New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2012

New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2012
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New Perspectives on Computer Concepts,
2012, Introductory
June Jamrich Parsons, Dan Oja
Executive Editor: Marie Lee
Senior Product Manager: Kathy Finnegan
Product Managers: Katherine C. Russillo, Leigh
Hefferon
Associate Acquisitions Editor: Amanda Lyons
Developmental Editor: Deb Kaufmann
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Editorial Assistant: Jacqueline Lacaire
Technology Project Manager: John Horn, Chris
Conroy
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Goguen McGrail
Photo Researcher: Abby Reip
© 2012 Course Technology, Cengage Learning
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2011920719
ISBN-13: 978-1-111-52908-6
ISBN-10: 1-111-52908-6
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Computer Concepts 2012
CO N TA I N S A
Parsons :: Oja
BookOn CD
F OR A F UL LY I N TE R AC TIV E
LEARN I N G E X P E R I E N C E
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Orientation
Chapter Contents
X
X
SECTION A:
GETTING STARTED
Computer Equipment
How to Turn Your Computer
On and Off
Turn Your Computer On
Windows Basics
Mac OS X Basics
Mouse Basics
Use Your Mouse
Keyboard Basics
Working with Windows Software
Start Microsoft Paint
Use the Toolbar or Ribbon
Use the Ribbon or Menu Bar
Use the Sizing Buttons
Working with Mac Software
Find Out Which Programs Are
in the Dock
Use Finder to Start a Program
Use a Menu and Dialog Box
Close a Program
Help
SECTION B:
DOCUMENTS, BROWSERS,
AND E-MAIL
Creating Documents
Create a Document
Save a Document
Print a Document, Close It,
and Exit Your Word
Processing Application
Internet and Web Basics
Start Your Browser
How to Use a Web Browser
and Search Engine
Use a Search Engine
Check Out Wikipedia
Working with E-mail
Get a Web-based E-mail Account
Create and Send E-mail
X
SECTION C:
SECURITY AND PRIVACY
Securing Your Computer and Data
Check the Accounts on
Your Computer
Avoiding Viruses
Get Familiar with Your
Antivirus Software
Preventing Intrusions
Check Your Windows Computer’s
Firewall
Check Your Mac Computer’s
Firewall
Blocking Spyware and Pop-up Ads
Check Internet Security and Privacy
Options
Protecting E-commerce Transactions
Identify a Secure Connection
Avoiding E-mail Scams
Arm Yourself Against E-mail
Scams
Protecting Your Privacy
Check Your Privacy
Safe Social Networking
Check Your Social Networking
Sites
Online Privacy and Safety Guidelines
X
SECTION D:
BOOKONCD
BookOnCD Basics
Start the BookOnCD
Start the MacBookOnCD
Open a Chapter and Navigate
the BookOnCD
Multimedia and Computerscored Activities
Explore Multimedia and Computerscored Activities
New Perspectives Labs
Open a New Perspectives Lab
Tracking Your Scores
Create a Tracking File
Complete a Practice Test
View the Contents of Your
Tracking File
Send Your Tracking Data and
Send a Chirp
X
SECTION E:
NP2012 COURSEMATE WEB SITE
Web Site Resources
Web Site Access
Access the NP2012 CourseMate
CourseMate Web Site Tour
Explore the NP2012 CourseMate
Student Edition Labs
Work with Student Edition
Labs
InfoWebLinks
Multimedia and Interactive Elements
Visit the InfoWebLinks site to
access additional resources w that
accompany this chapter.
When using the BookOnCD or CourseMate eBook, the
clickable to access multimedia resources.
X
icons are
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
ORIENTATION
Apply Your Knowledge The information in this chapter will give you the background to:
• Start your computer, use the keyboard, and operate
the mouse
• Take effective steps to guard your privacy and
safety online
• Work with Windows or Mac OS
• Use BookOnCD resources, such as pre-assessments, practice tests, labs, and interactive
summaries
• Use word processing software
• Carry out research on the Web using a search
engine and other resources such as Wikipedia
• Access the NP2012 CourseMate Web site for labs,
concept quizzes, CourseCasts, and online games
• Send e-mail
Try It
WHAT DO I NEED TO GET STARTED?
To complete the activities in the Orientation, you’ll need access to a computer, the BookOnCD packaged
with your textbook (or other digital versions of the textbook), Internet access, your e-mail address, and
your instructor’s e-mail address.
To be sure you have what you need, use the following checklist. Check off the boxes for each item that you
have.
Access to a computer. If you’re using your own
computer, you might need a user ID and password
to log in. Don’t write your password down, but
make sure you know what it is.
Access to a school computer network. You
might need a user ID and password if you use a lab
computer or access your school’s network. Check
with your instructor or lab manager to learn how
your school handles network access.
The interactive, digital version of the textbook,
such as the BookOnCD. The BookOnCD requires a
computer CD or DVD drive to run. If your computer
does not have this type of drive, check with your
instructor. eBook versions of your textbook require
a browser. Your school network might provide
access to the NP2012 BookOnCD or eBook from lab
computers.
Your instructor’s WebTrack address. If your
instructor will be collecting your scores with
WebTrack, make sure you have your instructor’s
WebTrack address. Write it here:
_______________________________________
Computer Concepts 2012
Your e-mail address. Your instructor should
explain how you can obtain an e-mail address if you
don’t already have one. Write your e-mail address
here:
_______________________________________
Your instructor’s e-mail address. To correspond
with your instructor, you’ll need your instructor’s
e-mail address. Write it here:
C O N TA IN S A
Parsons :: Oja
BookOnCD
_______________________________________
F O R A F U L LY IN TE R AC TIV E
L E A R N IN G E XPE R IE N C E
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-4
Getting Started
SECTION
A
WHEN YOU USE the New Perspectives on Computer Concepts
PC OR MAC?
textbook, you will not only learn about computers; you’ll also use computers
as learning tools. Therefore, it is a good idea to have a basic understanding of how to use your computer. Section A is designed to get computer
novices quickly up to speed with computing basics, such as turning on computer equipment, working with Windows or Mac OS, using a mouse and
computer keyboard, and accessing Help. Read through this section while at
a computer so that you can do the TRY IT! activities.
Microcomputers are sometimes divided into two camps:
PCs and Macs. PCs are manufactured by companies such
as Dell, Lenovo, Acer, and
Hewlett-Packard. Macs are
manufactured by Apple.
COMPUTER EQUIPMENT
Most PCs and some Macs
use an operating system
called Microsoft Windows.
The BookOnCD is designed
for use with computers that
run Microsoft Windows.
What do I need to know about my computer? Your computer—
the one you own, the one you use in a school lab, or the one provided to
you at work—is technically classified as a microcomputer and sometimes
referred to as a personal computer. A computer runs software applications
(also called programs) that help you accomplish a variety of tasks. A typical
computer system consists of several devices—you must be able to identify
these devices to use them.
What are the important components of my computer system? The system unit contains your computer’s circuitry, including the
microprocessor that is the “brain” of your computer and memory chips that
temporarily store data. It also contains storage devices, such as a hard disk
drive.
Your computer system includes basic hardware devices that allow you to
enter information and commands, view work, and store information for later
retrieval. Devices for entering information include a keyboard and mouse
or touchpad. A display device, sometimes called a monitor, allows you to
view your work, a printer produces “hard copy” on paper, and speakers produce beeps and chimes that help you pay attention to what happens on the
screen.
To determine whether your
computer runs Windows, look
for screens similar to those
shown in Figure 4 on page
O-6. If you have a Mac that
does not run Windows, you
can go to the NP2012 Web
site and download a MacPac
to convert your CD to a format that runs on your Mac.
You’ll find full instructions on
the site.
Where are the important components of a desktop computer
system? A desktop computer is designed for stationary use on a desk or
table. Figure 1 shows the key components of a desktop computer system.
Storage
devices
Display device
Printer
FIGURE 1
A desktop computer system
includes several components,
usually connected by cables.
Speakers
Mouse
Keyboard
System unit
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Where are the important components of a notebook computer
system? Notebook computers (sometimes called laptops) are small,
lightweight computers designed to be carried from place to place. The components of a notebook computer system, except the printer, are housed in a
single unit, as shown in Figure 2.
LCD screen
Speakers
Keyboard
Touchpad
FIGURE 2
A notebook computer includes
a flat-panel screen, keyboard,
speakers, and touchpad in the
same unit that contains the
microprocessor, memory, and
storage devices. An external
mouse is sometimes used
instead of the touchpad.
Orientation
O-5
O RI EN TATION
Storage devices
How do I identify my computer’s storage devices? Your computer contains a hard disk housed inside the system unit. It is also likely
to have a USB connector and some type of drive that works with CDs and
DVDs. Figure 3 can help you identify your computer’s storage devices and
their uses.
FIGURE 3
You should use the hard disk to
store most of your data; but to
transport or back up data, you
can use CDs, DVDs, or USB
flash drives.
CD drive
DVD drive
USB flash drive
CD drives can play
CD-ROMs, but can’t change
the data they contain. CD
drives can store data on
CD-Rs, CD+Rs, or CD-RWs.
DVD drives read CD-ROMs
and DVD-ROMs, but can’t
change the data on them.
Most of today’s DVD drives
can write data on CD-Rs,
CD-RWs, DVD-Rs, and
DVD-RWs.
A USB flash drive is about
the size of a highlighter and
plugs directly into the computer system unit. Capacities
range from 32 million to 64
billion characters.
HOW TO TURN YOUR COMPUTER ON AND OFF
How do I turn it on? A notebook computer typically has one switch
that turns on the entire system. Look for the switch along the sides of the
computer or above the keyboard. When using a desktop computer, turn
on the monitor, printer, and speakers before you turn on the system unit.
Most computers take a minute or two to power up, and you might be
required to log in by entering a user ID and password. Your computer is
ready to use when the Windows or Mac OS desktop (Figure 4 and Figure 5
on the next two pages) appears on the computer screen and you can move
the arrow-shaped pointer with your mouse.
How do I turn it off? Your computer is designed to turn itself off after
you initiate a shutdown sequence. When using a Windows computer, click
the on-screen Start button, select Shut Down or Turn Off Computer, and follow the instructions on the screen. When using a Mac, click the Apple icon
in the upper-left corner of the screen and select Shut Down. After the computer shuts off, you can turn off the monitor, speakers, and printer. When
using computers in a school lab, ask about the shutdown procedure. Your
lab manager might ask that you log out but do not turn the computer off.
TRY IT!
Turn your computer on
1. Locate the power switch for
any devices connected to your
computer and turn them on.
2. Locate the power switch for
your computer and turn it on.
3. If a message asks for your
user ID and/or password,
type them in, and then press
the Enter key on your computer’s keyboard.
4. Wait for the desktop to
appear.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-6
SEC TI O N A
WINDOWS BASICS
FIGURE 4
What is Windows? Microsoft Windows is an example of a type of soft-
Windows desktop components
as they appear in Windows XP
(top), Windows Vista (middle),
and Windows 7 (bottom).
ware called an operating system. The operating system controls all the
basic tasks your computer performs, such as running application software,
manipulating files on storage devices, and transferring data to and from
printers, digital cameras, and other devices. The operating system also
controls the user interface—the way software appears on the screen and
the way you control what it does.
What is the Windows desktop? The Windows desktop is the base of
operations for using your computer. It displays small pictures called icons
that help you access software, documents, and the components of your
computer system. The design of the Windows desktop depends on the version of Windows you’re using. Figure 4 shows the important elements of the
three most recent versions: Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7.
Desktop icons can represent
programs, documents, folders,
or other electronic tools.
The taskbar contains the Start
button and Notification area.
Taskbar buttons help you keep
track of programs that are in
use.
The Start button displays the
Start menu, which lists programs
installed on your computer.
The Start menu lists application
and utility programs installed on
your computer.
Desktop
icons
The Notification area displays
the current time and the status of programs, devices, and
Internet connections.
Start menu
Start button
Taskbar icons
Taskbar
Notification area
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
MAC OS X BASICS
What is Mac OS? Mac OS is the operating system used on many of
today’s Macintosh computers. The most recent version of this operating
system is Mac OS X, featured in Figure 5.
How similar are the Mac and Windows desktops? The Mac and
Windows desktops have many similarities, such as the use of icons, menus,
and rectangular on-screen windows. However, there are notable differences in the two desktops, such as the Mac desktop’s dock, Apple icon,
and fixed menu bar. If you switch between computers running Windows and
Mac OS X, you should be aware of these differences.
FIGURE 5
What is the dock? The dock is a collection of icons that represent pro-
Desktop icons can represent
devices, programs, documents,
folders, or other electronic
tools.
grams, files, and other activities. Usually the dock is located at the bottom
of the screen, but it can be configured to appear on the left side or right side
of the screen if that better suits the way you work. You can add icons to the
dock for programs you use frequently so they are easily accessible.
What is the Apple icon? The Apple icon is the first icon on the menu
bar located at the top of the Mac desktop. It is always visible, regardless of
the program you’re using. Clicking the Apple icon displays a menu that you
can use to configure preferences for your computer display and devices.
The Apple icon menu also includes options for logging out and shutting
down your computer.
The Mac OS X desktop includes
icons, a fixed menu bar, and a
dock.
Orientation
O-7
O RI EN TATION
The dock displays icons for
frequently used programs and
files.
The menu bar contains the
Apple icon and menu options
for the active program.
How does the fixed menu bar work? The Mac desktop contains a
menu bar that remains at the top of the screen. The options on this menu
bar change according to the program you are using. In contrast, the menus
for Windows programs are incorporated into individual program windows;
so if you have more than one window open, each program window displays
a menu.
Apple icon
The Apple icon is used to
display a menu of options for
setting preferences, moving the
dock, logging in, and shutting
down.
Menu bar
Desktop icon
The dock
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-8
SEC TI O N A
MOUSE BASICS
What is a mouse? A mouse is a device used to manipulate items on the
screen, such as the buttons and icons displayed on the Windows desktop.
The mouse controls an on-screen pointer. The pointer is usually shaped
like an arrow , but it can change to a different shape, depending on the
task you’re doing. For example, when the computer is busy, the arrow
shape turns into an hourglass
, signifying
or circle
that you should wait for the computer to finish its current
task before attempting to start a new task.
PC-compatible mice have at least two buttons, typically
located on top of the mouse. Most mice also include a
scroll wheel mounted between the left and right mouse
buttons. Other mice include additional buttons on the top
or sides (Figure 6).
FIGURE 6
For basic mousing, you only
need to use the mouse buttons, but the scroll wheel is also
handy.
Right mouse
button
Scroll wheel
Left mouse button
Additional buttons
How do I use a mouse? Hold the mouse in your right
hand as shown in Figure 7. When you drag the mouse
from left to right over your mousepad or desk, the arrowshaped pointer on the screen moves from left to right. If
you run out of room to move the mouse, simply pick it up
and reposition it. The pointer does not move when the
mouse is not in contact with a flat surface.
FIGURE 7
Rest the palm of your right hand
on the mouse. Position your
index finger over the left mouse
button and your middle finger
over the right mouse button.
TRY IT!
Use your mouse
There are several ways you can manipulate on-screen objects. Although
you might not be able to manipulate every object in all possible ways, you’ll
soon learn which mouse actions are allowed for each type of control. The
following list describes your repertoire of mouse actions.
Action
How to
Click
Press the left mouse button once,
Select an object
and then immediately release it.
1. With your computer on
and the desktop showing
on the screen, move your
mouse around on the desk
and notice how mouse
movements correspond to
the movement of the arrowshaped pointer.
2. Move the mouse to position the pointer on the Start
button or Apple icon.
Result
Press the left mouse button twice
Double-click in rapid succession without moving Activate an object
the body of the mouse.
Right-click
Press the right mouse button once,
Display a shortcut menu
and then immediately release it.
Drag
Hold the left mouse button down
while you move the mouse.
Move an object
3. Click the left mouse button
to open the Start menu or
Apple menu.
4. Click the Start button or
Apple icon again to close the
Start menu.
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
KEYBOARD BASICS
What are the important features of a computer keyboard? You
use the computer keyboard to input commands, respond to prompts, and
type the text of documents. An insertion point that looks like a flashing
vertical bar indicates where the characters you type will appear. You can
change the location of the insertion point by using the mouse or the arrow
keys. Study Figure 8 for an overview of important computer keys and
their functions.
The Esc (Escape) key cancels
an operation.
Function keys activate commands, such as Save, Help,
and Print. The command associated with each key depends
on the software you are using.
The Print Screen key prints the
contents of the screen or stores
a copy of the screen in memory
that you can print or manipulate
with graphics software.
A
B
C
The Windows key on a PC
opens the Start menu.
E The Page Up key displays the
previous screen of information.
The Page Down key displays
the next screen of information.
F The Backspace key deletes
one character to the left of the
insertion point.
The
Insert key switches
G
between insert mode and
typeover mode.
D
FIGURE 8
Computer keyboards typically
include special function keys.
H
The Home key takes you to the
beginning of a line or the beginning of a document, depending
on the software you are using.
B
Orientation
O-9
O RI EN TATION
C
A
G
H
O
P
E
F
I
N
J
K
L
D
I
J
K
M
The Tab key can move your
current typing location to the
next tab stop or the next textentry box.
The Caps Lock key capitalizes
all the letters you type when it
is engaged, but does not produce the top symbol on keys
that contain two symbols. This
key is a toggle key, which
means that each time you
press it, you switch between
uppercase and lowercase
modes.
The Shift key capitalizes letters and produces the top
symbol on keys that contain
two symbols.
Q
R
You hold down the Ctrl key
while pressing another key. On
a Mac, the Command key,
marked with an Apple or
symbol, works the same
way. The result of Ctrl or Alt
key combinations depends on
the software you are using.
M You hold down the Alt key
while you press another key.
N The Enter key is used to indicate that you have completed a
command or want to move your
typing position down to the
next line.
O The Delete key deletes the
character to the right of the
insertion point.
L
S
The End key takes you to the
end of a line or the end of a
document, depending on the
software you are using.
Q The right-click key accomplishes the same task as
right-clicking a mouse button,
and usually opens a shortcut
menu.
R The arrow keys move the
insertion point.
S The numeric keypad produces
numbers or moves the insertion
point, depending on the status
of the Num Lock key shown by
indicator lights or a message
on the screen.
P
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-10
SEC TI O N A
What do Alt and Ctrl mean? The Alt and Ctrl keys work with the letter
keys. If you see <Ctrl X>, Ctrl+X, [Ctrl X], Ctrl-X, or Ctrl X on the screen or
in an instruction manual, it means to hold down the Ctrl key while you press
X. For example, Ctrl+X is a keyboard shortcut for clicking the Edit menu,
and then clicking the Cut option. A keyboard shortcut allows you to use the
keyboard rather than the mouse to select menu commands.
What if I make a mistake? Everyone makes mistakes. The first rule
is don’t panic! Most mistakes are reversible. The hints and tips in Figure 9
should help you recover from mistakes.
TERMINOLOGY NOTE
Most Mac software uses the
command key marked with
instead of the Ctrl or Alt keys for
keyboard shortcuts.
FIGURE 9
Most mistakes are easy to fix.
What Happened
What to Do
Typed the wrong thing
Use the Backspace key to delete the last characters you typed.
Selected the wrong menu
Press the Esc key to close the menu.
Opened a window you didn’t mean to
Click the X button in the upper corner of the window.
Computer has “hung up” and no longer
responds to mouse clicks or typed commands
Hold down the Ctrl, Shift, and Esc keys, and then follow instructions to close the program.
Pressed the Enter key in the middle of a
sentence
Press the Backspace key to paste the sentence back together.
WORKING WITH WINDOWS SOFTWARE
How do I start Windows programs? When using Windows, you can
click the Start button to launch just about any software that’s installed on
your computer. The Start menu includes a list of recently accessed programs. Clicking the All Programs option displays a list of every program
installed on your computer. You can run a program from this list simply by
clicking it. Follow the instructions in the TRY IT! box to start Microsoft Paint
(assuming it is installed on your computer).
TRY IT!
Start Microsoft Paint
1. Make sure your
computer is on and
it is displaying the
Windows desktop.
2. Click the Start
button to display the
Start menu.
4. Click Accessories, and then click
Paint.
5. Wait a few seconds for your computer to
display the main screen for Microsoft Paint,
shown below in Windows XP and Vista
(top) or Windows 7 (bottom). Leave Paint
p for use with the next TRY IT!.
open
3. Click All
Programs to display
a list of all software
installed on your
computer.
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
How do I tell the software what I want to do? Word processing, photo
FIGURE 10
editing, and other software designed for use on computers running the
Windows operating system is referred to as Windows software. Most Windows
software works in a fairly uniform way and uses a similar set of controls.
The title bar displays the title
of the software, the name of the
current data file, and the window sizing buttons.
Each software application appears within a rectangular area called a
window, which can include a title bar, a menu bar, a ribbon, a workspace, and various controls shown in Figure 10.
The Minimize button shrinks
the window to a button at the
bottom of the screen.
The Maximize button stretches
the window to fill the screen.
Orientation
O-11
O RI EN TATION
The Close button closes the
window and exits the program.
Title bar
Menu bar
Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons
A menu bar displays the titles
of menus you can click to select
commands.
Ribbon
A toolbar displays a series of
tools for accomplishing various
tasks.
A ribbon combines the options
of a menu and toolbars into a
single set of controls.
Toolbar
Workspace
A scroll bar can be clicked or
dragged to see any material
that does not fit in the displayed
window.
Scroll bars
The workspace is the area in
which your document or drawing is displayed.
If you’re
’ unfamiliar
f ili with
ith Windows
Wi d
controls,
t l take
t k a few
f
minutes
i t to
t complete
l t
the steps in the TRY IT! box below.
TRY IT!
Use the toolbar or ribbon
Use the ribbon or menu bar
Use the sizing buttons
1. As shown below, click the Brushes
Pa
aint toolbar or ribbon.
rib
button on the Paint
1. Click the arrow next to Rotate,
then click Flip vertical.
1. Click the
Minimize button.
2. The Paint window shrinks
down to a button on the taskbar
at the bottom of the screen.
3
k the
th taskbar
t kb button
b tt to
t
3. Cli
Click
make the Paint window reappear.
2 M
Mov
ove
e the
the pointer
po
2.
Move
to the workspace, hold down the left mouse
button, and drag the mouse to paint
a shape.
3. Release the mouse button when
the shape is complete.
In old
ld versions
versions
i
Paiintt click
clilickk
off Paint,
Image, click Flip/Rotate, click Flip
Vertical, then click the OK button.
Your shape is now upside down.
Close but4. Click the
ton to close the Paint program
and remove its window from
the screen. If you see a message asking if you want to
save changes, click the Don’t
Save button.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-12
SEC TI O N A
WORKING WITH MAC SOFTWARE
How do I start programs on the Mac? When using Mac OS X, you
can click icons in the dock to easily start programs. For programs that are
not in the dock, you can click the Finder icon and then click the Applications
option. If you are using a Mac and need to brush up on its controls, follow
the instructions in the TRY IT! box below.
TRY IT!
Find out which programs are
in the dock
1. Position the mouse pointer
over each of the icons in the
dock and wait for the program
name to appear.
Use Finder to start a program
Finder icon on
1. Click the
the left side of the dock.
2. When the Finder window (similar to one at right) appears, click
the Applications option.
Select
Applications.
Select iCal.
3. Double-click the iCal option to
start the iCal calendar program
and display the iCal window shown
at right.
iCal window
Use a menu and dialog box
1. Click iCal on the menu bar at
the top of the screen.
Select iCal, then
click Preferences.
2. Click Preferences to display a
dialog box.
button next to Start
3. Click the
week on to change the day to
Monday.
Close button to
4. Click the
close the Preferences dialog box.
This button closes
a window, but does
not terminate the
application.
Click here
to change
the calendar
start day.
Close a program
1. Click iCal on the menu bar.
2. Click Quit iCal to close the window and terminate the application.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-13
Orientation
O RI EN TATION
HELP
How can I get help using software? If you’ve had problems using
software, you’re not alone! Everyone has questions at one time or another.
Most software offers several sources of help, such as the following:
•
Message boxes. When using software, it is important to pay attention to
any message boxes displayed on the screen. Make sure you carefully read
the options they present. If the box doesn’t seem to apply to what you want
to do, click its Cancel button to close it. Otherwise, set the options the way
you want them, and then click the OK button to continue.
•
User manual. Whether you’re a beginner or a power user, the manual
that comes with software can be an excellent resource. User manuals can
contain quick-start guides, tutorials, detailed descriptions of menu options,
and tips for using features effectively. Many manuals are offered online
along with tools you can use to browse through them or look for the answer
to a specific question.
FIGURE 11
Clicking the
Help button or
the Help menu produces a list of
help options, where you can enter
search terms or browse through
topics.
•
Help menu. The Help menu
provides access to on-screen
documentation, which can contain detailed instructions, tips, and
FAQs. Answers to specific questions can be found by entering
search terms, consulting the index,
or browsing through a table of contents (Figure 11).
QuickCheck
1.
The case that holds a computer’s cir-
SECTI ON A
3.
displays a row of program icons.
cuitry and storage devices is called a(n)
unit.
2.
On the Mac desktop, the
4.
Some programs include a ribbon of commands,
Instead of using the on/off switch to turn off
whereas other programs present commands on
a computer, you should instead use the Shut
a(n)
Down option from the Start menu or Apple menu.
True or false?
5.
The
bar.
key can be used to
delete the last character you typed.
X CHECK ANSWERS
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-14
Documents, Browsers, and E-mail
SECTION
B
TO COMPLETE ASSIGNMENTS for your course, you should
be able to work with documents, browsers, and e-mail. Section B walks you
through the basics.
CREATING DOCUMENTS
How do I create and save a document? To create a document, simply type text in the workspace provided by word processing software such
as Microsoft Word, OpenOffice Writer, Apple iWork Pages, or NeoOffice
Writer. The flashing vertical insertion point (Figure 12) indicates your place
in the document. Figure 13 explains how to save a document.
FIGURE 12
Type your document
into the workspace.
Press the Enter key
only at the end of titles
and paragraphs, but
do not press Enter
when you reach the
right margin.
The ribbon offers
controls similar to
those on menus
and toolbars.
When typing text, you can use
the following keys to move
within a document and make
revisions:
• Backspace: Delete the character to the left of the insertion
point.
• Delete: Delete the character to
the right of the insertion point.
• Enter:
End a paragraph and
begin a new line.
• Arrow keys: Move the insertion point up, down, right, or left.
The flashing vertical insertion point
marks your place.
FIGURE 13
Save your work
in the Documents
folder or library
for now.
Click the
Save button.
Use a descriptive
name for the file that
holds your document.
It is a good idea to save your
document every few minutes,
even if it is not finished. When
you save a document, use
Save icon at the top of
the
the screen. Your computer is
probably configured to save
documents on the hard disk in
a library called Documents or
a folder called My Documents.
There is no need to change that
until you gain more experience.
File names can be several
words long; just do not use the
* / \ “ ‘ : symbols in the file
name.
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
How do I print a document? To print a document, simply click the
FIGURE 14
File tab, File menu, or Office button and then select Print. Your computer
displays a window containing a series of print options. If you want to print a
single copy of your document, these settings should be correct, so you can
click the Print or OK button to send your document to the printer.
Most word processing programs offer an option for
sending a document as an
e-mail attachment.
Can I send a document to my instructor? You can e-mail a document by using the Send option accessed from the File tab, File menu, or
Office button (Figure 14). To do so, you must know your instructor’s e-mail
address. Documents that you send along with e-mail messages are referred
to as attachments. You’ll learn more about e-mail later in the Orientation,
but keep this option in mind because it is a handy way to submit assignments, such as projects and term papers.
How do I find my documents again in the future? If you want
to revise a document sometime in the future, simply start your word processing software, click the File tab, File menu, or Office button, and then
click Open. Your computer should display a list of documents stored in the
Documents folder. Locate the one you want to revise and double-click it.
• In Word 2010, click the File
tab, select Save & Send,
and then select Send as
Attachment (shown below).
• In Word 2007, click the
Office button, point to Send,
and then select E-mail.
Orientation
O-15
O RI EN TATION
• In
Word 2003, OpenOffice
Writer, or NeoOffice Writer,
click File, and then select Send
or Send To.
What should I do when I’m
done? When you’re ready to quit,
you can close the document by
clicking the Close option from the
File tab, File menu, or Office button.
When you want to close your word
processing software, click the
Close button (Windows) or click the
program name on the menu bar and
then select Quit (Mac).
TRY IT!
Create a document
Save a document
Save icon located
1. Click the Start button
1. Click the
(Windows) or click the Finder icon near the top of the window.
and select the Applications option
2. Make sure the Documents
(Mac).
library or folder is selected. If not,
button next to your
click the
2. Look for Microsoft Word,
OpenOffice Writer, or iWork Pages. user name at the top of the window and then click the Documents
Click the name of your word profolder from the list. (Or use the
cessing software to open it.
button next to the Save In box to
3. Click the workspace to position display a list of folders.)
the insertion point in the upper-left
3. In the File name box, type a
corner.
name for your document.
4. Type a paragraph. Refer to
4. Click the Save button.
Figure 12 for keys to use while
typing and revising your work.
5. When the Save As dialog box
closes, your document is saved.
5. When the first paragraph is
complete, press the Enter key to
begin a new paragraph.
6. Type a second paragraph of
text.
Print a document, close it, and exit
your word processing application
1. Click the File tab, File menu, or
Office button and then click Print.
2. Make sure the page range is set
to All.
3. Make sure number of copies is set
to 1.
4. Click the Print or OK button and
wait a few seconds for the printer to
produce your document.
5. Close the document by clicking the
File tab, File menu, or Office button
and then clicking Close. The workspace should become blank.
6. Exit your word processing software
Close button
by clicking the
(Windows) or clicking the program
name on the menu bar, then selecting
Quit (Mac).
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-16
SEC TI O N B
INTERNET AND WEB BASICS
What is the Internet? The Internet is the largest computer network in
FIGURE 15
the world, carrying information from one continent to another in the blink of
an eye (Figure 15). The computers connected to this network offer many
types of resources, such as e-mail, instant messaging, social networking,
popular music downloads, and online shopping.
The Internet communications
network stretches around the
globe.
What is the Web? Although some people use the
terms Internet and Web interchangeably, the two are
not the same. The Internet refers to a communications
network that connects computers all around the globe.
The Web—short for World Wide Web—is just one of
the many resources available over this communications network.
The Web is a collection of linked and cross-referenced
information available for public access. This information is accessible from Web sites located on millions
of computers. The information is displayed as a series
of screens called Web pages. You’ll use the Web for
general research and for specific activities designed to
accompany this textbook. To use the Web, your computer must have access to the Internet.
How do I access the Internet? Most computers can be configured to
connect to the Internet over telephone, cell phone, satellite, or cable television systems. Internet access can be obtained from school computer labs,
local service providers such as your cable television company, and national
Internet service providers such as AOL, AT&T, Comcast, Verizon, and
EarthLink.
To expedite your orientation, it is assumed that your computer has Internet
access. If it does not, consult your instructor, or ask an experienced computer user to help you get set up.
How do I know if my computer has Internet access? The easiest way to find out if your computer can access the Internet is to try it. You
can quickly find out if you have Internet access by starting software called a
browser that’s designed to display Web pages.
Browser software called Internet Explorer is supplied with Microsoft
Windows. Mac OS X includes a browser called Safari. Other browsers,
such as Firefox and Chrome, are also available. Follow the steps in the
TRY IT! box to start your browser.
HOW TO USE A WEB BROWSER AND SEARCH ENGINE
How do I use a browser? A browser lets you enter a unique Web page
address called a URL, such as www.google.com. You can also jump from
one Web page to another by using links. Links are usually underlined; and
when you position the arrow-shaped mouse pointer over a link, it changes
to a hand shape.
TRY IT!
Start your browser
1. Click the
icon for your browser. It is usually located near the Start button or on the dock.
2. Your computer should soon
display the browser window.
If your computer displays a
Connect to box, click the Dial
button to establish a dial-up
connection over your telephone
line.
You’ll need to cancel the
browser command and consult
an experienced computer user
if:
• Your computer displays a
“working off line” message.
• Your computer displays an
Internet Connection Wizard
box.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Although browsers offer many features, you can get along quite well using
the basic controls shown in Figure 16.
Close the browser window.
Go back to the last page viewed.
FIGURE 16
Using a Browser
Type a Web
address.
Go to your
home page.
Scroll up and
down a page.
Click underlined
links to jump to
related Web pages.
A full Web address might look like
this:
http://www.mediatechnicscorp.com
It is not necessary to type
the http://, so to access the
MediaTechnics Corporation page
shown here, you would type:
www.mediatechnicscorp.com
When typing a Web address, do
not use any spaces, and copy
upper- and lowercase letters
exactly.
Orientation
O-17
O RI EN TATION
How d
do
specific
Web?
o I ffind
ind
d specif
ifiic iinformation
nformati
f
tion on th
the W
eb?
b? If you’re looking
for information and don’t know the Web site where it might be located, you
can use a search engine to find it. Follow the steps in the TRY IT! box to
“google it” by using the Google search engine.
TRY IT!
Use a search engine
1. Make sure the browser window is open.
2. Click the Address box and type:
3. P
Press
Enter
Your
browser
dis3
ress tthe
he E
ntter kkey.
ey Y
our b
rowser di
plays the Web page for the Google search
engine.
4. Click the blank search box and then
type national parks.
5. Press the Enter key. Google displays
a list of Web pages that relate to national
parks.
6. Click the underlined National Park
Service link. Your browser displays the
Park Service’s home page.
7. Leave your browser open for the next
TRY IT!.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-18
SEC TI O N B
What are the best sources of information on the Web? The
best sources of information are easy to access, dependable, and preferably free. Sites such as Wikipedia, Answers.com, WhatIs.com, and
HowStuffWorks are great sources for general information and researching topics for computer courses.
When you’re looking for information on the Web, remember that virtually
anyone can post anything. Consequently, some information you encounter
might not be accurate.
To check the quality of information provided by a Web site, you can crosscheck facts with other sites. Be sure to check when the material was posted
or updated to determine if it is current. You might also consider the information source. Blogs and YouTube videos often express opinions rather than
facts.
How does Wikipedia work? Wikipedia is an encyclopedia that is written and maintained by the people who use it. More than ten million in-depth
articles on a vast range of topics have been submitted and updated by
users, many of them experts. Wikipedia information tends to be accurate
because users are continually reading the articles and correcting inaccurate or biased information. However, some vandalism occurs and from time
to time a few articles contain false or misleading information.
Most Wikipedia articles include a History tab that tracks changes. Check
the date of the last change to determine if the information is current. Articles
also include a Discussion tab that can help you spot controversial aspects
of the information. Use the TRY IT! below to see how Wikipedia works.
TRY IT!
Check out Wikipedia
1. In the Address bar of your
browser, type www.wikipedia.
org and then press the Enter
key.
2. When the Wikipedia window
e
appears, enter cyberspace in the
search box and then press Enter.
3. Read a bit of the article to get
an idea of its scope and detail.
Do you detect any bias in the
article?
Discussion tab
History tab
4. Click the History tab. Look at
the last few updates. Does this
article seem up to date?
5. Click the Discussion tab. What
is the status of the article? Does
it contain controversial statements? Can you envision how
you might use Google or other
Web resources to explore specific
controversies?
Enter additional
searches here.
6. Click the Article tab to return
to the Cyberspace article.
7. You can leave your browser
open for the next TRY IT!.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
WORKING WITH E-MAIL
What is e-mail? E-mail is a form of communication that relies on computer networks, such as the Internet, to transmit messages from one
computer to another. Like regular mail, e-mail messages are sent to a mailbox where they are kept until the recipient retrieves the message. Messages
might arrive at their destination within seconds, or might not arrive for a few
hours. Once sent, e-mail messages cannot be retrieved.
What do I need to use e-mail? To send and receive e-mail, you need
an Internet connection, an e-mail account, and software that enables you to
compose, read, and delete e-mail messages. An e-mail account consists of
an e-mail address (Figure 17), a password, and a mailbox. You can usually
obtain an e-mail account from your Internet service provider, your school, or
a Webmail provider, such as Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail, or Gmail.
Webmail providers store your mail online. To access your mail, simply use
your browser. In contrast, local mail, such as Microsoft Outlook, transfers
mail to your computer and requires you to use special e-mail software
instead of a browser.
How do I get a Webmail account? Registering for a Webmail account
FIGURE 17
E-mail Addresses
An e-mail address consists
of a user ID followed by an
@ symbol and the name of a
computer that handles e-mail
accounts. Ask your instructor
for his or her e-mail address. It
is likely similar to the following:
[email protected]
When typing an e-mail
address, use all lowercase
letters and do not use any
spaces.
Orientation
O-19
O RI EN TATION
is easy and many online e-mail providers offer free basic service. Work with
the TRY IT! below to see how.
TRY IT!
Get a Web-based e-mail account
1. In the Address bar of your
browser, enter www.gmail.com.
2. When the Gmail window
appears, click the button labeled
Create an account.
3. Follow the directions to enter
your first name, last name, and
login name.
4. Click the check availability!
button. If the login name you want
is already in use, you’ll have to try
a different one, again clicking the
check availability! button.
5. When you’ve selected a valid
login name, continue down the
page to create a password. Try not
to use a name, date, or any dictionary word as your password.
6. Continue down the page to
complete the rest of the registration form.
7. Before finalizing your registration, review the information you’ve
entered and jot down your login
name and password.
You might have to try
several login names to
find one that is available.
Try to choose a
strong password.
You can uncheck this
box for better privacy.
8. Read the Terms of Service, and
if you agree, click the I accept
button. That’s it! You now have a
Gmail account.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-20
SEC TI O N B
Is Webmail better than local e-mail? Both Web-based and local
e-mail have their advantages and disadvantages. Webmail accounts are
definitely easier to set up and you can use them from any computer with
an Internet connection. Webmail accounts are also ideal for “throw-away”
accounts.
What is a throw-away e-mail account? Whether you use local mail
or Webmail for your regular correspondence, you might consider creating
one or two throw-away accounts for occasions when you have to give an
e-mail address, but you don’t want any continued correspondence from that
source. Later in the chapter, you’ll learn more about how e-mail scams and
online marketing contribute to all the junk e-mail you receive. Your throwaway e-mail address can become the recipient for lots of those messages,
and eventually you can simply delete the throw-away account and all the
junk it contains.
How do I create and send an e-mail message? Many e-mail systems are available, and each uses slightly different software, making it
impossible to cover all options in this short orientation. You might want to
enlist the aid of an experienced computer user to help you get started. The
steps in the TRY IT! box pertain to Gmail, but other e-mail packages work
in a similar way.
E-MAIL PRIVACY
E-mail messages are not necessarily private; their contents
might be seen during system
maintenance or repair, and
commercial e-mail archives
are subject to search by government agencies.
Free Web-based mail is typically searched as you write it
by digital bots that look for keywords, like vacation or pet, to
display related advertising. If
you want more privacy, consider private e-mail providers
and local e-mail software.
TRY IT!
Create and send e-mail
1. If Gmail is not open, open your browser and type
www.gmail.com in the address box. Log in to your
Gmail account.
2. Click the Compose Mail link to display a form like
the one below.
3. Follow steps 4 through 6 as shown below.
7. When your message is complete, click the Send
button and Gmail sends the message.
8. You can continue to experiment with e-mail. When
done, use the Sign out link, then close your browser.
Note: With some local e-mail configurations, the
Send button places the e-mail in an Outbox and you
have to click the Send/Receive button on the toolbar
to ship the message out from your computer.
4. Click the To box and
type your instructor’s
e-mail address.
5. Click the Subject
box and type Let me
introduce myself.
6. Click the empty workspace and type a few lines
about yourself. You can use
the Backspace and arrow
keys to edit, if necessary.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
How do I get my e-mail? As with sending mail, the way you get mail
FIGURE 18
depends on your e-mail system. In general, clicking the Send/Receive button collects your mail from the network and stores it in your Inbox. Your
e-mail software displays a list of your messages. The new ones are usually
shown highlighted or in bold type. You can click any message to open it,
read it, and reply to it, as shown in Figure 18.
When e-mail software displays
your Inbox, you can:
How do I log off? When working with a Webmail account, it is important
to use the Log out or Sign out link before you close your browser. Taking
this extra step makes your e-mail less vulnerable to hackers.
good idea to minimize the size
of your mailbox).
• Open a message and read it.
• Reply to a message.
• Delete unwanted messages (a
• Forward a message to someone else.
Orientation
O-21
O RI EN TATION
Sign out
link
Inbox
selected
Message
contents
Delete
button
Selected
message
Reply
button
Forward
button
QuickCheck
1.
SECTI ON B
Documents that you send along with e-mail mes-
2.
3.
Popular
4.
.
sages are referred to as
software includes
An e-mail
looks something
like [email protected]
5.
To access Webmail, you use a browser; but to
e-mail, you use
Internet Explorer, Chrome, and Firefox.
access
When looking for information on the Web, you
e-mail software such as Microsoft Outlook.
can use a(n)
engine to
produce a list of links to Web pages that might
contain the information you seek.
X CHECK ANSWERS
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-22
Security and Privacy
SECTION
C
AS WITH MOST OTHER facets of modern life, computing has its
share of troublemakers, scam artists, and identity thieves. Section C offers
some tips on navigating through the sometimes rough neighborhoods of
cyberspace, while keeping your data safe and your identity private.
SECURING YOUR COMPUTER AND DATA
What’s at risk if my computer is stolen? The value of a stolen computer is not so much in the hardware as in the data it contains. With stolen
data such as your bank account numbers and PINs, a thief can wipe out
your checking and savings accounts. With your credit card numbers, a thief
can go on a spending spree. Even worse, a criminal can use stolen data to
assume your identity, run up debts, get into legal difficulties, ruin your credit
rating, and cause you no end of trouble.
How can I protect my computer data from theft? When you carry
a notebook computer, never leave it unattended. To thwart a thief who
breaks into your home or dorm room, anchor your computer to your desk
with a specially designed lock you can buy at most electronics stores.
If a thief steals your computer, you can make it difficult to access your data
by setting up a password. Until the password is entered, your data is off
limits. A thief might be able to boot up the desktop, but should not be able to
easily look at the data in your folders.
Many new computers are shipped with a standard administrator password
that everyone knows. If you are the only person using your computer, you
can use the administrator account for your day-to-day computing, but create
a secure password (Figure 19) for this account as soon as you can.
Your computer might also include a preset guest account with a nonsecure
password such as guest. You should disable this guest account or assign it
a secure password.
FIGURE 19
To create a secure password:
• Use at least eight characters,
mixing numbers with letters,
as in 2by4lumber.
• Do not use your name, the
name of a family member, or
your pet’s name.
• Do not use a word that can
be found in the dictionary.
• Do not forget your password!
TRY IT!
Check the accounts on your computer
1. To access accounts on Windows, click
the Start button, then select Control Panel.
For Windows Vista and Windows 7, select
User Accounts and Family Safety, select
User Accounts, and then select Manage
another account. (You might be required
to enter an administrator password.) For
Windows XP, select User Accounts.
On a Mac, click the Apple icon, select
System Preferences, and Accounts.
For security, all active
accounts should be
password protected.
2. Check the password protection on all
accounts. If you are working on a school
lab computer, do not make changes to the
account settings. If you are using your own
computer, click the Administrator account
and make sure it has a secure password.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-23
Orientation
O RI EN TATION
AVOIDING VIRUSES
What’s so bad about computer viruses? The term virus has a
technical meaning, but many people use the term loosely when referring
to malicious programs that circulate on disks, in e-mail attachments, and
on the Internet. This malware, as it is sometimes called, can steal your
data, destroy files, or create network traffic jams. It might display an irritating message to announce its presence, or it might work quietly behind the
scenes to spread itself to various files on your computer or mail itself out to
everyone in your e-mail address book.
After a virus takes up residence in your computer, it is often difficult to disinfect all your files. Rather than wait for a virus attack, you should take steps
to keep your computer virus free.
How can I keep viruses out of my computer? It helps to avoid risky
behaviors, such as downloading pirated software, opening e-mail attachments from unknown senders, installing random social networking plug-ins,
gambling online, and participating in illegal file sharing. Windows users
should install antivirus software such as the packages listed in Figure 20.
Because fewer viruses target Macs, OS X users who don’t engage in risky
online activities sometimes opt to work without antivirus software.
If you use antivirus software, configure it to run continuously whenever your
computer is on. You should make sure your antivirus software is set to scan
for viruses in incoming files and e-mail messages. At least once a week,
your antivirus software should run a full system check to make sure every
file on your computer is virus free.
As new viruses emerge, your antivirus software needs to update its virus
definition file. It gets this update as a Web download. If you’ve selected the
auto update option, your computer should automatically receive updates as
they become available.
FIGURE 20
Popular Antivirus Software
Norton AntiVirus Plus
McAfee VirusScan
Kaspersky Anti-Virus
F-Secure Antivirus
Panda Antivirus
Trend Micro Antivirus
AVG Anti-Virus
avast!
TRY IT!
Get familiar with your antivirus software
1. In Windows, click the Start button, and then
select All Programs. On the Mac, use Finder
to access the Applications folder. Look for
antivirus software (refer to Figure 20 for a list).
Open your antivirus software by clicking it..
4. Check the date when your computer last
received virus definitions. If it was more than
one week ago, you should make sure your
antivirus software is configured to receive automatic live updates.
Can’t find any? If you are using your own
computer and it doesn’t seem to have antivirus software, you can connect to an antivi-rus supplier’s Web site and download it.
2. Each antivirus program has unique
features. The figure on the right shows the
main screen for avast! antivirus software.
Explore your antivirus software to make
sure it is configured to do the following:
• Scan incoming e-mail.
• Run continuously in the background—a
a
feature sometimes called Auto Protect.
• Block malicious scripts.
3. Check the date of your last full system
scan. If it was more than one week ago,
you should check the settings that schedule antivirus scans.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-24
SEC TI O N C
PREVENTING INTRUSIONS
Is it risky to go online? The Internet offers lots of cool stuff—music
FIGURE 21
downloads, movie reviews and trailers, online shopping and banking, consumer information, blogs, social networking sites, news, sports, weather,
and much more. Most Internet offerings are legitimate, but some downloads
contain viruses, and shady characters called hackers control programs that
lurk about waiting to snatch your personal data or infiltrate your computer.
The longer your computer remains connected to the Internet, the more vulnerable it is to a hacker’s infiltration attempts.
Popular Firewall Software and
Internet Security Suites
If a hacker gains access to your computer, he or she can look through your
files, use your computer as a launching platform for viruses and networkjamming attacks, or turn your computer into a server for pornography and
other unsavory material. Hackers have even found ways to turn thousands
of infiltrated computers into “zombies,” link them together, and carry out
coordinated attacks to disrupt online access to Microsoft, Bank of America,
and other Internet businesses.
How do hackers gain access to my computer? Intruders gain
access by exploiting security flaws in your computer’s operating system,
browser, and e-mail software. Software publishers are constantly creating
updates to fix these flaws. As part of your overall security plan, you should
download and install security updates as they become available.
Emsisoft Online Armor
McAfee Internet Security
ZoneAlarm Internet Security
Norton Internet Security
Mac OS X Firewall
Agnitum Outpost Firewall
Windows Firewall
Comodo Firewall Pro
Symantec Internet Security
Kaspersky Internet Security
Trend Micro Internet
Security Pro
How can I block hackers from infiltrating my computer? Firewall
FIGURE 22
software and Internet security suites, such as those listed in Figure 21,
provide a protective barrier between a computer and the Internet. If your
computer is directly connected to the Internet, it should have active firewall
software. If your computer connects to a local area
network for Internet access, the network should have
a device called a router to block infiltration attempts.
When your firewall software
encounters new or unusual
activity, it asks you what to do.
When a firewall is active, it watches for potentially disruptive incoming data called probes. When a probe is
discovered, your firewall displays a warning and asks
what to do. If the source looks legitimate, you can let it
through; if not, you should block it (Figure 22).
Where do I get a firewall? Mac OS X and Windows
include built-in firewalls. Third-party Internet security
suites also include firewall modules.
TRY IT!
Check your Windows computer’s firewall
Check your Mac computer’s firewall
1. Click the Start button, then click Control Panel. For
Windows Vista, click the Security link; for Windows 7,
click the System and Security link; or for Windows
XP, double-click the Security Center icon. Click the
Windows Firewall link.
1. Click the Apple icon, and then select System
Preferences.
2. If the Windows firewall is not active, you should check
to see if a third-party firewall is protecting your computer.
3. Click the third option, Set access for specific services and applications, to turn on the firewall.
3. Click the Start button, click All Programs, and
then look through the program list for firewalls such as
those in Figure 21. If you find a firewall listed, start it
and explore to see if it has been activated.
4. Click the Advanced button and make sure both
items are checked. Click OK and then close the
Security dialog box.
2. Click the Security icon and then click the Firewall
button.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
BLOCKING SPYWARE AND POP-UP ADS
FIGURE 23
Are some Web sites dangerous? When you access Web sites, data
Some pop-up ads contain fake
warnings about viruses, spyware, and intrusion attempts.
is transferred to your computer and displayed by your browser. Most of
this data is harmless, but malicious HTML scripts, rogue ActiveX components, and spyware have the potential to search your computer
for passwords and credit card numbers, monitor your Webbrowsing habits for marketing purposes, block your access to
legitimate Web sites, or surreptitiously use your computer as a
staging area for illicit activities.
Spyware is the most insidious threat. It often piggybacks on
pop-up ads and activates if you click the ad window. Some
spyware can begin its dirty work when you try to click the Close
button to get rid of an ad.
Orientation
O-25
O RI EN TATION
How can I block spyware? The first line of defense is to
never click pop-up ads—especially those with dire warnings about your
computer being infected by a virus or spyware! (Figure 23.) To close an ad,
right-click its button on the taskbar at the bottom of your screen, and then
select the Close option from the menu that appears. Most browsers can
be configured to block spyware and pop-up ads (Figure 24). Your antivirus
software might offer similar options.
FIGURE 24
Check your browser’s settings
to make sure it is blocking popup ads.
What other steps can I take to browse the Web
safely? Most browsers include security features. You should
take some time to become familiar with them. For example,
Internet Explorer allows you to specify how you want it to deal
with ActiveX components. You can also specify how to deal with
HTML scripts, cookies, security certificates, and other Webbased data. If you don’t want to be bothered by these details,
however, Internet Explorer offers several predefined configurations for Low, Medium, and High security. Most Internet Explorer
users set security and privacy options to Medium.
TRY IT!
Check Internet security and privacy options
1. Start your browser and look for its security settings.
Internet Explorer: Click Tools, then select Internet
Options. Click the Security tab. Typically, your security setting should be Medium. Click the Privacy tab.
Typically, your privacy setting should be Medium. If
your version of IE offers a Pop-up Blocker, make sure
its box contains a check mark so that it is activated.
Firefox: Click Tools, select Options, and then click
Content. Make sure there is a check mark in the box
for Block pop-up windows.
Safari: Click Safari on the menu bar. Make sure there
is a check mark next to Block Pop-Up Windows.
Chrome: Click the Wrench (Tools) icon, select
Options, and then click Under the Hood and click the
Content settings button. Under Pop-ups, make sure
that the Do not allow option is selected.
2. If your browser does not seem to offer antispyware
and pop-up blocking, you can use the Start button to
see if one of the security suites listed in Figure 21 has
been installed. If your computer seems to have no
antispyware or ad-blocking software, you might want
to download some and install it.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-26
SEC TI O N C
PROTECTING E-COMMERCE TRANSACTIONS
Is online shopping safe? Online shopping is generally safe. From time
to time, shoppers encounter fake storefronts designed to look like legitimate
merchants but that are actually set up to steal credit card information. You
can avoid these fakes by making sure you enter correctly spelled URLs
when connecting to your favorite shopping sites.
How safe is my credit card information when I’m shopping
online? Online shopping is not much more dangerous than using your
credit card for a telephone order or giving it to a server when you’ve finished eating in a restaurant. Anyone who handles your card can copy the
card number, jot down the expiration date, and try to make unauthorized
charges.
That’s not to say that credit cards are risk free. Credit cards are surprisingly vulnerable both online and off. Thieves can break into merchant
computers that store order information. Thieves might even pick up your
credit card information from discarded order forms. Despite these risks,
we continue to use credit cards.
Many people are concerned about their credit card data getting intercepted
as it travels over the Internet. As you wrap up an online purchase and submit your credit card information, it is transmitted from your computer to the
merchant’s computer. Software called a packet sniffer, designed for legitimately monitoring network traffic, is occasionally used by unscrupulous
hackers to intercept credit card numbers and other data traveling over the
Internet.
How can I keep my credit card number confidential? When you
submit credit card information, make sure the merchant provides a secure
connection for transporting data. Typically, a secure connection is activated
when you’re in the final phases of checking out—as you enter your shipping
and credit card information into a form and click a Submit button to send it.
A secure connection encrypts your data. Even if your credit card number is
intercepted, it cannot be deciphered and used. To make sure you have a
secure connection, look for the lock icon. The Address box should also display a URL that begins with https:// (Secure HTTP) or contains ssl (Secure
Sockets Layer).
TRY IT!
Identify a secure connection
1. Start your browser and connect
to the site www.bestbuy.com.
2. Select any item and use the Add
to Cart button to place it in your
online shopping cart.
Secure https:// in URL
Look for a lock icon in
the address bar at the
top of the window, or on
the taskbar at the bottom
of the browser window.
3. Click the Checkout button,
then at the next screen click the
Checkout as Guest button to
reach the screen where you enter
your billing information.
4. At the Billing Address screen, do
you see any evidence that you’re
using a secure connection?
5. Close your browser so that you
don’t complete the transaction.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-27
Orientation
O RI EN TATION
AVOIDING E-MAIL SCAMS
What are e-mail scams? From time to time, you hear about con artists
who have bilked innocent consumers out of their life savings. The Internet
has its share of con artists, too, who run e-mail scams designed to collect money and confidential information from unsuspecting victims. E-mail
scams are usually distributed in mass mailings called spam.
What do I need to know about spam? The Internet makes it easy
and cheap to send out millions of e-mail solicitations. In the United States,
the CAN-SPAM Act requires mass-mail messages to be labeled with a valid
subject line. Recipients are supposed to be provided with a way to opt out
of receiving future messages.
Legitimate merchants and organizations comply with the law when sending
product announcements, newsletters, and other messages. Unscrupulous
spammers ignore the law and try to disguise their solicitations as messages
from yyour friends,, chat room p
participants,
25).
p
, or co-workers ((Figure
g
)
FIGURE 25
Some e-mail systems use spam
filters to flag suspected spam
by adding [SPAM] to the subject line. Spam filters are not
perfect, however. Some spam
is not flagged and occasionally
legitimate mail is mistaken for
spam.
Is spam dangerous? Some mass mailings contain legitimate information, including daily or weekly newsletters to which you’ve subscribed. Many
mass mailings, however, advertise illegal products. Others are outright
scams to get you to download a virus, divulge your bank account numbers,
or send in money for products you’ll never receive.
Beware of e-mail containing offers that seem just too good to be true.
Messages about winning the sweepstakes or pleas for help to transfer
money out of Nigeria (Figure 26) are scams to raid your bank account.
FIGURE 26
Many variations of this African
money-transfer fraud—complete
with deliberate grammatical
errors—have circulated on the
Internet for years. Victims who
respond to these preposterous
e-mails have found their bank
accounts raided, their credit
ratings destroyed, and their
reputations ruined. According to
the FBI, some victims have even
been kidnapped!
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-28
SEC TI O N C
What’s phishing? Phishing (pronounced “fishing”) is a scam that arrives
in your e-mailbox looking like official correspondence from a major company, such as Microsoft, PayPal, eBay, MSN, Yahoo!, or AOL. The e-mail
message is actually from an illegitimate source and is designed to trick you
into divulging confidential information or downloading a virus.
Links in the e-mail message often lead to a Web site that looks official,
where you are asked to enter confidential information such as your credit
card number, Social Security number, or bank account number.
The following are examples of phishing scams you should be aware of:
•
A message from Microsoft with an attachment that supposedly contains
a security update for Microsoft Windows. Downloading the attachment
infects your computer with a virus.
•
A message that appears to come from PayPal, complete with officiallooking logos, that alerts you to a problem with your account. When you
click the Billing Center link and enter your account information, it is transmitted to a hacker’s computer.
•
A message that’s obviously spam, but contains a convenient opt-out link.
If you click the link believing that it will prevent future spam from this source,
you’ll actually be downloading a program that hackers can use to remotely
control your computer for illegal activities.
How do I avoid e-mail scams? If your e-mail software provides spam
filters, you can use them to block some unsolicited mail from your e-mailbox. Spam filters are far from perfect, however, so don’t assume everything
that gets through is legitimate. Use your judgment before opening any
e-mail message or attachment.
Never reply to a message that you suspect to be fraudulent. If you have a
question about its legitimacy, check whether it’s on a list of known scams.
Never click a link provided in an e-mail message to manage any account
information. Instead, use your browser to go directly to the company’s Web
site and access your account as usual. Microsoft never sends updates as
attachments. To obtain Microsoft updates, go to www.microsoft.com and
click Security & Updates.
TRY IT!
Arm yourself against e-mail scams
1. Start your browser and connect to the site
www.millersmiles.co.uk. Browse through the list of
recent phishing attacks.
2. Open your e-mail software and find out if it includes
spam filters. You can usually find this information by clicking Help on the menu bar and then typing spam filter in
the search box.
3. Explore your options for configuring spam filters. If
you use Windows Live Mail (shown at right), you can
find these settings by clicking the Menus button and
then clicking Safety options. Check the settings for
spam filters on the Options tab, and then check the settings on the Phishing tab.
Spam filters sometimes catch legitimate mail and group
it with junk mail. You might want to keep tabs on your
spam filters when they are first activated to make sure
they are set to a level that eliminates most unwanted
spam without catching too much legitimate mail.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
PROTECTING YOUR PRIVACY
How much information about me has been collected online?
FIGURE 27
Information about you is stored in many places and has the potential to
be consolidated by government agencies, private businesses, and criminals. Some databases are legitimate—those maintained by credit bureaus
and medical insurance companies, for example. By law, you have the right
to ask for a copy of these records and correct any errors you find. Many
other databases, such as those maintained at e-commerce sites and those
illegally acquired by hackers, are not accessible, and you have no way of
checking the data they contain.
Using public computers poses
security risks from people looking over your shoulder, spyware
that collects your keystrokes,
and the footprint you leave
behind in cookies and temporary Internet pages.
What’s the problem with having my personal information in a
few databases? The problem is that many companies share their data-
Orientation
O-29
O RI EN TATION
bases with third parties. Your personal data might start in a single legitimate
database, but that data can be sold to a continuous chain of third parties
who use it to generate mass mailings that clog up your Inbox with marketing
ploys, unwanted newsletters, and promotions for useless products.
Can I control who collects information about me? To some extent,
you can limit your exposure to future data collection by supplying personal
data only when absolutely necessary. When filling out online forms, consider whether you want to or need to provide your real name and address.
Avoid providing merchants with your e-mail address even if you’re promised a $5 coupon or preferred customer status. A small reward might not be
worth the aggravation of an Inbox brimming with spam and e-mail scams.
You should also be careful when using public computers (Figure 27).
Can I opt out? Some mass e-mailings give you a chance to opt out so
that you don’t receive future messages. Opting out is a controversial practice. On mailings from reputable businesses, clicking an opt-out link might
very well discontinue unwanted e-mail messages. However, opting out
does not necessarily remove your name from the database, which could be
sold to a third party that disregards your opt-out request.
Scammers use opt-out links to look for “live” targets, perhaps in a database
that contains lots of fake or outdated e-mail addresses. By clicking one
of these opt-out links, you’ve played right into the hands of unscrupulous
hackers—this action lets them know that your e-mail address is valid. Most
experts recommend that you never use opt-out links, but instead go to the
sender’s Web site and try to opt out from there. If you are tempted to use
an opt-out link directly from an e-mail message, carefully examine the link’s
URL to make sure you’ll connect to a legitimate Web site.
TRY IT!
Check your privacy
To minimize risks when using
public computers:
• Be sure to log out from all
sites and close all browser
windows before quitting.
• Delete cookies and browser
history.
• Avoid using public computers for financial transactions
such as filing your taxes.
• Reboot the computer before
you quit.
• If you’re using your own portable apps from a USB drive,
make sure your computer is
running antivirus software.
1. Start your browser and go googling by connecting to www.google.com.
Enter your name in the Search box. What turns up?
2. Connect to www.peopledata.com. Enter your name and state of residence. Click the Search button. Notice all the information that’s offered.
3. Connect to www.ciadata.com and scroll down the page to view the kind
of information anyone can obtain about you for less than $100.
4. Read about your rights to view credit reports at the Federal Trade
Commission site:
www.ftc.gov/bcp/menus/consumer/credit/rights.shtm
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-30
SEC TI O N C
SAFE SOCIAL NETWORKING
What’s the risk at sites like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn?
A prolific Twitter user with 650 “friends” had a nasty surprise one morning. She discovered that private messages she’d sent to specific friends
were showing up on her public feed for everyone to see. Although this is an
extreme example of how things can go wrong on social networking sites,
embarrassing incidents are all too frequent.
The more information you reveal at social networking sites, the more you
increase your susceptibility to identity theft, stalking, and other embarrassing moments, such as when a prospective employer happens to see those
not-so-flattering photos of you on your spring break.
How do I stay safe and keep my stuff private when using
social networking sites? The first rule of social networking safety is
never share your Social Security number, phone number, or home address.
Unfortunately, everyone has access to Web-based tools for finding
addresses and phone numbers, so withholding that information provides
only a thin security blanket.
Most social networking sites depend on references and friends-of-friends
links to establish a trusted circle of contacts. Trusted is the key word here.
When using social networking sites, make sure you understand what
information is being shared with friends, what information is available to
strangers on the site, and what data is available publicly to search engines.
Be careful about revealing personal information at social networking sites,
including blogs, chat rooms, and virtual worlds such as Second Life. Many
online participants are not who they appear to be. Some people are just
having fun with fantasy identities, but others are trying to con people by
telling hard luck stories and faking illnesses. Resist the temptation to meet
face to face with people you’ve met online without taking precautions, such
as taking along a group of friends.
And what about the site itself? Social networking sites, like any
online business, are always looking for ways to make a profit. Every participant is a valuable commodity in a database that can be used for marketing
and research. Before you become a member, read the site’s privacy policy
to see how your personal data could be used. Remember, however, that
privacy policies can change, especially if a site goes out of business and
sells its assets.
You should also find out if you can remove your data from a site. Although
most sites allow you to deactivate your information, some sites never actually remove your personal information from their databases, leaving it open
to misuse in the future.
TRY IT!
Check your social networking sites
1. Log in to any social networking site you use.
2. Locate the site’s privacy policy and read it. Are you comfortable with the
ways in which the site protects your personal information?
3. If you are not familiar with the site’s options for designating who can view
your personal data, find out how you can limit its public exposure.
4. Find out if you can delete your data from the site.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
ONLINE PRIVACY AND SAFETY GUIDELINES
What should I do? Online safety and privacy are becoming one of the
most important aspects of computer use today. The average consumer has
to remain constantly vigilant to detect if his or her personal data has been
misused or has fallen into the wrong hands.
Cyberthreats are becoming more troubling. Who would imagine that the
webcam at the top of your notebook computer screen could be remotely
controlled by hackers to capture video of you without your knowledge?
If you recognize that anything on the Web or in e-mail messages is not necessarily private, you’ve got the right outlook. You can use the guidelines in
Figure 28 to keep track of your personal data and stay safe online.
• Use a password to protect your data in case your
computer is stolen.
• Don’t leave your computer unattended in public
places.
• Run antivirus software and keep it updated.
• Install software service packs and security patches
as they become available, but make sure they are
legitimate.
FIGURE 28
Online Privacy and Safety
Guidelines
• Ignore e-mail offers that seem too good to be true.
• Establish a throw-away e-mail account and use it
when you have to provide your e-mail address to marketers and other entities whom you don’t want to regularly correspond with.
• Make sure you control who has access to the data
you post at social networking sites.
• Install and activate firewall software, especially if
your computer is directly connected to the Internet by
an ISDN, DSL, satellite, or cable connection.
• Do not submit data to a social networking site until
you’ve read its privacy policy and have made sure that
you can remove your data when you no longer want to
participate.
• Do not publish or post personal information, such
• Avoid using opt-out links in mass mailings unless you
are certain the sender is legitimate.
as your physical address, passwords, Social Security
number, phone number, or account numbers, on your
Web site, in your online resume, in your blog, or in
other online documents.
• Be wary of contacts you make in public chat rooms
and social networking sites.
• Don’t click pop-up ads.
• Install and activate antispyware and ad-blocking
software.
Orientation
O-31
O RI EN TATION
• When using public computers, avoid financial
transactions if possible. Make sure you log out
from password-protected sites. Delete cookies and
Internet history. Reboot the computer at the end of
your session.
• Regard e-mail messages as postcards that can be
read by anyone, so be careful what you write!
• Cover the webcam on your computer with a piece of
tape when it is not in use.
• Do not reply to spam.
QuickCheck
1.
Internet security suites usually include antivirus
SECTI ON C
4.
and antispyware tools. True or false?
2.
3.
software can block intru-
E-mail scams are usually distributed in mass
.
mailings called
5.
Using opt-out links is the most secure and
sion attempts such as hacker probes.
dependable way to reduce the amount of spam
Most Web browsers include settings for blocking
you receive. True or false?
pop-up ads. True or false?
X CHECK ANSWERS
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-32
BookOnCD
SECTION
D
ELECTRONIC VERSIONS of your textbook are designed to be
portable, interactive learning environments. This section offers an interactive overview of the popular BookOnCD.
BOOKONCD BASICS
What is the BookOnCD? The BookOnCD is a multimedia version of
your textbook with photos that come to life as videos, diagrams that become
animations, screenshots that open to guided software tours, and computerscored activities that can help improve your test scores.
What’s the most effective way to use the BookOnCD? If you’re
accustomed to reading documents and Web pages on your computer
screen, you can use the BookOnCD for most of your reading and studying. As you work through a chapter, you’ll be able to view the multimedia
elements in context and take QuickChecks at the end of each section. If
you prefer to read from your printed textbook, you can start the BookOnCD
whenever you want to view a multimedia element or work with a computerscored activity.
QUESTIONS?
Additional FAQs about the
BookOnCD are posted at www.
infoweblinks.com under the
Technical Support link. You’ll
find information on topics such
as what to do if the CD doesn’t
start, and how to use the
BookOnCD in a computer without a CD player.
How do I start the BookOnCD? To start the BookOnCD on any
Windows computer, follow the instructions in the TRY IT! box below. If you
have an OS X Mac, skip to the instructions on the next page.
TRY IT!
Start the BookOnCD
1. Insert the BookOnCD into your computer’s CD
or DVD drive, label side up.
The BookOnCD allows you to save your scores for
QuickChecks, practice tests, and other activities, but
for this session you do not need to track this data.
4. To disable tracking for now, make sure the box
next to Save Tracking data is empty. If the box contains a check mark, click the box to empty it.
5. Click the OK button. The Tracking Options dialog
box closes and the BookOnCD displays the first
page of Chapter 1.
2. Wait a few seconds until the BookOnCD
has loaded.
3. When the main Computer Concepts screen
appears, proceed to step 4.
If an Autoplay box appears, select Run
BookOnCD.exe.
If the CD does not start automatically, click the
Start button, click Computer, and then doubleclick the CD or DVD drive icon.
•
•
To disable
tracking for a
session, make
sure this box is
empty.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-33
O RI EN TATION
Orientation
What if I have a Mac? If you have a Mac that runs Parallels or Boot
Camp, that means you have access to the Windows operating system on
your Mac. Boot up your Mac in Windows mode and then use the BookOnCD
just as you would on a Windows computer.
If your Mac runs only OS X, you can still access the digital textbook by performing a simple conversion process. It takes just a few minutes; and when
the process is complete, you’ll have all the BookOnCD files on your Mac’s
hard drive. You can launch the book right from there, or you can copy the
files to a CD or USB flash drive if that is more convenient.
How do I convert the BookOnCD so it works on a Mac? Make
sure you have the BookOnCD supplied with your textbook, then use
your browser to connect to www.mediatechnicscorp.com/pub/samples/
NP2012MacPac.htm and follow the instructions. When the MacPac page
appears, you might want to print out the instructions so that you can easily
follow them.
The MacPac file is about the size of two or three iTunes songs, so it does
not take long to download it. Once the file is downloaded, follow the rest of
the instructions to get your MacBookOnCD ready to go.
How do I start the MacBookOnCD? The setup process puts a
MacBookOnCD folder icon on your desktop. The TRY IT! below guides you
through the startup process.
TRY IT!
Start the MacBookOnCD
THESE INSTRUCTIONS ARE FOR MAC
OS X USERS ONLY!
1. Double-click the
NP2012 BookOnCD
folder icon.
1. Make sure you have an NP2012
BookOnCD folder icon on your Mac desktop. If not, refer to the material at the top of
this page for instructions on how to convert
your BookOnCD to run on the Mac.
2. Double-click the NP2012 BookOnCD
desktop icon.
2. Double-click
MacBookOnCD.
3. When the Finder window appears,
look for the MacBookOnCD program.
NOTE: You might also have a
BookOnCD.exe program, but that is NOT
the program that runs on the Mac. This is
the Windows version of the BookOnCD.
4. Double-click MacBookOnCD and your
digital textbook should open and display
the Tracking Options dialog box.
The BookOnCD allows you to save your
scores for QuickChecks, practice tests,
and other activities, but for this session
you do not need to track this data.
5. To disable tracking for now, make sure
the box next to Save Tracking data is
empty. If the box contains a check mark,
click the box to empty it.
6. Click the OK button. The Tracking
Options dialog box closes and the
BookOnCD displays the first page of
Chapter 1.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-34
SEC TI O N D
How do I navigate through the book? The BookOnCD menu and
toolbar, near the top of the screen, contain tools you can use for navigation.
The Next and Back buttons turn one page at a time. To get to the first page
of any chapter, you can select it from the Contents menu.
The BookOnCD pages mirror the pages in the printed book. So if you want
to take the QuickCheck that’s on page 21 of your printed textbook, for example, you can use the Go to Page option on the toolbar to jump right to it.
What are the other menu and navigation options? The menu bar
includes a Web Links menu with options that open your browser and connect to InfoWebLinks, the NP2012 Web site, and the Course Technology
Web site. The menu bar also includes a Help menu where you can access
instructions and troubleshooting FAQs. The Glossary button provides
access to definitions for key terms. An Annotation button appears when
your instructor has posted comments or lecture notes. If your instructor has
not posted annotations, the button will not appear.
FLASH PLAYER
The BookOnCD requires
Adobe Flash Player for displaying labs. The Flash Player is
installed on most computers.
If the BookOnCD cannot find
your Flash Player when it starts,
you’ll be directed to go online to
download and install it.
How do I exit the BookOnCD? When you have completed a ses-
FIGURE 29
sion and want to close the BookOnCD, you can click the
button in
the upper-right corner of the title bar (Windows). On Mac OS X, you can
click MacBookOnCD on the menu bar and select Quit. Figure 29 helps you
locate the Close button and BookOnCD navigation tools.
Key Features of the BookOnCD
Menu Bar and Toolbar
The Contents menu takes
you to the first page of any
chapter you select.
The Glossary button helps you look
up key terms.
The Back button displays the
previous page.
To jump to a specific page, enter the
page number in the
box, then click the
button.
The Next button displays
the next page.
The Close
button closes
the BookOnCD
on Windows
computers.
TRY IT!
Open a chapter and navigate the BookOnCD
1. Click Contents on the menu bar. The
Contents menu appears.
2. Click Chapter 2.
3. When Chapter 2 appears, click the Next
button twice until you see page 56.
4. Click the Back button twice to go back to
the first page of Chapter 2.
Use the scroll bar to
scroll down the page.
5. Click the white box on the right side of Go to
Page. Type 89, then click the Go to Page
button.
Go to Page button. Now you
6. Click the
should be back at the first page of Chapter 2.
7. Scroll down the page until you can see the
Chapter Contents listing. As shown at right,
you can use this list to quickly jump to Sections
A, B, C, D, or E; Issues; Computers in Context;
labs; and end-of-chapter activities.
8. Click
X
The X icons indicate clickable links to
sections, labs, and other
activities on the CD.
Section D to jump to Section D.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
MULTIMEDIA AND COMPUTER-SCORED ACTIVITIES
What kinds of multimedia are included in the BookOnCD?
FIGURE 30
Figures in your book marked with the X icon morph into multimedia
screentours, animations, and videos. A screentour takes you on a guided
software tour—even if you don’t have the software installed on your computer! Animations and videos visually expand on the concepts presented in
the text.
BookOnCD Computer-scored
Activities
How do I access screentours and other multimedia? To access
multimedia elements, simply click the
X
icon while using the BookOnCD.
Which activities are computer scored? Figure 30 lists the
BookOnCD activities that are computer scored. You can use these activities to gauge how well you remember and understand the material you read
in the textbook.
Suppose you’re reading Chapter 2. Work with the TRY IT! below to see how
multimedia and computer-scored activities work.
Pre-assessment Quiz
Interactive Summary
Interactive Situation
Questions
Practice Tests
Orientation
O-35
O RI EN TATION
Concept Map
QuickChecks
Lab QuickChecks
TRY IT!
Explore multimedia and computer-scored
activities
1. Use the Go to Page control to jump to page
79.
2. On page 79, Figure 2-24 contains an X
icon. Click any line of the figure caption to
launch the video.
3. When you want to stop the video, click any
blank area of the BookOnCD page. To restart
the video, click the X icon again.
4. Now, try a computer-scored QuickCheck.
Use the Go to Page control to get to page 87
and scroll down the page until you can see the
entire set of QuickCheck questions.
5. Click the answer box for question 1, and then
type your answer. Most answers are a single
word. Upper- and lowercase have no effect on
the correctness of your answer.
6. Press the Tab key to jump to question 2, and
then type your answer. Don’t worry if you don’t
know the answer; you haven’t actually read
Chapter 2 yet. Just make a guess for now.
7. When you have answered all the questions,
click the X C H E C K A N S W E R S icon. The computer indicates whether your answer is correct
or incorrect.
8. Continue to click OK to check the rest of your
answers.
Click the OK button to
check each answer.
9. When you’ve reviewed all your answers, the
computer presents a score summary. Click OK
to close the dialog box.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-36
SEC TI O N D
NEW PERSPECTIVES LABS
What about labs? Your textbook gives you access to two kinds of labs.
New Perspectives Labs are part of the BookOnCD. Student Edition Labs
are located at the NP2012 CourseMate Web site. You’ll learn how to access
Student Edition Labs in Section E.
New Perspectives Labs give you hands-on experience applying concepts
and using software discussed in each chapter. Labs on the BookOnCD are
divided into topics, and each topic ends with a QuickCheck so that you can
make sure you understand key concepts.
In addition to lab QuickChecks, each New Perspectives Lab also includes a
set of assignments located in the Lab section of each chapter. Your instructor might require you to complete these assignments. You can submit them
on paper, on disc, or as an e-mail message, according to your instructor’s
directions.
How do I launch a lab? First, navigate to the lab page using the New
Perspectives Labs option from the Chapter Contents list or type in the corresponding page number from the printed book. Click the lab’s X icon to
start it, as explained in the TRY IT! below.
TRY IT!
Open a New Perspectives Lab
1. Click Contents on the BookOnCD menu bar and
select Chapter 1.
2. Scroll down to the Chapter Contents list and click
X New Perspectives Labs.
6. After page 8, you will encounter the first
QuickCheck question. Click the correct answer, and
then click the Check Answer button. After you find
button
out if your answer was correct, click the
to continue to the next question. Complete all the
QuickCheck questions for Topic 1.
3. When the New Perspectives Labs page appears,
click X Operating a Personal Computer.
7. For this TRY IT! you don’t have to complete the
entire lab. When you are ready to quit, click the
button.
4. The lab window opens. Click the
objectives for Topic 1.
button again. Your Lab QuickCheck
8. Click the
results are displayed.
button to view
button again to view page 1 of the lab.
5. Click the
Read the information on the page, and then continue
through the lab, making sure to follow any numbered
instructions.
9. Click the OK button to return to the BookOnCD.
Click to start
the lab.
Use the lab navigation
buttons for previous page,
next page, and exit.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-37
Orientation
O RI EN TATION
TRACKING YOUR SCORES
Can I save scores from QuickChecks, labs, and other activities?
To save your scores, you have to create a Tracking file. The file can be
located on a rewritable CD, your computer’s hard disk, a USB flash drive, or
a network drive where you have permission to store files.
How do I make a Tracking file? The Tracking Options dialog box lets
you create a Tracking file and designate where you want to store it. Work
with the TRY IT! below to create a Tracking file.
TRY IT!
Create a Tracking file
1. Make sure your BookOnCD
is open.
Enter the information
requested. In this box,
enter a unique identification, such as your
student ID number.
2. Click File on the BookOnCD
menu bar, then click Change
Tracking Options.
3. When the Tracking Options
dialog box appears, click the
Create button.
4. When the Create Tracking
File dialog box appears,
enter the requested data
(see illustration at right), then
click Continue. The Save As
(Windows) or Save (Mac) dialog box appears.
5. Use the dialog box to specify
the location and name for your
Tracking file. (See the illustration at right for Windows or the
illustration below for Macs.)
6. After selecting a name and
location for your Tracking file,
click the Save button.
7. Back at the Tracking Options
dialog box, make sure there
is a check mark in the box
labeled Save Tracking data,
then click the OK button. Now
your Tracking file is ready to
receive your scores.
If you want your Tracking file located
somewhere other than the Documents
folder, click this button and then select a
device and folder. Write down the location
so you don’t forget it!
Enter a name for your
Tracking file. Your
instructor might supply
guidelines for this step.
Click Save
to create
the file.
Enter a name for your
Tracking file. Your
instructor might supply
guidelines for this step.
Click this button to specify
the location for your
Tracking file. On the Mac,
the Documents folder is a
good location.
Click Save to
create the file.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-38
SEC TI O N D
How do I get scores into my Tracking file? Whenever the Save
Tracking data box is checked, all scored activities are automatically saved
in your Tracking file. In the previous TRY IT!, you activated tracking; so
until you go back into Tracking Options and remove the check mark from
Tracking Options, your scores will be saved.
What happens if I do an activity twice? While tracking is active, all
your scores are saved. If you do an activity twice, both scores are saved.
Your scores are dated, so you and your instructor can determine which
scores are the most recent.
Can I review my scores? You can see all your scores in a Tracking
Report.
Can I delete or change my scores? No. Your Tracking data is
encrypted and cannot be changed.
Work with the TRY IT! below to see how easy it is to save scores and view
your Tracking Report.
TRY IT!
Complete a Practice Test
To start tracking your scores, you can complete a Practice Test.
1. Click the Practice Test button located on
the BookOnCD toolbar.
2. The first question of a ten-question
Practice Test appears. Answer the question,
then click the Next button.
3. Answer the remaining questions, then
click the Check Answers button.
4. When you see your score summary, click
the OK button. You can then step through
each of your answers or view a study guide.
5. Click the Study Guide button. A browser
window opens to display each Practice Test
question, your answers, and corresponding
page numbers in your textbook.
6. Close the Study Guide by clicking the
button on your browser window
(Windows) or clicking the browser name in
the Mac menu bar and then selecting Quit.
7. Click the Close button on the Practice Test
window to close it and save your scores.
View the contents of your Tracking file
1. Click File on the BookOnCD menu bar.
2. Click View Tracking Report. Your computer opens your browser and displays a
summary score for the Practice Test you
completed. The list of summary scores
grows as you save additional Practice
Tests, QuickChecks, Interactive Summaries,
Interactive Situation Questions, and Lab
QuickChecks.
3. To close the Tracking Report, close the
browser window (Windows) or the TextEdit
window (Mac).
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-39
O RI EN TATION
Orientation
How do I submit scores from my Tracking file? You can use the
Submit Tracking Data option on the File menu to send your scores to your
instructor. The files are sent over an Internet service called WebTrack.
Are the scores erased from my Tracking file when they are
sent? No. Your scores remain in your file—a copy is sent to your instructor. If your instructor’s computer malfunctions and loses your data, you can
resubmit your Tracking file. It is a good idea to back up your Tracking file
using the Back Up Tracking File option on the File menu.
What are chirps? A chirp is a short message, similar to a Twitter-style
tweet. You can use chirps to send queries to your instructor. Your instructor
might also use chirps as a classroom polling system. Chirps work through
WebTrack.
TRY IT!
Send your Tracking data and send
a chirp
1. Click File on the BookOnCD menu
bar, then click Submit Tracking Data.
Make sure your
instructor’s WebTrack
ID is entered here.
2. Make sure your instructor’s
WebTrack address is correctly
displayed in the Tracking Data
Destination dialog box, then click
Continue.
3. Your computer opens a browser
window, makes an Internet connection,
and contacts the WebTrack server.
4. When the WebTrack screen
appears, make sure the information
displayed is correct, then click the
Submit button.
5. When you see a message that confirms your data has been submitted,
you can close the browser window.
Enter your
question here.
6. To send a chirp, click the Chirp button on the BookOnCD toolbar.
7. When the Chirps panel appears,
enter your message in the box labeled
Your Message.
8. Click the Send button.
9. Close your BookOnCD.
QuickCheck
1.
Figures in the book marked with an & sign morph
SECTI ON D
3.
To save your scores, you have to create a(n)
into multimedia screentours, animations, and
videos. True or false?
2.
file.
4.
When you use the NP2012 BookOnCD, a(n)
divided into topics and each topic ends with a
button appears if your
instructor has posted comments or lecture notes.
are
New Perspectives
QuickCheck.
5.
WebTrack provides a way to submit scores to
your instructor. True or false?
X CHECK ANSWERS
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-40
NP2012 CourseMate Web Site
SECTION
E
THE INTERNET offers access to information that’s useful to just
about everyone, and New Perspectives students are no exception. When
you purchase access to the New Perspectives NP2012 CourseMate Web
site, you’ll find targeted learning materials to help you understand key concepts and prepare for exams.
WEB SITE RESOURCES
What’s on CourseMate? The New Perspectives NP2012 CourseMate
Web site includes an eBook, concept quizzes, games, and even audio files
that you can download to your iPod or other portable device. Figure 31
highlights the features you’ll find on the NP2012 CourseMate.
eBook
The NP2012 eBook gives you
access to your textbook from any
computer connected to the Internet.
Detailed Objectives
Access an expanded version of
the Learning Objectives that are
included at the beginning of each
chapter.
TechTerm Flashcards
Make sure you understand all of
the technical terms presented in
the chapter.
Chapter Overview CourseCasts
Listen to a five-minute audio presentation of chapter highlights on your
computer or download the files to
your MP3 player to study on the go.
Audio Flashcards
Interact with downloadable audio
flashcards to review key concepts
terms from the chapter.
Concept Quizzes
Check your understanding and ability
to apply concepts.
FIGURE 31
NP2012 CourseMate Features
Student Edition Labs
Get hands-on practice with key topics presented in a chapter.
Games
Have some fun while refreshing
your memory about key concepts
that might appear on the exam.
Glossary
Get a quick overview of all the key
terms presented in each chapter.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-41
Orientation
O RI EN TATION
WEB SITE ACCESS
How do I access the NP2012 CourseMate? You can get to the site
by opening your browser and typing www.cengagebrain.com.
Do I need a password? The first time you connect to CengageBrain,
sign up for an account. When you have completed the short registration
process, enter the ISBN for your book, and if you have an access code,
enter it, too. Your materials are added to your dashboard for easy access.
Click the link for the NP2012 CourseMate. From there, you can click links
to each chapter’s activities and information.
TRY IT!
First-time users can
click this link to set up a
CengageBrain account.
Access the NP2012 CourseMate
1. Start your browser.
2. Click the address box and type:
yp
Make
Ma
M
ke sure to
to use allll lowercase
lowercase letters,
lett
tters
insert no spaces, and use the / slash, not
the \ slash.
Once you have a
CengageBrain account,
you can enter your user
name and password to
access the site.
3. Press the Enter key. The CengageBrain
screen is displayed.
4. If you are accessing CengageBrain for
the first time, click the Sign Up tab and follow the instructions to create your account.
5. Once you’ve created a CengageBrain
account, you can log in by entering your
user name and password, then clicking
the log in button.
6. In the Add a title to your bookshelf box,
enter the ISBN for your book and follow
the links to add it to your bookshelf.
7. Once the title is added, you can look
for the link to the CourseMate on the
right side of the dashboard. The NP2012
CourseMate Welcome screen contains
links to activities for each chapter of the
textbook. Use the Select Chapter button
to access Chapter 1. Your browser displays links to activities for the first chapter in your textbook.
Use the Select
Chapter button to
access Chapter 1.
8. You can always return to the Welcome
screen by clicking the Home button on
the Chapter toolbar. Click the Home button now.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-42
SEC TI O N E
COURSEMATE WEB SITE TOUR
How do I use the resources at the NP2012 Web site? The
NP2012 CourseMate Web site is designed to help you review chapter material, prepare for tests, and extend your understanding of various topics.
The Chapter eBook contains text and figures from the printed textbook, videos, guided software tours, and InfoWebLinks.
The Chapter Overview presents a high-level introduction to chapter highlights. Use it as an orientation or as a quick refresher before an exam.
If you like a challenge, use the online games as a review activity; you’ll get
high scores if you understand the chapter material.
Concept quizzes are a great way to make sure that you understand and can
apply key concepts presented in a chapter.
For last-minute review, load up your iPod with the Audio Flashcards. You
can listen to them for a quick refresher on your way to the test!
Can I submit scores from CourseMate activities to my instructor? Your results from various CourseMate activities are automatically
recorded for your instructor using the Engagement Tracker. You do not
have to take any additional steps to send scores.
STUDY TIP
Activites in the NP2012 eBook
are for your own practice.
They are computer-scored, but
your scores are not sent to the
Engagement Tracker.
Follow the steps in the box below to explore the NP2012 CourseMate and
find out how to view a summary of your scores.
TRY IT!
Explore the NP2012 CourseMate
1. Connect to the NP2012 CourseMate, and use the
Select Chapter button to access Chapter 1.
2. To listen to a CourseCast on your computer, click the
Chapter Overview CourseCast link. You might have
to wait a bit for the overview to begin, depending on the
speed of your Internet connection. If you want to store a
CourseCast on your computer or portable music player,
right-click the link, click Download Audio, and then
select a location for the CourseCast file. When you are
ready to continue the tour, close the audio window.
3. Click the Games link and select the one of the
games. Try your hand at a few questions, and then go
back to the Chapter 1 page.
Online games provide a fun way to
review chapter material.
4. Click the Concept Quiz link. Complete a quiz and
then click the Done button.
5. Check your answers and note your score. You can
click the magnifying glass icon to see more details for
each question. Your score is saved by the Engagement
Tracker.
6. Look for the link to the eBook and click it. Use the
Next page and Previous page buttons to navigate page
by page.
7. Jump to page 6 and scroll down the page, if necessary, until you can see Figure 1-4.
8. Click to start the software tour.
9. When the tour ends, make sure that you can see the
CourseMate menu.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
O-43
Orientation
O RI EN TATION
STUDENT EDITION LABS
How do I access Student Edition Labs? Student Edition Labs help
you review the material presented in the textbook and extend your knowledge through demonstrations and step-by-step practice.
TRY IT!
Work with Student Edition Labs
1. Make sure you’re connected to the
NP2012 CourseMate, and use the Select
Chapter button to access Chapter 1.
2. Click the link for Student Edition Labs.
The first time you work with
the Student Edition Labs, you
can find out how to use them
effectively by stepping through
the introduction, Guide to
Student Edition Labs.
3. Take a few minutes to walk through the
section Guide to Student Edition Labs.
4. Click Select a Lab and then click
Understanding the Motherboard to start
the lab.
5. Complete the first section of the lab,
including the Intro, Observe, Practice, and
Review activities.
6. When you’ve completed the review
activity, a report containing your results
is displayed. Use the Print button to print
your report, or return to the NP2012
CourseMate.
Select eah link in
order to complete
all the lab activities.
7. Exit the lab by clicking the Exit button in the upper-right corner of the lab
window.
Use the audio control
buttons to start, pause,
or rewind the narration.
QuickCheck
1.
SECTI ON E
To access the NP2012 CourseMate, you need
4.
a user name and password. True or false?
The Chapter Overview
is a five-minute audio presentation of chapter
highlights.
2.
3.
The
Tracker automatically
5.
The Student Edition
help
records your scores.
you review through demonstrations and step-by-
When you’re at the NP2012 CourseMate, you
step practice.
can use the
play the Welcome screen.
button to disX CHECK ANSWERS
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: iChapters User
484
C RED I TS
CREDITS
Page v, © myVector/Shutterstock.com
Page vi, © Danilo Moura/Shutterstock.com
Page vii, © Alexander Kalina/Shutterstock.com
Page viii, © Jiri Vratislavsky/Shutterstock.com
Page xi, © Alexander Kalina/Shutterstock.com
Page xii, © Nataliia Natykach/Shutterstock.com
Page xiv, © Coprid/Shutterstock.com
Page xv, © Mostafa Fawzy/Shutterstock.com
Page xvii, © Gladskikh Tatiana/Shutterstock.com
Page xx, © Jaimie Duplass/Shutterstock.com
Orientation 2, Courtesy of Sony Electronics, Inc.
Orientation 6, Courtesy of Kensington Technology Group
Orientation 7, Photodisc/Getty Images
Orientation 15, Courtesy of Stephen G. Eick, SSS Research
Inc.
Orientation 27, AP Photo/Darren Hauck
Figure 1-06, © Walt Disney Pictures/courtesy Everett
Collection
Figure 1-08, Courtesy Everett Collection
Figure 1-09, Courtesy of the Software & Information Industry
Association
Figure 1-10, Courtesy of Nokia
Figure 1-11, AP Photo/Pavel Rahman
Figure 1-14, Courtesy of Dell, Inc.
Figure 1-14, Courtesy of Apple
Figure 1-15, Courtesy of Silicon Graphics International
Figure 1-17, Courtesy of Silicon Graphics International
Figure 1-18, Courtesy of IBM Corporation
Figure 1-19, Image courtesy of the National Center for
Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Figure 1-20, Courtesy of Motorola
Figure 1-20, BlackBerry Curve image courtesy of Research
In Motion1
Figure 1-20c, Courtesy of Nokia
Figure 1-20d, Courtesy of Apple
Figure 1-21, Courtesy of Apple
Figure 1-22, © Dennis Rozie/Shutterstock.com
Figure 1-30, Courtesy of Intel Corporation
Figure 1-41, © Brand X Pictures/Alamy
Figure 1-44, Courtesy of www.rantsandraves.co.uk
Issue 1a, © Warner Bros/courtesy Everett Collection
CinC-1a, Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives
CinC-1b, Napster advertisement reprinted with permission of
Napster, LLC
Figure 2-03b, Courtesy of Shuttle Computer Group, Inc |
http://us.shuttle.com
Figure 2-03c, Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company
Figure 2-04a, Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company
Figure 2-04c, Courtesy of Fujitsu Technology Solutions
Figure 2-05, Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company
Figure 2-06, Courtesy of Dell, Inc.
Figure 2-07, Courtesy of Dell, Inc.
Figure 2-11, © Hugh Threfall/Alamy
Figure 2-12, Courtesy of Intel Corporation
Figure 2-16a, Courtesy of Intel Corporation
Figure 2-16b, Courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.2
Figure 2-16c, Courtesy of ARM Ltd.
Figure 2-32, Courtesy of BiTMICRO Networks, Inc.
Figure 2-37b, Courtesy of Kensington Technology Group
Figure 2-37c, Courtesy of Saitek USA
Figure 2-39, © Ozier Muhammad/The New York Times/
Redux
Figure 2-40, Courtesy of ViewSonic Corporation
Figure 2-43, Courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Figure 2-47, Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company
Figure 2-56, Courtesy of Kensington Technology Group
Figure 2-57, Courtesy of AnchorPad
Figure 2-62, Courtesy of Targus
Issue-2b, © Artshots/Shutterstock.com
CinC-2a, © Bettmann/CORBIS
CinC-2b, Photo Courtesy of U.S. Army
Figure 3-03, Courtesy of Systweak
Figure 3-04, Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation
Figure 3-07a, Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation
Figure 3-07b, Reprinted with permission of Quark, Inc. and
its affiliates
Figure 3-07c, Courtesy of Adobe Systems Incorporated
Figure 3-16a, © wrangle/iStockphoto.com
Figure 3-16b, Courtesy of Wolfram Research
Figure 3-22b, © Ralf Juergen Kraft/Shutterstock.com
Figure 3-26, Courtesy of Activision Publishing, Inc.
Figure 3-28, Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation
Figure 3-28, Courtesy of Check Point Software
Technologies, Inc.3
Figure 3-28, Courtesy of Adobe Systems Incorporated
Figure 3-28, Courtesy of CyberLink Corp.
Figure 3-33, Copyright © 2006 by the Open Source Initiative
Figure 3-44, © David Woolley/Getty Images
Figure 3-49, Courtesy of ClamWin Free Antivirus
Issue-3a, Courtesy of Software & Information Industry
Association
CinC-3a, © Erik S. Lesser/The New York Times/Redux
Pictures
CinC-3b, © Ashley Gilbertson/Aurora Photos
Figure 4-23, Courtesy of Symbian Foundation
Figure 4-23, Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation
Figure 4-23, Courtesy of Research In Motion
Figure 4-23, Courtesy of Google Inc. Android is a trademark
of Google Inc.
Figure 4-23, Courtesy of Palm, Inc., a subsidiary of
Hewlett-Packard Company
Issue-4, © Mikkel William Nielsen/iStockphoto
CinC-4a, Courtesy of the Fond du Lac Police Department
CinC-4b, Courtesy of the Fond du Lac Police Department
Figure 5-01, Courtesy of Bob Metcalfe
Figure 5-02, © Exactostock/SuperStock
Figure 5-07, Courtesy of Belkin International
Figures 5-10, 5-13, 5-14, © Creative Crop/Getty Images
Figure 5-12, AP Photo/Eckehard Schulz
Figure 5-17a, Courtesy of SMC Corporation
Figure 5-17b, Courtesy of D-Link Systems
Figure 5-18, Courtesy of Cisco Systems, Inc.
Figure 5-21, Courtesy of Iogear
Figure 5-25, Courtesy of Belkin International
Figure 5-27, Courtesy of Bluetooth SIG
Figure 5-28a, Courtesy of Nokia
Figure 5-28b, Courtesy of Vega Helmet
Figure 5-30, Courtesy of Belkin International
Figure 5-33b, Courtesy of NETGEAR, Inc.
Figure 5-35, PRNewsFoto/Novatel Wireless, Inc.
Figure 5-37, © Ocean/Corbis
Figure 5-39, © Jon Feingersh/Getty Images
Figure 5-40a, Courtesy of Sonos, Inc.
Figure 5-40b, Courtesy of D-Link Systems
Figure 5-40c, Courtesy of Toshiba America Information
Systems
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
485
CR EDITS
Figure 5-45a, Courtesy of Dell, Inc.
Figure 5-45b, Courtesy of Intel Corporation
Figure 5-48, AP Photo/Matthias Rietschel
Figure 5-54, © Radius Images/Alamy
Figure 5-55_1, © Peter Griffith/Getty Images
Figure 5-55_2, © Hemera Technologies/Jupiterimages
Figure 5-55_3, © GLUE STOCK/Shutterstock.com
Issue-5a, © David Kilpatrick/Alamy
Issue-5b, Courtesy of Rob Flickenger
(http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/wlg/448)
CinC-5a, Photography courtesy of the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign Archives
CinC-5b, © Jenkedco/Shutterstock.com
Page 292, Courtesy of Belkin International
Figure 6-01, Computer History Museum
Figures 6-04, 6-12, 6-15, 6-19, © Ocean/Corbis
Figure 6-14, Courtesy of ZyXEL
Figure 6-16a, Courtesy of 2Wire.com
Figure 6-16b, Courtesy of Zoom Technologies
Figure 6-20, © Siri Stafford/Getty Images
Figure 6-20, © Bryce Kroll/iStockphoto.com
Figure 6-20, © Jonathan Ling/iStockphoto.com
Figure 6-21, Courtesy of Hughes Network Systems, LLC
Figure 6-22, Courtesy of Intel Corporation
Figure 6-25, Royalty-Free/CORBIS
Figure 6-27, Carlos Cordero Pérez/La Nacion de Costa Rica/
Newsco
Figure 6-28, Courtesy of Ground Control
Figure 6-29, © David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit
Figure 6-30, PRNewsFoto/Verizon Wireless
Figure 6-32, PRNewsFoto/Verizon Wireless
Figure 6-33, photo BenQ Mobile
Figure 6-36, Courtesy of Visualware
Figure 6-41, Courtesy of [email protected]
Figure 6-42a, Courtesy of chessbrain.net
Figure 6-42b, Courtesy of www.climateprediction.net
Figure 6-42c, Courtesy of distributed.net
Figure 6-42d, Courtesy of Vijay Pande, [email protected], and
Stanford University http://folding.stanford.edu
Figure 6-42e, Courtesy of PrimeGrid distributed computing
project
Figure 6-42f, Courtesy of The Scripps Research Institute
Figure 6-46, © Paul Edmondson/Getty Images
Figure 6-47, Courtesy of Gibson Research Corporation
Figure 6-51, 6-52, 6-53, © Ocean/Corbis
Issue-6b, © Steve Allen/Getty Images
CinC-6a, © H.F. Davis/Getty Images
CinC-6b, © Royalty-Free/CORBIS
Figure 7-01, Courtesy of Ted Nelson, Project Xanadu
Figure 7-18, Courtesy of Ben Samuels
Figure 7-27a, © Eric Bean/Getty Images
Figure 7-27b, © Don Farrall/Getty Images
Figure 7-27c, © Ryan McVay/Getty Images
Figure 7-27d, © S.T. Yiap/Alamy
Figure 7-27e, © Comstock Images/Alamy
Figure 7-29, © Nicholas DeVore/Getty Images
Figure 7-31, © Richard Griffin/Shutterstock.com
Figure 7-31, 7-32, © Jupiterimages
Figure 7-37_1, © Jack Z. Young/Shutterstock.com
Figures 7-37_2, 7-37_3, © Wallenrock/Shutterstock.com
Figures 7-39, 7-41, © Creative Crop/Getty Images
Figures 7-39, 7-41, © Ocean Photography/Veer
Figure 7-48a, Courtesy of Webroot Software
Figure 7-48b, Courtesy of Computer Associates
Figure 7-48c, © 2010 Check Point Software Technologies
Ltd. All rights reserved.
Issue-7a, © Ron Chapple/Getty Images
Issue-7b, © Andersen Ross/Getty Images
CinC-7a, © Lifetime/courtesy Everett Collection
CinC-7b, Courtesy of MIT Media Lab/Photo by Lynn Barry
Figure 8-04, Courtesy of Logitech
Figure 8-10, © Sandy Jones/iStockphoto
Figure 8-13, Courtesy of Learning Technology Services,
University of Wisconsin-Stout
Figures 8-14a–d, f, Courtesy of SanDisk Corporation
Figure 8-14e, Courtesy of Hitachi Global Storage
Technologies
Figure 8-40, © Rodolfo Arpia/Alamy
Figure 8-43, Courtesy of SANYO North America
Figure 8-43, Courtesy of JVC America
Figure 8-43, © Friedrich Saurer/Alamy
Figure 8-43, Courtesy of RED Digital Camera
Figure 8-44, © Corbis Premium Collection/Alamy
Figure 8-55, © Getty Images
Figure 8-56, Courtesy of Sling Media, Inc.
Issue-8a, © Daniele Mattioli/Anzenberger/Redux
CinC-8a, TM & Copyright © 20th Century Fox. All rights
reserved/Courtesy Everett Collection
CinC-8b, © Corbis/Sygma
Critical Thinking Icon, © Image Source/Corbis
Group Project Icon, © amanaimagesRF/Getty Images
Cyberclassroom Icon, © Masterfile
Multimedia Project Icon, © Fuse/Getty Images
Resume Builder Icon, © Tetra Images/Getty Images
Globalization Icon, © Ian McKinnell/Getty Images
Issue Icon, © Tetra Images/Corbis
Computers in Context Icon, © Creative Crop/Getty Images
All other figure images © MediaTechnics Corp.
1
2
3
BlackBerry®, RIM®, Research In Motion® and related
trademarks, names and logos are the property of
Research In Motion Limited and are registered and/or
used in the U.S. and countries around the world.
AMD, the AMD Arrow logo, and combinations thereof are
trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. All rights reserved.
Check Point, Check Point logo, ZoneAlarm, ZoneAlarm
Anti-Spyware are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. or its affiliates.
ZoneAlarm is a Check Point Software Technologies, Inc.
Company. All other product names mentioned herein are
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
owners. The products described in this document are
protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,606,668, 5,835,726,
6,496,935, 6,873,988, and 6,850,943 and may be
protected by other U.S. Patents, foreign patents, or
pending applications.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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