, 8-11
Timer 0 Loopback Test, 8-6
Timer 1 Interrupt Test, 8-8
Timer 2 Interrupt Test, 8-7
Timer 2 Square Wave Test, 8-4
Timer 2 Terminal Count Test, 8-4
TOY Clock Bitwalk Test, 8-12
TOY Clock Time Advancement Test, 8-13
VIC Register Write/Read Test, 8-20
VIP PCI Configuration Register Test, 8-20
VIP Register Write/Read Test, 8-20
VME Interface Tests, 8-20
VME Scatter-Gather RAM Test, 8-20
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test, 8-19
Console serial port, 2-4
connector pin assignments for, C-4
Control, I/O interface, and address (CIA) chip, 3-5
Controllers
diskette drive controller, 2-1
Ethernet controller, 2-1, 3-2
interrupt, 3-9
SCSI controller, 2-1, 3-2
Controls, front panel, 2-4
figure showing, 2-5
Cooling requirements, 1-6
CPU
See 21164 Alpha microprocessor
CPU module, 2-1, 2-2
checking the seating of, B-2
connector, C-1
I/O module connector on, 2-3
layout of, 2-3
VMEbus connectors, 2-3
Crash dumps, 5-6
Ctrl/C, 4-5
Ctrl/O, 4-5
Ctrl/Q, 4-5
Ctrl/R, 4-5
Ctrl/S, 4-5
Ctrl/U, 4-5
CY7C964 bus interface chips, 3-14, 3-15
Index–5
D
D_BELL environment variable, 5-6
D_CLEANUP environment variable, 5-6
D_COMPLETE environment variable, 5-6
D_EOP environment variable, 5-6
D_GROUP environment variable, 5-6
D_HARDERR environment variable, 5-6, 5-26
D_OPER environment variable, 5-6
D_PASSES environment variable, 5-6
D_REPORT environment variable, 5-6
D_SOFTERR environment variable, 5-6
D_STARTUP environment variable, 5-6
D_TRACE environment variable, 5-6
DALLAS DS1386 NVRAM Watchdog Timekeeper
Tests, 8-11
Data
depositing and examining in memory, 5-21
depositing in memory, 5-2
depositing in registers , 5-22
examining and depositing, 5-19
examining in memory, 5-2, 6-24
examining in registers , 5-22
Data cache (Dcache), 3-4
Data size, specifying, 5-21
Data switch (DSW) chips, 3-5
Data transfers, VMEbus, 3-14
Data types, supported , 3-3
Date
changing, 6-13
displaying, 5-2, 5-17
setting, 5-2, 5-17
date command, 5-2, 5-17, 6-13
Dcache, 3-4
DC-to-DC converters, 1-4, 2-1
Debug jumper, 2-4
Decoder logic, testing, 7-5
Delete key, 4-5
deposit command, 5-2, 5-19, 6-14
Design verification test (DVT) loop service, 5-31
Device
default, 5-19
sticky, 5-19
Device classification, 1-7
Device drivers, 5-20
Device exerciser, 8-1
Device locations, seeking random, 5-25
Devices, 5-20
boot, 5-5, 5-10, 6-4
byte offsets for, 5-20
displaying information about, 5-2, 5-18
exercising, 5-2, 5-24, 6-29
Index–6
initializing, 5-2, 6-43
managing, 5-24
starting, 5-2, 6-77
stopping, 5-2, 6-78
stopping and starting, 5-24
Dew point specification, 1-5
Diagnostic completion message, 5-6
Diagnostic pass count, 5-6
Diagnostic startup message, 5-6
Diagnostics
Flash ROM, B-1
groups, 5-6
modes for, 5-8
overview, 7-1
running cleanup code after, 5-6
See also Console mode diagnostics; POST diagnostics
SROM, B-1
DIGITAL UNIX, 1-3
DIMMs, 2-5, 3-6
connectors for, 2-3
See also Memory
valid combinations of, 2-6
DIP Switch 2, I/O module, 3-10
Direct memory access (DMA) operations, 3-6
Diskette drive connector, 2-10
pin assignments for, C-15
Diskette drive controller, 2-1
Display
dot matrix, B-2
POST diagnostics, 2-5
status, 2-3, 2-5
Dissipation specification, 1-3
DMA operations, 3-6
do reserved word, 4-7
done reserved word, 4-7
Dot matrix display, B-2
Double-bit errors, 2-6
Down arrow key, 4-5
DRAMs (dynamic random access memory)
See Memory
DS1386 real-time clock, 1-2
ds1386_diag command, 8-2, 8-11, 8-12, 8-13
DSW chips, 3-5
DUMP_DEV environment variable, 5-6
Dumps, crash, 5-6
DVT (design verification test) loop service, 5-31
dynamic command, 5-2, 5-26, 6-19
Dynamic random access memory (DRAM)
See Memory
E
ECC (error checking and correction), 2-6, 3-6
echo command, 5-4, 6-21
elif reserved word, 4-7
else reserved word, 4-7
ENABLE_AUDIT environment variable, 5-6
Energy cell, 3-10
enet_diag command, 8-2, 8-14
Environment variables, 5-20
deleting, 5-10, 6-11
deleting from name space , 5-1
descriptions of, 5-5
displaying the values of, 5-2, 5-9
initializing, 6-42
managing, 5-1, 5-4
nonvolatile, 5-13
setting, 5-1, 5-9, 6-61
using to affect POST diagnostics sequence, 7-1
using wildcards with, 5-10
Environmental requirements, 1-5
Environmental specifications , 1-3, 1-5
Error checking and correction (ECC), 2-6, 3-6
Error codes, returning on I/O failures, 5-26
Error detection, 2-6
Error log, 5-20
clearing, 6-12
displaying, 6-72
displaying contents of, 5-33
initializing, 5-33
managing, 5-3, 5-33
Errors
hard, detection of, 5-6
single- and double-bit, 2-6
soft, detection of, 5-6
esac reserved word, 4-7
Ethernet connector
See 10BASE-T twisted-pair Ethernet connector
Ethernet controller
See 21040 Ethernet controller
Ethernet Hardware Address Test, 8-2
Ethernet ID address, 3-8
Ethernet Internal Loopback Test, 8-9
Ethernet loopback, 5-31
Ethernet station address, 5-31
Eurocard format, 1-3
eval command, 5-3, 5-33, 6-22
EWA0_ARP_TRIES environment variable, 5-6
EWA0_BOOTP_FILE environment variable, 5-6
EWA0_BOOTP_SERVER environment variable, 5-6
EWA0_BOOTP_TRIES environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_DEF_GINETADDR environment variable, 57
EWA0_DEF_INETADDR environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_DEF_INETFILE environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_DEF_SINETADDR environment variable, 57
EWA0_INET_INIT environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_LOOP_COUNT environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_LOOP_INC environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_LOOP_PATT environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_LOOP_SIZE environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_LP_MSG_NODE environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_MODE environment variable, 5-7
EWA0_PROTOCOLS environment variable, 5-8
EWA0_TFTP_TRIES environment variable, 5-8
EWAn_DEF_GINETADDR environment variable, 513
EWAn_DEF_INETADDR environment variable, 513
EWAn_DEF_INETFILE environment variable, 5-13
EWAn_DEF_SINETADDR environment variable, 513
EWAn_DEF_SUBNETMASK environment variable,
5-13
examine command, 5-2, 5-19, 6-24
exer command, 5-2, 5-24, 6-29, 8-1
Exercise buffers, 5-24
Exercise operations, 5-25
Exercises, 5-25
exit command, 5-3, 6-34
Expressions
evaluating, 5-3, 5-33, 6-22
searching for, 5-4, 6-37
External monitoring device, 2-7
External timing signals, 2-7
F
Failure status
returning, 6-35
Failure status, returning, 5-3, 5-36
false command, 5-3, 5-36, 6-35
FDC37C665GT Super I/O chip
See Super I/O chip
fi reserved word, 4-7
Files
boot, 5-5, 5-11, 5-13, 6-4
changing attributes of, 5-3, 6-8
copying to standard output, 5-3, 6-7
deleting, 5-3, 6-58
dumping contents of, 5-3, 6-40
listing, 5-3, 6-46
Index–7
loading remotely, 6-53
managing, 5-3, 5-37
searching for expressions in , 5-4
sorting contents of, 5-4, 6-75
Firmware
updating, 5-2, 5-18, 6-79
version of, 5-8
Flash ROM, 1-2, 2-1, 3-2, 3-10, 5-20
diagnostics, B-1
See also Memory
Floating-point registers, 5-20
Flow control, 4-7
loops, breaking, 5-36, 6-6
for reserved word, 4-7
free command, 5-2, 5-27, 6-36
Front panel, 2-4
figure showing, 2-5
LED
checking while troubleshooting, B-2
controlling, 5-3, 5-32
display, 7-1
displaying a character on, 6-64
Functional components, 3-1
figure of, 3-3
G
General-purpose registers, 5-20
Graycode memory test, 5-28
grep command, 4-8, 5-4, 6-37
H
Halt switch, 2-4, 2-5, 4-2
Hard errors, detection of, 5-6
Hardware reset reason register, 3-11
Hardware restart parameter block
displaying the address of, 5-2
hbeat_diag, 8-2
hbeat_diag command, 8-3
hd command, 5-3, 5-22, 6-40
Heap, 5-26
Heartbeat Timer Test, 8-1, 8-2
Help
See help command; Online help
help command, 4-3, 6-41
Humidity, relative
nonoperating, 1-5
operating, 1-3, 1-5
HWRPB, 5-18
Index–8
I
I/O
access through P2 VMEbus connector, 3-9
adding, 2-9
failures, 5-26
redirecting, 4-9
I/O module, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3
checking the seating of, B-2
configuration switch 3, 4-2
connector
on CPU module, 2-3
on PMC I/O companion card, 2-10
pin assignments for, C-1
CPU connector on, 2-4
DIP Switch 2, 3-10
layout, 2-4
PMC I/O companion card connector on, 2-4
VMEbus connectors, 2-4
I/O subsystem, 3-7
i8254_diag command, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5
i8524_diag command, 8-6, 8-7, 8-8
Icache, 3-4
ID requests, 6-53
if reserved word, 4-7
in reserved word, 4-7
Indicators, front panel, 2-4
figure showing, 2-5
init command, 5-2, 5-24
init_ev command, 5-9, 6-42
init_ev command, 5-1
Initialization
system, 7-2
initialize command, 6-43
Inodes, listing, 5-3
Input, command
controlling radix of, 4-7
reading, 4-6
redirecting, 4-6
Instruction cache (Icache), 3-4
Insulation strip, caterpillar, 2-4
Internal processor registers, 5-20
Internet
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), 5-6
addresses, 5-13
saving in an environment variable , 5-16
Boot Protocol (BOOTP) , 5-6
database, 5-7
defining fields of, 5-12
initialization, 5-13
protocols, 5-11
subnet mask, 5-13
Internet Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), 5-8
Interrupt controllers, 3-9
Interrupt delivery mechanism, testing, 8-3
Interval timer, 3-12
Interval timer chip, testing, 8-4
Interval Timer Tests, 8-2, 8-4
J
J11 bus grant pass-through jumper, 2-3
Jumpers
debug jumper, 2-4
J11 bus grant pass-through jumper, 2-3
keyboard and mouse jumper, 2-9
primary breakout module jumper, 2-7
SCSI termination and watchdog reset signal
jumpers, 2-7
signaling level jumper, 2-10
SROM Mini-Console, debug jumper for , 2-4
K
Keyboard, 2-1
connector, 2-8, 2-10
pin assignments for, C-7, C-17
controller, 3-2, 3-13
jumper, 2-9
Keys, special console, 4-5
kill command, 5-3, 5-36, 6-44
L
LAN Address ROM Dump Test, 8-14
LAN Address ROM Tests, 8-14
LAN Address ROM Verification Test, 8-14
LANGUAGE environment variable, 5-8
LANGUAGE_NAME environment variable, 5-8
LEDs
checking while troubleshooting, B-2
front panel LED
controlling, 5-3, 5-32
display, 7-1
displaying a character on, 6-64
power LED, 2-3, 2-5, 2-10
VME slave activity/watchdog timeout LED, 2-3,
2-5
Level 3 cache
See Bcache
LICENSE environment variable, 5-8
line command, 5-4, 6-45
Log files, commenting in, 4-7
Log, error
clearing, 6-12
displaying, 6-72
Loop count, 5-7
Loop data, 5-7
Loopback
Ethernet, 5-31
Loopbacks, 6-53
maintenance operations protocol (MOP) , 5-31
ls command, 5-3, 6-46
M
Maintenance operations protocol (MOP)
counters, 5-31
for copying scripts over the network, 4-11
loopback, 5-31
operations
performing, 6-53
operations, performing, 5-3
man command, 4-3, 6-47
March memory test, 5-29
Meantime between failures (MBTF), 1-5
mem_ex command, 8-1
memexer command, 5-2, 6-48
Memory, 1-1, 1-2, 2-1, 3-2
allocating, 5-2, 5-27, 6-2
autoconfiguration of, 1-1
bits, testing, 7-5
changing ownership of, 5-2, 5-27, 6-10
configurations, 2-6
data bus, 2-6
bandwidths, 1-1, 3-7
depositing data into, 5-21
displaying the state of, 5-2, 6-19
examining data in, 5-21, 6-24
exercising, 6-48
freeing, 5-2, 5-27, 6-36
Graycode test, 5-28
managing, 5-2, 5-26
march test, 5-29
modules, 2-2, 2-5
checking the seating of, B-2
connectors for, 2-3
physical, 5-20
as default device, 5-19
random test, 5-30
subsystem, 3-6
Index–9
test options, 5-31
testing, 5-2, 5-27, 6-49
tests, running multiple, 5-31
verification of, 7-5
victim eject test, 5-30
virtual, 5-20
displaying a map of, 5-2
mapping of, 5-18
writing data to, 6-14
Memory Exerciser Test, 8-1
memtest command, 5-2, 5-28, 6-49, 8-1
Memzone, 5-24
Message packets, retransmission of, 5-14
Microprocessor
See 21164 Alpha microprocessor
Mini-Console
See SROM Mini-Console
MODE environment variable, 5-8
dependence of diagnostic test on, 7-5
Modules, 2-1
as system components, 2-1
checking the seating of, B-2
clear heartbeat register, testing, 8-3
CPU module, 2-2
figure of, 2-2
I/O module, 2-3
memory modules, 2-5
PMC I/O companion card, 2-9
primary breakout module, 1-4, 2-7
secondary breakout module, 2-8
MOPSee Maintenance operations protocol (MOP)
more command, 4-4
Mouse, 2-1
connector, 2-8, 2-10
pin assignments for, C-7, C-17
controller, 3-2, 3-13
jumper, 2-9
N
Nbus, 2-1, 3-2, 3-9
NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O Processor Tests, 8-16
ncr810 command, 8-2
NCR810 Command/Status Register Dump, 8-16
NCR810 Command/Status Register Reset Value Test,
8-17
NCR810 Command/Status Register Test, 8-17
NCR810 Internal Live Bus Loopback Test , 8-17
NCR810 Internal Loopback Test, 8-17
NCR810 Interrupt Test, 8-17
Index–10
NCR810 PCI Configuration Register Test, 8-16
ncr810_diag command, 8-16, 8-17
net command, 5-3, 5-31, 6-53
Network address ROM
checking the seating of , B-2
Network booting, 5-11, 5-15
Network interface, Internet address of, 5-13
Network port, 5-31
Network protocol, 5-8
Networking, 5-2, 5-31, 6-53
features, 1-2
interconnect for, 1-2
nicsr_diag command, 8-1, 8-9, 8-10
niil_diag command, 8-1, 8-9
Nonvolatile RAM
See NVRAM
NVRAM, 1-2, 1-4, 2-1, 3-2, 3-11, 5-20
checking the seating of , B-2
location of, 2-4
See also Memory
verification of, 7-4
NVRAM Address-On-Address Test, 8-11
NVRAM March I Test, 8-11
NVRAM Test, 8-2
O
Online help, 4-3
controlling the display of, 4-4
displaying, 4-3, 6-41, 6-47
for multiple commands, 4-3
Operating systems, 1-3
use of dot matrix display with, B-2
operator, 4-7
Operator, presence, 5-6
Operators
console command, 4-6
eval command, 5-33
Options, command, 4-5
Output, command
appending, 4-6
disregarding, 4-5
filtering, 4-8
resuming, 4-5
writing, 4-6
Output, standard
copying files to , 6-7
writing to, 5-4
P
P1 VMEbus connector
CPU module, 2-3
I/O module, 2-4
pin assignments for, C-1
PMC I/O companion card, 2-10
P2 VMEbus connector
CPU module, 2-3
I/O module, 2-4
pin assignments for, C-2
PMC I/O companion card, 2-10
Packaging weight, 1-5
PAL
environment variable, 5-8
temporary register set, 5-20
PAL devices, testing, 8-4
PALcode, 3-3, 5-8
Parallel port, 2-1, 2-9, 3-13
connector, 2-8
pin assignments for, C-8
Parameters, console device, 4-1
Patterns
specifying, 4-7
Patterns, specifying text, 4-7
PCI bus, 3-7
clock, 3-9
PCI configuration space, 5-20
PCI connector, 64-bit, 2-3
PCI dense memory space, 5-20
PCI I/O space, 5-20
PCI sparse memory space, 5-20
PCI-32 interface, 2-1, 3-2
See also PMC I/O companion card
PCI-to-Ethernet controller
See 21040 Ethernet controller
PCI-to-Nbus bridge, 2-1, 3-2
PCI-to-PCI bridge, 2-9, 3-2, 3-9
PCI-to-SCSI controller
See SCSI controller
PCI-to-VME interface components, 3-14
PCI-to-VME64 bridge, 2-1, 3-2
See also VIC64 chip; VIP chip
PCP (process control block), 5-35
Performance
CPU, 1-1
memory data bus, 2-6
Phase lock loop (PLL)/buffer circuit, 3-2, 3-7
Physical characteristics, 1-3
Physical memory, 5-20
as default device , 5-19
Physical requirements, 1-3
PID (process identifier), 5-35
Pin assignments, C-1
for CPU module connector, C-1
for diskett drive connector, C-15
for Ethernet connector, C-4
for keyboard and mouse connector, C-7, C-17
for P1 VMEbus connector, C-1
for P2 VMEbus connector, C-2
for parallel port connector, C-8
for PMC I/O companion card connectors, C-9
for PMC option 1 connectors, C-9
for PMC option 2 connectors, C-13
for primary breakout module connector, C-5
for secondary breakout module connector, C-6
for serial port connectors, C-4
for VMEbus connectors, C-1
I/O module connectors, C-1
PMC I/O companion card, 1-2, 2-1, 2-2, 2-9, 3-2, 3-9
connector on I/O module, 2-4
connector pin assigments, C-9
layout, 2-9
See also PMC options
troubleshooting systems that include, B-2
voltage supply, 3-9
PMC option connectors, 2-10
PMC options, 3-9
connectors for, 2-9, C-9
Ports
drivers for, 5-31
parallel, 2-9, 3-13
serial, 1-2, 3-13
setting parameters for , 4-1
POST diagnostics, 7-1
affecting the sequence of, 7-1
display for, 2-5
memory diagnostic, 7-5
NVRAM diagnostic, 7-4
running, 5-3, 5-32, 6-57
Power
LED, 2-3, 2-5, 2-10
requirements, 1-4
input, 1-4
source, checking, B-2
specifications, 1-3
supplied by primary breakout module, 2-7
Power-on diagnostics
Index–11
See POST diagnostics
Power-on self test (POST) diagnostics
See POST diagnostics
Primary breakout module, 1-4, 2-2, 2-7
as a SCSI interface, 3-8
checking the seating of, B-2
connector pin assignments, C-5
figure of, 2-7
jumpers, 3-8
Process control block (PCB), 5-35
Process identifier (PID), 5-35
Process priority, 5-35
Process state, 5-35
Processes
console
setting priority of, 6-76
setting processor affinity for , 6-59
creating, 5-34
deleting, 5-3, 6-44
displaying the state of, 6-56
displaying the status of, 5-3
exiting, 5-34, 6-34
managing, 5-3, 5-34
monitoring, 5-34
setting priority of, 5-35
setting processor affinity for for, 6-59
setting the priority of, 5-3
shell, creating, 6-67
specifying CPU for, 5-35
stopping, 5-36
suspending, 5-3, 5-36, 6-74
Processor
affinity, 5-35, 6-59
registers, 5-20
Processor affinity mask, 4-7
Product specifications
See Specifications
Program counter, 5-23
Program loop, breaking, 6-6
Programs, starting, 5-3, 6-77
Prompt
character sequence for, 4-5
Prompt, character sequence for console, 4-5
Protocols
VMEbus, 3-14
ps command, 5-3, 5-34, 6-56
pwrup command, 5-3, 5-32, 6-57
Index–12
R
Radix, specifying, 4-7
Random memory test, 5-30
Real-time clock, 1-2
Registers, 5-20
21040 Ethernet controller
PCI configuration, reading and printing, 8-9
depositing data in, 5-22
examining data in, 5-22
module, clear heartbeat register , 8-3
Regulatory compliance, 1-6
Remote host system Internet address of, 5-13
Remote Internet LAN gateway Internet address of, 513
Requirements, 1-1
cooling, 1-6
environmental, 1-5
physical, 1-3
power, 1-4
input, 1-4
Reserved words, 4-7
Reset reason register, 3-11
Reset signal, VMEbus, 4-2
Reset switch, 2-4, 2-5, 4-2
Ripple, voltage, 1-4
rm command, 5-3, 6-58
S
sa command, 5-3, 6-59
Scatter-gather map, VMEbus , 3-15
Scatter-Gather RAM Test, 8-2
Scatter-gather RAM, VMEbus, 3-14
Scripts
commenting in, 4-7
console command, 4-10
power-on diagnostics, running, 5-3
SCSI bus connector, 2-7
SCSI cable, 3-8
checking the connection of, B-2
connector, 2-7
SCSI controller, 1-2, 2-1, 3-2, 3-8
SCSI Device Tests, 8-2
SCSI devices, checking the seating of, B-2
SCSI termination, 3-8
checking, B-2
control, 2-7
signal, 2-7
Second level cache, 3-4
Secondary breakout module, 2-2, 2-8
checking the seating of, B-2
connector on primary breakout module, 2-7
connector pin assignments for, C-6
semaphore command, 5-3, 5-36, 6-60
Semaphores, displaying, 5-3, 5-36, 6-60
Sense amplifier logic, testing, 7-5
Seria ports, 3-13
Serial ports, 1-2, 2-1, 2-4
setting parameters for, 4-1
Serial-line interface, 1-2
set command, 5-1, 5-9, 6-61
set led command, 5-3, 5-32, 6-64
set reboot srom command, 5-3, 5-32, 6-65
set toy sleep command, 5-2, 5-17, 6-66
sh command, 5-3, 5-34, 6-67
Shell process
creating, 5-3, 6-67
exiting, 5-3, 6-34
Shock specification, 1-5
show command, 5-2, 5-9, 5-18, 6-69
show LED command, 5-3
show led command, 5-32
show log command, 5-3
show map command, 5-27
show_log command, 5-33, 6-72
Signaling level jumper, 2-10
Signals
external timing signals, 2-7
SCSI termination signal, 2-7
watchdog reset signal, 2-7
watchdog timeout signal, 2-7
Single-bit errors , 2-6
SIO chip, 3-9
sleep command, 5-3, 5-36, 6-74
Slots, backplane, 1-3, 2-9
Soft errors
detection of, 5-6
sort command, 5-4, 6-75
sp command, 5-3, 5-35, 6-76
Specifications, 1-1
environmental, 1-3, 1-5
power, 1-3
VME, 1-2
SPECmarks, 1-1
SRAMs, 3-2
SROM, 3-7
diagnostics, B-1
location of, 2-3
SROM initialization, 7-1
SROM Mini-Console
debug jumper for, 2-4
setting reboot to, 5-3, 5-32, 6-65
Stack pointer, 5-23
Standard output, copying files to, 6-7
Standby connection, 5 V , 3-11
start command, 5-2, 5-24, 6-77
Status display, 2-3, 2-5
Sticky device, 5-19
stop command, 5-2, 5-24, 6-78
Storage specification, 1-5
Super I/O chip, 1-2, 3-2, 3-13
Switches
Halt and Reset, 2-4
Halt and Reset switch, 2-5, 4-2
I/O module configuration switch 3, 4-2
Switchpack, configuration, 2-4
Symbolic addresses, 5-22
SYSRESET signal, 1-3
System
booting, 5-2, 5-10, 6-4
configuration, displaying, 5-2
System clock, 3-2
System clock signal (SYSCLK), 1-3, 3-2, 3-7
System components, initializing, 5-24
System configuration , 5-18
System I/O (SIO) chip, 3-9
System information
displaying, 6-69
getting, 5-2, 5-18
System initialization sequence, 7-2
System parameters
setting, 6-61
T
Technical specifications
See Specifications
Temperature
ambient, 1-6
change, 1-3
controlling, 1-6
nonoperating range, 1-5
operating, 1-3
operating range, 1-5
storage, 1-3
Tests, 8-1
21040 Configuration Register Test, 8-10
21040 Control/Status Register Dump, 8-9
21040 Ethernet Controller Tests, 8-1, 8-9
21040 PCI Configuration Register Dump, 8-9
3 Timers Loopback Test, 8-6
DALLAS DS1386 NVRAM Watchdog TimerIndex–13
keeper Tests, 8-11
Ethernet Hardware Address Test, 8-2
Ethernet Internal Loopback Test, 8-9
Graycode memory test, 5-28
Heartbeat Timer Test, 8-1, 8-2
Interval Timer Tests, 8-2, 8-4
LAN Address ROM Dump Test, 8-14
LAN Address ROM Tests, 8-14
LAN Address ROM Verification Test, 8-14
march memory test, 5-29
memory
options for, 5-31
running multiple, 5-31
NCR 53C810 PCI-SCSI I/O Processor Tests, 816
NCR810 Command/Status Register Dump, 8-16
NCR810 Command/Status Register Reset Value
Test, 8-17
NCR810 Command/Status Register Test , 8-17
NCR810 Internal Live Bus Loopback Test , 8-17
NCR810 Internal Loopback Test, 8-17
NCR810 Interrupt Test, 8-17
NCR810 PCI Configuration Register Test, 8-16
NVRAM Address-On-Address Test, 8-11
NVRAM March I Test, 8-11
NVRAM Test, 8-2
random memory test, 5-30
running cleanup code after , 5-6
Scatter-Gather RAM Test, 8-2
SCSI Device Tests, 8-2
Timer 0 Loopback Test, 8-6
Timer 1 Interrupt Test, 8-8
Timer 2 Interrupt Test, 8-7
Timer 2 Square Wave Test, 8-4
Timer 2 Terminal Count Test, 8-4
TOY Clock Bitwalk Test, 8-12
TOY Clock Register Tests, 8-2
TOY Clock Time Advancement Test, 8-13
VIC Register Write/Read Test, 8-20
VIC64 Register Write/Read Test , 8-2
victim eject memory test, 5-30
VIP PCI Configuration Register Test, 8-2, 8-20
VIP Register Write/Read Test, 8-2, 8-20
VME Interface Tests, 8-2, 8-20
VME Scatter-Gather RAM Test, 8-20
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test, 8-19
Index–14
Watchdog Timer Test, 8-2
Text
displaying on console, 6-21
reading a line of, 6-45
writing to standard output, 5-4
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), 5-8, 5-12, 5-13
using to read files across the network, 5-16
TGA_SYNC_GREEN environment variable, 5-8
then reserved word, 4-7
Thermal control, 1-6
Third-level cache
See Bcache
Time
changing, 6-13
displaying, 5-2, 5-17
setting, 5-2, 5-17
specification, 5-17
Time-of-year clock
See TOY clock
Timer 0 Loopback Test, 8-6
Timer 1 Interrupt Test, 8-8
Timer 2
exercising, 8-4
Timer 2 Interrupt Test, 8-7
Timer 2 Square Wave Test, 8-4
Timer 2 Terminal Count Test, 8-4
Timer modes, 3-13
Timers, 1-2, 3-12
TOY clock, 1-4, 2-1, 3-2, 3-10
checking the seating of , B-2
disabling oscillator of, 5-2, 5-17, 6-66
displaying time and date of, 5-17
location of, 2-4
managing, 5-2, 5-16
NVRAM registers, 5-20
setting time and data of, 5-17
TOY Clock Bitwalk Test, 8-12
TOY Clock Register Tests, 8-2
TOY Clock Time Advancement Test, 8-13
Trace messages, 5-6
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), 5-8, 5-12
initialization, 5-13
using to read files across the network, 5-16
Troubleshooting, B-1
symptoms and corrective actions for, B-2
systems that include a PMC I/O companion card,
B-2
TTY_DEV environment variable, 5-8
U
UART, 7-1
UNIX
See DIGITAL UNIX
until reserved word, 4-7
Up arrow key, 4-5
update command, 5-2, 5-18
V
Variables
See Environment variables
VERSION environment variable, 5-8
Vibration specification, 1-5
VIC Register Write/Read Test, 8-20
VIC64 chip, 1-2, 3-14, 3-15
VIC64 chip system interrupt controller, 3-9
VIC64 Register Write/Read Test, 8-2
Victim eject memory test, 5-30
Video synchronization, 5-8
VIP chip, 3-13, 3-14
VIP PCI Configuration Register Test, 8-2, 8-20
VIP Register Write/Read Test, 8-2, 8-20
vip_diag command, 8-2, 8-20
Virtual memory, 5-20
displaying a map of, 5-2
map of, 5-18
VME configuration, 5-9
VME external timing signals, 2-7
VME interface, 3-13
VME Interface Tests, 8-2, 8-20
VME setup mode , 5-9
VME slave activity LED, 2-3, 2-5
VME specifications, 1-2
VME_A16_BASE environment variable, 5-9
VME_A24_BASE environment variable, 5-9
VME_A24_SIZE environment variable, 5-9
VME_A32_BASE environment variable, 5-8
VME_A32_SIZE environment variable, 5-8
VME_CONFIG environment variable, 5-9
VMEbus, 1-3
A16 address space, 5-9
A24 address space, 5-9
A32 address space, 5-8
address mapping, 3-15
addressing modes, 3-14
arbitration, 1-2
connectors, 1-3
connectors pin assignments, C-1
data transfers, 3-14
interface, 1-2
interrupts, 1-3
P2 options, 2-7
P2 signal connector, 2-10
protocols, 3-14
reset signal, 4-2
scatter-gather map, 3-15
transactions, 1-2
VMEbus Scatter-Gather RAM Test, 8-20
Voltage supply, 1-4
PMC I/O companion card, 3-9
VX_BOOTLINE environment variable, 5-9
VxWorks for Alpha, 1-3
boot file, 5-9
W
Watchdog reset signal, 2-7
Watchdog timeout LED, 2-3, 2-5
Watchdog timeout signal, 2-7
Watchdog timer, 1-2, 3-2, 3-11, 4-2
timeout LED, 2-5
Watchdog Timer IInterrupt Test, 8-19
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Test, 8-19
Watchdog Timer Test, 8-2
wdog_diag command, 8-2
wdog_diag command, 8-19
Wet bulb specification, 1-5
while reserved word, 4-7
Wildcards, in environment variable names, 5-10
X
Xilinx interrupt controller, 3-9
Y
Y-cable connector, 2-8
Index–15
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