Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora

Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora
Please follow this Checklist for Contributors in preparing your manuscript for
submission. Manuscripts not prepared per this style sheet will likely be returned to the
author without review.
Before Submitting:
• Intended readership: Professional botanists, educators, conservation biologists and
serious amateurs.
• Submission of a manuscript implies it is not being considered for publication elsewhere,
either in whole or in part.
• Prior to publication authors will be required to sign a Transfer of Copyright Agreement.
• Brevity is urged for all submissions. If manuscripts are returned with considerable
rewriting necessary, additional peer review is typically sought by the Editor.
• It is the author's responsibility to verify all information included in the manuscript.
• The manuscript version submitted should have been read critically by all coauthors.
• The manuscript should be checked against these instructions. Manuscripts not properly
prepared may be returned for revision prior to review.
• Papers of excessive length may be returned to the author for submission to the New
England Botanical Club's Special Publications series.
General formatting instructions:
• Type manuscript on one side only of 8½ inch x 11 inch paper. Leave a 1-inch margin on
all sides. Use a standard 12-pitch font type throughout the manuscript, including tables and
• Do not justify the right margin. Avoid hyphens or dashes at the right margin.
• The manuscript should be fully double-spaced throughout, including title, authors' names
and addresses, Literature Cited, tables, appendices, and figure legends.
• All pages of the manuscript should be numbered in the upper right-hand corner.
• Please use line-numbering continuous from page 1 throughout the document.
• Running head should be centered, at top of page, in upper and lower case letters. Include
author's surname (if two authors, use the word "and"; use "et al." for more than two
authors), long dash, and short title. Total characters, including spaces, must not exceed 50.
• Correct accents, umlauts, and other diacritical marks should be included. Where
appropriate (i.e., in names of hybrid taxa), multiplication symbol must be used rather than
the letter x.
• Names at the rank of genus and below should be italicized. Names of families and orders
are not italicized.
• Special typefaces (italics, bold) should not be used except where indicated in this
• Do not italicize common Latin words, abbreviations, or phrases (e.g., et al., i.e., etc.).
• Manuscript should be checked for consistency, especially in matters of abbreviation,
names of sites or vegetation types, spelling of names, etc.
• The Chicago Manual of Style, most recent edition, is used as a reference in most matters of
style. It is also useful to refer to recent issues of Rhodora for models of formats.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 1
• Assemble the manuscript in the following order:
(1) Introductory material
(2) Text
(3) Acknowledgments
(4) Literature Cited
(5) Tables
(6) Appendices
(7) Figure legends
(8) Figures.
Title page and keywords:
• Title should be centered, in upper and lower case. Only the first word of the title and
proper nouns should be capitalized. Do not include authors of scientific names. Include
family name in parentheses unless genus studied is the type for the family.
• Author(s) name(s) and professional address(es) should appear below title, centered, in
upper and lower case. Consolidate lines where possible. Two-letter postal abbreviations
should be used for states. "Current address:" should appear on a separate line immediately
following address if author has moved, not as a footnote. If more than one author is at an
address, designate current address of author who has moved using a superscript number.
Include e-mail address(es) on a separate line following postal address(es).
• The first author will be considered the corresponding author unless indicated otherwise
by a superscript number. The "Author for correspondence" statement follows on a separate
line below the address, not as a footnote.
• Abstract must be one paragraph. The abstract should be a concise statement of intent,
methods used, results, and significance of findings. Do not cite references or taxonomic
authors, or use and define abbreviations in the abstract. The word "Abstract" should be
indented, in all capital letters, followed by a period, and should appear on the first line of
the abstract.
• Key Words are used in indexing and should be chosen with that purpose in mind. The title
"Key Words" should appear at the left margin, followed by a colon. Only proper nouns
should be capitalized.
Main text:
• The following are accepted first-level headings for the sections of the manuscript, which
should appear centered and in all capital letters: MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS,
• The introduction is not titled in Rhodora. Do not combine results and discussion without
first consulting with the Editor. Do not use a separate section for conclusions or summary;
these must be incorporated into the discussion.
• Second-level headings are discouraged unless multiple experiments are discussed.
Organize your paper logically so that subheadings are unnecessary. If using subheadings,
use parallel construction as appropriate in the Methods, Results, and Discussion.
• Second-level headings should be indented, bold, upper and lower case, followed by a
period, and should appear on the same line as the subsequent text.
• No additional levels of headings (sub-subheadings) should be used.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 2
• Each figure and table must be cited in the text in numerical order. Spell out the word
"Figure" throughout. When citing both together, the table should be listed first and a semicolon used to separate the two (e.g., Table 1; Figure 1).
• Each reference cited in the text must appear in the Literature Cited section and vice versa.
Cross-check spelling of author(s) name(s) and dates of publication.
• Literature is cited in the text as follows:
1. One author: Smith (1982) or (Smith 1982)
2. Two authors: Smith and Jones (1996) or (Smith and Jones 1996)
3. More than two authors: Smith et al. (2000) or (Smith et al. 2000)
4. Note that there is no comma separating author and date.
5. When more than one paper is cited at a time, they should be listed alphabetically
by first author rather than chronologically [e.g., Angelo and Boufford (1996), Hill
(1982), Mathieson et al. (2000)].
6. Within parentheses, citations should be separated by a semi-colon (e.g., Angelo
and Boufford 1996; Hill 1982).
7. When citing multiple papers by the same author in one citation, use the following
format: Russell 1975, 1981; …next author…etc.
8. Manuscripts accepted but not yet published should be cited as: Smith (in press) or
(Smith, in press). Manuscripts still in review or in preparation should not be cited.
9. Unpublished material should be cited as follows: A. Smith (submitted); A. Smith
(unpubl. data); A. Smith (pers. obs.); or (A. Smith, cite professional affiliation, pers.
comm.). Unless otherwise listed or cited in the manuscript or a nationally known
authority, professional affiliation should also be given.
10. Theses and dissertations should be cited as books (include institution, city, and
state in Literature Cited entry).
11. For Web pages, cite the title/author and year of most recent access in text. Give
the URL and additional information in the Literature Cited section (see below for
proper format).
• References to companies manufacturing products used in a study should not appear in
the Literature Cited. Rather, the company name and location should be given in
parentheses within the text [e.g., SYSTAT (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois)].
• When included, authors of scientific names should be cited either at their first usage in
the text or in a table or appendix (e.g., in a flora or table of voucher specimens). It should be
indicated which taxonomic treatment, revision, or flora nomenclature follows. Use
standard abbreviations for author's names found at the International Plant Names Index
(from Authors of Plant Names by R. K. Brummitt and C. E. Powell).
• Names of publications cited in the text should be in italics.
• Avoid abbreviations in the text unless indicating measurement, in which case use a period
unless abbreviating a metric term. Other abbreviations should be defined when first used
[e.g., Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)]. Herbarium acronyms should follow Index
• Numbers one through nine should be written out in the text unless a measurement or
part of a taxonomic description. No comma is used with 4-digit numbers. A number should
always precede a decimal point (e.g., 0.15).
• Back-to-back parentheses should be avoided by using a semi-colon. Parentheses within
parentheses should be avoided by using outer brackets.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 3
Taxonomic treatments:
• Example: Rhodora 113(955): 252-259.
• Use boldface Roman type for new names and new combinations, followed by "sp. nov.",
"comb. nov.", etc.
• For nomenclatural history (i.e., synonymy and typification) use one paragraph per
basionym [e.g., Binomial author, literature citation. TYPE: collection information from
least-to-most-specific, collector(s) collection number (Holotype: herbarium acronym;
Isotypes: herbarium acronym(s).].
• Exclamation points are used for type specimens examined, and types not seen are
indicated as such (e.g., GH!, MO not seen).
• Lectotype designations are included together with an indication of where they were
designated, what year, and by whom. This reference is listed in the Literature Cited. If the
author of the paper is making the lectotypification, the phrase "here designated" is
• References cited only as part of nomenclatural history are not included in the Literature
Cited. Books listed here are abbreviated according to Taxonomic Literature, edition 2.
• Standard abbreviations for author's names should be used according to
(from Authors of Plant Names by R. K. Brummitt and C. E. Powell).
• When dates are given as part of collection information, 3-letter abbreviations with no
period are used for months.
• Use Index Herbariorum for herbarium acronyms.
• Note that as of 2012, diagnoses in Latin have become optional. Designation of a new taxon
that include a brief Latin diagnosis should set forth succinctly how the new taxon differs
from its congeners.
• A full description, in English, should be given. This should be parallel with other
descriptions at the same rank in the paper, and should not repeat information given in any
description of the inclusive taxon (i.e., species descriptions should not repeat information
characteristic of the genus, if also described in the paper). All measurements are metric.
Hyphens are used for parenthetical extremes. A multiplication symbol is used where
appropriate, rather than the letter x.
• Following the description, information should be given on distribution, ecology, uses, and
nomenclature and typification, where appropriate. The discussions should be parallel
within a given rank. For newly described taxa, this discussion should explain clearly how
the new taxon differs in these characteristics from closely related taxa.
• A high-quality line drawing or photograph of the type specimen, illustrating the
diagnostic features, should be included for new taxa.
• Specimen citation should be selected critically, especially for common species of broad
distribution. A title such as "Specimens examined" or "Representative specimens
examined" should be indented, in upper and lower case, followed by a period. Each country
begins a new paragraph. The format of information is as follows: COUNTRY. Major political
division such as state: smaller political division such as county, detailed location, date (e.g.,
26 Sep 1950), collector(s) last name(s) collection number or s.n. (herbarium acronym).
Exclamation points are not included here.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 4
• Keys are dichotomous and indented. Example: Rhodora 110(944): 386-7.
• Leads of each couplet are parallel.
• Information in the key is consistent with that in descriptions, text, tables, and figures.
Data and voucher specimens:
• Voucher specimens must be cited in a table or appendix to document sources of
morphological or molecular data. Format for citation is the same as that for "specimens
examined" as part of taxonomic treatments.
• All sequences used as data must be deposited in one of the international nucleotide
sequence databases, and sequence database accession numbers must be included in the
paper (GenBank).
• All data matrices used in cladistic analyses should be deposited in TreeBASE.
• Long lists of taxa are best treated as an Appendix, so that the readability of the text is not
compromised, and so that the list may be used independently by readers.
• A short introductory paragraph explaining terms or abbreviations used in the list of taxa
should follow the Appendix title (see example in Gulledge and Judd 2002, Rhodora 104:
• Three levels of headings are possible in lists of taxa: first-level is centered, all capitals,
bold (e.g., ANGIOSPERMAE or MAGNOLIOPSIDA); second-level is centered, all capitals, not
bold (e.g., MONOCOTYLEDONEAE or LILIIDAE); third level is flush
left, all capitals, bold (e.g., ACORACEAE; this level will be converted to small caps by the
• Taxa should be listed alphabetically within each hierarchical category (e.g., species
alphabetically within the genus; genera alphabetically within family).
• Standard abbreviations for authors of binomials should be used according to (from Authors of Plant Names by R. K. Brummitt and C. E. Powell).
• An indication of ecological preference, distribution within the area studied, and
abundance should be included, where appropriate.
• Voucher specimens should be listed (collector, collection number, and herbarium
acronym; information common to all or most all vouchers can be stated in an introductory
paragraph). Collectors' initials should be included for all specimens.
• Acknowledgments should be brief.
• Information on granting agencies, herbaria from which loans were obtained, artists, and
colleagues or advisors who have critically reviewed the manuscript should be included.
• The word "Acknowledgments" should be indented, in all capital letters, followed by a
period, and should appear on the first line of the acknowledgments.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 5
Literature Cited:
• For a quick look at examples of Rhodora citations, see the Zotero Style Repository:
The Literature Cited contains all references cited in the text and vice versa.
• The alternative of a general "References" section requires prior approval by the Editor.
• All entries should be cross-checked with the text, checking especially for spelling of
authors' names and years of publication.
• All entries should be verified against original sources, checking especially for spelling of
authors names and words in languages other than English, exact title, year of publication,
and volume and page numbers.
• Cite references in alphabetical order by first author's last name. Entries by a single author
should precede multi-authored works with the same first author, regardless of date.
• List works by the same author chronologically, beginning with earliest date of
• Use long dash when the author(s) is/are the same as in the citation immediately
• Citations listed as "in press" must have been accepted for publication. The name of the
journal or book publisher must be included.
• Citations of work in progress (i.e., unpublished or not yet accepted for publication) should
not be listed in the Literature Cited.
• A period and a space must be inserted after each initial of an author's name. Do not write
author's names in all capital letters. Do not write out given names in full.
• Leave one space between the colon following volume number and the page number(s).
• Periodicals are abbreviated according to B-P-H (Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum) and BP-H/S (Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum/Supplementum).
• Citations should follow one of the following formats:
1. Papers in periodicals: Author's last name, initials. Year. Full title of article. Journal
abbreviation and volume: page numbers. No parenthetical part numbers are given
after volume numbers unless each part is paginated separately.
Example: Russell, G. 1985. Recent evolutionary changes in the algae of the
Baltic Sea. Brit. Phycol. J. 20: 87-104.
2. More than one author: Author's last name, initials, second author's initials, last
name, and third author's initials, last name. A comma precedes the word "and" when
there are more than two authors.
Example: Bird, C. J. , T. Edelstein, and J. McLachlan. 1983. Benthic marine
algal flora of the north shore of Prince Edward Island (Gulf of St. Lawrence),
Canada. Aquatic Bot. 16: 315-335.
3. Papers in edited volumes: Author's last name, initials. Year. Full title of article, pp.
xx-xx. In: editor's initials, last name, ed., title of book. Publisher, place of publication.
Example: Wilkinson, M. 1980. Estuarine benthic algae and their
environments: A review, pp. 425-486. In: J. H. Price, D. E. G. Irvine, and W. F.
Farnham, eds., The Shore Environments. Vol. 2. Ecosystems. Academic Press,
New York, NY.
4. Books: Author's last name, initials. Year. Full title of book (not italicized), edition
and/or volume number. Publisher, place of publication.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 6
Example: Knox, G. A. 2001. The Ecology of Seashores. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
5. Reports, publication series, and proceedings: Author’s last name, initials. Year.
Full title. Publisher, place of publication.
Silva, P. C., P. W. Basson, and R. J. Moe. 1996. Catalogue of the Benthic Marine
Algae of the Indian Ocean. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 79, Univ. California Press,
Berkeley, CA.
Hill, S. R. 2992. Conservation assessment for French’s shootingstar,
Dodecatheon frenchii (Vasey) Rydb. Unpublished report for the Shawnee and
Hoosier National Forests, U.S. Forest Service, U.S.D.A., Washington, DC.
6. Dissertations and Master’s Theses: Author’s last name, initials. Year. Full title.
Ph.D. dissertation or M.Sc. thesis, University, place of publication.
Example: Swayne, J.R. 1973. Paleoecology of southern Illinois and Pleistocene
glaciations effect as indicated by modern distribution of disjunct species,
French’s shooting star and cane. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois Univ.,
Carbondale, IL.
7. Web sites: Author's name and initials (or institution publishing the site). Year. Full
title of database. Website (URL). Accessed month and year.
Example: International Plant Names Index (IPNI). 2010. The Plant Names
Project. A consortium of the Harvard University Herbaria, the Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew, and the Australian National Herbarium. Harvard Univ.
Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Website ( Accessed 20 Jan
• Tables should be formatted using the MS Word Table function, imports from other
programs such as Excel are discouraged. Do not format tables using the Tab key.
• Do not leave blank cells in tables. Cells without entries should have an en-dash as
• Each table should be cited in the text in numerical order.
• Each table should start on a separate sheet in the manuscript and is fully double-spaced. If
necessary, a table may be continued on a second page. Do not use single-space or a smaller
font in order to fit a large table onto a single page.
• Landscape (or broadside) formatting should be avoided, if possible.
• The caption should appear at the top of the table. Do not submit a separate sheet of table
• The caption should be indented, in upper and lower case, and should begin with the word
"Table" and Arabic number followed by a period. Caption should be self-explanatory.
• Do not use footnotes. Instead, add notes to the end of the caption.
• Gridlines will be removed for publication.
Figure captions:
• Figure captions should appear together on a page separate from the illustrations. Do not
use a separate page for each caption.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 7
• Each figure should be cited in the text in numerical order.
• Captions should be double-spaced and in paragraph format. Each should be indented,
upper and lower case, and should begin with the word "Figure" and Arabic number
followed by a period.
• When figures have been grouped into composite plates, figure caption should begin with
an inclusive statement describing the whole plate, followed by descriptions of each part
(e.g., Figures 1-6. Morphological characters of Oleandra. 1. Long roots . . .)
• Specimens used for illustrations should be indicated either in the caption or in a table of
voucher specimens.
• Magnifications or reductions are not indicated in figure captions.
Approved figure formats for Rhodora:
• Preferred formats are EPS, TIFF, high quality JPEG, PDF, and Adobe Photoshop files at 600
dpi resolution.
• Resolution for line art is 600-1200 dpi and for photographs is 300-600 dpi for the 4-in
page width. Neither the editors nor the printer can improve the resolution of your artwork.
• All figures must be submitted separately; do not submit artwork incorporated into a
Word file.
• Acceptability of files should be checked prior to submission using the on-line tool Allen
veriFig™. Note that this tool works best using Firefox, Safari, and Google Chrome browsers;
make sure you have updated to the most recent version available. Go to Allen veriFig™ and
login with your email address and the password “figcheck”. Use the “add” button or the
“drag and drop” feature to upload each figure file separately for checking. Figures that will
reproduce at > 300 dpi for 2-column print are acceptable for publication.
• For help with the application and interpreting your report(s), see the Allen veriFig™
User’s Manual.
• Illustrations submitted as camera-ready copy should be in final journal size for 100%
reproduction. Maximum allowable size for portrait printing is 4 inches x 6 inches; for
broadside printing is 6 3/4 inches x 3 1/2 inches. Portrait figures are highly preferred over
broadside images, as they are much easier for readers to handle.
Figures (charts and graphs):
• Consider whether you really need a figure; can the data as easily be depicted in a table or
in text?
• It is highly desirable to generate your chart or graph using a dedicated graphing package
such as R or SigmaPlot; figures generated from Excel are generally of inferior quality.
• All graphs and charts should depict variance in the data (i.e., error bars); showing means
alone is not sufficient in most cases unless variance calculations are statistically
• Keep your graph or chart as simple as possible; avoid 3-dimensional bar charts, labeled
pie charts, and other formats that convey redundant information.
• Format your illustrations to fit the published page dimensions in order to check clarity
and resolution before submitting.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 8
• Flaws cannot be corrected by either the Editor or the printer. Because of this, italicized
words must be printed in italics, and all names and terms must be consistent with those
used in the text. This includes any capitalization as well as spelling.
• Make sure that line types (dotted, dashed, solid) and shades (black, gray, or color etc.)
clearly contrast with each other. Bar fills should also distinguish clearly between
populations/treatments. Solid fills are much preferable to patterned fills.
• All lines, including axis lines and tick marks, as well as the points, lines and error bars in
your graph must be thick enough to print clearly at the small size required for the journal
page. All text, including axis and tick labels and legends, must also be clear and large
enough to print well at small size.
• Examples comparing effective graphs and bar charts. Note that the graphs side-by-side
are the same size, but differ in the clarity of lines, tick marks, axis labels, symbols, and fills.
Figures (photographs, maps, and illustrations):
• Illustrations must be either half-tones ("black and white" photographs) or line art
(drawings or graphs).
• Color photographs must be paid for by the author(s), and require prior approval of the
Editor. Ensure that illustrations originally drafted in color will reproduce clearly in grayscale. Publication costs $350 to appear in print, less to appear in color in on-line only.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 9
• Smaller photos should be grouped into composite plates, where possible. Edges should be
abutted, with no stripping between adjacent photos (this will be added by printer). Each
photo in a composite plate must be labeled with numbers or letters. Do not use a wordprocessing program for this purpose, as it will reduce the resolution of the photos.
• Scale bars must appear on highly magnified illustrations. Do not indicate magnification in
figure legend.
• Review copies of half-tone figures must be photographic copies or reproductions
approaching the quality of the originals. Do not submit ordinary xerox copies of
photographs for review.
• For maps, a scale and either compass direction or references to longitude and latitude
must be included. Maps should have a fine border. Consider whether an inset is necessary;
it may be sufficient to include a map of a region (without reference to country) if the states
or provinces are well labeled.
Notes and New England Notes:
• The Notes and New England Notes sections are available for short contributions that
augment a recent publication or contribute to our knowledge of the flora. While these
papers do not typically contribute new experimental data, they must have the scientific
merit of longer papers, and must include references to pertinent literature, a discussion of
scientific significance, and must cite voucher collections, where appropriate.
• Submissions in this category should not include an abstract, key words, or sections such
as Materials and Methods or Results.
• Notes and New England Notes submissions should be no more than five double-spaced
pages long.
• In general, guidelines for longer articles should be followed.
Botanists’ Corner:
• The aim of The Botanists’ Corner is to keep members and subscribers better informed of
botanical happenings and innovations involving the plants of our region, and hopefully to
provide members a greater voice within Rhodora. These rapid communications should
relate botanical findings of interest to the scientific community, including but not restricted
to: new state records of plant taxa, rediscoveries of historical plant taxa, regional
announcements of conservation initiatives or large-scale research studies involving plants,
summaries of previously-published nomenclatural changes/revisions, observations of
unique plant-animal interactions, distinctions among difficult plant taxa, or profiles of
compelling plants or botanists.
• Papers within the column will be shorter and less comprehensive than a “New England
Note.” More specifically, items published will be brief communiqués on the order of 300700 words. Literature citations will be allowed, as needed, but should be brief.
• Figures and tables will not be permitted.
• Papers submitted will be peer-reviewed by feature editor, Melissa Dow Cullina, by
Rhodora Editor-in-Chief, Elizabeth Farnsworth, plus one external reviewer with
appropriate expertise in the subject matter. As the emphasis of this section is on timely,
rapid communications, the peer review process will take a maximum of two weeks, with
revisions expected from the author in another two weeks.
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 10
• Submit queries regarding manuscripts intended for Botanists’ Corner to Melissa Dow
Cullina, Editor, at [email protected]
What to Submit:
• Email submission of all manuscripts is strongly preferred. Manuscripts, cover letters, and
checklists may be submitted via e-mail to [email protected], provided each file
(including images) is less than 5MB in size. If larger files need to be transmitted, please
contact the Editor before sending them. Hard copies, accompanied by a CD with the
corresponding electronic files, are less preferred, but can be mailed to the address below.
• Cover letter, which should cover:
1. Any special instructions.
2. Phone, FAX, and e-mail address of corresponding author.
3. Any possible address changes (including phone, FAX, and e-mail) within the next
several months.
4. Names, addresses, and e-mail addresses of possible objective reviewers.
• Submit hard copy and materials on disk to:
Dr. Elizabeth Farnsworth
Harvard Forest
324 North Main Street
Petersham, MA, 01366
[email protected]
For questions not covered by the information in this checklist, please refer to recent issues
of the journal or contact the Editor by e-mail ([email protected]).
Checklist for Contributors to Rhodora - 11
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