Wilmar Arley Cruz Ruiz - Repositorio Digital USFQ

Wilmar Arley Cruz Ruiz - Repositorio Digital USFQ
UNIVERSIDAD SAN FRANCISCO DE QUITO
Colegio de Posgrados
Analysis and design of a Geographic Information System for the
OGX process Oil Exploration
Wilmar Arley Cruz Ruiz
Richard Resl, Ph.Dc., Director de Tesis
Tesis de grado presentada como requisito para la obtención del título de
Magister en Sistemas de Información Geográfica
Quito, Octubre de 2012.
UNIVERSIDAD SAN FRANCISCO DE QUITO
Colegio de Posgrados
HOJA DE APROBACION DE TESIS
Analysis and design of a Geographic Information System for the
OGX process Oil Exploration
Wilmar Arley Cruz Ruiz
Richard Resl, Ph.Dc.
…………………………………..
Director de Tesis
Anton Eitzinger Msc
…………………………………..
Miembro del Comité de Tesis
Richard Resl, Ph.Dc.
Director de la Maestría en Sistemas
…………………………………..
de Información Geográfica
Stella de la Torre, Ph.D.
Decana del Colegio de Ciencias
…………………………………..
Biológicas y Ambientales
Víctor Viteri Breedy, Ph.D.
Decano del Colegio de Posgrados
…………………………………..
Quito, Octubre de 2012
© DERECHOS DE AUTOR
Por medio del presente documento certifico que he leído la Política de Propiedad Intelectual
de la Universidad San Francisco de Quito y estoy de acuerdo con su contenido, por lo que los
derechos de propiedad intelectual del presente trabajo de investigación quedan sujetos a lo
dispuesto en la Política.
Asimismo, autorizo a la USFQ para que realice la digitalización y publicación de este trabajo
de investigación en el repositorio virtual, de conformidad a lo dispuesto en el Art. 144 de la
Ley Orgánica de Educación Superior.
------------------------------------------------------WILMAR ARLEY CRUZ RUIZ
Pasaporte: AK326013
20 de Octubre de 2012
5
DEDICATORIA
A Dios, por darme la oportunidad de la vida, la vida junto a mi familia y junto a los míos,
por darme fortaleza en los momentos de dificultad, por permitirme el privilegio de la
preparación continua.
A mi familia, a Angy Restrepo mi esposa, por la colaboración irrestricta en incondicional
en todo momento por ser la persona que es, por el amor, el sacrificio y solidaridad, a mi
hija María Paula Cruz, por ser la motivación y razón de mi existencia, por ser el
combustible de esta carrera que comencé hace algo más de dos años.
Mis padres Bárbara Ruiz, Pablo Cruz, por darme la vida, quererme mucho, creer en mí y
por ser siempre mi apoyo. Mamá y Papá gracias por darme una carrera para mi presente
y futuro, esto se lo debo a ustedes.
Mis hermanos, Nancy, Edwin, por estar conmigo y apoyarme siempre, los quiero mucho.
Mi sobrina, Laura Daniela Cruz, para que puedas ver en mí un ejemplo a seguir.
A mis amigos, familiares, conocidos que de una u otra manera hicieron posible este logro,
bien fuese con una palabra, una gestión o un aliento; a [email protected] mil gracias.
6
AGRADECIMIENTOS
A la UNIVERSIDAD SAN FRANCISCO DE QUITO - UNIGIS por darme la oportunidad de
estudiar y ser un profesional de los Sistemas de Información geográfica.
A mi director de Tesis, Richard Resl por su esfuerzo y dedicación, quien con sus
conocimientos, su experiencia, su paciencia y su motivación ha logrado en mí que pueda
terminar mis estudios con éxito.
También me gustaría agradecer a mis profesores durante toda mi carrera profesional
porque todos han aportado con su conocimiento particular a mi formación, en especial a
mi tutor Pablo Cabrera,.
De igual manera agradecer a mi profesor de Investigación y de Tesis de Grado, Anton
Eitzinger por su visión crítica de muchos aspectos de la carrera, por su profesionalismo
como docente, por sus recomendaciones, que ayudan a formarte como persona e
investigador en las ciencias aplicadas.
Y por último a mis jefes de trabajo Adriana Trompa y en especial al ingeniero Yull
Salcedo, quien me ha brindado la oportunidad de crecer laboralmente en el ambiente más
enriquecedor y completo que tiene esta ciencia aplicada.
7
RESUMEN
En estos días, la actividad de exploración petrolera se basa principalmente en la
integración y el análisis multidisciplinario de datos de diferentes fuentes: Multipropósito,
catastro, uso del suelo, fotografías aéreas e imágenes de satélite, separados como
topográficos, geomorfológicos, geológicos, geofísicos de la tierra y el aire, y así
sucesivamente. Además, las organizaciones garantes para la exploración petrolera deben
establecer relaciones con un gran número de otras entidades, de las que toma o comparte
la información manejada.
El procesamiento de la información por medio de la recopilación de datos, el
almacenamiento y la manipulación a veces no tienen una estructura clara y lógica que
permita a los tomadores de decisiones haciendo efectivamente en el negocio del petróleo.
En primer lugar, se tiene la definición y los conceptos teóricos básicos de medio ambiente,
en segundo lugar una revisión paso a paso de la filosofía que nace con el sistema de
información geográfica, para terminar con los resultados y análisis del visor web.
Dentro de esta investigación, las técnicas y los métodos utilizados pueden ser descritos
como: observación básica, la creación de encuestas y cuestionarios, investigación-acción,
el análisis y diseño de un sistema de información geográfica en la producción de la
exploración petrolífera.
La metodología parte de un proceso heurístico, precedidos de búsqueda y recopilación de
fuentes de información, que son características claramente diferentes y de la naturaleza,
bibliografías, anuarios, monografías, artículos, trabajos especiales, documentos oficiales o
confidenciales.
La fase hermenéutica, donde cada una de las fuentes investigadas fue leída, analizada y
hecha su clasificación de acuerdo a la importancia en la investigación, tras la selección de
8
los puntos principales, se muestra los instrumentos diseñados para sistematizar la
información bibliográfica recopilada.
Los resultados se muestran como el análisis y diseño de sistema de información
geográfica adaptada a las necesidades de la compañía OGX, detallando en cada uno de
sus procesos claramente expuestos, desde la concepción y requisitos. A través del diseño
y modelado de base de datos geográficos, y servicios geográficos que figuran, mostrando
que después de un buen diseño con la planificación estratégica puede tener éxito, sin
dejar de lado las necesidades específicas del usuario final, que determinará en última
instancia el éxito del desarrollo.
A lo largo del artículo, se puede ir por dentro del desarrollo de un SIG de la empresa,
teniendo en cuenta que el costo de un GIS de la empresa no es sólo el costo del
hardware y el software, la planificación inicial, normalización de datos, la comprensión de
las aplicaciones básicas, adquisición de datos, sistemas de desarrollo de aplicaciones y
despliegue terminará costos involucrados.
9
ABSTRACT
In these days, the oil exploration activity is mainly based on the integration and
multidisciplinary analysis of data from different sources: Multipurpose cadastre, land use,
aerial photos and separate satellite images such as topographic, geomorphological,
geological, geophysical, land and air, and so on. In addition, organizations guarantors for
oil exploration establish relationships with a large number of other entities, from which it
takes or have to share the information handled.
All of this process has significant benefits as it puts the information right in the hands of an
end user, but it also results in problems like fractured databases, lack of synchronization,
data duplication, loss of data and ultimately loss of productivity and accuracy. Unorganized
growth also leads to proliferation of systems with attendant interoperability and
compatibility problems. Here an enterprise Oil 1GIS as the answer to that kind of problems.
Such a system designed to provide an integrated and interoperable environment in which
the different departments and functionaries of an enterprise can make, access, view, and
analyze data relevant to their tasks. This information can incorporate spatial as well as
non-spatial datasets. Applications could range from complex spatial models to delivery of
services encompassing government, business and citizens.
The processing of information by means of data collecting, storage and manipulation does
sometimes not have a clear and logical structure that allows decisions makers doing
effectively in the oil business.
Firstly, we have the definition and basic theoretical concepts of environment, secondly a
review stepper of the philosophy which was conceived with the geographic information
system, ending with the results and analysis of the same Web viewer.
1
Geographic Information System
10
Within this research, techniques and methods used can be described as: basic
observation, creation of surveys and questionnaires, action research, analysis and design
of a geographic information system in the oil exploration production.
The methodology starts from a heuristic process; there are preceded to search and
collection of information sources, which were distinctly different characteristics and nature,
bibliographies, yearbooks, monographs, articles, special works, official or confidential
documents.
Hermeneutics Phase; where each of the investigated sources was read, analyzed, and
understand its classification according
its importance in the research, following the
selection of the main points will demonstrate the instruments designed to systematize that
bibliographic information collected.
Results are shown as the analysis and design of geographic information system tailored to
the needs of the company OGX2, detailing in each of its processes clearly exposed from
conception and requirements. Through modeling and Geodatabase design, creating
business SIGEX3 viewer, and geographic services set out in, showing that after a
successful design with strategic planning can be successful, without leaving aside the
specific requirements of the end user who will ultimately determine the success
development.
Throughout the paper, we can go inside the development of an Enterprise GIS and note
that the cost of an Enterprise GIS is not just the cost of the hardware and software, the
initial planning, data standardization, understanding of core applications, data acquisition,
systems applications development and deployment will end up front costs involved.
2
Oil and Gas Exploration Company
3
Geographic Information System for Exploration Viewer
11
Content
1.
INTRODUCTION
14
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
BACKGROUND AND ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
Pipeline Management
Management and distribution
Use of GIS in the oil industry
Difficulties in process
Difficulties inherent in product
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17
18
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3.
3.1
THEORY
GIS project phases.
3.1.1Data Entry
3.1.2Data Modeling
3.1.3Data Handling
Enterprise Geodatabase
3.2.1Enterprise Geodatabase Architecture
3.2.2Enterprise geodatabase capabilities
3.2.3Versioning
3.2.4Nonversioned Editing
3.2.5Geodatabase Replication
3.2.6Historical Archiving
3.2.7Enterprise Geodatabase Components
3.2.8The Arcsde Home Directory
3.2.9The Arcsde Repository
3.2.10The Arcsde Service
3.2.11Client connections types
3.2.12Application server connection
3.2.13Direct connection
GIS server
3.3.1The GIS Server
3.3.2The Web Server
3.3.3Clients
3.3.4Network Environments
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24
26
26
27
27
27
27
28
28
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29
29
29
30
32
33
34
36
4.
METHODOLOGY
38
5.
5.1
5.2
ANALYSYS AND DESIGN
Needs identified in the technical visit
Recommended architecture for the solution
5.2.1Web service level, service level GIS
5.2.2Level of data
Planning and tactic
Requirements tanning
5.4.1Geographic Services
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41
41
43
43
44
45
46
3.2
3.3
5.3
5.4
12
5.4.2Paradigm Integration
Architecture Technology
Design Geodatabase
5.6.1Structure of the geographical database
5.6.2Schemes and users of the geodatabase
Sigex Viewer
5.7.1Description system / application methodology
5.7.2System architecture / application
5.7.3Development tools
5.7.4Features
5.7.5Data Model
Geographic Services
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50
55
55
55
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57
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6.
6.1
RESULTS
System Modules
6.1.1Authentication
6.1.2About Documentation (Help)
6.1.3Toolbar
6.1.4Table Of Contents
6.1.5Locate Coordinates
6.1.6Bookmarks
6.1.7Add Bookmarks Button
6.1.8 Draw And Measure
6.1.9 Search
6.1.10Select Entities
6.1.11Select by Attributes
6.1.12Attachments
6.1.13Related Tables
6.1.14Print
6.1.15Service Catalog
6.1.16Remove Service
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68
69
71
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7.
CONCLUSIONS
74
8.
FUTURE PROSPECTS
75
9.
9.1
ANNEX
Annex Geographic Services, Application Example
9.1.1Installation Geographic Services
9.1.2Creation Of The Connection To The Database
9.1.3Service St Geometry
9.1.4Configuration Geoprocessing (Modelbuilder) Paradigm
9.1.5Mosaic dataset alternative creation
9.1.6Configuration services maps
9.1.7MSD publication of services
9.1.8Service publication with cache mxd
9.1.9Cache and updates scales
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100
10.
REFERENCES
101
11.
GLOSSARY
102
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
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FIGURE INDEX
FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 6.
FIGURE 7.
FIGURE 8.
FIGURE 9.
FIGURE 10.
FIGURE 11.
FIGURE 12.
FIGURE 13.
FIGURE 14.
FIGURE 15.
FIGURE 16.
FIGURE 17.
FIGURE 18.
FIGURE 19.
FIGURE 20.
FIGURE 21.
FIGURE 22.
FIGURE 23.
FIGURE 24.
FIGURE 25.
FIGURE 26.
FIGURE 27.
FIGURE 28.
FIGURE 29.
FIGURE 30.
FIGURE 31.
FIGURE 32.
FIGURE 33.
FIGURE 34.
FIGURE 35.
FIGURE 36.
FIGURE 37.
FIGURE 38.
FIGURE 39.
FIGURE 40.
ENTERPRISE GEODATABASE TIERS, ESRI.COM ..................................................... 23
APPLICATION SERVER CONNECTION OR A DIRECT CONNECTION ................... 26
THE ARCGIS SERVER SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE, ESRI.COM................................ 31
WEB SERVER (ESRI_2012), ESRI.COM....................................................................... 34
SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN DOCUMENT .................................................. 44
TACTIC, DESIGN DOCUMENT ...................................................................................... 45
SERVERS AND SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION, DESIGN DOCUMENT....................... 54
RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMS SIGEX GEODATABASE ................................................ 55
SIGEX VIEWER COMPONENTS, DESIGN DOCUMENT ............................................ 56
SIGEX DATA MODEL TO DISPLAY GEOGRAPHIC, DESIGN DOCUMENT ............. 58
VIEWER SIGEX, USER MANUAL ............................................................................... 62
TOOLBAR, USER MANUAL ........................................................................................ 63
SERVICES OPTIONS, USER MANUAL ..................................................................... 63
COORDINATE JOIN, USER MANUAL ....................................................................... 64
ZOOM TO SELECTED BOOKMARK, USER MANUAL............................................. 65
DRAWING POLYGON WITH AREA MEASUREMENT, USER MANUAL................ 66
SEARCH WIDGET, USER MANUAL .......................................................................... 67
RESULTS SELECTION, USER MANUAL .................................................................. 68
SELECT BY ATTRIBUTES "EL MOLINO", USER MANUAL..................................... 69
EXPAND THE SELECTION ATTACHMENTS, USER MANUAL .............................. 70
EXAMPLE ATTACHMENT, USER MANUAL.............................................................. 71
RELATED TABLE, USER MANUAL ............................................................................ 72
SELECTING SERVICES TO REMOVE, USER MANUAL ......................................... 73
SERVICES PROVIDED BY ARCGIS SERVER ® PLATFORM. ............................... 79
GENERAL LOCATION OF OIL BLOCKS, SERVICES MANUAL ............................. 81
BLOCKS CESAR RANCHERIA REGION, SERVICES MANUAL ............................. 81
FINAL STRUCTURE OF MODELBUILDER, SERVICES MANUAL ......................... 82
CONTROL POINTS CR2 DESTINATION BLOCK, SERVICES MANUAL ............... 83
DESTINATION CHECK POINTS BLOCK CR3, SERVICES MANUAL .................... 84
CONTROL POINTS CR4 DESTINATION BLOCK, SERVICES MANUAL ............... 85
TAKING HOME MAPA_DISCORDANCIA_CR2_FA.PNG CHECKPOINTS ............ 87
TAKING HOME MAPA_LA_LUNA_CR2_FA.PNG CHECKPOINTS ........................ 89
TAKE CONTROL POINT-SOURCE MAPA_LAGUNITAS_CR3 4_FA.PNG ............ 91
INFORMATION CHECK POINTS DESTINATION FIELD, USER MANUAL ............ 93
PROPERTIES OF THE MODEL, USER MANUAL .................................................... 94
ORDER OF PARAMETERS, USER MANUAL ........................................................... 94
CREATING THE MOSAIC DATASET, USER MANUAL............................................ 96
LOCATION AND NAMES OF THE RASTER, USER MANUAL ................................ 98
FOLDER CONTAINS ARCGIS CACHE, SERVICES MANUAL ................................ 99
UPDATE CACHE, SERVICES MANUAL .................................................................. 100
14
1. INTRODUCTION
The use of geography in the study and decision making is not new in the industry of oil. A
good knowledge of geography is required in many processes of an oil production from
locating a place to drilling a well, route a pipeline from the exploration site to the refinery
plant, finding an ideal location for a refinery and more (Yeung, 2002). All these procedures
rely heavily on geography to achieve business goals. The convergence of GIS and other
technologies, particularly relational database management systems (RDBMS)4 with the
maintenance of spatial data through spatial cartridges, has opened a new era (IGAC, 1995). These
technologies will lead the spatial components of all days "business objects", such as leases, wells,
pipelines, environmental concerns, facilities and outlets in the corporate database and implement
appropriate geographic analysis efficiently in a desktop application. (Aquilino, 1996).
This includes the process of exploring new locations with oil reserves, the management of
crude oil from the earth strata (Barrell, 2003), the management of the pipeline system to
transport crude sources to treatment plants and facilities management models various
resources connected to a major industry (Aquilino, 1996).
Discovering new sources of oil before competitors is one of the key skills to keep
successful in the oil industry. While the application of GIS is relatively new in the oil
industry, it surely becomes a high value tool (Alekhya Datta, 2009). An efficient GIS can
help evaluate the potential for oil in promising locations (Yeung, 2002). Compared to other
pipe network planning tools (e.g. Computer aided design CAD) the value of a GIS program
is its ability to analyze. Oil exploration is a hugely complicated process and depends on a
multitude of variables (Barrell, 2003). The analysis capabilities of GIS programs are able
to reduce the price of oil exploration, by analyzing the potential of oil that is in a potential
location and the potential performance of an oil field (Yeung, 2002). GIS is also used to
control the conditions and the flow of oil and choose the best locations for the pipelines
4
Relational DataBase Managment System
15
used to transport oil fields and refineries (Alekhya Datta, 2009). Exploration requires
analysis of a large number of different types of information such as satellite images, digital
aerial photography mosaics, seismic surveys, surface geology studies, subsurface location
and interpretations and cross-sectional images and the existing information and
infrastructure (Yeung, 2002). A GIS can join these data, together with the location in
question and allows superimpose, view and manipulate data as a map to analyze in depth
the possibilities of finding new or expanding gaming opportunities (Barrell, 2003).
The integration of GIS in the current business model of the oil industry is not an easy
process, requires a thorough understanding of the requirements and details of the
practices of the oil companies (Aquilino, 1996). Seeing a positive sign of growth and
progress of GIS companies in this important sector of the GIS and its partners have begun
to take this billion dollar industry (Barrell, 2003). All significant GIS companies have been
involved in the development of new solutions for the oil industry over the past three
decades (Acharya, 2009). Groups of users, GIS consultants, oilfield service companies,
petroleum engineers, suppliers of GIS data, hardware vendors and software vendors make
to the growth and development that enable innovative and analytical processes for the
industry (Shekhar, 1997). There is a marked increase in the supply of a single application
package oil and research component that can be added to the basic result of GIS.
Especially the members of all leading GIS companies are offering customized solutions in
the base product (Yeung, 2002).
To produce the reserves found, the company must first understand certain geographic
infrastructure, business conditions, and environmental factors on the area in question
(Acharya, 2009). GIS technology is ideal for this type of analysis of overlap and can be
integrated with other business risk, or financial planning firm motors to provide a number of
business tools focused solutions (Kumar, 2003).
The global nature of the oil industry results in an infrastructure that is particularly strong
and weighty. A large company, integrated oil must keep track of everything from drilling
rigs to pipeline networks of refineries (Barrell, 2003).
This inform provides analyses and design showing the commercial, operational and
environmental conditions, in which adverse facilities exist that are particularly relevant to
make planned, operated and maintained effectively (IGAC, 1995). Often, the search for a
16
financial condition is so dependent on a reasonable and proper application of the structure
of the facilities is in the exploration and production itself (Barrell, 2003). We can see
through the report that it is true that the profitability of a business enterprise often depends
largely of the installation. SIG infrastructure can be used to map the collection and
transmission of products to a facility. Once there, integration with more traditional "plant"
infrastructure management systems, such as CAD, attribute records and scanned
documents, permits actual geographic placement of CAD entities complement the
architectural CAD (Yeung, 2002).
17
2. BACKGROUND AND ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.1 Pipeline Management
The piping system is one of the most powerful and intelligent components of the oil
industry. The creation and management of a network of functional pipelines requires a
thorough research and study of the geographical locations (Barrell, 2003), business needs
and manage the use of resources in major productions and transfer of crude oil and
refined petroleum reserves at the refinery and then respectively to the storage units (Aime,
1999). The competitive pressure and regulatory constraints are posing increasing
demands for pipeline operators to operate efficiently and responsibly. In response to these
demands requires accessibility to information distributed geographically operations
(Barrell, 2003). GIS items can be used in the site location process to minimize
environmental impacts during construction and accidental release and to reduce costs of
permits and liability risks associated with accidental spills (IGAC, 1995). Ecological
variables developed from public spatial data sets can be used in this process (Aime,
1999). The themes and variables used as input in this process, mainly against the direct
costs of construction and network efficiency once the pipeline has been completed
(Aquilino, 1996).
The potential costs of environmental impacts during construction and ecological costs and
liability arising from accidental releases after construction also account with the cost factor
of the oil company (Aquilino, 1996). Some of these costs can be substantial (potentially
millions of dollars).
A growing number of spatial data sets the environment has become available to the
general public, offers an excellent opportunity for companies to avoid these environmental
risks and responsibility with relatively little effort to incorporate them into their normal GIS
procedures. GIS technology facilitates the planning and management of data with a
geographic component (Aquilino, 1996). It also facilitates the collection and use of data.
GIS provides the pipeline operator with enhanced ability to manage the products,
improved efficiency in the operations of the pipeline, and a better response to business
development opportunities (Aime, 1999).
18
2.2 Management and distribution
This includes the distribution of petroleum products to different countries and finally to the
retail units as service stations, gas stations and other petroleum products retail store
(Barrell, 2003). This is the place where there are plenty of activities for GIS development
can take place. Retail businesses can use the power of GIS systems to optimize their
business intelligence tools GIS research and planning tools and offer better customer
service and outlet (Srinivas 2009).
2.3 Use of GIS in the oil industry
Oil companies have traditionally interested particularly easily in the 5IT investment, through
many parts of their business operations (Acharya, 2009). In the last five years, a significant
proportion of that investment has been directed towards the component "spatial data", so
now some of the largest independent and national oil companies (NOCs) are the main
exponents of management spatial data "and the effective use of GIS (Barrell, 2003). This
development is perhaps inevitable, given the relatively high investment by these
companies in their IT infrastructures and the highly significant fact that business processes
have on spatial data (Acharya, 2009). Virtually all business operations of oil from regional
geological exploration through field evaluation, development, product distribution, facilities
management and environmental modeling for retail or commercial and domestic supply
are based on fundamental components of spatial data, allocated in the context of these
systems employed in "business objects in space" (Acharya, 2009). This is true for many
other industries, but oil companies have been (relatively) rapid employment of appropriate
GIS technologies to manage and use these data to better understand and plan their critical
business processes (Barrell, 2003). Starting today, most significant oil organizations
involved in various programs of data consolidation, compression and conversion, with
more economical and efficient management of their files integrated information (Acharya,
2009).
2.4 Difficulties in process
Incomplete methodologies: Most modeling techniques and systems are designed with
requirements specification where spatial attributes are not part of the core of diagrams and
5
Information Technology
19
operations, although there are extensions to include georeferenced information, they are
not yet sufficiently implemented, (Acharya, 2009). The same happens with the temporal
component inherent in many physical processes and the third dimensions as elements,
are to handle methodological either requirements related to their capture (Barrell, 2003).
Heterogeneous stakeholders: GIS was part of areas where users belonged to the scientific
community, in many cases with no computer experience, so the system requirements
gathering was done exceptionally diversified (Acharya, 2009). The popularization of the
internet and the increasingly frequent use of GIS as a tool to support decision making by
government and individuals aggravated the situation, greatly expanding the use of the
system.
Complexity of information: information space has properties that make easy work of data
modeling, which is developed in the requirements analysis (Acharya, 2009). The
georeferenced information is quite bulky, and cause high costs most organizations that
should go to different sources to provide themselves with the necessary data for an
application (Barrell, 2003). As a consequence, inhomogeneous available information base,
with different quality characteristics, scale and present together. For this reason, it is
impossible to establish relationships often between information entities connected but
logically inconsistent in practice (Acharya, 2009). Also, as, discussed above, the
methodological short comings that do not meet the needs of GIS overlook cause analysis
requirements these obstacles to the development of the application, not recorded as
attributes of quality, scale etc (Alekhya Datta, 2009).
2.5 Difficulties inherent in product
Must consider regarding the spatial elements that represent geometric primitives (points,
lines and polygons) and behavior in time of this representation (Acharya, 2009). This
component is used to latter discretize continuous phenomena over time or location in
space of mobile elements (a car on a road network) (Barrell, 2003).
Component third dimension: GIS as a legacy of the work of geography with maps,
representing two-dimensional phenomena, forgetting the third dimension, which generally
represents the altitude.
20
The use of computer technology makes it possible to consider all the dimensions, but the
modeling and specification languages have recently been considered (Alekhya Datta,
2009).
Component quality: this is usually little considered. It involves the concept of metadata
which is generally described as the data of the data and attributes enable refers that
evaluate the quality of geo-referenced information, such as the year of birth, working scale,
applied processes lift refining process (digitizing on, fieldwork, gps 6, remote sensing),
reliability and more (Srinivas 2009).
Component level: it should be according to the scale of observation the same entity can be
represented by different geometric primitives (Alekhya Datta, 2009). So observed at
1:500,000 reservoirs seen as a point, but to expand the scale is 1:25,000, Transformed
into a polygon where we can see the limits of the same (Srinivas 2009).
For many years, scientists in different fields of studies used GIS or geographic information
systems successfully to create different kinds of geospatial datasets (Acharya, 2009). In
the energy sector, the utilization of GIS contributed significantly in improving the efficiency
of exploration and distribution of energy (Barrell, 2003). For example, oil and gas GIS have
been used to create structured, and historical maps to pinpoint exact locations of gas
basins and oil deposits. Gas pipeline GIS, on the other hand, have been used by energy
companies to improve distribution services from the production facilities to the consumers
(Alekhya Datta, 2009).
Only in the United States, there are more than 150 gas pipelines for the distribution of
crude oil. These pipelines run for several hundred miles underground spanning across the
48 states including the gas pipelines in Canada and Mexico (Barrell, 2003). An energy
distribution company, therefore, faces an extreme dilemma in identifying its oil and gas
pipelines without the help of geospatial data (Acharya, 2009). Although there are existing
cartographic renditions of the structural layout of the North American oil and gas pipeline
systems, some pipeline maps maybe out of date or could be unreliable (Alekhya Datta,
2009). With the introduction of the GIS, companies can now utilize oil and gas GIS and
6
Global Posisioning System
21
gas pipeline GIS accurately locate the exact positioning of the pipelines. Such datasets
can be easily ordered online in digitized or printed formats from those Strategies.
Oil exploration companies on the hand face different problems compared to energy
distributors. Oil and gas exploration companies specifically need to accurately map
network geometries of different gas basins and oil deposits which are of miles (Barrell,
2003). The need to map large geographical areas that are not contiguous and separated
by different terrain levels and territories is essential in order to meet the logistical
requirements of oil exploration (Acharya, 2009). Another critical function of oil and gas GIS
for exploration is to provide support facilities for long distance designs and engineering
projects, as well as for monitoring and maintaining remote locations. Oil and Gas GIS for
exploration takes into consideration accessibility issues for existing projects and for
projects that are being planned by the energy companies (Alekhya Datta, 2009).
In order to overcome the difficulties of energy exploration and distribution processes, it
would be crucial for the company to take advantage of modern oil and gas GIS as well as
gas pipeline GIS datasets (Barrell, 2003). These datasets can be used to intelligently built
a strategic approach to exploration and distribution in order to ensure the competitiveness
of the company. By getting oil and gas, the engineering team will not waste time and effort
in conducting costly cartographic activities. Instead of losing time on ground surveying, the
remote work teams can directly drill the ground based on oil and gas GIS data (Acharya,
2009).
22
3. THEORY
3.1 GIS project phases.
By its multidisciplinary nature, is difficult to divide a GIS project into phases that following a
specific knowledge field. Some approaches combine elements of the method of science
and engineering project management together with the classical scheme of development
of software applications (IGAC, 1995), but it has been noticed that the phases of obey the
GIS project implementation units functional given below. (Aquilino, 1996) (Shekhar, 1997)
3.1.1 Data Entry
Geographic information systems are fed by data from remote sensors (radar, satellite
images), global positioning systems (GPS) and scans on existing information. Through this
process, many times the information manually prepares to feed a specific system is
discretize continuous data and validates the information to comply with topological
relationships (neighborhood, content, intersection etc.). Also, carried out an assessment of
the quality of information and starts the construction of the metadata (Aquilino, 1996).
3.1.2 Data Modeling
It builds the conceptual model of information giving logical sense to information collected,
information is stored in layers or themes, which have prioritized an attribute territory,
establishing partitions on the continuity of phenomena space according to a value or range
of values. This organizes information modeling preparing it to be stored in a database
(Aquilino, 1996).
3.1.3 Data Handling
It is at this stage that all GIS system own-mind comes into action through modeling
represented in raster map algebra, generalizations, intersections, junctions, etc. Adjacency
analysis required under any methodology to obtain the desired results that favored the
project meets its objectives.
23
Presentation of results
Finally, the results of the project should reach interested users to power and subsequent
processes. Here, are located generally related sciences building information technology
applications that allow visualization, query and information organization result of a project
to characterize a territory (Aquilino, 1996) (Shekhar, 1997).
3.2 Enterprise Geodatabase
Due to the enterprise Geodatabase is one of the foundation elements for seamless,
organization-wide use of GIS, management staff need a clear understanding of its role and
capabilities (ESRI_2012).
Figure 1.
ESRI 2002, Enterprise Geodatabase tiers, esri.com
The Geodatabase is the native data format for ArcGIS. It is a data storage container that
defines how data is stored, accessed, and managed by ArcGIS. The term Geodatabase
combines geo (spatial data) with database (specifically a relational database management
system or RDBMS). ArcGIS 9.2 has three types of geodatabases: Microsoft Access-based
personal Geodatabase, file Geodatabase, and ArcSDE Geodatabase (ESRI_2012).
Personal and file geodatabases are designed for single users and small projects. ArcSDE
geodatabases are scalable and designed for larger-scale use, ranging from medium to
enterprise-wide implementations. These geodatabases require ArcSDE technology and
are available at three levels (in ascending order of capacity and functionality): personal
24
geodatabase (ArcSDE Personal), workgroup geodatabase (ArcSDE Workgroup), and
enterprise geodatabase (ArcSDE Enterprise). This article deals with ArcSDE enterprise
geodatabases (ESRI_2012).
3.2.1 Enterprise Geodatabase Architecture
At a conceptual level, an enterprise geodatabase consists of a multitier architecture that
implements advanced logic and behavior in the application tier (e.g., ArcGIS software) on
top of a data storage tier (e.g., RDBMS software). The application tier can be further
subdivided into two parts—ArcObjects and ArcSDE technology. The responsibility for
managing geographic data in an enterprise geodatabase is shared between ArcGIS and
whichever RDBMS is used.
On the data storage tier, RDBMS software provides an easy, formal data model for store
and manage information in tables. The schema of an enterprise geodatabase is persisted
in the RDBMS as a collection of tables known as the ArcSDE Repository. Aspects related
to data storage and retrieval are implemented as ordinary tables and certain aspects of
geographic data management, such as disk-based storage, definition of attribute types,
query processing, and multiuser transaction processing, are executed by the RDBMS. IBM
DB2, IBM Informix, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server platforms are currently supported by
ArcGIS. At version 9.3, PostgreSQL will be supported.
ArcSDE technology forms the middle tier. Prior to ArcGIS 9.2, ArcSDE was a separate
software product. At ArcGIS 9.2, ArcSDE was integrated into both ArcGIS Desktop and
ArcGIS Server and is now formally known as ArcSDE technology. As the gateway
between GIS clients and an RDBMS, ArcSDE serves spatial data and enables that data to
be accessed and managed within an RDBMS. It is implemented as several components—
a directory of executables, a set of tables and stored procedures in the database (i.e., The
ArcSDE Repository), and an optional service. These components will be discussed in
more detail (ESRI_2012).
ArcSDE technology provides fundamental capabilities that include

Access and storage of basic feature geometry in the RDBMS

Support for native RDBMS spatial types (if available)
25

Spatial data integrity

Multiuser editing environment (i.e., Versioning)

Support for complex GIS workflows and long transactions

Geospatial data integration with other information technologies
The upper level of the application tier, ArcObjects, implements geodatabase application
logic. This set of platform-independent software components is written in C++ and
provides services to support GIS applications as thick clients on the desktop and thin
clients on the server. This technology component is built into GIS clients (e.g., ArcGIS
Desktop) and implements more complex object behavior and integrity constraints on basic
features, such as points, lines, and polygons, stored in an RDBMS. In other words,
ArcObjects implements behavior on the feature geometries. Feature classes, feature
datasets, raster catalogs, topologies, networks, and terrains are all examples of geospatial
data elements within the geodatabase data model for which ArcObjects provides the
application logic that implements GIS behavior on top of basic spatial features stored in an
RDBMS (ESRI_2012).
The three enterprise geodatabase architectural tiers are defined at a conceptual level. To
most end users, working with the architectural tiers of the enterprise geodatabase is an
easy, transparent process. GIS managers or database administrators most likely work
directly with these tiers only during the setup and configuration of an enterprise
geodatabase or when performing maintenance (ESRI_2012).
26
3.2.2 Enterprise geodatabase capabilities
Figure 2.
ESRI 2002, Application server connection or a direct connection, esri.com
Designed for large-scale systems, the enterprise geodatabase, can be scaled to any size,
support any number of users, and run on computers of any size and configuration. It takes
full advantage of the underlying RDBMS architecture to provide high performance and
support for extremely large continuous GIS datasets. RDBMS functionality supports GIS
data management for scalability, reliability, security, backup, and data integrity. In addition
to supporting many users with concurrent access to the same data, an enterprise
geodatabase can be integrated with an organization's existing IT systems.
Some of the aspects of ArcSDE technology that contribute to these capabilities include the
following (ESRI_2012).
3.2.3 Versioning
With versioning, the ArcSDE geodatabase can manage and maintain multiple states while
preserving the integrity in the database. Versioning is the default ArcSDE geodatabase
editing environment that explicitly records states (i.e., versions) of individual features and
objects as they are modified, added, and/or retired. It enables multiple users to access and
edit the same data simultaneously and provides long transaction support. Simple queries
are used to view and work with any desired state for a particular point in time or see an
individual user's current edits (ESRI_2012).
27
3.2.4 Nonversioned Editing
Using nonversioned editing is equivalent to a standard database transaction. The
transaction is performed within the scope of an ArcMap edit session and the data source is
directly edited. Nonversioned edit sessions do not store changes in other tables as
versioned edit sessions do (ESRI_2012).
3.2.5 Geodatabase Replication
With geodatabase replication, data is distributed across two or more geodatabases in a
manner that allows them to synchronize any data changes that are made. It is built on top
of the versioning environment and supports the full geodatabase data model including
topologies and geometric networks. In this asynchronous model, the replication is loosely
coupled. This means each replicated geodatabase can work independently and still
synchronize changes with other replicated geodatabases.
Because geodatabase replication is implemented at the ArcObjects and ArcSDE
technology tiers, the RDBMSs involved can be different. Geodatabase replication can be
used in connected and disconnected environments and can also work with local
geodatabase connections as well as geodata server objects (through ArcGIS Server),
which enables access to a geodatabase over the Internet (ESRI_2012).
3.2.6 Historical Archiving
When enabled for a dataset, historical archiving captures all data changes in the
DEFAULT version of the enterprise geodatabase by preserving the transactional history as
an additional archive class. ArcGIS applies transaction time when changes are saved or
posted to the DEFAULT version to record the moment of change to the database
(ESRI_2012).
3.2.7 Enterprise Geodatabase Components
A typical enterprise geodatabase installation has three main components—the ArcSDE
home directory, the ArcSDE Repository, and the ArcSDE service.
28
3.2.8 The Arcsde Home Directory
When the ArcSDE component of ArcGIS Server is installed on the server, this directory is
created. It is referenced in the server operating system by an environment variable named
%SDEHOME%. The directory contains the ArcSDE command line executables, ArcSDE
configuration files, geocoding and language support files, log files (for troubleshooting
ArcSDE server issues), help documentation, and some sample utilities.
The ArcSDE command line executables are a collection of binary files that can be run at
the command prompt by geodatabase administrators to create, configure, manage, and
monitor both the enterprise geodatabase and ArcSDE service. ArcSDE command line
executables include a set of commands for data import and export at the ArcSDE
technology tier of the enterprise geodatabase (ESRI_2012).
3.2.9 The Arcsde Repository
The internal system tables and stored procedures that are installed in the RDBMS during
the ArcSDE postinstallation are owned and managed by the geodatabase administrative
user created in the first step of the ArcSDE postinstallation. They are self-managed
internally by both ArcGIS and the RDBMS via stored procedures and should not be edited
manually.
ArcSDE Repository tables can be subdivided into ArcSDE system tables and geodatabase
system tables (i.e., system tables prefixed with GDB_). ArcSDE system tables work at the
ArcSDE technology tier level and contain basic metadata for ArcSDE, store feature
geometry and raster data and manage the versioning environment. The geodatabase
system tables work at the ArcObjects tier level and store information on geodatabase
behavior and functionality for topologies, networks, and domains. These two groups form
the schema of the enterprise geodatabase (ESRI_2012).
3.2.10 The Arcsde Service
Also, commonly called the giomgr process (an abbreviation for geographic input/output
manager), the ArcSDE service is a persistent service on the ArcSDE server that is
dependent on the RDBMS instance. The giomgr process supports application server
connections to the enterprise geodatabase.
29
The ArcSDE service listens for incoming client connection requests on a dedicated port
and helps enable clients to connect to the geodatabase. A typical enterprise geodatabase
installation has one associated ArcSDE service; however, the ArcSDE service is not
required if only direct connections are made to the enterprise geodatabase (ESRI_2012).
3.2.11 Client connections types
Clients typically communicate with an enterprise geodatabase over a network using
TCP/IP protocols and can connect to an enterprise geodatabase in two ways—using an
application server connection or a direct connection (ESRI_2012).
3.2.12 Application server connection
This traditional client-connect method involves the ArcSDE service, which listens for client
connection requests. When a client application, such as ArcGIS Desktop, requests a
connection to the enterprise geodatabase, a gsrvr (an abbreviation for geographic server)
process is launched by the ArcSDE service and provides a dedicated link between the
client and the geodatabase. The ArcSDE service continues to listen for connection
requests.
The connection to the geodatabase is based on the user name and password submitted.
Dataset access depends on the permissions established for the user by the geodatabase
administrator. The gsrvr process remains connected to the geodatabase until the client
releases the connection by closing the application. This connection method is commonly
called a three-tier connection because it involves the client application, the geodatabase,
and the giomgr and gsrvr processes. In this method, most of the work is performed on the
server (ESRI_2012).
3.2.13 Direct connection
With this method, clients connect directly to the enterprise geodatabase without using the
ArcSDE service. Communication between the clients and geodatabase occurs via ArcSDE
direct-connect drivers, located on the client side, not through the ArcSDE service. Client
machines must be configured for network access.
30
ArcSDE direct-connect drivers are automatically installed for the whole ArcGIS product
suite, the ArcView 3.x Database Access extension, ArcIMS, ArcInfo Workstation, and
MapObjects. For custom applications built from the ArcSDE C API, the ArcSDE directconnect drivers need to be enabled with application to support this functionality.
Direct connection drivers are built from the same software code used to build the ArcSDE
service. The difference is that direct connect drivers are built as dynamic-link library files
and execute in the process space of the client application, whereas the ArcSDE service
was built as an executable program that runs on the ArcSDE server (ESRI_2012).
With this connection method, commonly called a two-tier connection because it only
involves the client application and the geodatabase, some of the work that would have
occurred on the server with the application server connection is performed on the client.
To have ArcSDE server handle the majority of the ArcSDE processing load, use
application server connections. When the client machines have enough resources to
handle some of the ArcSDE processing load, use direct connections, direct connections
may cause more network traffic. Both client connection methods can be supported for the
same enterprise geodatabase in any combination and configuration (ESRI_2012).
3.3 GIS server
ArcGIS Server is a distributed system consisting of several components that can be
distributed across multiple machines. Each component in the ArcGIS Server system plays
a specific role in the process of managing, activating, deactivating, and load balancing the
resources that are allocated to a given service or set of services.
The components of ArcGIS Server can be summarized as:

GIS server—Hosts and runs services. The GIS server consists of a server object
manager (SOM) and one or more server object containers (SOCs).

Web server—Hosts Web applications and Web services that use the objects running in
the GIS server.

Clients—Web browsers can be used to connect to Web applications running in the
Web server. Desktop applications can connect either through HyperText Transfer
31
Protocol (HTTP) to ArcGIS Web services running in the Web server, or connect directly
to the GIS server over a LAN or WAN.
An ArcGIS Server system also includes a set of services; Web applications, ArcGIS
Explorer Maps, and KML network links that have been published on the server, as well as
a Manager application for creating and organizing them. This group of services and
applications, with its associated Web server and GIS server, is called an ArcGIS Server
instance (ESRI_2012).
Figure 3.
ESRI 2002, The ArcGIS Server system architecture, esri.com
32
3.3.1 The GIS Server
The GIS server is composed of a server object manager (SOM) and server object
containers (SOCs). The SOM manages the set of services that are distributed across one
or more SOCs. When an application makes a direct connection to a GIS server over a
LAN or WAN, it is making a connection to the SOM.
Server object containers (SOCs) host the services that are managed by the SOM. All
services run on all container machines, so it is crucial that all container machines have
access to the resources and data necessary to run each service. This can set the capacity
value of a SOC machine to limit the number of running services it can host at one time.
Each container machine is capable of hosting multiple container processes, which are
processes in which one or more services are running. The SOM starts and shuts down the
container processes. The objects hosted within the container processes are ArcObjects
components that are installed on the container machine as part of the installation of
ArcGIS Server.
The SOM and SOC are processes that run on a machine; therefore, a single machine can
act as both a SOM and a SOC in an ArcGIS Server configuration. If desired, the Web
server and the ADF can coexist with the SOM and the SOC, allowing for a deployment of
ArcGIS Server on just one machine (ESRI_2012).
3.3.1.1 Server Directories
The server manages several types of directories, which are used to store files that the
server needs for its work.

Output directories are for temporary files needed by the server. Sometimes, these files
will be returned to the user as output, such as map images. Some service types, such
as geodata services, require output directories. For other services, an output directory
is optional or not needed.

Cache directories store caches of pre-rendered map tiles that map services can use for
faster display. Can use ArcCatalog to create a cache.
33

The
jobs
directory
stores files
needed
by
geoprocessing
services.
Often,
geoprocessing tasks require a space to write temporary files and store information
about ongoing jobs. These items are stored in the jobs directory (ESRI_2012).
3.3.1.2 Processes started by the GIS server
The Windows service "ArcGIS Server Object Manager" represents the GIS server. This
service starts the following processes which will always be running on a healthy GIS
server, even when all GIS services have been stopped:
ArcSOM.exe - 1 instance

Server Object Manager process - Acts as a broker for requests to the various services
ArcSOC.exe - 2 instances

Server Log Process – Records log messages generated from services.

Server Directory Manager – Cleans ArcGIS Server directories.
The above-mentioned ArcSOC.exe processes can be created on any SOC machine are
indistinguishable from other ArcSOC.exe processes except by size. The logging and
directory processes are generally smaller than ArcSOC.exe processes that represent GIS
services (ESRI_2012).
3.3.2 The Web Server
The Web server hosts server applications and Web services written using the ArcGIS
Server API. These server applications use the ArcGIS Server API to connect to a SOM,
make use of services, and create other ArcObjects for use in their applications. These
Web services and Web applications can be written using the ArcGIS Server Web
Application Developer Framework (Web ADF). Examples of Web applications include
mapping applications, disconnected editing applications, and any other application that
makes use of ArcObjects and is appropriate for Web browsers.
Web services can expose, for example, map and geocode services that desktop GIS users
can connect to and consume over the Internet. It is possible to create native Web services
whose parameters are not ArcObjects types, but do perform a specific GIS function. For
34
example, it could write a Web service called Find Nearest Hospital that accepts x,y
coordinates as input and returns an application-defined Hospital object that has properties
such as the address, name, and number of beds.
Figure 4.
ESRI 2002, Web Server (ESRI_2012), esri.com
3.3.3 Clients
Clients of an ArcGIS Server system can include any of the following:
3.3.3.1 Web Browsers
Anyone with a web browser and an Internet connection can perform GIS tasks on services
using an appropriately designed web application. The ADF provides tools for creating web
applications that make use of services. Since all the work is done on the server, end users
of these web applications do not need to have any GIS software or ArcObjects installed on
their machines (ESRI_2012).
3.3.3.2 ArcGIS Explorer
ArcGIS Explorer is a free lightweight desktop client for ArcGIS Server that can display data
in three dimensions. It can add the ArcGIS Server services as data in ArcGIS Explorer for
35
a rich navigation and viewing experience. For advanced functionality, can use the ArcGIS
Explorer SDK to develop custom tasks that work with the services (ESRI_2012).
3.3.3.3 ArcGIS Desktop
Connect to ArcGIS Server using ArcGIS Desktop applications to make use of services
running in the server. ArcGIS Desktop applications that can access services include
ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcGlobe, and ArcReader.
With ArcCatalog, can connect to a GIS server directly on the LAN or WAN. It can also
specify the URL of a GIS server or a specific Web service running on that GIS server to
indirectly connect to a GIS server over the Internet (ESRI_2012).
3.3.3.4 ArcGIS Engine Applications
ArcGIS Engine applications can utilize the GIS server in a variety of ways. The simplest is
by working with services in the form of data inside map or globe documents. An ArcGIS
Engine developer could also design an application that sends data off to the GIS server for
advanced tasks such as spatial analysis that require extensions only licensed on the
server machine. Conversely, the application might request data from the server to edit or
analyze within the rich user interface of the ArcGIS Engine application (ESRI_2012).
3.3.3.5 ArcGIS Server Instances
An ArcGIS Server instance is a way of grouping a Web server, an associated GIS server
and a set of services and applications. By default, ArcGIS Server installs one instance
named ArcGIS, but can add additional instances. In large ArcGIS Server deployments,
multiple instances can be useful in organizing resources between different departments in
an organization.
An instance consists of the following:
-A Web server
-A GIS server (SOM and SOCs)
-An ArcGIS Server Manager application
36
-A set of GIS services
-Web applications
-ArcGIS Explorer maps
-KML network links
Instances can share the same Web server and even the same SOCs, but they must use
different SOMs. The set of applications and services also differs between instances.
Before create a new instance, should ensure that the appropriate software (SOM, SOC,
etc.) Is installed on all of the machines that will be included in the instance, and that have
run the GIS Server Post Install on all machines, using identical names and passwords for
the SOM and SOC Accounts. Each SOC in the instance should have the same edition of
ArcGIS Server installed.
To create a new instance with ArcGIS Server for Microsoft.NET Framework, use the Add
ArcGIS Instance tool located at <ArcGIS install location>\DotNet\AddInstance.exe. Need
to provide the name of the new instance, the SOM machine it will use, and the ArcGIS
Web Services account name and password.
Once create the new instance, see an additional link to Manager in the Windows Start
menu. Each instance has its own Manager. Use also the new instance's name when
connect to its Web services, since the URL for making an ArcGIS Server Internet
connection is http://<server name>/<instance name>/services (ESRI_2012).
3.3.4 Network Environments
ArcGIS Server can run in Windows Domain or Windows Workgroup environments.
When using ArcGIS Server in a Windows Workgroup environment, need to take the
following steps to ensure proper authentication against the GIS server:

All users must be local users. All accounts defined in the GIS Server Post Install (SOC
Account, SOM Account, and ArcGIS Web services Account) and any users added to
the AGSUSERS or AGSADMIN groups must be local users.
37

These local user accounts need to have the exact same username and password
(case sensitive) on all machines.

Local Security Settings must be altered from the default as follows:
1. Navigate to Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Local Security Policy
2. In the left menu tree structure, navigate to Security Settings > Local Policies >
Security Options
3. Double-click "Network access: Sharing and security model for local accounts"
4. Select "Classic – local users authenticate as themselves" and click OK.
38
4. METHODOLOGY
For the effective GIS Solution implementation for Oil Industry proposes a methodology in
which it will work to finalize the proposed objectives.
Phases:
Start:
Inside the boot process generates the documentation required for project
implementation, i.e., defining the project charter, identifying stakeholders and
conducting a project initiation meeting in which teams participate Prosis defined SA
as defined by the customer. At this stage, we are establishing the boundaries of
the project objectives and, based on the commercial offer and the contract.
Planning:
Planning processes are aimed at determining the effort required to implement the
project or each of the defined stages.
Defining the Project Implementation Plan
In the planning phase establishing a roadmap for achieving the project objectives
and activities are required for each phase, human resources and execution times.
Execution:
The execution processes are focused on the generation of the project product
through the coordination of the resources involved making the activities defined in
the planning. Within this process is performed agreed documentation to ensure the
solution from the standpoint of development and implementation of the functions
defined. This stage includes activities of requirements analysis, design,
implementation, testing and commissioning.
Requirements Analysis:
During the needs analysis is carried out process of requirements gathering, high
level of identification and generation of use cases, which are defined and
39
documented detailed requirements for each use case and reviewed separately by
the tester to ensure they can be tested once they are implemented. This results in
better and more clearly defined requirements, which are documented as a basis for
the design of the solution.
Design:
Once the detailed requirements specification is documented, the next step is the
design that transforms requirements into a set of functions of GIS software,
translating user requirements to detailed design specifications. At this stage, make
key decisions on the implementation of the system. We performed a design
document based on the requirements specification which defines the tasks of the
development process.
Implementation:
Building Geographic Information System is functional adequacy of the ESRI
platform oriented to the functional requirements of the system. The goal at this
stage is to ensure that the solution: Be safe and reliable to interact with existing
production systems and to give an accurate solution that lets view the support for
the OGX7 Organization
Comprehensive Testing:
This phase verifies that the components or modules interact correctly through their
interfaces to ensure the proper functioning of the system.
Multiple tests are conducted in the development environment and test environment
for the test team. Evidence of quality control equipment seeks to eliminate defects
and ensure compliance with the requirements defined by the cases of use.
Deployment:
Once have been willing the production environment, the GIS software and
applications are installed in its operational environment and tested to ensure they
meet needs.
7
Oil and Gas Company
40
Technology transfer:
Transfer the customer knowledge through training so that he can operate the
system autonomously.
Technology transfer is a process along the entire development of the system is
developed end-user manuals and installation.
Monitoring and Control:
This process keeps track of the activities planned in the project, taking control of
the activities defined within planning. The aim is to ensure that activities are being
developed within the defined plans and maintaining the project within expected
ranges. Regular meetings are held between the project managers of the provider
and client which determine the project progress, identify critical points, corrective
actions when necessary, decision making and generate documentation of
monitoring defined in the planning.
Similarly, tracked the risks and determining the activities aimed at implementing
mitigation or contingency plans.
Constant verification of the scope in this process will jointly define the changes
needed to ensure the solution with the effects of time and cost involved.
Close:
To the extent that following completion of products that make up the project, these
are delivered to the customer with relevant evidence, for which the records will be
generated for delivery to be gradually closing the project.
5. ANALYSYS AND DESIGN
The main objective of this implementation is to have basic functional facilitate rapid
access, automatic orderly and the information contained in the system to the wide range of
end users. This fact determines automating a series of processes, designed according the
needs of these users, among which include the various search processes GIS supporting
41
the definition of predefined scales and legends oriented cartographic meet the best fit
between the processes and the presentation-visualization. This is defined by a series of
custom interfaces and information contained on commonly on demand. These include a
first approximation of the process and can be described as follow:
5.1 Needs identified in the technical visit
Below is a summary of the preliminary requirements gathering, in which they identify areas
of company requirements and the minimum number of users that interact with the system:
OGX, Needs Identified
USERS
AREA
NEEDS
Desktop
Web
11
5
-Centralization of information.
Definition of Base Map.
Well-Edition
Info messages and mapping business.
Exploration
-Integration of GIS Exploration with other sources
as the Paradigm system, seismic information,
information from wells and geology.
-View information that may come from other
databases
or
documents
(photos,
images,
reports).
Publication Web-mapping information base and
thematic exploration. Web tool for publishing
geographic information to users of the area.
5.2 Recommended architecture for the solution
The implementation of a GIS project requires an IT infrastructure that supports the
different phases of the project. Specialized programs in spatial information management
are mainly used in a step which performs the modeling and presentation of data. It
presents system architecture that summarizes the structure that has a project team or
42
working group in GIS today.
Undoubtedly approaches are less complex and equally functional for smaller processes,
however, these can be considered subsets taking architectural elements presented.
Storage base level of information: is responsible for responding to requests for access
(read / write) spatial and alphanumeric data.
This level is implemented using the most accessible file servers (Information is stored
directly as layers in the system structured in folders without any protection other than that
provided by the operating system), from the model georrelational (GeodataBase ) using
spatial extensions are mounted on a handle of relational databases. Implementations have
appeared lately mapping services and data that provide information via web Internet.
The proliferation of spatial data and concerns about their quality control make it desirable
that this level is implemented obeying standards for storage of information and
construction of metadata.
• Intermediate data transmission: This provides the communications platform and network
services that connects different parts of the architecture. The rise of the Internet and the
large volume of data traffic generated by the transmission of information has led to the
development of protocols to structure and ease the data representation of spatial thinking
in shipping over long distances, prioritizing text type representations on binary (XML6,
GML7).
• Final Application Level: The level at which the majority of GIS professionals or end users
has access to the information. It consists of four categories of applications are not
necessarily mutually exclusive (there are programs that fulfill functions of more than one
category). The programs capture information, and support for scanning lifting geospatial
data (GPS support programs, CAD tools, digitization programs raster or vector).
Processing programs, analysis and modeling of information (which are most confused with
the general concept of GIS) routines provide raster and vector processing, database
management and statistical data, taking the input information for the results given by a
methodology. The desktop mapping software, including tools designed for cartographic
production allowing spatial information to paper and finally, applications access and
43
dissemination of information presented to professionals and the general public, powerful
graphical interfaces for viewing information geographic and spatial queries and easy
alphanumeric on it.
This architecture is defined for the users identified in the requirements gathering
preliminary study of OGX official within the project development phase will be a Sizing
Technology Platform, which will adjust the requirements for successful implementation and
system access.
5.2.1 Web service level, service level GIS
Composed of one server for Web client management system that requires lightweight
geographic services and / or heavy. This level would be the viewer GeographicOGX.
On the same server will light mapping services, these will be consumed from a client
ArcGIS Server. This architecture allows local customers ArcGIS Desktop (ArcInfo,
ArcEditor) to consume any service of this level and / or administrators can manage this
component from an ArcGIS Desktop client.
At this level, find geographic OGX Services, these services will be built as part of OGX
GIS.
5.2.2 Level of data
Composed of one server for managing all data requirements generated from light service,
heavy duty and / or requests from ArcGIS Desktop (ArcInfo, ArcView).
Note: The previously set architecture can support up to average
Concurrent users web 50 and about 20 in the above Desktop the initial requirements for
the GIS to OGX. However, this architecture would into account the potential growth of the
company at the user level and outstanding performance applications.
44
Figure 5.
OGX, Solution Architecture, Design Document
5.3 Planning and tactic
In order to centralize information and integrate it with other sources of exploration, as the
system paradigm, seismic, well information and geology, as well as see it through Web
tools, comes the need for the analysis, design and implementation of a Geographic
Information System for oil and gas sector that meets the needs of OGX in the exploration
area.
• Tunning requirements.
• Implementation of environments for development and quality assurance
• Design and generation of the GDB.
• Data migration.
• Development of specific functionality for the Web module.
• Testing of the applications in accordance with the collection of use cases.
• Implementation in the production environment OGX.
45
GIS FOR EXPLORATION
PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
GDB
WEB OGX
GEO-MODEL
GEOGRAPHIC
VIEWER
DATA MIGRATION
GEOGRAPHIC
SERVICES
FOLLOW UP
Sizing of the system's
technological
platform
TECHNICAL AND
FINALL USER
DOCUMENTATION
PARADIGM , SEISMIC,
WELLS, GEOLOGY
INTEGRATION
Figure 6.
OGX, Tactic, Design Document
5.4 Requirements tanning
Requirements engineering for OGX GIS must face the problems already explained to
achieve present an initial vision what they want from an application built by or for a
multidisciplinary team or in many cases to a user group much broader. The difficulties
mentioned in the previous section mainly affect the functional requirements and the
specific domain of GIS. Approaches to address these difficulties consist of system
modeling techniques that allow expressing the requirements of a GIS application of a more
technical and less ambiguous than natural language. In lists, the characteristics of a good
technique must comply Systems modeling for requirements engineering in OGX GIS
application.
46
Took into account the following
• Time dimension: object changes in time.
• Complex spatial elements: multipoint, multiline and multipolygons (individual
elements but compounds of multiple instances of the primitive space) which was
relegated
The long method inherited from the two-dimensional work of geography: Extended
relational elements model for GIS
• Values theme: Attributes that describe properties of objects.
• Diffuse Objects: geographical features that belong to a class with certain degrees.
• Data and entities based on field values: Data can be sorted by or entities that are
continuous and do not belong to a specific entity (e.g.| height).
• Generalization: Multiple representations of space objects depending on the scale.
• Restrictions: Impose ranges to the values of the attributes.
• Object Identifier: All objects must be uniquely identified.
• Data quality: Rate the adequacy of the provenance and treatment of the spatial
data.
The evaluation of bibliographical sources throws the following categories for
requirements engineering processes in GIS:
5.4.1 Geographic Services
Map service: Product mapping web accessible for viewing and basic query.
Services as documents born MXD map (built in ArcMap) that are then published via
ArcGIS Server. Once published, ARGIS Server exposes interfaces to access various
services (or endpoints) as SOAP and REST. Besides these, are available as standard
interfaces defined by the OGC, as WFS and WMS.
Service: It is a resource such as a map, an image, a connection to the geodatabase or a
geocoder, which is placed on a server and is available to client applications through a
communication protocol such as HTTP.
47
5.4.2 Paradigm Integration
The Paradigm software to locate new oil or gas and create dynamic digital models of the
subsurface of the earth. Also optimize the production of new or existing deposits.
OGX currently manages information and Geophysics Seismic software with Paradigm for
Exploration. Integrating Paradigm Exploration with GIS will be made through GIF image:
Maps TWT (Time). Depth Maps, These images are associated with the blocks (Map of
Land) for this becomes a Geoprocesing and
a manual procedure for georeferencing
these images. Well Information Integration.
5.5 Architecture Technology
The aim of the process of Information System Design (ISD) is the definition of the system
architecture and the technological environment that will support, together with the detailed
specification of the components of the information system.
From this information, it generates all construction specifications related to the system
itself and the technical description of the test plan, the requirements definition and design
implementation of the migration procedures and initial charge, the latter when appropriate.
As a methodology that covers both structured developments as object oriented activities of
both approaches are integrated in a common structure.,
The activities of this process are grouped into two main groups.
In a first set of activities that are carried out in parallel, get the detailed design of the
information system. Performing these activities requires continuous feedback. In general,
the actual order of their execution depends on the specifics of the information system and,
therefore, generation of products.
In the activity Defining System Architecture sets the physical partitioning of the information
system and its subsystems organization design, specification of the technological
environment, and operating requirements, administration, security and OGX access
control. Catalogs are completed requirements and standards, depending on the definition
of the technological environment, with those aspects of the design and construction
48
necessary to contemplate. It also creates a list of system exceptions, in which are
recorded the secondary operating conditions or abnormal consider it appears proper and,
therefore, designing and testing. This catalog of exceptions is used as a reference in the
technical specification for system testing.
The physical partitioning of information system to organize a design that provides a system
of distributed information, such as client (OGX) / server architecture, being applicable to
multilevel architectures in general. Regardless of the technological infrastructure, such
partitioning represents the functional and physical levels of the information system. The
relationship between elements of the design and physical partitioning, and in turn, between
the physical partitioning and technology environment allows a specification of the
distribution of the elements of the information system and at the same time, a design
oriented mobility other platforms or relocation of subsystems.
The information system is divided into subsystems design. These, in turn, are classified as
support or specific, to respond to different purposes.
The subsystems support or services contain elements common to the system and
installation, are usually caused by the interaction with the technical infrastructure and
reuse of other systems, with a higher level of technical complexity.
Specific subsystems containing the elements of the information system, usually with
continuity of the subsystems defined in the process of Information System Analysis.
Also, specify in detail the technological environment of the information system, along with
its capacity planning (capacity planning), and operating requirements, administration,
security and access control.
The detailed design of the information system, following a structured approach, comprising
a set of activities that are carried out in parallel with the definition of the system
architecture.
The extents of each of these activities in OGX environment are summarized below:
Architecture Design Support, which includes the detailed design of the subsystems
support the establishment of standards and requirements arising from the design and
construction as well as the identification and definition of generic mechanisms of design
and construction.
Architecture Design System Module, which performs the detailed design of specific
49
subsystems of the information system and the revision of the user interface.
Physical Design Data, which includes the design and optimization of system data
structures and their location in the nodes of the proposed architecture.
For Object-Oriented Design, it should be noted that the design of persistent objects is
performed on relational databases and that the detailed design of the information system
is performed in parallel with the design activity Architecture Support, and corresponds to
the following activities:
Use Case Design Royals, with the detailed design of the system behavior information for
the use cases, the design of the user interface and validation of the division into
subsystems.
Class Design with the detailed design of each of the classes that are part of the system, its
attributes, operations, relationships and methods, and the hierarchical structure of the
same. In the case where necessary, is performed to define a migration plan data and initial
load.
Once we have the class model, begin the physical design activity Physical Design Data
common with the structured approach.
Once the detailed design is done in review and validation activity verification and
acceptance of the system architecture, in order to analyze the consistency between
models and design gain acceptance by those responsible for Operations and Systems
areas
The simulation for the design was performed using reference Processors X5670 Intel Xeon
technology.
The tech support is defined according to the sizing of two (2) dedicated servers by
function:
- Presentation Layer and services: Composed of a server whose function is to provide
services and serve the Web application to access information online Geographic
- Data layer: Made up of a server that has the function of managing and locating files that
make up the OGX Geographic Geodatabase.
50
The technical specifications for all servers that support the architecture of GIS technology
was calculated by performing a sizing with ESRI Capacity Planning.
(Arc11CapacityPlanning0801):
5.6 Design Geodatabase
This part presents the characteristics of the SIGEX system geographic database, as it has
to do with software tools and file structure. It presents all the guidelines and considerations
to take into account the management of new processes, elements and aspects to include
in the geodatabase. Also, this paper supports the management of existing components,
determines all guidelines to follow to interact with GDB (alter or modify the structure)
without affecting the proper functioning of this, considering the parameters given initially in
both the physical layer, and logic. These parameters include the level of data and the
geographical level of the geodatabase.
It also describes the internal structure of the database, configuration, user management
and storage management
The technological structure is supported on an engine of Oracle 11G database is the tool
used to support the storage of alphanumeric and geographic data, then the RDBMS is
installed on a product called ESRI ArcSDE technology which is responsible for managing
geographic information stored in the database.
ArcSDE manages storage in Oracle and manages concurrent users, and other topology
rules and behavior of the Geodatabase.
5.6.1 Structure of the geographical database
5.6.1.1 Need for a design
Effective implementation of a GIS is achieved through good design of the database.
To achieve a good design of the database is necessary to ask the right questions:
• How can implement GIS technology to achieve existing features, or change how a
goal is achieved?
• What data OGX benefit more?
51
• What data can be stored?
• Who is or should be responsible for maintaining the database?
The answer to these questions depends on how understand GIS technology, and
knowledge of OGX.
The design for the implementation of a GIS is like any other design:
• Beginning in meeting the goals
• Gradually increasing the level of detail as more information is obtained, and
implementation approaches.
Need to take the time right design, because failure to do so the impact on all current and
future application can be highly negative.
The database and associated applications can not be treated independently.
5.6.1.2 Design objectives
Design is the process that defines the goals, identify, analyze and evaluate design
alternatives, and determine an OGX implementation plan.
The design provides a picture of where we are, where we are going, and how to get from
one place to another.
The database design provides architecture for the database, provides a view that spans
the entire database allowing an overall assessment of it from several aspects.
Good design results in a well-built database, functional and operational efficiently:
• Meets goals and support requirements.
• Contains data required, but not redundant.
• Organizes data for multiple access
• Allows multiple views of data
• Distinguishes applications that keep those data used only
• Represents, codifies and organizes geographic elements appropriately
Design Benefits:
• Access and data analysis increased flexibility.
• Facilitates application deployment
• Lowering the cost of capture, storage and use of data
• Facilitates and maintains data to support different users
52
• Facilitates future changes
• Minimize data redundancy.
5.6.1.3 OGX feature identification
Working with business functions and units (sections, departments, divisions) of OGX:
• They are more stable in OGX, a unit meets certain functions in future meets another unit.
For each function, determine a general description of activities associated with this
function.
Activities may include management approvals of certain activities in the field (patterns),
control of land use, development agreements for the construction of infrastructure.
Identify providers and consumers of geographic information
Identify the data source
Solving (clarify) immediately situations:
• Synonyms
• Functions that duplicate data
• Interact with those who perform the function as they are the ones who know the data.
• User must validate documents and diagrams associated with functions and data.
5.6.1.4 Organize ogx data into logical units
Logical units or groups representing such as land registration systems, roads, terrain, and
water distribution.
Each defined group is operated by a function that receives and / or transmits information.
Example: Group including surface model with data on rainfall levels connects with another
that manages or controls a river network as it provides certain hydrological data, which
allows the function to check the network determine the new water flow caused by recent
rains for OGX scope areas.
Each of these groups must have a common coordinate system, one type of topology
(planar network or none), and generally interact.
53
Design stages
• Modeling the user perspective (requirements, functions, etc.)
• Define objects and their relationships (UML)
• Identify feature representations
• Adjust it to the geodatabase model (UML objects own base software)
• Organize in "datasets" geographical
Defining objects (entities) and relationships
Entity = objects with common properties.
• Identify and describe entities
• Identify and describe relationships between entities
• Document the entities and relationships using UML diagrams based on.
The identification of entities and relationships can be achieved by analyzing sentences
such that a noun commonly identifies an entity, a verb defines a relationship between
entities.
5.6.1.5 Defining objects (entities) and relationships
Verbs masquerading as nouns difficult to determine relationships - e.g.| link, description,
identification, aggregation)
Document the entities and their relationships using UML diagrams based on identifying
feature representations.
To classify entities as how to represent, based on the geometry, or only attributes.
Consider whether:
• The element must be represented on a map
• The shape of the E.g.| is relevant or not for analysis
• The element is data that can be accessed or viewed through a relationship with
another element.
• The E.g.| will have different representations at different scales (e.g.| Rio)
• Text will be displayed on screen or map products.
• Type Mapping:
o
Point - illustrates the location of an element of exceptionally small as to look like
a pair area.
54
o
Line - illustrates the location of an item as a mighty estimable couple to be seen
as an area.
o
Area - illustrates location and shape on an item.
o
Surface - illustrates the location of an item as an area, but also includes
changes in height
o
(including certain TINs and rasters).
Raster - represents an area using rectangular cells (satellite images, aerial
photographs, and continuous data layer) and can be used for various analyzes.
o
Images, photos, drawings - each represents a digital picture and can not be
used for analysis.
• Object - identifies an item for which do not need any point, line, or area, for which
there is no geometric or graphical representation.
The geographic database that supports SIGEX system is mounted on the RDBMS Oracle
11G R2 Standard 64-Bit version 11.2.1.0.
SIGEX is the main instance in which all objects are mounted in standard database and
geographic support to SIGEX. The panel is mounted on the server SLC01OGX01 (IP
10.3.1.6) on Red Hat Linux Operating System 5 Update 5 Enterprise
Servidor Base Datos
(SLC01OGX01 IP:10.3.1.6)
 Linux Redhat5
update5 Enterprise
 Oracle 11G R2
Estándar 64Bits
Instancia
SIGEX
 Windows Server 2008
Enterprise R2 SP1
64Bits
 Oracle Cliente 11g R2
Versión 11.2.1.0
32Bits
 ArcSDE 10 SP4 32Bits
Servidor Aplicaciones y Servicios
(S29WS01 IP:10.3.1.2)
Figure 7.
OGX, Servers and Software Distribution, Design Document
55
5.6.2 Schemes and users of the geodatabase
Scheme of a database describing the structure of a database, in a formal language
supported by a system administrator database (DBMS). In a relational database, the
schema defines its tables, fields in each table and the relationships between each field and
each table associated with a user owns objects.
Geodatabase of SIGEX was divided into two additional schemes SDE scheme, depending
on the current source and having Geodatbase data.
ESQUEMA
• DESCRIPCION
SDE
•Contiene toda la estructura de objetos SDE responsables
de la Administración de la información Geográfica
SIGADMIN
•Información propia , producida y administrada por OGX.
MGC
Figure 8.
•Información del Mapa Geologico de Colombia
proveniente de Ingeominas.
OGX, Relationship diagrams SIGEX GeoDatabase, Design Document
5.7 Sigex Viewer
5.7.1 Description system / application methodology
The application seeks SIGEX allow OGX users access a Web tool intuitive and
collaborative consultation cartographic and alphanumeric information from different areas
of exploration, thematic information base, well integrated with the Paradigm system and
have the well information, seismic and geology, among others.
The geographic viewer consists of:
56
e Coordinates
Figure 9.
OGX, SIGEX VIEWER COMPONENTS, Design Document
5.7.2 System architecture / application
The system architecture is composed of 2 SIGEX Levels
WEB Service Level, Service Level GIS
Composed of one (1) server for Web client management system that require lightweight
geographic services and / or heavy. This level is the Geographic viewer OGX. This server
is lightweight mapping services; these can be consumed from clients or from the
57
geographic viewer. This architecture allows local customers ArcGIS Desktop (ArcInfo,
ArcEditor) to consume any service of this level and / or administrators can manage this
component from an ArcGIS Desktop client.
Level of Data
This level consists of one (1) server for managing all data requirements generated from
services lightweight, heavy duty and / or requests from applications Desktop (ArcInfo,
ArcView).
5.7.3 Development tools
Development tools used were as follows:
- ArcGIS API for Flex version 2.5
- Adobe Flash Builder 4 and integrated development environment (IDE).
- Flex SDK version 4.5.x
- Subclipse 1.6.x
- WTP 3.1.1
5.7.4 Features
–
Selection tools, search and identification (search)
–
Measuring tools (draw and measure)
–
Query by coordinates (coordinate locale)
–
Use of bookmarks (bookmarks)
–
Printing tool
–
Service remover tool
–
Catalog tool
58
5.7.5 Data Model
The display uses tables SIGEX modeled following data:
Figure 10.
OGX, SIGEX Data Model to display geographic, Design Document
5.8 Geographic Services
For OGX GIS initially presents the installation of ArcGIS Server for the platform Java,
second instance has the configuration of workspaces required for the proper functioning of
the geographic and connections to the geodatabase with different existing users,
mentioned step through the process of installation of services, from creating mxd and msd
files, until the publication in ArcGIS Server.
59
Further recommendations are helpful to have the proper performance of the services as
setting permissions and creating backups.
The geographical services are defined as the set of GIS resources built into a company
with the aim of centralizing information and make it available to the organization so WEB.
ArcGIS Server ® provides a platform for sharing resources.
The fundamental objective is to automate geoprocessing tasks, spatial analysis and
modeling. Many of the procedures performed within a GIS require iteration allowing
automated workflow, document and share processes.
The geoprocessing developed for OGX used ModelBuilder, which is an application used to
create, edit, and manage models. Models are workflows that chain sequences supplied
tool and a tool output as input to another tool.
The geoprocessing is responsible of Paradigm georeferencing images using existing
spatial data (target data), as a vector feature class, residing in the map coordinate system
desired. The process involves the identification of a number of ground control points,
known as X, Y, linking locations of the image with locations of spatially related data.
Finally,
geoprocessing
handles
projecting
the
image
coordinate
system
MAGNA_Colombia_Bogota.
The geometry service applications facilitates to OGX stuff to obtaining geometrical
calculations for the buffer-related operations, calculation of areas and projected length
calculation. Additionally, the ArcGIS APIs for JavaScript, Flex and Silverlight uses this
service to modify the characteristics of the elements for Web editions. The geometry
service is only visible for AGS server administrators and developers.
For publication of geometry service, access the ArcGIS Server handler. Add a new service
type Geometry Service. Set the number of instances according to the needs of the
organization and the type of processing and high isolation.
Map services are the way maps are made available to the entire organization through
60
ArcGIS. Maps should be configured as to ArcMap symbology, scales, labels and other
aspects of visualization. Later these will be published through ArcGIS Server and
consumed by different customers like Web applications, ArcMap and ArcGIS Explorer and
more.
There are two types of map service. Msd services that have a redraw engine optimized
elements, particularly useful when trying to display dynamic information quickly. Mxd
caching services, especially for the rapid deployment of information with a low exchange
rate.
Geographic mapping services are used by the viewer to identify OGX geographic aspects
of the business. Below is the services used by the viewer and the publication type to use
61
6. RESULTS
Results were obtained as the functional requirements of the system, in other words, the
features that should be provided to users. These were identified taking into account the
various operations that provide SIG, incorporating this specific functionality such as
checking, managing oil targets (modify, delete and add) and thematize the map.
From the above result, a strategy was designed to guide the process of customizing and
to develop the oil GIS platform. Within this defines the activities to be performed in the
steps identified as well as the steps and instructions to follow to pass through each.
SIGEX Viewer is a tool that seeks to provide OGX users access to a Web tool for intuitive
and collaborative consultation to cartographic and alphanumeric information from different
areas of exploration, thematic information base, well integrated with Paradigm system, and
have well information, seismic and geology, among others.
The information set forth below will guide the user who uses the functionalities of the tools
deployed in the OGX Geographic viewer, to find generalities that allow to query information
in the viewfinder and
step by step principal options for navigation,
consultation are explained.
6.1 System Modules
The geographic viewer includes:
• Toolbar
• Authentication
• Plane Coordinates
• Basic tools of navigation
• Control of scale
• Overview (Overview)
• Area Map
analysis and
62
• Graphical and numerical scale
• About (Help Documents)
•LogOut(logout)
Figure 11.
OGX, Viewer SIGEX, User Manual
6.1.1 Authentication
By default, the display starts with a popup that prompts the user credentials to log in OGX
Exploration GIS must enter a user name and password. The system validates against the
group of domain users that can access the OGX GIS Exploration.
After receiving the authentication and accept it as valid, the system displays the primary
view of the viewer
.
6.1.2 About Documentation (Help)
The Help menu is contained in the User Manual, and a video tutorial guiding the tool, links
to the pages of the National Hydrocarbons Agency and paragraph Colombian
www.anh.gov.co of Exploration and Production Information Service www.epis.com.co.
63
6.1.3 Toolbar
Figure 12.
OGX, TOOLBAR, User Manual
6.1.4 Table Of Contents
Displays the corresponding widget, which lists all the services loaded, there is the ability to
interact with them according to requirements display. By default the viewer initially loads
the Base Map Service.
This Widget turn allows interaction deploy some options for each service:
Figure 13.
OGX, Services options, User Manual
6.1.5 Locate Coordinates
Allows the user to enter in the system plane coordinates MAGNA_Colombia_Bogota to
locate a point on the map according to the coordinates consulted.
64
The user clicks on the "Find Coordinates", the system displays the corresponding widget
where query by coordinates to query.
The user enters the flat coordinates that want to locate.
Figure 14.
OGX, Coordinate Join, User Manual
After receiving the coordinates, the user clicks locate and leads to a system option widget
that displays the result obtained and shown in the map area. An extent where it is located
geographically in that point.
6.1.6 Bookmarks
Allows the user to navigate to locations on the map preset by the system administrator.
The user can create their own locations during its work session, but the system will not
store these locations for the next session.
Doing so displays the associated Widget, which has two possibilities:
The Bookmarks button: Displays a list of predefined geographic extents by the system
administrator.
65
Figure 15.
OGX, Zoom to selected Bookmark, User Manual
6.1.7 Add Bookmarks Button
This option allows the user to add new "Bookmark" approach to an area of interest, it
should be noted that these locations will only be retained for the current work session and
will not be stored in the system for future sessions.
After giving click "Add Bookmark, where the brand is created, the system adds the list
along with the other administrator-defined bookmarks System.
6.1.8 Draw And Measure
This functionality allows the user to measure distances and areas, as well as allows
drawing shapes on the map. This widget shows the measurement tools, in the case of
obtaining coordinates active tool is clicked point on the map and draw that point.
66
There is a window opens with the drawing options:
In the case of distance the tool is activated online or free online, draw the line with the
pointer to measure and double clicking ends the process of drawing showing the distance,
with the possibility to change the units of measurement (meters, miles, feet, miles).
In the case of measuring areas activates the polygon tool, free polygon, rectangle, circle or
ellipse is drawn on the map with the pointer and the successive clicks to measure area
polygon or end double-clicking, as a result, shows the area and perimeter with the option
to change the units of measurement for both the perimeter and for areas (m2, Km2, Ft,
Mi2, ... etc).
Figure 16.
OGX, Drawing polygon with area measurement, User Manual
When the element is of type point, besides being able to delete the item, the user can
right-clicking in the drawing, to get the location on the same plane coordinates.
67
6.1.9 Search
This functionality allows the user to select, search and view the information defined for the
geographic object.
The user accesses by clicking the search icon and the system displays the corresponding
widget.
Figure 17.
OGX, Search Widget, User Manual
The user can select a specific item geographically loaded into the viewer, or through a
search on attributes defined in each layer or reference layer.
6.1.10 Select Entities
When looking to the "Select entities", the system loads the dropdown list the name of the
component layers (the) service (s) loaded in the viewer:
68
After the user draws the stroke, the system displays the total number of selected features,
when mouse over any of the results the system displays an information box of the feature:
Figure 18.
OGX, Results Selection, User Manual
Useful to selects one of the results of the selection, so, the system closer to the element of
interest:
6.1.11 Select by Attributes
The system loads the dropdown list the name of the component layers (the) service (OS)
loaded in the display shows the fields that comprise:
The user can select the layer and the field on which to search:
69
Figure 19.
OGX, Select by attributes "El Molino", User Manual
When enter the search criteria and click on the "Search" button, in case find (the) result (s)
the system displays the results tab:
By selecting the result of the list, the system will place on the map:
6.1.12 Attachments
Once the geographic object query, the user can view attachments (attachments) using the
corresponding button.
70
Figure 20.
OGX, Expand the selection attachments, User Manual
It is pertinent to note that to open the selected attachment, the machine that carries out the
application, we must have the corresponding application. E.g.| to open a file
. Dwg - Autocad must have.
71
6.1.13 Related Tables
Figure 21.
OGX, Example Attachment, User Manual
In addition, the user can query the tables that are related to the item searched by clicking
the button. (E.g.| for a well), the user can view the information tables Tabletop, electric
logs, tests, Geochemistry.
72
Figure 22.
OGX, Related Table, User Manual
6.1.14 Print
Print the map in portrait and landscape orientation to print on letter size.
By selecting the "Print" button displays a window where we can enter the name of the map
the direction of printing:
Can also select the layers we want, legend to be loaded into the map to print.
The user can select any of the buttons Portrait "house printing vertical" or Landscape
"horizontal print", the system displays a preview window in the default format for printing.
The printing system obtains the legend of the map services selected at print time. The user
can select the portion we want to display the legend on the printed document from the
area of print preview.
• Company logo,
• Scale Text,
• Scale bar,
• North Arrow,
• Date of preparation,
• Coordinate System and Projection
73
• Overview
The user clicks on the "print"
Unfold print options native operating system, there the user has the option to choose their
preferred output for the map, either creating a. Physical print or pdf format letter.
6.1.15 Service Catalog
By clicking on the "Catalog" This allows to view a list of available services, which allows a
preview of geographical services preconfigured ArcGIS Server and are available to the
user query, showing details of services such as the title, a brief description of subject and
author.
If the service is already loaded in the current session, the system gives a warning.
By clicking on the refresh option, loaded services are updated.
6.1.16 Remove Service
"Remove Service", the system displays a window with the list of loaded services:
It gives the user the ability to remove one or more services.
Selects the service and click the Remove button. Press Shift or Ctrl to select multiple
services ":
Figure 23.
OGX, Selecting Services to remove, User Manual
74
7. CONCLUSIONS
The applied strategy devised significant advantages to ordinary software construction
processes. It decreases the time of system development by 30%, thus achieving
compliance with the time set for the development of the application number of human
resources involved in the customization is minimal. This achieves optimization in the effort
of each of those involved, since the strategy works as a guide to develop an specific job.
Based on the above it can be stated that the work would be appropriate to develop, direct,
concise and focused on the real needs of consumers.
Performed a validation of the research for which was used in the methods of expert
preference method. Different validation criteria and a committee of experts selected taking
into account the role of work performed by each, in addition to know their prior experience
in the topic. Was given to each expert investigation and a form to know the valuation given
to each criteria.
The calculation of the degree of competence of the experts, showed that most of these
have a high level of knowledge and competence in the subject.
Importantly, the level of agreement that exists between the opinions of the experts,
obtaining, as a result, that there is substantial agreement or marked between the scores
given.
Considering the results obtained during the validation process is concluded that the
proposed strategy has a high quality scientific technique. Besides the methodologies and
tools used in its development have a high level today. It largely meets the needs of
customers and developers who will be working on customizing the GIS Viewer OGX and is
considered to be easily understood by the personnel working on the project. The necessity
of employing this strategy is high, due to the advantages offered to achieve system
customization, so it is considered feasible to conduct applied GIS development tanker.
With the development, of the proposed strategy does have direct guidance of the work to
be undertaken by project members.
With the proper application of the strategy is achieved adjustment of the final product to
the customer's real needs, and to achieve the reduction of development time and effort
and consistency and ease in the work of each of the members of the project.
75
Research provides the knowledge necessary support on oil exploration stage must know
the system developers.
Assessment of the strategy by the expert committee has determined that this selected
scientific quality required for subsequent application.
8. FUTURE PROSPECTS
The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are becoming more influential in computer
science by its multidisciplinary nature and diversity of technological concepts (databases,
computer graphics, high performance computing) involving, especially considering that
today more than 80% of the existing data in the world are georeferenced or are associated
some kind of spatialization. Specifically software engineering and requirements phase are
critical to the dissemination of such systems, which are necessary for the democratization
of information and to participate in the community by increasing their level of knowledge
about the space around them.
However, the lack of technological equipment, not only users, but of the same design
ordinators of these systems and the fact that the existing methodologies to support
engineering requirements were not designed originally, given geo-referenced information
have resulted arises the need to extend existing models or applying concepts initially alien
requirements engineering to meet the specification requirements of GIS support including
space time dimension, granularity (scale) of information, interoperability, quality, and
behavior that affect operators. Although currently there are several modeling languages,
specification languages and other techniques have facilitated the development of GIS
applications focusing on the spatiotemporal modeling or the integration of heterogeneous
applications. There is a comprehensive methodology to address requirements in
engineering
GIS, which are proposed by the features, that should make up such a methodology based
on the description of the domain, identification of actors and geographical standards to
follow.
GIS design has been suggested as a novel approach in the analysis of requirements of
software applications. Using its techniques can be iteratively refining the object of study. In
76
this particular case, have been making observations, interviews consultations and
documentaries as a way to infer from the fieldwork methodology guidelines that should
lead to design. GIS Design provides powerful tools for qualitative research outweigh the
purely quantitative items based on surveys that actors feel disconnected, highlighting the
researcher in the same field where the events take place, making an actor. However, and
for obvious reasons, the enterprise GIS study requires a series of negotiations with the
community under study for the acceptance within their dynamic work an external agent
such as the researcher. Upon completion of this step can be applied ethnographic tools for
gradually to decant the nature of the GIS working group. Initially it has been possible to
identify the roles involved in GIS project and observation spaces to consider. It has also
been possible to articulate some categories of analysis that allow the classification of the
collected material emphasizing the elements that can help build requirements engineering
methodology for GIS. Once this stage is passed to the actual design of the methodology
proposed extensions covering spatiotemporal aspects to languages like UML and
Language specific domain main of GIS.
Although GIS technology brings many benefits to the oil industry, it can still be improved. If
Requested enhancements can affirm and apply a generic way, can benefit all users of
GIS. Things about the "oil industry".
A truly comprehensive paradigm in places of the earth, including "metadata" geodetic
reference, Cartesian projection / spheroid parameters, etc. ..
Improvement "condensing" tools. "Condensing" is the process of merging two or more GIS
data sets, so the output data accuracy. That has Greater entries. As measuring
instruments and GIS data and images, ortho photography continues to Improve, maps and
GIS databases should be "of" highly rated, i.e.| adjusted for consistency with the more
recent data. Managing this process may well be the biggest challenge.
At this time, the use of GIS stops at the surface of the Earth. To visualize subsurface
deposits, and switch to entirely different systems, who rarely have a "seamless" interface
for GIS.
Advanced analytical tools for managing outlets, Integration of mobile GIS solutions help
business optimized etc.
77
GIS technology and other hardware and software have Reached the stage at Which
Technical and Economic offer tangible benefits for the oil industry. Not only the current
Improve Business Processes by furthering better data exchange and more accurate
mapping, But Also support efforts "reorganization process models" where technical
professionals redefines Their Activities As They Are Able to access data new ways.
Several critical GIS Initiatives on track to become integrated production systems in the
Business Processes, support groups and a growing number of users who still late to
benefit from discovering new ways technology This Way. The stiff competition ahead
promises, technical advances in software and hardware utilization and integration,
adaptation to the Requirements of multi-discipline, the improvement of the system
architecture from discrete model to a universal model, advanced data acquisition methods
and so on. The component of "Where" can have a darned good impact on the oil industry
in the way we do business and serve customers in the future.
78
9. ANNEX
9.1 Annex Geographic Services, Application Example
This part is intended for officials of the entity requiring OGX know the process of creating,
publishing and managing geographic Services ArcGIS Server.
The technical paper presents initially Services installation process ArcGIS Server for the
Java platform. As a second instance is the configuration of workspaces necessary for the
proper functioning of the geographic and connections to the geodatabase with the different
existing users, is mentioned step by step process of installation of services, from creating
the mxd files and msd, until the publication in ArcGIS Server.
Additionally recommendations are useful to count with the proper performance of services
as setting permissions and creating backups.
9.1.1 Installation Geographic Services
Geographic services are defined primarily as a set of GIS resources built into a company
to centralize information and make it available to the organization so WEB. ArcGIS Server
® provides a platform for sharing resources. It then presents a picture of the different types
of resources that can be published (For more information, see the website
http://resources.arcGIS.com/).
79
Figure 24.
Services provided by ArcGIS Server ® platform.
Additionally, specific information is presented in terms of configuration of each
geographical services used by the application developed for OGX.
9.1.2 Creation Of The Connection To The Database
To provide geographic information services, we must create a connection that allows
querying the database. The following describes the sequence of events for this
configuration.
Previously, a customer must have Oracle 11G installed on the server ARCGIS.
In
the
folder
of
the
Oracle
client
installation,
navigate
to
find
the
path
<NETWORK\ADMIN>. Within this, tnsnames.ora file is hosted. External click and select
Open With ... and in the displayed window, select a text editor program, followed by the
OK option.
80
9.1.3 Service St Geometry
The geometry service provides applications to obtain geometric calculations for buffer
related operations, calculation of areas, lengths and calculating projections. Additionally,
the ArcGIS API for JavaScript, Flex and Silverlight uses this service to modify the
characteristics of the elements for Web editions. The geometry service is visible only to
server administrators and developers AGS.
For publication geometry service, enter the handler ArcGIS Server. Add a new service of
type Geometry Service. Set the number of instances according to the needs of the
organization and the type of processing and high isolation.
9.1.4 Configuration Geoprocessing (Modelbuilder) Paradigm
The main objective is the automation of geoprocessing tasks, spatial analysis and
modeling. Many of the procedures performed within a GIS require iteration possible to
automate workflows, document and share processes.
The Geoprocessing ModelBuilder developed for OGX used, which is an application used
to create, edit and manage models. The models are workflow tool that chain sequences
and provide the output of one tool to another tool as input.
The geoprocessing is responsible for the georeferencing of images Paradigm using
existing spatial data (target data) as a vector feature class, residing in the coordinate
system desired map. The process involves the identification of a number of ground control
points, known as the coordinates X, Y, linking locations of the image locations spatially
related data. Finally, geoprocessing is responsible for projecting the image coordinate
system MAGNA_Colombia_Bogota.
The georeferencing for three blocks arises concerning the region CES Cesar Rancheria
RAN is highlighted in cyan.
81
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
OGX, General location of oil blocks, Services Manual
OGX, Blocks Cesar Rancheria region, Services Manual
82
The canvas of the model should look like this:
Figure 27.
OGX, Final structure of ModelBuilder, Services Manual
Checkpoints Block CR2
It recommends a number of significant control points to provide greater accuracy for
georeferencing.
83
Figure 28.
OGX, Control Points CR2 destination block, Services Manual
Listed Block destination control points CR2.
No
Vértice
X
Y
1
1708
1149381,59
1680910,19
2
1710
1130110,28
1653168,54
3
1711
1072342,14
1653001,16
4
1712
1072322,76
1662221,32
5
1713
1090563,82
1662264,84
6
1714
1090539,36
1671483,41
7
1715
1099657,72
1671509,01
8
1717
1099603,04
1689946,68
9
1718
1108716,6
1689975,16
10
1719
1108686,41
1699194,28
11
1720
1117797,65
1699225,47
12
1721
1117764,69
1708444,86
13
1723
1148909,52
1708578,51
14
1728
1129296,08
1681371,88
15
1730
1131384,02
1677843,92
16
1734
1145656,61
1702441,59
17
1739
1150519,16
1708572,86
18
1740
1170279,14
1708675,43
84
For block 3 are considered CR 13 numbered source control points in the following table
and image:
Figure 29.
OGX, Destination Check points block CR3, Services Manual
List checkpoints block CR3 destination.
No
Vértice
X
Y
1
1
2
2
3
4
1045021,59 1616085,58
4
5
1054153,78 1616098,31
5
6
1054139,69 1625316,06
6
7
1063269,61 1625331,26
7
8
1063253,01 1634549,18
8
9
1072380,67 1634566,87
9
11
1072342,14 1653001,16
10
12
1130110,28 1653168,54
11
14
1118021,48 1634685,19
1017901,92 1597621,01
1044860
1610108
85
12
16
1118143,87 1597815,29
13
18
1090725,85 1597736,02
CR 4 for the block 26 are considered numbered source control points in the following
table and image:
Figure 30.
OGX, Control Points CR4 destination block, Services Manual
Listed Block destination control points CR4.
No
Vértice
X
Y
1
0
1118143,87 1597815,29
2
1
1118173,88 1588590,57
3
172
1124252,66 1580437,81
4
270
1113172,9 1560924,76
5
271
1109115,15 1560906,56
6
272
1109128,1 1556442,34
7
274
1089997,19 1545993,59
8
276
1076997,6
9
278
1079997,52 1567993,33
1545993,6
86
No
Vértice
X
10
280
1074997,68 1573993,26
11
282
1059998,14 1564993,37
12
284
1059998,15 1580993,18
13
286
1053108,37 1579143,2
14
288
1052901,37 1569876,32
15
289
1051233,68 1568652,73
16
290
17
299
1033438,97 1557185,48
18
300
1033902,81 1556154,31
19
301
1031374,7 1556152,11
20
302
1031355,45 1579189,04
21
304
1026784,78 1579191,69
22
306
1026781,42 1583800,35
23
308
1022211,34 1583797,29
24
309
1022208,54 1588405,95
25
311
1017639,06 1588403,45
26
313
1047343
1016993
Y
1573868,77
1597200
Obtaining the source control points for the variable Target Model Control is acquired
from the images. Original png.
Original images provided by OGX for later georeferencing are:
- Mapa_Discordancia_CR2_FA.png
- Mapa_La_Luna_CR2_FA.png
- Mapa_Discordancia_CR-3-4_FA.png
- Mapa_Lagunitas_CR3-4_FA.png
Control points for the image source Mapa_Discordancia_CR2_FA.png
In ArcMap Mapa_Discordancia_CR2_FA.png attach the image located in the folder C:
\ OGXSIG \ Imagenes_Paradigm \ Imagenes_originales.
With the mouse pointer on each of the vertices of the block as indicated below.,
87
Figure 31.
OGX, Taking home Mapa_Discordancia_CR2_FA.png checkpoints, Services
Manual
In the bottom view are located ArcMap X and Y coordinates of each point where the
mouse is positioned.
This will take all the control points corresponding to the variable source Source Control
Model.
List of the main source for the image
Mapa_Discordancia_CR2_FA.png.
PTO_CONTROL
VÉRTICE CORRESPONDIENTE
DEL BLOQUE
X
Y
1
1708
652,867 -423,796
2
1713
59,291 -619,698
3
1714
59,291 -526,422
4
1715
150,959 -525,885
88
PTO_CONTROL
VÉRTICE CORRESPONDIENTE
DEL BLOQUE
X
Y
5
1717
150,423 -340,405
6
1718
242,628 -339,869
7
1719
242,628 -247,128
8
1720
334,296 -246,056
9
1721
333,445 -152,621
10
1723
647,897 -152,244
11
1728
450,623 -427,248
12
1730
471,53 -462,093
13
1734
615,733 -213,892
14
1739
665,588 -152,244
15
1740
863,272 -150,44
It is essential to note that for this case, the vertices (1712, 1711 and 1710) of the bottom of
the block CR2, not used in the process of georeferencing because the image does not
cover this Mapa_Discordancia_CR2_FA.png map section.
Repeat the process of acquisition points to other pictures Paradigm, considering that the
selected points correspond to the destination point of each block since the process
requires georeferencing common point location and the map image blocks (representing
the actual coordinates of ground).
89
Figure 32.
OGX, Taking home Mapa_La_Luna_CR2_FA.png checkpoints, Services Manual
List of the main source for the image
Mapa_La_Luna_CR2_FA.png.
PTO_CONTROL
VÉRTICE CORRESPONDIENTE
DEL BLOQUE
X
Y
1
1708
494,211
-428,891
2
1713
19,218
-578,327
3
1714
19,218
-504,054
4
1715
93,047
-504,054
5
1717
92,602
-355,507
6
1718
165,986
-355,063
7
1719
165,986
-280,345
8
1720
239,369
-279,9
9
1721
238,925
-206,072
10
1723
490,208
-204,293
11
1728
331,877
-424,444
90
List of the main source for the image-3-4_FA.png
Mapa_Discordancia_CR.
PTO_CONTROL
CORRESPONDIENTE
VÉRTICE DE BLOQUE
X
Y
1
0
674,03 -228,871
2
1
674,03 -286,911
3
172
713,453 -338,38
4
270
642,272 -462,125
5
271
617,085 -463,221
6
272
615,99 -491,693
7
274
494,435 -558,493
8
276
411,208 -556,303
9
278
430,92 -416,132
10
280
339,163 -379,994
11
282
303,89 -434,748
12
284
302,795
13
286
260,086 -346,046
14
288
258,991 -405,181
15
289
248,04 -412,846
16
290
222,853 -379,994
17
299
134,151 -486,217
18
300
137,436 -492,788
19
301
121,01 -491,693
20
302
121,01 -346,046
21
304
91,442 -346,046
22
306
91,442 -317,574
23
308
62,97
-334
-315,383
91
Figure 33.
OGX, Take control point-source Mapa_Lagunitas_CR3 4_FA.png, User Manual
List of the main source for the image-4_FA.png
PTO_CONTROL
CORRESPONDIENTE
VÉRTICE DE BLOQUE
X
Y
1
0
731,847 -320,118
2
1
731,847 -383,293
3
172
775,795 -440,974
4
270
696,14 -581,057
5
271
667,299 -581,057
6
272
667,299 -611,271
7
274
532,71 -685,432
8
276
440,694 -685,432
9
278
461,295 -528,869
92
PTO_CONTROL
CORRESPONDIENTE
VÉRTICE DE BLOQUE
X
Y
10
280
424,214 -487,668
11
282
319,838 -550,843
12
284
318,465
13
286
270,397 -450,587
14
288
269,024 -516,509
15
289
258,037 -526,122
16
290
229,196 -490,415
17
299
131,688 -607,151
18
300
134,434 -614,018
19
301
116,581 -612,644
20
302
117,954 -450,587
21
304
83,62
-449,214
22
306
83,62
-419
23
308
52,033 -417,627
24
309
52,033 -386,039
25
311
19,072 -384,666
26
313
14,952 -322,865
-439,6
By having variable data Source Control and Target Control proceeds to transcribe this
information to the developing ModelBuider.
93
Target Contol Points look like this:
Figure 34.
OGX, Information check points destination field, User Manual
It needs to set the order of the model parameters, which will be reflected at runtime. To do
so, Model Builder properties, go to the Parameters tab, in this view are seen all the
parameters defined for the model. When using dates can arrange the parameters in any
order. Similarly, we can add or remove parameters:
94
Figure 35.
Figure 36.
OGX, Properties of the model, User Manual
OGX, Order of parameters, User Manual
95
9.1.5 Mosaic dataset alternative creation
For the service that has 56 geographic Mosaic_ElPorrorasters and in general for services
that have raster images (Mosaic_RadarSat_CR, Mosaic_LandSat_CR,
Mosaic_ImageTIFF) is recommended for customers using Mosaic Dataset and the
publication of the image as a service.
OGX to the project was not implemented the Mosaic Dataset data model because this tool
requires the Image Server license for publication. However, this document includes the
steps for creating a Mosaic Dataset and the publication of this image as a Service
It is pertinent to mention some advantages of using Mosaic Dataset and publish as a
service image:
A Mosaic Dataset can store, manage, view and collections of raster and image data, small
to unusually large. It is a data model in the geodatabase used to manage a collection of
raster datasets (images) that are stored as a catalog, and it looks like a tiled image.
The Mosaic Dataset have advanced processing functions and query raster, and can also
be used as the source for imaging services.
The Mosaic Dataset is ideal for distributing data because they allow direct access by users
and served easily. A server administrator can change many of the properties of a Mosaic
Dataset, such as the maximum image size, level of metadata, the compression method or
the maximum number of downloads for maximum server performance and meet the needs
the user.
When clients connect to a server to view image in mosaic, the application can handle the
same methods of mosaic and other properties connected directly to a user, along with the
ability to select raster datasets and download them to the local disk.
A Mosaic Dataset manages and displays not only data but also a tool for the dissemination
of images.
Here are the steps for creating a Mosaic Dataset, just in case that requires it or decide to
implement it. Remember that it is necessary to have the Image Server License.
To create and configure Mosaic Dataset consider the following:
96
- The raster data are aggregated are managed, therefore, if the raster data are deleted or
moved, the mosaic dataset will be affected.
- Can add a Mosaic Dataset rasters that are within a geodatabase. Those that are created
out of a geodatabase can only have the contents of a raster catalog or a previously
created mosaic dataset.
The Mosaic Dataset is created from the User SIG_ADMIN, because it is the user who has
privileges to create and edit layers.
Figure 37.
OGX, Creating the Mosaic Dataset, User Manual
97
9.1.6 Configuration services maps
The mapping services are the way maps are made available to the entire organization
through ArcGIS. The maps must be configured as to ArcMapsymbology, scales, labels and
other aspects of visualization. Later these will be published through ArcGIS Server and
consumed by different clients such as Web applications, ArcMap and ArcGIS Explorer and
others.
There are 2 types of map service. Msd services that have an engine optimized redrawing
of elements, very useful when trying to display dynamic information quickly. Mxd caching
services, especially for rapid deployment of information with a low exchange rate.
Geographic mapping services are used by the viewer to identify OGX geographical
aspects of the business. Below is the services used by the display and the type of
publication to use.
9.1.6.1 Creation and configuration file cr_structural_maps MXD
This service is for Paradigm georeferenced images in subsection 2.7, and as already
indicated, is a kind service. Mxd.
Aesthetic deployment of Paradigm images was necessary to apply a clip that acts by
cutting the Data Frame in the area of interest. This option is checked the clip To Shape
from the properties window of the Data Frame in ArcMap and add the Feature Class
Area_Clip_Block
located
at
address
C:
\
OGXSIG
\
Servicios_SIG
\
FeaturesClass_Servicios.gdb.
.
9.1.6.2 Creation and configuration file mosaic_elporro mxd
For the customer environment creates a map service containing raster Cesar Rancheria
area located in the C: \ SIG_OGX_Raster \ Orthophotos \ El_Porro, these rasters are
named with the term mos_corte followed by a number indicating its location with respect to
the other raster as shown below:
98
Figure 38.
OGX, Location and names of the raster, User Manual
The statistics are needed for raster carry out some tasks such as application of contrast
enhancement or classification of data. The calculation of the statistics allows extending
ArcGIS applications and adequately symbolize raster data for display.
The creation of pyramids improves display performance raster datasets.
In paragraph 2.8 is explained how to create a Mosaic Dataset recommended as an
alternative to improve the display of raster images and other advantages mentioned
above. Then in this paragraph 2.9.2 will explain step by step process of publishing an
Image Service.
Important: An image service provides access to raster data (and images) through a Web
service. The raster data source can be a raster dataset (from a geodatabase or a file on
disk), a Mosaic Dataset or a layer file that references a raster dataset or Mosaic Dataset.
Post a Mosaic Dataset as an image service extension requires ArcGIS Image Server. After
publishing raster data on the server, we can use the resulting image service in ArcGIS
99
Desktop in the same way we would add any other GIS service layer.
9.1.6.3 Installing the map cache
Go to the installation directory of ArcGIS Server and enter the folder arcGIScache and
deposit the contents of the folder on the cd. Verify that content is shown in the figure
below:
Figure 39.
OGX, Folder contains ArcGIS cache, Services Manual
9.1.7 MSD publication of services
ArcMap includes a toolbar and workflow for analyzing and publishing optimized map
services using a Map Service Definition (MSD). Using ArcGIS Server, the OGX users can
use the MSDs to publish high performance ArcGIS map services. This optimized map
services are new at ArcGIS Server Version 9.3.1 and can support both real-time, dynamic
map services as well as cached map services.
To support optimized map services using MSDs, ArcGIS includes a high performance,
scalable mapping engine, which can generate dynamic, high performance maps on-the-fly
(as well as cached map services) using the advanced cartography that we design and
create in ArcMap. This work is accomplished through a simple workflow - generate a map
in ArcMap, analyze and optimize it for performance, save it as an MSD, and publish the
MSD as a map service to ArcGIS Server.
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9.1.8 Service publication with cache mxd
A cached map service is a collection of tiles (tiles) of map art that can be used for
displaying a map service. Thus, a mapping service maps can display quickly because the
map image does not have to generate on the fly ("on the fly"). Each map image is
calculated only once, when creating the map cache.
Thus, each time the user requests a map of ArcGIS Server, map tiles are retrieved from
the cache map to the map extent and resolution requested.
9.1.9 Cache and updates scales
Below are the scales used for the service cache Base Map. The tiles of this service are set
to PNG32 format, creating local cache tiles and customers.
For the update cache, please go to the properties of the service in ArcCatalog session and
select Update Tiles. On the window displayed, select the scale we want to update in the
Update Tiles, select Recreate Empty Tiles, and finally Update Feature Class Extends surf
the Browse window and select the layer in the geodatabase stored in the directory hosted
Guia_Cache.gdb MXDMAPAS previously installed. Click OK and wait until the end of the
procedure ArcCatalog.
Figure 40.
OGX, Update Cache, Services Manual
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10. REFERENCES
Acharya,
A.
(2009).
gisdevelopment.net.
Retrieved
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18,
http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/miscellaneous/misc029pf.htm
2012,
from
Aime, F. B. (1999). Making gis closer to end users of urban environment data. GIS ’99:
Proceedings of the 7th ACM international (pp. pp. 122–127). New York, NY, USA: ACM Press.
Alekhya Datta, S. V. (2009). GIS APPLICATION IN POWER TRANSMISSION LINE SITING.
PUNE: SYMBIOSIS INSTITUTE OF GEOINFORMATICS.
Aquilino, C. R. (1996). Towards declarative gis analysis. GIS ’96: Proceedings of the 4th ACM
international workshop on Advances in geographic information systems (pp. pp. 98–104). New
York, NY USA: ACM Press.
Barrell, K. A. (2003). ENTERPRISE WIDE GIS: Technologies, Strategies, and Lessons
Learned. Houton Texas: Geodynamics Inc.
esri.com.
(n.d.).
http:/esri.com.
Retrieved
08
27,
http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0408/entergdb_101.html
2012,
from
esri.com:
IGAC. (1995). Conceptos basicos sobre Sistemas de Información y aplicaciones en
Latinoamérica. Instituto Geográfico Agustin Codazzi IGAC.
Kumar, D. N. (2003). Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Water Resorces. Bangalore,
India.
Quinlivan, W. F. (2000). Integration issues in E&P spatial data processing. The Leading Edge.
Shekhar, M. C.-R. (1997). Data models in geographic information systems. Communications of
the ACM.
Yeung, C. P. (2002). Concepts and techniques of Geographic Information Systems. PrenticeHall.
102
11. GLOSSARY
ANH
National Hydrocarbons Agency.
BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
Business Intelligence (BI) is a category of applications and technologies to capture, store,
analyze and provide access to data to help users make better business decisions.
GEODATABASE
Database for storing geographic objects, their attributes, relationships and behavior of
each of its elements. It is designed to provide storage and controlled access, intelligent
and sustainable OGX geographic information.
GIS
Geographic Information System
ACTOR
It is a system user, "user" can mean a human user, machine, or even another system.
Anything that interact with the system from outside the system boundary is considered an
actor. The actors are typically associated with Use Cases
ACCESS TO GEOGRAPHICAL DATA
Geographic data are accessed directly at the data level. This medium can be applied if
there is a reasonable basis to apply.
UPDATES
Means any improvement, correction, new version held in ESRI technology platform.
FITNESS
Ease with which a system or component can be modified to correct errors, improve
performance or other attributes, or adapt to changing environments.
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ADM (Architecture Development METHOD)
TOGAF defined method for developing an enterprise architecture that meets the needs of
business and information technology in an organization. It can be adjusted and customized
to the needs of OGX and once defined is used to manage the implementation of
development activities of architecture.
DATA WAREHOUSE
Element used to define data that is stored permanently. A portion of incoming data in a
data warehouse is stored permanently, updating portions of the data that already exist.
One piece of data that comes out of a data warehouse is a copy of the original data.
HIGH AVAILABILITY
It is possible in this architecture GIS schemes result in duplicate or active - active or active
- passive because some components are mission critical to ensure operational availability
of 99%. It is necessary to consider the legal aspects of licensing and maintenance
because they impact.
APDM (ArcGIS PETROLEUM DATA MODEL)
Template design and implementation of a geodatabase developed by ESRI led to the
persistence of spatial information related to the transportation and distribution of fuel
products through a network of pipes.
API (Application Programming Interface)
An application programming interface, or API is the set of functions and procedures (or
methods in object-oriented programming) that offers some library to be used by other
software as an abstraction layer. Usually used in libraries.
APPLICATION (S)
Software programs that support specific information needs.
CORPORATE APPLICATIONS
These are applications that support administrative and management processes.
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ARCGIS It is a family of software products for building a complete GIS. It is integrated
with other technologies (not necessarily geographical in nature: database, business
applications, etc.) As a whole is constructed following standards. ArcGIS is a suite of
products for easy installation and management, which combined, are responsive to the
needs of any organization.
The ArcGIS architecture meets the current and future needs of all users in the field of
Geographic Information Systems.
ARCGIS DATA INTEROPERABILITY
ArcGIS extension that allows direct reading of numerous spatial formats or not, the ability
to export / import to and from a large number of formats, generate custom data formats
and transformation tools available formats.
ARCGIS DESKTOP
ArcGIS assembly complete solutions to suit any user's needs. Different customers are a
scalable set of products that allow users to create, import, edit, query, map, analyze, and
publish geographic information.
ArcGIS Desktop Products:
All ArcGIS Desktop products share the same basic applications (ArcMap and ArcCatalog),
user interface and development environment, so that users can share their work with each
other. Can share maps, data, symbols, layers, geoprocessing models (ModelBuilder),
custom tools and interfaces, reports and metadata.
• ARCMAP
It is an application of ArcGIS Desktop (ArcView, ArcEditor and ArcInfo) to create maps. It
is the central application for all tasks that have to do with maps, including cartography,
map analysis and editing.
• ARCCATALOG
It is a shared application of ArcGIS to organize and access all the information in a GIS,
such as maps, globes, datasets, models, metadata and services.
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Users employ ArcCatalog to organize, search, and use geographic data using standardsbased metadata. A database administrator can use ArcCatalog to define and build
geodatabases. A GIS server administrator can use ArcCatalog to manage the server
environment.
ARCGIS IMAGE SERVER
It is a platform for managing, processing and distribution of geographic images. Provides
quick access to images and open allowing organizations to maximize their investment in
raster information.
ARCGIS SERVER
Complete platform capable of creating professional GIS applications and services, thanks
to its server technology are able to manage, visualize and analyze geographic information
centrally.
This platform makes it easy for organizations to share mapping services and applications
on the Web. With ArcGIS Server, we can connect more people with the information they
need to make better decisions. Publish fast, intuitive Web mapping applications and
services tailored to the audience. Simplifying access to their services, data and images.
ArcGIS Server supports desktop, Web-based, and mobile workflows. It helps to protect
and manage their information allocation and provides a scalable platform that satisfies
everything from the simplest to the most complex requirements of web maps.
ARCHIVING
It is the internal structure of the geodatabase to manage historical information, consists of
taking control of any change on spatial and alphanumeric data that are stored in the
versions and reconciled on the default version (Default) of the Geodatabase.
RASTER FILE
Represents any data source that uses a grid structure (regular grid of cells) to store
geographic information. Type spatial data structure in which the storage unit Basic
information is the cell or grid.
VECTOR FILE
Is the same feature.
ARCIMS
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Application server is integrated into ArcGIS architecture that has been designed for the
distribution and dissemination of geographical information, maps and GIS services in
dynamic environments Internet / intranet.
Whether operating in a sandbox, as an organization's intranet, as if done through universal
Internet environment, it is possible to use ArcIMS for distributing data and GIS functionality
to multiple users.
It is a very powerful, scalable, standards-based enabling, quickly and easily design and
manage Internet mapping services.
ArcSDE
Server that provides advanced data storage, management and access to spatial data in
different databases from any ArcGIS application.
ARC USER
Magazine that focuses on users of ESRI software.
ARTIFACTS
An artifact is a work product that provides a description and definition for tangible work
products.
Artifacts are tangible work products and well-defined tasks that consume, produce or
modified. The devices may consist of other appliances.
ASSOCIATION
A partnership involves two model elements have a relationship, usually implemented as an
instance variable in a class.
ATTRIBUTE
Characteristic elements of a map, which is usually stored in tabular form.
Descriptive information of an item (point, polygon, line).
The common attribute describes an entity in a relational data model, equivalent to a
column in a table and stored in a database
LOAD BALANCING
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It is possible in this architecture GIS schemes result in duplicate or active - active in some
parts because they are mission critical to ensure a higher transaction volumes
geographical. It is vital to consider the legal aspects of licensing and maintenance because
they impact.
DATA BUS
The bus is a digital system that transfers data between components of a computer or
between computers.
GIS QUALITY
Geographic Information gathering and introducing it into the system requires a high quality
of design and work, intensive training and frequent monitoring to monitor the quality. In
other words, in addition to hardware and software suitable for the job, the effective use of
GIS requires having adequately trained personnel, as well as planning, organization and
supervision, which can maintain the quality of the data and the integrity of the final
products.
The architecture was designed recitals OGX GIS concepts:
• Adaptability
• High Availability
• Load Balancing
• Scalability
• Extensibility
• Multi-reference
• Multiscale
• Multiaccess
• Multiuser
• Backup and Recovery Policies
These concepts will be defined in this document in alphabetical order.
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USE CASES
Technique for capturing potential requirements of a new system or a software update.
Each use case provides one or more scenarios that indicate how the system should
interact with the user or another system to achieve a specific objective.
EDITING CACHE
ArcMap settings that makes visible entities in the current map extent remain in the memory
of the local machine. Being designed for use in working with large amounts of data, a
cache makes editing faster because ArcMap editions do not have to retrieve data from the
server.
MAP CACHE
It is a format supported in Tiled and Scale in which the services are generated and sent to
PGN formats from there are shipped to customers ArcGIS.
CAD. (Computer Aided Design)
The computer aided design abbreviated as CAD (Computer Aided Design), is the use of a
wide range of software applications that assist engineers, architects and other design
professionals in their respective activities. Also, we get to find CADD denoted by the
acronym, drawing and computer-aided design (Computer Aided Drafting and Design).
COVERAGE
Storage format data file based vector for storing the location, shape and attributes of
geographic features.
GEOGRAPHIC DATA CONSUMERS
An entity that uses the service offered by the producer of geographic data.
QUALITY CONTROL
Verify compliance with functional requirements, and other cargo. They include: system
testing (functional and technical) and acceptance testing.
CONTROL FILE
A control file is a small binary file that is part of an Oracle database. The control file is used
to track the state of the database and the physical structure.
CLASS
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Collection of sets (or sometimes mathematical objects, etc.) that can be clearly defined by
a property that all its members share.
DATA FILE
File that is part of an Oracle database. The data file used to store data - including user
data and undo data. The data files are grouped into tablespaces.
DATA SET
Set of numbers, relationships among numbers, and the metadata associated with
numbers. For example, a table of density measurements, the times they were collected,
and the location of each measurement
DATUM
Benchmarks set in the earth's surface based on which measures are taken a position, and
an associated model of the shape of the earth (reference ellipsoid) to define the
geographic coordinate system.
DBMS (Data Base Management System)
Acronym of Data Base Management System, which is a collection of data and programs.
Users interact with the DBMS by invoking programs, which allow access to data through
transactions or operations such as read, write, start, accept, cancel, which are executed
sequentially or concurrently. In Spanish: handler System Relational Databases - SMBDR.
DEPENDENCY
(1) Dependency relationships are used to model a wide range of dependent relationships
between model elements, and even among the same models-..
DOMAIN
(1) How to limit entries (data) of a field. They must meet certain rules. They can be: a
range or list of values.
DOCUMENT MAP
In ArcMap, is the representation of a map disc. The map documents can be printed or
included in other documents.
DPM
Display or Maps by Minute, deployability reference maps ArcGIS tool.
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E00
Exchange file format software ARC / INFO
ENTERPRISE Architect Version 7.5
Modeling tool that supports the methodologies TOGAF V9, ADM (Architecture
Development Method) and ArchiMate standard version 1.0, all supported by the UML
version 2.0.
SCALABILITY
System capacity or configuration resized to fit changing circumstances.
All components of the architecture could be scaled vertically and / or horizontally. It is
crucial to consider the legal aspects of licensing and maintenance because they impact.
SCHEME
Collection of database objects. A schema is owned by a database user and has the same
name as the user. Schema objects are logical structures created by users who have, or
reference data. Schema objects include structures such as tables, views and indexes.
ESRI
ESRI: Environmental System Research Institute, INC., COMPANY ESTABLISHED
UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW WITH SOCIAL DOMAIN 380 New York Street, Redlands,
California, 92373-8100, UNITED STATES.
ESRI GEOPORTAL SERVER
Open source product that enables discovery and use of geospatial resources including
datasets, rasters, and web services. This allows organizations to manage and publish
metadata for their geospatial resources.
TY EXTENSIBIL
All components of the Framework includes architecture, APIs, interfaces that allow to
extend its functionality using programming languages like Java,. Net, C + +, Python, VB.
FEATURE OR ENTITY:
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–
Each of the elements of the objects from a spatial database of which it is possible
to distinguish its characteristics
–
Object class in a geodatabase with a field of type geometry. The entities are stored
in an entity class.
–
Representing a real world object.
–
Graphic element that represents a point, line, or polygon in a coverage or
shapefile.
FEATURE TABLE ATRIBBUTE
Attribute table of the elements: Defines generically those tables containing the primary tax
items.
FEATURE CLASS
It is a collection of features with the same geometry type: point, line or polygon.
FEATURE DATASET
It is a collection of feature classes that share a common coordinate system.
ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK
Set of tools that can be used to develop a wide range of different architectures.
FLEX VIEWER
Web-based application that consists of a template provided by ESRI Flex. The display
consists of geographical features as provided by the template as OGX specific
functionality. This web application is integrated with the portal.
GEOREFERENCING
Is defined as the location of a mobile or stationary space objects (represented by point,
vector, area, volume) in a coordinate system and datum determined. This process is often
used in Geographic Information Systems.
GEOPROCESING
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Process that applies geographic analysis and data modeling to produce new information.
The ArcInfo geoprocessing environment contains hundreds of tools to process all types of
data. ArcGIS extensions add more geoprocessing tools for specific geographic features.
GIS. (Geographic Information Systems) Geographic Information System
GI. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Information describing the location and attributes of things, including its forms and
representation. Geographic data is the combination of spatial data and attribute data.
SATELLITE IMAGE Visual representation of the information captured by a sensor
mounted on an artificial satellite. These sensors collect information reflected by the surface
of the earth which is then sent to Earth and processed conveniently provides valuable
information on the characteristics of the area depicted.
DATABASE INSTANCE
An Oracle instance is an Oracle database running memory composite structures (SGA)
and background processes (SMON, PMON, LGWR, DBWR, etc..). An instance only exists
while it is running.
INTERFACE
Specification of behavior that implementers agreed. It is a contract. Implementing an
interface classes withstand guarantee required behavior, which allows the system to treat
unrelated elements the same way, through a common interface.
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
The graphical user interface, also known as GUI (graphical user interface in English) is a
computer program that acts as a user interface using a set of images and graphic objects
to represent the information and actions available in the interface. Its main use is to
provide a single visual environment to allow communication with the operating system of a
machine or computer.
ISCDEF (COMPILED SERVICE DEFINITION IMAGE)
Defining compiled image service: File image service. An ISCDef is created by ArcMap
Image Service and defines a raster data collection, processing parameters and metadata
for each map.
KML (Keyhole Markup Language)
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Google Earth KML Services is the XML that describes the geographic features and rasters
in three dimensions, by which these services provide access to vector features and raster
information that is in KML.
MAGNA - SIRGAS
(National Geocentric Reference Frame, densification Geocentric Reference System for the
Americas) geometric reference system for defining geographic coordinates (latitude and
longitude), which replaced, in 2004, the old datum BOGOTA.
MAINTENANCE
Process of modifying a software system or component after their operation to correct
faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to environmental changes.
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
Modification of a software system or component after their operation to fix bugs in the code
and / or components.
MAINTENANCE EVOLUTIONARY
Maintenance involving new features or improvements to the code and / or components
thereof to existing functionality of the applications.
MAP
ArcGIS is a tool that sends information from a database to the map that is displayed in the
application.
MAP SERVICES
Services allowing access to files or MXD map document.
PHYSICAL MODEL
Represents the lowest level in data modeling. Define the storage structure and specific
paths to databases. Specifies how the data will be stored and how will flow within the
process. Therefore, this model is dependent on the hardware and software to be used.
MOSAIC DATASET:
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Can store, manage, view and COLLECTIONS raster and image data, small to BIG. Is a
model of data within the geodatabase that is used to manage a collection of raster
datasets (images) stored as a catalog and that looks like a mosaic image.
MULTISCALE
The geodatabase data level in the Feature Class, geographic data at different scales.
MULTIACCES
The GIS is a Frame for Intranet, Internet, Extranet, LAN, online and offline clients ESRI
ArcGIS exists for each environment. (QUALITY GIS).
IO MULTIUSER
Any user at any time, any client can access different OGX GIS.
MXD (MAP EXCHANGE DOCUMENT)
A map file format, used in ArcGIS. A. Mxd save the description, design and objects stored
in the map and organized into units called documents.
NETWORK
Network, usually used to connect services, servers and workstations can be covering
these Local, Intranet, Internet and Extranet.
NODE
It is a physical piece of equipment to be deployed on the system-for example, a workgroup
server or a workstation.
OGC - Open Geospatial Consortium
Define open and interoperable standards within GIS pursues agreements between
different companies that enable the interoperation of geoprocessing systems and facilitate
the exchange of geographic information for the benefit of users.
ORACLE
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Oracle is a management system relational database (RDBMS or by the acronym for
Relational Data Base Management System), manufactured by Oracle Corporation.
ORACLE DBMS is the standard for OGX for critical databases.
ORTOPHOTOGRAPHY
It is a digital aerial photograph transformed orthogonal projection showing a scene.
MVC (Model View Controller)
It is a design pattern that helps give some structure to the application logic. Its main
objective is to separate the business logic from presentation logic or interface.
PATTERNS
They are parameterized collaborations that means they are a group of objects / classes
working together that can be abstracted from a set of scenarios general.
PROFILE
A profile is a database object - a named set of resources to limit or allow actions in the
database. A profile is defined as a set or extension of metadata.
RE-TESTING
Tests running test cases that failed the last time of his execution, to verify the success of
corrective actions.
POINT TO POINT
The geographical services are accessed directly from the Web service interfaces service
according to their profile. This medium can be applied if there is a reasonable basis to
apply.
RASTER
Any type of digital image represented in grids. The raster pattern or grid GIS focuses on
the properties of the space in the location accuracy. Divide the space into regular cells
where each represents a single value.
RASTER DATASET
They can be simple or compound dataset with multiple bands for different spectra or
categorical values
RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)
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(1) Management System database, are an awful specific type of software dedicated to
providing an interface between the database, the user and the applications that use it. (2)
motor is a type of database in which the database is organized and accessed according to
the relationships between data values.
REDO LOG FILE
A file that is part of an Oracle database. When a transaction is committed, the details of
the transaction in the redo log buffer is written to a redo log file.
RELATIONSHIP CLASS
Relational rule that defines the cardinality between two elements of the Geodatabase
(Feature Class and / or Table), maintains the integrity of information from the relational
perspective. Relational Integrity OGX information is critical and is presented as a
requirement for this design.
REPLICATION
Process to create copies of data across two or more Geodatabase, where changes in data
can be synchronized.
REST (Representational State Transfer)
Defines a set of architectural principles for web services, with emphasis on system
resources.
ROL
Roles are an effective method for managing privileges in the Oracle database.
RND
OGX National Data Network.
RUP
In English: Rational Unified Process, is a software development process and with the
Unified Modeling Language UML is the most widely used standard methodology for
analysis, implementation and documentation of object-oriented systems.
SAN (Storage Area Network)
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Network designed to connect servers, disk arrays and supporting libraries. Its function is to
connect quickly, securely and reliably the various elements that comprise it.
SCRIPT
A set of instructions that allow automation of tasks by creating small utilities, which are
executed by a command line interpreter usually are text files.
SGA (System Global Area)
It is a memory region that contains data and control the Oracle Server. This SGA memory
is located on the server, it resides in the Oracle Server.
SHAPEFILE
A data storage format for storing the location vector, shape, and attributes of geographic
features. A shapefile is stored in a set of related files and contains an entity class.
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