Full Edition for GigaStudio 2 & 3
Full Edition
for GigaStudio 2 and 3
User’s Manual
–
© 2002–2004 Shirokuma Ltd.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, uploaded, posted,
quoted or stored in a retrieval system in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical,
chemical, manual, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Shirokuma Ltd. All rights reserved.
NDB, the NdB logo, Notre Dame de Budapest Pipe Organ Samples and combinations thereof are trademarks
of Shirokuma Ltd. Nemesys, GigaStudio, GigaPulse, Instrument Editor, TASCAM and TEAC are trademarks of
Nemesys Music Technology, Inc., TEAC America, Inc. or TEAC Corporation. Adobe and the Adobe logo are
trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated. AMD, the AMD logo, and combinations thereof are trademarks
of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Intel and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Microsoft,
DirectSound and Windows are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the
United States and/or other countries. Matlab is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.
All other company, brand and product names may be registered trademarks, trademarks or service marks of
their respective companies and are hereby recognized.
Printed in Hungary.
–
Table of contents
At a glance
Installation Guide
What’s in the box
Hardware and software requirements
Setting up NDB for GigaStudio 3 – running the installation wizardv3
Fine-tuning GigaStudio 3v3
Notes for users of different GigaStudio 3 editionsv3
Setting up NDB for GigaStudio 2.x
Users’ Manual
The library
Effects
Natural cathedral reverb
Swellbox
Swellbox by convolution (SWL)v3
Swellbox by recorded samples (SW)
Tremolo (TRM)
Crescendos
Contents of the disksv3
Detailed registration of the stops and combinations in the library
NDB_SFX – Special effects
Registration tips
Important notes and remarks
v3
Files installed in the root directory of NDB
Notes on GigaPulsev3
Notes on the convolution swellbox (SWL) functionv3
Notes on the Crescendos
About the iMIDI rulesv3
Troubleshooting – Before you contact us
Support
‘Notre Dame de Buda’, Matthias-Church, Budapest
Factsheet of the organ
4
5
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
12
12
12
14
14
15
15
15
16
17
21
23
27
27
28
28
29
29
29
30
31
32
‘Notre Dame de Kispest’, Budapest
35
About the pipe organ
37
Organ stops
Tuning information
Legal issues
Credits
46
48
51
52
Factsheet of the organ
35
History of the pipe organ
Parts, mechanism, and sound production
The recording and editing process
Some interesting facts about NDB
37
38
43
45
–
At a glance
Notre Dame de Budapest Pipe Organ
Samples (NDB) is the largest sampling library
that contains pipe organ sound samples in
GigaStudio format. It features the sound of
two symphonic organs from two famous
Hungarian cathedrals with an unmatched
level of authenticity. Both cathedrals have
‘Our Lady’ in their names – that’s where the name ‘Notre Dame’ comes from.
While it is still impossible to reproduce electronically all the fine details and the
various aspects of playing an organ, we managed to reach an extremely high level of
authenticity – you can play these organs almost as if you were playing the original
ones at the cathedral.
Together with many serious organists and pipe organ experts, we have carefully
selected and captured all important stops and combinations for you and your studio.
We recorded practically every important part of a pipe organ, even the noises of the
inner cathedral and the organ engine itself. As part of the real beauty of the organ
comes from the interference of the individual pipe sounds, it is very difficult, if worth
at all, to use loops. Therefore, almost all notes of the stops were sampled with a
length of 30 to 40 seconds, which resulted in a huge amount of data: rich pipe organ
sounds with the natural reverb of the cathedrals, with all interferences at the organ
case, all sound transients… like never before.
You can also play the stops located in the swellbox using the sweller pedal. You
can turn on the tremolo effect on the appropriate stops (e.g. on Bourdon 8’). You
have real crescendo, just like on a real pipe organ. With this collection of stops and
combinations, you can play every organ piece from the organ literature, from
pre-baroque to post-modern.
This new version of the library you are holding now, created especially for
GigaStudio 3, features 48 kHz/24-bit samples and many of the new functions
GigaStudio offers: iMIDI advanced release sample tracking, multiple integrated
GigaPulse convolution reverbs and swellbox characteristics – just to mention a few.
–4–
Installation Guide
What’s in the box
Versions and editions
NDB Pipe Organ Samples comes in two versions. One was created for Tascam
GigaStudio 3, which features 48 kHz, 24-bit sounds and uses many of the special
functions of the new GigaStudio. The other version, which was prepared for
backward compatibility with Tascam GigaStudio 2.x, has exactly the same stops and
combinations, but it contains 16-bit sounds and naturally lacks some features that
only GigaStudio 3 (and thus NDBv3) can offer.
Note: While most of the contents you find here is valid for both versions, throughout
this manual you will see a small v3 superscript (like thisv3) when we describe
information only applicable to NDBv3. If you are holding the 16-bit version of
NDB, you can safely skip these chapters.
To make sure you have received a complete product, please ensure you have the
following contents in the box:
NDB 24-bit Full Edition for GigaStudio 3:
• 6 DVDs in 3 double disk holder jewel cases
• NDB User’s Manual
• Your personal DVD-key in the inner side of the jewel cases
NDB 16-bit Full Edition for GigaStudio 2.x:
• 4 DVDs in 2 double disk holder jewel cases
• NDB User’s Manual
• Your personal DVD-key in the inner side of the jewel cases
Note: The setup wizard asks for the DVD-key when you are installing the 24-bit version.
You can register your copy of NDB using your DVD-key at the NDB website:
http://support.ndb.hu.
–5–
Hardware and software requirements
NDB Pipe Organ Samples were created for the sampler software TASCAM
GigaStudio 3 and 2.x and are published in various editions. Below we list the minimum
and recommended configurations for the 16 and 24-bit versions.
Hardware
Minimum requirements of the 24-bit samples (GigaStudio 3.x)
CPU:
Pentium 4 1700 MHz or AMD 2100 XP, SSE-compatible processor
for GigaPulse
RAM:
512 MB
Sound card:
Sound card with GSIF support or ReWire-compatible host
application (such as Cubase SX, Nuendo, Pro Tools, Sonar, etc.)
Disk space:
23 GB
Additional devices:
DVD-ROM, MIDI interface
Minimum requirements of the 16-bit samples (GigaStudio 2.x)
CPU:
Pentium II or AMD equivalent
RAM:
256 MB
Sound card:
Sound card with GSIF 1.0 or DirectSound (DirectSound only
under Windows 9x)
Disk space:
16 GB
Additional devices:
DVD-ROM, MIDI interface
Recommended configuration for the 24-bit samples (GigaStudio 3.x)
CPU:
Pentium 4 2.4 GHz or AMD 3200 XP or faster, SSE-compatible
processor for GigaPulse
RAM:
2 GB or more to load all samples simultaneously
Sound card:
Sound card with GSIF 2 support or ReWire-compatible host
application (such as Cubase SX, Nuendo, Pro Tools, Sonar, etc.)
Disk space:
23 GB
Additional devices:
DVD-ROM, MIDI interface with modulation wheel and foot
controller, MIDI-compatible pipe organ pedal-board
Recommended configuration for the Full Edition for GigaStudio 2.x
CPU:
Pentium 4 or AMD equivalent or faster
RAM:
512 MB or more to load all samples simultaneously
Sound Card:
Sound card with GSIF 1.0 or above
Disk Space:
16 GB
Additional devices:
DVD-ROM, MIDI interface with modulation wheel and foot
controller, MIDI-compatible pipe organ pedal-board
–6–
Software
Minimum requirements
Operating system:
Windows XP Professional with SP1 installed for GigaStudio 3.x
Windows 98 SE/ME/2000/XP for running GigaStudio 2.x
Sampler software:
TASCAM GigaStudio 3.x Ensemble or Solo
TASCAM GigaStudio 2.x 96 or 32*
*NDB can be used with these products but you may experience severe polyphony underrun.
Recommended configuration
Operating system:
Windows XP Professional with SP2 (or later) installed
latest device drivers
Sampler software:
TASCAM GigaStudio 3.x Orchestra
TASCAM GigaStudio 2.x 160
Notes on the hardware and software configuration
CPU:
Use a fast CPU because slower ones decrease the maximum
polyphony you can play.
Note: GigaPulse uses quite a fair amount of the CPU; unless you have at least a Pentium 4
2.4 GHz or faster processor, you are unlikely to be able to use comfortably the
7-channel reverb.
RAM:
Sound card:
Hard disk:
Additional devices:
Put as much RAM in your computer as you can as it limits the
maximum capacity of the samples which you can load into the
sampler software simultaneously. 1 GB of RAM or more is
seriously recommended.
GigaStudio 3.0 runs only on Windows XP SP1 (or later) and needs
a GSIF compatible sound card or a ReWire compatible host
application to generate sound. For further information consult
the Tascam GigaStudio website (www.tascamgiga.com).
GigaStudio 2.x can operate without a GSIF compatible sound card
with a DirectSound emulation, but only under Windows 98, 98SE
and Windows ME.
For good performance, we recommend using a high-speed hard
disk dedicated for only the sample data. NDB needs about 23 GB
of disk space on your hard drive. It is recommended to have at
least a 7200rpm hard disk with a maximum of 8-9 ms seek time;
however, SCSI is not required, ATA and SATA drives will do just
fine. Stripe RAID is recommended for even better performance.
If you have a recent computer model, you should not worry
much about this; if not, you might experience delays, clicks or
misses in the sound and you may wish to upgrade your system.
To use all the features of NDB Pipe Organ Samples in real time –
in other words, to perform live –, you will need a MIDI-keyboard
–7–
Software configuration:
Tip:
with additional modulation wheel controller and foot pedal
(expression controller pedal). You may also want to play the
pedal notes with a real pipe-organ pedal. If you are looking for a
real wooden pipe-organ MIDI pedal from a master organ builder,
please visit http://www.ndb.hu/pedal.
If you are running GigaStudio 3, please make sure that you have
the latest device drivers, especially of your video card, and you
have a minimum screen resolution of 1024x768.
Check TASCAM’s recommendations as well on their support site.
Setting up NDB for GigaStudio 3 – running the
installation wizardv3
Because of the large number of files and the large amount of data, to make the
installation process simple and smooth, NDB Pipe Organ Samples comes with its own
installer application.
If you have the AutoPlay function enabled on your DVD-ROM drive, the NDB
Pipe Organ Samples installer wizard should start automatically. If it does not, you can
start it manually by running X:\Setup.exe, where X is the drive letter for your
DVD-ROM drive.
Note: Please exit all applications when you are installing NDB, especially GigaStudio 3.
Follow the prompts of the installer wizard and replace the disks when prompted.
The installation process should be simple and smooth.
Should you have problems during the installation, please refer to the
troubleshooting section in this Manual.
As the installation media includes only data files like setup-1a.bin, it is not
possible either to run the samples from the DVD disks or to copy the instruments
manually. It is possible, though, to copy all setup files to the hard drive and run the
setup program from there if you want NDB install a bit faster.
Tip:
It may also be a good idea to do some defragmentation, because a fragmented disk
seriously affects the performance of GigaStudio.
–8–
Fine-tuning GigaStudio 3v3
Step 1.
Before you start GigaStudio 3, run the GigaStudio Configuration
Manager.
To run the Configuration
Manager, select Start >
Programs > Tascam >
GigaStudio 3, and click on
GigaStudio Configuration
Manager.
On the GigaPulse/Convolution tab, press the Add button
to add the <directory where NDB was installed>\Data\
GigaPulse Content subdirectory to the upper windows
(Bank File Search Paths). If everything happened correctly, you should
have the window look like this:
Step 2.
Step 3.
Press the Apply, then the OK button.
Start GigaStudio 3 now. Go to GigaStudio settings. On the QuickSound
tab select Rebuild entire QuickSound database now. Press the Advanced
button, then select .gig, .gsp, .gx?, .gsi. Also select the drive where you
installed NDB Pipe Organ Samples. Then select Save Settings and update
your QuickSound database. This step is required in order to be able to
load instruments with the .gsi files.
Restart GigaStudio 3.
–9–
Notes for users of different GigaStudio 3 editionsv3
GigaStudio 3 Orchestra
NDB was originally designed and made for GigaStudio 3 Orchestra. Every
function of the library works smoothly and produces the best performance with this
edition of GigaStudio 3. We recommend using GigaStudio 3 Orchestra.
GigaStudio 3 Ensemble, Solo and OEM
NDB works a bit different under these editions of GigaStudio 3. First of all, you
probably do not have GigaPulse Pro which originally ships with GigaStudio 3
Orchestra, but you probably have GigaPulse SP. In SP, you cannot set the parameters
as precisely as in the Pro version, but the result you can hear is quite similar. Also, the
GigaPulse SP effect probably does not show up in the DSP Station in GigaStudio. This
means that you cannot add GigaPulse as an insert effect to your performance.
As NDB implements the cathedral reverbs by GigaPulse effects, you will not be
able to add them as an insert effect, but luckily, there is an alternative solution: the
FX Instance instruments.
Setting up the convolution cathedral reverbs
In GigaStudio 3 Ensemble, Solo and OEM, you have only the following option to
setup the cathedral reverb and swellbox effect.
Step 1. First of all, you will need to enable instrument stacking. You can do this
by clicking on the appropriate icon in the Loader Pane.
Step 2.
Drag or load the .gsi file of the effect (reverb/swellbox) you wish to
use.
Note: You can identify the .gsi files that load GigaPulse effects easily: they all have ‘FX
Instance Instrument’ in their name. You can find these .gsi files in the root of the
NDB folder.
For example, drag NDB Cathedral Reverb (factory Stereo) - FX Instance
Instrument.gsi to an empty channel.
– 10 –
Step 3.
Now drag or load an instrument to the same channel where the
GigaPulse effect was loaded. If you have done everything correctly, you
should have a stacked instrument on that channel, and the two
members of the stack are the reverb and the instrument, like this:
You might have noticed that there is a green ‘FX’ button near the
loaded reverb. You can adjust the setting of the reverb by clicking the
arrow near that button and then clicking on the preset name NDB
Cathedral (Stereo) or the one you have loaded.
Setting up NDB for GigaStudio 2.x
Step 1.
Make a folder (directory) on your hard disk and make sure you have at
least 16 GB of disk space there.
Step 2. Copy the contents of each disk to the folder you created in Step 1.
– 11 –
Users’ Manual
The library
Together with many serious organists, pipe organ experts, and based on the
response of our users, we tried to include almost every important part of a pipe
organ in NDB Pipe Organ Samples. You can hear the natural reverb of the cathedrals,
tremolo of some stops, crescendo, the swellbox; what’s more, even the sound of the
organ engine, valves and the registration.
The voice of a pipe organ is not something you can take a 3-second sample of and
then loop it: it is a full web of transients, from the sound of the mechanical action and
valves through the venting of air chambers to the voices of the pipe itself. Our
experiments clearly showed that the recorded samples have to be at least 15 to 20
seconds long to capture their actual voice, and even longer, if we want them to use in
music. For these very reasons, as an average, every second note of all manual stops
was sampled with a 30-second length. To avoid annoying stops when playing long
pedal notes, all pedal notes are a full one minute long – most of them are true
one-minute samples; there are only a few ones we artificially made to be a minute
long. We indeed had a limited time in the busy cathedral to record what we wanted
to.
Effects
In order to come as close to real organ playing as possible, the organ samples in
NDB include a large number of effects. There are two methods to reproduce the
natural reverb of the cathedrals; also you can switch on the tremolo on some stops,
use crescendo, and control the swellbox. Below we give an overview of these
effects.
Natural cathedral reverb
NDB Pipe Organ Samples feature the natural cathedral reverbs of the acoustic
spaces where the organs are located. The reverb effect is realized in two different
ways.
GigaPulse convolution reverbsv3
The natural reverb of an acoustic space can be represented by its impulse
response. In other words, by measuring the impulse response of the acoustic space, it
is possible to calculate the reverb of any sound source – how that given sound would
reverb in that space.
– 12 –
We measured carefully the
impulse responses of both
cathedrals, using various microphone setups and measuring
methods. Using GigaPulse, the
impulse response reverb module
of GigaStudio, you can add these
natural reverbs to any desired
source of audio. The reverb is
calculated by GigaPulse each
time a note is played back – it is
hard to get it sound any more
realistic. The amount of the
reverb (the distance of the
listener from the organ) can be
freely adjusted – again, in real
time – or can even be turned
off, in case you want to add a different ambience than the real one.
NDB features two completely new banks in addition to the GigaPulse factory
“0028 – Csaba Huszty – NDB Cathedral” stereo reverb. The two other reverbs –
installed to the GigaPulse Content folder under where NDB is installed on your
computer – include a 7-channel cathedral reverb and a stereo reverb from the two
cathedrals. The 7-channel reverb has one 5-channel and two stereo presets too. You
will find these reverbs when you browse your GigaPulse presets.
Tip:
You can also load these reverbs with their appropriate knob settings of the DSP
Station to GigaStudio using the .GSP files you find under the root directory of
where you installed NDB. These .GSP files will load only under GigaStudio 3.0
Orchestra, and were created so that you do not have to wiggle dozens of knobs
every time.
Release sample reverbs (RT)
On some recordings it might be important to preserve the acoustic environment
in which the samples were recorded. Another method for this is to simply record
everything that is heard in the cathedral when the notes are hit and released. Though
when they are transformed to release samples they will not sound as realistic as the
convolution reverbs – especially on staccato notes – we did keep this type of reverb
as well, just in case you need them.
The amount – volume – of the release sample reverb is freely adjustable, in real
time. By default it is turned on for all instruments that has (RT) in their file name. It is
possible to turn it off by setting the MIDI controller 94 (FX 4 in GigaStudio) to any
– 13 –
value below 64. As the release samples are fairly long compared to other acoustic
spaces (the reverbs decay usually over 4 seconds), a fast piece can quickly eat up
polyphony so sometimes you may wish to turn the reverb off and use convolution
reverb instead.
Changing values of MIDI controller 91 (FX 1 in GigaStudio) from 0 to 127 will mix
the reverb volume from maximum to minimum. The reverb is exactly the same what
you hear in the church after releasing the 30-second note.
You may also add more reverb to the samples while you are not turning off the
release samples – feel free to experiment.
Swellbox
The swellbox is a very important part of the organ – vital, if you are playing
romantic or modern pieces. It contains the pipes of certain stops and by opening its
shutters you can gradually increase the loudness and brightness of the sound of
organ. This effect works perfectly in NDB Pipe Organ Samples and is achieved in two
different ways.
Swellbox by convolution (SWL)v3
It is possible to measure the acoustic characteristics of the swellbox, and model
the box as a filter to the sound. We represented the filter characteristics by its
impulse response and
let GigaPulse calculate
the effect on the
appropriate stops. The
measurement method
was designed so that
the cathedral reverb –
although was recorded
– did not show up in
the resulted impulse
response. See more on
this at the Publications
section on the NDB
website.
The
GigaPulse
effect was then programmed with a MIDI automation so that you can control the
amount of mixing (the amount you open the swellbox) by adjusting the Foot (4) MIDI
controller.
Note: You can always reprogram this MIDI automation by right-clicking on the slider
under the Wet/Dry Mix label.
– 14 –
Swellbox by recorded samples (SW)
The other way to realize a working swellbox effect is to record the original
sound, both when the box was opened and closed and then control GigaStudio to
mix the sound whenever you are adjusting the sweller pedal.
Adjusting the foot controller (4), most practically by an expression pedal, from
value 0 to 127, the swellbox gradually closes, as on real organs. This means, most
naturally, that the default state of the swellbox is opened at the lower position of
the sweller pedal (so-called ‘French-style sweller’). Check the table below for the
availability on several stops of this effect.
Tremolo (TRM)
The tremolo (tremulant) is a very well-known effect in a pipe organ. For certain
combinations, where tremolos are very often used, such as Voix Céleste, the
recorded sound samples contain the tremolo effect, so it is impossible to switch it
off (these combinations are marked by Trem. in the Stops used in the combination
column in the table below). For other stops, where the player may freely decide to
use tremolo or not, depending on the organ piece performed, we have added a MIDI
controller-based tremolo engine to turn the effect on or off. This is done by
adjusting the Breath Controller (MIDI Controller 2) from value 0 (no tremolo) to 127
(maximum tremolo). By default it is turned off.
Crescendos
The crescendo is also a popular effect and is used often in rehearsals and
improvisations, where the organist has no time or possibility to prepare the
registration. By gradually rotating a cylinder or adjusting a pedal by foot, stops start
turning on, which results in crescendos (and decrescendos) in the sound. For a
real-time effect, the foot controller (4) controls this effect as well, and works very
much like the swellbox effect. By default, the state of the crescendo is in the quiet
position. Crescendos in this edition are 4-state effects with accurate dynamic
settings. They were created using half the number of the host sample sets to save
polyphony and are located in different – Crescendo – GIG files. The Crescendos are
as follows:
Crescendo 1:
Crescendo 2:
Crescendo 1 Pedal:
Crescendo 2 Pedal:
from Notre Dame de Buda
from Notre Dame de Kispest
from Notre Dame de Buda
from Notre Dame de Kispest
– 15 –
Dynamics and velocity settings
If you only use one stop of the library at the time, feel free to set its velocity
where it best suits you and your piece. However, when creating a more complex
piece with lots of combinations, we recommend using velocity settings close to our
listed values if you want to have the dynamics of the real instrument.
Contents of the disksv3
The installer wizard installs the following files on your machine (you can specify
the destination directory or use the default NDB Pipe Organ Samples):
\<destination directory>
.gsp files for the effects
.gsi files for the effects
\Data
.chm help files
\Special Effects
.gig files (actual sample data)
\GigaPulse Content
.gig files (GigaPulse FX Instance Instruments)
.fxb files (GigaPulse bank files)
.iis files (GigaPulse impulse data files)
\Notre Dame de Buda
.gig files (actual sample data)
.gx99 files (encoded GigaPulse impulse data files*)
\Notre Dame de Kispest
.gig files (actual sample data)
.gx99 files (encoded GigaPulse impulse data files*)
\Notre Dame de Buda
.gsi files for loading the .gig instruments
\Notre Dame de Kispest
.gsi files for loading the .gig instruments
* Warning: Do not remove or rename these files or the host .gig files will not load.
Below we list all the stops and combinations included in NDB Pipe Organ Samples.
A little explanation about the abbreviations used in the program names (NDB refers
to the name of the library) showing where – on which manual – the stop or
combination was originally located in the real instrument or the type of the sound:
POS
GRO
GPR
REC
BRW
PED
SFX
TRN
CRS
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Positive
Grand-Orgue
Grand-Orgue with Positive and Récit coupled
Récit
Brustwerk
Pedal
Special effects
‘artificial’ stops/combinations created by transposition* (e.g. Quint 1 1/3’ using the 1’
samples)
– crescendo instruments
* There are no such .GIG files; they are only programs within certain .GIG files
– 16 –
Detailed registration of the stops and
combinations in the library
In the table below we list every stop and combination that is included on the disk,
their special effects, their recommended velocity settings for the proper
representation of the organ’s dynamics and some useful information where they can
be used optimally.
Combination name
Stops used in the
combination
Volume
Notre Dame de Buda
Possible
music
application
Extra
features
NDB_BRW - Gedackt 8'
Gedackt 8'
47
all
RT
NDB_BRW - Glocken
Glocken
86
all
RT
NDB_BRW - Krummhorn 8'
Krummhorn 8'
58
all
RT
NDB_BRW - Plenum
Gedackt 8', Quintatön 8', Spitzflöte
4',.Principal 2', Larigot 1 1/3' , Octave 1'
73
all
RT
NDB_BRW - Tutti
Gedackt 8', Quintatön 8', Spitzflöte
4', Principal 2', Larigot 1 1/3', Octave 1',
Obertön 3x1 1/7', Zimbel 3x 2/3',
Sordun 16', Krummhorn 8'
82
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Anches 16' 8' 4'
Sub + Super
All reed pipes + Sub + Super
112
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Flutes, Bourdon,
Gemshorn + Rohrflote 4'
V. man.: Flûte harmonique 8' IV. man.:
Gedackt 8’
III. man.: Bourdon á chem., Flûte
traversiére, Gambe 8’
II. man.: Gemshorn 8'
+ Rohrflöte 4'
59
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Flutes, Bourdon,
Gemshorn
V. man.: Flûte harmonique 8' IV. man.:
Gedackt 8’
III. man.: Bourdon á chem., Flûte
traversiére, Gambe 8’
II. man.: Gemshorn 8'
48
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Fonds + Quint
Fonds 8’,Quint 2 2/3’
77
baroque
RT
NDB_GPR - Fonds 16' 8' 4'
Fonds 16' 8' 4'
76
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Fonds 16' 8'
Fonds 16' 8'
73
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Fonds 8' 4'
Fonds 8' 4'
67
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Fonds 8'
Fonds 8'
67
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Gemshorn 8' +
Nachthorn 8' + Rohrflote 4'
Gemshorn 8' + Nachthorn 8' +
Rohrflöte 4'
55
all
RT
NDB_GPR - Mixtures +
Fonds 8’ 4’ 2’, Mixtur 5x1 1/3’, Mixtur
110
baroque
RT
– 17 –
Volume
Possible
music
application
Trompete 8'
5x2’, Cornet3–5x 8’, Cornet 3–4x2
2/3’, Zimbel 3x2/3’, Trompete 8’
NDB_GPR - Mixtures
Fonds 8’ 4’ 2’,Mixtur 5x1 1/3’
80
baroque
NDB_GPR - Tutti + Chamade 8'
Tutti + Chamade 8'
110
all
RT
NDB_GRO - Octave 1'
Octave 1'
50
all
RT
NDB_GRO - Praestant 8'
Praestant 8'
57
all
RT
NDB_PED - Fonds + Quint
Fonds 16’ 8’, P+I, P+II
70
baroque
RT
NDB_PED - Fonds 16' 8'
Fonds 16’ 8’
66
all
RT
Combination name
Stops used in the
combination
Extra
features
RT
NDB_PED - Fonds 16'
Fonds 16'
66
all
RT
NDB_PED - Fonds 32'
Fonds 32'
70
baroque
RT
NDB_PED - Plenum Bassoon 16'
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’, Bassoon 16’
90
baroque
RT
NDB_PED - Plenum Posaune 16'
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’, Posaune 16’
110
baroque
RT
NDB_PED - Subbass 16'
Subbass 16'
60
baroque
RT
NDB_PED - Tutti + Chamade 8'
Tutti + Chamade 8'
127
all
RT
NDB_PED - Violon 16'
Violon 16'
55
all
RT
NDB_POS - Chamade 8'
Chamade 8'
106
all
RT
NDB_POS - Fonds 8' 4'
Fonds 8' 4'
69
baroque
RT
NDB_POS - Fonds 8'
Fonds 8'
69
baroque
RT
NDB_POS - Principal 8'
Principal 8'
62
all
RT
NDB_POS - Scharff
Fonds 8’ 4’, Scharff 5x5 1/3’
67
baroque
RT
NDB_POS - Sesquialtera
Fonds 8’, Nasat 2 2/3’, Terz 1 1/3’
67
baroque
RT,
TRM
NDB_REC - Anches 16' 8' 4'
Anches 16' 8' 4'
96
romantic,
modern
RT
NDB_REC - Bassoon 16'
Bassoon 16'
70
all
RT,
SWL
NDB_REC - Clairon 4'
Clairon 4'
65
all
RT,
SWL
NDB_REC - Flute Traversiére
Flûte traversiére 8’, Bourdon á
cheminèe 8’, Flûte harmonique 8’,
Trem.
56
romantic,
modern
RT
NDB_REC - Hautbois 8'
Hautbois 8'
68
romantic,
modern
RT,
SW,
SWL,
TRM
NDB_REC - Principal 8'
Principal 8'
50
all
RT
NDB_REC - Trompete
Harmonique 8'
Trompete Harmonique 8'
65
all
RT
– 18 –
Volume
Possible
music
application
Extra
features
NDB_REC - Voix Humaine 8'
Voix Humaine 8'
44
romantic,
modern
RT,
SWL
NDB_TRN - Terz 1 3/5’
transposed stop from Octave 1’
50
all
RT
NDB_TRN - Quint 1 1/3’
transposed stop from Octave 1’
50
all
RT
NDB_SFX - Valves
Valve noise of the Positive
70
-
-
Volume
Combination name
Stops used in the
combination
Possible
music
application
Extra
features
77
baroque
RT
Notre Dame de Kispest
Combination name
NDB_GPR - Anches 16' 8' 4'
Stops used in the
combination
I. man.: Trompette 8’, Clarinette 8’,
I+II , I+II sub, I+II super
II. man.: Trompette harmonique 8’,
Basson-hautbois 8’, Clairon 4’, Sub II,
Super II
NDB_GPR - Cornet
Cornet 5x
60
all
RT
NDB_GPR – Mixtures
+ Bassoon Hautbois 8'
I. man.: Fonds 8’ 4’, Mixtur 5-7x
60
all
RT
II. man.: Diapason 8’, Nasard 2 2/3’,
Tierce 1 3/5’, Basson– hautbois 8’,
Mixtur 3-5x
NDB_GPR - Tutti
Gen. Tutti
110
all
RT
NDB_GRO - Fonds 16' 8' 4'
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’
63
all
RT
NDB_GRO - Fonds 8' 4' 2' +
Mixtur 5-7x
I. man,: Fonds 8’ 4’ 2’, Mixtur 5-7x
50
baroque
RT
NDB_GRO - Fonds 8' 4' 2' +
Mixtures
I. man.: Praestant 8’, Bourdon 8’,
Salicional 8’, Octave 4’, Doublette 2’,
Mixtur 5-7x, I+II
II. man.: Diapason 8’, Bourdon 8’,
Dulcian 4’, Flûte octaviante 4’, Nasard
2 2/3’, Octavin 2’, Mixtur 3-5x
63
baroque
RT
NDB_GRO - Octave 4'
Octave 4’
28
all
RT
NDB_GRO - Trompete 8'
Trompete 8’
60
all
RT
NDB_PED - Fonds 16' 8' (Subbass Fonds 16’ 8’ Ped.
16')
66
all
RT
NDB_PED - Fonds 16' 8' +
Bombarde 16'
75
all
RT
Fonds 16’ 8’, Bombarde 16’
– 19 –
Volume
Possible
music
application
I. man.: Praestant 8’, Bourdon 8’,
Salicional 8’, Octave 4’, Doublette 2’,
Mixtur 5-7x
II. man.: Diapason 8’, Bourdon 8’,
Dulcian 4’, Flûte octaviante 4’, Nasard
2 2/3’, Octavin 2’, Mixtur 3-5x
Ped.: Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’, P+I, P+II
63
baroque
NDB_PED – Tutti
Gen. Tutti Ped.
127
all
RT
NDB_POS - Bourdon 8'
I. man.: Bourdon 8’,, I+II
II. man.: Bourdon 8’
50
all
RT,
TRM
NDB_POS - Fonds 8' 4' 2' +
Mixtures
II. man.: Diapason 8’, Bourdon 8’,
Dulcian 4’, Flûte octaviante 4’, Nasard
2 2/3’, Octavin 2’, Mixtur 3-5x
48
baroque
RT
NDB_POS - Mixtures + Bassoon Diapason 8’, Nasard 2 2/3’, Tierce 1
Hautbois 8'
3/5’, Basson– hautbois 8’, Mixtur 3-5x
60
all
RT
NDB_REC - Clarinet 8'
60
all
RT,
SW,
SWL,
TRM
NDB_REC - Flute Harmonique 8' Flûte harmonique 8’
50
romantic,
modern
RT
NDB_REC - Fonds 8' 4' + Unda
Maris 8'
54
all
RT
Combination name
NDB_PED - Fonds 16' 8' 4' 2' +
Mixtures
Stops used in the
combination
Clarinette 8’
II. man.: Fonds 8’ 4’ +
Unda Maris 8’
Extra
features
RT
NDB_REC - Fonds 8' 4'
II. man.: Fonds 8’ 4’
50
all
RT
NDB_REC - Voix Céleste
II. man.: Voix Céleste 8’, Gambe 8’,
Unda maris 8’
40
romantic,
modern
RT,
SW,
SWL
– 20 –
NDB_SFX – Special effects
In order to reach the highest level of authenticity we recorded some noises that
frequently occur while playing the organ and heard inside the cathedral and also some
beautiful bell sounds of the cathedrals heard outside. Feel free to use them to make
your recordings more realistic or make it sound like if it was recorded live.
Note: Please consult the legal issues in this document about creating recordings with
NDB Pipe Organ Samples.
The Special effects.gig file contains several different ‘instruments’:
NDB_SFX – Organ Engines (TR)
This instrument contains the looped organ engine sound of both organs, which
you can add to your recordings.
Tip:
This organ engine sound was completely removed from each sampled note so that
the engine noise does not add up with the stops and combinations you are playing.
Adding it once to your recording in the background will make it sound more
authentic.
Tip:
For movie sound score application: add the engine noise only if the scene is inside
the cathedral.
Some of these engine sounds come with Tremolo so that you can switch to the
tremolo-ed organ engine sound, if you use tremolo combinations. The instrument
includes the following sounds:
c3:
Turning on the organ of Notre Dame de Kispest (engine sound looped, tremolo possible)
d3:
Turning off the organ of Notre Dame de Kispest
e3:
Organ engine of Notre Dame de Kispest (looped, tremolo possible)
f3:
Turning on the organ of Notre Dame de Buda (engine sound looped)
g3:
Turning off the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
a3:
Organ engine of Notre Dame de Buda (looped, tremolo possible)
c4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – pushing the Tutti piston
c#4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – pushing the zero piston from
Tutti
d4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – pushing the zero piston from
fewer stops
d#4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 1
e4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 2
f4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 3
f#4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 4
– 21 –
g4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 5
g#4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 6
a4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 7
a#4:
Mass registration sound of the organ at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 8
c5:
Registration switch sound on the registration panel of the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
c#5:
Registration switch sound on the registration panel of the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
d5:
Registration switch sound on the registration panel of the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
f5:
Lots of valves go down when playing notes on the Positive at the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
g5:
Lots of valves come up when playing notes on the Positive at the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
a5:
Stops turning on when gradually turning the crescendo wheel at the organ of Notre Dame de
Buda
a#5:
Swellbox shutters opening at the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
b5:
Swellbox shutters closing loudly at the organ of Notre Dame de Buda
c6:
Swellbox shutters opening at the organ of Notre Dame de Kispest
c#6:
Swellbox shutters closing loudly at the organ of Notre Dame de Kispest
d6:
The organist gets off the organ bench at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 1
e6:
The organist gets off the organ bench at Notre Dame de Buda – Variant 2
NDB_SFX – Cathedral Bells
You may find some street noise in these samples as they were all made outside
the cathedrals. Try adding some reverb to them and playing back in lower volumes to
imitate that the listener is inside the cathedral.
a3:
Notre Dame de Kispest Trinity Bells (unlooped)
b3:
Notre Dame de Kispest Small Bells (looped)
c4:
Notre Dame de Kispest All Bells (looped, release triggered)
d4:
Notre Dame de Buda Great Bells (looped)
e4:
Notre Dame de Buda Small Bells (looped)
NDB_SFX – Valves
This program was recorded on the Positive manual without turning on a single
stop. Therefore, only the valve sound is heard when you hit a note and release it. This
program contains only a few number of wave files in order to allow you to stack it to
any other organ stop you may wish to sound more closer.
NDB_SFX - Noises of the Inner Cathedral
To imitate a live recording, you may add the sounds of the inner cathedral in the
background of your recording. Be sure to hold these notes as they are quite long.
c4:
Thunder heard from inside the cathedral (0:36)
d4:
Quiet thunder, footsteps in the background (0:16)
e4:
footsteps in the church (0:23)
f4:
footstep, money jingles (0:45)
– 22 –
f#4:
footsteps at the choir (0:07)
g4:
microphone setup – wood clicks (0:06)
a4:
microphone setup – stand (metal) clicks (0:02)
b4:
microphone setup – cable end knocks on the wooden floor (0:05)
c5:
microphone assembly (0:30)
d5:
car passes by, microphone assembly (0:17)
e5:
microphone setup, quiet thunder roaring, a bit of wheezing, quiet bell in the background (0:13)
f5:
various sounds of the inner cathedral, a sparrow tweets in the background up behind the choir
(0:14)
Registration tips
If you are an experienced organist, you can safely skip this chapter; however, it
may be worth having a glance on it.
First of all, it is important to mention that the stops of the two organs can be
used simultaneously. The churches where we took the samples are always very busy,
so we recorded those stops and combinations that sound somehow ‘better’. There
were some combinations, for example, Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’, which we recorded on both
instruments, because their character and style applies to different styles of music,
and both of them sound really good. Here, we would like to give you a few
recommendations on how to use these stops and combinations together, and how
to create stops, which are not included in this library. Also, you will find a list of
commonly used combinations of the samples. POS (Positive), GRO (Grand-Orgue),
REC (Récit), BRW (Brustwerk) and PED (Pedal) represent the location of the
combination, where it is commonly used.
Pre-baroque and baroque
The organ of Notre Dame de Kispest is rather a French-romantic sounding organ
than a historical Silbermann; however, the many Fonds + Mixtures combinations sound
great on this organ for J. S. Bach’s grand toccatas. Actually, there are many baroque
concerts in Notre Dame de Kispest during the year. Be very careful to adjust the
proper volume settings for the mixture stops as they are very sensitive. You can use
the Cornet together with the other organ as well: the organ of Notre Dame de Buda,
which features lots of combinations that can be used for baroque music. For a
Positive voice in toccatas Mixtures, Mixtures + Trompette 8’, Fonds 8’ 4’, Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’
and in particular Scharff should rather be used. Tutti + Chamade may be a bit too loud
for such pieces, but not in for example Passacaglia and Fugue in c by J. S. Bach. You can
stack any number of stops in GigaStudio to create a dynamic crescendo in your music.
Start with the Fonds and then gradually add mixtures, then add Trompete Harmonique
8’ and the other 8’ stops of the Récit, then add the 4’s and 16’s. Be sure to use couples
– 23 –
as well when appropriate. You may also wish to use pre-recorded combinations, such
as Anches 16’ 8’ 4’ in fugues, J. S. Bach liked them very much. Also, add Cornet to the
Anches to enforce the sound. For the pedals, all organs give you the foundational
stops and combination that can be used for even a full minute sustained note. As for
Notre Dame de Buda, feel free to experiment with all of the pedal combinations.
Fonds + Quint and Fonds + Quint Ped. can also be used in such pieces. Here are a few
commonly used combinations in this type of music:
Trios, triosonates, recitativos
POS
Bourdon 8’ Fonds 8’
GRO
Sesquialtera (+ Tremolo), Cornet
PED
Fonds 16’ 8’ or Fonds 16’, Subbass 16’
Preludes
GRO
PED
Fonds + Quint
Fonds + Quint Ped.
Toccatas (softer)
POS
Scharff
GRO
Mixtures
PED
Fonds 16’ 8’, Plenum Bassoon 16’
Toccatas (louder)
POS
Mixtures
GRO
Mixture + Trompette 8’
PED
Plenum Posaune 16’
Fugues
POS
Mixtures or Scharff
GRO
Mixtures, Mixtures + Trompette 8’, Anches 16’
8’ 4’
PED
Plenum Bassoon 16’ or Plenum Posaune 16’
Check out below on how to create additional combinations.
Romantic
We encourage you using several stops together, like Anches 16’ 8’ 4’ with Fonds
16’ 8’ 4’, Trompete 8’ and Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’, Krummhorn with Octave 1’, etc., NDB Pipe
Organ Samples fits naturally this style of music as the sampled organs are special
symphonic instruments.
It is not easy to define clear-cut categories here, like Toccatas or Preludes in the
Baroque section, so we will give generic definitions instead, without trying to include
them all (which would be nearly impossible).
– 24 –
The organ of Notre Dame de Kispest is a particularly romantic-sounding organ,
so we highly recommend using it for those pieces, especially when you play pieces of
C. Franck, Ch. M. Widor, or L. Vierne. For pieces of M. Reger, stops of Notre Dame
de Buda might be more applicable. You can achieve a wider range of crescendos in
the organ of Notre Dame de Buda, as it is a much bigger one, and therefore NDB
feature more stops of it.
Foundational stops (Fonds)
POS
Fonds 8’
GRO
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’
REC
Fonds 8’
PED
Fonds 16’ 8’, Fonds 32’
Récit solos
POS
Fonds 8’
GRO
Fonds 16’ 8’
REC
Trompete 8’, Hautbois 8’, Clarinet 8’
PED
Fonds 16’ 8’ (Fonds 32’)
Moderated (louder) combinations
POS
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’
GRO
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’ together with Anches 16’ 8’ 4’
REC
Fonds 8’ together with Anches 16’ 8’ 4’
PED
Fonds 16’ 8’
General Tuttis
GRO
Tutti + Chamade 8’
REC
Anches 16’ 8’ 4’ together with Mixtures +
Trompette
BRW
Brustwerk Tutti
Meditative (very quiet) combinations
POS
Flûte Harmonique (with tremolo) or the
Gemshorn-type combinations, Gedackt 8’
REC
Voix Céleste (with sweller)
or
Flûte traversière + Bourdon á cheminée
PED
Fonds 32’, Fonds 16’
Modern music and improvisations
This is the most difficult type of music to give recommendations of. Please feel
free to experiment with all stops of the library. Combining the organs will allow you
to be more creative, especially when playing O. Messiaen’s, P. Cochereau’s or J.
– 25 –
Guillou’s pieces, to mention a few. The Anches 16’ 8’ 4’ combination of Notre Dame
de Kispest is very impressive for improvisations. Also, try the Krummhorn + Octave 1’
with a soft accompaniment on the Positive and a 32’ Pedal for improvising meditative
pieces. Speaking in specific pieces, the Bombarde 16’ Pedal from Notre Dame de
Kispest is particularly good for playing Messiaen’s Les Corps Glorieux: Combat de le
Mort et de la Vie. If you play such pieces or you are performing an improvisation, you
may use the Crescendo combinations as well.
Creating new stops and combinations
On a sampling DVD collection, it is very hard to include every important stop of
a symphonic organ, as all stops can be considered as important and there are more
than a hundred at Notre Dame de Buda, for example. Not only the time of the
recording and post processing would be extremely long, but the amount of data
would also be unmanageable. In this edition of NDB Pipe Organ Samples, every
important stop and combination is included so that you can stack different stops
together while not having to utilize all resources of your computer with the
pre-recorded combinations. You can play for example more than a hundred ranks
just with two combinations.
First of all, the most common way to create new combinations is to couple
some existing ones. These can be for example:
Fonds 16’ 8’ 4’ or Fonds 8’ 4’
with
Anches 16’ 8’ 4’ (opened, closed or swelled)
Mixtures
with
Anches 16’ 8’ 4’ (opened, closed or swelled)
Fonds 8’ 4’
with
Trompete 8’
Fonds 8’ 4’
with
Hautbois 8’ (opened, closed or swelled)
Trompete 8’
with
Hautbois 8’ (opened, closed or swelled)
Krummhorn 8’
with
Octave 1’
Trompete Harmonique 8’
with
Hautbois 8’
Anches 16’ 8’ 4’
with
Cornet
and so on. You may also use the coupling technique together with transposition.
If you are trying to imitate the sound of a smaller organ, we prefer trying to combine
the stops instead of using the combinations. Of course, this will not sound as good as
an original combination.
– 26 –
Important notes and remarks
Files installed in the root directory of NDBv3
There are a few files that are installed in the root directory of NDB that makes
the library more convenient and easy to use.
NDB Cathedral 2 Reverb (Stereo) - FX Instance Instrument.gsi
NDB Cathedral Reverb (7-channel) - FX Instance Instrument.gsi
NDB Cathedral Reverb (factory Stereo) - FX Instance Instrument.gsi
NDB Swellbox - FX Instance Instrument.gsi
These files load the GigaPulse effects, which you probably wish to use if you do
not run NDB on GigaStudio 3 Orchestra, or you do not want to load them as an
insert effects in the DSP Station of GigaStudio. They are also handy when you load
them as members of stacked instruments as they add the effect to all the
instruments in the stack.
Tip:
For flexibility, it might be better to use insert effects rather than these files.
NDB Cathedral 2 Reverb (Stereo) to AUX 1.gsp
NDB Cathedral 2 Reverb (Stereo)to AUX 2.gsp
NDB Cathedral 2 Reverb (Stereo) to AUX 3.gsp
NDB Cathedral 2 Reverb (Stereo) to AUX 4.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (7-channel) to AUX 1.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (7-channel) to AUX 2.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (7-channel) to AUX 3.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (7-channel) to AUX 4.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (factory Stereo) to AUX 1.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (factory Stereo) to AUX 2.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (factory Stereo) to AUX 3.gsp
NDB Cathedral Reverb (factory Stereo) to AUX 4.gsp
NDB Swellbox to AUX 1.gsp
NDB Swellbox to AUX 2.gsp
NDB Swellbox to AUX 3.gsp
NDB Swellbox to AUX 4.gsp
These files load GigaPulse presets to the AUX return channels and set all knobs
of the DSP Station to the appropriate settings. If you wish a drier sound in the case
of the reverbs, increase the volume slider of each DSP Station channels or set the
Wet/Dry Mix to a lower value. These files work correctly only in GigaStudio 3
Orchestra. Other editions of GigaStudio 3 may load these files and set the slider and
– 27 –
knob values, but as there is no GigaPulse Pro insert effect in these editions, the
reverb will not be set. (Use FX Instance Instruments instead.)
Tip:
You might want to start making a performance by loading these files first, as
loading them after you made changes to the DSP station will reset those settings
and even removes other insert effects.
Notes on GigaPulsev3
1.
If you have not installed the factory impulse content with GigaStudio 3 for
GigaPulse, then you may want to copy manually the contents of the "\factory
reverb" directory on Disk 1 to the "\Data\GigaPulse Content" subdirectory of
your NDB Pipe Organ Samples directory or to the Tascam GigaPulse content
subdirectory (usually "D:\Tascam\GPulse\Common\bin"), and let GigaPulse
rescan these directories. Note that if you are using only FX Instance
Instruments, it is not required to do this.
2. If you do have the factory impulse content installed but you have preset
0028 missing, then copy the contents of the "\factory reverb" directory on
Disk 1 to the "D:\Tascam\GPulse\Common\bin" directory (or wherever you
have installed the GS3 content). Note that if you are using only FX Instance
Instruments, it is not required to do this.
Notes on the convolution swellbox (SWL) functionv3
1.
To control the swellbox with the Foot Controller smoothly, the MIDI
automation of the Wet/Dry slider is set to Port 1 Channel 1. If you use the
foot controller in other configuration, you might need to reprogram the
automation. You can do this by right clicking on the slider under the
Wet/Dry Mix label and by generating a MIDI message which GigaStudio
automatically identifies and sets.
2. If you load an instrument with an (SWL) function to a stacked instrument,
make sure you do not to load another one, as then there will be two
swellbox effects on the same stack, as if we had two embedded swellboxes.
To avoid this, load ‘SW: Opened’ instruments if you already have an SWL in
the stack.
3. The SWL function, once loaded to a stack and routed to a Mixer Input (e.g.:
‘Mx: 2:3’), will be effective on all other instruments on the same Mixer Input.
Therefore, if you wish to use a convolution swellbox effect on more than
one stops, regardless where they are loaded, you can setup the swellbox
effect by either loading a stop with SWL function and route the other stops
– 28 –
to that Mixer Input, or you can load SW:Opened stops and setup the swellbox
insert effect in an AUX return channel. You can do this easily in GigaStudio 3
Orchestra by loading the appropriate .gsp file (e.g.: 'NDB Swellbox to AUX
4.gsp').
Notes on the Crescendos
Due to reasons of the .gig file format, you cannot set the volume or turn off the
release triggered reverb in Crescendos. You can use however the Crescendos
without the (RT) function, which do not contain release triggered reverbs at all.
About the iMIDI rulesv3
In GigaStudio 3, every preset featuring the (RT) function was programmed with
iMIDI ‘Release Trigger with Tracking’. The
rule monitors the loudness of the sound
that is played and adjusts the volume of
the release trigger according to that. With
the help of this rule, staccato notes are
more realistic, because the short sounds
do not produce the amount of reverb a
sustained note does. If you wish to turn
this MIDI rule off on a loaded instrument, select iMIDI Rule
Manager in the Loader Pane and remove the ‘Release
Trigger with Tracking’ and then select OK.
Troubleshooting – Before you contact us
Q: The installer did not work correctly and an error message window popped up..
A: You might have a faulty medium. Try cleaning the disk and press Retry. If it
still does not work, check the disk in another DVD-ROM drive or try
copying the contents of all disks to your hard disk and run setup from there.
Should the disk be faulty indeed, please contact us at [email protected] and we
will replace it.
Make sure you do not have applications running in the background and you
have enough memory to run the installer wizard. Also, make sure you have
the right user privileges (Administrator) in your Windows XP system.
If all this above did not solve the problem, please send us as detailed
information about the error message as possible to [email protected]
– 29 –
Q: My computer cannot read the DVD disk/no contents can be seen on the disk.
A: Please check if your DVD reader supports reading DVD+R and DVD-R
disks. Before sending the DVD back to us for a replacement, please check
whether the disk is corrupted indeed (try it in a different machine). Please do
not send a correct disk back. If you find the disk damaged or corrupted,
please contact us by e-mail for further instructions.
Q: My computer does not produce any sound in GigaStudio when the NDB samples
are loaded.
A: This problem may be due to misconfiguration or other conflict, please refer
to your GigaStudio manual.
Q: The sweller/crescendo/tremolo is not working.
A: Please check if you switched to the proper instrument, and you are
controlling the proper MIDI controller. Instruments with sweller have (SW
or SWL) in their name, which means they are adjustable. If you find (SW:
Opened) or (SW: Closed), the sweller position is fixed. We recommend
using these fixed position instruments, in case you wish to save polyphony.
Support
For additional support, troubleshooting, with your technical problems or general
questions please visit the NDB support page, post a message in the NDB Forum or
contact us directly.
NDB Support:
NDB Support (email):
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– 30 –
‘Notre Dame de Buda’,
Matthias-Church, Budapest
At the very heart of Buda's Castle District is the Mátyás-templom. Officially
named as the Church of Our Lady, it has been popularly named after King Matthias
Corvinus (Good King Mátyás) who ordered the construction of its original southern
tower. In many respects, the 700 year history of the church serves as a symbol (or
perhaps a reminder for Hungarians) of the city's rich, yet often tragic history. Not
only was the church the scene of several coronations, including that of Charles IV in
1916 (the last Habsburg king), it was also the site for King Mátyás' two weddings (the
first to Catherine of Podiebrad and, after her death, to Beatrice of Aragon).
The darkest period in the church's history was the century and a half of Turkish
occupation. Although following Turkish expulsion in 1686 an attempt was made to
restore the church in the Baroque style, historical evidence shows that the work was
largely unsatisfactory. It was not until the great architectural boom towards the end
of the 19th century that the building regained much of its former splendor. The
architect responsible for this work was Frigyes Schulek.
Not only was the church restored to its original 13th century plan but a number of
early original Gothic elements were uncovered. By also adding new motifs of his own
(such as the diamond pattern roof tiles and gargoyles laden spire) Schulek ensured
that the work, when finished, would be highly controversial. Today however,
Schulek's restoration provides visitors with one of the most prominent and
characteristic features of Budapest's cityscape.
About the organ
While King Matthias had organ builders in his court and thus the church was likely
to have an organ already that time, the first organ we have records of was built in
1688: Esztergom archbishop György Széchényi donated a positive organ worth 100
forints. A mere seven years later palatine Pál Esterházy had the choir of the church
extended and probably a bigger organ built.
The organ was destroyed by a fire in 1723. A new one was soon made by an
organ builder named Márton and an even larger one was started in 1768 but then
later it was sold.
After the long restoration of the church a new organ was built again, the case of
which was also designed by Frigyes Schulek. Unfortunately, it soon turned out that
the instrument did not meet the requirements.
In 1909, using the donation of Franz Joseph the church received a new organ built
by the Rieger manufacture in Jägerndorf. The instrument was built in a late romantic
style, using the plans of Viktor Sugár and had four manuals and 77 stops. According to
the fashion of the time, the pipes of manual 4 were put in the attic of the church and
their sound was directed to the church aisle via a 14-meter-long wooden tube.
– 31 –
In 1931, again using the plans of Sugár, the Budapest manufacture of the Rieger
company extended the instrument to 85 stops. The pipes were brought down from
the attic and the inner construction of the organ was changed – unfortunately, to the
worse.
During the 1944 Soviet siege the instrument was damaged badly. It was
temporarily restored after the war but the condition of the organ turned worse and
worse.
In 1979 a committee was created to design the new instrument with the
cooperation of Ferenc Gergely, István Koloss, István Baróti and titulaire du
grand-orgue of the church, Bertalan Hock. They designed a symphonic organ that
uses the valuable pipes and the action of the old instrument that could be saved and
combines romantic and baroque style marks.
It was again the Rieger-Kloss organ factory that performed the restoration.
Their excellent work resulted in a new, five-manual, 85-stop organ with
electropneumatic action (Rieger Op. 3541). The organ was consecrated by Cardinal
László Lékai on January 25, 1984.
After finishing the grand organ, a two-manual, 18-stop Fernwerk was built. This
instrument can also be sounded from the console of the grand organ but it can also
be used independently during liturgy or as an accompaniment of the concerts in the
church.
The organ was extended again in 1999 and the number of Setzer combinations
was increased from 8 to 798 using a whole computer. Another stop, Chamade 8’ was
built into the organ. Today it has 104 stops altogether.
Factsheet of the organ
Opus No.
3541
Built in
1983
Number of manuals
5 + pedal
Number of stops
104 (99 basic voices)
Action
electric key action
electric stop action
Windchests
slider and cone
Console
electric, electric setter
Number of pipes
6 785
Tuning
Equal temperament
– 32 –
List of stops
I. Positiv A
(C-a3/a4, 70 tones)
II. Hauptwerk A
(C-a3, 58 tones)
III. Récit
(C-a3/a4, 70 tones)
Principal 8’
Boudon 8’
Salicional 8’
Octave 4’
Gedackt 4’
Nasat 2 2/3'
Waldflöte 2'
Terz 1 3/5'
Scharff 5x5 1/3'
Trompete 8’
Sp. Trompete 8’
Tremulant
Principal 16’
Praestant 8’
Gemshorn 8’
Nachthorn 8’
Octave 4’
Rohrflöte 4’
Quinte 2 2/3'
Superoctave 2'
Cornett 3-5x 8’
Mixtur 5x1 1/3'
Trompete 8’
Trompete 4’
Bourdon 16’
Principal 8’
Bourdon a cheminée 8’
Flûte traversière 8’
Gambe 8’
Voix céleste 8’
Octave 4’
Flûte octaviante 4’
Dulciane 4’
Quinte 2 2/3'
Octavin 2'
Flûte conique 1'
Cornet 3-4x2 2/3'
Mixtur 5x 2'
Cymbale 3x1/5'
Basson 16’
Trompette harmonique 8’
Hauptbois 8’
Voix humanie 8’
Clairon 4’
Tremulant
IV. Positiv B – Brustwerk
(C-a3, 58 tones)
V. Hauptwerk B –
Bombarde
(C-a3/a4, 70 t.)
Pedal
(C-f1, 30 t.)
Gedackt 8’
Quintatön 8’
Spitzflöte 4’
Principal 2'
Larigot 1 1/3'
Octave 1'
Obertön 3x1 1/7'
Zimbel 3x 2/3'
Sordun 16’
Krummhorn 8’
Glocken
Tremulant
Bourdon 16’
Flûte harmonique 8’
Quinte 5 1/3'
Praestant 4’
Tierce 3 1/5'
Septième 2 2/7'
Flûte 2'
Mixtur 6x2 2/3'
Bombarde 16’
Tuba 8’
– 33 –
Bourdon 32'
Principal 16’
Praestant 16’
Violon 16’
Subbass 16’
Bourdon 16’
Quinte 10 2/3'
Octave 8’
Flûte 4’
Bourdon 8’
Tierce 6 2/5'
Octave 4’
Flûte 4’
Nachthorn 2'
Locatio 5x5 1/3'
Mixtur 4x2 2/3'
Bombarde 32'
Posaune 16’
Basson 16’
Trompete 8’
Clairon 4’
Glocken
Couples
I., Positiv A
I+III, I+IV, I+V, I Super, I+III Super
II., Hauptwerk A
II+I, II+III, II+IV, II+V, II+I Super, II+III Sub, II+III
Super, II+V Super
III., Récit
III+IV, III+V, III Sub, III Super
IV., Positiv B - Brustwerk
Fernwerk I.
V., Hauptwerk B - Bombarde
Fernwerk II.
Pedal
P+I, P+II, P+III, P+IV, P+V, P+V Super
Fernwerk (Choir organ) stop-list
Fernwerk I. man.
Fernwerk II. man.
Fernwerk Pedal
Principal 8’
Flûte 8’
Octave 4’
Quinte 2 2/3'
Flûte 2'
Terz 1 3/5'
Mixtur 3x1 1/3'
Gedackt 8’
Blockflöte 4’
Dolce 4’
Principal 2'
Quinte 1 1/3'
Krummhorn 8’
Subbass 16’
Principal 8’
Gedackt 8’
Octave 4’
Fagott 16’
– 34 –
‘Notre Dame de Kispest’, Budapest
The first people settled in Kispest (currently the 19th district of Budapest) in the
second half of the 19th century. Their first church was nothing more but a small chapel
with a belfry and a wooden cross. The votive church was built later, in memory of
crown prince Rudolf Habsburg who died in 1889. The foundation stone was laid on
June 7, 1903 and following a fast construction, the church was consecrated on
October 23, 1904.
The brick-covered, 50-meter long and 20-meter wide parish church of neogothic
style was designed by Antal Hofhauser. The tower of the church is a very impressive
sight and the church is still a very characteristic mark of the district.
Inside you can find a neogothic, aisleless church, which is 32 meters long (without
the altar) and 14 meters wide. The benches of various styles can seat 250-300 people.
The organ was originally made in 1927, by Otto Rieger. It was reconstructed
between 1995 and 2002, according to the plans and direction of Bertalan Hock, by
László Varga.
The church was renovated between 1998 and 2002 so now, a hundred years later
it can again be seen in its full splendor.
Factsheet of the organ
Opus No.
2256*
Built in
1928 (reconstructed in 2002)
Number of manuals
2 + Pedal
Number of stops
38
Action
electric key action
electric stop action
Windchests
slider and purse
Console
electric, electric Setter
Number of pipes
~2500
Tuning
Equal temperament
* Rieger Opus 2256. Fully reconstructed by Varga Organ Manufacture in 2002.
– 35 –
List of stops
I. Grand Orgue
(C–a3)
II. Récit Expressif
(C–a3)
Pédale
(C–f1)
Principal 16’
Praestant 8’
Flûte harmonique 8’
Bourdon 8’
Salicional 8’
Unda maris 8’
Octave 4’
Flûte 4’
Quinte 2 2/3'
Doublette 2'
Cornet 5x 8’
Mixtur 5-7x 8’
Trompette 8’
Clarinette 8’
Bourdon 16’
Diapason 8’
Flûte 8’
Bourdon 8’
Gambe 8’
Voix céleste 8’
Dulcian 4’
Flûte octaviante 4’
Nasard 2 2/3'
Octavin 2'
Tierce 1 3/5'
Mixtur 3-5x 1 1/3'
Trompette harmonique 8’
Basson-hautbois 8’
Voix humaine 8’
Clairon 4’
Tremulant
Principal 16’
Violon 16’
Soubasse 16’
Octave 8’
Bourdon 8’
Octave 4’
Bombarde 16’
Trompette 8’
Couples
I. Grand Orgue
I+II, I+II sub, I+II super
II. Récit Expressif
Sub II, Super II
Pédale
P+I, P+II, P+II super
– 36 –
About the pipe organ
A pipe organ is a keyboard instrument that produces sound by letting wind travel
through pipes or reeds. Pipe organs are most commonly encountered in churches
and are not simply large, majestic musical instruments but also a beautiful piece of art.
The pipe organ repertoire is particularly rich in solo music but the organ is also
frequently used to accompany choral and congregational singing.
History of the pipe organ
As its name shows, the pipe organ consists of pipes, so technically, pipes made of
animals and plants could be considered its earliest predecessor. Nevertheless, it is
usually the bagpipe that is considered as its ancestor. Its history goes back to at least
the ancient times. Findings of the period prove that the pipe organ and its various
ancestors did exist (e.g. the water organ [hidraulis] uncovered in 1931, Aquincum).
Many old instruments still work today.
We have already written records – pictures and descriptions in codices – about
medieval pipe organs. A very characteristic organ type of the period was the
portable organ, which had only a few ranks of pipes and was used only on occasion.
Later, as the instrument grew, fixed solutions became popular (positive organ). The
organ type that had only reed pipes (regal) also appeared first in the medieval ages.
Its wind chest was made of bronze and was blown with pairs of bellows. Several
people were needed to make the instrument sound (in the 13th century, 70 people
had to work on blowing the 400-pipe organ of a cathedral). Until the medieval organs
it was not possible to switch on the various pipe ranks separately (blockwerk).
Sliders – which allowed this – appeared only in the 16th century. Organs of this time
featured pipes of the same width (they were measured to the width of an egg).
Later, as the size of the organ grew, several wind chests were built into the
instruments. Each wind chest had its own manual, or playing keys. Later so-called
‘werks’ (‘works’, which featured certain stops to create specific sounds) were built
on these chests.
By around the 16th century all the basic pipes were formed, those that can be
found in almost all contemporary organs. Wind pressure measurement (a glass tube)
was first used in the 17th century, which allowed designing pipe organs more
consciously and more precisely. This was the time when stops imitating strings
appeared and at the beginning of the 18th century, in Spain, the swellbox, which
allowed controlling (via a pedal) the dynamics of the sound of the pipes locked in the
wooden box. By this time the organs covered the classical range of voice and
transmission stops were introduced, which used the pipes of other stops, without
coupling. Organs built in Italy had no pedals, had only a few third-sounding mixture
stops, had no reeds but features the so-called Italian principal stop (Diapason), which
is an essential one ever since in modern instruments. Austrian and South German
– 37 –
organ also had few reeds, while the Spanish instruments featured a lot of flutes,
cornets, furthermore quint- and third-sounding mixture stops. Using combinations,
(stopped 8’ + wide Principal 4’ + 2 2/3’ and 1 3/5’) they could create a trumpet-like
sound. Spanish instruments have a lot of reeds up to day. The stop of horizontal
trumpets built into the facade of the organ, the so-called ‘Spanish trumpet’, or
Chamade is also a Spanish invention.
Organ building of the baroque and romantic era is very diverse. Instruments of
many important organ builders have survived; some of them found their places in
museums but most of them are still in the churches, being used (e.g. the Silbermann
organs or the instruments of Cavaille-Coll). Some instruments were restored or
rebuilt (e.g. St. Eustache, Paris), others are still in their original form (e.g. St. Ouen,
Rouen).
The development of electronics and digital technologies made it possible to
control and program the mechanic parts. Pneumatic actions were enhanced by
electric aids: relays were used to open the valves (electropneumatic action). MIDI
control is quite frequent in today’s modern consoles.
Parts, mechanism, and sound production
Conventional pipe organs consist of four main parts: the console, consisting of
keyboards and other controlling devices; the pipes that produce the sound; the
mechanism, or action; and a device that generates wind. The pipes and the action are
protected by a free-standing structure, the organ case. Traditionally, rows of dummy
or real pipes and carved woodwork in attractive arrangements partially screen the
openings in the case. As some of the organ pipes can be more than 20 feet long,
organ cases can be very large and usually play an important artistic role.
To fully enjoy the beauty of organ sound, the instrument must be placed very
carefully – most organ music requires a resonant space with three seconds or more
of reverberation time. Pipes in an acoustically ‘dead’ environment sound pale, while
fully exposed pipes without encasement usually produce a raw, unfocused sound,
which you may usually hear in concert halls.
The pipes of the organ stand in a row on an airtight chest that is supplied with
wind from bellows or a rotary blower. Under each pipe is a valve, or pallet,
connected by a system of cranks and levers to its respective key. Normally a wind
reservoir, loaded by weights or springs to maintain sufficient wind pressure, is
interposed between the wind generator and the wind-chest. This reservoir has a
safety valve that operates to relieve excessive pressure when the reservoir becomes
full.
The pitch of the notes is determined by the length of their pipes. Among pipes of
similar type, the one half the length of the other sounds exactly an octave higher.
Since the loudness of a pipe sounding on a constant pressure of wind cannot be
controlled, the expressive potential of an organ in improved by using several ranks
– 38 –
(pipe sets, also called registers or stops). A harmonium has very few of them, a small
organ may have 2-15, a middle-sized organ has 15-30 and large church and auditorium
organs may have as many as a 100 or more ranks. (However, the majesty of the
sound of the organ is not determined by its number of ranks, world’s most beautiful
sounding instruments usually don’t have hundreds of ranks.) The pallet controlled
from each key admits wind to all the pipes belonging to that key; but, in order to
allow the organist to use any of the ranks of pipes, alone or in combination, an
intermediate mechanism is provided by which he may stop off any rank or ranks.
That is why the term stop is also used in the sense of ‘rank of pipes’.
Stop and key mechanisms
The operative part of the stop mechanism lies between the pallet and the foot
holes of the pipes. It normally consists of a strip of wood or plastic running the full
length of each rank of pipes. In it is drilled a series of holes, one of which meets
exactly the foot hole of each pipe. The perforated strip, or slider, is placed in a
close-fitting guide in which it may be moved longitudinally. When it is moved a short
distance, so that its holes no longer match the pipes, wind is cut off to that rank, even
when the organist opens the pallets by means of the keys. Wind-chests in which the
stops operate in this way are called slider chests and they were in almost universal
use before the 20th century. The slider is connected to the console by a system of
levers and cranks, and it terminates in a knob that the organist pulls outward to bring
the stop into play or pushes in to silence it. Certain combinations of stops on each
manual are more commonly needed than others so usually there are ‘shortcut’ knobs
or pedals on the console (called pistons). When these combination (or composition)
pedals are pushed, stops connected to it are drawn on, and any others that are
already drawn are pushed off.
In order to play two or more interweaving, contrasted melodic lines, with two
different voices (soft and loud, harsh and quiet together or in rapid succession)
multiple manuals are needed. Each manual department is self-contained and each
controls its separate wind-chest and stops. Thus the organist may vary the sounds
produced either by changing the stops on the manuals being played or by
prearranging the stops and changing from one manual to another. Since the 18th
century organists have had yet a third way, called swell boxes, of controlling the
volume of sound. The pipes of one or more manuals may be enclosed in a box, one
side of which has shutters that are connected to a pedal (sweller pedal) at the
console. By opening and closing the shutters, the sound is made louder or softer.
Further expressivity is realized by an accessory called a tremulant, which by
repeatedly interrupting the flow of wind to the wind-chest creates a pulsation in the
tone of the pipes.
Since the 14th century, one of the manuals – controlling longer pipes – is usually
played by feet. Organs in the past in Italy and Spain had several different pedal
keyboards with fewer keys than the modern organs, which have pedal keyboards of
– 39 –
30 or 32 notes. The organist may wish to combine the stops of two different manuals
or to couple one or more of the manuals to the pedals. This is realized by a
mechanism called a coupler.
In the simplest mechanical action, the connection from key to pallet is by a series
of cranks, rollers, and levers that transmit motion horizontally and vertically from
keyboard to wind-chest. The overall distance may be considerable, and the main
distance is bridged by trackers, slender strips of wood, metal, or plastic, which are
kept in constant tension. Adjustment screws are employed to take up slack
occasioned by wear and changes of humidity.
Most of the organs built before the late 19th century have such tracker action
and they are becoming popular again, especially in modern organs built according to
historical principles. Many organists actually prefer tracker action to all other forms
because of its superior sensitivity of touch – even though in very large organs with
tracker action, considerable strength may be necessary to depress the keys.
Organs may also have other (pneumatic, direct electric, or electropneumatic)
forms of action but these actions normally result in a loss of sensitivity and
responsiveness. A compromise has been used successfully with tracker action for
each department, with the coupler action operated electrically. This arrangement has
considerable benefits, since the coupling together of three or four manuals with
tracker action results in a very heavy touch. Electric stop action may also be
combined with tracker key action, enabling the use of electric (including solid-state)
combinations – an invaluable aid in quickly changing groups of stops, especially in
larger instruments. Some organs may have more than one console to play on –
usually with different action.
Flue pipes
There are two main categories of organ pipes: flue pipes and reed pipes. Flue
pipes (wood or metal) account for the majority of the stops of an average organ. The
pipe consists of three main parts: the foot, the mouth, and the speaking length. The
pipe stands vertically on the wind-chest, and wind enters at the foot hole. The foot is
divided from the speaking length by the languid, a flat plate; the only airway
connection between the foot and the speaking length is a narrow slit called the flue.
The wind emerges through the flue and strikes the upper lip, producing an audible
frequency, the pitch of which is determined by and amplified in resonance by the
speaking length of the pipe.
The tone of a pipe is determined by many factors, including the pressure of the
wind supply, the material of the pipe, the size of the foot hole, the width of the flue,
the height and width of the mouth, and the scale, or the diameter of the pipe relative
to its speaking length. The material of which the pipe is made also exerts an influence;
it may be an alloy of lead and tin, wood, or, more rarely, pure tin or copper, and for
the bass pipes zinc. The pipes may also vary in shape, a common variant being an
upward taper in which the pipe is smaller in diameter at the top than at the mouth.
– 40 –
Or, the top of the pipe may be completely closed by a stopper. Such a pipe is said to
be stopped; a stopped pipe sounds an octave lower in pitch than an open pipe of the
same speaking length.
Open pipes of large diameter are said to be of “large scale,” and open pipes of
small diameter are said to be of “small scale.” Large-scale pipes produce a fluty or
foundational quality of tone that is free from the higher harmonics. Small-scale pipes
produce a bright quality of tone that is rich in harmonics, recalling bowed strings.
Stopped pipes can be particularly foundational in tone, and they favor the
odd-numbered at the expense of the even-numbered partials. Tapered pipes are
somewhere between stopped and open pipes in tone quality.
Flue pipes are tuned by increasing or decreasing the speaking length. In the past,
several methods of tuning were employed, but in modern times this is often done by
fitting a cylindrical slide over the free end of the speaking length and sliding it up and
down, lengthening or shortening the pipe as required. In stopped pipes the stopper is
pushed farther down to sharpen the pitch or is pulled upward to lower it.
The attack of the note may also be greatly influenced by cutting a series of small
nicks in the edge of the languid. Heavy nicking, commonly practiced in the early 20th
century, produces a smooth and sluggish attack. Light nicking or no nicking, as used
up to the 18th century and in some more advanced modern organs, produces a
vigorous attack, or chiff, somewhat like tonguing in a woodwind instrument. If not
excessive, this chiff enhances the vitality and clarity of an organ.
Spectral view of the sound of a flue pipe (Gedackt 8' – A3, +16 cent; 222.09 Hz)
Reed pipes
Organ reeds were probably originally copied from instrumental prototypes. A
reed stop may have a beating reed like that of a clarinet or a free reed. The shallot of
a beating reed pipe is roughly cylindrical in shape, with its lower end closed and the
upper end open. A section of the wall of the cylinder is cut away and finished off to a
flat surface. The slit, or shallot opening, thus formed is covered by a thin brass tongue
that is fixed to the upper end of the shallot. The tongue is curved and normally only
partially covers the shallot opening. But, when wind enters the boot, the pressure of
the wind momentarily forces the tongue against the shallot, completely closing the
opening. Immediately, the elasticity of the brass asserts itself, and the tongue reverts
to its curved shape, thus uncovering the opening. This process is repeated rapidly.
– 41 –
The frequency of the pulsations of air that enter the shallot is determined by the
effective length of the reed and, in turn, determines the pitch of the note. Thence,
the pulsations pass out into the tube, or resonator, which further stabilizes the pitch
and decides the quality of the note. Most reed resonators have a flared shape. As in
flue pipes, a wide scale favors a fundamental tone, and a narrow scale favors a bright
tone. Cylindrical resonators produce an effect similar to that of stopped flue pipes,
the note being an octave lower than the equivalent flared pipe and the tone favoring
the odd partials. Some reed pipes, such as the Voix Humaine, have very short
resonators of quarter or eighth length. Pipes the resonators of which have no
mathematical relationship to the pitch are known as regals; regal stops were popular
in the 17th century, particularly with the North German school, and their use has
been revived in modern times.
Spectral view of the sound of a reed pipe (Trompete Harmonique 8' – C4, +19 cent; 445.11 Hz)
Organ stops
The pitch of any pipe is proportional to its length. Most modern organs have a
manual compass of five octaves, from the second C below middle C to the third C
above; an open pipe sounding the low C is about 8 feet (2,5 meters) in speaking
length (64 vibrations per second). The shortest pipe in the same stop, is thus about 3
inches (8 centimeters) long (2 048 vibrations per second). While large- and
small-scale ranks often imitate the tones of flutes and bowed strings respectively,
and are named accordingly, the most characteristic tone of the organ is produced by
its Principal stops. These are of medium scale and moderate harmonic development –
neither too dull nor bright. Therefore, from the earliest times, stops were arranged
in choruses, and the principal chorus is the very backbone of any organ.
A chorus consists of stops of roughly similar quality and power but at a variety of
pitches. A unison principal is known as Principal 8’ because of its longest (8-foot) pipe.
The next stop at an octave pitch would have the largest pipe of 4 feet long. Next
comes a 2-foot stop, while the suboctave pitch is represented by a 16-foot stop. The
top pipe of a 2-foot stop has a speaking length of only three-quarters of an inch, and
this is about the practical upper limit.
Because an organ with nothing higher in pitch than a 2-foot stop would be lacking
in brilliance, organs have so-called mixture stops, which have several high-pitched
pipes to each note. These mixture stops are so high that they cannot be carried right
– 42 –
up to the top note so they break back an octave at some convenient point,
sometimes even more than once. The result is a balance of power between bass and
treble and a harmonious power that is completely peculiar to the organ and can be
produced in no other way.
Mixture stops also contain ranks sounding at pitches other than in octaves with
the 8-foot principal. In chorus mixtures these normally sound at a fifth above the
unison (e.g., G above C), although ranks sounding at a third above and even at a flat
seventh can also be found. These quint- and third-sounding ranks reinforce the
natural upper partials of the harmonic series (although they were included in organs
long before this was understood).
Off-unison ranks are also available as separate stops, mostly sounding at an
interval of a 12th (an octave and a fifth; 2 2/3’), 17th (two octaves and a third; 1 3/5’),
or 19th (two octaves and a fifth; 1 1/3’) above the unison. These are used melodically
to color the unison and octave stops, and they may be wide or narrow in scale. Such
stops are known as mutation stops, as opposed to the mixtures, or chorus stops.
Their use is essential for the historically correct performance of organ music.
The recording and editing process
We have decided to record NDB Organ Samples in 2002 and started to work in
February 2003. After a day of tests and measurements, the first recording process
took three days at Matthias Church and two days at Notre Dame de Kispest. In 2004
we had a second chance to record more combinations and stops and spent two more
nights at both churches.
For the recording we used a pair of Neumann U87 microphones and a
high-precision sound card to capture the sound of the organ and the natural reverb
of the cathedrals. The microphones were attached to a computer using a
custom-built, low-noise microphone pre-amplifier. The sampling rate of the
recording was 96 000 Hz, while the bit depth was 32 bits. The results were saved to
.wav files (type 3, 32-bit 0.24 normalized float). Recording the noise of the organ
engine was also important for the post processing. The noise reduction was a critical
point of the editing, because we wanted to keep the high sound quality, while we had
to remove the noise, as without removal, every new note in a chord would add
another unit of noise to the sound. Therefore, every single note was de-noised with
its own noise print at 96 kHz/32-bit in six-seven phases in average. This took well
over a year to complete. After reducing the noise, the samples were downsampled
to 48 kHz/24-bit (and 16-bit for the GigaStudio 2.x) and the .GIG program files were
created and programmed. For the measurements, we used the same equipment with
the same recording conditions, but in some cases where they were appropriate, we
recorded the impulse responses directly in 48 kHz. These measurements at both
churches were a great help in having information about the natural coloration of the
– 43 –
reverb of the organ sound and allowed us to create the presets for the convolution
reverb engine.
We took 25 to 40-second samples (full minute samples in case of pedal sounds)
to keep the sound as natural as it can be and to avoid looping. Pedal sounds had to be
longer because it is quite common to have a long, sustained note on the pedal. As we
had a very limited time in the churches and our goal was to use this time optimally to
record a large number of stops and combinations, there is a very small number of
pedal sounds that we took only 30-second samples and created 1-minute samples
later. The listener will not notice this, though, and most of the pedal sounds are true
1-minute samples.
About transposition
We took a sample of every second or minor third on the manual stops and
chromatically or seconds on the pedal stops. In our case it was rarely necessary to
record every single note. These symphonic organs are evenly tempered and thus it is
possible to use the computer to interpolate the sounds really well, with a difference
hard to identify. GigaStudio automatically does this. Our measurements proved that
there is no significant, audible difference in the harmonics, and we did carry out a
number of listening tests to find the reasonable limit, where adding more samples
only decreases performance but does not really make an audible difference.
As there are no loops in the samples, there can be no modulation problems of
that reason, either; using loops would not result in natural sounds, anyway. The
intonation of the pipes does not differ enough within a second or even a third in
these organs that it would degrade the authenticity of the sound; and no problems
result from transposing the pipe wind, either, because the pipe wind, especially at the
high frequencies, is very similar to a band-limited white noise (i.e., it has the same
volume at all frequencies), which means it is indifferent to transposition.
Measurements proved that the contraction of the reverb in the release samples
caused by transposition is no more than 16% compared to actual reverb that is heard
in the cathedral.
ISO 3382 T10 and T20 diagrams for two channels
– 44 –
The church reverb is actually shorter for high pitches than for low ones. This means
that for a well and evenly tempered large organ, transposing sounds to this extent
does not result in any audible problems.
Some interesting facts about NDB
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The library includes 22 GB of sound sample data.
Every recording was made actually at 96 kHz/32-bit.
3401 wave files were created and the backups filled 64 DVD disks.
There are over 2,000 manhours of work in this collection.
Over half of the revenue is donated to the churches for the restoration of
the two organs.
We are still having a slightly bad remorse for playing loud white noise and
sine sweep sound when we were measuring the impulse responses in the
cathedrals at midnight – for hours.
A massive arsenal of pro-audio and IT equipment of over $100,000 value was
used to create this library – and we dropped and broke a 19" monitor during
the first recording night.
For the impulse response measurements, we had to enter the organs, so we
had the opportunity to make photographs and videos never seen before.
We experienced a thunderstorm upon setting up the recording equipment
inside the completely dark and empty cathedral which was flashing by
lightning frequently – we were fast enough to record the sound: you’ll find
the results in the library.
– 45 –
Organ stops
The names of the stops on the organs vary greatly, by country, maker and
period. While the following list is by no means complete, we are trying to give a little
help on the names that appear on the registration board of the organs sampled.
Stop name
Basson
Description
Bassoon
Basson-hautbois
Bassoon-oboe
Bombarde
Bombarde – originally clear, colorful, later the strongest bass reed
pipes.
Bourdon
Wide, deep, humming, in higher pitches singing, covered metal or
wooden pipes.
Bourdon à cheminée
‘Chimney’ bourdon. ‘á cheminée’ (Rohr in German names) indicates
the small extension piece at the end of a closed pipe.
Clairon
Clarion, a high-pitched trumpet sound
Clarinette
Clarinet – medium-pitched pipes that resemble the actual
instrument.
Cornet, Cornett
Cornet
Cymbale, Cimbel
Highest-pitched, tight, multirow pipe set. Lots of repetitions, at
various harmonics. The brightest-sounding crown of the organ
sound.
Diapason
See Principal.
Doublette
2’ principal stop on French organs.
Dulcian
Soft, cylinder-shaped or tapered flue pipes.
Flûte
Flute
Flûte conique
‘Conic’ flute.
Flûte harmonique
See Querflöte.
Flûte traversière
See Querflöte.
Gambe
Cylinder-shaped or tapered flue pipes with a colorful, stringlike
sound.
Gedackt
‘Covered’ – indicates that the pipes are covered.
Gemshorn
Medium-wide conic, medium-volume or quiet, horn-like flue pipes.
Glocken
Glockenspiel-like sound (realized by multiple pipe sets, e.g. 2’ + ¾’)
Hauptbois
Oboe
Krummhorn
‘Bent horn’, reed pipes with natural-length cornets
Locatio (Hintersatz)
A deep, large mixture of many unison and fifth pipe sets. Recently
sometimes includes thirds and sevenths.
Mixtur
Mixed set of narrow pipes of high octaves and quints. At least two
sets of pipes, on larger organs can be as many as 10 sets. This is the
stop that gives the characteristic organ sound.
Nachthorn
‘Night horn’, the widest pipes of the organ, may be open or covered.
In spite of being wide, these pipes sound quite soft.
– 46 –
Nasard, Nasat
A harmonic stop of quint or its octaves, giving a ‘nasal’ sound.
Obertön
Harmonics (several rows of them)
Octave
Principal pipes sounding at the octave of the unison. The cleanest
stop of the whole organ, the base of tuning.
Octavin
Wide, soft blow-through pipes in French organs.
Posaune
Strong 16’ or 32’ reed pipes played by the pedal.
Praestant
Principal pipes standing in the front of the organ, usually 4’.
Principal
‘Main play’, the major element of the organ sound. Typical metallic,
organ-like sound.
Querflöte
‘Transversal flute’, wide blow-through pipes of twice the size as the
normal open pipes. A clear, somewhat veiled flute sound.
Quintatön
‘Quinter’, narrow, closed base pipes sounding the fifths strongly.
Quite nasal, somewhat bitter sound.
Quinte
A harmonic register of fifths (e.g. when a C is pressed, a G sounds).
Rohrflöte
Pipe flute – medium-wide closed pipes with an extension that yields
a brighter sound than the fully closed flute.
Salicional
Willow pipe – a tight, cylindric, somewhat string-like register.
Scharff
Acute, ‘sharp’ – a mixed rank that is tighter and of higher pitch than
Mixtur.
Septième
Seventh – when a C is pressed, A# sounds.
Sordun
Reed pipes with short cornets that give a humming sound.
Soubasse
Same as Subbass.
Sp. Trompete
Spanish trumpet – strong trumpets built horizontally in the front of
the organ.
Spitzflöte
‘Peak flute’ – a tight, bright flute with a nasal sound.
Subbass
Lower bass.
Superoctave
A 2’ or 1’ principal register.
Terz, Tierce
Third – when a C is pressed, E sounds.
Trompete,
Trompette
Strong reed pipes that resemble trumpet sound, usually with a
cornet-shaped resonator.
Trompette
harmonique
Double-sized, blow-through trumpet.
Unda maris
‘Wave of the sea’ – a soft, flute-like pipe rank tuned a little different
from normal. Together with other stops it makes the sound ‘float’.
Violon
Tight, string-like pedal stop.
Voix céleste
‘Heavenly sound’ – two sets of tight string pipes tuned a little
different from each other. Gives a floating sound.
Voix humanie
‘Human voice’ – quiet reed pipes with a short cornet that resemble
human voice.
Waldflöte
‘Forest flute’ – medium-wide, somewhat conic pipes.
Zimbel
See Cimbel.
– 47 –
Tuning information
We would like to provide you with a useful list of widely-used organ tunings in
order to allow you to change your instrument’s scale to the desired one.
Deviation from equal temperament in cents
C+0 C#+0 D+0 Eb+0 E-0
F+0 F#+0 G+0 G#+0 A+0 Bb+0 B+0
Equal
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1/4 Comma
Modified Mean Tone
0
-3.5
-7
-10.5
-14
-16
-14
-12
-7
-1
5
2.5
1/8th Comma “Well Tempered”
0
-2
-4
-6
-4
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
18th Century English (ord)
0
-3.5
-7
-16
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-8
-7
-3
Modified Mean Tone of 1818
In Simplified Form
0
-3.5
-7
-10.5
-14
-17.5
-21
-15
-20.5
9
4.5
2
Augustus De Morgan
0
1.5
-4
-6
-8
2.5
1.5
-5
-1
-5
-1.5
-1
Bach (Klais)
0
0
-3.75
-7.5
-12.5
-13
-11.5
-9.5
-7.5
-5.5
-3.75
-2
Bach’s “Wohletemperiert”
(Rediscovered By Kellner)
0
-3
-5.5
-8
-11
-9
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
Bendeler III
0
-4
-8
-6
-4
-8
-6
-2
-2
-6
-4
-2
Broadwood “Best” Tuning
(1885)
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-9
-7
-5
-4
-5
-3
-1
Charles Earl Stanhope Improved
Kirnberger IIA
0
2
-3
-8.5
-14
-12
-11
-9
-7
-5
-4
-2
French 18th Century
Temperament Ordinaire II
0
-2
-4
-10
-8
-10
-12
-14
-12
-8
-4
-2
Gioseffo Zarlino (2/7 Comma
Mean Tone) (1558)
0
-4.1
-8.2
-12.7
12.7
8.1
4.1
Idealised Well Temperament
0
-2.5
-5
-7.5
-10
-10
-9
-7
-5
-3
-1
0
Jean Phillippe Rameau’s Modified
Mean Tone
0
-3.5
-7
-10.5
-14
-17
-15.5
-13.5
-11.5
-4
5
3.5
Jean-Le Rond D’Alembert (1752)
0
-3.5
-7
-10.5
-14
-16.5
-19
-22
-23.5
-18
-10.5
-6
John Marsh (4/25 Comma Mean
Tone) (1809)
0
27.8
29.5
53.3
-8
-6
-4.2
-22.5 -22.8
-1
23
24.3
17.5
-2
Alexander Metcalf Fisher’s
-16.4 -20.5 -24.6 -28.4 -32.5
Just (Barbour)
0
2
4
-15.5
-13.5
-11.5
-9.7
-29 -27.25 -46.5
Kirnberger II
0
2
4
-5
-14
-12
-10
-10
-8
-8
-4
-2
Kirnberger III
0
-3.5
-7
-10.5
-14
-12
-10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
Lucy (John Harrison’s
31-note Mean Tone)
0
-4.5
-9
-13.5
-18
-22.5
-27
-31.5
-36
13.5
9
4.5
Modified Mean Tone
0
-3.5
-7
-10.5
-14
-15
-15
-15
-3
9
5
1
– 48 –
C+0 C#+0 D+0 Eb+0 E-0
F+0 F#+0 G+0 G#+0 A+0 Bb+0 B+0
Neidhardt I (1724)
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-8
-8
-6
-4
-4
-4
-2
Nigel Taylor (Idealised
Circulating Temperament)
0
-3
-6
-9
-12
-10
-10
-8
-6
0
-2
-2
Pietro Aaron (1/4 Comma Mean
Tone) (1523)
0
-2
-7
-7
-14
-12
-14
-24
-18
10
5
3.5
Ptolemaic (Just)
0
2
4
-16
-14
-12
-10
12
14
16
-4
-2
Pythagorean
(Arnout van Zwolle 15c.)
0
2
4
6
8
10
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
Rossi (1/5 Comma Mean Tone)
7
-9.4
2.3
14.1
-2.4
9.4
-7.1
4.7
-11.7
0
11.7
-4.7
Rossi (1/9 Comma Mean Tone)
8.5
-11.3
2.8
17.0
-2.8
11.3
-8.5
5.7
-14.1
0
14.1
-5.7
Salinas (1/3 Comma Mean Tone)
0
-3.2
-10.5
-16
-20.8
-34
-31.3 -36.5 -41.8
16
10.5
5.2
Silbermann (1/6 Comma Mean
Tone)
0
27.3
28.5
51.8
-10
-8.5
-7.2
-26.8
0.5
24
24.8
Vallotti
-26
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
5.8
0
2
3.9
-1.9
7.8
-1.9
3.9
1.9
0
5.9
-3.9
Werckmeister III (1691)
0
-4
-8
-12
-10
-8
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
Werckmeister IV
0
-6
-4
-10
-8
-14
-12
-18
-16
-6
4
-2
Werckmeister V
0
2
4
0
-4
-2
0
-4
-8
0
2
4
Werckmeister VI
0
-1.5
-12.5
-7.5
-5.5
-3.5
-5
-9.5
-7.5
-2.5
-0.5
-2
William Hawkes
Modified Mean Tone (1807)
0
-2
-5
-7
-9
-12
-14
-16
-14
-5
5
2
Young I (Idealised Well
Temperament) 1799
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-8
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
0
Young II 1800
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
Van Biezen
The grey fields indicate converted values from Hz, might not be 100% accurate.
– 49 –
If you wish to calculate frequencies from the table above, here is a useful formula
to do all this.
C
hertz = 2 1200
+O +
N
12
* REF
or the other way:
cent = 1200 * log 2
H
N
−O −
REF
12
where
C
is the value to be calculated or converted in cents
H
is the value to be calculated or converted in Hertz
O
is the value of the octave transposed from the reference ’a’ note, where
the desired note is located (e.g. if ’a1’ is the reference, 0 for a ’c1’, +1 for a
’d2’, -1 for a ’g#0’, etc.)
N
is the number of half-notes from the reference note (’a’) in the interval of
one octave (values from -9 to 2: e.g. -9 for a ’c’, -8 for a ’c#’, etc., 0 for an
’a’, 1 for an ’a#’ and 2 for a ’b’ regardless of its octave)
REF is the frequency in Hertz of the reference ’a1’ note of the scale (e.g. 440
Hz, 415 Hz, etc.)
– 50 –
Legal issues
The exact legal terms of usage are detailed in the End-User License Agreement
(EULA) which you can find separate. Here we would like to give you a very quick
overview what is really important regarding the usage of this library.
First and foremost, you have purchased a license to use the sound samples, not
the ownership of the library. This means you are not entirely free to do whatever
you want with the samples. Your license, among others, allows you to:
– use the library to create sound recordings;
– give concerts with them;
– or even sell your recordings, use them in movies, etc.
However, you must not cheat and say you played on real organs or fake that
you are playing on a real one. In particular, you are strictly forbidden to:
– falsely represent that your recording was played on the actual organ of the
Matthias Church or any church organ whatsoever;
– represent the name of Matthias Church (and its other names) and Notre
Dame de Kispest (and its other names) on your recordings, product, film
score, or whatsoever;
– use the samples in any electronic organs;
– build any kind of instruments using this library.
In fact, if you create a recording of any commercial use using sound samples of
this library, you must indicate the following sentence on the disk, tape or other
media: “The organ sound on this recording was created by using the Notre Dame de
Budapest Pipe Organ Samples.” Also, you must not add anything else that would
disagree with this sentence (such sentences like "Recorded at ..." or "Organ sound of
XY church", etc.). You must not use the name of the churches or the organs, the
place of the churches or the organs, or the manufacturer of the organ.
The rest is the usual restrictions. You can and actually, you must copy the
contents of the DVD disks to your hard drive – but only to one machine that belongs
to you. You may also create one copy on DVD for yourself, only for backup
purposes. You must not extract, edit, modify, reproduce, copy, upload or download
from or to a database the single wave files. You must not modify the files provided. If
you need to convert the sample sets for yourself to a desired format, please contact
us.
– 51 –
Credits
Csaba Huszty
NDB architect and lead engineer
Szabolcs Varga
managing director
Shirokuma Ltd.
We wish to thank the following people for their kind help and advice:
Bertalan Hock
Titulaire du Grand-Orgue de Notre Dame de Buda, Matthias Church
Professeur d’orgue au Conservatoire de György Solti, Budapest
Tamás Vadas
Organist of Notre Dame de Kispest
Bálint Karosi
organist, composer
György Gadányi
photographer
and
János Horváth, Kinga Gergely, Gergely Huszty and Árpád Gergely.
Thank you for supporting world heritage by your purchase.
– 52 –
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Thank you for your participation!

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