Guide to the High-Performance Loader, Version 7.3

Guide to the High-Performance Loader, Version 7.3
Guide to the
High-Performance
Loader
Informix Dynamic Server
Informix Dynamic Server, Developer Edition
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup Edition
Version 7.3
February 1998
Part No. 000-4344
Published by INFORMIX Press
Informix Software, Inc.
4100 Bohannon Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025-1032
Copyright  1981-1998 by Informix Software, Inc. or its subsidiaries, provided that portions may be
copyrighted by third parties, as set forth in documentation. All rights reserved.
The following are worldwide trademarks of Informix Software, Inc., or its subsidiaries, registered in the
United States of America as indicated by “,” and in numerous other countries worldwide:
Answers OnLine; INFORMIX; Informix; Illustra; C-ISAM; DataBlade; Dynamic Server; Gateway;
NewEra
All other names or marks may be registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective owners.
Documentation Team: Beth Delson, Evelyn Eldridge-Diaz, Barbara Nomiyama
RESTRICTED RIGHTS/SPECIAL LICENSE RIGHTS
Software and documentation acquired with US Government funds are provided with rights as follows: (1) if
for civilian agency use, with Restricted Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-19; (2) if for Dept. of Defense use, with
rights as restricted by vendor's standard license, unless superseded by negotiated vendor license as prescribed
in DFAR 227.7202. Any whole or partial reproduction of software or documentation marked with this legend
must reproduce the legend.
ii Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Table of
Contents
Table of Contents
Introduction
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . .
Assumptions About Your Locale. . . . . . . .
Demonstration Database . . . . . . . . . .
New Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation Conventions . . . . . . . . . .
Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . .
Icon Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command-Line Conventions . . . . . . . . .
Screen-Illustration Conventions . . . . . . . .
Additional Documentation . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printed Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Message Files . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, Machine Notes
Compliance with Industry Standards . . . . . . .
Informix Welcomes Your Comments . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
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3
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4
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6
6
7
9
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14
15
16
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1-4
1-5
1-7
1-8
1-8
1-8
High-Performance Loader Overview
Overview of Features of the HPL
Data Load . . . . . . . .
Data Unload . . . . . . .
Loading Modes . . . . . .
Deluxe Mode . . . . .
Express Mode . . . . .
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The HPL Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The onpload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The ipload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The onpload Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Relationship Among the Parts of the HPL. . . . . . .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The DBONPLOAD Environment Variable . . . . . . . .
The PLCONFIG Environment Variable . . . . . . . . .
The Architecture of the onpload Utility . . . . . . . . . .
Deluxe-Mode Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Express-Mode Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
Getting Started
Data-Load Example . . . . . . . . .
Start the Database Server . . . . . .
Create a File of Data . . . . . . . .
Create a Database . . . . . . . .
The ipload Utility . . . . . . . . . .
Start the ipload Utility . . . . . . .
Choose a Project . . . . . . . . .
Check Your Defaults . . . . . . .
The Load Job Windows . . . . . . . .
The Load Job Select Window . . . . .
The Load Job Window . . . . . . .
The Device-Array Windows . . . . . .
The Device Array Selection Window . .
The Device-Array Definition Window .
The Format Windows . . . . . . . .
The Format Views Window . . . . .
The Record Formats Window . . . .
The Format-Definition Window. . . .
The Filter, Discard Records, and Logfile Boxes
The Filter Text Box . . . . . . . .
The Discard Records Text Box . . . .
The Logfile Text Box. . . . . . . .
The Map Windows . . . . . . . . .
The Map Views Window . . . . . .
The Load Record Maps Window . . .
The Map Definition Window. . . . .
The Load Options Window . . . . . . .
The Run Option . . . . . . . . . .
iv
1-9
1-9
1-10
1-10
1-11
1-13
1-13
1-14
1-15
1-16
1-18
1-20
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
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2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-10
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-13
2-15
2-17
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-23
2-23
2-28
2-29
The Active Job Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Verify the Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Perform a Level-0 Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Generate Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Start the Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Prepare the Unload-Job Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Perform the Unload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Chapter 3
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows
Using the HPL User Interface . . . . . . . . .
Starting the User Interface . . . . . . . . .
The HPL Main Window . . . . . . . . . .
The Component-Selection Windows . . . . .
The Component-Definition Windows . . . . .
The Load Job and Unload Job Windows . . . .
The Views Windows . . . . . . . . . . .
The Selection-List Windows . . . . . . . .
The Message Windows . . . . . . . . . .
Using the HPL Buttons . . . . . . . . . . .
Toolbar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Icon Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the On-Line Help . . . . . . . . . . .
Using UNIX Keyboard Commands to Move the Cursor
Chapter 4
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3-3
3-4
3-4
3-7
3-10
3-14
3-15
3-19
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-29
3-32
3-33
3-33
4-3
4-6
4-7
4-7
Defining Projects
Project Organization . .
The Projects Window .
Creating a New Project
Selecting a Project . .
Chapter 5
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. 5-3
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. 5-4
. 5-5
. 5-5
. 5-5
. 5-7
. 5-8
. 5-9
. 5-10
Configuring the High-Performance Loader
Configuring the ipload Utility . . .
Selecting a Database Server . . . .
Using the Connect Server Window
Creating the onpload Database .
Modifying the onpload Defaults . .
The Defaults Window . . . .
Changing the onpload Defaults .
Modifying the Machine Description .
The Machines Window . . . .
Using the Machines Window . .
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Table of Contents v
Chapter 6
Defining Device Arrays
Device Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Multiple Devices in a Device Array . . . . . . . .
Using the Device Array Selection Window . . . . . . . .
Using the Device-Array Definition Window . . . . . . .
Chapter 7
Defining Formats
Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed-Length Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Fixed Format . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing a Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Fixed Format That Uses Carriage Returns . .
Creating a Fixed Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
Delimited Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Delimited Format . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Delimited Format That Includes
BYTE or TEXT Data. . . . . . . . . . .
COBOL Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a COBOL Format . . . . . . . . . . .
The Picture and Usage Descriptions . . . . . . . .
Other Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Format Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Fixed and COBOL Formats . . . . . . .
Modifying Delimited-Format Options . . . . . . .
The Format Views Window . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 8
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7-3
7-4
7-5
7-9
7-11
7-12
7-15
7-15
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7-16
7-18
7-18
7-19
7-20
7-20
7-20
7-21
7-21
7-22
7-24
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8-3
8-4
8-7
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-15
8-17
Defining Queries
Queries . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Query . . . . . .
Using the Table Button . . .
Editing the WHERE Clause .
Editing a Query . . . . . .
Exporting and Importing Queries
Importing a Query . . . .
Exporting a Query . . . .
The Database Views Window . .
vi
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
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Chapter 9
Defining Maps
Maps . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Maps . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Map-Definition Window
Creating a Load Map . . . . .
Unload Maps . . . . . . . . .
Creating an Unload Map . . .
Mapping Options . . . . . . .
Using Mapping Options . . . .
Setting the Mapping Options . .
Editing Options . . . . . . . .
Using the Delete Button . . . .
Using the Find Button . . . .
Using the Specs Button . . . .
The Map Views Window . . . . .
Chapter 10
Defining Filters
Using a Filter . . . . . . .
Creating a Filter . . . . . .
Editing a Filter . . . . . .
Filter Views . . . . . . .
Filters with Code-Set Conversion
Chapter 11
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. . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
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. . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
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. . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
. . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
Unloading Data from a Database
Components of the Unload Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Choosing the Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Running Multiple Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
The Unload Job Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Creating an Unload Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Running the Unload Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Using the Command-Line Information. . . . . . . . . . 11-10
Changing the Unload Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
Editing an Unload Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
The Generate Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Chapter 12
Loading Data to a Database Table
Components of the Load Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing the Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running Multiple Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing User Privileges and the Violations Table . . . . .
12-3
12-4
12-4
12-5
Table of Contents vii
The Load Job Windows . . . . . . .
Creating a Load Job . . . . . . .
Running the Load Job . . . . . .
Using the Command-Line Information
Changing the Load Options . . . .
Editing a Load Job . . . . . . .
The Generate Options . . . . . . .
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
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12-7
12-8
12-10
12-12
12-13
12-15
12-16
Types of Generate Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating from the Load Job Window . . . . . . .
Using the Autogenerate Load Components Window .
Generating from the Unload Job Window . . . . . . .
Using the Autogenerate Unload Components Window
Generating from the Components Menu . . . . . . .
The Generate Window . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating Load and Unload Components . . . . .
Using the No Conversion Job Option . . . . . . .
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13-3
13-4
13-4
13-6
13-6
13-10
13-10
13-13
13-14
The Browsing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previewing Data-File Records . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing Records That the Conversion Rejected . . . . .
Viewing the Violations Table . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job . . . . . .
14-3
14-3
14-7
14-8
14-9
Generate Options
Browsing
Managing the High-Performance Loader
Modes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deluxe Mode . . . . . . . .
Express Mode . . . . . . . .
Violations . . . . . . . . . . .
Rejected Records from the Input File
Constraint Violations . . . . .
Viewing Error Records . . . . .
Performance . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . .
Mode . . . . . . . . . . .
onstat Options for onpload . . .
Devices for the Device Array. . .
Usage Models . . . . . . . .
Performance Hints . . . . . .
viii Guide to the High-Performance Loader
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15-3
15-4
15-4
15-9
15-9
15-10
15-10
15-10
15-11
15-12
15-12
15-12
15-13
15-16
Chapter 16
The onpload Utility
Understanding the onpload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Starting the onpload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Using the onpload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Appendix A
The onpload Database
Appendix B
The High-Performance Loader Configuration File
Appendix C
Picture Strings
Appendix D
Match Condition Operators and Characters
Appendix E
Custom Conversion Functions
Appendix F
The onstat -j Option
Appendix G
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages
Index
Table of Contents ix
Introduction
Introduction
About This Manual . . . . . . .
Types of Users . . . . . . .
Software Dependencies . . . .
Assumptions About Your Locale .
Demonstration Database . . .
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3
3
4
4
4
New Features .
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5
Documentation Conventions . . . . . . .
Typographical Conventions . . . . . .
Icon Conventions . . . . . . . . . .
Comment Icons . . . . . . . . .
Feature, Product, and Platform Icons . .
Command-Line Conventions . . . . . .
How to Read a Command-Line Diagram
Screen-Illustration Conventions . . . . .
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Additional Documentation . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printed Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Message Files . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, Machine Notes
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Compliance with Industry Standards
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Informix Welcomes Your Comments .
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2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
R
ead this introduction for an overview of the information
provided in this manual and for an understanding of the documentation
conventions used.
About This Manual
This manual describes how to use the High-Performance Loader (HPL) to
load and unload large quantities of data efficiently to or from an Informix
database.
This manual includes two tutorial examples that take you through the
process of loading and unloading data.
Types of Users
This manual is for the following users who must load and unload large
quantities of data:
■
Database administrators
■
Database server administrators
This manual assumes that you have the following background:
■
A working knowledge of your computer, your operating system,
and the utilities that your operating system provides
■
Some experience working with relational databases or exposure to
database concepts
If you have limited experience with relational databases, SQL, or your
operating system, refer to Getting Started with Informix Dynamic Server for a
list of supplementary titles.
Introduction 3
Software Dependencies
Software Dependencies
This manual assumes that your database server is one of the following
products:
■
Informix Dynamic Server, Version 7.3
■
Informix Dynamic Server, Developer Edition, Version 7.3
■
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup Edition, Version 7.3
Assumptions About Your Locale
Informix products can support many languages, cultures, and code sets. All
culture-specific information is brought together in a single environment,
called a GLS (Global Language Support) locale.
This manual assumes that you are using the default locale, en_us.8859-1. This
locale supports U.S. English format conventions for dates, times, and
currency. In addition, this locale supports the ISO 8859-1 code set, which
includes the ASCII code set plus many 8-bit characters such as é, è, and ñ.
If you plan to use nondefault characters in your data or your SQL identifiers,
or if you want to conform to the nondefault collation rules of character data,
you need to specify the appropriate nondefault locale(s). For instructions on
how to specify a nondefault locale, additional syntax, and other considerations related to GLS locales, see the Guide to GLS Functionality.
Demonstration Database
The DB-Access utility, which is provided with your Informix database server
products, includes a demonstration database called stores7 that contains
information about a fictitious wholesale sporting-goods distributor. You can
use SQL scripts provided with DB-Access to derive a second database, called
sales_demo. This database illustrates a dimensional schema for datawarehousing applications. Sample command files are also included for
creating and populating these databases.
Many examples in Informix manuals are based on the stores7 demonstration
database. The stores7 database is described in detail and its contents are
listed in this manual.
4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
New Features
The scripts that you use to install the demonstration databases reside
in the $INFORMIXDIR/bin directory on UNIX platforms and the
%INFORMIXDIR%\bin directory on Windows NT platforms. For a complete
explanation of how to create and populate the stores7 demonstration
database, refer to the DB-Access User Manual. For an explanation of how to
create and populate the sales_demo database, refer to the Informix Guide to
Database Design and Implementation.
New Features
Most of the new features for Version 7.3 of Informix Dynamic Server fall into
five major areas:
■
Performance
■
Reliability, availability, and serviceability
■
Manageability
■
Windows NT-specific features
■
Application migration
Several additional features affect connectivity, replication, and the optical
subsystem. For a comprehensive list of new features, see the release notes for
your database server.
This manual includes information about the following new features:
■
High-Performance Loader for Windows NT
■
Informix Enterprise Command Center, which provides the ability to
manage your entire database environment (UNIX and Windows NT)
from a single console
Introduction 5
Documentation Conventions
Documentation Conventions
This section describes the conventions that this manual uses. These conventions make it easier to gather information from this and other Informix
manuals.
The following conventions are covered:
■
Typographical conventions
■
Icon conventions
■
Command-line conventions
■
Screen-illustration conventions
Typographical Conventions
This manual uses the following standard set of conventions to introduce new
terms, illustrate screen displays, describe command syntax, and so forth.
Convention
Meaning
KEYWORD
All keywords appear in uppercase letters in a serif font.
italics
Within text, new terms and emphasized words appear in italics.
Within syntax diagrams, values that you are to specify appear
in italics.
boldface
Identifiers (names of classes, objects, constants, events,
functions, program variables, forms, labels, and reports),
environment variables, database names, filenames, table
names, column names, icons, menu items, command names,
and other similar terms appear in boldface.
monospace
Information that the product displays and information that you
enter appear in a monospace typeface.
KEYSTROKE
Keys that you are to press appear in uppercase letters in a sans
serif font.
(1 of 2)
6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Icon Conventions
Convention
Meaning
♦
This symbol indicates the end of feature-, product-, platform-,
or compliance-specific information.
➞
This symbol indicates a menu item. For example, “Choose
Tools➞Options” means choose the Options item from the
Tools menu.
(2 of 2)
Tip: When you are instructed to “enter” characters or to “execute” a command,
immediately press RETURN after the entry. When you are instructed to “type” the
text or to “press” other keys, no RETURN is required.
Icon Conventions
Throughout the documentation, you will find text that is identified by several
different types of icons. This section describes these icons.
Comment Icons
Comment icons identify warnings, important notes, or tips. This information
is always displayed in italics.
Icon
Description
The warning icon identifies vital instructions, cautions, or
critical information.
The important icon identifies significant information about
the feature or operation that is being described.
The tip icon identifies additional details or shortcuts for the
functionality that is being described.
Introduction 7
Icon Conventions
Feature, Product, and Platform Icons
Feature, product, and platform icons identify paragraphs that contain
feature-specific, product-specific, or platform-specific information.
Icon
Description
GLS
IDS
UNIX
Identifies information that relates to the Informix GLS
feature.
Identifies information that is specific to Dynamic Server
and its editions. However, in some cases, the identified
section applies only to Informix Dynamic Server and not to
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions. Such information is clearly identified.
Identifies information that is specific to the UNIX platform.
W/D
Identifies information that is specific to Informix Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions.
WIN NT
Identifies information that is specific to the Windows NT
environment.
These icons can apply to a row in a table, one or more paragraphs, or an entire
section. If an icon appears next to a section heading, the information that
applies to the indicated feature, product, or platform ends at the next heading
at the same or higher level. A ♦ symbol indicates the end of the feature-,
product-, or platform-specific information that appears within a table or a set
of paragraphs within a section.
8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Command-Line Conventions
Command-Line Conventions
This section defines and illustrates the format of commands that are available
in Informix products. These commands have their own conventions, which
might include alternative forms of a command, required and optional parts
of the command, and so forth.
Each diagram displays the sequences of required and optional elements that
are valid in a command. A diagram begins at the upper-left corner with a
command. It ends at the upper-right corner with a vertical line. Between
these points, you can trace any path that does not stop or back up. Each path
describes a valid form of the command. You must supply a value for words
that are in italics.
You might encounter one or more of the following elements on a commandline path.
Element
Description
command
This required element is usually the product name or
other short word that invokes the product or calls the
compiler or preprocessor script for a compiled Informix
product. It might appear alone or precede one or more
options. You must spell a command exactly as shown
and use lowercase letters.
variable
A word in italics represents a value that you must
supply, such as a database, file, or program name. A table
following the diagram explains the value.
-flag
A flag is usually an abbreviation for a function, menu, or
option name or for a compiler or preprocessor argument.
You must enter a flag exactly as shown, including the
preceding hyphen.
.ext
A filename extension, such as .sql or .cob, might follow
a variable that represents a filename. Type this extension
exactly as shown, immediately after the name of the file.
The extension might be optional in certain products.
(.,;+*-/)
Punctuation and mathematical notations are literal
symbols that you must enter exactly as shown.
(1 of 2)
Introduction 9
Command-Line Conventions
Element
Description
' '
Single quotes are literal symbols that you must enter as
shown.
A reference in a box represents a subdiagram. Imagine
that the subdiagram is spliced into the main diagram at
this point. When a page number is not specified, the
subdiagram appears on the same page.
Privileges
p. 5-17
Privileges
A shaded option is the default action.
ALL
Syntax within a pair of arrows indicates a subdiagram.
The vertical line terminates the command.
-f
OFF
ON
,
variable
,
3
size
A branch below the main path indicates an optional
path. (Any term on the main path is required, unless
a branch can circumvent it.)
A loop indicates a path that you can repeat. Punctuation
along the top of the loop indicates the separator symbol
for list items.
A gate ( 3 ) on a path indicates that you can only use
that path the indicated number of times, even if it is part
of a larger loop. Here you can specify size no more than
three times within this statement segment.
(2 of 2)
10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Screen-Illustration Conventions
How to Read a Command-Line Diagram
Figure 1 shows a command-line diagram that uses some of the elements that
are listed in the previous table.
Figure 1
Example of a Command-Line Diagram
setenv
INFORMIXC
compiler
pathname
To construct a command correctly, start at the top left with the command.
Then follow the diagram to the right, including the elements that you want.
The elements in the diagram are case sensitive.
Figure 1 diagrams the following steps:
1.
Type the word setenv.
2.
Type the word INFORMIXC.
3.
Supply either a compiler name or pathname.
After you choose compiler or pathname, you come to the terminator.
Your command is complete.
4.
Press RETURN to execute the command.
Screen-Illustration Conventions
The illustrations in this manual are generic renditions of various windowing
environments. The details of specific dialog boxes, controls, and windows are
deleted or redesigned to provide this generic look. Therefore, the illustrations
in this manual depict the windowing environment a little differently than the
way it appears on your screen.
To familiarize yourself with this generic appearance, compare the generic
windows and controls shown in Chapter 3, “Using the High-Performance
Loader Windows,” to the windows and controls of the windowing
environment in which you are operating the ipload utility.
Introduction 11
Additional Documentation
Additional Documentation
For additional information, you might want to refer to the following types of
documentation:
■
On-line manuals
■
Printed manuals
■
On-line help
■
Error message files
■
Documentation notes, release notes, and machine notes
On-Line Manuals
An Answers OnLine CD that contains Informix manuals in electronic format
is provided with your Informix products. You can install the documentation
or access it directly from the CD. For information about how to install, read,
and print on-line manuals, see the installation insert that accompanies
Answers OnLine.
Printed Manuals
To order printed manuals, call 1-800-331-1763 or send email to
[email protected] Please provide the following information when
you place your order:
12
■
The documentation that you need
■
The quantity that you need
■
Your name, address, and telephone number
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
On-Line Help
On-Line Help
The HPL on-line help facility provides a detailed, context-sensitive
explanation of program functions. To invoke the on-line help, click Help in
any window for window-specific help or choose options from the Help menu
on the HPL main window. The Help menu lets you choose Glossary to view
definitions that are related to the HPL or choose Contents to search for
specific topics.
Error Message Files
Informix software products provide ASCII files that contain all of the
Informix error messages and their corrective actions. For a detailed
description of these error messages, refer to Informix Error Messages in
Answers OnLine.
UNIX
To read the error messages under UNIX, use the following commands.
Command
Description
finderr
Displays error messages on line
rofferr
Formats error messages for printing
♦
WIN NT
To read error messages and corrective actions under Windows NT, use the
Informix Find Error utility. To display this utility, choose
Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar. ♦
The HPL log file stores nonnumbered messages that are returned by onpload
during a data load or unload. For explanatory notes for the messages that
appear in the log file, refer to Appendix G.
Introduction 13
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, Machine Notes
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, Machine Notes
In addition to printed documentation, the following sections describe the
on-line files that supplement the information in this manual. Please examine
these files before you begin using your database server. They contain vital
information about application and performance issues.
UNIX
On UNIX platforms, the following on-line files appear in the
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333 directory.
On-Line File
Purpose
HPLDOC_7.3
The documentation-notes file for your version of this manual
describes features that are not covered in the manual or that
have been modified since publication.
SERVERS_7.3
The release-notes file describes feature differences from earlier
versions of Informix products and how these differences might
affect current products. This file also contains information about
any known problems and their workarounds.
IDS_7.3
The machine-notes file describes any special actions that are
required to configure and use Informix products on your
computer. Machine notes are named for the product described.
Replace x.y in the filename with the version number of your
database server to derive the name of the machine-notes file.
♦
14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Compliance with Industry Standards
WIN NT
The following items appear in the Informix folder. To display this folder,
choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar.
Program Group Item
Description
Documentation Notes
This item includes additions or corrections to manuals,
along with information about features that may not be
covered in the manuals or that have been modified since
publication.
Release Notes
This item describes feature differences from earlier
versions of Informix products and how these differences might affect current products. This file also
contains information about any known problems and
their workarounds.
Machine notes do not apply to Windows NT platforms. ♦
Compliance with Industry Standards
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has established a set of
industry standards for SQL. Informix SQL-based products are fully compliant
with SQL-92 Entry Level (published as ANSI X3.135-1992), which is identical
to ISO 9075:1992. In addition, many features of Informix database servers
comply with the SQL-92 Intermediate and Full Level and X/Open SQL CAE
(common applications environment) standards.
Introduction 15
Informix Welcomes Your Comments
Informix Welcomes Your Comments
Please tell us what you like or dislike about our manuals. To help us with
future versions of our manuals, we want to know about corrections or clarifications that you would find useful. Include the following information:
■
The name and version of the manual that you are using
■
Any comments that you have about the manual
■
Your name, address, and phone number
Write to us at the following address:
Informix Software, Inc.
SCT Technical Publications Department
4100 Bohannon Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025
If you prefer to send email, our address is:
[email protected]
Or send a facsimile to the Informix Technical Publications Department at:
650-926-6571
We appreciate your feedback
16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Chapter
High-Performance Loader
Overview
1
Overview of Features of the HPL .
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Data Load .
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Data Unload .
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1-7
Loading Modes . .
Deluxe Mode .
Express Mode .
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1-8
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1-9
1-9
1-10
1-10
1-11
1-12
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The DBONPLOAD Environment Variable . . . . .
The PLCONFIG Environment Variable . . . . . .
Avoiding Shared-Memory Collision . . . . . .
Setting the PLOAD_SHMBASE Environment Variable
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1-13
1-13
1-14
1-14
1-15
The Architecture of the onpload Utility . . .
Deluxe-Mode Loads . . . . . . . .
Threads That the onpload Utility Uses
Threads That the Database Server Uses
Express-Mode Loads . . . . . . . .
Unloads . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1-15
1-16
1-17
1-18
1-18
1-20
The HPL Utilities . . . . . . . . . . .
The onpload Utility . . . . . . . . .
The ipload Utility . . . . . . . . . .
The onpload Database . . . . . . . .
The Relationship Among the Parts of the HPL
Distinctions Among the Parts of the HPL
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1-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
his chapter introduces the High-Performance Loader (HPL),
provides a general overview of the tasks that the HPL performs, and
describes the architecture of the HPL. The chapter discusses the theory of the
HPL, but it does not attempt to describe how to use the HPL.
Chapter 2 introduces the user interface, the ipload utility, that you can use to
set the parameters for the HPL. Subsequent chapters provide details about
the ipload user interface.
WIN NT
If you do not have access to the ipload utility, and you want to use the full
functionality of the onpload utility, refer to this chapter and to Chapter 15,
“Managing the High-Performance Loader,” Chapter 16, “The onpload
Utility,” and Appendix A through Appendix G.
You can also use the Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC) interface
to load large quantities of data to or from a database. For information on
loading with IECC, see the Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide. ♦
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-3
Overview of Features of the HPL
Overview of Features of the HPL
The HPL is a feature of the database server that allows you to load and unload
large quantities of data efficiently to or from a database. The HPL lets you
exchange data with tapes, data files, and programs, and converts data from
these sources into a format compatible with Informix databases. The HPL also
allows you to manipulate and filter the data as you perform load and unload
operations.
The HPL includes the following features:
1-4
■
The HPL supports COBOL, ASCII, multibyte, delimited, or binary
data. You can add custom drivers to support other data types.
■
The HPL can load and unload data of a different GLS locale from that
of the database server.
■
The client/server architecture of the HPL lets you use the ipload
utility, a graphical user interface, on any computer on your network.
■
The ipload utility provides a Generate option that lets you automatically generate the HPL components that are required for a load or
unload job.
■
The database-load feature lets you update your databases with data
from any of the supported file types, while allowing you to control
the format and selection of records from the input files. Data can be
loaded from or unloaded to files, tapes, or application pipes (for
UNIX), or to any combination of these three device types.
■
The HPL provides synonym support for tables that are valid for the
local database server. You can use synonyms for both the load and
unload operations.
■
The HPL provides support for unloading data with a query that
accesses a view in its SELECT statement.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Data Load
■
The load and unload operations run in the background of your
multitasking operating system. Once the operation begins, you can
continue to use ipload to perform other functions.
■
The HPL provides context-sensitive on-line help. The on-line help
also includes a glossary.
■
Any database server on your network can use the onpload database,
which contains parameters and controls that the HPL uses. This
accessibility allows centralized management of your load and
unload controls. These parameters and controls include the HPL
components such as formats, maps, and projects.
Data Load
The data-load process reads a source data file, converts the data to a different
format, and inserts the converted data into a database table. The source data
can come from one or more of the following sources:
WIN
UNIX
NT
■
Files
■
Tapes
■
Pipes (application-generated data) ♦
During conversion, the source data is often manipulated so that the
converted data displays different characteristics. Examples of this
manipulation include:
GLS
■
changing lowercase letters to uppercase letters.
■
loading default values, loading certain table columns, or replacing
nulls.
■
masking the data to include only part of a value.
■
converting from one data type to another, such as conversion of a
numeric string to a float.
■
converting from the code set of one locale to the code set of another
locale. ♦
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-5
Data Load
When you prepare to run a data load using the HPL, you describe the actions
that the HPL must take by defining a set of meta-data components. The components describe different aspects of the load process. Figure 1-1 illustrates the
data load process. The HPL uses information from:
■
the device array to find the set of the source-data files.
■
the format to define the data types and layout of the source data.
■
the filter to select the records from the source data that should be
written to the database table.
■
the map to modify and reorganize the data.
The ipload utility helps you prepare the components. Chapter 12, “Loading
Data to a Database Table,” addresses the process of loading a file to a
database.
Figure 1-1
The Data-Load Process
Data files
Format
Input records
Selected records
Filter
Device
array
1-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Table entries
Map
Data Unload
Data Unload
The data-unload process is essentially the same as the load process, but in
reverse. The data-unload process extracts the source data from one or more
database tables; converts the data to a new format; and writes the converted
data to a file, tape, or on UNIX to a pipe (application). As in a load, you can
manipulate the data from a database table so that the converted data displays
different characteristics.
Figure 1-2 illustrates how the components of the HPL affect the data as it
moves from a database to data files during the unload process. The HPL uses:
■
the query to select records from the database.
■
the map to reorganize or modify the selected records.
■
the format to prepare the records for writing out to the data files.
■
the device array to find the location of the data files.
Figure 1-2
The Data-Unload Process
Format
Selected records
Selected table
Query
Reorganized records
Data files
Map
Device
array
The HPL uses the same components for an unload as for a load, with one
exception. For an unload, the ipload utility creates a Structured Query
Language (SQL) query that extracts selected data from the table. As with a
load, unload components are grouped together into an unload job. Unload
jobs can be saved, retrieved, and rerun as many times as necessary. Unload
jobs can be grouped together with load jobs in the same project.
For a description of the steps involved in an unload, refer to Chapter 11,
“Unloading Data from a Database.”
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-7
Loading Modes
Loading Modes
The HPL offers two load modes: deluxe and express. Express mode is faster
and deluxe mode is more flexible. You can choose the mode that is best suited
for your environment. For a detailed comparison between express and
deluxe mode, refer to Chapter 15, “Managing the High-Performance
Loader.”
Deluxe Mode
The deluxe mode updates indexes, performs constraint checking, and
evaluates triggers as data is inserted into the table. Deluxe mode does not
lock the table, so the loading of data can take place while other users are
working. Deluxe mode is not as fast as express mode but allows table access
and update during a load.
Express Mode
The express mode disables indexes, constraints, and triggers during the load.
After the load, indexes are rebuilt and reenabled, constraints are evaluated
and reenabled if possible, and triggers are reenabled. (The triggers are not
evaluated with respect to the loaded data.) Express-mode loads are significantly faster than deluxe loads; however, no one can update the table or read
the new data entries until the load is complete.
1-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The HPL Utilities
The HPL Utilities
The major parts of the HPL are as follows:
■
The onpload utility
■
The ipload utility
■
The onpload database
The largest part of this manual discusses the HPL user interface, the ipload
utility, because the user interface is the part that you see and with which you
interact. However, the ipload utility is merely the interface that allows you to
prepare the parameters (the onpload database) that the onpload utility uses
to perform the data loads and unloads. Theoretically, you could use
DB-Access or some other tool to populate the onpload database and never
use ipload. However, ipload is a more efficient and accurate way to populate
the onpload database.
The onpload Utility
The onpload utility performs the actual activity of converting and moving
data. The onpload utility uses information from the onpload database to run
the load or unload and to convert the data. The onpload utility performs
conversion and filtering operations. During a load, onpload also records
information about data records that do not meet the load criteria.
One of the ipload options lets you start the onpload utility, so that you do not
need to start the onpload utility from the command line.
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-9
The ipload Utility
WIN
UNIX
NT
The ipload Utility
The ipload utility is a graphical interface that you use to create and store
information for the onpload utility. The ipload utility lets you create, edit,
and group the components of the load and unload. The ipload utility creates
a database named onpload and stores information about the load components in the database.
The onpload Database
The onpload database contains information that the onpload utility requires
to perform data loads and unloads.
The onpload database can reside on any database server on your network.
Also, any onpload utility can use the onpload database as long as the
onpload utility can access the database server that contains the onpload
database. In contrast, the onpload utility must run on the same computer as
the database server that contains the target database.
1-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Relationship Among the Parts of the HPL
The Relationship Among the Parts of the HPL
Figure 1-3 illustrates the relationship among the parts of the HPL. The ipload
utility, or IECC, connects to the database server to populate the onpload
database. The onpload utility uses the multithreaded architecture to make
multiple connections to the database server and multiple I/O connections.
“The Architecture of the onpload Utility” on page 1-15 describes in more
detail how onpload works.
Figure 1-3
Relationships Among the Parts of the HPL
Tape
Tape
Tape
onpload
ipload or IECC
Client/server
connections
Client/server
connection
Database server
onpload database
Target database
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-11
The Relationship Among the Parts of the HPL
You can start onpload in the following ways:
■
Using choices from the ipload interface
■
Using choices from the IECC interface
■
Using the onpload command
When you start onpload from the ipload or IECC interface, ipload or IECC
and onpload use a socket connection to send messages back and forth: start,
stop, and simple reports.
When you use the onpload command, onpload executes completely
independently from ipload or IECC. The part of Figure 1-3 to the right of the
dashed line shows onpload loading or unloading data with no interaction
from ipload or IECC.
Distinctions Among the Parts of the HPL
The following distinctions among the ipload utility or IECC interface, the
onpload utility, and the onpload database are important:
■
The ipload utility manages the descriptions of load and unload jobs.
It does not actively move data from one place to another.
■
The IECC interface manages the descriptions of load and unload jobs.
It does not actively move data from one place to another. For more
information about IECC options for loading, see the Informix
Enterprise Command Center User Guide.
■
The onpload utility moves data from one place to another (that is,
from a database to a storage device, or from a storage device to a
database).
■
The onpload database contains information that the onpload utility
uses. The ipload utility or IECC interface manages the onpload
database.
Theoretically, you could manage the onpload database yourself and never
use the ipload utility or IECC interface. However, that process would be
tedious and prone to errors. Informix strongly recommends that you use
ipload or the IECC interface. You can use DB-Access or other database tools
to examine the contents of the onpload database, but always use ipload or
IECC to modify the database.
1-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Environment Variables
Environment Variables
The HPL is part of the database server, so you must start the server before you
use the HPL. Before you start the server, you must set these environment
variables:
■
INFORMIXDIR
■
ONCONFIG
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
LD_LIBRARY_PATH
The INFORMIXDIR, ONCONFIG, and INFORMIXSERVER environment
variables are documented in your Administrator’s Guide.
Some computers use the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable for
shared libraries. Refer to the machine notes for information about
LD_LIBRARY_PATH.
In addition to the environment variables that you must always set when you
use the database server, the following environment variables refer to the HPL:
■
DBONPLOAD
■
PLCONFIG
■
PLOAD_SHMBASE
The DBONPLOAD Environment Variable
Each database server can have only one active onpload database. In most
cases, you can use the default onpload database, which is named onpload.
If you choose to prepare multiple databases to hold different types of control
information, you must set the DBONPLOAD environment variable before
you can run a load or unload.
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-13
The PLCONFIG Environment Variable
To prepare multiple onpload databases with ipload
1.
Set the DBONPLOAD environment variable to the name of the
alternative onpload database.
2.
Restart ipload.
3.
Use ipload to prepare the alternative database.
If you do not use an alternative onpload database, you do not need to set
DBONPLOAD.
The PLCONFIG Environment Variable
The default configuration file for the onpload utility is plconfig.std. The
configuration file always resides in the $INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. To use
an alternative configuration file, you must set the PLCONFIG environment
variable to the name of the alternative onpload configuration file. If you use
plconfig.std, you do not need to set PLCONFIG.
The onpload configuration file is described in Appendix B, “The HighPerformance Loader Configuration File.” The PLOAD_SHMBASE
Environment Variable
The PLOAD_SHMBASE is an environment variable that allows you to specify
shared-memory address attachments specifically for onpload processes. You
can set the PLOAD_SHMBASE environment variable to avoid sharedmemory collisions between onpload and the server.
Tip: To use the PLOAD_SHMBASE environment variable, you must invoke
onpload from the command line, not within ipload.
Avoiding Shared-Memory Collision
Both the server and onpload allocate shared memory. The server uses a
heuristic computed during onpload start-up to allocate shared memory for
buffers for onpload processes. In addition, onpload allocates shared memory
for its internal use. Due to the dynamic nature of shared-memory allocations,
this heuristic can fail, resulting in a shared-memory collision between
onpload and the server. If this occurs, error messages are reported to the
onpload log file or the server log file and the onpload job fails.
1-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Architecture of the onpload Utility
To verify if a collision has occurred, use the onstat -g seg option. Check for
overlap between the shared-memory segments that the server is using and
the SHMBASE reported in the onpload log file. For more information on the
onstat -g seg option, refer to your Administrator’s Guide and Performance
Guide.
Setting the PLOAD_SHMBASE Environment Variable
To override the heuristic in the case of a shared-memory collision between
onpload and the server, set the PLOAD_SHMBASE environment variable to a
value much higher or much lower than that for the shared memory that the
server uses. You must set the PLOAD_SHMBASE environment variable in the
same shell in which you invoked onpload.
The Architecture of the onpload Utility
The greater part of this manual discusses the ipload utility; however, the
ipload utility is merely the interface that allows you to prepare the parameters that the onpload utility uses. The onpload utility actually does the work
of loading and unloading data.
The onpload utility is a client application that attaches to the database server.
The utility is unusual because it uses the same multithreading architecture
that the server uses. Because it uses multithreading, onpload can take
advantage of parallel processing to do both I/O and data conversion as
efficiently as possible. Multithreading is described in your Administrator’s
Guide. The following sections describe how onpload uses multithreading for
deluxe loads, express loads, and unloads.
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-15
Deluxe-Mode Loads
Deluxe-Mode Loads
Figure 1-4 shows the threads that onpload uses in a deluxe-mode load
process. In deluxe mode, data is subject to the same constraints as if you were
loading the data using SQL INSERT statements.
Figure 1-4
A Deluxe-Mode Load
onpload
utility
Tape
Tape
tape I/O
tape I/O
sdriver
sdriver
convert
convert
convert
convert
convert
convert
worker
worker
pl_wkr_1
pl_wkr_2
cadiload
cadiload
Database
server
Buffer cache
Table
fragment
1-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
Deluxe-Mode Loads
Threads That the onpload Utility Uses
The onpload utility starts the following threads:
■
tape I/O threads
The onpload utility starts one tape I/O thread for each tape device. It
handles reading of data from the tape device asynchronously.
In the case of pipes input, a similar thread is started. ♦
WIN
UNIX
NT
In the case of disk file input, the multithreading AIO subsystem is
used instead of a dedicated I/O thread.
■
sdriver threads
The driver threads control I/O from input files. They handle device
abstraction for the different device types handled. The driver threads
also are responsible for passing out records from the input and
passing records to the converters.
■
convert threads
The onpload utility starts one or more convert threads for each
device. These threads perform conversions on the input data such as
uppercase to lowercase conversion or code-set conversion.
■
worker threads
The onpload utility starts one worker thread for each input device.
These threads communicate with the database server. The main
responsibility of the worker thread is to pass data to the database
server.
To see the status of the onpload threads, you must use the -j option of the
onstat utility. This option is documented in Appendix F.
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-17
Express-Mode Loads
Threads That the Database Server Uses
The server uses the following threads to insert the data into the database:
■
pl_wkr threads
Each worker thread of the onpload utility is paired with a pl_wkr
thread in the database server. These threads receive the data from
onpload.
In a utility that shows that database server status, the pl_wkr threads
are named pl_wkr_1, pl_wkr_2, pl_wkr_3, and so forth.
■
cadiload threads
The cadiload threads are the insert threads. The insert threads
perform a normal insert into the database, just as if you were using
an INSERT statement. The SQL optimizer governs the method that is
used for inserting the data.
Express-Mode Loads
Figure 1-5 on page 1-19 shows a single express-mode load process. In express
mode, the data is inserted directly into an extent without any evaluation of
objects (constraints, indexes, and/or triggers).
The behavior of the onpload utility during an express load is the same as for
deluxe loads, as described in “Threads That the onpload Utility Uses” on
page 1-17. However, the behavior of the database server during an express
load is quite different. The express load bypasses all of the SQL layer of the
database server. The pl_wkr threads pass the data to stream threads (also
called fragmenter threads) that decide where the data should be stored. The
fragmenter threads pass the data to an exchange that distributes the data to
setrw threads. The setrw threads write table rows to disk a page at a time,
bypassing the buffer cache.
The number of input devices can be different from the number of table
fragments. The exchange operator handles multiplexing of data. The data is
processed in parallel with respect to the data read from the device array and
also with respect to the data written out to table fragments on separate disks.
There is also pipeline parallelism in the data flow from input devices out to
table fragments on disk. Parallelism is the main mechanism for achieving
high performance.
1-18
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Express-Mode Loads
Figure 1-5
An Express-Mode Load
Tape
Tape
tape I/O
tape I/O
sdriver
sdriver
convert
convert
onpload
utility
convert
convert
convert
convert
worker
worker
pl_wkr_1
pl_wkr_2
stream_2.0
stream_2.1
Exchange
Database
server
setwr_1.0
setwr_1.1
setwr_1.2
setwr_1.3
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-19
Unloads
During express-mode load, the database server writes the data to new
extents on disk, but those extents are not yet part of the table, as illustrated in
Figure 1-6. At the end of express mode, the new extents are added to the
table.
Figure 1-6
Extents After an Express-Mode Load
Extents of the target table
Unattached extents
during an express-mode load
After the express-mode load, you must perform a level-0 backup before you
can access the target database for writing. If you try to write to the table
before you perform a level-0 backup, the database server issues ISAM error
-197, as follows:
Partition recently appended to; can’t open for write or
logging.
ANSI
If your database is ANSI compliant, all access (both read and write) is denied
until you perform a level-0 backup. Because data is not logged in express
mode, the level-0 backup is necessary to allow for recovery in case of media
failure. ♦
Unloads
Figure 1-7 on page 1-21 shows the onpload unload process. In the unload
process, the behavior of onpload parallels the behavior described in
“Threads That the onpload Utility Uses” on page 1-17 and “Threads That the
Database Server Uses” on page 1-18, except that the threads are unloading
the data instead of loading it.
1-20
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Unloads
Figure 1-7
The Unload Procedure
onpload
utility
Tape
Tape
tape I/O
tape I/O
sdriver
sdriver
convert
convert
convert
convert
convert
convert
ulworker
ulworker
pl_wkr_1
pl_wkr_2
ulstrm_1.1
ulstrm_1.2
Exchange
Database
server
Query plan that SQL optimizer creates
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
Table
fragment
High-Performance Loader Overview 1-21
Unloads
The ulstrm (unload-stream) thread packages data for output to the onpload
client from the query plan. The SQL optimizer creates the query plan. The
query plan behaves as if you were running a query from any other client,
such as DB-Access. The exchange operator distributes the resulting data to
the ulworker threads in a round-robin fashion, and onpload unloads the
data onto tapes or files.
Parallelism with respect to the output device, the source table fragments, and
the flow of the data is evident in Figure 1-7 on page 1-21.
1-22
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Chapter
Getting Started
Data-Load Example . . .
Start the Database Server
Create a File of Data . .
Create a Database . . .
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2-4
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2-5
The ipload Utility . . . . . . . .
Start the ipload Utility . . . . .
Choose a Project . . . . . . .
Check Your Defaults . . . . . .
Looking at the Defaults Window
Looking at the Machines Window
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2-5
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2-6
2-7
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2-7
The Load Job Windows . . . .
The Load Job Select Window .
The Load Job Window . . .
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2-10
The Device-Array Windows . . . . . .
The Device Array Selection Window .
The Device-Array Definition Window .
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2-10
2-11
2-12
The Format Windows . . . . .
The Format Views Window .
The Record Formats Window .
The Format-Definition Window
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2-13
2-13
2-15
2-17
The Filter, Discard Records, and Logfile Boxes
The Filter Text Box. . . . . . . . .
The Discard Records Text Box . . . . .
The Logfile Text Box . . . . . . . .
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2-19
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2-2
The Map Windows . . . . . .
The Map Views Window . .
The Load Record Maps Window
The Map Definition Window .
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2-23
2-23
The Load Options Window .
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2-28
The Run Option .
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2-29
The Active Job Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perform a Level-0 Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-30
2-31
2-31
Generate Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start the Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepare the Unload-Job Window . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perform the Unload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-31
2-32
2-32
2-37
.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
.
.
.
T
his chapter guides you step-by-step through two examples that use
the ipload utility on UNIX. The first example moves data from a data file into
a database table. The second example unloads data from a database into a
data file. The chapter is a tutorial; it assumes that you will execute each step
as it is discussed.
The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate quickly how the components of the
High-Performance Loader (HPL) fit together. The chapter does not attempt to
explain the components in any detail. After you complete these examples,
you can refer to the later chapters in this book for more information about the
options that are available for each of the procedures.
WIN NT
The ipload utility is a UNIX motif. On Windows NT, you can use the Informix
Enterprise Command Center (IECC) interface for loading and unloading
tables and databases.
If you do not have access to the ipload utility and you want to use the full
functionality of the onpload utility, refer to Chapter 1, “High-Performance
Loader Overview,” Chapter 15, “Managing the High-Performance Loader,”
Chapter 16, “The onpload Utility,” and Appendix A through Appendix G. ♦
Getting Started 2-3
Data-Load Example
Data-Load Example
The illustrations in the first example use a database with only one table. The
table contains three columns. The data to be loaded into the database is in a
file that has only four records. In a real production environment, you would
probably use the INSERT statement, the dbimport utility, or the LOAD
statement for such a simple operation. However, by using an extremely
simple example, the illustrations can show what happens at each step.
Start the Database Server
The HPL, which includes the ipload utility, is part of your database server.
Before you can use ipload, you must start your database server.
Important: The first time you run the HPL, you must be user informix.
Create a File of Data
The illustrations in this chapter assume that the data to be loaded is in a file
named /work/mydata. Create a file that contains the following data:
1|a|50
2|b|25
3|c|10
4|d|5
2-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Create a Database
Create a Database
The HPL loads data into an existing table in an existing database. The example
in this chapter loads the information from the file /work/mydata into a threecolumn table named tab1 in a database named testdb. You can use DB-Access
to prepare the database and table, as follows:
CREATE DATABASE testdb;
CREATE TABLE tab1
(
col1 INTEGER,
col2 CHAR(1),
col3 INTEGER
);
GRANT ALL ON tab1 TO PUBLIC;
GRANT CONNECT TO PUBLIC;
After you finish preparing the database for the example, exit from DB-Access.
WIN
UNIX
NT
The ipload Utility
The HPL uses information from the onpload database to control loading and
unloading of data. Theoretically, you could create the onpload database and
use DB-Access or some other database tool to populate it. However, Informix
recommends that you always use ipload to manage the onpload database.
Start the ipload Utility
To start ipload, enter the following command at the command-line prompt:
ipload
The first time you start ipload, the utility automatically creates the onpload
database. The ipload utility also puts certain default values into the database.
Appendix A, “The onpload Database,” describes the database tables.
Getting Started 2-5
Choose a Project
When ipload starts, the High-Performance Loader main window (the HPL
main window) appears, as Figure 2-1 illustrates.
High-Performance Loader
Jobs
Browsers
Components
Configure
Help
Figure 2-1
The HPL
Main Window
Select Project
<default>
Project: <default>
Server: svr1
Onpload Server: svr1
Tip: To exit from ipload, choose Exit from the Jobs menu. To continue with the
example, do not exit.
Choose a Project
You use the HPL by preparing load jobs or unload jobs that import or export
data. You can assign your load and unload jobs to various projects to organize
the jobs into functional groups. Projects are described in Chapter 4, “Defining
Projects.”
The ipload utility automatically creates a project named <default>. If you
choose not to organize your work into projects, you can put all of your load
and unload jobs in the default project.
For this example, you can use the default project. Click <default> on the HPL
main window to choose the default project.
2-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Check Your Defaults
Check Your Defaults
The default values that ipload selects when it is first started specify machine
type, character code set for character-type data, and other operating characteristics. In most cases, the only default that you might need to change is the
machine type. Chapter 5, “Configuring the High-Performance Loader,”
describes the ipload defaults.
Looking at the Defaults Window
Choose Configure➞Defaults to see the current default values. After you
check your defaults, you can click Cancel to exit from the Defaults window.
If you need to change one of the default values, refer to “Modifying the
onpload Defaults” on page 5-5.
Looking at the Machines Window
Choose Configure➞Machines to see the current default values. Make sure
that the machine type displayed in the Machines window matches your
current machine type. Click the Machine Type down arrow to select a
machine type.
If you need to change one of the values, refer to “Modifying the Machine
Description” on page 5-8. Click Cancel to exit from the Machines window.
The Load Job Windows
A load job is a collection of the specific pieces of information that you require
to move data from a data file into a database. The Load Job window, illustrated in Figure 2-3 on page 2-9, shows a flowchart that includes all of the
components of a load job. After you become familiar with the ipload utility,
you can create or modify the individual components of a load or unload job
with direct menu choices from the HPL main window.
Getting Started 2-7
The Load Job Select Window
The Load Job Select Window
The data-load example in this chapter takes records from /work/mydata and
loads them into tab1 of the testdb database. To perform the load, you need to
create a load job.
To create a load job
Choose Jobs➞Load from the HPL window.
1.
The Load Job Select window appears, as Figure 2-2 illustrates.
Figure 2-2
The Load Job
Select Window
Load Job Select
Delete
Notes
Connect
Selection Type
Job Name: newjob
Create
Open
Command Line:
Job Information
Job
Type
Status
Server
Map
Datasource
Notes
Message: Enter a job name to create
OK
2.
2-8
Cancel
Help
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Load Job Select Window
3.
Choose a name for the load job and type it in the Job Name text box.
This example uses newjob.
4.
Click OK.
The Load Job window appears, as Figure 2-3 illustrates.
Figure 2-3
The Load Job Window
Load Job
Save As
Notes
Generate
Device
Job Name: newjob
Onpload Server: [email protected]
Database Server: @svr1
Target Database:
Format
Filter
Discard Records
Map
Logfile
Options
Table
Message:
Run
Save
Cancel
Help
Getting Started 2-9
The Load Job Window
The Load Job Window
The thick arrows on the Load Job window indicate the steps that you take as
you build a load job. The icons indicate the task at each step. The thin arrows
indicate filenames for error recording. To create a load job, you need to
complete the following tasks:
Task
Click
Specify the source of the data
Device
Describe the data
Format
Tell ipload which data you want to discard (optional)
Filter
Specify association between input fields and load-table
columns
Map
Specify options for the load job
Options
Specify the database table to load
Table
Record rejected data records (optional)
Discard Records
Record information about the job (optional)
Logfile
The Device-Array Windows
A device array is a collection of files, tape devices, and pipes that onpload uses
for input and output. The Device Array Selection and device-array definition
windows let you create a device array and specify the location of the input
data. In this example, the input data is the /work/mydata file that you created
in “Create a File of Data” on page 2-4.
2-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Device Array Selection Window
The Device Array Selection Window
To create a device array
Click Device in the Load Job window.
1.
The Device Array Selection window appears, as Figure 2-4
illustrates.
Figure 2-4
The Device Array
Selection Window
Device Array Selection
Copy
Delete
Print
Selection Type
Open
Create
Device Array: an_array
Current Arrays
Notes
Message: Enter a device array name to create
OK
2.
Cancel
Help
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
Getting Started 2-11
The Device-Array Definition Window
3.
Select a name for the device array and type it in the Device Array text
box.
This example uses an_array.
4.
Click OK.
The device-array definition window appears, as Figure 2-5
illustrates.
The Device-Array Definition Window
The title bar of the device-array definition window shows the array name
that you typed in the Device Array text box.
Figure 2-5
The Device-Array Definition Window with One Array Item
an_array
Print
Notes
File Name:
Array Item Type
Tape
File
Pipe
Tape Parameters
Block Size:
Tape Size:
MB
Array Items
Perform
FILE /work/mydata
Add
Edit
Delete
Message: Select item to edit, or add new device item
OK
2-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
GB
The Format Windows
To add a device to the array
1.
Click Add in the Perform group (lower right).
2.
Click File in the Array Item Type group (upper left).
3.
Type the full pathname of a device in the File Name text box.
In this example, the device is /work/mydata.
4.
Click Perform to add the /work/mydata file to the device array.
The ipload utility lists each item of the device array in the Array
Items list box. Figure 2-5 on page 2-12 shows the window after you
add /work/mydata to the array.
5.
Click OK.
The display returns to the Device Array Selection window.
6.
Click Cancel.
The display returns to the Load Job window. The Device list box now
displays the device array name that you chose.
The Format Windows
The format specifies the organization of the input data. In this example, the
input data is in the file /work/mydata, which you created in “Create a File of
Data” on page 2-4. Each record in the file has three fields.
The Format Views Window
The Format Views window displays existing formats, so that you can choose
the format to use in the load job.
Getting Started 2-13
The Format Views Window
To open the Format Views window
1.
Click the Format button in the Load Job window.
The Format Views window appears, as Figure 2-6 illustrates. When
you first start ipload, no formats are defined, as illustrated by the
NONE FOUND icon.
Figure 2-6
The Format Views Window
Format Views
Formats
Search
Load Maps
Unload Maps
NONE FOUND
Message: Click on a format name to see maps which reference the format
OK
Create
2.
2-14
Cancel
Help
Click Create to open the Record Formats window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Record Formats Window
The Record Formats Window
Figure 2-7 shows the Record Formats window. The Record Formats window
lets you create a new format or open an existing format.
Figure 2-7
The Record Formats
Window
Record Formats
Copy
Delete
Print
Search
Formats
Mode
Open
Create Format:
Create
Format
Type
Type
Fixed
Delimited
COBOL
Notes
Message:
OK
Cancel
Help
To create a new format
1.
Click Create in the Mode group.
2.
Click Delimited in the Type group.
The input data file, /work/mydata, is in delimited format. Other
formats are described in Chapter 7, “Defining Formats.”
Getting Started 2-15
The Record Formats Window
3.
Choose a name for your format and type it in the Create Format text
box.
This example uses the name a_format.
4.
Click OK.
The format-definition window appears. Figure 2-8 illustrates a
partially completed format-definition window. The title bar of the
format-definition window shows the name that you chose for the
new format.
Figure 2-8
The FormatDefinition Window
Delimited Format—a_format
Save As
Print
Name
Notes
Options
Browse
Type
input2
Perform
Chars
Operation
Chars
input1
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete
Message: Please enter field specification
OK
2-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
The Format-Definition Window
The Format-Definition Window
In the format-definition window, you must make an entry for each field of the
data records in the input file. The input file for this example (/work/mydata)
has three fields of data in each record, so you must enter format information
for three pieces of data.
To enter a format definition
1.
Click Add in the Operation group.
2.
In the Name text box, type a descriptive name for the first field of the
data record.
You can choose any descriptive name. This example uses input1,
input2, and input3 for the three fields of /work/mydata.
3.
In the Type text box, type the data type.
Because the data in /work/mydata is simple ASCII data, the type is
Chars. Other data types are discussed in Chapter 7, “Defining
Formats.”
4.
Click Perform.
Figure 2-8 shows the format-definition window partially completed.
The entry for the first item is complete. The Name and Type for the
second item are present and ready for you to click Perform.
5.
Repeat steps 2 through 4 for each of the three input fields.
6.
Click OK after you complete all of the input fields.
The display returns to the Format Views window. The window
displays your new format in the Formats list box.
7.
Click Cancel to return to the Load Job window.
Getting Started 2-17
The Format-Definition Window
The Load Job window now displays the name of your device and the name
of your format, as Figure 2-9 illustrates.
Figure 2-9
Partially Completed Load Job Window
Load Job
Save As
Notes
Generate
an_array
Device
Job Name: newjob
Onpload Server: [email protected]
Database Server: @svr1
Target Database:
a_format
Format
Filter
Discard Records
Map
Logfile
Options
Table
Message:
Run
2-18
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Save
Cancel
Help
The Filter, Discard Records, and Logfile Boxes
The Filter, Discard Records, and Logfile Boxes
The Load Job window now has entries for a device and format. The next
incomplete items in the Load Job window (Figure 2-9) are the Filter text box,
the Discard Records text box, and the Logfile text box.
The Filter Text Box
Use a filter to choose the records from the data file that should be inserted
into the table. In this example, all of the records from the /work/mydata data
file will be inserted into the database table. Therefore, you do not need to
create a filter. For this example, you can leave the Filter text box blank.
Chapter 10, “Defining Filters,” describes how to create and use a filter.
The Discard Records Text Box
The Discard Records text box specifies a file that keeps information about
records that were rejected because of incorrect format or invalid data. For this
example, you can leave the Discard Records text box blank.
“Reviewing Records That the Conversion Rejected” on page 14-7 describes
how to view rejected records.
The Logfile Text Box
The Logfile text box specifies a file where a record of the load or unload job
is kept. For this example, you can leave the Logfile text box blank.
“Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job” on page 14-9 describes how
to view the log file.
Getting Started 2-19
The Map Windows
The Map Windows
The Map windows let you create a map that specifies which data field from
the input file (/work/mydata) is entered into which columns in the database
table.
The Map Views Window
The Map Views window lets you create a new map or edit an existing map.
You need to create a map that describes how input data that is described by
the record format a_format should be loaded into the table tab1.
2-20
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Map Views Window
To create a new map
1.
Click the Map button in the Load Job window.
The Map Views window appears, as Figure 2-10 illustrates.
Figure 2-10
The Map Views Window
Map Views
Database
Map:
testdb
Table:
Format: a_format
Map
Search
Table
Format
NONE FOUND
Message: Click on database to expand view
OK
Create
Cancel
Help
The NONE FOUND message in the Map column is appropriate. At
this point, the Map Views window does not contain any information
because you have not yet specified any relationships.
Getting Started 2-21
The Map Views Window
Click Create.
2.
The Load Record Maps window appears, as Figure 2-11 illustrates.
Figure 2-11
A Partially
Completed Load
Record Maps
Window with an
Open Selection List
Load Record Maps
Copy
Delete
Print
Search
Selection Type
Open
Current Maps
Create
Map Data
Select From List
Items
tab1
Map Name: a_map
Database: testdb
Table:
Format: a_format
Notes
Selection
OK
Message: Enter a map name to create
OK
2-22
Cancel
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Help
Cancel
The Load Record Maps Window
The Load Record Maps Window
The Load Record Maps window specifies the device array that holds the
input data, the format that describes the input data, and the database and
table where the input data will be stored.
To complete the Load Record Maps window
1.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
2.
Select a name for the map and type it in the Map Name text box.
This example uses a_map.
3.
Type the name of your database (testdb) in the Database text box.
If you want, you can click the down arrow beside the Database text
box and select a database from the selection list.
4.
Click the down arrow beside the Table text box to see a list of tables
in the selected database.
Figure 2-11 illustrates the Load Record Maps window and the
selection list at this point.
5.
Select a table from the list and click OK.
Because you already filled in the Format text box on the Load Jobs
window, the Format text box is already complete.
6.
Click OK to open the map-definition window.
The Map Definition Window
The Map Definition window lets you associate an input item with a table column. This example stores the data from /work/mydata as follows, using the
field names assigned on page 2-15.
Data from Input Field
Goes into Table Column
input1
col3
input2
col2
input3
col1
Getting Started 2-23
The Map Definition Window
Figure 2-12 shows the map-definition window. The title bar of this window
shows the map name that you chose.
Figure 2-12
The Map-Definition Window
a_map
Save As
Notes
Print
Options
Delete
Specs
Table View
Find
Format: a_format
Table: tab1
col1
input1
col2
input2
col3
input3
Message: Drag and drop columns/fields between windows to assign data transfers between database/file
OK
Apply
Cancel
Help
To associate each input item with a column of the database table
1.
Click the col1 icon and hold the mouse button down.
A box appears around the icon and its name.
2.
2-24
Drag the boxed icon to the input3 icon in the right-hand pane.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Map Definition Window
3.
Release the mouse button.
The associated items appear in the second column of each pane.
Figure 2-13 shows the map-definition window with this step
completed.
Figure 2-13
The Map-Definition Window with One Association Completed
a_map
Save As
Notes
Print
Options
Delete
Table: tab1
Specs
Find
Format View
Format: a_format
input3
col1
input1
col2
input2
col1
col3
input3
Message: Drag and drop columns/fields between windows to assign data transfers between database/file
OK
Apply
4.
Cancel
Help
Connect col2 to input2.
Getting Started 2-25
The Map Definition Window
5.
Connect col3 to input1.
Figure 2-14 shows the window with all three connections completed.
Figure 2-14
The Map-Definition Window with All Associations Completed
a_map
Save As
Notes
Print Options
Delete
Table: tab1
Specs
Find
Format View
Format: a_format
input3
col3
input1
col1
input2
col2
input2
col2
input1
col1
input3
col3
Message: Drag and drop columns/fields between windows to assign data transfers between database/file
OK
2-26
Apply
Cancel
Help
6.
Click OK to return to the Map Views window.
7.
Click Cancel to return to the Load Job window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Map Definition Window
The Load Job window now has entries in all of the required areas, as
Figure 2-15 illustrates. The ipload utility was able to fill in the Table and the
Target Database (upper right area) because you specified the database and
table as you built the map.
Figure 2-15
The Load Job Window with All Required Component Boxes Completed
Load Job
Save As
Notes
Generate
an_array
Job Name:
Onpload Server:
Database Server:
Target Database:
a_format
Format
Device
newjob
[email protected]
@svr1
testdb
Filter
Discard Records
a_map
Map
Logfile
tab1
Options
Table
Message:
Run
Save
Cancel
Help
You have finished all of the required parts of the Load Job window, but you
might want to modify the options, as discussed in the next section.
Getting Started 2-27
The Load Options Window
The Load Options Window
The HPL has two modes of operation: express and deluxe. These modes are
described in “Modes” on page 15-3. Briefly, the express mode is optimized
for speed, whereas the deluxe mode provides the full functionality of SQL
inserts as data is loaded. For a detailed comparison of these two modes, refer
to Chapter 15, “Managing the High-Performance Loader.” This example uses
the express mode.
To set the load-job options
1.
Click Options in the Load Job window.
The Load Options window appears, as Figure 2-16 illustrates.
Figure 2-16
The Load Options
Window
Load Options
Load Mode: Express
Generate Violations Records: Yes
Tapes: 0
Number Records: 0
Start Record: 0
Max Errors: 0
Commit Interval:
0
Message:
OK
2-28
Cancel
Help
2.
Select Express from the Load Mode list box.
3.
Select Yes from the Generate Violations Records list box.
4.
Make sure all of the other entries are 0.
5.
Click OK to return to the Load Job window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Run Option
The Run Option
You are now ready to perform the load.
To finish this example
1.
Click Save to save the load job.
After you save the load job, the message line displays the following
message:
Saved job successfully
You can now execute the job, or you can return at a later time and
execute the job.
2.
Click Run to execute the load job.
The Active Job window appears, as Figure 2-17 on page 2-30
illustrates.
Tip: The ipload utility generates an onpload command and then executes the
command to run your job. To see the command that ipload generated, look at the
Command Line text box on the Load Job Select window. For more information, refer
to “Using the Command-Line Information” on page 12-12.
Getting Started 2-29
The Active Job Window
The Active Job Window
The Active Job window reports the progress of your job. Figure 2-17 shows
the Active Job window after the load is complete.
Active Job
Job Name: newjob
Server: svr1
Figure 2-17
The Active Job
Window
Connecting to onpload, Please wait. . .
Successful connection to onpload established
Tue Jan 23 09:04:47 1996
SHMBASE
CLIENTNUM
Session ID 3
0x1a00000
0x49010000
Load Database
Load Table
Device Array
Record Mapping
Convert Reject
-> testdb
-> tab1
-> an_array
-> a_map
->
Database Load Completed -- Processed 4 Records
Records Inserted -> 4
Detected Errors -> 0
Engine Rejected -> 0
Tue Jan 23 09:05:00 1996
Job Completed. . . connection closed
Message: To interrupt and halt onpload session, click ‘Interrupt Job’
Interrupt Job
OK
Help
When the Active Job window reports that the load job is complete, click OK
to return to the Load Job Select or Unload Job Select window.
2-30
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Verify the Data Transfer
Verify the Data Transfer
If you want, you can use DB-Access to verify that the data from
/work/mydata was transferred into your database.
Perform a Level-0 Backup
The onpload utility does not log the data that it writes to a table during an
express-mode load. For safety, onpload flags the dbspaces that are associated
with the table as read-only. To allow for data recovery in case of disk
corruption, you must make a level-0 backup. A level-0 backup on the
dbspaces affected by the express-mode load saves the data and unsets the
read-only flags.
If you do not care about data recovery, you can make a level-0 backup using
/dev/null as the backup device. This action unsets the read-only flag without
backing up data to any real device.
Generate Example
The ipload utility has Generate options that you can use to automatically
create a format, map, query, and device. After the components are generated,
you can modify the components to meet your needs. The Generate options
are described in Chapter 13, “Generate Options.”
This example uses the Generate button in the Unload Job window to create
the components that are required for an unload job. After you create the
components, you can use the Run option to execute the unload job.
Getting Started 2-31
Start the Example
Start the Example
If you completed the first example in this chapter, your database server and
ipload are ready for you to use. If you did not complete the example, you
need to complete the following tasks as the first example describes:
■
Start your database server (page 2-4)
■
Start the ipload utility (page 2-5)
■
Check your defaults (page 2-7)
Prepare the Unload-Job Window
An unload job is a collection of the specific pieces of information that are
required to move data from a database into a data file. The Unload Job
window (Figure 2-3 on page 2-9) shows a flowchart that includes all of the
components of an unload job. You can use the Generate option to create the
components of the unload job and to complete the items on the Unload Job
window.
The generate example uses the Generate option to unload the contents of the
items table of the stores7 database into a file named /work/items_out. For
instructions on how to create the stores7 database, refer to the Informix Guide
to SQL: Reference.
To generate the unload job
1.
Choose Jobs➞Unload from the HPL window.
The Unload Job Select window appears, as Figure 2-18 illustrates.
2.
2-32
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Prepare the Unload-Job Window
Choose a name for the unload job and type it in the Job Name text
box.
3.
This example uses the name unld.
Figure 2-18
The Unload Job
Select Window
Unload Job Select
Delete
Notes
Connect
Selection Type
Job Name: unld
Create
Open
Command Line:
Job Information
Job
Type
Status
Server
Map
Datasource
Notes
Message: Enter a job name to create
OK
Cancel
Help
Getting Started 2-33
Prepare the Unload-Job Window
4.
Click OK.
The Unload Job window appears, as Figure 2-19 illustrates. The
information box in the upper right part of the display shows the
name of the unload job, the name of the database server where the
onpload database is stored, and the name of the database server
where ipload is running.
Figure 2-19
The Unload Job Window
Unload Job
Save As
S
Q
Notes
Generate
Job Name: unld
Onpload Server: [email protected]
Database Server: @svr1
Source Database:
L
Query
Map
Discard Records
Format
Logfile
Options
Device
Message:
Run
Save
5.
Cancel
Help
Click the Generate button.
The Autogenerate Unload Components window appears.
Figure 2-20 on page 2-35 shows the completed window.
2-34
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Prepare the Unload-Job Window
6.
Click Table.
You can unload an entire database table or only selected records from
the table. Table indicates that you want to unload the entire table.
Query indicates that you want to unload selected records.
7.
Type stores7 in the Database text box.
For this step and steps 8 and 10, you can click the down arrow to the
right of the text box and select your entry from a selection list.
Figure 2-11 on page 2-22 shows an example of a selection list.
8.
Type items in the Table text box.
Figure 2-20
The Autogenerate
Unload Components
Window
Autogenerate Unload Components
Unload from
Table
Database:
Query
Table:
stores7
items
Query:
Unload to
Device Array
/work/items_out
File
Message: Enter database to unload
OK
9.
Cancel
Help
Click File.
File indicates that you want to enter the name of a file. If you choose
Device Array, you must type the name of an already existing device
array.
10.
Type the full pathname of the file that will store the unloaded data.
This file can be in any directory to which you have write access.
11.
Click OK.
Getting Started 2-35
Prepare the Unload-Job Window
The Generate option creates the Query, Format, and Map components for the
unload job and fills in the Unload Job window. These components are all
named unld. The Generate option also creates a device array named unld
and puts the file that you specified (/work/items_out) into that array.
Tip: After you finish this exercise, you can choose Components➞Devices from the
HPL window and examine the unld device array.
Figure 2-21 shows the Unload Job window as completed by the Generate
option.
Figure 2-21
The Unload Job Window
Unload Job
Save As
S
Q
Notes
L
Generate
unld
Job Name:
Onpload Server:
Database Server:
Source Database:
unld
Query
Map
unld
unld
[email protected]
@svr1
stores7
/tmp/unld.rej
Discard Records
Format
/tmp/unld.log
unld
Logfile
Options
Device
Message:
Run
2-36
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Save
Cancel
Help
Perform the Unload
In addition to completing the main flow of the Unload Job window, the
Generate option also fills in the Source Database information in the upper
right-hand corner and creates pathnames for the Discard Records file and the
Logfile. Chapter 14, “Browsing,” describes the rejected records file and the
log file.
Perform the Unload
You are now ready to perform the unload.
Tip: At this point, you might want to preview the records that the query will select.
Refer to “Previewing Data-File Records” on page 14-3.
To finish this example
1.
Click Save to save the unload job.
After you save the unload job, the Message line displays the
following message:
Saved job successfully
You can now execute the job, or you can return at a later time and
execute the job.
2.
Click Run to execute the unload job.
The Active Job window appears. This window reports the progress
of your unload job. The Active Job window for an unload job is
similar to the Active Job window for a load job, which Figure 2-17 on
page 2-30 illustrates.
3.
When the Active Job window reports that the unload job is finished,
click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
4.
You can create another job or choose Jobs➞Exit to leave the ipload
utility.
Getting Started 2-37
Chapter
Using the High-Performance
Loader Windows
Using the HPL User Interface . . . . . . .
Starting the User Interface . . . . . . .
The HPL Main Window . . . . . . . .
Initial Options on the HPL Main Window
Options of the HPL Main Window . . .
The Component-Selection Windows . . .
The Toolbar Buttons . . . . . . . .
The Selection Group . . . . . . . .
The Component-Name Text Box . . .
The Component List Box . . . . . .
The Notes Area . . . . . . . . .
The Message Line . . . . . . . .
The Buttons. . . . . . . . . . .
The Component-Definition Windows . . .
The Toolbar Buttons . . . . . . . .
The Item-Selection Group . . . . . .
The Item-Name Text Box . . . . . .
The Special-Parameters Group . . . .
The Item List Box . . . . . . . . .
The Perform Group . . . . . . . .
The Message Line . . . . . . . .
The Buttons. . . . . . . . . . .
The Load Job and Unload Job Windows . .
The Views Windows . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Views Windows . . . . .
Available Options in a Views Window .
The Selection-List Windows . . . . . .
The Message Windows . . . . . . . .
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3-3
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3-16
3-19
3-20
3-2
Using the HPL Buttons .
Toolbar Buttons . . .
The Browse Button
The Copy Button .
The Delete Button.
The Notes Button .
The Print Button .
Icon Buttons . . . .
Buttons. . . . . .
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3-20
3-21
3-23
3-23
3-25
3-26
3-28
3-29
3-32
Using the On-Line Help .
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3-33
Using UNIX Keyboard Commands to Move the Cursor .
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3-33
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
his chapter describes the user interface (ipload) for the HPL. The
chapter describes the basic features of the user interface and the mechanics of
how to use them.
The preceding chapter, “Getting Started,” gives simple examples that
illustrate how the components of ipload interact.The following chapters give
details about developing the onpload database by using the individual
components of ipload. Appendix A, “The onpload Database,” describes the
tables of the onpload database.
This chapter discusses the following topics:
■
Using the HPL windows
■
Using the HPL buttons
■
Using on-line help
■
Using keyboard commands to move the cursor
Using the HPL User Interface
The ipload utility has the following types of displays that appear frequently:
■
HPL main window
■
Component-selection windows
■
Component-definition windows
■
Load Job and Unload Job windows
■
Views windows
■
Selection-list windows
■
Message windows
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-3
Starting the User Interface
Starting the User Interface
To start the user interface for the HPL, issue the following command at the
system prompt:
ipload
After you issue the ipload command, a decorative splash screen appears that
stays on the display while the ipload utility finishes loading. If you do not
want to see the splash screen, use the -n flag, as follows:
ipload -n
The HPL Main Window
When you start ipload, the High-Performance Loader main window (HPL
main window) appears, as Figure 3-1 illustrates. The HPL main window is
the focus of the user interface. You return to the main window after each task
and choose a new option.
High-Performance Loader
Jobs
Browsers
Components
Configure
Help
Select Project
<default>
Project:
3-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Server: svr1
Onpload Server: svr1
Figure 3-1
The HPL Main
Window
The HPL Main Window
Initial Options on the HPL Main Window
When you first enter ipload, most of the options on the HPL main window
are disabled. You can take only the following actions:
■
You can select the default project in the Select Project list.
■
You can choose Configure➞Project to create a new project. For information on how to create a project, refer to “Creating a New Project”
on page 4-7.
■
You can choose Configure ➞Server to select a database server and an
onpload database server. For information about choosing a database
server, refer to “Selecting a Database Server” on page 5-3.
■
You can choose Help to look at the on-line help.
■
You can choose Jobs➞Exit to exit from ipload.
Options of the HPL Main Window
After you select a project, you can choose options from any of the menus on
the HPL main window. The following list describes each of the menu options.
Main Menu
Option
Submenu
Option
Jobs
Load
Create a load job and use the Load Job window to load data
into a database
12-3
Unload
Create an unload job and use the Unload Job window to unload
data from a database to a file
11-6
Exit
Exit from the user interface
Record
Review records in a specified format, search the list of available
formats, or edit a format
14-7
Violations
View records that passed the filter and conversion but were
rejected by the database
14-8
Logfile
View load status and see where any errors occurred
14-9
Formats
Create or modify data-file formats
Browsers
Components
Refer to
Page
Purpose of the Selection
2-5
7-3
(1 of 2)
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-5
The HPL Main Window
Main Menu
Option
Configure
Help
Submenu
Option
Purpose of the Selection
Refer to
Page
Maps
Create or modify maps that show the relationship between
data-file fields and database columns
9-3
Query
Build, modify, or retrieve SQL-based queries
8-3
Filter
Create or modify filters that determine source data-file records
for conversion and load
10-3
Devices
Specify a set of files, tapes, or pipes that will be read simultaneously for loading or unloading the database
6-3
Generate Job
Automatically generate the components for load and unload
jobs
13-3
Server
Select the database servers that hold the onpload database and
the target database
5-3
Project
Create a project under which formats, filters, queries, maps,
and load and unload jobs are stored
4-3
Defaults
Specify the default character sets for the data file and databases
5-5
Machines
Specify the machine parameters that are used to convert binary
data
5-8
Glossary
View definitions of terms that pertain to the HPL
3-33
Contents
View the main contents page that directs you to discussions of
various HPL topics
3-33
(2 of 2)
3-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Component-Selection Windows
The Component-Selection Windows
The windows for creating or modifying components often (but not always)
come in pairs. The first window, the component-selection window, lets you
create a new component or select an existing component to modify. The first
window also lets you view notes and copy, delete, or print information about
a component. The second window, the component-definition window, lets you
make the actual changes.
The details of a selection window vary depending on the operation that you
are performing. However, the component-selection windows have the
following standard features:
■
Toolbar buttons
■
Selection group
■
Component-name text box
■
Component list box
■
Notes area
■
Message line
■
Buttons
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-7
The Component-Selection Windows
Figure 3-2 shows the Device Array Selection window to illustrate the
standard features of component-selection windows.
Figure 3-2
The Device Array Selection Window
Device Array Selection
Toolbar buttons
Copy
Delete
Print
Selection group
Selection Type
Open
Create
Device Array:
Component-name text box
Current Arrays
array_one
cnvt894
largest
Component list box
personnel
sales_sum_out
Notes
Notes area
Message line
Message: Select a device array name to open
OK
3-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
Buttons
The Component-Selection Windows
The Toolbar Buttons
The buttons across the top of the display represent actions that you can take
after you select a component from the component list. For example, in
Figure 3-2 on page 3-8 (the Device Array Selection window), the toolbar
buttons indicate that you can copy, delete, or print an array. “Using the HPL
Buttons” on page 3-20 explains how to use these buttons.
The Selection Group
The selection group allows you to specify the action that you want to take. In
most of the displays, you can either open an already existing component or
create a new component.
The Component-Name Text Box
If you click Create in the selection group, you must type a name for the new
component in the component-name text box. (In Figure 3-2, you must give a
name for the new Device Array.)
Before you can type a name in the Device Array text box, you must click
inside that text box to activate it. When the text box is active, it has a narrow
black border. If you type a character that is not valid, the interface beeps at
you, displays a message on the message line, and refuses to display the
invalid character.
The Component List Box
The component list box lists the components that currently exist in this
project. If you click Open in the selection group, you must select a component
from this list.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-9
The Component-Definition Windows
The Notes Area
The notes area displays stored comments about the selected component. This
area is not an active area. To store a comment about a component, you must
select a component and use the Notes button. For more information about
notes, see “The Notes Button” on page 3-26.
The Message Line
The message line primarily gives instructions for the next logical action. The
message line also gives an error message when an action fails or a completion
message when a process is finished.
The Buttons
The buttons across the bottom of the display let you indicate your next action.
For a more complete discussion, see “Using the HPL Buttons” on page 3-20.
The Component-Definition Windows
After you select a component to create or modify and then click OK in the
component-selection window, you typically see the component-definition
window. The component-definition window allows you to enter, edit, or
delete values or items that describe the component.The device-array
definition window has the following elements that are common to most of
the other component-definition windows:
3-10
■
Toolbar buttons
■
Item-selection group
■
Item-name text box
■
Special-parameters group
■
Item list box
■
Perform group
■
Message line
■
Buttons
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Component-Definition Windows
Figure 3-3 shows an example of a component-definition window, the devicearray definition window.
Figure 3-3
The Device-Array Definition Window
array_one
Toolbar buttons
Print
Notes
Item-selection group
File Name:
Array Item Type
Tape
Pipe
File
Item-name text box
/work/data/more_data
Tape Parameters
Block Size
Tape Size
MB
GB
Special parameters
Items list box
Array Items
Perform
FILE /work/data/some_data
FILE /work/data/some_data
Add
PIPE /work/data/some_data
Edit
TAPE /work/data/some_data
Message line
Message: Enter file name to load from or to create
OK
Perform group
Delete
Cancel
Help
Buttons
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-11
The Component-Definition Windows
The Toolbar Buttons
The buttons across the top of the display represent actions that you can take
after you select a component from the component list box. For example, in
Figure 3-3 on page 3-11 (the device-array definition window), the toolbar
buttons indicate that you can print or make a note about an item. “Using the
HPL Buttons” on page 3-20 explains how to use these buttons.
The Item-Selection Group
The item-selection group lets you specify the type of item that you want to
edit or the type of action that you want to take. After you specify a choice in
the item-selection group, other options become active. In the device-array
definition window, the item-selection group is labeled Array Item Type.
After you select Tape, File, or Pipe, other options become active.
The Item-Name Text Box
The item-name text box lets you specify the name or description of one of the
items that makes up the component. For example, in the device-array
definition window, you type the full pathname of a device in the item-name
text box.
In the device-array definition window, the item-name text box is labeled Tape
Name, File Name, or Pipe Name, depending on the type of component that
you select from the Array Item Type group.
The Special-Parameters Group
When a component-definition window first appears, some of the choices are
inactive (shown in gray letters). In general, the inactive choices are not
meaningful until you specify some other characteristic of the component that
you are editing.
The special-parameters group in the device-array definition window
(Figure 3-3 on page 3-11) is the Tape Parameters group. The items in the
special-parameters group are meaningful only for tapes. The choices in the
Tape Parameters group become active only if you select Tape from the Array
Item Type group. The choices in Figure 3-3 are gray because File is selected
in the Array Item Type group.
3-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Component-Definition Windows
The Item List Box
The item list box shows items that you already created to define the
component. In the device-array definition window, this list is labeled Array
Items and shows the tapes, files, and pipes that are already part of the current
device array.
The Perform Group
The Perform group lets you specify the action that you want to take. After
you select an item and an action, you must click Perform to complete the
action. For example, to add a new device in the device-array definition
window, you must specify the name or description of the device and then
click Perform to add it to the Array List.
Important: Remember to click Perform to complete the action that you designated
in the Perform group.
The Message Line
The message line primarily gives instructions for the next logical action. The
message line also gives an error message when an action fails or a completion
message when a process is finished.
The Buttons
The buttons across the bottom of the display let you indicate your next action.
For a more complete discussion, see “Using the HPL Buttons” on page 3-20.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-13
The Load Job and Unload Job Windows
The Load Job and Unload Job Windows
The Load Job and Unload Job windows provide a visual presentation of the
basic components that you choose for each job. Figure 3-4 shows the Load Job
window. The Load Job window and its functions are discussed in Chapter 12.
The Unload Job window and its functions are discussed in Chapter 11.
Figure 3-4
The Load Job Window
Load Job
Save As
Notes
Generate
Device
Job Name: newjob
Onpload Server: [email protected]
Database Server: @svr1
Target Database:
Format
Filter
Discard Records
Map
Logfile
Options
Table
Message:
Run
3-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Save
Cancel
Help
The Views Windows
The Views Windows
A views window shows a graphic representation of the relationships among
various ipload components. From a views window, you can search for
specific components, select an existing component for editing, or create a new
component. A views window does not allow you to change any values. To
change values of a component, you must display a component-definition
window.
Accessing Views Windows
The following table lists the four types of views windows and gives instructions for how to access each view.
Refer to
Page
Window Name
Purpose
How to Access
Format Views
Show the load and unload
maps that are associated with
a particular format
■
Click Search in the Record Formats
window
■
Click Format in the Load Job window*
■
Click Format in the Unload Job window*
■
Click Search in the Load Record Maps
window
9-20
■
Click Search in the Unload Record Maps
window
9-11
■
Click Map in the Load Job window*
■
Click Map in the Unload Job window*
Show the tables in the
database or the queries that
are associated with the
database
■
Click Search in the Query window
■
Click Table in the Load Job window*
■
Click Query in the Unload Job window*
Show the formats that are
associated with a particular
filter
■
Click Search in the Filter window
■
Click Filter in the Load Job window*
Map Views
Database Views
Filter Views
Show the databases, tables,
queries, and formats that are
associated with a map
2-13
8-5
10-11
* These options display the View window only if the corresponding text box is empty. If the text box
*includes the name of a component, the component-definition window is displayed.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-15
The Views Windows
Available Options in a Views Window
The four types of Views windows operate in a similar manner. When a Views
window appears, you have the following options:
■
Type in a component name and search for the component.
■
Click a label associated with an icon to expand the view and see
related components.
■
Click an icon to open the component-definition window that allows
you to edit the component values.
■
Click Create to display the component-selection window that allows
you to create a new component.
Searching for a Component
You can use the Search button in a Views window to locate a specific
component. Type the component name in the search text box and then click
Search. The view displays only the component names that match the text
string.
You can use the following wildcard search characters in the search text string.
Wildcard Symbol
Effect
?
Matches any single character
*
Matches any string of characters
For example, type unj100? to display components that are named unj100a,
unj100b, unj1001, and so on. The expression unj100? does not match
unj100aaa, unj100ab, or unj10015. However, the expression unj100* does
match unj100aaa, unj100ab, or unj10015 because the * symbol matches
multiple characters.
3-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Views Windows
Expanding the View
Three of the views windows expand their views to show related components.
To expand the view, click an icon label (for example, customer_del) in the
first pane. In the Database Views window, click an icon label in the second
pane to expand the view further. Figure 3-5 shows the Format Views
window.
Figure 3-5
The Format Views Window
Format Views
Formats
Search
Load Maps
Unload Maps
customer_del
items_fixed
Message: Click on a format name to see maps which reference the format
OK
Create
Icon
Cancel
Help
Icon label
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-17
The Views Windows
When you click an icon label in the Formats pane, the view expands to show
maps that are related to your choice. Figure 3-6 shows the expanded view.
Figure 3-6
Expanded View of a Format
Format Views
Formats
Search
Load Maps
customer_del
Unload Maps
customer_del
customer_del
items_fixed
Message: Click on a format name to see maps which reference the format
OK
Create
Cancel
Help
You can click the desired icon to display a definition window for any format
or map that is shown.
3-18
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Selection-List Windows
The Selection-List Windows
A selection-list window lists the possible values for a text box. A down arrow
that follows a text box indicates that you can use a selection list to see and
select possible values for the text box. When you click the down arrow, the
corresponding selection-list window appears.
Figure 3-7 shows the selection list that is available for the Machine Type text
box in the Defaults window. After you select an item in the list box, click OK,
and the item appears in the text box on the original window.
Figure 3-7
The Defaults Window and a Selection List
Defaults
Defaults for Server
Server Name:
default
Machine Type:
Sparcstation
Data Code Set:
ASCII
Database Code Set:
Arrow buttons
Select From List
Items
Intel
ASCII
Sparcstation
Message: Select specific server or ‘default’
OK
Apply
Cancel
Sequent
Help
Selection list
RS6000
HP/9000
Motorola6800
Selection
Sparcstation
OK
Cancel
Tip: If your entry is rejected, look at the selection list. Your entry is invalid if it is not
available in the selection list.
Selection-list windows are available for many text boxes throughout the HPL
user interface. These windows have various names, but this document refers
to them as selection lists.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-19
The Message Windows
The Message Windows
A message window typically contains either a warning or an information
update. A warning lets you verify or cancel the action that you have just
chosen. An update informs you about the successful completion of an
operation or explains why an operation failed. Figure 3-8 illustrates a typical
error message.
Message
Error -1 connecting to server judith_shm!
Figure 3-8
The Message
Window
OK
Using the HPL Buttons
Once you move beyond the HPL main window, every window has at least
one button to help you move through the interface. In general, buttons
appear in three locations:
3-20
■
Toolbar buttons appear across the top of the display.
■
Icon buttons appear in the middle section of the display.
■
Buttons appear across the bottom of the display.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Toolbar Buttons
Toolbar Buttons
Toolbar buttons appear at the top of many windows. The function of the
window determines which buttons appear. The following sections describe
the toolbar buttons. Buttons that appear in only one window are described
with the specific window.
Button
Button
Name
Purpose
Refer to
Page
Browse
Displays the Browse window
14-3
Copy
Copies the selected component (format,
map, query, filter, device, or project) to a new
item
3-23
Connect
Lets you reattach to an active unload (or
load) job from the Unload (or Load) Job
Select window
12-8
Delete
(trashcan)
Deletes the selected component (format,
map, and so on)
3-25
Delete
(eraser)
Breaks the association between a database
column and a data-file field
9-17
File
Displays the Import/Export File Selection
Window
8-13
Find
Allows you to quickly locate a particular
field or column in a map window
9-17
(1 of 2)
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-21
Toolbar Buttons
Button
Button
Name
Purpose
Refer to
Page
Generate
Lets you generate jobs automatically
13-3
Notes
Allows you to type descriptive text for an
item
3-26
Options
Displays an options window where you can
change default values or supply additional
parameters
11-11,
12-13
Print
Prints the parameters for the selected item
3-28
Save As
Saves a copy of the currently selected item
(behaves in the same way as the Copy
button)
3-23
Search
Displays the Views window where you can
see the relationships among components
3-15
Specs
Displays the Specifications window, where
you can view the attributes for selected
columns or fields
9-19
(2 of 2)
3-22
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Toolbar Buttons
The Browse Button
The Browse button lets you look through the files that show information
about the load or unload jobs and any problems that the onpload utility
found. For more information about the Browse button, refer to “The
Browsing Options” on page 14-3.
The Copy Button
The Copy button lets you copy a selected component. This feature can save
you time when you are creating a new component. You can copy an existing
component and then modify the copy with your changes.
You can copy one component at a time, or you can select and copy multiple
components at the same time. You can copy components that are grouped
under a project (filters, formats, maps, and queries) within the same project
or to a different project.
If you copy a component within a project, you must give the copy a different
name. If you copy a component to a different project, you can retain the name
for the copy or give the copy a different name. If you copy multiple components, you must copy them to a different project. When you copy multiple
components, the components retain their names.
Important: Devices are not project specific. When you copy a device, you must give
the copy a new name.
To copy an existing format to a new format
1.
In the HPL main window, select the project that includes the format
that you want to copy.
2.
Choose Components➞Formats to access the Record Formats
window.
For an example, see “Creating a Fixed Format” on page 7-5.
3.
Select the format that you want to copy.
This example assumes that the format to copy is some_format.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-23
Toolbar Buttons
4.
Click the Copy button.
The Copy Data window appears, as Figure 3-9 illustrates. The Copy
Data window displays a list of existing projects. The Copy To text
box shows the name of the format that you are copying.
Figure 3-9
The Copy Data
Window
Copy Data
Projects
<default>
practice
stores7
Copy To: some_format
Message: Select a destination project
OK
Cancel
Help
5.
Select the project to which you want to copy the format.
6.
Type the name that you want to give to the copied format in the Copy
To text box.
If you are copying the format to another project, you can keep the
same name. You must change the name, however, if you are copying
the format to the same project.
7.
Click OK.
The display returns to the Record Formats window.
8.
3-24
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Toolbar Buttons
The Delete Button
The Delete button lets you delete one or more selected components.
To delete an existing format
1.
In the HPL main window, select the project that includes the format
that you want to delete.
2.
Choose Components➞Formats to access the Record Formats
window.
For an example, see “Creating a Fixed Format” on page 7-5.
3.
Select the format that you want to delete.
4.
Click the Delete button.
The Confirm Delete window appears, as Figure 3-10 illustrates. The
Confirm Delete window describes the impact of deleting this format.
The text in this window is different for each of the component types.
Figure 3-10
The Confirm Delete
Window
PLEASE CONFIRM FORMAT(S) DELETE!
Deleting a Format will additionally remove:
(1) Filters associated with the format
(2) Maps associated with the format
(3) Jobs associated with the deleted Maps
OK
5.
Cancel
Help
Click OK to confirm the deletion, or click Cancel to cancel it.
If you click OK, the format is deleted, as well as any associated maps,
filters, and jobs.
6.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-25
Toolbar Buttons
The Notes Button
The Notes button lets you type descriptive text for an item. The text of the
note is displayed in the Notes area in a window when you select the item. The
Notes feature is a useful tool for identifying ipload components, load jobs,
unload jobs, and projects.
To create a note
1.
Click the Notes button in a component-definition window.
The Notes window appears, as Figure 3-11 illustrates.
Figure 3-11
The Notes Window
Notes
Create Date: 04/06/1995
Modification Date: 04/06/1995
This note is associated with the “authors” format.
OK
Cancel
2.
Type the descriptive text in the Notes text box.
3.
Click OK to store the note and return to the component-definition
window.
When you select the component, the note text is displayed in the
Notes area.
3-26
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Toolbar Buttons
If you do not make any changes to a note, click Cancel instead of OK.
For example, the note created in Figure 3-11 is associated with the authors
format. The next time you go to the Record Formats page and select authors,
ipload displays the note text, as Figure 3-12 illustrates.
Figure 3-12
The Record Formats
Window with
Notes Text
Record Formats
Copy
Delete
Mode
Print
Search
Formats
Open
Open Format:
authors
Create
Type
Fixed
Delimited
Format
authors
characters
plot
plot_copy
Type
Fixed
Delimited
Fixed
Fixed
COBOL
Notes
This note is associated with the “authors” format.
Message:
OK
Cancel
Help
The ipload utility stores the information that you type in the Notes window
in the note table of the onpload database. For a description of the note table,
refer to “The note Table” on page A-15.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-27
Toolbar Buttons
The Print Button
The Print button lets you print information that is associated with a
component. Before you start ipload, you must set your workstation so that it
can find a printer. For information about setting up a printer, refer to your
operating-system manuals.
If you click the Print button in the map-definition window in Figure 2-14 on
page 2-26, the following printout results:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOAD MAP REPORT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Project
Name
: <default>
: a_map
OPTIONS
Database
Table
------------ -----------testdb
tab1
Format
-------------a_format
RECORD FORMAT MAP VIEW
Format Field
-------------------------input1
input2
input3
3-28
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Table Column
Option Data
----------------------- -------------------col3
col2
col1
Icon Buttons
Icon Buttons
Icon buttons appear in the middle sections of the Load Job and Unload Job
windows and Views windows. The icon buttons represent various components. When you click it, each button opens another display. The following
table shows and describes the icon buttons that are used in these windows.
Component
Description
Window
Action
The device or
device array where
the source files are
located
Load Job
■
If the text box is empty, click the Device
button to display the Device Array Selection
window, where you can create or open a
device type.
■
If the text box has an entry, click the Device
button to display the device-array definition
window for that specific device or type the
name of a different device in the text box.
■
If the text box is empty, click the Filter
button to display the Filter Views window,
where you select a filter and associated
format. You can also create a filter from this
window.
■
If the text box has an entry, click the Filter
button to display the filter-definition
window for that specific filter or type the
name of a different filter in the text box.
■
In the Filter Views window, click the Filter
button to display the filter-definition
window for a specific filter.
Unload Job
Device
Filter
The filter that
controls which
records are selected
from the data file
for a database
update (The use of a
filter is optional.)
Load Job
Filter Views
(1 of 3)
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-29
Icon Buttons
Component
Description
Window
Action
The format of the
source data used for
this load or unload
Load Job
■
If the text box is empty, click the Format
button to display the Format Views window,
where you can select a format and
associated map. You can also create a format
from this window.
■
If the text box has an entry, click the Format
button to display the format-definition
window for that specific format or type the
name of a different format in the text box.
■
In all Views windows, click the Format
button to display the format definition for a
specific format. In these windows, the
button shows only one of the three symbols
(F, D, C) to indicate whether the type of
format is fixed, delimited, or COBOL.
■
If the text box is empty, click the Map button
to display the Map Views window, where
you can select a map and associated table
and format. You also can create a map from
this window.
■
If the text box has an entry, click the Map
button to display the map-definition
window for that specific map or type the
name of a different map in the text box.
■
In a Views window, click the Map button to
display the map-definition window for a
specific map.
■
Click the Options button to display the
Mapping Options window. For a discussion
of these options, refer to “Changing the
Load Options” on page 12-13.
Unload Job
Format
The map that corre- Load Job
lates fields of the
Unload Job
data source to
Map Views
database columns
Format Views
Map
Database Views
The options that let
you specify characteristics of the load
or unload
Load Job
Unload Job
Options
(2 of 3)
3-30
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Icon Buttons
Component
S
Q
L
Description
Window
Action
The query that
selects data from
the database table
Unload Job
■
If the text box is empty, click the Query
button to display the Database Views
window from which you can select the table
and associated map and format.
■
If the text box has an entry, click the Query
button to display the query-definition
window for that specific query or type the
name of a different query in the text box.
■
In a Views window, click the Query button
to display the query-definition window for a
specific query.
■
Click the Table button to display the
Database Views window from which you
can select the table and associated map and
format. If an association is not apparent,
click Create to create one.
■
Click the Table button in the query
definition window to choose a table and
columns for the Select entry.
Database Views
Map Views
Query
The database table
into which the
converted data will
be loaded
Table
Load Job
Database Views
Query Definition
(3 of 3)
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-31
Buttons
Buttons
The buttons across the bottom of the display let you indicate the next action.
Most windows have one or more of the following buttons.
Button
Action
Apply
Save changes but do not exit.
Cancel
Do not save any changes. Exit to the previous display.
Create
Display the component-selection window.
Help
Display context-sensitive help in a separate window. For information
about the on-line help, see “Using the On-Line Help” on page 3-33.
OK
Save changes and exit to the previous display.
Use OK only when you have actually made a change on the display. If you
are exiting from a series of displays, use Cancel to exit from the display.
Figure 3-13 illustrates the use of OK and Cancel.
Figure 3-13
Using OK and Cancel from the HPL Main Window
Choose Components➞Device to
open the Device Array Selection
window.
Select a device array. Click
OK to open the devicearray definition window.
Device Array
Selection window
HPL Main window
Click Cancel to exit from the
Device Array Selection window
and return to the HPL main
window.
3-32
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Device-array definition
window
Edit the array. Click OK to record
the changes and return to the
Device Array Selection window.
Using the On-Line Help
Using the On-Line Help
The Help menu on the HPL main window has the following choices:
■
Glossary
■
Contents
The Glossary option opens a scrolling list of items. Select an item to see its
definition. The Contents option takes you to the main contents page. This
page directs you to discussions of various HPL topics.
If you click Help in any window other than the HPL main window, Help
displays information that is related to the current window. After the Help
window opens, you can click its Help button for more information about
using the Help window.
Using UNIX Keyboard Commands to Move the Cursor
Instead of using the mouse to move from area to area in the HPL user
interface, you can use keyboard commands to move the cursor. As you move
around, the currently selected item is highlighted with a box.
The following table lists the cursor-moving keystrokes.
Keystroke
Result
TAB
Move from area to area. Sometimes used to move from tab stop to
tab stop.
SHIFT-TAB
Back up; that is, move from area to area in reverse order.
CONTROL-TAB
Move from area to area when TAB is reserved to move from tab
stop to tab stop.
Cursor keys
Move from item to item within a functional area.
SPACEBAR
Select the current item or action.
Using the High-Performance Loader Windows 3-33
Using UNIX Keyboard Commands to Move the Cursor
Most displays in the HPL user interface are divided into functional areas,
such as toolbar buttons, selection group, component-name text box,
component list box, and so on. Depending on the nature of the specific display, sometimes TAB moves from item to item (or even from tab stop to tab
stop) within a major area. On other displays, TAB moves only between functional areas, and you must use SPACEBAR to move around within the
functional area.
3-34
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Chapter
Defining Projects
Project Organization . .
The Projects Window .
Creating a New Project
Selecting a Project . .
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4-3
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
he HPL lets you organize your work by specifying projects. A project
is a collection of individual pieces that you use to load and unload data. A
project can include load and unload jobs and the maps, formats, filters, and
queries that you use to build the load and unload jobs. This chapter explains
how to create a project and how projects are related. The individual components that you store in projects are described in later chapters.
Project Organization
The HPL uses only one database, onpload, to keep track of the preparation
that you do for loading and unloading data. Using projects lets you organize
your work into functional areas. For example, you might regularly transfer
data to or from several unrelated databases. You could put all of the preparation for each database into a separate project.
When you first start the ipload utility, ipload creates a project named
<default>. If you prefer, you can select the <default> project and assign all
of your work to that project. The HPL does not require that you create any
additional projects. However, creating projects and putting separate tasks
into distinct projects makes your work easier to maintain.
Defining Projects 4-3
Project Organization
Figure 4-1 shows the relationships among projects, jobs, and components.
Figure 4-1
Illustration of Project Hierarchy
High-Performance Loader
Project two
Project one
Job one_1
(table1)
Job one_2
(table 2)
Query
Format
Filter
Job two_1
(table A)
Query
Map
Format
Job two_2
(table A)
Filter
Map
Format
Format
Map
Map
Figure 4-1 shows that jobs are linked directly to the projects. The format,
map, filter, and query components belong to a project but are not directly
linked to a job, as illustrated with Project one. In general, you create a format,
map, and filter or query for each job, as shown with Project two. However, in
some cases, you might use the same component for more than one job within
a project.
4-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Project Organization
For example, for reports about a medical study, you might want to create
three reports: one about subjects under 50 years of age, one about subjects
over 50, and one about all subjects. In that case, the description of how to find
the information (the format and map) is the same for all three reports, but the
selection of information (the query) is different for each report. (Formats,
maps, and queries are described in detail in later chapters.)
All components (maps, formats, queries, filters, and load and unload jobs)
that you create in a project are associated with that project in the onpload
database. Components that are associated with a project are visible (usable)
only when the project is selected. When you select a different project, a
different set of components becomes available.
Device-array definitions and configuration parameters are not included in
project definitions. Figure 4-2 shows the components that the HPL uses. Each
project is distinct, but the devices and configuration parameters apply to all
projects.
Figure 4-2
Relationship of Projects, Devices, and Configuration Parameters
High-Performance Loader
Project one
Job one_1
(table1)
Job one_2
(table 2)
Project two
Job two_1
(table A)
Job two_2
(table A)
Devices
Configuration
parameters
Device1
Device2
Device3
Defaults
Driver
Machines
Defining Projects 4-5
The Projects Window
The Projects Window
The Projects window (Figure 4-3) lets you select or create a project. After you
select a project, you can copy the project, delete it, print the project parameters, or make a note that describes the project. The ipload utility stores
project information in the project table of the onpload database. (The project
table is described on page A-16.)
Figure 4-3
The Projects
Window
Projects
Copy
Delete
Print
Notes
Projects
<default>
practice
stores7
Create Project:
Notes
Message: Enter project name to create, or select project to copy, delete, or print
OK
4-6
Apply
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
Creating a New Project
Creating a New Project
To define a new project
1.
Choose Configure➞Project from the HPL main window.
The Projects window appears, as Figure 4-3 illustrates.
2.
Choose a name for the project and type it in the Create Project text
box.
3.
Click Apply.
The ipload utility creates the project but does not exit from the
Projects window. You can create another new project, or you can use
the toolbar buttons to manipulate the project.
4.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
If you want to create one project and then exit, click OK instead of Apply.
Selecting a Project
The HPL provides two methods for selecting a project.
To select a project for a load or unload job or to edit components
1.
Select the project name from the Select Project list box in the HPL
main window.
2.
Choose the action that you want to take from one of the menus on the
HPL main window.
To select a project to edit
1.
Choose Configure➞Project from the HPL main window.
The Projects window appears, as Figure 4-3 illustrates.
2.
Select the project that you want to edit from the Projects list box.
3.
Perform the desired edit actions (copy, delete, print, or describe with
a note).
4.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Defining Projects 4-7
Chapter
Configuring the HighPerformance Loader
Configuring the ipload Utility .
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5-3
Selecting a Database Server . . . . .
Using the Connect Server Window .
Creating the onpload Database . .
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5-3
5-4
5-5
Modifying the onpload Defaults .
The Defaults Window . . .
Server Name . . . . .
Machine Type . . . . .
Data Code Set . . . . .
Changing the onpload Defaults
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5-5
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-7
Modifying the Machine Description .
The Machines Window . . . .
Using the Machines Window . .
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5-8
5-9
5-10
5-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
his chapter describes how to prepare the configuration tasks for the
HPL. The configuration tasks let you describe the type of computer, code sets,
and other aspects of your database server environment. “Performance” on
page 15-10 describes how to modify the configuration to improve
performance.
Configuring the ipload Utility
Configuration information is stored in the onpload database. The
configuration tasks include:
■
selecting a database server.
■
modifying the onpload defaults, if necessary.
■
selecting a driver, if necessary.
■
modifying the machine description, if necessary.
Selecting a Database Server
The HPL needs to know the location of two databases: the onpload database
and the target database. The target database is the Informix database into
which you load data or from which you unload data. When you start the
ipload utility, ipload assumes that both the onpload database and the target
database reside on the database server that the INFORMIXSERVER
environment variable specifies. You can use the Connect Server window
(Figure 5-1 on page 5-4) to specify different database servers.
Configuring the High-Performance Loader
5-3
Using the Connect Server Window
The sqlhosts file controls connectivity to database servers. The ipload utility
scans the sqlhosts file to derive the lists of available database servers that the
Connect Server window displays. For more information on how to configure
connections, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Using the Connect Server Window
To select a database server
1.
Choose Configure➞Server from the HPL main window.
The Connect Server window appears, as Figure 5-1 illustrates.
Figure 5-1
The Connect Server Window
Connect Server
Target Server: svr1
Onpload Server: svr1
svr1
svr1
server_spx
server_spx
server_two
server_two
personnel
personnel
Configure Server
Successfully Connected to Servers
OK
Help
Message: Select onpload and target servers, then click OK to connect
OK
5-4
Cancel
Help
2.
Select the database server where the onpload database resides from
the Onpload Server list box.
3.
Select the database server that includes the database that you will
load or unload from the Target Server list box.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating the onpload Database
4.
Click OK.
The Configure Server confirmation window appears, as Figure 5-1
illustrates.
5.
Click OK in the Configure Server window to return to the HPL main
window.
Creating the onpload Database
When you first start the ipload utility, ipload creates an onpload database.
However, if you use the Connect Server window to choose a different
onpload database server, ipload creates an onpload database on that
database server.
The default name of the database that the HPL uses is onpload. To give some
other name to the HPL database, set the DBONPLOAD environment variable.
Refer to “The DBONPLOAD Environment Variable” on page 1-13.
Modifying the onpload Defaults
You must describe the computer environments of your database servers. This
information applies to database servers and is independent of the projects. If
you change the description of a database server, the changes apply to all jobs
that you run on that database server. You can prepare a default computing
environment that applies to all database servers that are not explicitly
described.
The Defaults Window
The Defaults window lets you change the following information:
■
Server name
■
Machine type
■
Data code set
Configuring the High-Performance Loader
5-5
The Defaults Window
Figure 5-2 shows the Defaults window.
Figure 5-2
The Defaults
Window
Defaults
Defaults for Server
Server Name:
default
Machine Type:
Sparcstation
Data Code Set:
ASCII
Message: Select specific server or ‘default’
OK
Apply
Cancel
Help
The ipload utility saves the information from the Defaults window in the
defaults table of the onpload database. For more information about the
defaults table, see page A-2.
Tip: You can use DB-Access to examine the default values. The following tables in
the onpload database contain default values: defaults, delimiters, driver, and
machines.
Server Name
The Server Name text box specifies the database server with which the
settings are associated. The information provided for the special server name
default applies to all database servers for which no explicit information is
provided. For example, if the majority of the database servers on your
network (that will be using the HPL) are BrandX computers, default should
describe the BrandX computers. To describe the computing environment of
the other database servers on the network, specify the database server name.
The selection list that is associated with the Server Name text box lists the
database servers that are in your sqlhosts file. For information about the
sqlhosts file, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
5-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Changing the onpload Defaults
Machine Type
The Machine Type text box describes fixed-length, binary-format records. It
defines the sizes and byte order of data in data files that the specified
database server produces. The selection list that is associated with the
Machine Type text box provides descriptions of several computers. You can
use the Machines option on the Configure menu to add descriptions of other
computers to this list (refer to “Modifying the Machine Description” on
page 5-8).
Data Code Set
The Data Code Set text box specifies the character set of the data file. When
you load data into a database, you can convert the character set of the data
file into the character set of the database. For example, you can convert
EBCDIC to ASCII, or any other character set that your system supports.
Conversely, you can convert the data from a database into a selected
character set when you unload data.
GLS
You can select a desired GLS code set from this selection list. The character set
of the database is determined by the DB_LOCALE environment variable. For
information about locales and code sets, see the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality. ♦
Changing the onpload Defaults
To specify defaults for onpload
1.
Choose Configure➞Defaults from the HPL main window.
The Defaults window appears, as Figure 5-2 on page 5-6 illustrates.
2.
Update the values in each of the text boxes.
Click the down arrows to display selection lists that show possible
values for each text box.
3.
Click Apply to save the values and prepare the defaults for another
database server.
4.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
If you want to prepare the defaults for only one database server, click OK
instead of Apply.
Configuring the High-Performance Loader
5-7
Modifying the Machine Description
Modifying the Machine Description
The information that the Machines option of the Configure menu stores
describes the characteristics of a specific computer. The HPL uses these
characteristics to control the conversion of binary data formats. Unless you
are converting binary data, you do not need to be concerned about the
machine description.
When you first start the ipload utility, ipload stores the characteristics of
several computers. You can select one of the existing computer types, modify
an existing description, or create a new machine description.
You use the information from the Machines window when you prepare the
defaults for the database servers on your network. (See “Changing the
onpload Defaults” on page 5-7.) The information from the Machines window
is stored in the machines table of the onpload database. (For more information on the machines table, see page A-11.) The default information for the
HPL includes descriptions of the binary data sizes for several popular
computers. If the default data does not include the computer from which you
are reading data, you can create a description for that computer.
5-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Machines Window
The Machines Window
Figure 5-3 shows the Machines window. If you select Sparcstation from the
Machine Type selection list, the following values appear in the Machines
window.
Figure 5-3
The Machines
Window
Machines
Machine Type: Sparcstation
LSB
Byte Order:
Short Size:
2
Integer Size:
4
Long Size:
4
Float Size:
4
Double Size:
8
MSB
Message: Please select or enter machine type
OK
Apply
Cancel
Help
The Machines window displays the following information.
Item
Description
Machine Type
Name for the computer that this entry describes
Byte Order
Bit ordering of binary information for this computer. The two
possible formats are LSB and MSB. In the LSB format, the leastsignificant bits of a value are at lower memory addresses. In the
MSB format, the most-significant bits of a value are at lower
memory addresses.
Short Size
Number of bytes required to hold a short integer value
Integer Size
Number of bytes required to hold an integer
(1 of 2)
Configuring the High-Performance Loader
5-9
Using the Machines Window
Item
Description
Long Size
Number of bytes required to hold a long-integer value
Float Size
Number of bytes required to hold a floating-point value
Double Size
Number of bytes required to hold a double-sized floating-point
value
(2 of 2)
Using the Machines Window
To edit the description of a computer
1.
Choose Configure➞Machines from the HPL main window.
The Machines window appears, as Figure 5-3 on page 5-9 illustrates.
2.
Click the down arrow and select a machine type from the selection
list.
3.
Modify the values as appropriate.
4.
Click Apply to save the values and modify another machine
description.
5.
When you finish, click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
If you want to modify the description of only one computer, click OK rather
than Apply.
To add a computer type to the Machines list
1.
Choose Configure➞Machines from the HPL main window.
The Machines window appears, as Figure 5-3 on page 5-9 illustrates.
2.
Type the new name in the Machine Type text box.
3.
Type an appropriate value in each text box.
4.
Click Apply to save the values and add another computer type.
5.
When you finish, click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
If you want to add only one computer type, click OK rather than Apply.
5-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Chapter
Defining Device Arrays
Device Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Multiple Devices in a Device Array .
Using the Device Array Selection Window .
Using the Device-Array Definition Window .
The Array Item Type Group . . . . .
The Device Text Box . . . . . . . .
The Tape Parameters Group . . . . .
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6-3
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
A
device array groups several I/O devices together so that the HPL
can perform parallel processing of the input and output. When you specify
multiple devices in a device array,onpload sets up separate, parallel streams
of input or output when it performs a database load or unload.
Device Arrays
The HPL lets you use device arrays to group computer resources to perform
parallel processing. Device arrays set up simultaneous access to one or more
tape devices, files, or pipes so that the onpload utility can take advantage of
parallel processing.
Device arrays are not project specific. You can use the same device array for
a load or unload job on any of the projects that you define.
Using Multiple Devices in a Device Array
You can include files, pipes, and tape devices in a single array. “Devices for
the Device Array” on page 15-12 discusses factors that you should take into
account when you decide what devices to assign to an array. If your array
includes pipe commands, onpload starts the pipe when it begins execution.
When the HPL unloads data, it assigns records to the devices of a device array
in a round-robin fashion.
Defining Device Arrays 6-3
Using the Device Array Selection Window
Using the Device Array Selection Window
The Device Array Selection window (Figure 6-1) lets you create a new device
array or select an existing array.
If you select an existing array, you can edit that array or use one of the toolbar
buttons to copy, delete, or print the array.
Figure 6-1
The Device Array
Selection Window
Device Array Selection
Copy
Delete
Print
Selection Type
Open
Create
Device Array:
Current Arrays
largest
personnel
sales_sum_out
Notes
Message: Enter a device array name to create
OK
6-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
Using the Device Array Selection Window
To create a new device array
1.
Choose Components➞Devices from the HPL main window.
The Device Array Selection window appears (see Figure 6-1).
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Select a name for the new device and type it in the Device Array text
box.
4.
Click OK.
The device-array definition window appears, as Figure 6-2 on
page 6-6 illustrates.
To open an existing device array
1.
Choose Components➞Devices from the HPL main window.
The Device Array Selection window appears (see Figure 6-1).
2.
Click Open in the Selection Type group.
3.
Select a device from the Current Arrays list box.
4.
Click OK.
The device-array definition window appears, as Figure 6-2 on
page 6-6 illustrates.
Defining Device Arrays 6-5
Using the Device-Array Definition Window
Using the Device-Array Definition Window
Use the device-array definition window (Figure 6-2) to add, edit, or delete
devices from an array.
Figure 6-2
A Partially Completed Device-Array Definition Window
new_array
Print
Notes
File Name:
Array Item Type
Tape
File
Pipe
/extra/data/data_two
Tape Parameters
Block Size:
Bytes
Tape Size:
MB
GB
Array Items
FILE /work/data/data_one
Perform
Add
Edit
Delete
Message: Enter file name to load from or to create
OK
Cancel
Help
The Array Item Type Group
The Array Item Type group lists the types of devices that you can include in
a device array. You can mix different types of devices in a single array.
6-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Device-Array Definition Window
The Device Text Box
Depending on the array item type that you selected from the Array Item
Type group, the label for the text box where you type a device name is Tape
Device, File Name, or Pipe Command. Fill in this text box as follows.
Device Type
What to Type
Tape Device
The full pathname of the tape device
File Name
The full pathname of the file
Pipe Command
The full pathname of the executable pipe command
The Tape Parameters Group
When you select Tape as the array item type, the Tape Parameters group
becomes active (not gray), as Figure 6-3 illustrates. You must type the block
and tape size.
Figure 6-3
The Tape Parameters Group
new_array
Print
Notes
Tape Device:
Array Item Type
Tape
File
Pipe
Tape Parameters
Block Size:
Bytes
Tape Size:
MB
GB
Defining Device Arrays 6-7
Using the Device-Array Definition Window
To add devices to the device array
1.
Click Add in the device-array definition window.
2.
Click the device type in the Array Item Type group.
3.
Type the full pathname of the device in the Device text box.
4.
If you specified a tape device, the Tape Parameters group becomes
active, as Figure 6-3 on page 6-7 illustrates.
5.
a.
Type the block size in kilobytes.
b.
Click MB (megabytes) or GB (gigabytes) to specify the units to
use for the tape size.
c.
Type the tape size.
When you have included all of the information for the device, click
Perform.
The device that you added appears in the Array Items list box.
6.
Repeat steps 2 through 5 to add other items to the device array.
7.
When you have added all of the devices to the array, click OK to
return to the Device Array Selection window.
Your new array appears in the Current Arrays list box.
8.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To edit a device in the device array
1.
Click Edit in the device-array definition window.
2.
Select a device from the Array Items list box.
The selected item appears in the Device text box.
3.
Edit the pathname and tape parameters, as appropriate.
4.
Click Perform.
5.
Click OK to return to the Device Array Selection window.
6.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Tip: When you edit a device, you can change the pathname and the tape parameters,
but you cannot change the array-item type (tape, file, pipe). If you need to change the
device type, you must delete the item and then add a new item.
6-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Device-Array Definition Window
To delete a device from the device array
1.
Click Delete in the device-array definition window.
2.
Select a device from the Array Items list box.
3.
Click Perform.
4.
Click OK to return to the Device Array Selection window.
5.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Defining Device Arrays 6-9
Chapter
Defining Formats
Formats .
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7-3
Fixed-Length Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Fixed Format. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Types Allowed in a Fixed Format . . . . . .
Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decimals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing a Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Fixed Format That Uses Carriage Returns . . .
Creating a Fixed Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
In-Line Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data in a Separate File . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7-4
7-5
7-7
7-8
7-8
7-9
7-11
7-12
7-12
7-14
Delimited Records . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Delimited Format . . . . . . . .
Data Types Allowed in a Delimited Format . .
Creating a Delimited Format That Includes BYTE or
TEXT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7-15
7-15
7-16
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7-16
COBOL Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a COBOL Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Picture and Usage Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . .
The Picture Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Usage Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed-Decimal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-18
7-18
7-19
7-19
7-19
7-19
Other Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-20
7-20
7-20
7-2
Format Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Fixed and COBOL Formats . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Delimited-Format Options . . . . . . . . . . .
7-21
7-21
7-22
The Format Views Window .
7-24
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
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A
format describes the structure of the data in a data file. Before
you can import records from a data file into an Informix database or export
records from a database to a data file, you must define a format that describes
the data file. You do not need to define a format for the database because
ipload already knows the schema (the organization) of the database table.
This manual uses the word format in two ways:
■
To refer to the arrangement of data fields in a record of a data file
■
To refer to the HPL component that documents the arrangement of
the data fields
This chapter describes the formats that the HPL provides and shows how to
prepare and edit the format component.
After you familiarize yourself with the concepts in this chapter, you might
save yourself some work by using one of the Generate options to create
formats automatically. For a description of these options, refer to Chapter 13,
“Generate Options.”
Formats
Data files can be structured in a variety of ways. The HPL supports data-file
records of the following formats:
■
Fixed-length
■
Delimited
■
COBOL
■
Other formats
Defining Formats 7-3
Fixed-Length Records
You can define new format components at any time. Also, you can test your
format before you actually load or unload data. For information about testing
a format, refer to “Previewing Data-File Records” on page 14-3.
The ipload utility includes options that let you modify the data before it is
inserted into the database. For information about how to modify data, refer
to “Format Options” on page 7-21.
The ipload utility stores information about formats in the formatitem and
format tables of the onpload database. For more information about the
formatitem and format tables, see page A-7 and page A-9, respectively.
Important: To prepare the format component, you must know the format of the
records in the data file. If you do not know the data-file format, you must get it from
the person who provided the data file.
Fixed-Length Records
In fixed-length or fixed-format records, each field starts and ends at the same
place in every record. A data file that contains data records of equal and constant length might be organized as Figure 7-1 illustrates.
aaabbbbcccddddggghhhh
Figure 7-1
Sample File with
Fixed-Length
Records
The data file illustrated in Figure 7-1 has three records. Each record has a field
of three characters followed by a field of four characters, so the total record
length is seven characters. The file does not contain any separation between
records.
When you define a fixed-length format, you specify the length of each field.
The ipload utility calculates the offset for each field and the total length of the
record from the field lengths that you supply.
7-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Fixed Format
Creating a Fixed Format
The Record Formats window and the Fixed Format definition windows let
you create and define formats for fixed-length records.
To create a format for fixed-length records
Choose Components➞Formats from the HPL main window.
1.
The Record Formats window appears, as Figure 7-2 illustrates.
Figure 7-2
The Record Formats
Window
Record Formats
Copy
Delete
Print
Search
Formats
Mode
Open
Create Format: a_format
Create
Format
Type
Type
Fixed
Delimited
COBOL
Notes
Message:
OK
Cancel
2.
Click Create in the Mode group.
3.
Click Fixed in the Type group.
Help
Defining Formats 7-5
Creating a Fixed Format
4.
Choose a name for the format and type it in the Create Format text
box.
5.
Click OK.
The Fixed Format definition window appears. The title bar includes
the name that you chose for the format. Figure 7-3 shows the Fixed
Format definition window as it might appear after you prepare the
format for the file that Figure 7-1 on page 7-4 illustrates.
Figure 7-3
A Completed Fixed-Format Definition Window with an Open Selection List
Fixed Format - a_format
Save As
Field Name
Print
Notes
Options
Data Type
Browse
Bytes
Decimals
Chars
Perform
Field Name
Data Type
Bytes
field1
field2
Chars
Chars
3
4
Decimals
Operation
Offset
0
3
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete Delete
Select From List
Total Record Length: 7
Message: Please enter field specification
OK
Cancel
Help
Items
Chars
Short
Unsigned Short
Integer
Unsigned Integer
Long Integer
Selection
Chars
OK
7-6
Cancel
6.
Click Add in the Operation group.
7.
Choose a name for the field and type the name in the Field Name text
box.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Fixed Format
8.
Type the data type in the Data Type text box.
The down arrow next to the Data Type text box displays the selection
list that appears at the right in Figure 7-3 on page 7-6. “Data Types
Allowed in a Fixed Format” describes the data types that appear in
the selection list.
9.
10.
Type the appropriate value in the Bytes text box (or in the Decimals
text box, if appropriate).
Click Perform.
After you click Perform, ipload calculates the proper offset for this
field in the record and displays the value under the Offset heading,
as Figure 7-3 on page 7-6 illustrates.
11.
Repeat steps 7 through 10 for each field in your data file.
12.
Click OK to save the format and return to the Record Formats
window.
13.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Tip: Use the field name to map the data file to the database. You can type any name
that you choose. You might find it easier to remember the names if you use the same
name as the corresponding column of the database.
Data Types Allowed in a Fixed Format
You can use the following data types when you are preparing a fixed format.
Data Type
Description
Chars
ASCII format data
Short
Unsigned Short
Integer
Unsigned Integer
Long Integer
Unsigned Long
Float
Double
The number of bytes required in fixed format for integers and
floating-point values is specified by the Machines description
(Refer to “The Machines Window” on page 5-9.)
Date
Date string
When you select one of these data types, ipload sets the
number of bytes.
(1 of 2)
Defining Formats 7-7
Creating a Fixed Format
Data Type
Description
UNIX Date
A long integer interpreted as the system date from a UNIX
system
Blob Length
The number of bytes of BYTE and TEXT (binary large object)
information that follow this record
Blob File
A file that contains BYTE and TEXT information
(2 of 2)
Bytes
In Figure 7-3 on page 7-6, the Bytes text box specifies the number of
characters that the field occupies in the record. In the Bytes text box, you
must set the number of bytes for your data types. The ipload utility uses
default information to generate the length of the other data types. (To change
the default information, refer to “The Machines Window” on page 5-9.) The
ipload utility automatically calculates the total length of the data file as you
add each field description.
Decimals
In Figure 7-3 on page 7-6, the Decimals text box specifies the number of
decimal places that are displayed when you convert floating-point types to
ASCII. You can set the number of decimals only for the Float and Double data
types.
7-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Editing a Format
Editing a Format
After you create and save a format, you might need to add a new field, insert
a new field, edit a field, or delete a field. The process for editing an existing
format is essentially the same, regardless of the file type. The following
example uses a fixed-format file, but the same procedure applies to COBOL
and delimited files also.
To add a new field description to the format
1.
Open the Fixed Format definition window.
For more information, refer to “Creating a Fixed Format” on
page 7-5.
2.
Click Add in the Operation group.
3.
Type the field specifications in the text boxes at the top of the
window.
4.
Click Perform.
The ipload utility adds the new field at the end of the list.
5.
Click OK.
The ipload utility saves your changes and returns to the Record
Formats window.
6.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To insert a new field into the format
1.
Open the Fixed Format definition window.
For more information, refer to “Creating a Fixed Format” on
page 7-5.
2.
Click Insert in the Operation group.
3.
Select the field before which you want to insert the new field.
4.
Type the field specifications in the text boxes at the top of the
window.
5.
Click Perform.
The ipload utility inserts the new field before the selected field.
Defining Formats 7-9
Editing a Format
6.
Click OK.
The ipload utility saves your changes and returns to the Record
Formats window.
7.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To edit the description of a field
1.
Open the Fixed Format definition window.
For more information, refer to “Creating a Fixed Format” on
page 7-5.
2.
Click Edit in the Operation group.
3.
Select the field from the list of fields.
4.
Change the desired information.
5.
Click Perform.
6.
Click OK.
The ipload utility saves your changes and returns to the Record
Formats window.
7.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To delete a field description from the format
1.
Open the Fixed Format definition window.
For more information, refer to “Creating a Fixed Format” on
page 7-5.
2.
Click Delete in the Operation group.
3.
Select the field that you want to delete.
4.
Click Perform.
The ipload utility deletes the field.
5.
Click OK.
The ipload utility saves your changes and returns to the Record
Formats window.
6.
7-10
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Fixed Format That Uses Carriage Returns
Creating a Fixed Format That Uses Carriage Returns
A fixed-format data file often includes a carriage return (new line) at the end
of each record, such as the data file in Figure 7-4.
20 chars
20 chars
15 chars
2 chars
John Brown
Mary Smith
Larry Little
100 Main St.
3141 Temple Way
44 Elm Rd. #6
Citadel
Chesapeake
Boston
LA
AZ
MA
Figure 7-4
Fixed-Format File
with Carriage
Returns
When you prepare the format for this data file, you must include a dummy
field for the carriage return. When you create the load map for this format
(“Load Maps” on page 9-4), do not link the dummy field to a database column. Figure 7-5 shows the format for the data file illustrated in Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-5
Fixed Format with
Dummy Entry for
Carriage Return
Fixed Format - a_format
Save As
Field Name
Print
Notes
Data Type
Options
Browse
Decimals
Bytes
Perform
Chars
Field Name
name
street
city
state
dummyCR
Data Type
Bytes
Chars
Chars
Chars
Chars
Chars
20
20
15
2
1
Decimal
Offset
0
20
40
55
57
Operation
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete
Total Record Length: 58
Message: Please enter field specification
OK
Cancel
Help
Defining Formats 7-11
Creating a Fixed Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
Creating a Fixed Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
You can organize the BYTE or TEXT data in a fixed-format data file in the
following ways:
■
In-line data
■
Data in a separate file
In-Line Data
BYTE or TEXT data that is included as part of a fixed-format data file is called
in-line data. When BYTE or TEXT data is in-line, the data-file record has two
parts: a fixed-length part and a variable-length part. For example, a record
with two fields and BYTE or TEXT data might be organized as Figure 7-6 illustrates.
field1
textlength
field2
textdata
Figure 7-6
Organization of a
Record that
Includes In-Line
TEXT Data
The length of the TEXT data is included in the fixed-length part of the record.
The actual TEXT data is inserted at the end of the fixed-length part of the
record. The HPL reads the TEXT length from the fixed-length part of the
record and uses that length to read the actual TEXT data. The HPL also uses
the TEXT length to calculate the offset to the beginning of the next record.
Figure 7-7 on page 7-13 illustrates the format definition of a record with inline BYTE and TEXT data. The arrows show how the HPL puts the record into
the database. The arrows from field 1 and field 2 indicate entries in fixedlength format. The split arrow shows that the HPL uses the TEXTlength
information to find the TEXT data and insert it into the table. The HPL does
not insert the TEXT length into the database.
7-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Fixed Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
Figure 7-7
In-Line TEXT Data
Input fields:
field 1
Table columns:
field 1
TEXT length
field 2
TEXT data
TEXT data
field 2
When you define the format in the format-definition window, select Blob
Length as the data type for the TEXTlength field. Figure 7-8 shows the format
for the example in Figure 7-6 on page 7-12. The format does not include an
entry for TEXT data.
Figure 7-8
Fixed Format That
Includes TEXT Data
Fixed Format - b_format
Save As
Field Name
Print
Notes
Data Type
Options
Browse
Bytes
Decimals
Perform
Chars
Field Name
field1
TEXTlength
field2
Data Type
Bytes
Chars
Blob Length
Chars
10
4
30
Decimal
Offset
0
10
14
Operation
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete
When you create a map to link the input fields that are defined by the format
to the columns of a database table (see Chapter 9), connect the TEXTlength
input field to the table column that contains the TEXT data.
Defining Formats 7-13
Creating a Fixed Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
Data in a Separate File
You can also store BYTE and TEXT data in separate files. During a load, BYTE
and TEXT data files are read and inserted into the database. During an
unload, the file is created and BYTE and TEXT data is written to the file. When
the fixed-format input contains the pathname of a data file, the HPL uses that
pathname to insert data into a column of the database table, as Figure 7-9
illustrates. When you prepare the format, select Blob File for the data type.
Figure 7-9
BYTE or TEXT Data in a File
file
Input fields:
field 1
pathname of BYTE or TEXT data
Table columns:
field 1
field 2
field 2
my_BYTE_or_TEXT_data
When you create a map to link the fields of the input record to the columns
of a database table (see Chapter 9), link the name of the BYTE or TEXT file with
the BYTE or TEXT column. The arrows in Figure 7-9 illustrate how the HPL
inserts the BYTE or TEXT data into the column.
7-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Delimited Records
Delimited Records
Delimited records are records whose fields can vary in length. In a data file that
contains delimited records, the records and fields are separated by a delimiter.
The following data file uses a vertical bar (|) as the field delimiter and a
carriage return as the record delimiter:
John Brown|100 Main St.|Citadel|LA|215/887-1931
Mary Smith|3141 Temple Way|Chesapeake|AZ|415/812-9919
Larry Little|44 Elm Rd. # 6|Boston|MA|617/184-1231
The ipload utility uses the vertical bar and carriage return as the default field
and record delimiters. For instructions on how to choose a different delimiter,
refer to “Modifying Delimited-Format Options” on page 7-22.
Creating a Delimited Format
To create a format for delimited records, follow the same steps as in “Creating
a Fixed Format” on page 7-5, with the following modifications:
■
In step 3, click Delimited in the Type group.
■
Omit step 9. When you use delimited records, ipload does not need
byte or decimal information.
Defining Formats 7-15
Creating a Delimited Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
Data Types Allowed in a Delimited Format
You can use the following data types when you prepare a delimited format.
Data Type
Description
Chars
Normal ASCII data
BYTE or TEXT File
File that contains BYTE or TEXT data
TEXT Data
TEXT data is formatted as ASCII text. If the text includes
carriage returns (new lines) or delimiters, a backslash (\)
must precede those characters.
BYTE or TEXT HexASCII
BYTE or TEXT data is formatted in ASCII hexadecimal.
The ipload utility translates the data into binary before
it loads the data into the database.
Creating a Delimited Format That Includes
BYTE or TEXT Data
In a delimited format, BYTE or TEXT data can be characters, hexadecimal
data, or in a separate file. Figure 7-10 shows a data record that has two fields
of character data followed by a field of character BYTE or TEXT data, a field of
hexadecimal BYTE or TEXT data, and the pathname of a file that contains BYTE
or TEXT data.
field1|field2|TEXT data|BEEEF6699|/bbs/kaths/data2jn95
7-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Figure 7-10
Sample Data-File
Record that
Includes BYTE or
TEXT Data
Creating a Delimited Format That Includes BYTE or TEXT Data
Figure 7-11 illustrates a format for the file in Figure 7-10 on page 7-16.
Figure 7-11
Delimited Format
with BYTE or TEXT
Entries
Delimited Format- c_format
Save As
Print
Field Name
Notes
Options
Browse
Field Type
Perform
Operation
x_field
Chars
y_field
Chars
a_txt_data
Blob Text
a_hex_data
Blob HexAXCII
a_txt_data_path
Blob File
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete
Message: Please enter field specification
OK
Cancel
Help
Defining Formats 7-17
COBOL Records
COBOL Records
The HPL supports COBOL sequential data files that do not contain internal
indexing. Figure 7-12 illustrates the COBOL-Format definition window for
preparing a COBOL format.
Figure 7-12
Fixed-Format
Definition Window
for a COBOL Format
COBOL Format - see_cobol
Save As
Field Name
Print
Notes
Options
Picture
Browse
Usage
Chars
Picture
Name
Perform
Usage
Operation
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete
Record Length: 58
Message: Please enter field specification
OK
Cancel
Help
Creating a COBOL Format
To create a format for COBOL records, follow the same steps as in “Creating a
Fixed Format” on page 7-5, with the following modifications:
7-18
■
In step 3, click COBOL in the Type group in the Record Formats
window.
■
In step 8, type the COBOL picture description in the Picture text box.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Picture and Usage Descriptions
■
In step 9, type the data type in the Usage text box.
■
The arrow displays the selection list of available data types for the
Usage text box.
The Picture and Usage Descriptions
The picture and usage description must conform to ANSI-COBOL 85 specifications. For information about COBOL picture strings, refer to the documentation for your COBOL compiler.
The Picture Description
The picture description must match the record file descriptor (FD) from the
COBOL program that generates or will use the data. For information on
COBOL formats, see your COBOL programmer’s manual.
The Usage Description
The usage description must match the data-field type described in the FD
descriptor of the COBOL program. If the COBOL program does not include a
usage clause, select the Chars (character) option for the usage.
Packed-Decimal Conversions
When values are converted to packed-decimal formats, supply a picture
clause that matches the picture clauses in the COBOL programs that use the
data. Otherwise, the COBOL interpretation of the values will be wrong.
The following table lists some examples of appropriate picture clauses.
Picture
Input Data
Output Data
COBOL value =
9999999
123
0000123C
123
9999V99
123
0000123C
1.23
9999.99
123
0000123C
1.23
9999V99
-123.22
0012322D
-123.22
Defining Formats 7-19
Other Formats
Other Formats
In addition to delimited, fixed, and COBOL formats, the HPL provides two
other formats for loading and unloading data: fast format and fast job. These
formats are not included on the Record Formats window because the format
specifications are predefined; you do not need to make any choices.
Fast format and fast job are the most efficient ways to load and unload data
because their formats are predefined.
Fast Format
Fast format loads or unloads data in which each individual column uses
Informix internal format. You can reorder, add, or delete columns, but you
cannot do any kind of conversion on the column itself.
Select Fixed internal in the Generate window to get this type of load. For
information about the Generate window, refer to Chapter 13, “Generate
Options.”
Fast Job
A fast job loads or unloads an entire row of an Informix database table in
Informix internal format. A fast job is also called a raw load or a no conversion
job. For more information, refer to “The Format Type Group” on page 13-12.
The -fn flag of the onpload command-line utility specifies a fast job. For
information about the onpload utility, refer to Chapter 16, “The onpload
Utility.”
7-20
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Format Options
Format Options
The format options let you change the default driver, the character set, the
default computer type, and the delimiters. Information about the format
options is stored in the formats table of the onpload database. For more
information about the formats table, see page A-9.
Modifying Fixed and COBOL Formats
You can modify the following options for fixed and COBOL formats.
GLS
Option
Description
Character set
The code set that is used to translate the data in the data table
Machine
The machine type that produced the data files. For more information, refer to “Modifying the Machine Description” on page 5-8.
For a fixed format, you can select a desired GLS code set from the Character
Set selection list. For information about locales and code sets, see the Informix
Guide to GLS Functionality. ♦
To modify the options for fixed and COBOL formats
1.
Display the format-definition window for the desired format.
To do this, follow the steps in “Creating a Fixed Format” on page 7-5.
2.
Click Options.
The Options window (in this example, the Fixed Format Options
window) appears, as Figure 7-13 on page 7-22 illustrates.
Defining Formats 7-21
Modifying Delimited-Format Options
Figure 7-13
The Fixed Format
Options Window
Fixed Format Options
Character Set:
ASCII
Driver:
Fixed
Machine:
OK
Sparcstaton
Cancel
Help
3.
Modify the options as appropriate.
4.
Click OK to save your options and return to the format-definition
window.
Modifying Delimited-Format Options
The Delimiter Options window (Figure 7-14 on page 7-23) lets you modify
the following options of the delimited format.
Option
Description
Character set
The code set used to translate the data in the data table.
Delimiting
characters
The delimiting characters, which are sometimes called record separators and field separators, indicate the beginning and end of records
and fields.
You can specify the delimiting characters in ASCII, HEX, OCTAL, or
DECIMAL format.
GLS
7-22
You can select a desired GLS code set from the Character Set selection list. For
information about locales and code sets, see the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality. ♦
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Modifying Delimited-Format Options
To modify the options for delimited formats
1.
Display the Delimited Format definition window.
To do this, complete the steps in “Creating a Fixed Format” on
page 7-5 with the following modification: in step 3, click Delimited.
2.
Click the Options button in the Delimited Format definition
window.
The Delimiter Options window appears, as Figure 7-14 illustrates.
Figure 7-14
The Delimiter Options Window
Delimiter Options
Driver:
Delimited
Character Set: ASCII
Type
Record Start:
Record End: newline
Field Start:
ASCII
HEX
OCTAL
Field End:
HEX
00
01
02
03
OCTAL
000
001
002
003
CONTROL
Ctrl-A
Ctrl-B
Ctrl-C
ASCII
Null
sch
stx
etx
DECIMAL
Field Separator: |
OK
Cancel
Help
3.
Modify the options that you want to change.
4.
Click OK to save your changes and return to the Delimited Format
definition window.
Tip: You can use the DBDELIMITER environment variable to set the field delimiter
for the dbexport utility and the LOAD and UNLOAD statements. However, do not
use DBDELIMITER with the HPL because the onpload utility does not use this
environment variable.
Defining Formats 7-23
The Format Views Window
The Format Views Window
The Format Views window lets you display a list of the formats and load and
unload maps that are associated with a project. The Format Views window
also lets you create or edit a format. The Format Views window appears in
the following situations:
■
When you click Format in the Unload Job window and no format
name is in the Formats text box
■
When you click Search in the Query window
Figure 7-15 shows a Format Views window. “The Views Windows” on
page 3-15 discusses how to use Views windows.
Figure 7-15
The Format-Views Window
Format Views
Formats
Search
Load Maps
Unload Maps
customer_del
items_fixed
Message: Click on format name to see maps which reference the format
OK
7-24
Create
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
Chapter
Defining Queries
Queries .
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8-3
Creating a Query . . . . .
Using the Table Button . .
Editing the WHERE Clause
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8-4
8-7
8-11
Editing a Query .
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8-12
Exporting and Importing Queries .
Importing a Query . . . .
Exporting a Query. . . . .
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8-13
8-13
8-15
The Database Views Window .
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8-17
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8-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
D
uring the unload process, the HPL uses a query to select data from
a database table (or tables), as Figure 8-1 illustrates. The HPL can process any
valid SQL statement.
Figure 8-1
Extracting Data from a Database Table
Selected table
Query
onpload
Target database
Extracted records
onpload database
Data file
Queries
The ipload query component lets you build an SQL statement. This manual
uses the word query in two ways:
■
To refer to the SQL statement that selects information from the
database
■
To refer to the HPL component that lets you build and store the SQL
statement
The ipload utility stores query information in the query table of the onpload
database. (For more information about the query table, see page A-16.) The
SQL statement is stored as TEXT data.
Defining Queries 8-3
Creating a Query
Creating a Query
Use the Query window to create a new query.
To create a query
1.
Choose Components➞Query from the HPL main window.
The Query window appears, as Figure 8-2 illustrates.
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Choose a name for your query and type it in the Query text box.
4.
In the Database text box, type the name of the database that contains
the table(s) from which you want to extract data, or click the down
arrow to select from a database selection list.
Figure 8-2 shows the Query window with the Query text box
completed and stores7 selected from the selection list.
8-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Query
Figure 8-2
The Query Window
Query
Copy
Delete
Print
Search
Selection Type
Open
Create
Query list box
Select From List
Query:
western
Items
stores7
testdb
Database:
Notes
Selection
stores7
Message: Enter a query name to create
OK
Cancel
5.
OK
Cancel
Help
Click OK.
The query-definition window appears, as Figure 8-3 on page 8-6
illustrates. The name that you chose for your query appears in the
title bar.
Defining Queries 8-5
Creating a Query
6.
Type your query in the Select, From, and Where text boxes.
Figure 8-3 illustrates the following simple query against the
customer table of the stores7 database:
SELECT customer.fname, customer.lname,
customer.zipcode
FROM customer
WHERE zipcode > 50000
If you prefer, you can type the entire query into the Select text box. If
you later edit the query, ipload divides the query into SELECT, FROM,
and WHERE clauses.
Figure 8-3
The QueryDefinition Window
western
Save As
Notes
Print
File
Table
Database: stores7
Select
customer.fname, customer.lname, customer.zipcode
From
customer
Where
zipcode> 50000
Message: Enter select, from, and where part of select query in appropriate window
OK
8-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
Using the Table Button
7.
Click OK to save the query and return to the Query window.
The query that you just created now appears in the Query list box at
the right-hand side of the Query window.
8.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Using the Table Button
The Table button displays the Column Selection window. You can use the
Column Selection window to build queries by selecting tables and columns.
The ipload utility inserts the selected columns and tables into the appropriate
text boxes of the query-definition window.
To use the Column Selection window
1.
Follow the steps in “Creating a Query” on page 8-4 to display the
query-definition window (Figure 8-3 on page 8-6).
2.
Click the Table button.
The Column Selection window appears, as Figure 8-4 on page 8-8
illustrates. The Tables list includes synonyms and views that are
valid for the local database server.
3.
Select a table.
After you select a table, the right-hand pane displays a list of the
columns in that table. Figure 8-4 shows the Column Selection
window with the customer table selected.
Defining Queries 8-7
Using the Table Button
Column Selection
Columns
customer_num
fname
lname
company
address1
address2
city
state
zipcode
phone
Tables
call_type
catalog
cust_calls
customer
custview
items
log_record
manufact
orders
someorders
state
stock
Figure 8-4
The Column
Selection Window
After Selecting a
Table
SELECT ALL
OK
4.
Cancel
Select one or more columns to be used in the query.
Use the following actions to select columns.
8-8
To Select
Perform This Action
A single column
Select that column.
All columns
Click Select All.
Consecutive columns
Select the first column. Move to the final
column and hold down Shift while you select
that column.
Several nonconsecutive
columns
Select a column. Hold down Control while you
select additional items.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Table Button
Figure 8-5 shows the Column Selection window with several
columns selected.
Column Selection
Tables
call_type
catalog
cust_calls
customer
customer_view
items
log_record
manufact
orders
someorders
state
stock
Columns
customer_num
fname
lname
company
address1
address2
city
state
zipcode
phone
Figure 8-5
Columns Selected
from a Table
SELECT ALL
OK
5.
Cancel
When you finish selecting columns, click OK to return to the querydefinition window.
When the query-definition window reappears, the mouse cursor
changes to a pointing hand and the message line reads:
Position Cursor Where Column Data to be Inserted
Defining Queries 8-9
Using the Table Button
6.
Click the Select text box or the Where text box.
Figure 8-6 shows columns inserted into the Select text box. The
ipload utility also inserts the table name into the From text box.
Figure 8-6
The QueryDefinition Window
After Using the
Table Button
test_query
Save As
Notes
Print
File
Table
Database: stores7
Select
customer.customer_num, customer.fname, customer.lname, customer.zipcode
From
customer
Where
Message: Enter select, from, and where part of select query in appropriate window
OK
Cancel
Help
7.
Repeat steps 2 through 6 to add columns from other tables.
8.
Modify the text in the Where text box so that it is a valid WHERE
clause.
Refer to the next section, “Editing the WHERE Clause.”
9.
10.
8-10
Click OK to save the query and return to the Query window.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Editing the WHERE Clause
Editing the WHERE Clause
When you use the Column Selection window (Figure 8-4 on page 8-8) to
select a column or columns for the WHERE clause, the selected columns
appear in the Where text box. The =? symbols indicate where you must
provide match conditions. Figure 8-7 shows the result when you choose
zipcode and customer_num from the customer table.
Figure 8-7
The Where Text Box
Entry After You Use
the Table Button
test_query
Save As
Notes
Print
File
Table
Database: stores7
Select
customer.customer_num, customer.fname, customer.lname, customer.zipcode
From
customer
Where
customer.zipcode=? and customer.customer_num=?
Message: Enter select, from, and where part of select query in appropriate window
OK
Cancel
Help
Defining Queries 8-11
Editing a Query
To edit the WHERE clause
1.
Select =? and change it to the desired match condition.
For example, the Where text box in Figure 8-7 on page 8-11 contains
the following text:
customer.zipcode = ? and customer.customer_num = ?
You must change both occurrences of =? to valid match conditions.
You might change the text as follows:
customer.zipcode > 50000 and
customer.customer_num > 150
For a full description of match conditions, refer to, Appendix D,
“Match Condition Operators and Characters.”
2.
Check the comparison operators.
When you select multiple columns from the Column Selection
window, ipload inserts and into the expression between each
column. You might need to change and to or.
Editing a Query
To edit a query, follow the same steps as for creating a query, but open an
already existing query in the Query window.
To edit a query
1.
Choose Components➞Query from the HPL main window.
The Query window appears, as Figure 8-2 on page 8-5 illustrates.
2.
Click Open.
3.
Select a query from the list of queries.
4.
Click OK.
The query-definition window appears, as Figure 8-3 on page 8-6
illustrates. The name of the query that you are editing appears in the
title bar.
8-12
5.
Modify the Select, From, and Where text boxes.
6.
Click OK to save the modified query.
7.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Exporting and Importing Queries
Exporting and Importing Queries
You can use the File button on the query-definition window to export a query
to a file or to import a query that you prepared with some other tool. For
example, you might use DB-Access to prepare and test a query and to save
the query to a file. You can then import that query into the HPL.
Importing a Query
You can use the Import/Export File Selection window to import a query that
you prepared outside of the HPL.
To import a query
1.
Display the query-definition window (Figure 8-3 on page 8-6) by
following the steps in “Creating a Query” on page 8-4.
2.
Click the File button.
The Import/Export File Selection window appears, as Figure 8-8 on
page 8-14 illustrates.
Defining Queries 8-13
Importing a Query
Figure 8-8
The Import/Export
File Selection
Window
Import/Export File Selection
Filter
/work/data/*
Directories
Files
work/data/create.tab1.sql
work/data/fixfmtdata
work/data/getcalls
work/data/moredata
work/data/mydata
work/data/newquery.sql
work/data/phonelist
work/data/phonelist.format
/work/data/.
/work/data/..
Selection
/work/data/newquery.sql
Import
Export
Filter
OK
Cancel
Help
3.
Click Import.
4.
Specify the file that you want to import.
You can do this in either of the following ways:
■
Type a pathname and appropriate wildcard(s) in the Filter text
box and click Filter. Use an asterisk (*) to list all of the files in the
directory. Then select a file and click OK or double-click a
filename.
■
Type the full pathname in the Selection text box and then click
OK.
The text from the imported file appears in the query-definition
window.
If ipload can interpret the SQL statement, the SQL statement is
inserted into the appropriate Select, From, and Where text boxes.
If ipload cannot interpret the SQL statement, the entire content of the
imported file appears in the Select text box.
8-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Exporting a Query
5.
Edit the query so that it meets your needs.
6.
Click OK.
If the query is a valid SQL query, the display returns to the Query
window.
If the query is not a valid SQL query, ipload highlights the portion of
the query that it cannot interpret and provides an error message.
7.
From the Query window, click Cancel to return to the HPL main
window.
Exporting a Query
The File button also allows you to export the query as an SQL statement. You
can prepare a query for export in the following ways:
■
Create a new query. (See “Creating a Query” on page 8-4.)
■
Open an existing query.
■
Import an already prepared query and modify it. (See “Importing a
Query” on page 8-13.)
To export a file
1.
Follow the steps in “Creating a Query” on page 8-4 to prepare a
query in the query-definition window (see Figure 8-3 on page 8-6).
2.
Click the File button.
The Import/Export File Selection window appears (see Figure 8-8 on
page 8-14).
3.
Click Export.
4.
Select the directory and file where the query should be stored.
You can do this in either of the following ways:
■
Add the name of a new file to a pathname in the Selection text
box and click OK.
■
Type a pathname and appropriate wildcard in the Filter text box
and click Filter. Then select a filename.
Defining Queries 8-15
Exporting a Query
5.
Click OK.
If the file that you specified already exists, ipload asks if you want to
overwrite the existing file, as Figure 8-9 illustrates.
Confirm
File /work/data/newquery.sql Exists—File Will Be Overwritten!
OK
6.
Figure 8-9
The Confirm File
Overwrite Window
Cancel
You now have two choices:
■
Click OK to overwrite. The display returns to the Query window.
■
Click Cancel to choose a different filename.
The ipload utility writes the text from the Select, From, and Where
text boxes into the specified file as a single SQL statement.
7.
Click OK.
The display returns to the Query window.
8-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Database Views Window
The Database Views Window
The Database Views window lets you display a list of the queries, maps, and
formats that are associated with a project. The Database Views window also
lets you create or edit a query. The Database Views window appears in the
following situations:
■
When you click the Query button in the Unload Job window and no
query name is in the Query text box
■
When you click the Search button in the Query window
Figure 8-10 shows the Database Views window. “The Views Windows” on
page 3-15 discusses how to use Views windows.
Figure 8-10
The Database Views Window
Database Views
Query
Database
Map
Format
inventory
SQ L
customer
customer_del
customer
stores7
SQ L
customer
customer_fixed
customer
testdb
SQ L
items
items_del
items_de
Message: Select table to expand view of maps associated with table
OK
Create
Cancel
Help
Defining Queries 8-17
Chapter
Defining Maps
Maps.
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9-3
Load Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Map-Definition Window . . . . . . .
Using the Table and the Format Panes . . . .
Using Unassigned or Multiple-Assigned Fields
and Columns . . . . . . . . . .
Using Identical Field Names and Column Names
Creating a Load Map . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9-4
9-4
9-5
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9-6
9-6
9-7
Unload Maps . . . . . .
Creating an Unload Map
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9-10
9-10
Mapping Options . . . . . . . . .
Using Mapping Options. . . . . .
Setting the Mapping Options . . . .
Justification . . . . . . . . .
Case Convert . . . . . . . .
Default Value . . . . . . . .
Transfer Bytes . . . . . . . .
Column Offset . . . . . . . .
Field Offset . . . . . . . . .
Field Minimum and Field Maximum
Fill Character . . . . . . . .
Picture . . . . . . . . . .
Function . . . . . . . . . .
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9-13
9-13
9-15
9-15
9-15
9-15
9-15
9-16
9-16
9-16
9-16
9-16
9-16
Editing Options . . . . .
Using the Delete Button .
Using the Find Button .
Using the Specs Button .
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9-17
9-17
9-17
9-19
The Map Views Window .
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9-20
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9-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
A
map specifies the relationship between the fields of a data file
and the columns of a database. This chapter describes how to use the ipload
utility to build a map.
Maps
For loading data into a database, you define a load map. A load map associates
the fields from records in a data file to columns in a database table. For
unloading data from a table, you define an unload map. An unload map
associates the columns extracted from one or more tables by a query to the
fields in a data file. Figure 9-1 illustrates these relationships.
Figure 9-1
Using a Map
custno custname
1234
XYZ LTD
1235
XSPORTS
State
CA
KS
Address
245 Emerson
451 Sherwood
Load map
Data file
Contact
G. Kaye
J. Central
custname
XYZ LTD
XSPORTS
State
CA
KS
custno custname
1234
XYZ LTD
1235
XSPORTS
Database table
custno State
1234
CA
1235
KS
Database table
Unload map
custno custname
1234
XYZ LTD
1235
XSPORTS
State
CA
KS
Address
Data file
Defining Maps 9-3
Load Maps
The ipload utility stores information about maps in the maps, mapitem,
mapoption, and mapreplace tables of the onpload database. Appendix A,
“The onpload Database,” describes these tables.
Load Maps
You can create a load map from the Load Job window or from the Components menu of the High-Performance Loader (HPL) main window. You can
define a map at any time. After you define a map, you use it with the Load
Job window or the onpload utility.
Using the Map-Definition Window
The discussion in this section concentrates on how the map-definition
window works. For detailed instructions on creating a load map, refer to
“Creating a Load Map” on page 9-7.
The map-definition window lets you associate an input item with a table
column. Figure 9-2 on page 9-5 shows a map-definition window for a load
map. The map specifies which fields of the data file are loaded into database
columns. The direction of the arrows indicates that data moves from the
fields of a data file into the columns of a database.
9-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Map-Definition Window
Figure 9-2
The Map-Definition Window
manufact
Save As
Notes
Print
Options
Delete
Specs
Table View
Find
Format: a_format
Table: table1
field3
column2
column1
field1
field1
column3
column2
field1
field2
column3
column1
field3
Message: Drag and drop columns/fields between windows to assign data transfers between database/file
OK
Apply
Cancel
Help
Using the Table and the Format Panes
The map-definition window contains two panes: the Table pane and the
Format pane. The window has two panes so that you can take the following
actions:
■
Scroll the panes to see all of the columns or fields of a long data file
or database table
■
Connect an input field to more than one column
Defining Maps 9-5
Using the Map-Definition Window
The left-hand column of icons in each pane represents the active elements of
the display. These left-hand columns do not change. In a load map, the
columns in the Table pane receive the input. In the Format pane, data from the
fields moves into the columns of the database table.
The right-hand column of icons in each pane represents the associations that
you make. These columns change as you build the map. A field might be
listed more than once in the right-hand column of the Table pane because
you can store a field from the data file in more than one database column.
This field is mapped (with a split arrow) to two columns in the Format pane.
A column never appears more than once in the right-hand list of the Format
pane because a column can only receive input from one database field.
By scanning the left pane, you can easily see which columns are receiving
data from the data file. By scanning the right pane, you can see which fields
of the data file are providing data and which fields are not being used.
Using Unassigned or Multiple-Assigned Fields and Columns
The HPL does not require a one-to-one connection between the fields and
columns. You can map a field to multiple columns. Figure 9-6 on page 9-12
shows a map where the data from one field is placed into two columns.
You can also have a column that has no mapping association. Field 1 in the
Format pane in Figure 9-4 on page 9-9 does not have an association. If a
column does not receive input, onpload sets the column to null.
Using Identical Field Names and Column Names
When you create a format, you can assign arbitrary names to the fields of the
data file. You might find it convenient to assign names that correspond to the
names of the columns in the database. When you create a map, ipload
automatically links columns and fields that have the same name, thus saving
you work.
9-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Load Map
Creating a Load Map
Before you can create a load map, you must create a format that describes the
data file that you plan to load. For information about how to create a format,
refer to Chapter 7, “Defining Formats.”
To create a load map
1.
Choose Components➞Maps➞Load Map from the HPL main
window.
The Record Maps window appears, as Figure 9-3 illustrates.
Figure 9-3
The Load Record
Maps Window
Load Record Maps
Copy
Delete
Print
Search
Selection Type
Open
Current Maps
Create
Map Data
Map Name:
Database:
Table:
Format:
Notes
Message: Enter a map name to create
OK
Cancel
Help
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Choose a name for the map, and type it in the Map Name text box.
Defining Maps 9-7
Creating a Load Map
4.
Type the names of the database and table where the data will be
loaded in their corresponding text boxes.
You can also click the down arrow to choose the names from a
selection list. The Tables selection list includes Synonyms that are
valid for the local database server.
5.
Type the format that describes the data file in the Format text box.
You can also click the down arrow to choose the format from a
selection list.
6.
Click OK to open the map-definition window.
A map-definition window similar to Figure 9-4 on page 9-9 appears.
7.
Click a column icon in the left-hand column in the Table pane and
hold the mouse button down. A box appears around the icon and its
name.
8.
Drag the box to a field icon in the Format pane.
When you connect columns to fields, it does not matter whether you
drag a column to a field or drag a field to a column, but you must
always connect items from the left-hand column of each pane.
Figure 9-4 shows a map-definition window with this step completed.
9-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Load Map
Figure 9-4
Map-Definition Window, One Association Completed
a_map
Save As
Notes
Print
Options
Delete
Table: tab1
Specs
Find
Table View
Format: a_format
field3
col1
field1
col2
field2
col1
col3
field3
Message: Drag and drop columns/fields between windows to assign data transfers between database/file
Apply
OK
9.
10.
Cancel
Help
Repeat steps 7 and 8 for each field that you want to transfer into the
database.
Add desired options, if any.
For instructions, refer to “Using Mapping Options” on page 9-13.
11.
Click OK to return to the Load Record Maps window.
Defining Maps 9-9
Unload Maps
Unload Maps
An unload map associates columns extracted from a database by a query
with the fields in a data-file record. You can create an unload map from the
Load Job window or from the Components menu of the HPL main window.
After you define an unload map, you use it with the Unload Job window or
the onpload utility.
Creating an Unload Map
Before you can create an unload map, you must define a query on the table
that will be unloaded. For instructions on how to define a query, refer to
“Queries” on page 8-3.
To create an unload map
1.
Choose Components➞Maps➞Unload Map from the HPL main
window.
The Unload Record Maps window appears, as Figure 9-5 illustrates.
9-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating an Unload Map
Figure 9-5
The Unload Record
Maps Window
Unload Record Maps
Copy
Delete
Print
Search
Selection Type
Open
Current Maps
Create
Map Data
Map Name:
Database:
Query:
Format:
Notes
Message: Enter a map name to create
OK
Cancel
Help
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Choose a name for the map and type the name in the Map Name text
box.
4.
Type the name of the database in the Database text box.
You can click the down arrow to choose a database from a selection
list of databases.
5.
Type the name of a query in the Query text box.
You can click the down arrow to choose a query from a selection list
of queries.
6.
Type the format name in the Format text box.
You can click the down arrow to choose a format from a selection list
of formats.
Defining Maps 9-11
Creating an Unload Map
7.
Click OK.
A map-definition window similar to Figure 9-6 appears. In this
figure, some of the field names match column names. The ipload
utility automatically maps columns to fields of the same name. The
direction of the arrows indicates the flow of data, as shown in
Figure 9-6.
Figure 9-6
The Map-Definition Window
manufact
Save As
Notes
Print
Options
Delete
Query: manufact
Specs
Table View
Find
Format: manufact
manu_code
old_code
manu_name
manu_name
manu_name
manu_name
lead_time
lead_time
lead_time
lead_time
Message: Drag and drop columns/fields between windows to assign data transfers between database/file
OK
Apply
8.
Cancel
Help
To map a database column to a data-file field, click the databasecolumn icon. Drag the column to the desired data-file field icon.
An arrow links the column icon to the field icon.
9.
9-12
Repeat step 8 until you have mapped all desired columns to fields.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Mapping Options
10.
Define any mapping options as appropriate.
For information about mapping options, refer to the next section
“Mapping Options.”
11.
Click OK to save the map and return to the Unload Record Maps
window.
12.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Mapping Options
The mapping options define conversions that onpload applies to the data
before it inserts the data into the database (for a load job) or into the data file
(for an unload job). These conversions can include case conversion, text justification, data masking through picture strings, default values, and fill
characters. The mapping options also allow you to replace imported data
with data from other database tables.
The information from the Mapping Options window is stored in the
mapoption table of the onpload database. (For more information about the
mapoption table, see page A-12.)
Using Mapping Options
This procedure describes how to specify mapping options.
To define mapping options
1.
Display the map-definition window by following the steps for
“Creating a Load Map” on page 9-7 or “Creating an Unload Map” on
page 9-10.
2.
Select the field or column (in the right-hand column of a pane) that
you want to modify.
3.
Click the Options button.
The Mapping Options window appears, as Figure 9-7 on page 9-14
illustrates.
Defining Maps 9-13
Using Mapping Options
Mapping Options
Field Name: old_code
Column Name: manu_code
Justification:
None
Default Value:
Case Convert:
None
Transfer Bytes:
Column Offset:
Figure 9-7
The Mapping
Options Window
0
Field Offset:
Field Minimum:
Field Maximum:
Fill Character:
Picture:
Function:
Message: All parameters displayed here are optional
OK
Cancel
Help
4.
Change the desired options.
5.
When you have set all the desired options, click OK to return to the
map-definition window.
When you return to the map window, an options symbol (a small box) appears
between the field and the column, as Figure 9-8 illustrates. The options symbol indicates that mapping options are in effect.
old_code
manu_code
manu_name
manu_name
9-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Figure 9-8
Fragment of the
Map-Definition
Window Showing an
Options Symbol
Setting the Mapping Options
Setting the Mapping Options
You can set as many of the choices on the Mapping Options window as you
need.
Justification
The Justification option positions text within a record. You can justify the text
to the left or right, or you can center it.
Case Convert
The Case Convert option converts the case of the data to the selected case.
The HPL supports upper, lower, and proper-name conversions. For example,
you can make the following conversions.
Input
Conversion Type
Result
JOHN LEE SMITH
Proper Name
John Lee Smith
john lee smith
Proper Name
John Lee Smith
john lee smith
Upper
JOHN LEE SMITH
JOHN LEE SMITH
Lower
john lee smith
Default Value
The Default Value option specifies the value that is inserted into the column
when no field is mapped into that column.
Transfer Bytes
The Transfer Bytes option specifies the number of bytes in the record field to
transfer to the database column.
For variable-length format records, this number reflects the maximum size of
the field. The actual number of bytes to transfer is determined by the record
or field delimiters.
Defining Maps 9-15
Setting the Mapping Options
Column Offset
The Column Offset option specifies the offset from the beginning of a
column field at which to start transferring the data from the field of the data
record. Offsets are zero based.
Field Offset
The Field Offset option specifies the offset from the beginning of a record
field at which to start transferring data to the column. Offsets are zero based.
Field Minimum and Field Maximum
The Field Minimum and Field Maximum options specify the smallest and
largest acceptable values for a numeric column. If the data in the field is
outside that range, the HPL rejects the record. This option is available only for
fields with numeric formats, such as integer, short, or float.
Fill Character
The Fill Character option lets you specify a character that you use to pad the
contents of a field. The fill character can be any character that you can type
on the keyboard. You can specify a fill character for fixed ASCII and COBOL
loads or unloads. The fill character is filled in as a trailing character.
Picture
The Picture option lets you reformat and/or mask data from the field of a
record before the data is transferred to the database. Appendix C, “Picture
Strings,” explains picture strings.
Function
The Function option specifies a user-defined function that is called for every
record that is processed. You must add the function to the dynamically linked
library. For information on using custom functions, see the API interface
documentation in Appendix E.
9-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Editing Options
Editing Options
This section discusses specialized options in the map-definition window.
Using the Delete Button
The Delete button lets you break the association between a column and a
field.
To use the Delete button
1.
Click an icon in the right-hand column of either of the panes in the
map-definition window.
2.
Click the Delete button.
The ipload utility removes the arrow that connects the item to
another item.
Using the Find Button
The Find button lets you find a column or field in a pane. The ipload utility
scrolls the selected item into view and puts a box around it. This option is
useful when the list of columns or fields is so long that the pane cannot
display all of the items.
To use the Find button
1.
In the map-definition window, click either the Table pane or the
Format pane.
When you click a pane, the view indicator in the upper-right corner
of the window changes to show which pane you selected. Figure 9-9
on page 9-18 shows the upper portion of the map-definition window
after you click the Format pane.
Defining Maps 9-17
Using the Find Button
Figure 9-9
The View Indicator
a_map
Delete
Specs
Find
Format View
Format: a_format
col3
input1
input1
2.
Click the Find button.
The Find Node window appears, as Figure 9-10 illustrates.
Because the view indicator shows Format View, the Find Node
window lists the fields of the data file. To see the columns of the
database table, make sure that the view indicator shows Table View.
Figure 9-10
The Find Node
Window
Find Node
Items
input1
input2
input3
Selection
input3
OK
9-18
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Using the Specs Button
3.
4.
To select the item to find, you can use either of these methods:
■
Scroll through the list box to locate the item that you want to find
and then select the item.
■
Type the name of the item that you want to find in the Selection
text box.
Click OK.
The map-definition window appears again. The selected field or
column is highlighted with a box.
Using the Specs Button
The Specs button lets you display the Specifications window, which lets you
examine the characteristics of the columns and fields in your map.
Figure 9-11 shows a sample Specifications window.
Specifications
Columns
Fields
in1
cost
quantity
Figure 9-11
The Specifications
Window
in2
descrip
Column Specification
cost
Field Specification
in2
Type : SQLMONEY: SQLINT
Type: ASCII
Size : 8,2:4
Size: <Variable>
OK
Help
Defining Maps 9-19
The Map Views Window
To use the Specifications window
1.
Click the Specs button in the map-definition window.
The Specifications window appears as Figure 9-11 on page 9-19
illustrates.
2.
Select a column from the Columns list box or a field from the Fields
list box or both.
The specification boxes in the lower part of the screen display the
characteristics of the selected items.
3.
When you finish examining the specifications, click OK to return to
the map-definition window.
The Specifications window displays the attributes of columns and fields. The
Specifications window does not allow you to edit the attributes it displays. To
change the attributes of a field, you must modify the format of the data file.
(See “Format Options” on page 7-21.) To change the attributes of a column,
you must use appropriate SQL statements to modify the database table.
The Map Views Window
The Map Views window lets you display a list of the components that are
associated with a database in a specific project. The Map Views window also
lets you create or edit a map. The Map Views window appears in the
following situations:
9-20
■
If you click the Map button in the Load Job or Unload Job window
when no map name is in the Map text box
■
If you click the Search button in the Load Record Maps or Unload
Record Maps window
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Map Views Window
Figure 9-12 shows the Map Views window for a Load map.
Figure 9-12
The Map Views Window for a Load Map
Map Views
Database
Table:
Map:
Search
Format:
inventory
Map
Table
Format
stores7
testdb
Message: Click on database to expand view
Run
Create
Cancel
Help
To see the load maps of a database
1.
Select a project in the HPL main window.
2.
Choose Components➞Maps from the HPL main window.
3.
Choose Maps ➞Load Map or Maps➞ Unload Map.
4.
After the Load Record Maps or Unload Record Maps window
appears, click the Search button.
The Map Views window appears, as Figure 9-12 illustrates.
Defining Maps 9-21
The Map Views Window
5.
Select a database.
The ipload utility displays a list of the maps associated with that
database, as Figure 9-13 illustrates. The Table and Format columns
show the database column and the format associated with each map.
If you want to edit a specific map or format, click its button and the
corresponding definition window appears.
Figure 9-13
The Map Views Window with the View Expanded
Map Views
Database
Table:
Map:
stores7
inventory
Search
Format:
Map
testdb
stores7
testdb
Table
Format
customer_del
customer
customer
customer_fixed
customer
customer
items_del
items
items_de
orders_del
orders
orders_de
Message: Click on database to expand view
Run
9-22
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Create
Cancel
Help
The Map Views Window
To see selected load maps
1.
Open the Map Views window (Figure 9-12 on page 9-21).
2.
Select a database.
3.
Type the name or partial name of a map, table, and/or format in the
Map, Table, or Format text box.
You can use wildcards in the name.
4.
Click Search.
Figure 9-14 shows the maps that are found when you search for any
table that includes orders in its name.
Map
Table
Figure 9-14
The Maps That a
Search Found
Format
orders_del
orders
orders_del
orders_fixed
orders
orders_fixed
Defining Maps 9-23
Chapter
Defining Filters
Using a Filter .
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10-3
Creating a Filter .
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10-5
Editing a Filter .
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10-8
Filter Views .
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10-11
Filters with Code-Set Conversion .
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10-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
F
ilters are similar to queries. However, queries select data from database
tables, whereas filters select data from a data file. During the load process, the
ipload utility loads all of the records from a data file into a database table
unless you use a filter to exclude some of the records.
A filter is a mechanism for prescreening data-file records for eligibility as
database table entries. You can use the filter to include or exclude records
explicitly during the load process. You define match conditions to filter the
records. Match conditions are selection criteria that test one or more data-file
fields for certain values or text.
You can define filters at any time. After you define a filter, you can specify it
in the Load Job window. The Load Job window is illustrated in Figure 12-2
on page 12-9.
Using a Filter
Suppose that you have a worldwide telemarketing data file that contains the
name, country, yearly salary, and age of potential contacts, as the following
example shows:
John Brown
Mary Smith
Larry Little
Ann South
David Peterson
Richard North
Nancy Richards
William Parker
US
Argentina
US
Canada
France
Spain
Japan
Egypt
125,000
83,000
118,000
220,000
175,000
350,000
150,000
200,000
57
43
42
53
72
39
54
64
Defining Filters
10-3
Using a Filter
To create a database that includes people who earn over $100,000 a year, are over
the age of 50, and live outside the United States
1.
Use the match condition discard salary < 100,000 to exclude people
who earn less than $100,000 a year. The selected records are as
follows:
John Brown
Larry Little
Ann South
David Peterson
Richard North
Nancy Richards
William Parker
2.
125,000
118,000
220,000
175,000
350,000
150,000
200,000
57
42
53
72
39
54
64
Use the match condition keep age > 50 to include people over the age
of 50. The remaining records are as follows:
John Brown
Ann South
David Peterson
Nancy Richards
William Parker
3.
US
US
Canada
France
Spain
Japan
Egypt
US
Canada
France
Japan
Egypt
125,000
220,000
175,000
150,000
200,000
57
53
72
54
64
Use the match condition discard country = US to exclude people
living in the United States. The remaining records are the records
that match all of the restrictions:
Ann South
David Peterson
Nancy Richards
William Parker
Canada
France
Japan
Egypt
220,000
175,000
150,000
200,000
53
72
54
64
If you want to use the same data file to create a database of only those people
who live in the United States, or only those people under the age of 30, simply
define another filter. There is no limit to the number of filters that you can
define for a data file.
10-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Filter
Creating a Filter
Before you can create a filter, you must create a format that describes the data
file. For information about how to create a format, refer to Chapter 7,
“Defining Formats.”
The ipload utility stores the filter information in the filters table of the
onpload database. For more information about the filters table, see page A-6.
To create a filter
1.
Choose Components➞Filter from the HPL main window.
The Filters window appears, as Figure 10-1 illustrates.
Figure 10-1
The Filters Window
Filters
Copy
Delete
Mode
Print
Search
Filters
Open
Create
Filter:
Format:
Notes
Message:
OK
Cancel
Help
2.
Click Create in the Mode group.
3.
Choose a name for the filter and type the name in the Filter text box.
Defining Filters
10-5
Creating a Filter
4.
Type the name of an existing format in the Format text box, or click
the down arrow and choose a format from the selection list.
5.
Click OK.
The filter-definition window appears. Figure 10-2 shows a partially
completed filter-definition window.
Figure 10-2
The Filter-Definition Window
newfilter
Save As
Print
Notes
Status
Fields:
Keep
country
Discard
Filter Items
Match Condition
salary
age
= "US"
Status
DISCARD
KEEP
Perform
Operation
Add
Insert
Edit
Delete
Message: Enter field, KEEP/DISCARD status, and match condition
OK
Cancel
Help
The filter-definition window lets you prepare a filter that specifies which data
from the input file should be loaded into the database table.
10-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Filter
The filter-definition window has the following parts.
Section
Description
Fields
Specifies the data-file field used in a match condition.
Status
Indicates whether you want to keep or discard records that
meet the match condition.
Match Condition
Specifies the criteria for keeping or discarding a record.
Filter Items/Status
Lists existing filter items and their status. As you add
match conditions, the conditions are added to this list.
To prepare the filter definition
1.
Click Add in the Operation group to specify that you want to add a
new match condition.
2.
Type the name of the record field that you want to match in the
Fields text box.
You can also click the down arrow to see a selection list.
3.
Click Keep or Discard in the Status group.
This selection indicates whether the matching record should be
entered into the database or discarded.
4.
Type the match condition in the Match Condition text box using the
appropriate logical operators and match characters.
See Appendix D for a list of the logical operators and match
characters.
5.
Click Perform.
6.
Repeat steps 2 through 5 for each additional filter item.
7.
Click OK to save the filter and return to the Filters window.
8.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Defining Filters
10-7
Editing a Filter
Editing a Filter
After you create a filter, you might need to change it.
To edit an existing filter
1.
Choose Components➞Filter from the HPL main window.
The Filters window appears, as Figure 10-1 on page 10-5 illustrates.
2.
Click Open in the Mode group.
3.
Select the filter that you want to modify.
4.
Click OK.
The filter-definition window appears, as Figure 10-2 on page 10-6
illustrates.
5.
Click Edit in the Operation group.
6.
Select the desired filter item from the list of items.
The field, status, and match conditions appear in their respective
areas on the screen.
7.
Change the desired information.
8.
Click Perform.
9.
Click OK to save your changes and return to the Filters window.
10.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To add an item to the filter
1.
Choose Components➞Filter from the HPL main window.
The Filters window appears.
2.
Click Open in the Mode group.
3.
Select the filter that you want to modify.
4.
Click OK.
The filter-definition window appears.
10-8
5.
Click Add in the Operation group.
6.
Type the name of the record field in the Fields text box.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Editing a Filter
7.
Type the match condition in the Match Condition text box.
8.
Click Keep or Discard in the Status group to indicate the filter status.
9.
Click Perform.
10.
Click OK to save your changes and return to the Filters window.
11.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To insert an item in the filter sequence
1.
Choose Components➞Filter from the HPL main window.
The Filters window appears.
2.
Click Open in the Mode group.
3.
Select the filter that you want to modify.
4.
Click OK.
The filter-definition window appears.
5.
Click Insert in the Operation group.
6.
From the list of items, select the filter item before which you want to
insert the new item.
7.
Type the name of the record field in the Fields text box.
8.
Type the match condition in the Match Condition text box.
9.
Click Keep or Discard in the Status group to indicate the filter status.
10.
Click Perform.
The ipload utility inserts the new item before the selected filter item
in the Filter Items list box.
11.
Click OK to save your changes and return to the Filters window.
12.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Defining Filters
10-9
Editing a Filter
To delete a filter
1.
Choose Components➞Filter from the HPL main window.
The Filters window appears.
2.
Click Open in the Mode group.
3.
Select the filter that you want to edit.
4.
Click OK.
The filter-definition window appears.
10-10
5.
Click Delete in the Operation group.
6.
Select the item that you want to delete from the list of filter items.
7.
Click Perform.
8.
Click OK to save your changes and return to the Filters window.
9.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Filter Views
Filter Views
The Filter Views window lets you display a list of the filters and formats that
are associated with a project. The Filter Views window also lets you create or
edit a filter. The Filter Views window appears in the following situations:
■
If you click the Filter button in the Load Job window when no filter
name is in the Filter text box
■
If you click the Search button in the Filters window
Figure 10-3 shows the Filter Views window. “The Views Windows” on
page 3-15 discusses the use of Views windows.
Figure 10-3
The Filter Views
Window
Filter Views
Filter:
Format:
cust_del
Search
Filters
Formats
cust_del
cust_del
Message: Select Filter or click icon to edit
OK
Create
Cancel
Help
Defining Filters
10-11
Filters with Code-Set Conversion
GLS
Filters with Code-Set Conversion
When you use a filter to select or discard data during the load, the HPL interprets the filter specification in the code set of the database server. The filtering
process on data that undergoes code-set conversion occurs in the following
order:
1.
The onpload utility converts the input data to the code set of the
database server.
2.
The onpload utility performs the filtering operation.
If the code-set conversion process creates lossy errors, then the output of the
filter operation can be unexpected. For information on lossy errors and how
to define or evaluate a code-set conversion specification, see the Informix
Guide to GLS Functionality.
10-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Chapter
Unloading Data from a
Database
Components of the Unload Job. .
Choosing the Database Server.
Running Multiple Jobs . . .
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11-3
11-4
11-4
The Unload Job Windows . . . . . .
Creating an Unload Job . . . . . .
Running the Unload Job. . . . . .
Problems During an Unload Job .
Using the Command-Line Information
Changing the Unload Options . . .
Editing an Unload Job . . . . . .
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11-5
11-6
11-9
11-10
11-10
11-11
11-13
The Generate Options .
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11-13
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11
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11-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
A
n unload job converts Informix database records to a specified
format and then unloads those records to a file, tape, pipe, or device array.
You can execute an unload job from the Unload Job window of ipload, or you
can execute the onpload utility from the command line.
This chapter describes the Unload Job window. For instructions on using the
onpload command-line utility, refer to Chapter 16, “The onpload Utility.”
Components of the Unload Job
Before you can unload data, you must first define the following components
of the unload job:
■
The device array that receives the unloaded data
Refer to Chapter 6, “Defining Device Arrays.”
■
The format that describes the organization of the data file into which
you are unloading data
Refer to Chapter 7, “Defining Formats.”
■
The query that extracts the desired records from the database
Refer to Chapter 8, “Defining Queries.”
■
The unload map that describes the relationship between the columns
of a database table and the fields of the data-file record
The map also specifies any necessary data translations, such as case
conversion and justification. Refer to Chapter 9, “Defining Maps.”
Unloading Data from a Database
11-3
Choosing the Database Server
You can define these components in the following ways:
■
Define each component from the Unload Job window.
■
Define each component individually from the Components menu.
■
Use the Generate Job option from the Components menu.
■
Use the Generate button in the Unload Job window.
For information about how to use the generate options, refer to Chapter 13,
“Generate Options.”
Choosing the Database Server
You must run the unload job on the target server. The target server is the
database server that contains the database from which you unload the data.
The database must be on the same database server as the onpload program
that extracts data from it. You can run the ipload utility on any database
server on your network.
Running Multiple Jobs
You can run multiple unload jobs concurrently. However, because the HPL is
designed to use as many system resources as possible, running concurrent
jobs might overload the system. If you are using a UNIX cron job to run the
load and unload jobs, let one job finish before you start the next.
The Unload Job window displays the target and onpload database servers in
the upper right-hand corner of the display.
11-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Unload Job Windows
The Unload Job Windows
The Unload Job Select window lets you create a new unload job or select an
existing job for editing.
The Unload Job window lets you create or modify the components of an
unload job and run the unload job. You can change unload options before you
run the unload job. The unload options include the isolation level and the
maximum number of errors to permit before the onpload program aborts the
unload job.
The ipload utility stores the information about the unload job in the session
table of the onpload database. The session table draws information from
other onpload tables, such as maps, formats, and so on. For more information about the tables of the onpload database, see Appendix A.
Unloading Data from a Database
11-5
Creating an Unload Job
Creating an Unload Job
Use the Unload Job Select and Unload Job windows to create a new unload
job.
To create an unload job
Choose Jobs➞Unload from the HPL main window.
1.
The Unload Job Select window appears, as Figure 11-1 illustrates.
Figure 11-1
The Unload Job
Select Window
Unload Job Select
Delete
Notes
Connect
Selection Type
Job Name:
Open
Create
Command Line:
Job Information
Job
Type
Status
Server
Map
Notes
Message: Select job(s) to open, delete, copy, or print
OK
11-6
Cancel
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Help
Data Source
Creating an Unload Job
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Choose a name for this unload job and type the name in the Job
Name text box.
4.
Click OK.
The Unload Job window appears, as Figure 11-2 illustrates.
Chapter 3, “Using the High-Performance Loader Windows,”
provides detailed descriptions of the buttons in the Unload Job
window.
Figure 11-2
The Unload Job Window
Unload Job
Save As
S
Q
Notes
Generate
Job Name: newjob
Onpload Server: [email protected]
Database Server: @svr1
Source Database:
L
Map
Query
Discard Records
Format
Logfile
Options
Device
Message:
Run
Save
Cancel
Help
Unloading Data from a Database
11-7
Creating an Unload Job
5.
Type appropriate values for all of the unload components.
If you click a component button, the corresponding view window
opens, and you can create or select the component.
6.
Specify the file that contains rejected records.
Use one of these methods:
7.
■
Type the name of the rejected file in the Discards Records text
box.
■
Click the down arrow next to the Discard Records text box to
select the filename from the file-selection list.
Select the file that contains the unload status log.
Use one of these methods:
8.
■
Type the name of the log file in the Logfile text box.
■
Click the down arrow next to the Logfile text box to select a
filename from the file-selection window.
Click the Options button to change unload options.
For more information, refer to “Changing the Unload Options” on
page 11-11.
9.
10.
11-8
Click Save to save this unload job. (If you click Run to run the job
immediately, the job is saved automatically.)
Now you can either run the unload job or exit and run the job later.
■
Click Run to run the job.
■
Click Cancel to exit to the Unload Job Select window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Running the Unload Job
Running the Unload Job
If you click Run in the Unload Job window, the Active Job window appears,
as Figure 11-3 illustrates. The Active Job window displays the progress of
your job and indicates when the job completes. When the Active Job window
indicates that the job is complete, click OK to return to the Unload Job Select
window.
The information that onpload displays in the Active Job window is also
stored in the log file whose name you selected in Step 7. For information on
how to review the log files, see the “Viewing the Status of a Load Job or
Unload Job” on page 14-9.
Active Job
Job Name: newjob
Server: svr1
Figure 11-3
The Active Job
Window
Connecting to onpload, Please wait. . .
Successful connection to onpload established
Tue Jan 23 16:19:16 1996
SHMBASE
CLIENTNUM
Session ID 8
0x1a00000
0x49010000
Unload Database
Query Name
Device Array
Query Mapping
Query
Convert Reject
-> testum
-> testum2_out
-> testum2_out
-> testum2_out
-> select * from testum2 for read only
-> /tmp/testum2_out.rej
Database Unload Completed -- Unloaded 21 Records
Detected 0 Errors
Tue Jan 23 16:19:23 1996
Job Completed. . . connection closed
Message: To interrupt and halt onpload session, click ‘Interrupt Job’
Interrupt Job
OK
Help
Unloading Data from a Database
11-9
Using the Command-Line Information
Problems During an Unload Job
If you encounter any problems during the unload, examine the various files
that onpload creates. For information on how to review these files, see
Chapter 14, “Browsing.”
Important: If a write to a file fails because a disk is out of space, the operating system
does not return information on how much of the write succeeded. In this situation,
the onpload utility cannot accurately report the number of records that were
actually written to disk. Thus, the number of records that are logged as unloaded in
the log file is imprecise.
Using the Command-Line Information
If you select an existing job in the Unload Job Select window, the Command
Line text box shows the onpload command that ipload generated for that
unload job. Figure 11-4 shows the Command Line portion of an Unload Job
Select window. The Command Line text box displays the onpload command
generated for the job that Figure 11-3 on page 11-9 illustrates.
Figure 11-4
Fragment of the Unload Job Select Window
Unload Job Select
Delete
Notes
Connect
Selection Type
Open
Create
Job Name: testum2_out
Command Line: onpload -p testum -j testum2_out -fu
11-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Changing the Unload Options
The command line, onpload -p testum -j testum2_out -fu, contains the
following elements.
Argument
Description
-p testum
The project where the job is stored
-j testum2_out
The name of the job
-fu
The job that unloads (rather than loads) data
You can copy the onpload command from the Command Line text box and
paste it at a system prompt to run the unload job. If you need to run the
unload job multiple times (for example, every evening at 5:00 P.M.), you can
save the onpload command and execute it later.
You do not need to start ipload to run a job from the system prompt. The
ipload and onpload utilities both use the onpload database, but each utility
uses it independently.
Changing the Unload Options
The Unload Options window contains the following options.
Option
Description
Isolation Level
The criteria for how the query selects records. The four levels
of isolation (from highest to lowest) are as follows:
■
Committed
■
Cursor Stability
■
Repeatable Read
■
Dirty Read
The higher the isolation level, the lower the unload performance. For a more detailed definition of isolation levels, refer
to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Max Errors
The maximum number of error conditions to be encountered.
If the number of unload errors exceeds this number, the unload
job stops.
Unloading Data from a Database
11-11
Changing the Unload Options
To change unload options
1.
Display the Unload Job window.
Refer to the instructions for “Creating an Unload Job” on page 11-6.
2.
Click the Options button.
The Unload Options window appears, as Figure 11-5 illustrates.
Figure 11-5
The Unload Options
Window
Isolation Level:
Max Errors:
Dirty Read
0
Message:
Cancel
OK
11-12
Help
3.
Change the desired options.
4.
Click OK to return to the Unload Job window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Editing an Unload Job
Editing an Unload Job
After you save an unload job, you can return to the unload job and modify it.
To edit an unload job
1.
Choose Jobs➞Unload from the HPL main window.
2.
Click Open in the Selection Type group.
3.
Select a job from the Job Information list box.
4.
Click OK.
The Unload Job window appears, as Figure 11-2 on page 11-7
illustrates.
5.
Make appropriate changes to the entries in the Unload Job window.
6.
Click the Options button to change unload options.
For more information, refer to “Changing the Unload Options” on
page 11-11.
7.
Click Save to save this unload job.
8.
Now you can either run the unload job or exit and run the job later.
■
Click Run to run the job.
■
Click Cancel to exit.
The Generate Options
Instead of individually creating the components that are required on the
Unload Job window, you can use the generate options to create an unload job.
You can click the Generate button in the Unload Job window, or you can
choose Components➞Generate from the HPL main window. Chapter 13,
“Generate Options,” describes the generate options.
The generate options do not give you as much flexibility as the Unload Job
window, but the options let you create the components quickly. In addition,
the generate options let you create formats (Binary, Fixed Internal, and No
Conversion) that are not available from the format-definition window.
Unloading Data from a Database
11-13
Chapter
Loading Data to a Database
Table
12
Components of the Load Job . . . . . . . . .
Choosing the Database Server. . . . . . . .
Running Multiple Jobs . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing User Privileges and the Violations Table
Setting User Constraints . . . . . . . .
Managing the Violations and Diagnostics Tables
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
The Load Job Windows . . . . . . .
Creating a Load Job . . . . . . .
Running the Load Job . . . . . .
Making a Level-0 Backup . . . .
Problems During a Load Job . . .
Using the Command-Line Information
Changing the Load Options . . . .
Editing a Load Job . . . . . . . .
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The Generate Options .
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. 12-15
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12-3
12-4
12-4
12-5
12-5
12-5
12-7
12-8
12-10
12-11
12-11
12-12
12-13
12-15
12-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
A
load job loads data from a set of one or more files into a single
database table. A record format, which defines each field of a record, specifies
the layout of the input data. A load map specifies how the record fields are
mapped to the columns of the target table. During the load process, the
onpload utility converts data from record field to table column. This chapter
describes the load process.
Components of the Load Job
The High-Performance Loader (HPL) lets you define the individual components of a data load individually or lets you use the generate option to define
the components automatically. The components of the load job specify:
■
the device array where the source data files resides.
■
the format of the data files.
■
the filter that accepts or rejects source-file records for the load.
■
the map that specifies the relationship between the data-file format
and the database table schema.
When you run a load job, you select which individual components to use.
The collection of the various components for a specific load is called the load
job. You can assign a name to a load job, save the job, and then retrieve and
rerun it as often as you need to. You can modify an existing job or save it
under another job name.
You can define as many different load jobs as you need. You can group your
load jobs under one or more projects to make the tasks easier to manage.
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-3
Choosing the Database Server
Choosing the Database Server
You must run the load job on the target server. The target server is the database
server that contains the database into which you load the data. The target
database must be on the same database server as the onpload program that
updates it.
Tip: The onpload database and the ipload interface can be on different computers.
You can run the ipload interface on any computer that can connect to the database
server that contains the onpload database.
Running Multiple Jobs
You can run only one express-load job at a time on the same table; however,
you can run multiple unload jobs concurrently. Because the HPL is designed
to maximize the use of system resources, running concurrent jobs might
overload the system.
UNIX
12-4
If you are using a UNIX cron job to run the load or unload jobs, let one job
finish before you start the next. ♦
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Preparing User Privileges and the Violations Table
Preparing User Privileges and the Violations Table
You must make sure that the user who runs a load job has sufficient privileges
to manage the constraints and the violations table. The following table
summarizes the actions that you must take. The following sections discuss
these actions in more detail.
Table Status
Privileges of the User
Owned by user
Action
No further action is required.
Not owned by
user
User has DBA privileges on
the table.
No further action is required.
Not owned by
user
User does not have DBA
privileges on the table.
User must have:
■
resource privileges on
database.
■
alter privileges on table.
Owner must start violations
table.
For detailed information about user privileges and violations tables, refer to
the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax and the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Setting User Constraints
To modify any constraint, index, or trigger, a user must have both Alter privileges on the table and the Resource privilege on the database. The user must
also have these privileges to start or stop a violations table. You use the
GRANT statement to set these privileges.
Managing the Violations and Diagnostics Tables
You can turn on or off the generation of constraint-violation information. If
you turn on the generation of constraint-violation information, onpload
writes the information to the violations and diagnostics tables. For more information, refer to “Changing the Load Options” on page 12-13.
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-5
Preparing User Privileges and the Violations Table
The HPL manages the violations and diagnostics tables in the following
manner:
1.
Starts the load job.
2.
Starts the violations and diagnostics tables if they do not exist
already. (If a violations and diagnostics table already exists, the HPL
uses that table).
The HPL uses the following SQL statement to start the violations
table:
START VIOLATIONS TABLE FOR tablename
3.
Performs the load job.
4.
Stops the violations and diagnostics tables if they were started at
step 2.
The HPL uses the following SQL statement to stop the violations and
diagnostics tables:
STOP VIOLATIONS TABLE FOR tablename
5.
Drops the violations table if the violations table is empty.
The START VIOLATIONS statement creates the violations and diagnostics
tables and associates them with the load table. The STOP VIOLATIONS
statement dissociates the violations and diagnostics tables from the load
table. For more information about the START VIOLATIONS and STOP VIOLATIONS statements, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
The violations table (tablename_vio) and the diagnostics table (tablename_dia)
are always owned by the owner of the table with which it is associated. The
Resource privilege lets a user start and stop a violations table, but it does not
let the user drop a table that he or she does not own. Thus, the HPL cannot
drop the violations table in step 5 if the user is not the owner.
Failure to drop the violations table does not cause the load job to fail.
However, this failure leaves in the database a violations table that is not
associated with a table. If the user tries to run the job again, the START
VIOLATIONS TABLE statement in step 2 fails because the table tablename_vio
already exists.
12-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Load Job Windows
To solve this problem, the owner of the table or the database administrator
must explicitly create the violations and diagnostics tables using the START
VIOLATIONS statement. When the owner creates the violations table, the
following actions take place:
■
In step 2, the HPL uses the already existing violations table.
■
In step 4, the HPL does not stop the violations table because the table
was not started in step 2.
■
In step 5, the HPL does not drop the violations table because the user
does not own the table.
After the load job is complete, an active violations table remains in the
database. This table might be empty, but it causes no harm. When the user
runs the load job a second time, the violations table is available, and the load
job succeeds.
The Load Job Windows
The Load Job Select (Figure 12-1 on page 12-8) and Load Job (Figure 12-2 on
page 12-9) windows let you create, save, and execute a load job. The Load Job
window visually represents the various components of a load. After you
select the components, you can save the load job for future use or execute it
immediately.
The ipload utility assigns pathnames for the log files that document the load
and that capture records that do not pass the specified filter or that do not
pass conversion.
When you use ipload to create a job, ipload stores information for the job in
a row in the session table (page A-17) of the onpload database. The ipload
utility stores information about the components of the load job in other tables
of the onpload database, including format, maps, filters, and so on. When
you use the onpload command, columns in the session table reference the
components to assemble the information necessary for the job. These tables
are documented in Appendix A, “The onpload Database.”
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-7
Creating a Load Job
Creating a Load Job
The Load Job Select window lets you create a new load job or select an
existing job to edit.
To create a load job
1.
Choose Jobs➞Load from the HPL main window.
The Load Job Select window appears, as Figure 12-1 illustrates.
Figure 12-1
The Load Job Select
Window
Load Job Select
Delete
Notes
Connect
Selection Type
Job Name:
Open
Create
Command Line:
Job Information
Job
Status
Server
Map
Data Source
Notes
Message: Enter a job name to create
Cancel
OK
12-8
Help
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Select a name for the job and type it in the Job Name text box.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Creating a Load Job
4.
Click OK.
The Load Job window appears, as Figure 12-2 illustrates.
Figure 12-2
The Load Job Window
Load Job
Save As
Notes
Generate
Device
Job Name: newjob
Onpload Server: [email protected]
Database Server: @svr1
Target Database:
Format
Filter
Discard Records
Map
Logfile
Options
Table
Message:
Run
Save
Cancel
Help
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-9
Running the Load Job
5.
Type the appropriate values for the components of the load.
“Icon Buttons” on page 3-29 describes the icons that represent the
components of the load. For detailed information about these
components, refer to the individual chapters on device arrays,
formats, filters, and maps.
6.
Select a base name for the files that contain rejected records and type
it in the Discard Records text box.
“Reviewing Records That the Conversion Rejected” on page 14-7
gives information about rejected records.
7.
Choose a name for the file that contains the load job status log and
type it in the Logfile text box.
For more information about the log file, refer to “Viewing the Status
of a Load Job or Unload Job” on page 14-9.
8.
Click the Options button to change the load options.
For more information on these options, refer to “Changing the Load
Options” on page 12-13.
9.
Click Save to save this unload job. (If you click Run to run the job
immediately, the job is saved automatically.)
10.
Now you can either run the load job or exit and run the job later.
■
Click Run to run the job.
■
Click Cancel to exit to the Load Job Select window.
Running the Load Job
If you click Run in the Load Job window, the Active Job window appears, as
Figure 2-17 on page 2-30 illustrates. The Active Job window displays the
progress of your job and indicates when the job completes. When the Active
Job window indicates that the load job is complete, click OK to return to the
Load Job Select window.
Tip: Before you run a load job, you might want to view the data-file records according
to a specified format to check your definitions. For more information, see “Previewing
Data-File Records” on page 14-3.
After you run an express-mode load, you must make a level-0 backup before
you can access the table that you loaded.
12-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Running the Load Job
Making a Level-0 Backup
Express-mode loads do not log loaded data. After an express-mode load,
onpload sets the table to read-only as a protective measure. To make the table
available for write access, you must do a level-0 backup for all the dbspaces
that the fragments of the loaded table occupy. The level-0 backup allows data
recovery for the table in case of future database corruption.
If you do not need to provide for data recovery, you can use /dev/null as the
backup device for the level-0 backup. This strategy makes the table available
for write access without actually backing up the data. If a user attempts to
write into the table before you make a level-0 backup, the database server
issues ISAM error -197.
If you run several express-load jobs on different tables in a database, you can
complete all of the loads before you perform the level-0 backup. However, if
you try to do a second load on the same table without making a level-0
backup, the database server issues ISAM error -197.
For discussions of table fragments and dbspaces, refer to your Administrator’s
Guide. For information about making backups, refer to either your Archive
and Backup Guide or your Backup and Restore Guide, depending on the system
you use.
Problems During a Load Job
If you encounter any problems during the load, examine the various files that
onpload creates. For information on how to review these files, see
Chapter 14, “Browsing.”
Warning: Because of operating-system limitations, the onpload utility cannot load
successfully from a file (on disk) that is larger than 2 gigabytes. If you try to read a
file that is larger than 2 gigabytes, onpload fails only after it processes the first
2 gigabytes of data. The HPL log file reports the following error:
Cannot read file /some_dir/a_long_file - aio error code 27
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-11
Using the Command-Line Information
Using the Command-Line Information
If you select an existing job in the Load Job Select window, the Command
Line text box shows the onpload command that ipload generated for that
load job. Figure 12-3 shows the Command Line portion of a Load Job Select
window. The Command Line text box displays the onpload command
generated for the load job that Figure 2-15 on page 2-27 illustrates.
Figure 12-3
Fragment of the Load Job Select Window
Load Job Select
Delete
Notes
Connect
Selection Type
Open
Job Name: newjob
Create
Command Line: onpload -p practice -j newjob -fl
The command line, onpload -p practice -j newjob -fl, contains the following
arguments.
Argument
Description
-p practice
The project where the job is stored
-j newjob
The name of the job
-fl
The job that loads (rather than unloads) data
You can copy the onpload command from the Command Line text box and
paste it at a system prompt to run the load job. If you need to run the load job
multiple times, you can save the onpload command and execute it later.
12-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Changing the Load Options
You do not need to start ipload to run a job from the system prompt. The
ipload and onpload utilities both use the onpload database, but each utility
uses it independently.
Changing the Load Options
Before you run a load job, you can review or change any load options. The
load options include specifying the number of records to load, the starting
record number, and the loading mode.
The ipload utility stores option information in the session table of the
onpload database. For more information on the session table, see
Appendix A.
The Load Options window contains the following options.
Option
Description
Load Mode
The mode for the load: express or deluxe
Generate Violations
Records
Whether or not to generate violations records
Tapes
The number of tapes that contain source data
Number Records
The number of records to process in the data file
Start Record
The record number in the data file from which to start
loading
Max Errors
The maximum number of error conditions to be
encountered. If the number of load errors exceeds this
number, the load stops.
Commit Interval
The number of records to load before logging the
transaction. If you set the commit interval to 0, onpload uses
the default value of 10. You can use this option only with
deluxe mode.
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-13
Changing the Load Options
To change load options
1.
Display the Load Job window.
Refer to “Creating a Load Job” on page 12-8.
2.
Click the Options button.
The Load Options window appears, as Figure 12-4 illustrates.
Figure 12-4
The Load Options
Window
Load Options
Load Mode:
Generate Violations Records:
Express
Yes
Tapes:
0
Number Records:
0
Start Record:
0
Max Errors:
0
Commit Interval:
0
Message:
Cancel
OK
12-14
Help
3.
Change the desired option(s).
4.
Click OK to return to the Load Job window.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Editing a Load Job
Editing a Load Job
After you create and save a load job, you can later return and modify that
load job.
To edit a load job
1.
Choose Jobs➞Load from the HPL main window.
The Load Job Select window appears, as Figure 12-1 on page 12-8
illustrates.
2.
Click Open in the Selection Type group.
3.
Select a job from the Job Information list box.
4.
Click OK.
The Load Job window appears, as Figure 12-2 on page 12-9
illustrates.
5.
Make appropriate changes to the entries in the Load Job window.
6.
Click the Options button to change load options.
7.
Click Save to save this load job.
8.
Run or cancel the load, as follows:
■
Click Run to run the data load.
■
Click Cancel to exit.
Loading Data to a Database Table 12-15
The Generate Options
The Generate Options
Instead of individually creating the components that are required on the
Load Job window, you can use the generate options to create a load job. You
can click the Generate button in the Load Job window, or you can choose
Components➞Generate Job from the HPL main window. Chapter 13,
“Generate Options,” describes the use of the generate options.
The generate options do not give you as much flexibility as creating each
component individually, but these options let you create the components
quickly. (After you generate the components, you can edit the components
individually by accessing them through the Components menu.) In addition,
the generate options let you create formats (Fixed Internal and No
Conversion) that are not available from the format-definition window.
12-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Chapter
Generate Options
Types of Generate Tasks .
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13-3
Generating from the Load Job Window . . . . . . .
Using the Autogenerate Load Components Window .
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13-4
13-4
Generating from the Unload Job Window . . . . . . .
Using the Autogenerate Unload Components Window .
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13-6
13-6
Generating from the Components Menu . .
The Generate Window . . . . . . .
The Generate Group. . . . . . .
The Format Type Group . . . . .
Generating Load and Unload Components
Using the No Conversion Job Option . .
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13-10
13-10
13-11
13-12
13-13
13-14
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13-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
he generate options of the ipload utility let you automatically
generate components of a load or unload job. The generate options can save
you time when you create new formats, maps, queries, and load and unload
jobs.
When you generate a load or unload job for an Informix database, ipload
creates a format for the data file and a map that associates the columns of the
table with the fields of the data-file records. Although the generated components might not match your database schema or data-file records exactly, the
components created by the generate options provide useful starting points
for building HPL components. After you generate default components, you
can modify the components to match your specific needs.
Types of Generate Tasks
The ipload utility lets you perform the following tasks:
■
Generate load components from the Load Job window
■
Generate unload components from the Unload Job window
■
Generate both load and unload components from the Components
menu
Generate Options 13-3
Generating from the Load Job Window
Generating from the Load Job Window
The Generate button in the Load Job window lets you save time when the
format of the data file corresponds to the format of the database table. When
you generate from the Load Job window, ipload makes the following
assumptions about the file (or device array) that contains the data:
■
The file is an ASCII file.
■
The file uses the same locale as the database.
■
The file uses a vertical bar (|) for the field delimiter and a new line
for the record delimiter.
■
The fields in each record of the file correspond one-to-one to the
columns of the target table.
■
All records in the file should be loaded.
Using the Autogenerate Load Components Window
When you generate from the Load Job window, ipload creates a format, a
map, a job, and, if needed, a device array.
To generate a job from the Load Job window
1.
Choose Jobs➞Load from the HPL main window.
The Load Job Select window appears, as Figure 12-1 on page 12-8
illustrates.
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Select a name for the load job and type it in the Job Name text box.
4.
Click OK.
The Load Job window appears, as Figure 12-2 on page 12-9
illustrates.
5.
Click the Generate button.
The Autogenerate Load Components window appears, as
Figure 13-1 on page 13-5 illustrates.
13-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Autogenerate Load Components Window
Figure 13-1
The Autogenerate
Load Components
Window
Autogenerate Load Components
Load From
Device Array
File
Load To
Database:
Table:
Message: Enter file name to load from
OK
6.
Cancel
Help
Click Device Array or File to indicate the location of the source data.
To load from an existing device array, click Device Array and type
the name of the device array.
To load from a file, click File and type the full pathname of the file.
The ipload utility automatically generates a device array that
includes the file.
7.
In the Load To group, type the name of the database and table that
will receive the data.
8.
Click OK.
The ipload utility generates the components of the load and returns
to the Load Job window.
9.
If needed, click the Filter button to prepare a filter.
10.
If you want, change the pathnames in the Discard Records and
Logfile text boxes.
11.
Click Save to save the components and the job.
12.
Click Run to execute job or Cancel to exit.
Generate Options 13-5
Generating from the Unload Job Window
Generating from the Unload Job Window
The Generate button in the Unload Job window lets you save time when the
format of the data file is similar to the format of the database table. When you
generate from the Unload Job window, ipload makes the following assumptions about the file (or device array) into which the data is unloaded:
■
The file is an ASCII file.
■
The file uses the same locale as the database.
■
The file uses a vertical bar (|) for the field delimiter and a new line
for the record delimiter.
Using the Autogenerate Unload Components Window
When you generate from the Unload Job window, ipload creates a format, a
map, a job, and, if needed, a device array. You can generate an unload that
uses a query to select from one or more tables or that unloads an entire table.
To generate a job that uses a query
1.
Follow the instructions in “Creating a Query” on page 8-4 to create a
query.
2.
Choose Jobs➞Unload from the HPL main window.
The Unload Job Select window appears, as Figure 11-1 on page 11-6
illustrates.
3.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
4.
Select a name for the unload job and type it in the Job Name text box.
5.
Click OK.
The Unload Job window appears, as Figure 11-2 on page 11-7
illustrates.
13-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Autogenerate Unload Components Window
6.
Click the Generate button.
The Autogenerate Unload Components window appears, as
Figure 13-2 illustrates.
Figure 13-2
The Autogenerate
Unload Components
Window
Autogenerate Unload Components
Unload From
Table
Database:
Query
Table:
stores7
customer
Query:
Unload To
Device Array
/work/cust_out
File
Message: Enter file name to unload into
OK
Cancel
Help
7.
Click Query in the Unload From group.
8.
Enter the name of the query.
You can use the down arrow to see selection lists. When you unload
from a table, you do not enter a query.
9.
Click Device Array or File in the Unload To group.
If you click Device Array, you can use the down arrow to see a list of
the available device arrays.
If you click File, ipload creates a device array of the same name as
the unload job and inserts the specified file into that device array.
Generate Options 13-7
Using the Autogenerate Unload Components Window
10.
Click OK to generate the components of the unload.
The display returns to the Unload Job window. The ipload utility
completes the Unload Job window. If you chose cust_out for the
unload job name (step 4), the Unload Job window appears as
Figure 13-3 illustrates.
Figure 13-3
The Unload Job Window
Unload Job
Save As
S
Q
Notes
L
Generate
cust_out
Job Name:
Onpload Server:
Database Server:
Target Database:
cust_out
Query
Map
cust_out
cust_out
[email protected]
@svr1
stores7
/tmp/cust_out.reg
Discard Records
Format
cust_out
/tmp/cust_out.loq
Logfile
Options
Device
Message:
Run
Save
11.
Cancel
Help
Click Save to save this Unload Job.
You can click Run to run the job, or click Cancel to exit and run the
job later.
13-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the Autogenerate Unload Components Window
12.
To run the job, click Run.
The Active Job window appears, as Figure 2-17 on page 2-30
illustrates.
13.
When the Active Job window displays Job Completed, click Cancel
to return to the main HPL window.
To generate a job that unloads an entire table
1.
Choose Jobs➞Unload from the HPL main window.
The Unload Job Select window appears, as Figure 11-1 on page 11-6
illustrates.
2.
Click Create in the Selection Type group.
3.
Choose a name for the unload job and type it in the Job Name text
box.
4.
Click OK.
The Unload Job window appears, as Figure 11-2 on page 11-7
illustrates.
5.
Click the Generate button.
The Autogenerate Unload Components window appears, as
Figure 13-2 on page 13-7 illustrates.
6.
Click Table in the Unload From group.
7.
Enter the desired database and table in the Database and Table text
boxes, respectively.
You can use the down arrows to see selection lists. When you unload
from a table, you do not enter a query.
8.
Click Device Array or File in the Unload To group.
If you click Device Array, you can use the down arrow to see a list of
the available device arrays.
If you click File, ipload creates a device array of the same name as
the unload job and inserts the specified file into that device array.
9.
Click OK to generate the components of the unload.
The Unload Job window reappears, with the components of the job
completed.
Generate Options 13-9
Generating from the Components Menu
10.
Click Save to save this Unload Job.
You can click Run to run the job, or click Cancel to exit and run the
job later.
11.
To run the job, click Run.
The Active Job window appears, as Figure 2-17 on page 2-30
illustrates.
12.
When the Active Job window displays Job Completed, click Cancel
to return to the main HPL window.
Generating from the Components Menu
To generate all of the components for both load and unload jobs in one
operation, choose Components➞Generate Job from the main HPL window.
This Generate option lets you choose formats that are not available from the
format-definition window.
The Generate Window
The Generate window appears, as Figure 13-4 illustrates. This window
generates all of the components required for a load job and an unload job:
format, load map, unload map, query, and device array. The Generate
window lets you specify the characteristics of the components that ipload
creates.
13-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The Generate Window
Figure 13-4
The Generate Window
Generate
Format Type
Generate
Generate Name:
Load/Unload Job
Delimited
No Conversion Job
Fixed Internal
Maps and Formats Only
Fixed ASCII
Fixed Binary
COBOL
Database:
Table:
Device:
Message: Select options for automatically generating jobs, maps, queries, and formats
OK
Cancel
Help
The Generate Group
The Generate group specifies the type of generate to perform. The Generate
group has the following choices.
Choice
Effect
Refer to
Page
Load/Unload Job
Generates both load and unload jobs
13-13
No Conversion Job
Generates a job that treats an entire
database record as one entity
13-14
Maps and Formats only
Generates only a format, a load map, and
an unload map
Generate Options 13-11
The Generate Window
The Format Type Group
The Format Type group specifies the format of the data file. The Format Type
group has the following choices.
Refer to
Page
Choice
Description
Delimited
The fields of a data-file record are separated by a
field delimiter, and records are separated by a record
delimiter. The default delimiters are vertical bar (|)
and new line, respectively.
7-22
Fixed Internal
The data file uses Informix internal format. The only
changes to the data that you can make when you use
this format are ALTER TABLE changes: modify the
order of columns, delete or add columns, or change
the data type.
7-20
The HPL loads and unloads data in this format more
efficiently than data in the Delimited and Fixed
ASCII formats.
Fixed ASCII
All records are the same length. Each record contains
characters in fixed-length fields.
7-5
This format is the same as the Fixed format choice of
the Record Formats window.
Fixed Binary
The data-file records contain data in fixed-length
fields. Character-oriented data is in character fields.
Numeric data (integer, float, and so on) is in
machine-dependent binary values.
7-5
Use this format for loading or unloading data for an
application that has or requires data in binary
format. Data in binary format is much more compact
than data in ASCII format.
COBOL
The data file is formatted according to COBOL 86
standards. All COBOL data types are supported.
7-18
Tip: To generate EBCDIC data, select the Delimited or Fixed ASCII format and use
the format options to change the code set. Refer to “Format Options” on page 7-21.
13-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Generating Load and Unload Components
Generating Load and Unload Components
When you choose Components➞Generate, you can generate all of the
components required for a load job and an unload job: format, load map,
unload map, query, and device array.
To generate the components for loading or unloading an Informix database
1.
Choose Components➞Generate Job from the main HPL window.
The Generate window appears, as Figure 13-4 on page 13-11
illustrates.
2.
Click Load/Unload Job in the Generate group.
3.
Select a format for the data file in the Format Type group.
4.
Select a name for the generated components and type it in the
Generate Name text box.
This name is used for each of the components that this option creates.
5.
Type the name of the database that you will load or unload in the
Database text box or click the down arrow to select a database from
the selection list.
6.
Type the name of the table within the database in the Table text box
or click the down arrow to select a table from the selection list.
7.
Type the name of a device array in the Device text box or click the
down arrow to select a device from the selection list.
If you enter the name of a device (file) instead of a device array,
ipload creates a device array of the same name as the unload job and
inserts the specified device into that device array.
When you specify a file instead of a device array in the Device text
box, ipload makes the following assumptions about the data file:
8.
■
The file is an ASCII file.
■
The file uses the same locale as the database.
■
The file uses a vertical bar (|) for the field delimiter and a new
line for the record delimiter.
■
The fields in the data file are in the same order as the columns of
the target table.
Click OK.
Generate Options 13-13
Using the No Conversion Job Option
Figure 13-5 shows appropriate choices for generating load and unload jobs
for delimited output from the state table of the stores7 database. After ipload
creates the components, you can run the job or use the component-definition
windows to make any necessary changes.
Figure 13-5
The Generate Window
Generate
Format Type
Generate
Generate Name: state_fixed
Load/Unload Job
Delimited
No Conversion Job
Fixed Internal
Maps and Formats Only
Fixed ASCII
Fixed Binary
COBOL
Database: stores7
Table: state
Device: state_device
Message: Select options for automatically generating jobs, maps, queries, and formats
OK
Cancel
Help
Using the No Conversion Job Option
The No Conversion Job option uses the Informix internal format to unload
data from a table. Jobs loaded or unloaded with this option are sometimes
called raw loads or raw unloads. The No Conversion Job option treats an entire
database record as one entity, using the Informix internal format. It does not
generate formats or maps. The No Conversion Job option is the fastest
option that you can use for loading and unloading data. Use this option to
transport data or when you need to reorganize the disks on your computer.
When you run a job that you created with the No Conversion Job option,
ipload displays a Fast Job Startup window instead of the usual load or
unload job window.
13-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the No Conversion Job Option
To use the Fast Job Startup window
1.
Choose Components➞Generate Job from the main HPL window.
2.
Click No Conversion Job in the Generate group.
3.
Select a name for the job and type it in the Generate Name text box.
4.
Type the names of the database, table, and device array in the
Database, Table, and Device text boxes, respectively.
5.
Click OK.
The display returns to the HPL main window.
6.
Choose Jobs➞Load (or Jobs➞Unload) from the main HPL window.
The Load Job Select or Unload Job Select window appears.
7.
Select the job from the Job Information list box.
8.
Click OK.
The Fast Job Startup window appears, as Figure 13-6 illustrates.
Figure 13-6
The Fast Job Startup
Window for a
Load Job
Fast Job Startup
Job Name: a_fast_job
Database:
Table:
Device Array:
stores7
customer
some_array
Message: Enter database to unload
Run
9.
Cancel
Help
Click Run to execute the job.
The Active Job window appears, as Figure 2-17 on page 2-30
illustrates.
10.
When the Active Job window displays Job Completed, click Cancel
to return to the main HPL window.
Generate Options 13-15
Chapter
Browsing
The Browsing Options. . . . . . . . . . . .
Previewing Data-File Records . . . . . . . .
Using the Record Browser Window . . . .
Reviewing Records That the Conversion Rejected .
Viewing the Violations Table . . . . . . . .
Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job. .
Viewing the Log File . . . . . . . . .
Sample Log File . . . . . . . . . . .
14
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. 14-3
. 14-3
. 14-4
. 14-7
. 14-8
. 14-9
. 14-10
. 14-11
14-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
he browsing options of the HPL let you preview records from the
data file and let you review various files associated with the HPL.
The Browsing Options
You can use the browsing options to:
■
preview records from a data file.
■
review records that the filter or the conversion reject.
■
view the violations table.
■
view the status of a load job or unload job.
Previewing Data-File Records
Before you actually execute a load job, you can use the Record Browsers
window to check your definition of the format. The display clearly shows
errors such as incorrect field lengths or missing fields. You can edit the format
to correct your format definitions (see “Editing a Format” on page 7-9).
Browsing 14-3
Previewing Data-File Records
Using the Record Browser Window
The Record Browser window lets you review records in a specified format,
search the list of available formats, or edit a format.
To review data-file records in a selected format
1.
In the HPL main window, select the project that contains your load
job.
2.
Choose Browsers➞Record.
The Record Browser window appears, as Figure 14-1 illustrates.
Record Browser
Format:
Search
Figure 14-1
The Record Browser
Window
Data File:
cust_del
cust_num
cust_calls
Message: Select Format and data file to view
OK
14-4
Cancel
Help
3.
Type the name of the format to be applied to the source data file or
click the format name in the list box.
4.
In the Data File text box, type the name of the data file that you plan
to load, or click the down arrow and select a file from the selection
list.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Previewing Data-File Records
5.
Click OK.
The second Record Browser window appears, as Figure 14-2 illustrates. This Record Browser window displays each of the fields in the
format, followed by the value of the field for the given Record
Number.
Figure 14-2
The Record Browser
Window
Record Browser
File Name: /work/data/mydata
Format: test3
Record Number: 1
Select
col1:
col2:
col3:
Message:
Next
Previous
6.
7.
Cancel
Help
You can take the following actions:
■
Type the record number that you want to view. Click Select.
■
Click Next to display the next record.
■
Click Previous to display the previous record.
When you finish browsing, click Cancel to return to the HPL main
window.
Browsing 14-5
Previewing Data-File Records
To search for and edit a format
1.
In the HPL main window, select the project that contains your load
job.
2.
Choose Browsers➞Record.
The Record Browser window appears, as Figure 14-1 on page 14-4
illustrates.
3.
In the Format text box, type the format name or partial format name
that you want to find.
You can use wildcards (for example, *cust*).
4.
Click Search.
The ipload utility displays all formats of the current project that
include the letters cust.
5.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
To edit a format
1.
Select the project that contains your load job.
2.
Choose Browsers➞Record from the HPL main window.
3.
Click a format button to edit the format.
The ipload utility displays the format-definition window. For information about editing a format, refer to “Editing a Format” on
page 7-9.
14-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Reviewing Records That the Conversion Rejected
Reviewing Records That the Conversion Rejected
When you execute a load job, onpload creates a file that contains information
about records of the data file that the conversion rejected. This file is named
basename.rej where basename is the base name that you selected in step 6 of
“Creating a Load Job” on page 12-8. When you use a generate option to create
the components for a load job, basename is /tmp/jobname where jobname is the
name that you selected for the unload job.
To review rejected records
1.
On the HPL main window, select the project that contains your load
job.
2.
Choose Browser➞Record.
The Record Browsers window appears, as Figure 14-1 on page 14-4
illustrates.
3.
Type the name of the format to be applied to the rejected-records file
in the Format text box, or click the format name in the list box.
4.
Type the name of the rejected-records file in the Data File text box, or
click the down arrow and select a data file from the selection list.
5.
Click OK.
The second Record Browser window appears, as Figure 14-2 on
page 14-5 illustrates.
6.
7.
You can take the following actions:
■
Type the record number that you want to view. Click Select.
■
Click Next to display the next record.
■
Click Previous to display the previous record.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Browsing 14-7
Viewing the Violations Table
Viewing the Violations Table
The load job also creates two tables in the target database that contain information about records that passed the conversion but that the database server
rejected. The tables are named tablename_vio and tablename_dia, where
tablename is the name of the table being loaded.
Viewing the violations table lets you browse through records that passed the
filter and conversion but that the database server rejected. The HPL writes
these records into the violations table (tablename_vio). The data in the violations table has the same format as the database table.
The Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax discusses in detail the information found
in the violations table.
To view the violations table
1.
Choose Browsers➞Violations from the HPL main window.
The Violations Table Browser window appears, as Figure 14-3
illustrates.
Figure 14-3
The Violations Table
Browser Window
Violations Table Browser
Database:
Select
Table:
Message: Enter database/table then click ‘Select’ to view violations records
Next
14-8
Previous
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cancel
Help
Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job
2.
Type the name of the database and table for which you want to
review the violations, or click the down arrows to make your choices
from selection lists.
3.
Click Select.
Figure 14-4 shows the first record of a violations table.
Figure 14-4
A Record in the
Violations Table
Browser Window
Violations Table Browser
Database: stores7
Select
Table: items
informix_tupleid: 1
informix_optype:
objname: u104_10
order_num: 1
stock_num: 1
manu_code: HR
Message: Enter database/table then click ‘Select’ to view violations records
Next
Previous
Cancel
Help
4.
Click Next and Previous to move forward and backward through the
violations table.
5.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job
When a load or unload job is complete, onpload writes a record of the load
or unload job into a log file. For information on the messages that the log file
can contain, see Appendix G.
Browsing 14-9
Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job
Viewing the Log File
The default name for a log file is /tmp/jobname.log, where jobname is the
name that you chose for the job.
You can specify a different name for the log file in the Load Job window
(Figure 12-2 on page 12-9) or Unload Job Window (Figure 11-2 on page 11-7).
To view the log file
1.
Choose Browsers➞Logfile from the HPL main window.
The Browse Logfile window appears, as Figure 14-5 illustrates.
When the window appears, the Filter text box and the Selection text
box show the directory from which ipload was started.
Figure 14-5
The Browse Logfile
Window
Browse Logfile
Filter
/work/data/*
Directories
Files
/work/data/
/work/data/..
/data/custlist.sql
/data/fixdata
/data/fmanufact
/data/getcalls
/data/itemcost.sql
/data/longcalls.sql
/data/moredata
/data/mydata
/data/newquery.sql
Selection
/work/data/
OK
Filter
2.
Cancel
Help
In the Filter text box, type the full pathname of the directory that
contains the log.
You can use wildcards to select only certain files from that directory.
14-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Viewing the Status of a Load Job or Unload Job
3.
Click Filter.
The Files list box shows a list of the files that match the path that you
entered in the Filter text box.
4.
In the Files list box, click the name of the file that you want to
examine.
The full pathname of the selected file appears in the Selection text
box.
5.
Click OK.
A Browse window appears that displays the contents of the selected
file.
6.
Review the log using the scroll bar to move through the log.
7.
Click Cancel to return to the HPL main window.
Alternatively, if you know the full pathname of the log file, you can simply
type the pathname in the Selection text box and click OK.
Sample Log File
The following example shows a sample log file entry:
Sat Mar 11 13:52:42 1995
Session ID 1
Unload Database
Query Name
Device Array
Query Mapping
Query
Convert Reject
->
->
->
->
->
->
stores7
f_manufact
fmanufact
f_manufact
select * from manufact
/work/data/f_manu_unl
Database Unload Completed -Unloaded 9 Records Detected 0 Errors
Sat Mar 11 13:52:50 1995
You can review the log file to determine load status and to see where any
errors occurred. The log file is a simple ASCII file. You can print it if necessary.
Browsing 14-11
Chapter
Managing the HighPerformance Loader
15
Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deluxe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Express Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Express Mode Limitations. . . . . . . . . . .
How Express Mode Works . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign-Key Constraints . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison Between Express-Mode and Deluxe-Mode
Load Operation. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
15-3
15-4
15-4
15-5
15-6
15-7
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.
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15-8
Violations . . . . . . . . . . .
Rejected Records from the Input File
Constraint Violations . . . . . .
Viewing Error Records . . . . .
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. 15-9
. 15-9
. 15-10
. 15-10
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
onstat Options for onpload . . . . . . . . .
Devices for the Device Array . . . . . . . .
Usage Models . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reorganizing Computer Configuration . . .
Altering the Schema of a Table . . . . . .
Loading and Unloading Data . . . . . .
Settings for a No-Conversion Load or Unload .
Express-Mode Load with Delimited ASCII . .
Performance Hints . . . . . . . . . . .
Choose an Efficient Format . . . . . . .
Ensure Enough Converter Threads and VPs .
Ensure Enough Buffers of Adequate Size . .
Increase the Commit Interval. . . . . . .
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15-10
15-11
15-12
15-12
15-12
15-13
15-13
15-14
15-14
15-15
15-16
15-16
15-17
15-17
15-18
15-19
15-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
his chapter discusses the following aspects of managing the HPL:
■
Modes
■
Violations
■
Performance
Modes
The HPL offers two load modes: deluxe and express. Express mode is faster,
and deluxe mode is more flexible. You can choose the mode that is best suited
for your environment. The HPL has only one unload mode. Figure 15-1 illustrates the load and unload modes of the HPL.
Selected database
Figure 15-1
The Load and
Unload Modes of
the HPL
Data files
Express load
Deluxe load
Selected database
Data files
Unload
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-3
Deluxe Mode
Deluxe Mode
The deluxe mode performs row-by-row referential and constraint checking
as the data is loaded. Deluxe mode also logs each insert. Deluxe mode does
not lock the table, so the loading of data can take place while other users are
working. Deluxe mode is not as fast as express mode but allows users to
access and update the table during a load. Loaded data is immediately visible
to the user.
A deluxe-mode load simulates an INSERT statement, except that the HPL
allows the load to handle parallel data streams. Deluxe mode has the
following characteristics:
■
Logs data
■
Updates indexes
■
Evaluates triggers
■
Sets constraints to FILTERING WITHOUT ERROR
■
Sets the isolation mode as if for an insert cursor.
Express Mode
Express-mode loads are significantly faster than deluxe-mode loads;
however, no one else can access the table until the load is complete. The
express mode locks the table for exclusive use by the load utility and disables
referential and constraint checking on the table during the load.
Express mode requires that you perform a level-0 backup after you finish the
load. This additional step is important when you consider the relative speeds
of the deluxe mode and express mode. If the table that you are loading is
empty and has no objects such as indexes or constraints, express mode is
almost surely faster. However, if the table that you are loading is large and/or
has many constraints, deluxe mode might be faster when you consider the
time that is required for enabling the objects and performing the level-0
backup.
15-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Express Mode
An express-mode load has the following characteristics:
■
Sets all objects (such as indexes or constraints) to disabled before
loading
■
Reenables all objects after loading, if possible, and flags objects that
cannot be reenabled in the violations and diagnostic tables
■
Locks the table during the load
■
Requires a level-0 backup after completion
Express Mode Limitations
Express mode has the following limitations:
■
Does not invoke triggers on the loaded data
■
Cannot load an HDR replicated table
■
Cannot load a table that is fragmented by row ID
■
Cannot load tables with primary key constraints when child table
records refer to the load table
■
Cannot load rows that are larger than the system page size
For information about page size, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
If your load job has any of these conditions, you must use deluxe mode to
load your data.
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-5
Express Mode
How Express Mode Works
This discussion describes how the HPL implements express mode. You do not
need to understand this discussion to use the HPL. The sequence of events
when you run an express-mode load is as follows:
1.
The onpload utility locks the table with a shared lock.
Other users can read data in already-existing rows.
2.
The onpload utility creates new extents and fills them with the new
rows. However, onpload does not update the database structures
that track extents.
The new extents are not visible to the user.
3.
At the end of the express load, onpload updates the internal
structures of the database.
4.
The onpload utility sets the table to read-only.
This setting occurs because in express mode onpload does not log
data, and therefore, the table is in an unrecoverable state.
5.
The onpload utility unlocks the table and enables the constraints.
The new rows become visible to the user for read only.
6.
The user performs a level-0 backup.
For more information, see “Making a Level-0 Backup” on page 12-11.
7.
Your database server sets the table to read/write.
If the load fails, onpload discards the extents and clears the internal
information that says the table is unrecoverable.
15-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Express Mode
Foreign-Key Constraints
Express mode cannot disable primary constraints or unique constraints that
are referenced as foreign keys that are active on other tables. If you want to
load data into such a table, you must first use SET CONSTRAINTS DISABLED
statements to disable the foreign-key constraints in the referencing table or
tables. After the load is finished, reenable the foreign-key constraints.
Figure 15-2 shows an example of foreign-key constraints. The table target has
a primary key (thePK) and a unique key (unique) that table blue and table
green reference. Before you perform an express-mode load into the table
target, you must disable the foreign-key constraints in both table blue and
table green.
item1
item2
matchesthePK
item3
blue
entry1
entry2
matchesunique
entry3
Figure 15-2
Foreign-Key
Constraints
columnA
columnB
thePK
columnC
columnD
unique
columnE
unique2
green
target
Remove the constraints before
you use express-mode load.
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-7
Express Mode
Comparison Between Express-Mode and Deluxe-Mode Load
Operation
The following table contrasts the operation of express mode and deluxe
mode. For additional information on the differences between these two
modes, see “Deluxe Mode” and “Express Mode” on page 15-4.
Express Mode
15-8
Deluxe Mode
Action
Performed
by
Action
Performed
by
Set objects to disabled
onpload
Set constraints to filtering
onpload
Load records from the
data file into the table
(including rows that
would cause violations if
constraints were on)
onpload
Load records from data file
into the table. Write records
that violate constraints into
the violations table and not
into the target table
onpload
Enable objects. Detect
violators and copy them
into the _vio table
onpload
Set constraints to nonfiltering
onpload
Perform a level-0 backup
to make the database
writable
user
Resolve violators
user
Resolve violators
user
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Violations
Violations
When you load records from a data file, some of the records might not meet
the criteria that you established for the database table. For example, the data
file might contain:
■
null values where the table specifies NOT NULL.
■
values in an incorrect format (for example, alphabetic characters in a
numeric field).
■
records that do not have the expected number of fields.
The way that the HPL treats these errors depends on the mode (deluxe or
express) and the type of job (load or unload).
The HPL separates errors into the following two classes:
■
Rejected records from the input file
These records include:
■
❑
records that the filter rejected.
❑
records that cannot be converted.
Constraint violations
Rejected Records from the Input File
Input-file records that the HPL rejects because they could not be converted
include records in an incorrect format and records that do not have the
expected number of fields and records whose fields contain NULL values for
columns that do not allow NULL values. The onpload utility writes these
records into a file with the suffix .rej. The onpload utility writes records tha1t
are rejected because they do not match the filter criteria into a file with the
suffix .flt.
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-9
Constraint Violations
Constraint Violations
When the onpload utility starts a deluxe-mode load, it invokes the following
SQL statement:
SET CONSTRAINTS ON mytable FILTERING
This statement has two results:
■
The utility adds two tables, mytable_vio and mytable_dia, to the
database that contains mytable.
■
All of the constraints that are associated with the table are set to
filtering. Filtering mode causes any record that does not meet the
constraint requirements to be added to the mytable_vio table instead
of generating an error.
The use of filtering mode for constraints is covered in detail in the Informix
Guide to SQL: Syntax
Viewing Error Records
Choose from the Browsers menu in the HPL main window to look at the error
records that onpload generates. “The Browsing Options” on page 14-3
explains how to use the browser options.
Performance
You can improve HPL performance by preparing an environment that is
optimized for the particular load or unload job that you are performing. You
should consider the following aspects of your load and unload jobs:
15-10
■
Configuration-parameter values
■
Mode (express or deluxe)
■
Devices for the device array
■
Usage models
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Configuration Parameters
Configuration Parameters
The onpload configuration parameters control the number of threads that
onpload starts and the number and size of the buffers that are used to
transfer data. Figure 15-3 shows which part of the onpload process is affected
by each configuration parameter.
Figure 15-3
The onpload Configuration Parameters
Tape
The onpload
configuration parameters
AIOBUFSIZE
AIOBUFFERS
tape I/O
sdriver
CONVERTTHREADS
CONVERTVPS
convert
convert
convert
STRMBUFFSIZE
STRMBUFFERS
worker
The AIOBUFSIZE and AIOBUFFERS parameters control the number and size of
the buffers that onpload uses for reading from the input device. CONVERTTHREADS and CONVERTVPS control the amount of CPU resources to apply to
data conversion. STRMBUFFSIZE and STRMBUFFERS control the number and
size of the buffers used to transport data between onpload and the database
server.
The onpload configuration parameters are stored in the following files:
UNIX
WIN NT
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$PLCONFIG ♦
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\%PLCONFIG ♦
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-11
Mode
Appendix B describes each configuration parameter and gives the default
value for each parameter. How to choose appropriate values for the configuration parameters is discussed in “Usage Models” on page 15-13 and
“Performance Hints” on page 15-16.
Mode
“Modes” on page 15-3 discusses the characteristics of express mode and
deluxe mode. You cannot use express mode in certain situations. For
example, express mode does not support loading Simple LO or Ext Type data
types, ensuring constraints, or invoking triggers. For a list of situations in
which you must use deluxe mode, see “Express Mode Limitations” on
page 15-5.
onstat Options for onpload
The onstat utility has two options that you can use to observe the behavior of
database server threads during express-mode loads. Use the following
command to display light-append information:
onstat -g lap
The onstat -j option provides an interactive mode that lets you gather special
information about an onpload job. The -j option is documented in
Appendix F of this manual.
The onstat utility is documented in your Administrator’s Guide.
Devices for the Device Array
On a data-load job, each device runs independently of other devices. Thus
mixing fast and slow devices does not adversely affect the speed of the load.
In most unload jobs, all devices receive equal amounts of data. Thus the
speed of all devices is limited by the speed of the slowest device. If you have
several fast devices and one or two slow devices, it might be advantageous
to remove the slow devices.
15-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Usage Models
When CPU resources are plentiful during an HPL job, the device controllers
are a potential bottleneck. If you have configured extra converter threads and
extra converter VPs, CPU use should be close to 100 percent. If CPU use is not
close to 100 percent, the cause might be one of the following situations:
■
The device controller is managing too many devices.
■
The devices themselves are slow.
Usage Models
Three major usage models are envisioned for the HPL, as follows:
■
Reorganizing computer configuration
■
Altering the schema of a table
■
Loading or unloading external data
Reorganizing Computer Configuration
If you are not changing the table schema, use a no-conversion job to unload
and load when you need to reorganize the configuration of your computer or
change to a different computer. The no-conversion mode is the fastest means
of performing an unload or load because rows are unloaded in Informix
internal format with no conversion and reloaded in the same fashion. You can
use this mode even when you move the database among heterogeneous
computers. (That is, you can use a no-conversion job even when the source
and target computers use different internal byte representations.)
For information about preparing for a no-conversion unload/load with
ipload, refer to “Using the No Conversion Job Option” on page 13-14. To set
no-conversion mode when you are using the onpload utility at the command
line, use the -fn option. For more information, refer to Chapter 16, “The
onpload Utility.”
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-13
Usage Models
Altering the Schema of a Table
When you need to alter a table (add, drop, or change the data type of
columns), use the Fixed Internal format. In Fixed Internal format, rows are
unloaded in Informix internal format on a column-by-column basis. Thus
you can drop, add, or modify columns and still minimize conversion
overhead. For more information, refer to “The Format Type Group” on
page 13-12.
Loading and Unloading Data
When you load or unload data from an external source, you must assess the
type of data and the amount of conversion that is required so that you can
choose appropriate configuration parameters.
The following sections show possible configuration parameters for two
different types of load jobs. Suppose your hardware has the following
configuration:
■
Eight CPU symmetric multiprocessors, each about 40 MIPS
■
Several (say 16) 300-megabyte disks (for the database)
■
Four 1.2-megabyte tape devices (to load to and unload from)
■
512-megabyte memory
You also have this information about your system:
15-14
■
The database server is running with seven CPU virtual processors.
■
The data that you want to load has a row of about 150 bytes with a
mix of INT, DATE, DECIMAL, CHAR, and VARCHAR data types. (This
is similar to the LINEITEM table in the TPC-D database).
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Usage Models
Settings for a No-Conversion Load or Unload
A no-conversion load or unload is not highly CPU intensive because no
conversion is involved. In this case, the load or unload is expected to be
limited by the speed of the tape devices. For more information, see “Using
the No Conversion Job Option” on page 13-14.
The following table lists sample values of configuration parameters for a raw
load.
Configuration Parameter
Suggested
Value
Comment
CONVERTVPS
4
This process is not CPU intensive.
CONVERTTHREADS
1
This process is not CPU intensive.
STRMBUFFSIZE
128
Choose some multiple of the
AIOBUFSIZE, up to about 8*AIOBUFSIZE.
STRMBUFFERS
5
Should be CONVERTTHREADS + 4.
AIOBUFSIZE
32
Choose a buffer size to match the best
block size for the tape drive. Large
buffers increase performance if sufficient
memory is available.
AIOBUFFERS
5
CONVERTTHREADS + 4 or
2*CONVERTTHREADS, whichever is
larger
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-15
Performance Hints
Express-Mode Load with Delimited ASCII
In an express-mode load with delimited ASCII, the load or unload job is
limited by the available CPU. The conversion to or from Informix types to
ASCII is the most expensive portion of these operations. Hence, the following
configuration might be more appropriate.
The following table lists sample values of configuration parameters for an
express-mode load with delimited ASCII.
Configuration Parameter
Sample
Value
Comment
CONVERTVPS
8
One convert VP per CPU
CONVERTTHREADS
2
Four devices * 2 thread/device = 8 threads
STRMBUFFSIZE
32
Should be some multiple of AIOBUFSIZE. For
this CPU-intensive case, 1 or 2*AIOBUFSIZE is
sufficient.
STRMBUFFERS
4
CONVERTTHREADS + 4
AIOBUFSIZE
32
Choose a buffer size to match the best block
size for the tape drive. Large buffers increase
performance if sufficient memory is available.
AIOBUFFERS
5
CONVERTTHREADS + 4 or
2*CONVERTTHREADS, whichever is larger
Performance Hints
In general, the performance of the HPL depends on the underlying hardware
resources: CPU, memory, disks, tapes, controllers, and so on. Any of these
resources could be a bottleneck, depending on the speed of the resource, the
load on the resource, and the particular nature of the load or unload.
For example, load and unload jobs that perform no conversions consume
minimal CPU resources. These jobs are thus likely to be limited by device or
controller bandwidth. On the other hand, ASCII loads and unloads are CPU
intensive because of the overhead of conversion to and from ASCII. This
section discusses some topics that you should consider when you try to
improve performance.
15-16
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Performance Hints
Choose an Efficient Format
When you load data to or unload data from a non-Informix source, you can
use fixed or delimited format in an appropriate code set such as ASCII or
EBCDIC. In general, ASCII loads and unloads are the fastest. If you are using
onpload for a machine or schema reorganization, choose the no-conversion
format.
Delimited and fixed ASCII formats are comparable in behavior except when
VARCHAR data is present. If the schema contains VARCHAR data and the
length of the VARCHAR data varies greatly, you might want to choose
delimited format.
Ensure Enough Converter Threads and VPs
As mentioned earlier, loads and unloads other than raw and fast-format ones
are likely to be CPU intensive due to conversion overhead. In such cases,
conversion speed is likely to determine the load or unload speed. It is thus
important to use sufficient conversion resources (that is, enough converter
threads and VPs).
The number of converter threads that is required for a device depends on the
relative speeds of the device and the CPU as well as the data types in the table
being loaded or unloaded. CHAR and VARCHAR formats are the cheapest to
convert. INT, DATE, SMFLOAT, and FLOAT are more expensive. DECIMAL and
MONEY are among the most expensive formats to convert.
The PLCONFIG file specifies the number of converter threads per device. You
can override this value on the onpload command line with the -M option.
The number of converter VPs should be based on the conversion intensity of
the load or unload and the number of physical CPUs on the computer. If the
load or unload is expected to be convert intensive, you might want to specify
the number of convert VPs to be the number of physical CPUs (or one fewer)
to take advantage of all of the available CPUs. You can set the number of
converter VPs in the onpload configuration file.
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-17
Performance Hints
The database server and onpload client VPs might both be competing for the
same physical CPU resources. To reduce contention, run only the number of
VPs that are necessary on both the database server and onpload sides.
However, if the number of database server VPs is already specified, you
might have a choice only in the number of onpload VPs. In this case, the
suggestions in the previous paragraph apply.
Too few converter threads and VPs can make conversion a bottleneck. On the
other hand, too many converter threads can waste time in scheduling threads
in and out of the VPs. In general, more than ten converter threads per VP is
too many.
Ensure Enough Buffers of Adequate Size
The onpload utility lets you set the size and number of AIO and stream
buffers in the plconfig configuration file. For adequate performance, you
should provide at least two (preferably three) AIO and stream buffers per
converter thread. The size of AIO buffers should be at least as large as the
device block size, and the size of the stream buffers should be large (32 or 64
kilobytes), as the following table illustrates.
15-18
Configuration
Parameter
Size
Comment
STRMBUFFSIZE
64
Should be some multiple of
AIOBUFSIZE for best performance
STRMBUFFERS
2 * CONVERTTHREADS
AIOBUFSIZE
64
AIOBUFFERS
2 * CONVERTTHREADS
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Performance Hints
Increase the Commit Interval
In deluxe mode, the commit interval (see “The Load Options Window” on
page 12-14) specifies the number of records that should be loaded before the
transaction is committed. Low values (frequent commits) degrade performance and high values improve performance. If you increase the commit
interval, you might need to increase the size of your logical-log buffers.
While larger commit intervals can speed up loads, larger commit intervals
require larger logical-log space and increase the checkpoint time. These side
effects might impact other system users during onpload operations.
Managing the High-Performance Loader 15-19
Chapter
The onpload Utility
Understanding the onpload Utility
Starting the onpload Utility .
Using the onpload Utility . .
Syntax . . . . . . . . .
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16-3
16-3
16-4
16-4
16-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
T
his chapter describes the syntax of the onpload utility. It includes
descriptions of available options as well as descriptions of methods you can
use to invoke onpload.
Understanding the onpload Utility
After you create the onpload database with the ipload interface, the onpload
utility allows you to perform loads and unloads directly from the command
line.
The onpload command uniquely specifies a row in the session table in the
onpload database. Each row in the session table specifies all the components
and options that are associated with a job.
Starting the onpload Utility
You can start onpload from the command line or from the ipload utility.
When you click Run in the Load Job window (Figure 12-2 on page 12-9) or in
the Unload Job window (Figure 11-2 on page 11-7), ipload uses information
from the onpload database to start onpload.
Typically, you use ipload to start a job when you plan to perform that
particular load or unload once. For a job that needs to be run periodically,
such as a weekly report, you might choose to run the job from the command
line.
The information that you give to onpload as command-line arguments takes
precedence over any information that is in the onpload database. The information from the command-line arguments is effective only for a single load.
The command-line arguments do not affect the values in the onpload
database or in the PLCONFIG configuration file.
The onpload Utility 16-3
Using the onpload Utility
Using the onpload Utility
In most cases, use the Load Job window (page 12-9) or Unload Job window
(page 11-7) to prepare the load or unload job. After you prepare the job, the
Command Line text box on the Load Job Select window (page 12-8) or the
Unload Job Select window (page 11-6) shows you the command line that
ipload prepared for the job. You can copy that command line and use it to run
the job at a later time. You can also use the command-line options shown in
this chapter to modify the basic command line that ipload prepared.
Tip: Enter onpload with no options at the command line to display a command-line
listing of all onpload options and their functions.
The following sections give additional information about the syntax and
individual options of the onpload utility.
Syntax
onpload
-j jobname
-m map
-V
-d source
-d source
-p projectname
-p projectname
Setting the Run Mode
p. 16-6
Modifying Parameter
Size
p. 16-9
16-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Overriding the onpload
Database
p. 16-12
Syntax
Element
-V
-d source
Purpose
Displays the current version
number and the software serial
number.
Sets the pathname of the file,
tape, or pipe or the name of the
device array to use for the load
or unload session.
-j jobname
Names a load or unload job from
the onpload database.
-m map
Names a map from the onpload
database.
Identifies the project where the
format and map are stored.
-p projectname
Key Considerations
Restrictions: This option is available only from the
command line.
Additional Information: If the -f option is not set to
a, d, or p, onpload assumes that the data source is
a file.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see
“Interpreting the -d and -f Options Together” on
page 16-8.
Additional Information: To set using ipload, see
“Components of the Unload Job” on page 11-3 and
“Components of the Load Job” on page 12-3.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see “Using
a Map” on page 9-3.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see
“Project Organization” on page 4-3.
For example, you might use the Load Job window to prepare the following
command:
onpload -p zz -j bigload -fl
If you receive a tape that you know contains data with bugs, you might
choose to modify the command to allow errors and to save the log in a special
place, as follows:
onpload -p zz -j bigload -fl -e 1000 -l /mylogs/buggytape.log
For information on the -fl option, see “Setting the Run Mode with the -f
Option” on page 16-6.
The onpload Utility 16-5
Syntax
Setting the Run Mode with the -f Option
The -f option lets you set the type of source data and the type of mode.
Possible modes are as follows: deluxe load, express load, or unload.
Setting the Run Mode
-f
d
l
p
a
Element
M
Purpose
Displays the program module
or line number in messages.
a
Treats data source as a devicearray.
c
Sets mode to deluxe mode.
d
Treats data source as a device
(tape or file).
Loads data into database.
l
Specifies that onpload does
not need to perform data
conversion.
n
c
u
n
q
v
M
Key Considerations
Restrictions: This flag is available only from the
command line.
Additional Information: This flag is used for debugging.
Additional Information: The definition of the device
array is extracted from the onpload database. To use
ipload, see “Device Arrays” on page 6-3.
Additional Information: If this flag is not set, onpload
uses express mode. To use ipload, see “Modes” on
page 15-3.
Additional Information: To set using ipload, see
“Device Arrays” on page 6-3.
Additional Information: This is the default flag, as
opposed to u, which unloads data from database. To use
ipload, see “Components of the Load Job” on page 12-3.
Restrictions: The target table for the load must have the
same schema as the table from which the data is
extracted.
Additional Information: If onpload generated the input
data file as an Informix format data file, you do not need
to perform data conversion when you reload data. To use
ipload, see “Using the No Conversion Job Option” on
page 13-14.
(1 of 2)
16-6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Syntax
Element
p
q
u
v
Purpose
Treats data source as a program
to execute and reads interface to
the program by way of a pipe.
Tells onpload not to generate
status messages while a job is
running.
Unloads data from database.
Tells onpload not to generate
violations records.
Key Considerations
Additional Information: To use ipload, see “Device
Arrays” on page 6-3.
None.
Additional Information: If this flag is not set,
onpload loads data into the database. To use ipload,
see “Components of the Unload Job” on page 11-3.
Restrictions: This flag is available only from the
command line.
(2 of 2)
Typing the -f Flags
When you combine -f flags into one group, do not put spaces between the
flags. For example, use -f acq.
If you prefer, you can use multiple occurrences of the -f option instead of
combining all of the possible -f flags into one group. For example, the
following two command lines are equivalent:
onpload -m mymap -d mydev -flnc
onpload -m mymap -d mydev -fl -fn -fc
The onpload Utility 16-7
Syntax
Interpreting the -d and -f Options Together
The argument of the -d option gives the name of the data source. You can
specify the device type of the data source with flags of the -f option, as
follows:
■
If the command line does not specify a device type, onpload treats
the data source as the pathname of a cooked file on disk. Because no
device type is specified, the following onpload command treats
filename as the name of a file:
■
The -fd in the following command causes onpload to treat
/dev/rmt/rst11 as the name of a tape device:
onpload -d filename -m mapname
onpload -d /dev/rmt/rst11 -m mapname -fd
■
The -fa in the following command causes onpload to treat
tapearray3 as the name of a device array. The device array is
described in the onpload database.
onpload -d tapearray3 -m mapname -fa
■
The -fp in the following command causes onpload to treat
apipename as the name of a pipe. When onpload starts executing, it
causes the pipe process to start executing.
onpload -d apipename -m mapname -fp
The same semantics apply for an unload job. If you use the u flag of the -f
option to indicate an unload job, the interpretation of the data-source name
is as described previously. For example, the following command specifies
that onpload should unload data to the device /dev/rmt/rst11:
onpload -d /dev/rmt/rst11 -m mapname -fdu
16-8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Syntax
Modifying Parameter Size
The options that are described in this section let you enter size information
that overrides existing parameters in the onpload database.
Modifying Parameter Size
-A tapehead
-B blocksize
-G swapbytes
-I commit_int
-a iobufsize
-b bufsize
-e maxerrors
-i prog_interval
-n numrecs
-s startrec
-t numtapes
The onpload Utility 16-9
Syntax
Element
-A tapehead
-B blocksize
-G swapbytes
Purpose
Tells onpload to skip the specified
number of bytes on the tape before
it starts reading data records.
Key Considerations
Restrictions: This option is available only from the
command line.
References: For specific details on this option, see
“The session Table” on page A-17.
Sets the tape I/O block size (bytes). Additional Information: If the data source is a
device array, this setting is ignored. To use ipload,
see “The Tape Parameters Group” on page 6-7.
Sets the number of bytes in a swap Restrictions: This option is available only from the
group.
command line.
-I commit_int
Sets the number of records to
process before doing a commit.
-a iobufsize
Sets the size (kilobytes) of the
asynchronous I/O buffers, the
memory buffers used to transfer
data to and from tapes and files.
Additional Information: This option globally
reverses the byte order in the input data stream. Each
group of bytes is swapped with the group of bytes
that follows it.
Restrictions: This option applies only to deluxe
mode.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see “The
Load Options Window” on page 12-14.
Restrictions: This option is available only from the
command line.
Additional Information: This value overrides the
value (AIOBUFSIZE) set in the HPL configuration file
(plconfig).
References: For specific details on this option, see
“AIOBUFSIZE” on page B-3.
Restrictions: This option is available only from the
command line.
-b bufsize
Sets the size (kilobytes) of the
server stream buffer, the memory
buffer used to write records to the Additional Information: Larger buffers result in
database.
more efficient data exchange with the database. This
value overrides the value (STRMBUFSIZE) set in the
HPL configuration file (plconfig).
-e maxerrors
References: For specific details on this option, see
“STRMBUFSIZE” on page B-5.
Sets the error threshold that causes Additional Information: If no number is specified,
the load or unload session to shut the default is to process all records. To use ipload,
see “The Load Options Window” on page 12-14.
down.
(1 of 2)
16-10
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Syntax
Element
-i prog_interval
-n numrecs
-s startrec
-t numtapes
Purpose
Sets the number of records to
process before making an entry in
the log file specified by the -l
option.
Key Considerations
Restrictions: This option is available only from the
command line.
Additional Information: If no log file is specified,
progress messages are sent to stdout. If the -i option
is omitted, the default number is 1000. To set, see
“Using the -i Option.”
Sets the number of records to load. Additional Information: If no number is specified,
all records are processed. The -n option does not affect
unload operations. To use ipload, see “The Load
Options Window” on page 12-14.
Sets the starting record to load.
Additional Information: This option is used to skip
records. If you do not set this option, the load starts
with the first record. The -s option does not affect unload
operations. To use ipload, see “The Load Options
Window” on page 12-14.
Specifies the number of tapes to
Additional Information: If you do not set this
load.
option, the default value is 1. To use ipload, see
“The Load Options Window” on page 12-14.
(2 of 2)
Using the -i Option
The -i option lets you specify the number of records to process before
onpload reports the progress in an entry in the log file. The onpload utility
calculates progress message count as follows:
row_count = (total_rows/prog_interval) * prog_interval
The onpload utility updates the row count only once for each stream buffer
of data that it processes. Thus, reducing the row count on the -i option does
not necessarily increase the number of progress messages in the log file. For
example, if the stream buffer holds 910 rows of data, setting row_count to 10,
100, and 900 has the same effect: onpload writes one progress message.
The onpload Utility 16-11
Syntax
Overriding the onpload Database Values
The options that are described in this section let you enter size information
that overrides existing parameters in the onpload database.
Overriding the onpload
Database Values
-C caseconvert
-D override_db
-F filter
-L trace_level
-M converters
-R rejectfile
-S servername
-T target_db
-l logfile
16-12
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Syntax
Element
-C caseconvert
Purpose
Sets the case-conversion option
that converts all character
information.
Key Considerations
Additional Information: If you do not set this
option, no case conversion is done. Possible flags
include:
U or u= uppercase
L or l= lowercase
P or p= proper names
blank = no conversion
-D override_db
-F filter
-L trace_level
-M converters
Overrides the database specified
in the map used for the load.
Identifies the filter that onpload
uses for screening load records.
Sets the amount of information
logged during the load.
Sets the maximum number of
conversion threads per device.
To use ipload, see “The Mapping Options Window”
on page 9-14.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see “The
Load Record Maps Window” on page 9-7.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see “Using
a Filter” on page 10-3.
Restrictions: This option is available only from the
command line. The value of trace_level must be an
integer from 1 to 5.
Additional Information: The default value is 1.
Higher values result in more output. Do not use this
option unless you are doing serious debugging.
Restrictions: This option is available only from
the command line.
Additional Information: This value overrides
the value of CONVERTTHREADS set in the HPL
configuration file (plconfig). If the value for
converters is greater than 1, onpload can
dynamically allocate more conversion threads
as needed to process data.
-R rejectfile
Identifies the file destination for
rejected records.
References: For specific details on this option,
see “CONVERTVPS” on page B-4.
Additional Information: The file is named
rejectfile.rej. To use ipload, see “The Load Job
Window” on page 12-9
(1 of 2)
The onpload Utility 16-13
Syntax
Element
-S servername
Purpose
Sets the onpload database server.
-T target_db
Sets the target database server.
-l logfile
Specifies the name of a file to
which onpload sends messages.
Key Considerations
Additional Information: To use ipload, see“The
Connect Server Window” on page 5-4.
Additional Information: To use ipload, see “The
Connect Server Window” on page 5-4.
Additional Information: If you do not specify a
log file, onpload sends messages to stdout. To use
ipload, see “The Unload Job Window” on page 11-7
and “The Load Job Window” on page 12-9.
(2 of 2)
16-14
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Appendix
The onpload Database
The tables in the onpload database hold information that the
onpload utility uses. This appendix describes the tables in the
onpload database that you create or modify with ipload.
When you start the ipload utility, the utility looks for a database
named onpload on the database server that your
INFORMIXSERVER environment variable specifies. If the
onpload database is not present, ipload creates an onpload
database as a non-ANSI database.
When ipload creates a new onpload database, it populates some
of the tables in the database with default values. You can use
DB-Access to examine the values in the tables. However, Informix
strongly recommends that you always use ipload to change the
onpload database.
A
The defaults Table
The defaults Table
The defaults table contains default values that the HPL uses. When ipload
creates the onpload database, it inserts a single row into this table. This row
specifies the default configuration assumptions for the database server, the
type of computer, and the data code set.
Column
Type
Description
node
CHAR(18)
The name of a database server
machine
CHAR(18)
Specifies the default machine type (foreign key
to the machines table)
datatype
CHAR(18)
The code set of the data file
dbgls
CHAR(18)
Reserved
Used previously for the code set of the target
database
You can specify a set of defaults for each database server. If this table does not
contain an entry for a database server, the database uses the defaults that the
record named default specifies.
Use the Defaults window to modify this table. Refer to “Modifying the
onpload Defaults” on page 5-5.
A-2 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The delimiters Table
The delimiters Table
The ipload utility uses the values in the delimiters table to display the fielddelimiter values that the Delimiter Options window (see page 7-23) shows.
When ipload creates the onpload database, it inserts values into this table.
The values in the delimiters table are for reference and do not change. Refer
to “Modifying Delimited-Format Options” on page 7-22.
Column
Type
Description
hex
CHAR(2)
Hexadecimal representation of the delimiter
octal
CHAR(4)
Octal representation of the delimiter
ascii
CHAR(15)
ASCII characters (printable) that form the
delimiter
control
CHAR(10)
Control character sequence that generates the
delimiter
The onpload Database A-3
The device Table
The device Table
The device table defines the elements of a device array. Use the device array
definition window to modify this table. Refer to “Using the Device-Array
Definition Window” on page 6-6.
Column
Type
Description
name
CHAR(18)
Name of the device array described in this row
(primary key)
seq
INTEGER
Device number within the device array
(primary key)
type
CHAR(5)
Device type (pipe, file, or tape)
file
CHAR(128)
File or device to be accessed by this array
element
blocksize
INTEGER
I/O blocksize (tape devices only)
devicesize
INTEGER
Capacity of device (tape devices only)
pipecommand
CHAR(128)
The pipe command to invoke when onpload
starts to access to the device element
lockflag
CHAR(1)
Flag for locking mechanism that ipload uses
header
TEXT
The tape header for a device that DDR uses
A-4 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The driver Table
The driver Table
The onpload utility uses different set routines, called drivers, to handle
different file formats. For example, the delimited driver handles delimited
file formats. The routines in a driver process data unloaded from or loaded
into the data file. The onpload utility includes drivers for widely used datafile formats. The set of available drivers is stored in the driver table.
Column
Type
Description
drivername
CHAR(18)
Name of driver (primary key)
drivertype
CHAR(1)
Data-file format: Fixed, Delimited, COBOL
The filteritem Table
The filteritem table defines the conditions to be applied to load data to filter
out records. Each filter item is attached to a particular field of a record in a
data file. Use the filter options to modify this table. Refer to “Creating a
Filter” on page 10-5.
Column
Type
Description
formid
INTEGER
Filter identifier (foreign key to the filters table)
seq
INTEGER
Specifies the order in which the filter items
(the match expression) are applied
fname
CHAR(18)
The name of the field that this filter affects
option
CHAR(7)
Specifies the disposition of a record (discard or
keep) when the match criterion is true
match
CHAR(60)
Match expression that is applied to data field
The onpload Database A-5
The filters Table
The filters Table
The filters table assigns a unique number to each group of filter items that
together form a filter. Each filter is associated with a project and a format
definition. Use the filter-definition window to create or modify a filter. Refer
to “The Filter-Definition Window” on page 10-6.
Column
Type
Description
formid
SERIAL
Filter identifier (primary key)
projectid
INTEGER
Project with which this filter is associated
(foreign key to the project table)
formatid
INTEGER
Format identifier of the format definition to
which this filter applies (foreign key to the
formats table)
name
CHAR(18)
The name of the filter
lockflag
CHAR(1)
Flag for locking mechanism used by ipload
A-6 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The formatitem Table
The formatitem Table
The formatitem table defines the data-file records. Each field of a data file is
described by an entry in this table. Use the Records Format window to
prepare the record formats. Figure A-1 lists the possible values for the ftype
column. Refer to “A Completed Fixed-Format Definition Window with an
Open Selection List” on page 7-6.
Column
Type
Description
formid
INTEGER
Record format identifier (foreign key to the
formats table)
seq
INTEGER
Item sequence number for internal
organization
fname
CHAR(18)
Name of record field
ftype
INTEGER
A number that indicates the type of data in the
field (Figure A-1 show the possible values for
ftype.)
bytes
INTEGER
Number of bytes in field
decimals
INTEGER
Number of decimal values to format when
converting to ASCII
offset
INTEGER
Offset in record image where field starts
qual
INTEGER
Informix DATETIME/INTERVAL qualifier
picture
CHAR(15)
COBOL picture definition
The onpload Database A-7
The formatitem Table
Figure A-1
Possible Values for the ftype Column
ftype
Value
Type of Data
ftype
Value
Type of Data
1
Character (fixed and delimited)
23
Comp-4
2
Date
24
Comp-5
3
Short integer
25
Comp-6
4
Integer
26
Comp-X
5
Long Integer
27
Comp-N
6
Floating-point vale
28
Character (COBOL)
7
Double floating-point value
34
Blob Length
8
Unsigned short integer
35
Blob File
9
Unsigned integer
36
Blob HexASCII
10
Unsigned long integer
37
Blob Text
11
UNIX date
18
Packed Decimal
19
Zoned decimal
20
Comp-1
21
Comp-2
22
Comp-3
A-8 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The formats Table
The formats Table
The formats table defines the basic information for a record format. Use the
Records Format window to modify this table. Refer to “The Record Formats
Window” on page 7-5.
Column
Type
Description
formid
SERIAL
Unique format identifier (primary key)
projectid
INTEGER
Project to which the format is assigned (foreign
key to the project table)
name
CHAR(18)
Name of format
type
CHAR(10)
Data-file format: Fixed, Delimited, COBOL
driver
CHAR(18)
Driver to use to access data records
machine
CHAR(18)
Machine name that defines binary-data
parameters (foreign key to the machinename
column of the machines table)
datatype
CHAR(18)
Character code set to use for conversion of
data records
recordlength
INTEGER
Length in bytes of a fixed-format record
recordstrt
CHAR(15)
Record-start sequence for delimited format
recordstrty
CHAR(10)
Type of the record-start sequence:
Hex, Octal, ASCII, or Decimal
recordend
CHAR(15)
Record-end sequence for delimited format
recordendt
CHAR(10)
Type of the record-end sequence:
Hex, Octal, ASCII, or Decimal
fieldsep
CHAR(15)
Field-separator sequence for delimited format
fieldsept
CHAR(10)
Type of the field-separator sequence:
Hex, Octal, ASCII, or Decimal
fieldstrt
CHAR(15)
Field-start sequence for delimited format
(1 of 2)
The onpload Database A-9
The language Table
Column
Type
Description
fieldstrty
CHAR(10)
Type of the field-start sequence:
Hex, Octal, ASCII, or Decimal
fieldend
CHAR(15)
Field-end sequence for delimited format
fieldendt
CHAR(10)
Record-end sequence separator type:
Hex, Octal, ASCII, or Decimal
lockflag
CHAR(1)
Flag for locking mechanism that ipload uses
(2 of 2)
The language Table
The onpload utility does not use the language table at this time.
A-10 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The machines Table
The machines Table
The machines table defines the binary type sizes and byte order for different
computers. The HPL uses this information when you transfer binary data.
When ipload creates the onpload database, it inserts definitions for several
different types of computers into this table.
Column
Type
Description
machinename
CHAR(18)
Computer name or type (primary key)
byteorder
CHAR(3)
Binary byte ordering: LSB or MSB
shortsize
INTEGER
Size of a short integer
intsize
INTEGER
Size of an integer
longsize
INTEGER
Size of a long integer
floatsize
INTEGER
Size of a float value
doublesize
INTEGER
Size of a double value
The onpload Database A-11
The mapitem Table
The mapitem Table
The mapitem table defines the relationship between the columns of a
database table and the record fields of a data file. The table stores pairs of
column/record entries. The map options modify this table. Refer to “Maps”
on page 9-3.
Column
Type
Description
formid
INTEGER
Specifies the map to which this record belongs
(foreign key to the maps table)
seq
INTEGER
Unique identifier for the database-column/
data file-record pair
colname
CHAR(18)
Name of database column
fname
CHAR(18)
Name of field in a data-file record
The mapoption Table
The mapoption table defines conversion options for the mapping pairs that
are defined in mapitem table. Use the Mapping Options window to modify
this table. Refer to “Using Mapping Options” on page 9-13.
Column
Type
Description
formid
INTEGER
Specifies the map to which this record belongs
(foreign key to the maps table)
seq
INTEGER
The database-column and/or data file-record
pair to which this option applies (foreign key
to the mapitem table)
bytes
INTEGER
Maximum number of bytes to transfer from a
field of a data file
minvalue
FLOAT
Minimum value allowed in field
(1 of 2)
A-12 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The mapoption Table
Column
Type
Description
maxvalue
FLOAT
Maximum value allowed in field
ccase
CHAR(18)
Case conversion option: None, Lower, Upper,
Proper Noun
justify
CHAR(18)
String justification to perform: None, Left,
Right, Center
fill
CHAR(1)
Fill character for string padding
picture
CHAR(55)
Picture mask to apply to target data
coloffset
INTEGER
Offset in column at which to start data transfer
recoffset
INTEGER
Offset in record field from which to start data
extract
function
CHAR(55)
Custom function to call
looktable
CHAR(18)
Not in use
matchcol
CHAR(18)
Not in use
coldefault
CHAR(18)
Default value to set on column: ASCII HEX or
ASCII binary
inputcode
CHAR(18)
Format in which the BYTE or TEXT data is
stored in the data file: ASCII HEX or ASCII
binary
storecode
CHAR(18)
Format in which to store the BYTE or TEXT data
blobcolumn
CHAR(18)
The column that contains the name of the file
where the BYTE or TEXT data is stored
(2 of 2)
If the values of inputcode and storecode are different, onpload converts the
contents of the BYTE or TEXT data.
The onpload Database A-13
The maps Table
The maps Table
The maps table defines record-to-table mappings (for loads) and query-torecord mappings (for unloads). Use the map options to modify this table.
Refer to “Maps” on page 9-3.
Column
Type
Description
projectid
INTEGER
Project to which this map is assigned (foreign
key to the project table)
formid
SERIAL
Unique identifier for map (primary key)
name
CHAR(18)
Name of map
type
CHAR(6)
Specifies whether the map is a load or unload
map; possible values include:
■
Record (load map)
■
Query (unload map)
dbname
CHAR(30)
Name of load or unload database
qtable
CHAR(18)
Name of table to be loaded; used only for loads
query
CHAR(18)
Name of query; used only for unloads
formatid
INTEGER
Identifier of the format that this map uses
(foreign key to the format table)
lockflag
CHAR(1)
Flag for locking mechanism that ipload uses
A-14 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The note Table
The note Table
The note table holds comments that you can store about the components that
are used for loads and unloads. You can store notes about all of the onpload
components: projects, devices, formats, maps, queries, filters, and load and
unload jobs. For information about creating a note, refer to “The Notes
Button” on page 3-26.
Column
Type
Description
type
CHAR(18)
Specifies the type of component to which this
note is attached
formid
INTEGER
Corresponds to the formid of the component
specified in the type column (The two columns
together uniquely identify the component to
which the note is attached.)
projectid
INTEGER
ID of project to which this note belongs
(foreign key to the project table)
createdate
DATE
Date that the note was created
modifydate
DATE
Date that the note was last modified
note
TEXT
Text of the note
The onpload Database A-15
The project Table
The project Table
The project table lists the projects in this onpload database. Use the Project
window to modify this table. Refer to “Project Organization” on page 4-3.
Column
Type
Description
name
CHAR(18)
Name of object
projectid
SERIAL
Uniquely identifies the project (primary key)
dcreate
DATE
Date that the project was created
The query Table
The query table stores the queries that are used for unloading data from an
Informix database. Use the query-definition window to modify this table.
Refer to “Creating a Query” on page 8-4.
Column
Type
Description
formid
SERIAL
Unique number that identifies this query
(primary key)
projectid
INTEGER
Number of the project that includes this query
(foreign key to the projects table)
name
CHAR(18)
Name of the query
database
CHAR(30)
Name of database being queried
arrayname
CHAR(18)
Not in use
lockflag
CHAR(1)
Flag for locking mechanism that ipload uses
sqlselect
TEXT
SQL statement of the query
A-16 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The session Table
The session Table
The session table controls the parameters that onpload uses to invoke a load
or unload job.
Column
Type
Description
sessiontype
CHAR(1)
Describes the type of load or unload session:
U = Job is driven by the user interface.
N = Job expects a socket interface and is
removed when the job is finished.
S = Job is run from the command line.
automate
CHAR(1)
Flag for automatically creating maps and
formats at runtime:
Y = Create automatically.
blank = Do not create.
lockflag
CHAR(1)
Flag for locking mechanism that ipload uses
sessionid
SERIAL
Session identifier (primary key)
name
CHAR(20)
Name of the load or unload job. This name
appears in the command line displayed in the
Load Job Select or Unload Job Select window.
status
CHAR(1)
Job status:
R = running
C = connecting
S = starting
blank = Job is complete.
server
CHAR(40)
Override default server to load and unload
map
CHAR(18)
Name of the map that controls the load
(foreign key to the name column of the maps
table; the maps table specifies the format and,
for unload jobs, the query)
infile
CHAR(160)
Name of the device array (foreign key to the
name column of the device table)
(1 of 3)
The onpload Database A-17
The session Table
Column
Type
Description
hostname
CHAR(40)
Name of the computer on which the onpload
utility is running
dbname
CHAR(30)
Name of database to be loaded or unloaded
filter
CHAR(18)
Filter for screening import data (foreign key to
the name column of the filters table)
recordfilter
CHAR(80)
File in which to store filtered records
suspensefile
CHAR(80)
File in which to store records that do not pass
conversion
rejectfile
CHAR(80)
File in which to place records that the database
server rejected
logfile
CHAR(80)
File in which to place session status messages
projectid
INTEGER
Project for maps and formats (foreign key to
the project table)
headersize
INTEGER
Size in bytes of header information to strip
from input
quiet
INTEGER
If true, suppresses status message output
tracelevel
INTEGER
Higher values result in more status messages
sourcetrace
INTEGER
If true, source and module line numbers are
placed in status message outputs
multicthread
INTEGER
Sets the maximum number of conversion
threads that you can invoke on a device
blocksize
INTEGER
I/O blocksize for accessing device
filetype
INTEGER
Specifies the type of file: tape, array, pipe
number_records
INTEGER
Specifies the number of records to load
start_record
INTEGER
Specifies the number of the record at which to
start loading
maxerrors
INTEGER
Maximum number of errors to allow before
aborting the load or unload
(2 of 3)
A-18 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The session Table
Column
Type
Description
swapbytes
INTEGER
Specifies the number of bytes to swap
(If swapbytes is 4, the first 4 bytes are swapped
with the next 4 bytes. If blank, bytes are not
swapped.)
runmode
INTEGER
2 = Express-mode load, no conversion
129 = Deluxe-mode load, with conversion
130 = Express-mode load, with conversion
386 = Express-mode load, with conversion and
do not generate violations table
2 = Unload, no conversion
129 = Unload, with conversion, dirty read
isolation level
130 = Unload, with conversion, committed
isolation level
131 = Unload, with conversion, cursor stability
isolation level
132 = Unload, with conversion, repeatable
read isolation level
loadmode
INTEGER
Type of job: 1 = load; 2 = unload
caseconvert
INTEGER
Case conversion type. Convert to:
U or u = uppercase
L or l = lowercase
P or p = propernames
commitinterval
INTEGER
Commit interval for committing a load
transaction. (The value is specified in the
Load Options window, page 12-14. The
commit interval applies only to deluxe mode.)
socketport
INTEGER
Set by onpload to specify the port number of
the connection
numtapes
INTEGER
Number of tapes to load
(3 of 3)
Tip: Deluxe-mode loads do not support the “no conversion” and “with conversion
and do not generate violations table” options.
The onpload Database A-19
Appendix
The High-Performance
Loader Configuration File
The default $INFORMIXDIR/etc/plconfig.std file on UNIX or
%\INFORMIXDIR\etc\plconfig.std on Windows NT is the highperformance loader configuration file. The file is similar to the
ONCONFIG file in the etc directory in INFORMIXDIR. The
plconfig.std file sets various onpload buffer and system configuration parameters. You can modify the parameters to maximize
resource utilization.
The PLCONFIG environment variable specifies an alternative
name for the HPL configuration file. This file must reside in the
etc directory in INFORMIXDIR. If you do not set the PLCONFIG
environment variable, the default name of the file is plconfig.std.
Configuration Parameter Descriptions
The description of each parameter has one or more of the
following fields (depending on their relevance):
default value
The value that appears in the plconfig.std
file unless you explicitly change it
units
The units in which the parameter is
expressed
range of values
The possible values for this parameter
refer to
Cross-reference to further discussion
B
File Conventions
File Conventions
Each parameter in the plconfig.std file in the etc directory in INFORMIXDIR
is on a separate line. The file can also contain blank lines and comment lines
that start with a # symbol. The syntax of a parameter line is as follows:
PARAMETER_NAME
parameter_value# optional comment
Parameters and their values are case sensitive. The parameter names are
always all uppercase letters. If the parameter-value entry is described with
uppercase letters, you must use uppercase. You must put white space (tabs
or spaces or both) between the parameter name, parameter value, and
optional comment. Do not use any tabs or spaces within a parameter value.
AIOBUFFERS
default value
Maximum of (4,CONVERTTHREADS)
recommended value
Maximum of (4, 2*CONVERTTHREADS)
range of values
Integer value ≥ 4
refer to
“Loading and Unloading Data” on page 15-14
The AIOBUFFERS parameter sets the number of buffers used to transport data
from converter threads to the AIO handler.
WIN NT
You must set the AIOBUFFERS parameter on Windows NT to a minimum of 8.
♦
B-2 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
AIOBUFSIZE
AIOBUFSIZE
default value
64
units
Kilobytes
range of values
Minimum: 0.5 kilobyte (512 bytes)
Maximum: depends on operating system resources.
refer to
“Loading and Unloading Data” on page 15-14
The AIOBUFSIZE parameter sets the size of the AIO memory buffers that
transfer data to and from tapes and files. The HPL uses the AIO buffers to pass
data between the converters and the I/O drivers.
The AIOBUFSIZE parameter is not the same as the tape-block size that you can
set in the device arrays (see page 6-7). The tape-block size lets you control the
size of the block that the device controller sends to the tape drive, while
AIOBUFSIZE lets you control the size of internal buffers that pass data. If your
computer has memory available, you can improve performance by
increasing the AIOBUFSIZE parameter.
CONVERTTHREADS
default value
1
range of values
Minimum: 1
Maximum: depends on computer configuration
refer to
“Loading and Unloading Data” on page 15-14
The CONVERTTHREADS parameter sets the number of convert threads for
each file I/O device. The convert threads run on the convert VPs.
The High-Performance Loader Configuration File
B-3
CONVERTVPS
If you are doing a convert-intensive job, increasing CONVERTTHREADS can
improve performance on multiple-CPU computers. For convert-intensive
jobs, set CONVERTTHREADS to 2 or 3 as a starting point for performance
tuning. Except for computers with many CPUs, the useful maximum number
of CONVERTTHREADS is almost always less than 10.
The total number of convert threads that onpload uses is as follows:
CONVERTTHREADS * numdevices
where numdevices is the number of devices in the current device array.
Having more than one converter per thread, in general, allows the
conversion phase to run faster given that CPU resources are available.
Conversion can be a CPU-intensive phase if complex conversions are being
performed.
CONVERTVPS
default value
Single-processor computer: 1
Multiprocessor computer: 50 percent of physical CPUs
range of values
From 1 to the number of physical CPUs
refer to
“Loading and Unloading Data” on page 15-14
The CONVERTVPS parameter limits the maximum number of VPs used for
convert threads. This parameter limits the number of VPs that the onpload
client uses so that onpload does not monopolize system resources.
Setting CONVERTVPS too large can cause performance degradation. Do not
set more converter VPs than there are physical CPUs. If the number of
CONVERTVPS exceeds the number of physical CPUs, system resources are
consumed with no performance benefit.
On single-CPU computers, increasing this parameter has a negative effect on
performance.
B-4 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
STRMBUFFERS
STRMBUFFERS
default value
Maximum of (4,2*CONVERTTHREADS)
recommended value
Maximum of (4,2*CONVERTTHREADS)
range of values
Integer ≥ 4
refer to
“Loading and Unloading Data” on page 15-14
The STRMBUFFERS parameter sets the number of server-stream buffers per
device. The onpload utility sends data to the database server through a server
stream. The server stream is a set of shared-memory buffers. The memory for
the server-stream buffer is allocated from the memory allocated for the
database server.
Each device has a separate server stream with STRMBUFFERS buffers. Thus
the total number of stream buffers is as follows:
STRMBUFFERS * numdevices
where numdevices is the number of devices in the current array.
STRMBUFSIZE
default value
64
units
Kilobytes
range of values
Minimum: 2 * operating system page size
Maximum: depends on operating system resources
refer to
“Loading and Unloading Data” on page 15-14
The STRMBUFSIZE parameter sets the size of a server-stream buffer. Larger
buffers are more efficient because moving buffers around requires less
overhead.
The High-Performance Loader Configuration File
B-5
Appendix
Picture Strings
The HPL uses two types of picture strings, as follows:
■
COBOL picture strings
■
Other picture strings
COBOL picture strings describe a data field in a file that a COBOL
program generates. For a discussion of COBOL picture strings,
refer to “COBOL Records” on page 7-18. The other picture-string
type reformats and masks character data. This appendix
discusses the non-COBOL picture strings.
Picture strings allow you to insert constants, strip unwanted
characters, and organize the position of character data. Picture
strings have three basic types: alphanumeric, numeric, and date.
Each type is handled uniquely. The picture-string type is determined by the control characters that you use to specify the
picture.
You specify the picture string in the Picture text box in the
Mapping Options window. For information about the Mapping
Options window, refer to “Mapping Options” on page 9-13.
C
Alphanumeric Pictures
Alphanumeric Pictures
Alphanumeric pictures control formatting of alphanumeric strings. An
alphanumeric picture allows you to mix constant characters in the picture
specification with the data being processed. You can also mask out unwanted
character types.
When the HPL processes an alphanumeric picture, the picture string is
scanned until a picture-control character is found. All noncontrol characters
in the picture string are placed directly into the output string.
When a control character is found in the picture string, the input data is
scanned until a character that matches the type of the picture-replacement
character is found. This character is placed in the output string, and the
process is repeated.
The alphanumeric picture-control characters are X, a, A, 9, and \. A picture
string that includes any of the preceding characters is, by definition, an
alphanumeric picture string. All other characters in an alphanumeric picture
string are treated as literals and inserted directly into the resulting output
string
The following table describes the behavior of the alphanumeric picturecontrol characters.
Character
Definition
X
Replaces the control character with any character from input data.
A
Replaces the control character with an alphanumeric character from
input.
a
Replaces the control character with an alphabetic character from input.
9
Replaces the control character with a numeric character from input.
Stuffs the string with leading 0 characters so that the length of the input
string matches the length of the picture specification.
\
Causes the character that follows the backslash to be placed in the
output. That is, the character that follows a backslash is not a control
character.
C-2 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Numeric Pictures
The following table lists some examples of alphanumeric pictures.
Picture
Input Data
Output Data
XX-AJXXXX
12P45-q
12-PJ45-q
AA-\AJAAAA
12P45-q
12-AJP45q
aaaaaaaa
12P45-q
Pq
aa99999
123abc
ab00000
Numeric Pictures
Numeric pictures allow you to decode and reformat integer and decimal
numeric values. A value is interpreted as a numeric value only if its picture
string contains numeric picture-control characters.
The input data is first scanned for the number of digits to the left and right of
the decimal point (if any), and for a negative sign that can either precede or
follow the data. The picture string is then used to reformat the value. The
numeric picture-control characters are 9, S, V, and Z.
The following table describes the behavior of the numeric picture-control
characters.
Character
Definition
9
Replaces the control character with a numeric character.
S
Replaces the control character with a minus sign if the input value is
negative.
V
Inserts a decimal point.
Z
Replaces the control character with a numeric character or a leading
zero.
Picture Strings
C-3
Date Pictures
The following table lists some examples of numeric pictures.
Picture
Input Data
Output Data
Comment
9999999
123
0000123
Simple reformat
S999.99
123-
-123.00
Sign controlled on output
99V99
123
01.23
Implicit decimal point
99.99
103.455
103.45
Strip decimals
Date Pictures
When you load data, the date-format picture specifies how the HPL formats
the input data before it writes the data into a database. When you extract data
from a database, the date-format picture specifies how the HPL reformats the
date before it writes the date to the output.
The date control characters are M, D, and Y. The following table provides
definitions of these control characters.
Character
Definition
D
Day value
H
Hour value
M
Month value or minute value
S
Second value
Y
Year value
You can use Informix DATETIME strings, such as YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS.
C-4 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Date Pictures
The following table shows some examples of date picture strings.
Picture
DBDATE Value
Input
Output
MM/DD/YY
YMD2/
12/20/91
91/12/20
MM/DD/YY
DMY2/
12/20/91
20/12/91
MMDDYY
DMY2/
122091
20/12/91
MM DD YYYY
DMY4/
12/20/1991
20/12/1991
MM/DD/YY
DMY2.
12/20/91
20.12.91
M/D/YY
DMY2/
02/01/91
2/1/91
Picture Strings
C-5
Appendix
Match Condition
Operators and Characters
Operator Descriptions and Examples
This appendix describes the operators that are available when
you match text and it provides an example of each operator.
D
Operator Descriptions and Examples
Operator
Description
= value
Matches if the character string in, or the value of, the data-record
field equals the specified text or value. If you specify a character
string, the characters must be delimited by quotes.
For example, if you are matching on a field named City, the match
condition = "Dallas" selects all records whose City field
contains the entry Dallas.
value
Equals (=) is the default operator. Thus this case is equivalent to
=value, except that the characters do not have to be delimited by
quotes.
For example, if you are matching on a field named City, the match
condition Dallas selects all records whose City field contains
the entry Dallas.
> value
Matches if the data record field is greater than the specified value.
For example, if you are matching on a field named Income, the
match condition > 50000 selects all records whose Income field
contains an entry greater than 50,000.
Character strings must be delimited by quotes (> "Jones").
< value
Matches if the data record field is less than the specified value.
For example, if you are matching on a field named Income, the
match condition < 50000 selects all records whose Income field
contains an entry less than 50,000.
Character strings must be delimited by quotes (< "Jones").
>= value
Matches if the data-record field is equal to or greater than the
specified value.
For example, if you are matching on a field named Income, the
match condition > 50000 selects all records whose Income field
contains an entry 50,000 or greater.
Character strings must be delimited by quotes (>= "Jones").
<= value
Matches if the data-record field is less than or equal to the
specified value.
For example, if you are matching on a field named Income, the
match condition <= 50000 selects all records whose Income field
contains an entry 50,000 or less.
Character strings must be delimited by quotes (= "Jones").
(1 of 3)
D-2 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Operator Descriptions and Examples
Operator
Description
<> value
Matches if the data-record field is not equal to the specified value.
Character strings must be delimited by quotes.
For example, if you are matching on a field named State, the
match condition <>"TX" selects all records whose State field
contains an entry other than TX.
between
value1 and
value2
Matches if the data-record field is between the range specified in
value 1 and value 2.
For example, if you are matching on a field named Income, the
match condition between 50000 and 100000 selects all
records whose Income field contains an entry between 50,000 and
100,000.
Character strings must be delimited by quotes.
and
Constructs a comparison of two or more items. Matches only if
the data record fields match all of the comparisons.
For example, if you are matching on a field named City and a
field named Income, the match condition (City) ="Dallas"
and (Income) > 100000 selects all records whose City field
contains the entry Dallas and whose Income field contains an
entry greater than 100,000.
or
Constructs a comparison of two or more items. Matches if the
data record field(s) matches any of the comparisons.
For example, if you are matching on a field named City, the match
condition ="Dallas" or = "Fort Worth" selects all records
whose City field contains either the entry Dallas or the entry Fort
Worth.
(2 of 3)
Match Condition Operators and Characters
D-3
Operator Descriptions and Examples
Operator
Description
NULL
Matches when all characters are blank or when a character is
binary zero (null).
For example, you might want to discard any records that have all
blanks for a name field.
*
(asterisk)
?
Wildcard match of any number of characters in a string.
For example, to match on a field that contains the city name and
state, the match condition Dall* would select records with any
of the following entries:
■
Dallas-Forth Worth
■
Dallas, TX
■
Dallas TX
Matches any single character in a string.
For example, to match on a field that contains a last name, the
match condition Sm?th would select records with any of the
following entries:
■
Smith
■
Smyth
(3 of 3)
D-4 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Appendix
Custom Conversion
Functions
Custom conversion functions allow you to add additional data
conversion capability to the HPL. This feature lets onpload call a
custom conversion function during the data-conversion process.
When you create a custom conversion function, you associate it
with a particular mapping of input field to output field. To
associate a custom function with a field, enter the name of the
function in the Function text box of the Mapping Options
window. For information about mapping options, refer to
“Mapping Options” on page 9-13.
Although the mapping options associate the custom conversion
function with a particular field, the function can access all the
input data fields and all the output data fields through a set of
API functions provided with the onpload utility.
Custom Conversion Example
As an example, you might implement a custom conversion
functions to do the following, expressed in pseudocode:
IF input field 1 satisfies condition A
THEN
DO calculation X on input field 7
OUTPUT data to output column 7
ELSE
DO calculation Y on input field 6
OUTPUT data to output column 5
E
The onpload Conversion Process
The custom conversion function feature is available only on computers with
operating systems that support dynamic linking.
The onpload Conversion Process
The onpload conversion process is identical for both import or export operations. The onpload utility:
■
extracts the source data from their native format.
■
examines the map.
■
applies the conversions called out in the map. Conversion order is
implied by the ordering of the source-field names that are specified
in the map.
■
calls any custom conversion function that is specified for a source
field. When onpload calls the custom conversion function, onpload
passes the value of the input field, the buffer into which the output
should be placed, and the maximum length of the output buffer.
■
if there is a custom conversion function, applies the value that the
custom conversion function places in the function output buffer to
the destination field that is associated with the source field in the
map.
■
sends the results to the output generators.
The custom conversion function API uses ASCII strings as the canonical data
type. The API functions present data as ASCII strings and expect data from the
custom conversion functions to be presented as ASCII strings. The API
functions convert source data of different types to ASCII strings, and also
convert ASCII string data from custom conversion functions to destination
data types.
Custom conversion functions are loaded into the onpload executable
through a shared library.
E-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The onpload Conversion Process
To integrate your custom conversion functions into the onpload executable
1.
Prepare the custom conversion function table.
The onpload utility uses the entries in a function table to translate
custom-function string names that are specified in the load or unload
map. You must supply the function table and the custom conversion
functions.
To code the function table, use the following template for the file
plcstcnv.c. You can copy this template from the
$INFORMIXDIR/incl/hpl directory. Add as many entries into the
functiontable array as needed.
The onpload utility searches the functiontable array for the string
name of the custom conversion function that the map specifies. The
function pointer that is associated with the string name is retrieved
and used as the custom conversion function. In the following template for the file plcstcnv.c, ycf1 and ycf2 are the strings that ipload
uses to find the custom functions your_conversion_func1 and
your_conversion_func2, respectively. (To add custom function
string names to the onpload database, refer to “Mapping Options”
on page 9-13.
/*
* plcstcnv.c
*/
#include "pldriver.h"
extern int your_conversion_func1();
extern int your_conversion_func2();
struct functable functiontable[] =
{
{"ycf1", your_conversion_func1},
{"ycf2", your_conversion_func2},
{0, 0}
};
/* end of plcstcnv.c */
Custom Conversion Functions E-3
The onpload Conversion Process
2.
Prepare your conversion functions. Use the template in the following
example to code your conversion functions:
/*
* your_custom_conversion.c
*/
/*
* The argument list must be adhered to.
*/
int your_conversion_func1(outbuffer, buflen, value)
char *outbuffer; /* where to put your output */
int
buflen;
/* max size of buffer in bytes*/
char *value;
/* input value */
{
/* your processing here */
}
int your_conversion_func2(outbuffer, buflen, value)
char *outbuffer; /* where to put your output */
int
buflen;
/* max size of buffer */
char *value;
/* input value */
{
/* your processing here */
}
/* end of your_custom_conversion.c */
Rebuild the onpload shared-library file ipldd07a.SOLIBSUFFIX,
(where SOLIBSUFFIX is the shared-library suffix for your platform).
3.
E-4
Install the shared library in the appropriate path for your platform.
For example, on Solaris the shared library should be installed in
/usr/lib.
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
API Functions
API Functions
The onpload utility expects your custom conversion function to have the
following prototype:
/*
* input::
*
*
* return::
*
*/
char* outbuffer:
int
buflen:
char* value:
0
non-zero
where to put your output.
size you have for your output.
the input value to work on.
to indicate ok.
to discard entire record.
int your_func(outbuffer, buflen, value)
char *outbuffer;
int
buflen;
char *value;
{
/* your processing here */
}
To discard an entire record, return a nonzero value. Otherwise, return a zero
value.
The following functions support your access to data in the source and
destination buffers.
DBXget_source_value(fldname,buffer,buflen)
This routine retrieves the source value that is associated with fldname and
copies the value to the specified buffer.
Arguments
I/O
Description
char *fldname
Input
Name of source field, as defined in ipload map
char *buffer
Input
Address where fldname value is placed
int buflen
Input
Buffer size in bytes
Custom Conversion Functions E-5
API Functions
DBXget_dest_value(fldname,buffer,buflen)
This routine retrieves the destination value that is associated with fldname
and copies the value to the specified buffer.
Arguments
I/O
Description
char *fldname
Input
Name of destination field, as defined in ipload map
char *buffer
Input
Address where fldname value is placed
int buflen
Input
Buffer size in bytes
DBXput_dest_value(fldname,buffer)
If a previous conversion has not set the destination value, this routine sets the
destination value that is passed to the buffer. The ipload utility automatically
clips the data value if it is too long.
Arguments
I/O
Description
char *fldname
Input
Name of destination field, as defined in ipload map
char *buffer
Input
Address where fldname value is placed
DBXget_dest_length(fldname)
This routine returns the maximum length of the data buffer that is associated
with fldname.
E-6
Arguments
I/O
Description
char *fldname
Input
Name of destination field, as defined in ipload map
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Appendix
The onstat -j Option
The -j option of the onstat utility provides special information
about the status of an onpload job. The -j option provides an
interactive mode that is analogous to onstat -i. For information
about onstat -i and how to use the interactive mode, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide.
Using the onstat -j Option
When onpload starts, it writes a series of messages to stdout or
to a log file. The following lines show a typical onpload log file:
Mon Jul 24 16:11:30 1995
fc
SHMBASE
CLIENTNUM
Session ID 1
Load Database
Load Table
Load File
Record Mapping
0x4400000
0x49010000
->
->
->
->
cnv001
cnv001a
testrec.dat
cnv001a
Database Load Completed -- Processed 50 Records
Records Inserted-> 50
Detected Errors--> 0
Engine Rejected--> 0
Mon Jul 24 16:11:37 1995
F
Using the onstat -j Option
The two lines that start with SHMBASE and CLIENTNUM provide the information that you need to locate shared memory for an instance of onpload.
The oninit process has similar values stored in the $ONCONFIG file. When
you use onstat to gather information about the oninit process, onstat uses
information from $INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG to locate shared memory.
When you use onstat to gather information about onpload, you must give
onstat the name of a file that contains SHMBASE and CLIENTNUM
information.
Typically the file that contains the SHMBASE and CLIENTNUM information is
the log file. For example, if the onpload log file is /tmp/cnv001a.log, you can
enter the following command:
onstat -j /tmp/cnv001a.log
F-2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Using the onstat -j Option
The previous command causes onstat to attach to onpload shared memory
and to enter interactive mode. You can then enter ? or any other bogus
request to see a usage message displayed. An example follows:
onstat> ?
Interactive Mode: One command per line, and - are optional.
-rz
repeat option every n seconds (default: 5) and
zero profile counts
MT COMMANDS:
all
Print all MT information
ath
Print all threads
wai
Print waiting threads
act
Print active threads
rea
Print ready threads
sle
Print all sleeping threads
spi
print spin locks with long spins
sch
print VP scheduler statistics
lmx
Print all locked mutexes
wmx
Print all mutexes with waiters
con
Print conditions with waiters
stk <tid>
Dump the stack of a specified thread
glo
Print MT global information
mem <pool name|session id>
print pool statistics.
seg
Print memory segment statistics.
rbm
print block map for resident segment
nbm
print block map for non-resident segments
afr <pool name|session id> Print allocated poolfragments.
ffr <pool name|session id> Print free pool fragments.
ufr <pool name|session id> Print pool usage breakdown
iov
Print disk IO statistics by vp
iof
Print disk IO statistics by chunk/file
ioq
Print disk IO statistics by queue
iog
Print AIO global information
iob
Print big buffer usage by IO VP class
sts
Print max and current stack sizes
qst
print queue statistics
wst
print thread wait statistics
jal
Print all Pload information
jct
Print Pload control table
jpa
Print Pload program arguments
jta
Print Pload thread array
jmq
Print Pload message queues, jms for summary only
onstat>
JpThe onstat -j Option F-3
Using the onstat -j Option
Most of the options are the same as those that you use to gather information
about Dynamic Server with UD Option, with the following exceptions:
jal
jct
jpa
jta
jmq
Print
Print
Print
Print
Print
all Pload information
Pload control table
Pload program arguments
Pload thread array
Pload message queues, jms for summary only
These options apply only to onpload. You can use onstat -j to check the status
of a thread, locate the VP and its PID, and then attach a debugger to a
particular thread. The options for onstat that do not apply to onpload are not
available (for example, -g ses).
F-4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Appendix
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up
Messages
This appendix provides explanatory notes and corrective actions
for unnumbered messages that print in the HPL log file. The
appendix also includes information specific to messages that are
returned to standard output or appear in a pop-up dialog box
(depending on the way you invoked onpload).
If error numbers appear in these messages, you can look up their
explanations and corrective actions in the Informix Error
Messages in Answers Online. You can also use finderr.
Several High-Performance Loader (HPL) error messages refer to
the errno.h file, which is located in the following directories:
WIN
UNIX
NT
WIN NT
/usr/include/errno.h ♦
errno.h, windsock.h, and winsock2.h in the include subdirectory for Microsoft visual C++. ♦
A few of the messages included here might require you to
contact Informix Technical Support. Such messages are rarely, if
ever, seen at customer locations.
For information on how to view the log file and some guidance
on how and when you might want to read it, see “Viewing the
Log File” on page 14-10.
G
How the Messages Are Ordered
How the Messages Are Ordered
The HPL log-file messages appear in this appendix in alphabetical order,
sorted with the following additional rules:
■
The time stamp that precedes each message is ignored.
■
Letter case in alphabetization is ignored.
■
File, record, database server, and table names are ignored.
■
Error numbers are ignored.
■
Spaces are ignored.
■
Quotation marks are ignored.
■
The word “the” is ignored if it is the first word in the message.
A cause and suggested corrective action for a message or group of messages
follows the message text.
A section that lists pop-up messages (or messages that are returned to
standard error) appears after the log-file message sections. Messages in this
section are arranged according to the same rules that apply to log-file
messages.
Message Categories
Four general categories of messages can be defined, although some messages
fall into more than one category:
■
Routine information
■
Assertion-failed messages
■
Administrative action needed
■
Fatal error detected
G-2 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Log-File Messages
The assertion-failed messages reflect their traditional use by Informix
technical staff to assist in troubleshooting and diagnostics. The information
that they report often falls into the category of unexpected events that might or
might not develop into problems caught by other error codes. Moreover, the
messages are terse and often extremely technical. They might report on one
or two isolated statistics and not provide an overall picture.
When technical staff investigate a problem, this information can suggest to
them possible research paths. However, you might find that the information
has little or no application when it is taken out of this context, or when
processing proceeds normally.
Log-File Messages
Blob conversion error occurred on record record_num.
Cause:
Action:
The SQLBYTE blob data could not be converted to
HEXASCII, or the SQLTEXT blob has invalid character
data (characters not in the code set).
Remove the invalid characters from the input data.
Cannot access database table table_name: SQL error error_num,
ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The target database table cannot be accessed.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers OnLine.
Cannot allocate shared memory.
Cause:
Action:
A memory allocation error occurred. Probably the
system is out of virtual shared memory.
Run onpload again when fewer users are on the
system.
For UNIX, increase the amount of available shared
memory with UNIX kernel configuration.
For Windows NT, reduce the number of applications
running concurrently.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-3
Log-File Messages
Cannot allocate TLI memory for operating_system structure.
Cause:
Action:
System memory cannot be allocated for communications. This situation should only happen if all system
resources are consumed.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Cannot bind socket connection:
errno=operating-system_error_num.
Cause
Action:
WIN
UNIX
NT
A TCP socket cannot be opened.
See your errno.h file.
Cannot bind TLI connection: t_errno=t_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred when onpload attempted to open a
TLI connection.
Check that TLI services are installed on the operating
system. See your tiuser.h file.
♦
WIN
UNIX
NT
Cannot configure driver driver_name.
Cause:
Action:
You may be specifying a driver incorrectly.
Make sure your driver is configured correctly for
Fixed, Cobol, or Delimited.
♦
WIN
UNIX
NT
Cannot connect to message server: Socket error=UNIX_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
♦
G-4 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
This message is generated by ipload when it cannot
connect to the onpload socket service.
See /usr/include/errno.h.
Log-File Messages
WIN
UNIX
NT
Cannot connect to message server: TLI error=t_error_num, TLI
event=t_event_num, errno=error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred when onpload attempted to open a
TLI connection.
Check that TLI services are installed on the operating
system. See /usr/include/tiuser.h (t_error_num).
♦
Cannot connect to server server_name: SQL error error_num, ISAM
error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The target database server cannot be opened.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers OnLine.
Cannot connect worker to server data stream.
Cause:
Action:
A possible permissions problem exists for onpload
or oninit.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Cannot disable table_name object constraints: SQL error
error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The constraint objects are disabled during the load
and re-enabled after the load. An error occurred when
onpload attempted to disable the constraint objects.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers OnLine.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-5
Log-File Messages
Cannot disable primary-key constraint. Child-table references
exist.
Cause:
Action:
You attempted to use express mode to load a table that
has child-table records that refer to it. Express mode
does not support this condition. (The onpload utility
cannot disable the primary key constraint when childtable records refer to the load table.)
Perform the load in deluxe mode or remove the
constraint in question.
Cannot express load to logged table on HDR server server_name.
Cause:
Action:
You attempted to use express mode to load an HDR
replicated table. Express mode does not support this
condition.
Perform the load in deluxe mode.
Cannot filter indexes for table table_name: SQL error error_num,
ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The index objects are set to filtering mode during the
load and re-enabled after the load. An error occurred
when onpload attempted to set the indexes objects to
filtering mode.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers OnLine.
Cannot get systable info for table table_name: SQL error
error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
G-6 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Cannot access the systable table to get dictionary
information for the indicated table.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers OnLine.
Log-File Messages
Cannot load code-set conversion file from -> file_name to ->
file_name.
Cause:
Action:
The data type for the load file is different than the data
type for the server. The code-set does not exist in the
$INFORMIXDIR/gls/cvx or
%INFORMIXDIR%\gls\cvx directory where x is the
version number of the cv subdirectory.
Check that the file exists. Check the file for
permissions.
Cannot load mapping definitions.
Cause
Action:
A memory-allocation error or database-integrity error
occurred when onpload accessed the onpload
database.
Use oncheck to check the maps, mapitem,
mapoption, formats, and formatitem tables for
consistency. If the tables are consistent, a referential
integrity problem between the map and the format the
map references might exist. If the problems persists,
contact Informix Technical Support.
Cannot locate delimiter in data file.
Cause:
Action:
No delimiter is found when onpload scans for an
end-of-record delimiter in the load data.
Check that the end-of-record delimiter specification is
correct, or that you have the correct data file. Note
differences in the end-of-line character (s) between
UNIX and Windows NT.
Cannot open.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred when onpload attempted
to open the load or unload file.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-7
Log-File Messages
Cannot open blob file file_name. blob not loaded.
Cause:
Action:
The record references a filename that should contain a
blob, but the file cannot be located.
Check that the BYTE or TEXT file exists.
Cannot open database database_name: SQL error error_num, ISAM
error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The target database cannot be opened.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages
Answers OnLine.
Cannot open file file_name: error number operatingsystem_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The file cannot be opened.
See your errno.h file.
Cannot open TCP connection for server_name: errno operatingsystem_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
A TCP socket cannot be opened.
See your errno.h file.
Cannot perform express-mode load on table with pseudo rowid.
Cause:
Action:
The load table is fragmented by row ID. Express mode
does not support this condition.
Perform the load in deluxe mode.
Cannot perform express-mode load with rowsize=row_length >
page_size.
Cause:
Action:
G-8 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The table-row size exceeds page size. Express mode
does not support this condition.
Perform the load in deluxe mode.
Log-File Messages
Cannot read file file_name: AIO error code operatingsystem_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The load file cannot be accessed. This error might
result from operating-system limitations; the onpload
utility cannot load successfully from a file (on disk)
that is longer than 2 gigabytes.
See your errno.h file.
Cannot re-enable all objects: num_violations violations
detected. Check for violations in violations table table_name
and diagnostics table table_name.
Cause:
Action:
Data loaded by onpload violates the object constraints
specified for the table. The records that violate the
object-constraints have been placed in the violations
table, and the reason code for each violation is listed in
the diagnostics table.
Review the information in the violations and
diagnostics tables.
Cannot set mode of table_name objects from current_mode to
final_mode mode: SQL error error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The constraint objects are disabled during the load
and re-enabled after the load. An error occurred when
onpload attempted to reset constraint objects back to
their original state.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers Online.
Cannot re-order query statement to align blobs.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query does not contain a FROM clause.
Rewrite the query so that it contains a FROM clause.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-9
Log-File Messages
Cannot set mode of table_name objects from current_mode to
final_mode mode: SQL error error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The constraints objects are disabled during the load
and re-enabled after the load. An error occurred when
onpload attempted to reset constraint objects back to
their original state.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers Online.
Cannot start violations table for table_name: SQL error
error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred when onpload attempted to set up
the violations table for the load table.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers Online.
Cannot stop violations table for table_name: SQL error
error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
If a violations table exists on the load table, violations
can be turned off during the load. An error occurred
when onpload attempted to turn off violations
detection.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers Online.
Cannot write file file_name: AIO error code operatingsystem_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
G-10 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The unload file cannot be accessed.
See your errno.h file.
Log-File Messages
Code-set conversion overflow.
Cause:
Action:
The code-set conversion caused the number of bytes
in the BYTE and TEXT data to expand or contract when
onpload unloaded the data into a fixed-format record.
The onpload utility cannot update the BYTE and TEXT
data tag in the record that specifies the length of the
BYTE and TEXT data at this stage.
To unload this data, use a delimited format.
Conversion of onpload database failed due to error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The onpload tried to convert the old database when
onpload ran for the first time on the new database
server. This conversion fails because of the error
referenced in the error message.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages in
Answers Online. Resolve this before you re-run
onpload.
Conversion of onpload database failed due to error error_num,
run as user informix.
Cause:
Action:
WIN
UNIX
NT
Database conversion fails because the current user
running onpload does not have sufficient privileges
to convert the onpload database.
Run the onpload job as user informix once.
Custom conversion function function_name not found in shared
library.
Cause:
Action:
The custom function specified in a map option was not
located in ipldd07a.so. The shared library extension is
platform specific; for example, the .so extension is
specific for Solaris and is probably different on other
platforms.
For information on how to configure the custom
function library, see Appendix E.
♦
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-11
Log-File Messages
Discarded num_bytes null bytes from end of tape.
Cause:
Action:
The tape data is not blocked in a multiple of the record
size, so that the last block of data contained bytes that
are discarded. This situation occurs on devices with
stream cartridges that allow writing to the device only
in whole blocks.
If necessary, manually enter the discarded data.
Environment variable variable_name expansion would overflow
string.
Cause:
Action:
A mapping option specifies an environment variable
as the default value, but expansion of the environment
variable requires more space than allocated to the
column.
Use a shorter default value, or expand the length of
the column.
Error accepting socket connection: errno=operating-system
_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
A TCP socket cannot be accessed.
See your errno.h file.
Error accessing file_name.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred when onpload attempted to open
the load or unload file.
Check that the file exists. Check the file for
permissions.
Error accessing format: SQL error error_num, ISAM error
error_num.
Cause:
Action:
G-12 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
An integrity problem exists in the onpload database.
The format for the map does not exist, or a problem
exists with the format or formatitem table.
For an explanation, refer to Informix Error Messages
on Answers Online.
Log-File Messages
Error accessing map map_name: SQL error error_num, ISAM error
error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The requested map for the load or unload does not
exist, or a problem exists with the onpload database.
For an explanation, refer to Informix Error Messages
on Answers Online.
Error accessing sysmaster: SQL error error_num, ISAM error
error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An access error occurred on the sysmaster database
on the target server where onpload attempted to
perform the load or unload job.
Refer to Informix Error Messages on Answers Online.
Error accessing table table_name: SQL error error_num, ISAM
error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The target database table cannot be accessed.
Refer to the Informix Error Messages manual.
Error:AIO buffer size buffer_size is less than required minimum
size size.
Cause:
Action:
AIO buffer size is less than required size.
Increase the specified buffer size in the plconfig file.
Error error_num closing current database.
Cause:
Action:
A server error occurred when onpload closed the
onpload or target database.
Refer to Informix Error Messages on Answers Online.
Error operating-system_error_num closing file file_name.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred when onpload closed the load or
unload file.
See your errno.h file
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-13
Log-File Messages
Error error_num converting record field field_name to column
column_name.
Cause:
Action:
A conversion error occurred when onpload attempted
to convert the record data to the database column
type.
For an explanation, refer to Informix Error Messages
on Answers Online. If the load map indicates that the
data field is mapped to the correct column, check that
the supplied data is valid.
Error declaring cursor: could not get table info.
Cause:
Action:
Cannot access information about the load table.
Check the validity of the table in the target database.
Error declaring cursor: SQL Error error_num, ISAM error
error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The onpload utility is unable to use the autogenerated
formats and maps to create entries in a table in the
onpload database.
For an explanation, refer to Informix Error Messages
on Answers Online.
Error describing unload query query_name: SQL error error_num,
ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query cannot be processed.
For an explanation, refer to Informix Error Messages
on Answers Online.
Error error_num initializing backend connection.
Cause:
Action:
G-14 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
An internal error occurred in onpload. Probably the
server went down.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Log-File Messages
Error inserting into table table_name: SQL error error_num, ISAM
error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The onpload utility is unable to use the autogenerated
formats and maps to create entries in a table in the
onpload database.
For an explanation, refer to Informix Error Messages
on Answers Online.
Error listening for socket connection: t_errno=t_error_num
errno=operating-system_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
WIN
UNIX
NT
An error occurred listening on a Socket connection.
See your errno.h file.
Error listening for TLI connection: t_errno=t_error_num
errno=UNIX_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred listening on a TLI connection.
See /usr/include/tiuser.h (t_error_num).
♦
Error on close of server load session: SQL error error_num, ISAM
error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred in onpload. Probably the
server went down.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Error error_num on record record_num converting column
column_name to record field field_name.
Cause:
Action:
A conversion error occurred when onpload attempted
to convert the column data to the record field type.
For an explanation of the conversion error, refer to the
Informix Error Message in Answers Online. Check the
load map to verify that the column is mapped to the
correct record field.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-15
Log-File Messages
Error opening cursor: SQL Error error_num, ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred when onpload attempted to set up
an insert cursor on the load table.
Refer to the Informix Error Message in
Answers Online.
Error preparing query: SQL error error_num, ISAM error
error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query cannot be processed.
Refer to the Informix Error Message in
Answers Online.
Error preparing statement statement_name: SQL error error_num,
ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred when onpload attempted
to access the onpload database.
Refer to the Informix Error Message in
Answers Online.
Error preparing unload query query_name: SQL error error_num,
ISAM error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query cannot be processed.
Refer to the Informix Error Message in
Answers Online.
Error error_num reading message queue.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the operating kernel does not have enough shared
memory or semaphores configured, or that the
allocated shared memory has been removed.
On UNIX, increase shared memory or semaphores. On
Windows NT, repeat the operation.
If the condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
G-16 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Log-File Messages
Error operating-system_error_num reading Socket connection.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred reading a socket connection.
See your errno.h file.
Error operating-system_error_num reading TLI connection.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred reading a TLI connection.
See your errno.h file.
Error error_num setting isolation level.
Cause:
Action:
An access error occurred when onpload attempted to
set the isolation level for an unload job.
Refer to the Informix Error Message in
Answers Online.
Error error_num writing message on message queue.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the operating system kernel does not have enough
shared memory or semaphores configured, or that the
allocated shared memory has been removed.
On UNIX, increase shared memory or semaphores. On
Windows NT, repeat the operation.
If the condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
Error operating-system_error_num writing Socket connection.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred writing a socket connection.
See your errno.h file.
Error operating-system_error_num writing TLI connection.
Cause:
Action:
An error occurred writing a TLI connection.
See your errno.h file.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-17
Log-File Messages
Error:Stream buffer size buffer_size is less than required
minimum size size.
Cause:
Action:
Stream buffer size is less than required size.
Increase the specified buffer size in the plconfig file.
Exhausted all attempts to allocate shared-memory key.
Cause:
Action:
All the shared-memory keys in the key range tried by
onpload are currently allocated.
Wait until another onpload session finishes. If the
problem persists, contact Informix Technical Support.
Fatal error: cannot execute pipe_name.
Cause:
Action:
An attempt to execute the PIPE type device in the
device array failed.
Make sure the PIPE entry in the device array is a valid,
executable program.
Fatal error creating server load session: error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
Cannot start the load session with the server.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Fatal error getting stream buffer from server.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred in onpload. Probably the
server went down.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Fatal error in server row processing: SQL error error_num, ISAM
error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
G-18 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
An internal communication problem exists between
the server and onpload.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Log-File Messages
File type device file file_name is not a regular (disk) file.
Cause:
Action:
The device array specifies that the file is a disk file, but
it is not.
Change the type of the file in the device-array
definition, or make sure that the file is a disk file.
Got Interrupt: Shutting down.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred, or a user sent an interrupt
to onpload.
If a user did not generate this interrupt, contact
Informix Technical Support.
Internal error: cannot initialize AIO library.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the UNIX kernel does not have enough shared
memory or semaphores configured.
Increase shared memory or semaphores. If the
condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
Internal error: cannot send message.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred in onpload. The most likely
cause is a lack of shared memory.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Internal error: error_num. Contact Tech Support.
Cause:
Action:
A critical internal error occurred.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
Internal error: invalid message type error_num.
Cause:
Action:
A critical internal error occurred.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-19
Log-File Messages
Internal error error_num reading queue.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the operating system kernel does not have enough
shared memory or semaphores configured.
On UNIX, increase shared memory or semaphores. On
Windows NT, repeat the operation.
If the condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
Invalid code-set character: cannot convert.
Cause:
Action:
The data being loaded or unloaded has invalid
character data.
Make sure that you specified the correct data type on
the format definition.
Invalid HEXASCII blob representation on field_name, record
record_num.
Cause:
Action:
The BYTE or TEXT field being loaded was classed
as HEXASCII, but the data contains a non-HEXASCII
character.
Fix the data.
Invalid project name project_name entered.
Cause:
Action:
Incorrect project name was specified for onpload.
Check the given project name and restart onpload.
Invalid session ID id_number.
Cause:
Action:
G-20 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The command line specified an invalid session ID for
the job to run. An entry for the entered session ID must
exist in the session table of the onpload database in
order to run the job.
Make sure the session ID on the command line
matches the correct session ID in the session table.
Log-File Messages
Invalid Tape Header Expecting -> tape_name.
Cause:
Action:
Incorrect tape was mounted.
Mount the correct tape.
Map map_name type is not of the required type.
Cause:
Action:
Incorrect map was specified to onpload. You must use
a load map for a load job and an unload map for an
unload job.
Verify that you are using the correct map type.
Method not supported by current driver.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred in onpload.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
MT cannot bind to vpid.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the operating system kernel does not have enough
shared memory or semaphores configured.
On UNIX, increase shared memory or semaphores. On
Windows NT, repeat the operation.
If the condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
MT internal failure.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the operating system kernel does not have enough
shared memory or semaphores configured.
On UNIX, increase shared memory or semaphores. On
Windows NT, repeat the operation.
If the condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-21
Log-File Messages
MT failure putting CPU on-line.
Cause:
Action:
This critical initialization error probably means that
the UNIX kernel does not have enough shared
memory or semaphores configured.
Increase shared memory or semaphores. If the
condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
No insert permission on table table_name.
Cause:
Action:
You cannot load the indicated table because the DBA
has not granted permission for you to do so.
Make sure that you have insert permissions on the
table.
No mapping to blob field field_name.
Cause:
Action:
The record format specifies a BYTE and TEXT field
type, but no column from the query is mapped to the
record field.
Map a column to the field, or remove the field from the
record format.
onpload must run on the host host_name that contains the target
database.
Cause:
Action:
WIN
UNIX
NT
User tried to run onpload on a host computer other
than the one that has the target database.
Run onpload on the host specified in the error
message.
onpload terminated by signal.
Cause:
Action:
♦
G-22 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Either an internal error occurred or a user sent
onpload a termination signal.
If the signal is not SIGKILL, SIGTERM, or SIGQUIT, note
the circumstances and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Log-File Messages
Pipe type device file file_name is not a regular file.
Cause:
Action:
The device array specifies that the file is a pipe
(executable program) file, but it is not.
Change the type of the file in the device-array
definition, or make sure that the file is an executable
disk file.
Pload cannot reorder queries having expressions/aggregates and
blobs in the same select list. Please reorder the select list
in the query in the following order 1. non-blob columns 2. blob
columns in the format order.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query contains expressions and/or
aggregates and BYTE or TEXT data columns in the
select list. The onpload requires that the BYTE or TEXT
data columns are in the end of the select list to avoid
staging a BYTE or TEXT data column during
unloading. But onpload is unable to re-order the select
list because of expressions and/or aggregates.
Re-order the select list in the unload query to have all
non-BYTE or TEXT columns first and BYTE or TEXT
columns in the same order as they are specified in the
output format.
Query contains unmapped blob column_name: cannot proceed.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query is extracting a BYTE or TEXT column
that is not mapped to the record field.
Modify the unload query so that it does not reference
the BYTE or TEXT column, or map it to a field in the
record format.
Query for unload is not a select query.
Cause:
Action:
The unload query does not a contain a SELECT
statement.
Modify the query so that it contains a SELECT
statement.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-23
Log-File Messages
Record is too long to process: recnum record_num, length
record_length, bufsize buffer_size.
Cause:
Action:
The record size exceeds the size of the onpload buffers
(AIOBUFSIZE). This error can occur when a delimited
record contains BYTE or TEXT data, and a format
specification for a field is missing, which causes BYTE
or TEXT data to be treated as a regular field.
Increase the size of AIOBUFSIZE for this record, or
check that the format specification for the field
matches the input file.
Server interface error; expected num_input but got num_received
instead.
Cause:
Action:
An onpload/server interface error occurred.
Note the circumstances and contact Informix
Technical Support.
SQL error error_num, ISAM error error_num executing statement
statement_name.
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred when onpload accessed the
onpload database.
Refer to the Informix Error Message on
Answers Online.
Start record record_num is greater than number of records
total_num read from input file_name.
Cause:
Action:
A start record was specified for the load, but fewer
records are in the input file than the indicated number
of records to skip.
Specify the start-record number again.
Table table_name will be read-only until level-0 archive.
Cause:
Action:
G-24 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
After an express-mode load, a level-0 archive is
needed to make the table available for update.
Perform a level-0 archive.
Log-File Messages
Tables with BLOBS cannot be loaded in High Performance Mode.
Cause:
Action:
You attempted to use express mode to load a table that
contains BYTE or TEXT data. Express mode does not
support this condition.
Perform the load in deluxe mode.
Tables with BLOBS cannot be processed with no conversion (-fn).
Cause:
Action:
You attempted a no-conversion load on a table with
BYTE or TEXT columns. This action is not allowed.
Remove the no-conversion specification, and run the
job again.
Tape header is larger than I/O buffer: tape header_length, I/O
buffer_size.
Cause:
Action:
A tape header size is too large to fit into a memory
buffer.
Increase AIOBUFSIZE in plconfig to at least the value
specified for tape I/O.
Tape type device file file_name is not a character-special or
block-special file.
Cause:
Action:
The device array specifies that the file is a tape device,
but it is not.
Change the type of the file in the device-array
definition, or make sure that the file is a tape device.
There is no mapping to column column_name, which cannot accept
null values.
Cause:
Action:
The specified column has a NOT NULL constraint, but
in the definition of the load map, no field is mapped to
the column.
Correct the load map or drop the NOT NULL
constraint.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-25
Log-File Messages
Unable to load locale categories for locale locale_name: error
error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The GLS locale specified in CLIENT_LOCALE or
DB_LOCALE cannot be loaded, or if these variables are
not set, the GLS file cannot be loaded.
Check the $INFORMIXDIR/gls or
%INFORMIXDIR%\gls directory to ensure that the
locale files are present.
Unload query select item for the query_item expression needs to
be assigned a name.
Cause:
Action:
A SELECT statement contains a column name that
might not be unique.
Modify the SELECT statement to contain a name for
each column expression. For example:
SELECT Max(I) Mcol FROM table x
G-26 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Pop-Up Messages
Pop-Up Messages
Cannot attach to server shared memory.
Cause:
Action:
If the server is on, a permissions problem exists.
On UNIX, check that the following permissions and
ownership of onpload are set:
-rwsr-sr-x 1 informix informix
On Windows NT, check the permissions of the user
running onpload.
WIN
UNIX
NT
Cannot create shared-memory message queue: error error_num.
Cause:
Action:
A critical initialization error occurred. Probably the
UNIX kernel does not have enough shared memory or
semaphores configured.
Increase shared memory or semaphores. If the
condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
♦
WIN
UNIX
NT
Cannot create shared-memory pool: errno UNIX_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The operating system shared-memory system cannot
be accessed.
See your errno.h file.
♦
WIN
UNIX
NT
Cannot initialize multithreaded library.
Cause:
Action:
A critical initialization error occurred. Probably the
UNIX kernel does not have enough shared memory or
semaphores configured.
Increase shared memory or semaphores. If the
condition persists, contact Informix Technical
Support.
♦
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-27
Pop-Up Messages
Cannot initialize shared memory: errno operatingsystem_error_num.
Cause:
Action:
The operating system shared-memory system cannot
be accessed.
See your errno.h file.
Cannot open.
Enter (r)etry, (c)ontinue, (q)uit job when ready
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred when onpload attempted
to open the load or unload file.
Press R to try to access the load or unload file again.
Press C to skip the file indicated and continue to
process the rest of the files. Press Q to stop the job.
Cannot open log file log_file_name.
Cause:
Action:
The log file for the job cannot be opened.
See your errno.h file.
Cannot start I/O.
Enter (r)etry, (c)ontinue, (q)uit job when ready
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred when onpload attempted
to open the load or unload file.
Press R to try to access the load or unload file again.
Press C to skip the file indicated and continue to
process the rest of the files. Press Q to stop the job.
Fatal error: shared memory will conflict with server.
Cause:
Action:
G-28 Guide to the High-Performance Loader
The shared-memory segment allocated to onpload is
located below the shared memory segment of the
server, and the size needed to run the job would cause
the onpload shared memory to overlap the shared
memory of the server.
Reduce the size and number of buffers allocated to
onpload on $INFORMIXDIR/etc/plconfig or
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\plconfig, or increase the start
address for the shared memory location of the server.
Pop-Up Messages
Write error.
Enter (r)etry, (c)ontinue, (q)uit job when ready
Cause:
Action:
An internal error occurred when onpload attempted
to open the load or unload file.
Press R to try to access the load or unload file again.
Press C to skip the file indicated and continue to
process the rest of the files. Press Q to stop the job.
HPL Log-File and Pop-Up Messages G-29
Index
Index
A
Active Job window 2-30, 11-9,
12-10, 13-9, 13-10, 13-15
AIO error code 27 12-11
AIOBUFFERS parameter
affecting onpload processes 15-11
description of B-2
example 15-15
AIOBUFSIZE parameter
affecting onpload process 15-11
description of B-3
example 15-15
Alter table schema 15-14
ALTER TABLE statement
format to use 13-12
ANSI compliance
level Intro-15
ASCII. See Code set.
Assigning records to devices 6-3
Autogenerate Unload Components
window 2-35, 13-5, 13-7
B
Binary data, format of 5-8
Binary type, of computer A-11
BLOB data type. See Extended
Types.
Blobs
as inline data 7-12
in delimited records 7-16
in fixed format 7-12
in separate files 7-14
Simple large objects. See
Express-mode limitations.
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Blobs. See Simple large objects.
Block size of tape 16-10
BOOLEAN data type. See Extended
Types.
Browse option
description of 14-3
description of fields 14-5
log file 14-10
Browsers menu
description of 3-5
Logfile option 14-10
Record option 14-4
Violations option 14-8
Buffer size
I/O, with onpload 16-10
server stream buffer 16-10
Bulk loader. See High-Performance
Loader.
BYTE data type. See Simple large
objects.
Byte
number to transfer 9-15
order of binary
information 5-7, 5-9
order, specification of A-11
size of variables 5-9
Bytes 7-8
C
cadiload threads 1-18
Carriage returns, in fixed
format 7-11
Case conversion 9-15, 16-13, A-19
Changing unload job options 12-13
CHAR data type 15-17
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Character
case conversion 16-13
invalid entries 3-9
set, to modify 7-22
See also Code set.
See also Case conversion.
CLOB data type. See Extended
Types.
COBOL format 7-18
creating 7-18
records 7-18
used with generate 13-12
Code set
defaults table A-2
GLS 5-7, 7-21, 7-22, 10-12
of data file 5-7
of database 5-7
to modify 7-22
with delimited formats 7-22
with Fixed and COBOL
formats 7-21
See also Character.
Code-set conversion 10-12
Collection data types. See Extended
Types.
Column
characteristics of 9-19
default values 9-15
drop, add, modify 15-14
offset, in mapping options 9-16
Column Selection window 8-8, 8-9
Command line. See onpload
command.
Command-line conventions
elements of Intro-9
example diagram Intro-11
how to read Intro-11
Comment icons Intro-7
Commit interval
effect on performance 15-19
in onpload database A-19
load job 12-13
Communication configuration file.
See ONCONFIG configuration
file.
Comparison of express and deluxe
modes 15-8
Compliance, with industry
standards Intro-15
2
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Components menu
description of 3-5
devices 6-5
filter 10-5
formats 7-5
generate 13-14
maps 9-7, 9-10
query 8-4, 8-12
Computer
configuration, reorganize 15-13
description, modifying 5-8
Configuration file
conventions B-2
HPL 16-10, 16-13, B-1
onpload 1-14
Configuration parameter
AIOBUFFERS B-2
AIOBUFSIZE B-3
and thread control 15-11
CONVERTTHREADS B-3
CONVERTVPS B-4
descriptions B-1
STRMBUFFERS B-5
STRMBUFSIZE B-5
See also each parameter listed
under its own name.
Configure menu 3-6
Configuring ipload 5-3
Confirm delete window 3-25
Confirmation window
delete 3-25
file overwrite 8-16
Connect Server window 5-4
Constraint
checking 15-4
violations 15-9
Conversion functions, custom E-1
Converter threads 1-17,
15-17, 16-13
CONVERTTHREADS parameter
affecting onpload process 15-11
description of B-3
example 15-15
CONVERTVPS parameter
affecting onpload process 15-11
description of B-4
example 15-15
Copy Data window
illustration 3-24
using 3-24
Copy existing format 3-23
cron job 11-4, 12-4
Custom conversion functions E-1
D
Data conversion, with
onpload 16-6
Data file
formats supported by ipload 7-3
structure of 7-3
Data load. See Load job.
Data masking 9-16
Data source, for onpload 16-6, 16-7
Data types
COBOL 7-18
fixed format 7-7
values in onpload database A-8
Database
create for example 2-5
onpload A-1
onpload. See onpload database.
unloading records 11-6
Database code set 5-7
Database code set. See Code set.
Database name, override in
onpload 16-13
Database server 2-4
limitations 12-4
name. See dbservername.
selecting 5-3
target server 11-4, 12-4
Database Views window 8-17
Data, unload using onpload 16-7
DATE data type 15-17
DBDELIMITER environment
variable 7-23
DBONPLOAD environment
variable
description of 1-14
mentioned 5-5
DB_LOCALE environment
variable 5-7
Debugging information A-18
DECIMAL data type 15-17
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Decimals 7-8
Default
changing the values 5-7
column values 9-15
data code set 5-7
HPL database name 5-5
machine type 5-7
name of log file 14-10
name of rejects file 14-10
project name 4-3
server name 5-6
settings for onpload 5-5
used as server name 5-6
values in onpload database A-2
values, for example 2-7
Default locale Intro-4
defaults table, in onpload
database A-2
Defaults window 3-19, 5-6
Define format
delimited records 7-15, 7-18
editing a format 7-9
fixed-length records 7-5
modifying a format 7-21
Define mapping options 9-13
definition window 7-18
Delete existing format 3-25
Delimited format
creating 7-15, 7-18
in formats table A-9
modifying options 7-22
using blobs 7-16
Delimited Format
window 2-16, 7-17
Delimited record, definition of 7-15
Delimiter characters
changing 7-22
description 7-15
Delimiter Options window 7-23
delimiters table, in onpload
database A-3
Deluxe mode
choosing from load options 12-13
compare to express 15-8
description of 15-4
INSERT statement 15-4
list of characteristics 15-4
mentioned 15-3
speed of 15-4
Demonstration database Intro-4
Device array
definition of 6-3
device types 6-3, 6-6
editing 6-8
elements of, in onpload
database A-4
example 2-10
improving performance 15-12
speed of 15-12
steps for defining 6-8
tape parameters 6-7
use with onpload 16-6
Device Array Selection
window 2-11, 3-8, 6-4
device table of onpload
database A-4
Device-array definition
window 2-12, 3-11, 6-6, 6-7
Dirty read isolation level 11-11
Distinct data types. See Extended
Types.
Documentation conventions
command-line Intro-9
icon Intro-7
screen-illustration Intro-11
typographical Intro-6
Documentation notes Intro-14
Documentation notes, program
item Intro-15
Documentation, types of
documentation notes Intro-14
error message files Intro-13
machine notes Intro-14
on-line help Intro-13
on-line manuals Intro-12
printed manuals Intro-12
release notes Intro-14
Driver
modifying 7-22
Drivers window
using 5-10
E
EBCDIC data, generating 13-12
Editing a format 7-9
Environment variable
DBDELIMITER 7-23
DBONPLOAD 1-14
DB_LOCALE 5-7
INFORMIXDIR 1-13
INFORMIXSERVER 1-13
LD_LIBRARY_PATH 1-13
ONCONFIG 1-13
PLCONFIG 1-14
PLOAD_SHMBASE 1-14
en_us.8859-1 locale Intro-4
Error code 197 12-11, H-18
Error code 27 12-11
Error message files Intro-13
Errors
constraint violations 15-10
maximum number
allowed 11-11, 12-13, 16-10
See also Error code.
See also Log file.
Exporting a query 8-13
Express mode
choosing from load options 12-13
compare to deluxe 15-8
description of 15-4
foreign key constraints 15-7
level-0 backup 12-11
limitations 15-5
list of characteristics 15-5
load example 15-16
mentioned 15-3
page size limitation 15-5
sequence of events 15-6
speed of 15-4
F
Fast format 7-20
Fast Job Startup window 13-15
Fast job, definition of 7-20
Features, product Intro-5
Index 3
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Field
set minimum and/or
maximum 9-16
set offset 9-16
Figure
extracting data from a table 8-3
foreign-key constraints 15-7
load and unload modes 15-3
mapping options symbol 9-14
maps found by a search 9-23
use of a map 9-3
using OK and Cancel 3-32
view indicator 9-18
File
COBOL 7-18
configuration for HPL B-1
default onpload
configuration 1-14
.flt 15-9
import/export queries 8-13
onpload.std 1-14
pathname for I/O 16-5
plconfig 16-10, 16-13
sqlhosts. See sqlhosts file.
File descriptor, COBOL 7-19
Fill character, mapping
options 9-16
Filter
conversion of code set 10-12
creating 10-5
defining 10-5
description of 10-3
editing 10-8, 10-10
example 10-3
match conditions 10-7
mode, with constraints 15-10
onpload database A-5
rejected records 15-9
Filter Views window 10-11
filteritem table, in onpload
database A-5
filters table, in onpload
database A-6
Filters window 10-5
Find button 9-17
Find Node window 9-18
finderr utility Intro-13
Fixed binary format 13-12
4
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Fixed format
data types 7-7
definition of 7-4
in formats table A-9
using blobs 7-12
using carriage returns 7-11
Fixed Format definition
window 7-6, 7-11, 7-13
Fixed Format edit window 7-6
Fixed Format Options
window 7-21, 7-22
Fixed internal format
mentioned 7-20
used in generate 13-12
FLOAT data type 15-17
.flt file 15-9
Foreign key constraints 15-7
Format
COBOL 7-18, 13-12
copy 3-23
create 7-5
definition of 7-3
delete 3-25
fast job 7-20
fast, definition 7-20
fixed internal 13-12
performance 15-17
steps for editing 7-9, 7-10
testing 14-3
types supported by HPL 7-3
types used by generate 13-12
Format Views window 2-14, 3-17,
3-18, 7-24
formatitem table, in onpload
database A-7
formats table, in onpload
database A-9
Fragmenter threads 1-18
Function
custom conversion E-1
user-defined in mapping
options 9-16
G
Generate
assumptions 13-13
description of 13-3
EBCDIC data 13-12
format types 13-12
from unload job 13-6
no-conversion job 13-14
types of tasks 13-3
Generate window 13-11, 13-14
Global Language Support
(GLS) Intro-4, 5-7, 7-21,
7-22, 10-12
GLS code set. See Code set.
GLS. See Global Language Support
(GLS).
H
Help
menu description 3-6
using on-line help 3-33
High-Performance Loader
configuration file B-1
managing 15-3
modes 1-8, 15-3
usage models 15-13
HPL configuration file 16-10, 16-13
HPL main window 2-6
HPL. See High-Performance
Loader.
I
Icons
comment Intro-7
IECC 1-11
and onpload 1-12
Importing a query 8-13
Import/Export File Selection
window 8-14
in ipload 16-13
Industry standards, compliance
with Intro-15
Informix internal format. See
Internal format.
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$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts. See
sqlhosts file.
INFORMIXDIR environment
variable 1-13
INFORMIXDIR/bin
directory Intro-5
INFORMIXSERVER environment
variable 1-13
Input, starting record 16-11
INSERT statement 15-4
INT data type 15-17
Internal format
limitations 7-20
use with generate 13-14
Invalid characters in entry
fields 3-9
ipload utility
command 3-4
configuration 5-3
creates onpload database A-1
example 2-3
purpose of 1-10
starting 2-5, 3-4
ISO 8859-1 code set Intro-4
Isolation level, in unload
option 11-11
I/O
buffer size 16-10
number of tapes to load 16-11
tape block size 16-10
J
Jobs menu, description of 3-5
Justification of data in mapping
options 9-15
L
language table, in onpload
database A-10
LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment
variable 1-13
Least significant byte 5-9
Level-0 backup in express
mode 2-31, 15-6
Limitations, database server 12-4
Load and unload session
maximum errors 16-10
Load data with onpload 16-6
Load job
browsing options 14-3
changing options 12-14
commit interval 12-13
components 12-3
creating 12-7, 12-15
description of 12-3
device-array speed 15-12
example 2-3, 2-7
from the command line 16-3
generate violations records 12-13
log file 14-9
maximum errors 12-13
mode options 12-13
multiple jobs 11-4, 12-4
number of records 12-13
onpload database A-17
preview records 14-3
run example 2-29, 2-37
running 12-10, 12-15
server considerations 11-4, 12-4
starting record 12-13
status log 12-10
tapes, number of 12-13
using cron 11-4, 12-4
Load Job Select window
command line information 12-12
illustration 2-8, 12-8
Load Job window 2-9, 2-18, 2-27,
3-14, 12-9
Load log, examining 14-9
Load map
definition of 9-3
how to create 9-4
Load mode, description of 1-8, 15-3
Load Options window 2-28, 12-14
Load Record Maps
window 2-22, 9-7
Locale Intro-4
Lock table. See Table locking.
Log file
created by ipload 12-7
for load job 14-9
messages 12-11, H-2
sample entry 14-11
setting 11-8
Log-file messages. See Log file.
Lowercase conversion 9-15, 16-13
LSB 5-9
LVARCHAR data type. See
Extended Types.
M
Machine notes Intro-14
Machine type
default 5-7
modifying 5-8, 7-22
machines table, in onpload
database A-11
Machines window
illustration 5-9
using 5-10
Managing the HPL 15-3
Map
columns and fields of same
name 9-6, 9-12
definition of 9-3
for blobs in separate files 7-14
for in-line blobs 7-13
Map Views window 2-21, 9-21, 9-22
Map-definition window 2-24, 2-25,
2-26, 9-5, 9-9, 9-12, 9-18
Map-edit window
description of 9-5
purpose 9-4
using the find button 9-17
mapitem table, in onpload
database A-12
mapoption table, in onpload
database A-12
Mapping options
bytes to transfer 9-15
case conversion 9-15
column offset 9-16
default column value 9-15
defining 9-13
field minimum and/or
maximum 9-16
field offset 9-16
fill character 9-16
function, user-defined 9-16
justification 9-15
picture format 9-16
Index 5
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steps to define 9-13
summary 9-13
symbol 9-14
Mapping Options
window 9-13, 9-14
maps table, in onpload
database A-14
Masking data 9-16
Match conditions
definition of 10-3
in a filter 10-7
of WHERE clause 8-12
Maximum number of errors 11-11
Message log file, pathname in
onpload 16-14
Message log, categories of
messages H-2
Message window 3-20
Mode options, load job 12-13
Modify format
COBOL 7-21
delimited 7-22
fixed 7-21
MONEY data type 15-17
Most significant byte 5-9
MSB 5-9
Multiple load or unload
jobs 11-4, 12-4
N
No-conversion job
changing computer
configuration 15-13
definition of 7-20
load example 15-15
option 13-14
restrictions 7-20
run fast job 13-15
running the job 13-14
using onpload 16-6
Non-printable field delimiter
values A-3
NOT NULL violation 15-9
Notes window 3-26
Number of conversion
threads 16-13
6
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
Number of records in a load
job 12-13
Number of records to process
assigned in onpload 16-11
Number of tapes to load 16-11
O
ONCONFIG environment
variable 1-13
ONCONFIG file parameters. See
Configuration parameter.
On-line help Intro-13
how to use 3-33
menu 3-6
On-line manuals Intro-12
onpload command
-d option 16-8
generated for Load Job 12-12
generated for Unload Job 11-10
-i option 16-11
starting 16-3
syntax 16-4
usage 16-3
onpload configuration file 1-14
onpload database
connection to 5-3
creating 5-5
creation of 2-5
default settings 5-5
location of 1-10
multiple 1-13
select server 5-3
table
defaults A-2
delimiters A-3
device A-4
filteritem A-5
filters A-6
formatitem A-7
formats A-9
language A-10
machines A-11
mapitem A-12
mapoption A-12
maps A-14
progress A-16
query A-16
session A-17
table descriptions A-1
onpload utility. See onpload
command.
onpload, load data 16-6
onpload.std file 1-14
onstat utility 15-12
Opaque data types. See Extended
Types.
Options
load job 12-13
unload job 11-11
Options symbol 9-14
P
Page size in express mode 15-5
Parallel loader. See HighPerformance Loader.
Performance
converter threads 15-17
hints 15-16
improving 15-10
VPs 15-17
Permissions. See Privileges.
Picture description, COBOL 7-19
Picture format, in mapping
options 9-16
Pipe command
in a device array 6-7
starting 6-3
Pipe, use with onpload 16-7
plconfig configuration
file 16-10, 16-13
plconfig configuration file.
See Configuration file parameters.
See Configuration file.
PLCONFIG environment
variable 1-14
PLCONFIG file
override I/O buffer
size 16-10, 16-13
PLOAD_SHMBASE
avoiding shared memory
collision 1-14
environment variable 1-14
pl_wkr threads 1-18
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Print button 3-28
Printed manuals Intro-12
Privileges 12-5
Problems during a load
job 11-10, 12-11
Program group
Documentation notes Intro-15
Release notes Intro-15
Project
creating a new project 4-7
default name 4-3
Project name, in onpload 16-5
project table, in onpload
database A-16
Projects window 4-6
Proper-name case conversion 16-13
Proper-name conversion 9-15
Q
Query
description of 8-3
export to a file 8-13, 8-15
for unload map 9-10
import from a file 8-13
steps for defining 8-4
using the Table button 8-7
query table, in onpload
database A-16
Query window 8-5
Query-definition window 8-6,
8-10, 8-11
Quiet, suppress output A-18
R
Raw load and unload 7-20, 13-14
Record Browser window 14-4, 14-5
Record filter 16-13
Record Formats window 2-15,
3-27, 7-5
Record map, assigned by
onpload 16-5
Records, number to process 16-11
Rejected records 15-9
conversion errors 15-9
filter conditions 15-9
reviewing 14-7
Release notes Intro-14
Release notes, program
item Intro-15
Reorganize computer
configuration 15-13
Repeatable read isolation
level 11-11
Row types. See Extended Types.
S
Schema, of database table 13-3
Screen-illustration
conventions Intro-11
sdriver threads 1-17
SELECT clause, preparing 8-6
Selection Type box 3-9
Server name, default 5-6
Server. See Database server.
session table, in onpload
database A-17
SET CONSTRAINTS statement
DISABLED 15-7
ON 15-10
setrw threads 1-18
Simple LOs. See Simple large
objects.
Single CPU, performance B-4
SMFLOAT data type 15-17
Software dependencies Intro-4
Specifications window 9-19
Specs button 3-22, 9-19
Speed
of deluxe mode 15-4
of express mode 15-4
Splash screen 3-4
SQL query. See Query.
SQL statement, use in HPL 8-3
sqlhosts file 5-4
Start record for input 16-11
Start record, for load job 12-13
Statistics. See onstat utility.
Status log. See Log file.
Steps
to change load job options 12-14
to create a device array 6-5
to create a fixed-length format 7-5
to create a load job 12-8, 12-15
to create a load map 9-7
to create an unload map 9-10
to define a device array 6-8
to define a filter 10-5
to define a query 8-4
to define fixed-length file 7-5
to define mapping options 9-13
to edit a device array 6-8
to edit a filter 10-8, 10-10
to edit a format 7-9, 7-10
to generate components
menu 13-13
to modify delimited formats 7-23
to modify format options 7-21
to review rejected records 14-7
to review source records for
load 14-4
to select a database server 5-4
to specify onpload defaults 5-7
to use Map Views window 9-21
to use Specifications
window 9-20
to use the Fast Job window 13-15
to view load log 14-10
to view violations table 14-8
stores7 database Intro-4
Stream threads 1-18
STRMBUFFERS parameter
affecting onpload process 15-11
description of B-5
example 15-15
STRMBUFFSIZE parameter
affecting onpload process 15-11
example 15-15
STRMBUFSIZE parameter
description of B-5
Structured query language. See SQL
statement.
Suppress message output A-18
Swap bytes 16-10, A-19
Symbol, mapping options 9-14
Synonyms 1-4, 8-7, 9-8
Syntax, onpload utility 16-3
Index 7
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T
table descriptions A-1
Table locking
deluxe mode 15-4
express mode 15-4
Table, create for example 2-5
Tape I/O threads 1-17
Tape parameters, specifying 6-7
Tapes
number of 12-13, A-19
number to load 16-11
Tape, block size 16-10
Target server 5-3, 11-4, 12-4
Testing formats 14-3
TEXT data type. See Simple large
objects.
Thread
cadiload 1-18
convert 1-17
fragmenter 1-18
pl_wkr 1-18
sdriver 1-17
setrw 1-18
stream 1-18
tape I/O 1-17
ulstrm 1-22
unload-stream 1-22
worker 1-17
Trace level A-18
Transfer bytes, in mapping
options 9-15
U
ulstrm threads 1-22
Universal Server 2-4
Unload data
using onpload 16-7
Unload job
changing the options 11-11
components of 11-3
creating 11-5
definition of 11-3
example 2-32
from the command line 16-3
generate option 13-6
log file 14-9
8
Guide to the High-Performance Loader
mode 15-3
multiple jobs 11-4, 12-4
onpload database A-17
options 11-11, 12-13
options, how to change 12-13
using cron 11-4
Unload Job Select window
command line information 11-10
illustration 11-6
Unload Job window 2-34, 2-36,
11-7, 13-8
Unload map
definition of 9-3, 9-10
how to create 9-10
steps to create 9-10
Unload Options window 11-12
Unload Record Maps
window 9-10, 9-11
Uppercase conversion 9-15, 16-13
Usage description, COBOL 7-19
Usage models for HPL 15-13
Utility, onpload. See onpload utility.
V
VARCHAR data type 15-17
Variable, binary size of 5-9
View icon, description 3-29
View indicator, figure 9-18
Views 1-4, 8-7
Violations table
generate from load job 12-13
viewing 14-8
Violations Table Browser
window 14-8, 14-9
Violations, description of 15-9
VPs, performance 15-17
W
WHERE clause
match conditions 8-12
preparation 8-11
Whitespace in configuration
file B-2
Window
Active Job 2-30, 11-9
Autogenerate Unload
Components 2-35, 13-5, 13-7
Browse Logfile 14-10
COBOL Format definition 7-18
Column Selection 8-8, 8-9
confirm delete 3-25
Confirm file-overwrite 8-16
Connect Server 5-4
Copy Data 3-24
Database Views 8-17
Defaults 3-19, 5-6
Delimited Format 2-16
Delimited Format definition 7-17
Delimiter Options 7-23
Device Array Selection 2-11,
3-8, 6-4
device-array definition 2-12, 3-11,
6-6, 6-7
Fast Job Startup 13-15
Filter Views 10-11
Filters 10-5
Find Node 9-18
Fixed Format 7-6
Fixed Format definition 7-11, 7-13
Fixed Format definition
window 7-6
Fixed Format Options 7-21, 7-22
format definition 2-16
Format Views 2-14, 3-17,
3-18, 7-24
Generate 13-11, 13-14
HPL main window 2-6
Import/Export File Selection 8-14
Load Job 2-9, 2-18, 2-27, 3-14, 12-9
Load Job Select 2-8, 12-8, 12-12
Load Options 2-28, 12-14
Load Record Maps 2-22, 9-7
Machines 5-9
map definition 2-24, 2-25, 2-26,
9-5, 9-9, 9-12, 9-18
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June 11, 1998 11:30 am
Map Views 2-21, 9-21, 9-22
Mapping Options 9-13, 9-14
Message 3-20
notes 3-26
Projects 4-6
Query 8-5
query definition 8-6, 8-11
Query-definition 8-10
Record Browser 14-4, 14-5
Record Formats 2-15, 3-27, 7-5
Specifications 9-19
Unload Job 2-34, 2-36, 11-7, 13-8
Unload Job Select 11-6
Unload Options 11-12
Unload Record Maps 9-10, 9-11
Violations Table Browser 14-8,
14-9
Worker threads 1-17
X
X/Open compliance
level Intro-15
Index 9
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