Bayanihan Linux 4 Manual Page 1 / 57

Bayanihan Linux 4 Manual Page 1 / 57
Bayanihan Linux 4 Manual
Page 1 / 57
Bayanihan Linux 4 Manual
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 - Introduction...........................................................................................3
About Bayanihan Linux..........................................................................................4
Recommended System Requirements...................................................................4
System Features....................................................................................................4
CHAPTER 2 - Installation............................................................................................5
Installation.............................................................................................................6
CHAPTER 3 - Frequently Asked Questions................................................................13
How Do I Access My CD Drive?............................................................................14
How Do I Access My Floppy Drive?.......................................................................15
How Do I Format My Floppy Disk?........................................................................16
How Do I Burn An ISO Image?..............................................................................17
How Do I Erase A Rewritable CD?........................................................................19
How Do I Burn A Data CD?...................................................................................21
How Do I Access Windows Shares?......................................................................23
How Do I Play Movies?.........................................................................................24
How Do I Configure An Ethernet Card?................................................................26
How Do I Configure A Modem?.............................................................................28
How Do I Configure A Printer?..............................................................................32
How Do I Run Windows Applications Thru WINE?.................................................34
How Do I Setup My Computer For Desktop Sharing?...........................................35
APPENDIX.................................................................................................................38
Contributors of Bayanihan Linux..........................................................................39
Contact Us................................................................................................ ............41
Open Source Counterparts of Proprietary Software in Bayanihan Linux..............42
Hardware Compatibility List.................................................................................43
CPUs.................................................................................................................43
Video cards......................................................................................................43
SCSI controllers................................................................................................43
IDE controllers............................................................................................ ......44
Network cards..................................................................................................44
Modems...........................................................................................................44
Sound cards.....................................................................................................45
Linux Directory Structure.....................................................................................46
Shortcut Keys.......................................................................................................48
The One Page Linux Manual.................................................................................49
Glossary Of Terms................................................................................................54
Resources............................................................................................................56
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Bayanihan Linux 4 Manual
CHAPTER 1 - Introduction
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About Bayanihan Linux
The Bayanihan Linux project started on October 2001 by the Open Source
Group of the Advanced Science and Technology Institute. This project aims to
provide a cost effective desktop solution to expensive and restrictive proprietary
operating systems. Bayanihan Linux is tailor-made for small and medium business
enterprises, government agencies and schools.
The first version of Bayanihan Linux was released last June 13, 2002. It was
followed by the second version which was released on January 31, 2003.
In the development of the third version, beta versions were released to the
public to obtain feedback before releasing the final version. The third version was
released on February 2004.
Beta versions and release candidates were released prior to the final version
of Bayanihan Linux 4. The fourth version of Bayanihan Linux was released on June
2006.
Recommended System Requirements
Pentium II or equivalent
128MB RAM
4.3GB hard disk space
VGA or higher resolution(at least 800x600)
Standard keyboard, mouse and monitor
System Features
Based on Debian
Graphical Desktop
Office and other productivity suite
Internet Ready
Multimedia Playback
Educational Applications
Image Editing Tools
Improved support for removable devices (USB)
Easy to update and upgrade
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CHAPTER 2 - Installation
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Installation
1. Configure the BIOS to boot from the CD-ROM.
Figure 1 - Booting From The CD-ROM Drive
2. Insert the Bayanihan Linux CD in the CD-ROM drive and restart the computer.
The installation process will start and the user will be presented with the
“Welcome” screen as seen in Figure 2.
Figure 2 - Installer Welcome Screen
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3. The next two screens will let the user select the language that will be used
throughout the installation process and the layout of the keyboard.
Figure 3 - Language Selection and Keyboard Configuration
4. The next step is to specify the type of monitor you are using. Usually, the
monitor is automatically detected. If not, supply the appropriate frequency settings
for your monitor. Frequency settings can be found in the product specifications of
the monitor's manual or website.
Figure 4 - Monitor Configuration
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5. The next step is to decide where Bayanihan Linux should be installed.
Figure 5 - Disk Partitioning
You have two choices:
(a)Automatically partition
i. Automatic partitioning simplifies the task by automating the allocation of
disk space for Bayanihan Linux by providing three common options:
A.Remove all Linux partitions on this system
• The disk space used by installed linux operating systems in your hard
disk will be erased and allocated to Bayanihan Linux.
Existing
Windows partitions will not be erased.
B.Remove all partitions on this system
• The entire hard disk will be erased and allocated to Bayanihan Linux.
C.Keep all partitions and use exisiting free space
• Unused free partitions in your hard disk will be allocated to Bayanihan
Linux.
Figure 6 - Partitioning Automatically
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(b)Manually partition with Disk Druid
If you elect to manually partition your hard disk, the following are the
minimum partition requirements:
Mount Point
Filesystem Type
/boot
ext3
no mount point
swap
/
Recommended Size(MB)
100MB
1. 2 x RAM (eg. SWAP=2 x 128MB)
ext
4000MB
Figure 7 - Partitioning Manually
6. The next step is to configure the bootloader for your system. You have the
option to select whether Bayanihan Linux or other OS will be booted by default if
there is another OS installed in your hard disk.
Figure 8 - Bootloader Configuration
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7. The next step is to configure your network device. Bayanihan Linux will detect
your network device if it has a driver for it. If your network is using a DHCP server,
then select DHCP. If not, supply the IP address, gateway, submask, and DNS. If
your computer is not connected to a network, uncheck “Active on Boot.”
Figure 9 - Network Configuration
8. Select your local time zone by clicking your area on the map.
location is set to Manila.
The default
Figure 10 - Timezone Selection
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9. Supply the root password and type it again to confirm the password. The root
password is very important since system-wide configurations are only possible
using the root account. A separate system user account must also be created for
normal use.
Figure 11 - Root Password
10. The next screen is the confirmation screen. It is the step before the
installation will commence. Make sure that all settings are correct before you click
Next because the installer will write changes into your hard disk. You can still
review and modify your settings by clicking Back.
Figure 12 - About To Install
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11. The next screen shows the start of the installation of Bayanihan Linux. This
will take some time depending on your computer's speed.
Figure 13 - Installation
12. After installation, the installer will prompt the user to remove the installation
media to reboot the system.
Figure 14 - Installation Complete
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CHAPTER 3 - Frequently
Asked Questions
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How Do I Access My CD Drive?
1. Inserting a CD into the drive will cause a dialog box to pop up on the desktop,
asking you what you want to do and the mounted CD icon on the desktop.
2. The actions that you can do depends on the type of CD you inserted. You can
play it if it is an audio or video CD, or open it in Konqueror if it is a data CD.
Choose from the list and press the OK button.
3. If it is a data CD, it is mounted in /media/cdrom/.
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How Do I Access My Floppy Drive?
1. Double-click the “Floppy” icon from the desktop.
2. Usually, the link to your floppy disk is /media/floppy.
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How Do I Format My Floppy Disk?
1. Select Start -> Utilities -> Peripherals -> KFloppy.
2. Click the “Format” button.
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How Do I Burn An ISO Image?
1. Select the ISO file to be burned.
2. Right-Click the ISO file and select Actions->Write CD Image with K3b.
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3. Click the “Start” button.
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How Do I Erase A Rewritable CD?
1. Select Start -> Multimedia-> K3b (CD & DVD Burning).
2. Select Tools->CD->Erase CD-RW.
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3. Click the “Start” Button.
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How Do I Burn A Data CD?
1. Select files and folders to be burned into the Data CD.
2. Right-click the selected items and select Actions->Create Data CD with K3b.
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3. Click the “Burn” button.
4. Click the “Burn” button.
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How Do I Access Windows Shares?
1. Run Konqueror and type in the location bar the following:
smb://[email protected]/
wherein
user is the username with access privileges to the share
ip.ad.dr.ess is the IP address of the machine we want to access
2. This will show up the shared folders on that machine. Click on the folder you
want to view.
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How Do I Play Movies?
a. PLAYING VCDs AND DVDs
Select Start->Multimedia->MPlayer (Movie Player).
b. PLAYING MOVIE FILES
1. Right click on the movie screen and select Open ... -> Play file ...
2. Select a movie file you wish to play.
3. Click the play button.
c. PLAYING VCDs
1. Insert your VCD in the CD-ROM drive.
2. Right click on the movie screen and select VCD -> Open disc ...
d. PLAYING DVDs
1. Login as root.
2. Select Bayanihan Applications->Utilities->Editors->KWrite.
3. From KWrite, select File -> Open and open /etc/sysconfig/hwconf
4. Look for the device entry that has “CDROM” as the class and “DVD” as the
description. Once you see this entry, look for the device name, it should start
with “scd” followed by a number. For example: scd0, scd1, scd2
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5. Close KWrite without saving.
6. Select System Settings->Utiltities->Terminal Program.
7. From the terminal, create a symbolic link from /dev/dvd to your dvd device by
typing: ln -s /dev/scdx /dev/dvd
NOTE: replace x with the device number listed in step 4
8. Close the terminal.
9. Insert a DVD in the DVD drive.
10.Right click on the movie screen and select DVD-> Open disc ...
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How Do I Configure An Ethernet Card?
1. Run the KDE Control Center.
2. Select Internet & Network -> Network Settings.
3. Click the “Administrator Mode” button and enter the root password on the
dialogue box to configure and make system-wide changes.
4. After detection, select the device we want to configure then click “Configure
Interface...”.
We can set manually set the IP Address of the device or
automatically through dhcp or bootp.
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5. We can also set the broadcast and gateway by clicking the “Advanced Settings”
button.
6. Set the default gateway on the “Routing” tab.
7. In the “Domain Name System”, we can set the host name, domain name, domain
name servers, and the static hosts.
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How Do I Configure A Modem?
1. Select Internet -> KPPP (Internet Dial-Up Tool)
2. Click the “Configure...” button.
3. Click the “Manual Setup” button.
4. In the “Accounts” tab, click the “New...” button to add a new dial-up account.
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5. In the “Dial” tab, specify the name of your ISP provider and click the “Add”
button to add the telephone numbers of your ISP. Once completed click “OK” to
apply the changes and go back to the KPPP Configuration Dialog.
a. If your ISP provided a static IP address, click on the “IP” tab and specify the
static IP address.
b. If your ISP provided a Gateway information, click on the “Gateway” tab and
specify the gateway Information.
c. If your ISP provided a DNS information, click on the “DNS” tab and specify the
dns information.
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6. Select the “Modem” tab, and click the “New” button to configure your modem
device.
7. In the “Device” tab, specify the modem name that you wish to use and select the
modem device. If you are using an external modem connected in the serial port
of your computer, try selecting /dev/ttyS0 or /dev/ttyS1.
8. Click the “OK” button to apply the changes.
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9. Check if everything is complete and correct then click “OK” to exit the KPPP
Configuration Dialog box.
10. Click “Connect” to dial to your ISP and connect to the internet.
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How Do I Configure A Printer?
1. Select Settings->Printing Manager.
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2. Select Add->Add Printer Class.
3. Configure your printer thru the printer wizard.
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How Do I Run Windows Applications Thru WINE?
Click the Windows executable file that you would like to run under Bayanihan Linux.
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How Do I Setup My Computer For Desktop Sharing?
1. Run the KDE Control Center. Select Internet & Network->Desktop Sharing.
2. Check “Allow uninvited connections” and “Allow uninvited connections to control
the desktop”. Click Apply. Your machine is now shareable.
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3. From the remote client, click the “File Explorer” icon from the desktop.
4. Type “vnc://” followed by the ip address of the computer you are going to
connect to.
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5. Click the “Connect” button.
6. Accept the connection to allow the remote client to access your desktop.
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APPENDIX
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Contributors of Bayanihan Linux
Michael Poblete
A member of the Philippine Linux Users Group
Developer and collaborator of the Bayanihan Linux Users Group
Contributor of the customized Plastik theme and one of the GDM Kalawakan
designers
Currently studying in Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila
Worked as a student assistant in ASTI with the Bayanihan Linux Team
Mark Achanzar
A member of the Philippine Linux Users Group
Contributor of the GDM Kalawakan Theme
Freelance developer and designer
Special thanks to the following individuals for their comments and suggestions:
Melvin Vivas
Founding president of the Pinoy Java Users Group (PinoyJUG) and still a member of
PinoyJUG
Marvin Pascual
A member of the Philippine Linux Users Group who also works in BIR
Dr. Ernesto Damasco
An avid supporter of Bayanihan Linux since the start of the project
Xander Solis
A member of Philippine Linux Users Group and a student of Asia Pacific College
Worked in ASTI as a Student Assistant
Loreto Casala
A Batangas Open Source Society (BOSS) member and future contributor for
localization
Bert Te
A Consultant from Computer Solutions Center, Inc.
Emman Teodosio
Founding president of Mapua IT Center Linux Users Groups
Currently studying in Mapua IT Center
Worked in ASTI as a Student Assistant
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Eder Tan
Currently studying in APC
Worked as a student assistant for the Bayanihan Linux team
KD Tan
Currently studying in UP Diliman
Worked as a student assistant for the Bayanihan Linux team
Our sincere appreciation to the following professional individuals for testing
our Beta release and providing us with feedback to improve Bayanihan Linux:
Ronald Tomimbang, A faculty in St. Francis of Assisi Academy
Jon Voltaire Pili, A linux enthusiast
Rufino Mananghaya, Director of the Development Management
Governance, UPLB
Resmon Gonzales, IT Administrator of Veritas Parochial School
Christopher Baluyut, a student of UE Caloocan City
and
We would also like to thank Serg's Cafe for providing a venue for our
Developers' Meeting. To our forum members, enthusiastic supporters and critics,
we thank you for making Bayanihan Linux possible.
Lastly, to the contributors that we failed to mention, thank you very much as
well.
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Contact Us
Advanced Science and Technology Institute
2nd floor Computer Software Division
Advanced Science and Technology Institute Building
C.P. Garcia Avenue, UP Technology Park
Diliman, Quezon City 1101
Philippines
Phone: (632) 426-3572; (632) 426-9759
Email: [email protected]
URL: http://www.bayanihan.gov.ph/
Forum: http://www.bayanihan.gov.ph
Text:
Format [ BL [email protected] your message... ]
Send to 2960
Bayanihan Linux Team
Project Leader:
Members:
Mr. Peter Antonio Banzon
Mr. Jaime Sebastian Sicam
Mr. Reynaldo Callao
Ms. Janice Carpo
Ms. Katrina Murga
Mr. Emmanuel Balintec
Course Developer: Ms. Janice Ballesteros
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Open Source Counterparts of Proprietary Software in Bayanihan
Linux
PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE
OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE
Internet Explorer
Mozilla Firefox, Konqueror Web
Browser
Microsoft Word
OpenOffice.Org Writer
Microsoft Powerpoint
OpenOffice.Org Impress
Microsoft Excel
OpenOffice.Org Calc
Microsoft Outlook
Kontact
Roxio CD Creator
K3b
WinDVD
MPlayer
Microsoft Media Player
MPlayer, XMMS, KsCD
Adobe Photoshop
Gimp
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Hardware Compatibility List
CPUs
Intel -- Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium II Xeon, Pentium III,
Pentium III Xeon, Pentium IV, Pentium IV Xeon
Celeron
Athlon, Duron, Athlon XP, Athlon MP Cyrix - MII VIA - Cyrix MIII, C3
Video cards
3DFX -- Banshee, Voodoo3, Voodoo5
ATI -- Radeon Mobility M6, M7
Radeon 7000, 7500, 8500, 9000, 9700 (2D only), 9800 (2D only)
Rage 128, Rage 128 Mobility M3, M4
Rage 128 Pro, Rage 128 Pro Ultra, most Mach64-compliant cards
Intel -- i740, i810, i815, i830, i845G, i845GL Matrox -- Millenium, Millenium
II, Mystique/220, G200, G400, G450, G550, NeoMagic -- 256AV, 256XL+,
256ZX, 128XD, 128, 128V, 128ZV, 128ZV+, NVIDIA (2D only) -- TNT, TNT2,
GeForce 256, GeForce2 GTS, GeForce2 Go, GeForce2 MX, GeForce3,
GeForce4, S3 -- Savage, SuperSavage, ViRGE, Trio64
SCSI controllers
Adaptec -- 200x, 21xx, 22xx, 27xx, 28xx, 29xx, 32xx, 34xx, 39xx, 54xx
Advansys -- 940 (Ultra/Wide);
AMI -- MegaRAID Express 2000 (466 series) Dell -- PowerEdge RAID series;
IBM (Buslogic/Mylex) -- Flashpoint, MultiMaster, DAC-960;
Intel -- Vortex/GDT series;
LSI (Symbios) -- 53C875, 53C985, 53C1030;
QLogic -- QLA1280/2200/2300/12160
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IDE controllers
ATA-133, ATA-33 -- most controllers.
ATA-66 (not RAID) -- HighPoint 366/368, Intel 82801AB ICH0 (440BX),
Promise PDC20262, PDC2027x, PDC20265/7 VIA 82c596B/686A.
ATA-100 (no RAID) -- Highpoint 370, Intel 82801BA/82801DB ICH2/ICH4
(i8xx series), VIA 82c686B, nVidia nForce/nForce2;
ATA RAID -- 3ware Escalade 3W -- 5xxx/6xxx/7xxx, Adaptec 2400A.
Network cards
3COM -- 3C905/B/C; D-Link -- DFE-530/+;
Realtek -- RTL8029, RTL8139, RTL8139C+, RTL8169;
IntelÑEtherExpress Pro 100/1000;
Netgear -- FA310TX, FA311TX;
Linksys -- LNE100TX; Silicon Integrated Systems -- SiS900;
Intel -- DE4x5/Tulip series; GigE -- Broadcom Tigon3, Intel e1000, NatSemi
NS83820, Realtek RTL8169 VIA - Rhine
Modems
100% Hayes-compatible internal and external serial modems with
hardware UART.
NOTE: WinModems, host-based, HCF-, HSP-, HSF-, controllerless, hostcontrolled, and soft modems are NOT supported.
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Sound cards
C-Media -- CM8338/CM8738;
Creative Labs -- SoundBlaster 128 PCI, SoundBlaster Live!, SoundBlaster
Live! Audigy;
Crystal -- CS428X/CS46XX;
ESS -- Maestro, Maestro2, Maestro3, Solo;
Ensoniq -- AudioPCI ES1370, ES1371;
Intel -- ICH, ICH2, ICH3, ICH4;
Yamaha -- YMF724, 74x, 754; VIA -- VIA82c686, VIA8233, VIA8235
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Linux Directory Structure
The Bayanihan Linux Filesystem is based on a hierarchical directory structure. The
base directory is the “/” or the root directory and it expands into subdirectories. In
DOS/Windows, the directory structure is represented as C:, D:, etc. and there are
subdirectories under those directories. Linux, on the other hand places all the
subdirectories under one directory known as the root directory as shown below.
The root directory and the subdirectories under it have a particular purpose.
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/
bin
The / directory is the parent/main directory.
The /bin directory contains programs used by user, admin
and system
boot
The /boot directory contains the linux kernel, initial ram disk
and bootloader information
dev
The /dev directory contains files that represent your system
hardware
etc
home
initrd
lib
lost+found
misc
mnt
opt
proc
root
The /etc directory contains system wide configuration files
The /home directory contains user files
The /initrd directory contains boot information
The /lib directory contains library files used by both the
system and the user
The /lost+found directory contains files saved during failure
The /misc directory contains miscellaneous files
The /mnt directory is the standard mount point for external
filesystems such as floppies, cdroms, etc.
The /opt directory contains third party software files
The /proc directory is a virtual filesystem directory that
contains information about system
The /root directory is the administrator's home directory
sbin
The /sbin directory contains programs used by the system
administrator and system
tmp
The /tmp directory contains temporary files used by the
system which are erased periodically
usr
The /usr directory contains programs, libraries for all userrelated programs
var
The /var directory contains variable files suchs as system
logs, web files, ftp files, print spools, database files, etc.
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Shortcut Keys
Alt-Esc, Ctrl-Esc
Invoke the "Current Session" manager.
Alt-Tab, Alt-Shift-Tab
Traverse the windows on the current desktop.
Ctrl-Tab, Ctrl-ShiftTab
Traverse the virtual desktops.
Ctrl-Alt-Esc
Destroy window mode.
Alt-F2
Execute command.
Alt-F3
Popup the window operation menu.
Alt-F4
Close active window.
Ctrl-F[1..8]
Switch to virtual desktop.
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The One Page Linux Manual
A summary of useful Linux Commands
Version 3.0
May 1999
[email protected]
Starting and Stopping
shutdown -h now
halt
shutdown -r 5
shutdown -r now
Shutdown the system now and do not reboot
Stop all the processes—same as above
Shutdown the system for 5 minutes and reboot
Shutdown the system now and reboot
reboot
Stop all the processes and then reboot—same as above
startx
Start the X system
Accessing and mounting file systems
mount -t iso9660/dev/cdrom/mnt/cdrom
Mount the device cdrom and call it cdrom under the
/mnt directory
mount -t msdos/dev/hdd/mnt/ddrive
Mount hard disk d as a msdos file system and call it
ddrive under the /mnt directory
mount -t vfat/dev/hdal/mnt/cdrive
Mount hard disk a as a VFAT file system and call it
cdrive under the /mnt directory
Umount/mnt/cdrom
Unmount the cdrom
Finding files and text within files
find / -name fname
Starting with the root directory, look for the file called
fname
find / name “*fname*”
Starting with the root directory, look for the file
containing the string fname
locate missingfilename
Find a file called missingfilename using the locate
command—this assumes you have already used the
command updatedb (see next)
updatedb
Create or update the database files on all file systems
attached to the linux root directory
which missingfilename
Show the subdirectory containing the excutable file
called missingfilename
grep textstringtofind / dir
Starting with the directory called dir, look for and list all
files containing textstringtofind
The X window System
ls
ls -F
ls -laC
rm name
List files in current directory using long format
List files in current directory and indicate the file type
List files in current directory in long format and display
in columns
Remove a file or directory called name
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ls
List files in current directory using long format
rm -rf name
Kill off an entire directory and all it s include files and
subdirectories
cp filename/home/dirname
Copy the file called filename to the /home/dirname
directory
mv filename/home/dirname
Move the file called filename to the /home/dirname
directory
cat filetoview
Display the file called filetoview
man -k keyword
Display the man pages containing keyword
more filetoview
Display the file called filetoview one page at a time,
proceed to next page using spacebar
head filetoview
Display the first 10 linesof the file called filetoview
head -20 filetoview
Display the first 20 lines of the file called filetoview
tail filetoview
Display the last 10 lines of the file called filetoview
Tail -20 filetoview
Display the last 20 lines of the file called filetoview
Installing software for Linux
rpm -ihv name.rpm
Install the rpm package called name
rpm -Uhv name.rpm
Upgrade the rpm package called name
rpm -e package
Delete the rpm package called package
rpm -l package
List the files in the package called package
rpm -ql package
rpm -i –force package
List the files and state the installed version of the
package called package
Reinstall the rpm package called name having deleted
parts of it (not deleting using rpm -e)
tar -zxvf archive.tar.gz or tar - zxvf archive.tar.tgz
Decompress the files contained in the zipped and tarred
archive called archive
./configure
Execute the script preparing the installed files for
compiling
User Administration
adduser accountname
Create a new user called accountname
passwd accountname
Give accountname a new password
su
exit
Log in as superuser from current login
Stop being superuser an revert to normal user
Little known tips and tricks
ifconfig
apropos subject
usermount
List ip addresses for all devices on the machine
List manual pages for subject
Executes graphical application
unmounting file systems
for
mounting
and
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ifconfig
/sbin/e2fsck hda5
fdformat/dev/fd0H1440
tar -cMf/dev/fd0
tail -f/var/log/messages
List ip addresses for all devices on the machine
Execute the filesystem check utility on partition hda5
Format the floppy disk in devices fd0
Back-up the contents of the current directory and
subdirectories to multiple floppy disks
Display the last 10 lines of the system log
cat/var/log/dmesg
Display the file containing the boot time messages—
useful for locating problems. Alternatively, use the
dmesg command
*
Wildcard –represents everything, e.g. cp from directory
to the to directory
?
Single character wild card, eg.
cp config.?/configs will copy all files beginning with the
name config. in the current directory to the directory
named configs.
[xyz]
Choice of character wildcards.eg.
ls [xyz]* will list all files in the current directory starting
with the letter x,y, or z.
linux single
pskill 123
kill 123
At the lilo prompt, start in single user mode. This is
useful if you have forgotten your passwd command.
List current processes
Kill a specific process eg. kill 123
Configuration files and what they do
/etc/profile
tc/fstab
/etc/motd
System wide environment variables for all users
List of all devices and their associated mount points.
Edit this file to add cdroms, DOS, partitions and floppy
drives at startup
Message of the day broadcast to all users at login
/etc/rc.d/rc.local
Bash script that is executed at the end of the login
process. Similar to autoexec.bat in DOS
/etc/HOSTNAME
Contains full hostname including domain
/etc/cron.*
There are 4 directories that automatically execute all
scripts within the directory at intervals of hour, day,
week, or month
/etc/hosts
A list of all known host names and IP addresses on the
machine
/etc/http/conf
/etc/iniitab
/etc/resolve.conf
/etc/smb.conf
~/.Xdefaults
Parameters for the Apache web server
Specifies and run level that the machine should boot
into
Defines IP addresses of DNS servers
Config file for the SAMBA server. Allows file and print
sharing with Microsoft clients
Define configuration for some x-applications. ~refers to
some user s home directory
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/etc/profile
System wide environment variables for all users
/etc/Xll/Xf86Config
Config file for X-Windows
~/.xinitrc
Defines the windows manager loaded by X. ~ refers to
user s home directory
File permissions
owner Group Others
d rwx rwx rwx
Execute
Write
Read
File type
d= directory
l= link
if the command ls -l is given, a long list of file names is displayed. The first column in this list details the
permissions to the file. If permission is missing for a owner, group of other, it is represented by -eg. drwxr-x x
Read = 4
File permissions are altered by giving the chmod
command and the appropriate octal code for each user
type.
Write = 2
File permissions are altered by giving the chmod
command and the appropriate octal code for each user
type.
Execute = 1
Chmod 7 6 4 filename will make the file called filename
R+W+X for the owner, R+W for the group and R for
others.
chmod 7 5 5
Full permission for the owner, read and execute access
for the group and others
Chmod +x filename
Make the file called filename executable to all users
X ShortCuts – (mainly for Redhat)
Control | Alt + or Alt | escape
Shift | Control F8
Right click on desktop background
Increase or decrease the screen resolution. eg. from
640x480 to 800x600
Display the list of active windows
Resize the selected window
Display menu
Shift | Control Altr
Refresh the screen
Shift | Control Altx
Start an xterm session
/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start
Start the print daemon
/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd stop
Stop the print daemon
Printing
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/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start
/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd status
lprm
Start the print daemon
Display status of the print daemon
Display jobs in print queue
lpr
Print a file
lpc
Printer control file
man subject | lpr
Print the manual page called subject as plain text
man subject | lpr
Print the manual page called subject as Postscript
output
printtool
Start X printer setup interface
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Glossary Of Terms
Boot Loader
A small program that places the operating system (OS) of a
computer into memory. Also called a boot manager.
Console
see Shell.
Debian
A Linux distribution. A free operating system (OS) for your
computer.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol; A protocol for assigning
dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network.
DNS
Domain Name System (or Service or Server); An Internet service
that translates domain names into IP addresses.
ISP
Internet Service Provider; A company that provides access to the
Internet.
ISO image
(.iso) An informal term for a disk image of an ISO 9660 file system.
KDE
K Desktop Environment; A powerful Free Software graphical desktop
environment for Linux and Unix workstations.
KPPP
K Point to Point Protocol. The KDE Internet Dialer.
MBR
Master Boot Record, a small program that is executed when a
computer boots up.
Partition
(v.) To divide memory or mass storage into isolated sections.
Propiertary
A commercial product.
Protocol
The special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication
connection use when they communicate
RAM
Random Access Memory; A type of computer memory that can be
accessed randomly. Also referred to as the Physical Memory.
Routing
The process of moving a packet of data from source to destination.
Samba
An open source implementation of the SMB file sharing protocol that
provides file and print services to SMB/CIFS clients.
SMB
Server Message Block, a message format used by DOS and Windows
to share files, directories and devices.
Shell
The outermost layer of a program. Another term for user interface.
(command shell); A shell is the command processor interface.
USB
Universal Serial Bus, an external bus standard that supports data
transfer rates of 12 Mbps. A single USB
VGA
Video Graphics Array; A graphics display system for PCs.
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VNC
Virtual Network Computing; Makes possible to interact with a
computer from any computer or mobile device on the Internet.
WINE
An Open Source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and
Unix.
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Bayanihan Linux 4 Manual
Resources
•
Hacking, John. The One Page Linux Manual.
http://homepage.powerup.com.au/~squadron/. 2006.
•
Bayanihan Linux 3.1 User Manual.
•
Whatis.Com. The leading IT Encyclopedia and learning center.
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/. 2006.
•
WineHQ. Http://www.winehq.org. 2006.
•
Webopedia. http://www.webopedia.com .2006.
•
Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/. 2006.
•
K Desktop Environment. http://www.kde.org/. 2006.
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