TheraScreen®: K-RAS Mutation Kit

TheraScreen®: K-RAS Mutation Kit
TheraScreen®: K-RAS Mutation Kit
For the Detection of 7 Mutations in the K-RAS Gene
For use on the Roche LightCycler® 480 Real-Time PCR System (Instrument II)
(Catalogue #: 05015278001)
And the Applied BioSystems 7500 Real-Time PCR System
(Part Number: 4351105)
Includes the user manual for the LightCycler® Adapt Software v1.1 from
Roche Diagnostics (Catalogue # 05474914001) for the TheraScreen®: K-RAS
Mutation Kit CE-IVD
Instructions for Use
Product Codes
Kit Size
DxS Product Code
20 Reactions
80 Reactions
KR-21
KR-22
Instructions Version:
DU001g
Date of Revision:
May 2009
Store at -18oC to -25˚C
Page 1 of 38
Roche Diagnostics
Ordering Number
05366216190
05366224190
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Contents
1. Intended Use / Indications for Use ............................................................................... 3
2. Summary and Explanation of the Test. ........................................................................ 3
3. Technological Principles ................................................................................................. 4
4. Reagents ............................................................................................................................ 6
5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ........................................................................... 7
6. Storage, Stability and Shipping Conditions .................................................................. 8
7. Instrument. ........................................................................................................................ 9
8. Specimens .......................................................................................................................... 9
9. K-RAS Mutation Detection Protocol......................................................................... 14
10. Limitations of the Test .............................................................................................. 25
11. Assay Performance Characteristics ......................................................................... 26
12. Technical Assistance ................................................................................................... 34
13. Manufacturer and Distributor Details ..................................................................... 35
14. Date of issuance of last revision ............................................................................... 35
15. References .................................................................................................................... 36
Notes To The Purchaser: ................................................................................................. 38
Page 2 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
IMPORTANT: Read these instructions carefully and become familiar with
all components of the K-RAS Kit prior to use.
1. Intended Use / Indications for Use
Intended Use
The DxS TheraScreen®: K-RAS Mutation Kit (K-RAS Kit) is an in vitro diagnostic
test intended for the detection of seven somatic mutations in the K-RAS oncogene
and will provide a qualitative assessment of mutation status. The K-RAS Kit is to
be used by trained personnel in a professional laboratory environment with DNA
samples extracted from formalin fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal tissue.
Indications for use.
The results of the K-RAS Kit are intended to aid the clinician in identifying
colorectal cancer patients who may not benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor
receptor (EGFR) therapy, such as panitumumab or cetuximab.
The K-RAS Kit is not intended to diagnose colorectal cancer. It is intended as an
adjunct to other relevant prognostic factors used to select suitable patients for
treatment with anti-EGFR therapies, based on the patient’s mutation status. The
patient’s mutation status will be considered by a Clinician, alongside other disease
factors to make a therapy decision. No treatment decision for cancer patients
should be based on K-RAS mutation status alone.
2. Summary and Explanation of the Test.
The K-RAS kit is a CE- marked diagnostic device in accordance with the European
Union in vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Directive 98/79/EC.
Mutations in the K-RAS oncogene are frequently found in human cancers (1-4). The
presence of these mutations correlates with a lack of response to certain EGFR
inhibitor cancer therapies, in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (5-10)(14-21).
Detection of seven mutations in the K-RAS gene is possible in a background of
wild-type genomic DNA in a real-time PCR assay based on DxS Scorpions
technology. This method is highly selective. Providing there are enough copies of
DNA, detection of approximately 1% mutant in a background of wild-type
genomic DNA is possible.
The K-RAS Kit will detect seven K-RAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the
K-RAS oncogene, as shown in Table 1.
Page 3 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table 1: K-RAS Mutations Detected by the DxS Kit
COSMIC ID’s are taken from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer
http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/
Mutation
Gly12Ala
Gly12Asp
Gly12Arg
Gly12Cys
Gly12Ser
Gly12Val
Gly13Asp
Base Change Cosmic ID
(GGT>GCT)
522
(GGT>GAT)
521
(GGT>CGT)
518
(GGT>TGT)
516
(GGT>AGT)
517
(GGT>GTT)
520
(GGC>GAC)
532
3. Technological Principles
The K-RAS Kit combines two technologies, ARMS® and Scorpions® (11, 12, 13), to
detect mutations in real-time PCR assays.
ARMS
Allele or mutation specific amplification is achieved by ARMS. Taq DNA
polymerase is extremely effective at distinguishing between a match and a
mismatch at the 3’-end of a PCR primer. Specific mutated sequences can be
selectively amplified, even in samples where the majority of the sequences do not
carry the mutation as:
• When the primer is fully matched, the amplification proceeds with full
efficiency.
• When the 3’-base is mismatched, only low level background amplification
occurs.
Scorpions
Detection of amplification is performed using Scorpions. Scorpions are
bi-functional molecules containing a PCR primer covalently linked to a probe. The
fluorophore in this probe interacts with a quencher, also incorporated into the
probe, which reduces fluorescence.
During a PCR reaction, when the probe binds to the amplicon, the fluorophore
and quencher become separated. This leads to an increase in fluorescence from
the reaction tube.
Data Analysis: ∆Ct Method
Scorpions real-time assays use the number of PCR cycles necessary to detect a
fluorescent signal above a background signal, as a measure of the target molecules
present at the beginning of the reaction. The point at which the signal is detected
above background fluorescence is called the ‘cycle threshold’ (Ct).
Sample ∆Ct values are calculated as the difference between the mutation assay Ct
and control assay Ct from the same sample. Samples are classed as mutation
positive if they give a ∆Ct less than the 1% ∆Ct value for that assay.
Page 4 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Above this value, the sample may either contain less than 1% mutation (beyond
the limit of the assays), or the sample is mutation negative.
When using ARMS primers some inefficient priming may occur, giving a very late
background Ct from DNA not containing a mutation. All ∆Ct values calculated
from background amplification will be greater than the 1% ∆Ct values and the
sample will be classed mutation negative.
The K-RAS Kit is CE marked for in vitro diagnostic use on either the Roche
Diagnostics LightCycler® 480 Real-Time PCR System (Instrument II)
(LightCycler® 480 Instrument) 96 well format, Roche Part Number: 05015278001
or Applied BioSystems 7500 Real-Time PCR System, part number 4351105
(ABI7500).
For the LightCycler® 480 Instrument, the K-RAS Kit must be used in combination
with the LightCycler® Adapt Software v1.1 for the TheraScreen® K-RAS
Mutation Kit CE-IVD (LightCycler® Adapt Software). This software has been
developed to automate the calling of a positive or negative amplification plot and
computes a suitable threshold from which to obtain Ct values. These are used to
calculate sample ∆Ct values, which are compared with the 1% cut-off values. The
software reports a positive or negative mutation result and removes any
subjectivity from the analysis and interpretation of the K-RAS Kit data.
K-RAS Kit Format
Eight assays are supplied in the K-RAS Kit.
• One control assay.
• Seven mutation assays.
All reaction mixes contain an exogenous control (internal control) assay labelled
with HEX (to be detected by the JOE detector on the ABI7500). This controls for
the presence of inhibitors which may lead to false negative results.
Control assay
The control assay, labelled with FAM, is used to assess the total DNA in a sample.
The control assay amplifies a region of exon 4 of the K-RAS gene.
The primers and probe have been designed to avoid any known K-RAS
polymorphisms.
Mutation assays
Each mutation assay, labelled with FAM, contains one Scorpion plus one ARMS
primer, for discrimination between the wild-type DNA and the mutant DNA
detected by a real-time PCR assay.
Page 5 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
4. Reagents
This K-RAS Kit contains sufficient reagents to perform quality assessment of
samples and run the K-RAS assays for up to 20 or 80 reactions, dependent on kit
size.
Kit Size
DxS Product Code
Roche Diagnostics
Ordering Number
20 Reactions
KR-21
05366216190
80 Reactions
KR-22
05366224190
The number of samples that can be tested is dependent on sample batch size.
Table 2: K-RAS Kit Contents
20 reactions 80 reactions
Volume
Volume
Control Reaction Mix 1300 µl
5200 µl
12ALA Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
12ASP Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
12ARG Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
12CYS Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
12SER Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
12VAL Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
13ASP Reaction Mix
650 µl
2600 µl
Mixed standard
300 µl
1000 µl
Taq DNA polymerase
60 µl
240 µl
Reagents Supplied
Tube
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Equipment and Reagents Not Supplied With K-RAS Kit
The user will require the following equipment and consumables:
• The LightCycler® 480 Instrument or the ABI7500 Real-time PCR Machine,
capable of cycling as defined in Section 9; K-RAS Mutation Detection
Protocol.
• The LightCycler® Adapt Software v1.1 from Roche Diagnostics (Catalogue
# 05474914001).
• 0.2 ml DNAse-free PCR plates (LightCycler® 480 Instrument Multiwell
Plate 96, catalogue number 04729692 001, or ABI MicroAmp Optical 96well reaction Plate, part number 4306737, with MicroAmp Optical
Adhesive Film, part number 4311971).
• Sterile tubes for preparing master mixes.
• Dedicated pipettes for PCR mix preparation.
• Dedicated pipettes for dispensing of DNA template.
• Sterile, nuclease-free H20.
Page 6 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
™ For In Vitro Diagnostic Use.
™ The K-RAS Kit is not intended to screen for or to diagnose any type of
cancer including colorectal cancer. It is intended to be used as an adjunct to
other prognostic factors currently used to select patients who would not
benefit from anti-EGFR cancer therapies.
™ Therapy for cancer patients should not be based on K-RAS gene mutation
status alone. A clinician should consider the mutation status of the patient
alongside other disease factors.
™ The contents of the K-RAS Kit may be freeze-thawed up to 8 times without
an adverse effect on assay performance. DO NOT freeze-thaw the K-RAS Kit
reagents more than 8 times.
™ Note that tumour samples are non-homogeneous and data from a sample of
tumour may not be concordant with other sections from the same tumour.
Tumour samples may also contain non-tumour tissue. DNA from nontumour tissue would not be expected to contain the K-RAS mutations
detected by the K-RAS Kit
™ All assays in the K-RAS Kit generate short PCR products. However, the
K-RAS Kit will not work on heavily fragmented DNA.
™ DNA assessment should be based on PCR and may differ from quantification
based on Optical Density readings. Additional control reaction mix is
supplied to allow assessment of quality and quantity of the DNA in samples
before running the K-RAS Kit.
™ Reagents for the K-RAS Kit have been diluted optimally. Further dilution of
the reagent is not recommended and will result in a loss of performance. Use
of less than 25 µl reaction volumes is not recommended and will increase the
risk of false negatives.
™ All reagents in the K-RAS Kit are formulated specifically for use with the
stated tests. No substitutions should be made to the K-RAS Kit reagents if
optimal performance is to be maintained.
™ To ensure optimal activity and performance Scorpions primers (as with all
fluorescently labelled molecules) should be protected from light to avoid
photo bleaching.
™ Use extreme caution to prevent contamination of PCR reactions with
synthetic control material. It is recommended that separate, dedicated
pipettes be used for setting up reaction mixes and adding DNA template. The
preparation and dispensing of reaction mixes should be carried out in a
separate area to the addition of template. Tubes should never be opened
after a PCR reaction.
Page 7 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
™ Each assay included in the K-RAS Kit has its own characteristics. Calculation
of the result must be made with reference to the correct assay parameters,
(see Report/Data Interpretation section).
™ Mutation Ct values of 38 or above must be scored as negative or below the
limits of the kit.
™ The assays contain an exogenous control reaction (internal control) in
addition to the reaction of interest (see Technological Principles section). If
both assays have failed the data must be discarded as there may be inhibitors
present that could lead to false negative results. Diluting the sample may
reduce the effect of inhibitors but it should be noted that this would also
dilute down the DNA.
™ General laboratory precautions should be used, including but not limited to:
a) Do not pipette by mouth
b) Do not smoke, eat or drink in areas where specimens or kit
reagents are being handled
c) Wash hands after performing the test
™ Only use the Taq polymerase (Taq) that is provided in the kit, do not
substitute with Taq from other kits of the same or any other type, or with
Taq from another supplier.
™ Only thaw the reagents required for each run, do not thaw the whole kit each
time, in order to minimise the amount of freeze/thaw cycles.
Safety Information
Caution: All chemicals and biological material should be considered as potentially
hazardous. Specimens are potentially infectious and should be treated accordingly.
The K-RAS Kit should be used only by those persons who have been trained in
the appropriate laboratory techniques. When working with the components of
this K-RAS Kit always wear a suitable lab coat, disposable gloves and safety glasses.
After use, K-RAS Kit components should be disposed of as clinical waste.
6. Storage, Stability and Shipping Conditions
Storage
All the contents of the K-RAS Kit should be stored immediately upon receipt at
-18oC to -25˚C, in the dark in a constant temperature freezer. Avoid unnecessary
freeze thawing of the contents of the K-RAS Kit.
Page 8 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Stability
Do not use the K-RAS Kit after the stated expiry date. The contents of the
K-RAS Kit are stable until the expiry date when stored under the recommended
storage conditions and in the original packaging.
The contents of the K-RAS Kit may be freeze-thawed up to 8 times without an
adverse effect on assay performance. DO NOT freeze-thaw the K-RAS Kit
reagents more than 8 times.
Shipping Conditions
The contents of the K-RAS Kit are shipped on dry ice and should still be frozen on
arrival. If the K-RAS Kit is not frozen on arrival, the outer packaging has been
opened during transit, the shipment does not contain a packing note, instructions
for use or the reagents, please contact your local Roche Diagnostics Office; see
section 12, Technical Assistance for Contact Details.
7. Instrument.
Refer to the instrument user manual for complete instructions on the installation
and use of the real-time PCR instrument.
8. Specimens
Specimen material must be human genomic DNA, extracted from formalin fixed
paraffin embedded colorectal tumour samples.
Specimen Collection and Preparation
1. Specimen Transport: Standard pathology methodology to ensure specimen
quality.
2. Recommended Sample Extraction Process: DNA extraction, using the Qiagen
QIAamp® DNA FFPE tissue kit (catalogue number 56404).
The following amendments to the Qiagen protocol must be used:•
•
FFPE sections must be collected onto glass slides.
Excess paraffin must be scraped away from around the tissue sections
using a fresh, sterile scalpel.
• Scrape tissue section material into micro centrifuge tubes using a fresh
scalpel for each sample to be extracted.
• Proteinase K digestion must be continued until completion. This may
take up to 48 hours.
• The samples must be eluted into 200 µl of ATE buffer from the Qiagen
extraction kit.
Any alternative methods of sample preparation must be validated by the enduser.
3. Extracted DNA storage: Store at -20˚C, prior to analysis.
Page 9 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Sample Assessment Protocol
The extra control assay mix supplied with the K-RAS Kit must be used to assess
the total DNA in a sample. The control assay amplifies a region of exon 4 of the
K-RAS gene. Samples should be set up with only the control assay using the
mixed standard as a positive control and water as the no template control. Note
that to obtain the optimal use of the reagents in the K-RAS kit samples should be
batched. All experimental runs must contain controls. If samples are tested
individually this will use up more reagents and reduce the number of samples that
can be tested with the K-RAS Kit.
Sample Assessment Protocol-Plate Setup
1. Thaw the control reaction mix and mixed standard from the K-RAS Kit, at
room temperature. Mix each solution by inverting each tube 10 times, once
thawed, to avoid localised concentrations of salts. Prepare sufficient mixes for
the DNA samples, one mixed standard reaction and one no template control
reaction, plus an excess of 2 reactions.
2.
To make the master mix use the amounts of reagents per reaction as given in
Table 3.
Table 3: Control Assay Master Mix Volumes
Assay
Control assay
Master Mix
Reaction Mix (µl)x1
Taq (µl)x1
19.8
0.2
3.
DO NOT vortex the Taq, or any reaction mixes that contain Taq, as this may
cause inactivation of the enzyme.
4.
Ensure that the Taq is at room temperature before use. Spin the vial to
ensure all the Taq is collected at the bottom of the vial then pipette by placing
the pipette tip just under the surface of the Taq, to minimise the risk of the
tip getting coated in excess Taq.
5.
Mix the master mix by gently pipetting up and down.
6.
Immediately add 20 µl of the control master mix to each of the reaction wells.
7.
Immediately add 5 µl of sample, mixed standard or water (for the no template
controls) to the reaction wells.
8.
The plate must be set up with the mixed standard added to well A1 and no
template control (water) added to A2. All other wells in use must contain the
samples.
9.
Seal and spin the PCR plate briefly to collect the reagents at the bottom of
the wells.
Page 10 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
10. Follow the instrument setup for the appropriate platform.
Sample Assessment Protocol – LightCycler® 480 Instrument Setup
1.
Immediately place the plate into the LightCycler® 480 Instrument.
2.
Select the LightCycler® 480 Software icon on the desktop of the workstation
attached to the instrument. Log into the software and from the ‘Overview’
screen select ‘New Experiment from Template’. From the run templates
listed choose ‘K-RAS LC480II Run Template’. This template will have the
following parameters:1.
Detection Format is ‘DxS IVD Assays’.
2.
Reaction Volume is 25.
3.
An initial hold step at 95˚C for 4 minutes.
4.
A 2-step amplification for 45 cycles with a denaturation at
95˚C for 30 seconds and annealing at 60˚C for 1 minute.
The fluorescence acquisition is a single acquisition at the
60˚C step.
3.
Select the ‘Sample Editor’ tab and under ‘Step 1: Select Workflow’ select
the ‘Abs Quant’ tick box. Under ‘Select Filter Combinations’, ensure both
filters are selected (465-510 nm and 533-580 nm). Set up the samples
names under Step 2 and Step 3. The Quantification Sample Type should be
set as ‘unknown’. The replicate column should be left blank.
4.
Select the ‘Experiment’ button and click the ‘Start Run’ button to save the
experiment and start the cycling.
5.
On completion of the run, select the ‘Analysis’ tab and chose ‘Abs
Quant/2nd Derivative Max’ from the ‘Create New Analysis’ window.
Accept the defaults from the ‘Create New Analysis’ Screen. Ensure that
the ‘Filter Comb’ button is ‘465-510’ and select the ‘Calculate’ button. Ct
values are displayed in the ‘Samples’ table.
6.
Select the ‘Filter Comb’ button and change the filters to 533-580 nm.
Select the ‘Calculate’ button and obtain the exogenous control Ct values
from the ‘Samples’ table.
Page 11 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Sample Assessment Protocol-ABI7500 Instrument Setup
1. Immediately place the plate into the ABI7500 instrument.
2. Select the 7500 System Software icon on the desktop of the workstation
attached to the instrument. Open a new run file from the file menu in the
7500 Sequence Detection Software version 1.4.
3. Under ‘Assay’ select ‘Standard Curve (Absolute Quantification)’. Under ‘Run
Mode’ select ‘Standard 7500’.
4. Move to the detector setup window by selecting the ‘Next’ button. Add a
FAM and a JOE detector, with quenchers set to ‘none’, to the detectors list.
If these detectors do not already exist select the ‘New Detectors’ button and
set up a FAM and a JOE detector with the quencher set to ‘none’.
5. Set the ‘Passive Reference’ to ‘None’ and select the ‘Next’ button.
6. Select the entire plate and check the tick boxes for the FAM and JOE
detectors to ensure that both dyes are monitored in each well. Select the
‘Finish’ button.
7. Under the ‘Instrument’ tab set up the cycling as given in Table 4.
Table 4: ABI7500 Cycling Conditions
Temperature
Stage 1
95oC
Stage 2
95oC
60oC
Time
Cycles
4 min
1
30 sec
1 min
40
Data Collection
FAM, JOE
8. Select the ‘Start’ button to save the experiment and start the cycling.
9. On completion of the run ensure that the passive reference is set to ‘none’ in
the well inspector screen. In the Amplification Plot tab select all the wells in
use and select the JOE dye from the detector drop down menu.
10. Check the JOE signal from each sample and compare to the JOE signal in the
NTC well. Note any samples that have a later amplification curve or failed
amplification for the exogenous control as compared to the NTC.
11. In the Amplification Plot tab select all the wells in use and select the FAM
from the detector drop down menu. Use the automatic baseline setting
manual Ct and then set the threshold manually in the middle of
exponential phase, using the log scale for the Y axis, as described in
ABI7500 user guide.
Page 12 of 38
dye
and
the
the
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
12. Select the ‘Analyse’ button to obtain Ct values.
Sample Assessment Interpretation
Assess the NTC Ct values to ensure that there is no contamination giving a
positive amplification in the FAM channel (Ct less than 40) or a failed exogenous
control reaction in the HEX channel (no Ct), indicating a setup problem. The
mixed standard should give a control assay Ct (FAM channel) of 26-29 on the
ABI7500 and ≤ 29 on the LightCycler® 480 Instrument. Data should not be used
if either of these 2 run controls has failed.
Control assay Ct 29-35: Interpret with caution as very low level mutations may
not be detected.
Control assay Ct 35-38. Only a few amplifiable copies of DNA are present in such
samples and mutations are only likely to be seen if most copies are mutated.
Control assay Ct ≥ 38: Reject sample, as there is minimal DNA present and the
K-RAS Kit will not be able to detect mutations.
Note that if a sample gives a late control assay Ct, the sample exogenous control
Ct should be compared with the exogenous control of the NTC. If the
exogenous control of the sample is delayed or negative, as compared to the NTC,
an inhibitor may be present. It is possible to reduce the effect of an inhibitor by
diluting the sample, although this will also dilute the DNA.
Sample Dilution: A Control Ct of < 24 will overload the mutation assays.
Samples with a control Ct of < 24 must be diluted. It should be noted that, for
the LightCycler® 480 Instrument, Ct values obtained through the 2nd derivative
method may be slightly different to those obtained with LightCycler® Adapt
Software. It is recommended that concentrated samples are diluted to fall within
the >24 but < 29 range (Ct values based on the 7500 Sequence Detection
Software or LightCycler® 480 Instrument Software) using the basis that diluting ½
will increase the Ct by 1.
Page 13 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
9. K-RAS Mutation Detection Protocol
™ Read these instructions carefully and become familiar with all components
of the K-RAS Kit prior to use.
To use the K-RAS Kit efficiently samples must be batched into a batch size of 10
(to fill one 96 well plate). Smaller batch sizes will mean that fewer samples can be
tested with the K-RAS Kit.
LightCycler® 480 Instrument Experimental Setup
For each DNA sample the control and mutation assays must be analysed on the
same PCR run to avoid run-to-run variations.
1. Thaw the reaction mixes and mixed standard from the K-RAS Kit, at
room temperature. Mix each solution by inverting each tube 10 times,
once thawed, to avoid localised concentrations of salts. Prepare sufficient
mixes for the DNA samples, the mixed standard and no template
controls, plus an excess of 2 reactions per mix as shown in Table 5.
Table 5: K-RAS Master Mix volumes
Assay
Control assay
Mutation assays
Reaction Mix (µl)x1
19.8
19.8
Master Mixes
Reaction Mix (µl)
Taq (µl)x1
per plate (x14)
0.2
0.2
Taq (µl)per plate
277.2
277.2
(x14)
2.8
2.8
2. DO NOT vortex the Taq, or any reaction mixes that contain Taq, as this
may cause inactivation of the enzyme.
3. Ensure that the Taq is at room temperature before use. Spin the vial to
ensure that all the Taq is collected at the bottom, then pipette by placing
the pipette tip just under the surface of the Taq, to minimise the risk of
the tip getting coated in excess Taq.
4. Mix the master mixes by gently pipetting up and down.
5. Immediately add 20 µl of the master mixes to the reaction wells.
6. Immediately add 5 µl of sample, mixed standard or water (for the no
template controls) to the reaction wells. Each DNA sample must be
tested with both the control and all mutation assays. The plate setup is
given in Table 6.
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table 6: K-RAS Kit Plate Layout
96 well layout
Assay
A
Control
B
12ALA
C
12ASP
D
12ARG
E
12CYS
F
12SER
G
12VAL
H
13ASP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
7. Seal and spin the PCR plate briefly to collect the reagents at the bottom of the
wells.
8. Immediately place the plate into the LightCycler® 480 instrument.
LightCycler® 480 Instrument Setup
1. Select the LightCycler® 480 Instrument software icon on the desktop of the
workstation attached to the instrument. Log into the software and from the
overview page select ‘New Experiment from Template’.
2. Choose the ‘K-RAS LC480II Run Template’ from the Run Templates list (see
LightCycler® 480 Instrument sample assessment section for details).
3. Select the ‘Sample Editor’ tab and under ‘Step 1: Select Workflow’ select the
‘Abs Quant’ tick box. Under ‘Select Filter Combinations’ ensure both filters
are selected (465-510 nm and 533-580 nm). Set up the samples names under
Step 2 and Step 3. In column 1 the sample name must be Mixed Standard. In
column 2 the sample name must be NTC. In columns 3-12 sample names
should be entered. The names must be identical for all wells in 1 column. The
Quantification Sample Type should be set as ‘unknown’. The replicate column
should be left blank as replicates are not taken into account by the
LightCycler® Adapt Software.
4. Select the ‘Experiment’ button and click the ‘Start Run’ button to save the
experiment and start the cycling.
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
LightCycler® 480 Instrument Sample Analysis
1. On completion of the LightCycler® 480 Instrument run, using the navigator
window, export the experiment (.ixo file) to a suitable location that can be
accessed by the LightCycler® Adapt Software.
2. IMPORTANT: The LightCycler® Adapt Software is validated for use on a single
computer system which is defined as a single control unit (workstation)
provided by Roche Diagnostics for use with a single LightCycler® 480
Instrument II. This validation of the LightCycler® Adapt Software is currently
only for the control unit which is a “standalone” computer (i.e. not part of a
network). The use of any other computer is prohibited as the software may not
perform as intended.
3. Open the LightCycler® Adapt Software by clicking on the LightCycler® Adapt
Software icon on the desktop of the workstation and fill in the username field.
This name will be entered as the report author.
4. In the main window use the browser button to select a single LightCycler® 480
Instrument run file (To remove a selection the software must be closed and reopened).
5. Select a report type (pdf or csv).
automatically created in addition.
If csv is chosen then a pdf version is
6. Select ‘Analyse’ to create the results report. The report is saved automatically
in the folder containing the run file and is given the same name as the run file.
7. The report will be displayed automatically.
8. The reportable result is displayed in the ‘Mutation Status’ column of the
‘Sample Result Table’.
LightCycler® Adapt Software Report Interpretation
1. The LightCycler® Adapt Software report contains general information about
the analysis.
1.1. The report author is the person who has run the software and created
the report.
1.2. The date and time of analysis is given.
2. The report gives an analysis overview detailing the run file name used plus the
algorithm definition file and algorithm sequence. The algorithm details are fixed
and cannot be altered.
3. The results section details the full name and file path of the LightCycler® 480
Instrument run plus the following details:
3.1. The LightCycler® 480 Instrument serial number.
3.2. Instrument Name-the identifier given to the LightCycler® 480 Instrument
in the LightCycler® 480 Instrument software.
Page 16 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
3.3. Run Date-Date and time of the LightCycler® 480 Instrument run.
3.4. Run Operator-the name of the person who was logged onto the
LightCycler® 480 Instrument software when the experiment was run.
3.5. Experiment Name-Run file name.
3.6. Software Version-version of the software used on the LightCycler® 480
Instrument.
3.7. Lot Number-taken from the ‘Lot No’ field in the experiment setup screen
in the LightCycler® 480 Instrument software.
4. The plate layout is given with sample names taken from the LightCycler® 480
Instrument software sample editor screen.
5. A ‘Run Summary Result’ is given where the run is called as Valid or Invalid.
This is dependent on the run controls in columns 1 and 2.
6. Run Controls
6.1. The LightCycler® Adapt Software automatically calculates the ∆Ct value
for the mixed standard using the formula
Mutation Ct-Control Ct=∆Ct
6.2. The LightCycler® Adapt Software compares the values with the expected
values given in Table 7.
Table 7: LightCycler® Adapt Software Expected ∆Ct values
Assay Mixed Standard ∆ Ct
12ALA
-0.61
12ASP
-0.61
12ARG
0.34
12CYS
-0.79
12SER
-0.13
12VAL
0.1
13ASP
-0.74
6.3. The Ct and ∆Ct values are reported.
6.4. The following Flags/Warnings are reported for the run controls in
columns 1 and 2:Table 8: LightCycler® Adapt Software Flags/Warnings for the Run Controls
Flags/Warning
CT_OUT_OF_RANGE
EXO_FAIL
DELTA_CT_OUT_OF_RANGE
EXO_CONTROL_INVALID
TARGET_CHANNEL_INVALID
Meaning
FAM Ct for Control assay is out of range
For the mixed standard the exogenous control Ct<30 or is
negative when the FAM result is negative
Mutation ∆Ct values are outside of the set range.
The exogenous control reaction has failed in an NTC
The FAM reaction has a positive Ct value in an NTC
Page 17 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
6.4.1.
6.4.1.1.
6.4.1.2.
6.4.1.3.
6.4.1.4.
6.4.1.5.
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
The meanings of the Flags/Warnings are given in more detail
below:CT_OUT_OF_RANGE- The control assay for the mixed
standard must have a Ct value of 26.60 ± 2. If the assay is out
of this range this Flag/Warning is displayed for all mixed
standard wells, as ∆Ct values are not calculated, and the
mixed standard is invalid. This indicates that the control assay
is not working correctly.
EXO_FAIL-This Flag/Warning is displayed if the exogenous
control assay in any of the mixed standard wells is below 30
as this may indicate that PCR contamination is present in this
mix. If the exogenous control assay fails when a FAM reaction
fails in any of the mixed standard wells the EXO_FAIL
Flag/Warning is also displayed. This indicates that there is a
problem with this assay, which could lead to false negative
results. The mixed standard is already invalidated due to the
FAM failure.
DELTA_CT_OUT_OF_RANGE-If the Mixed Standard ∆Ct
values are within ±2.00 of the values given in Table 7 the
software will report a valid status. If the ∆Ct is beyond the
expected range the status will be invalid and this Flag/Warning
will be displayed. This indicates a problem with an assay that
could lead to false results.
EXO_CONTROL_INVALID-In the no template control wells
the exogenous control assay must give a positive result in all 8
wells (Ct <41).
If a negative result is obtained this
Flag/Warning is displayed and an invalid status shown. This
indicates a problem with the assay, which could lead to false
results.
TARGET_CHANNEL_INVALID-In the 8 no template control
wells the FAM result must be negative (Ct >38). Any
amplification indicates contamination. A positive result will
lead to this Flag/Warning being displayed and will invalidate
the no template control.
6.5. In the case of an invalid status for any of the mixed standard wells or the
no template control wells the Run Summary Result will be ‘Run Invalid’. In
the ‘Sample Result Table’ sample names and control Ct values will be
reported but the mutation status will be reported as ‘invalid’. The mixed
standard indicates that all assays are working correctly. If this is shown
not to be the case it can lead to a false positive or false negative mutation
call. The no template control indicates that there is no contamination in
the master mixes and that the exogenous control is working as expected.
6.6. In the unlikely event that the LightCycler® Adapt Software develops an
error message please refer to Technical Assistance, Section 12.
Page 18 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
7. Sample Results
7.1. The ‘Sample Result Table’ reports sample names, taken from the
LightCycler® 480 Instrument software, and control assay Ct values.
7.2. The LightCycler® 480 Adapt Software will calculate ∆Ct values and
determine whether a sample is mutation positive or negative based on 1%
cut-off values given in Table 9.
Table 9: LightCycler® Adapt Software 1% Cut-off Values
Assay 1% delta Ct
12ALA
6.25
12ASP
7.72
12ARG
6.83
12CYS
6.95
12SER
8.95
12VAL
6.5
13ASP
9.09
7.3. If a mutation ∆Ct value for a sample is below the corresponding 1% ∆Ct
cut-off value the sample is called mutation positive. The LightCycler®
Adapt Software will report which mutation is present but will only report
a single mutation. If there are 2 positive ∆Ct values the smallest value will
be reported. It is assumed that the second value has been produced
through cross reactivity of one mutation primer binding and priming from
a different mutation. In rare cases where a double mutation is present
the clinical decision will be identical to the case where a single mutation is
present.
7.4. If the sample ∆Ct values are greater than the 1% ∆Ct values the sample is
reported as mutation negative (may contain a mutation but this is at a
level that is below the limits of the kit).
7.5. Flags/Warnings
7.5.1. The LightCycler® Adapt Software will report a number of
Flags/Warnings for the samples in the ‘Sample Result Table’ as
described in Table 10.
Table 10: LightCycler® Adapt Software Sample Flags/Warnings
Flag/Warning
REP_DILUTION
CONF_LEVEL
LIMITED
EXO_FAIL
FAIL
7.5.2.
Meaning
The Control Ct is less than 24
Control Ct is greater than 28.9 and no mutation is reported
The control Ct is greater than 35
The exogenous control assay has failed when the FAM reaction has also failed
in a mutation reaction, or the exogenous control Ct is less than 30.
The software is unable to call a curve as positive or negative
The meanings of the Flags/Warnings are given in more detail
below:Page 19 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
7.5.2.1. REP_DILUTION-Control Ct <24. The assays have been
validated to a level of DNA that gives a control Ct of 24 or
above. If a sample gives a lower control assay Ct it should be
diluted to ensure that it falls within the valid working range.
7.5.2.2. CONF_LEVEL-Control Ct >28.9.
A CONF_LEVEL
Flag/Warning will be displayed in a negative sample with a
control Ct >28.9. Mutation Ct values are classed as negative
or beyond the limits of the kit when they are greater than or
equal to 38. It is necessary to have a control Ct of 28.9 or
below to provide enough DNA to enable 1% mutation to be
detected, given the 1% cut-off values and Ct cut-off value of
38. If the Control Ct is greater than 28.9 and a mutation is
detected, the positive mutation is displayed and this
Flag/Warning is not displayed as this sample contains a definite
mutation. However, if the control Ct is above 28.9 and the
sample appears to be mutation negative, this Flag/Warning is
displayed to warn that low level mutations may have been
missed. As the control Ct increases above 28.9 the sensitivity
of mutation detection decreases.
7.5.2.3. LIMITED-Control Ct >35. This indicates that there is very
little amplifiable DNA available so only mutations present at a
high percentage can be detected. In LIMITED samples, if a
positive mutation gives a Ct <38 the mutation will still be
given a valid status and will be reported. The presence of low
level mutations in a sample with a negative result and
LIMITED Flag/Warning cannot be discounted.
7.5.2.4. EXO_FAIL- The software checks for amplification of the
exogenous control assay to establish whether there could be
an inhibitor present, which could lead to a false negative
result. The following logic is used:a. The exogenous control reaction will be assessed only in the
mutation reaction wells, not in the control assay well, with
the exception of the mixed standard and NTC columns
(see point 6) or if there is an exogenous control Ct <30.
b. If there is a positive mutation call but the exogenous
control assay has failed in the mutation positive well the
EXO_FAIL Flag/Warning is not displayed as there could be
competitive inhibition from the FAM reaction.
The
mutation status is valid.
c. If there is a positive mutation call for a sample in one
mutation well and an exogenous control assay failure in a
different mutation well for the same sample, the mutation
in the first well will be called and the result is valid.
However, an EXO_FAIL Flag/Warning will be displayed.
This indicates that there is a problem with the assay in the
exogenous control assay failure well and a mutation may
have been missed in this well.
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
It is possible that the mutation called is cross reactivity
between the assays rather than the true mutation, which
has been missed. However, the mutation status in the
assay reporting the positive mutation call remains valid as
there is a clear mutation present and the clinical decision
remains the same regardless of which mutation is present.
d. If the sample is called negative but an exogenous control
reaction has failed in any of the mutation assays the
EXO_FAIL Flag/Warning will be displayed and the status is
invalid. It is possible that a mutation may have been missed.
e. If the exogenous control assay Ct is <30 in any of the 8
wells an EXO_FAIL Flag/Warning will be displayed and the
status will be invalid. It is possible that there is PCR
product contamination in this assay.
f. The LightCycler® 480 Instrument run file can be checked
to establish the possible cause of exogenous control assay
fails. If all the exogenous control reactions have failed in a
column an inhibitor could be present. If it has failed in just 1
well there may be a plate setup problem.
7.5.2.5. FAIL- A FAIL Flag/Warning is displayed when the software is
unable to determine an amplification curve as positive or
negative, for example if the curve shape is abnormal.
7.5.3. The LightCycler® Adapt Software checks that the sample name
within a column is identical, in order to ensure that the mutation
and control assay Ct values used to calculate ∆Ct values are
from the same sample. The sample names are taken from the
LightCycler® 480 Instrument sample editor screen in the
experiment run file. If there is a mismatch down the column the
software reports SAMPLE MISMATCH in the Sample Name
column in the Sample Result Table. In the plate layout, the
software reports the sample name followed by (MISMATCH). If
this is a typing error the name can be corrected in the
LightCycler® 480 Instrument run file and the data reanalysed
with the LightCycler® Adapt Software.
Page 21 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
ABI7500 Experimental Setup
For each DNA sample the control and mutation assays must be analysed on the
same PCR run to avoid run-to-run variations.
1. Thaw the reaction mixes and mixed standard from the K-RAS Kit, at
room temperature. Mix each solution by inverting each tube 10 times,
once thawed, to avoid localised concentrations of salts. Prepare sufficient
mixes for the DNA samples, the mixed standard and no template
controls, plus an excess of 2 reactions per mix as shown in Table 11.
Table 11: K-RAS Master Mix Volumes
Assay
Control assay
Mutation assays
Reaction Mix (µl)x1
19.8
19.8
Master Mixes
Reaction Mix (µl)
Taq (µl)x1
per plate (x14)
0.2
0.2
Taq (µl)per plate
277.2
277.2
(x14)
2.8
2.8
2. DO NOT vortex the Taq, or any reaction mixes that contain Taq, as this
may cause inactivation of the enzyme.
3. Ensure that the Taq is at room temperature before use. Spin the vial to
ensure that all the Taq is collected at the bottom, then pipette by placing
the pipette tip just under the surface of the Taq, to minimise the risk of
the tip getting coated in excess Taq.
4. Mix the master mixes by gently pipetting up and down.
5. Immediately add 20µl of the master mixes to the reaction wells.
6. Immediately add 5µl of sample, mixed standard or water (for the no
template controls) to the reaction wells. Each DNA sample must be
tested with both the control and mutation assays. The plate setup is given
in Table 12.
Page 22 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table 12: ABI7500 K-RAS Plate Layout
96 well layout
Assay
A
Control
B
12ALA
C
12ASP
D
12ARG
E
12CYS
F
12SER
G
12VAL
H
13ASP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1
Sample 2 Sample 3
Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Mixed
standard
NTC
Sample1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
7. Seal and spin the PCR plate briefly to collect the reagents at the bottom of the
wells.
8. Immediately place the plate into the ABI7500 instrument.
ABI7500 Instrument Setup
1. Select the 7500 System Software icon on the desktop of the workstation
attached to the instrument. Open a new run file from the file menu using the
7500 Sequence Detection Software version 1.4.
2.
Under ‘Assay’ select ‘Standard Curve (Absolute Quantification)’. Under ‘Run
Mode’ select ‘Standard 7500’.
3.
Move to the detector setup window by selecting the ‘Next’ button. Add a
FAM and a JOE detector, with quenchers set to ‘none’, to the detectors list.
If these detectors do not already exist select the ‘New Detectors’ button and
set up a FAM and a JOE detector with the quencher set to ‘none’.
4.
Set the ‘Passive Reference’ to ‘None’ and select the ‘Next’ button.
5.
Select the entire plate and check the tick boxes for the FAM and JOE
detectors to ensure that both dyes are monitored in each well. Select the
‘Finish’ button.
6.
Under the ‘Instrument’ tab set up the cycling as given in Table 13.
Page 23 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table13: ABI7500 Cycling Conditions
Temperature
Stage 1
95oC
Stage 2
95oC
60oC
7.
Time
Cycles
4 min
1
30 sec
1 min
40
Data Collection
FAM, JOE
Select the ‘Start’ button to save the experiment and start the cycling.
ABI7500 Sample Analysis
1. Ensure that the passive reference is set to ‘none’ in the well inspector screen.
2.
Check that each well gives a JOE signal from the exogenous control assay.
a. If the exogenous control assay gives a positive result continue with the
analysis.
b. If the exogenous control assay has failed but the FAM reaction has
amplified strongly, continue with the analysis as the FAM reaction has outcompeted the exogenous control reaction.
c. If both the FAM and exogenous control reactions have failed the data
must be discarded, as there may be inhibitors present. These inhibitors
could lead to false negative results.
3.
In the Amplification Plot tab select all the wells in use and select the FAM dye
from the detector drop down menu. Use the automatic baseline setting and
manual Ct and then set the threshold manually in the middle of the
exponential phase, using the log scale for the Y axis, as described in the ABI
7500 user guide.
4.
Analyse the data and calculate the ∆Ct value as follows
[sample mutation assay Ct] – [sample control assay Ct] =∆Ct
Data can be exported to Microsoft Excel for ease of analysis.
ABI7500 Data Interpretation
1. Control Ct values:
1.1. The control Ct value must be ≥24 to avoid overloading the assay.
1.2. Control Ct <29: the K-RAS Kit is capable of detecting as little as
mutation in these samples.
1.3. In samples with a control Ct ≥29, the kit will not detect as low as
mutation, but will still be able to detect higher level mutations.
1.4. Control Ct ≥35, only a few amplifiable copies of DNA are present in
sample and mutations are only likely to be seen if most copies
mutated.
1.5. Control Ct ≥38, the DNA is limiting and data must not be used.
Page 24 of 38
1%
1%
the
are
For Diagnostic Use Only
2.
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Mixed Standard ∆Ct values
2.1. The mixed standard ∆Ct values should be as given in Table 14, but
variations of ±2 may occur due to different threshold settings on different
instruments.
Table 14: ABI7500 Mixed Standard ∆Ct values and 1% Cut-off Points
Assays
12ALA
12ASP
12ARG
12CYS
12SER
12VAL
13ASP
3.
Mixed Standard
∆Ct
-0.70
-1.04
-0.02
-0.98
0.02
-0.19
-1.12
Mixed Standard
acceptable range
-2.70 to 1.30
-3.04 to 0.96
-2.02 to 1.98
-2.98 to 1.02
-1.98 to 2.02
-2.19 to 1.81
-3.12 to 0.88
Sample 1%
∆Ct
6.5
8
8
7
9
6.5
9
Sample ∆Ct values:
3.1. If the sample ∆Ct value is greater than the 1% value (as indicated in Table
14) the DNA sample is classed as mutation negative or below the limits of
the K-RAS Kit.
3.2. If the sample ∆Ct is less than the 1% value the DNA sample is classed
mutation positive.
3.3. Mutation Ct values of 38 or above must be scored as negative or below
the limits of the kit.
10. Limitations of the Test
It is necessary to have a sample control assay Ct of <29 on the ABI7500 and 28.9
on the LightCycler® 480 Instrument to detect 1% mutation in a background of
wild-type DNA. The assays will not be able to detect 1% mutation in samples with
greater control Ct values and sensitivity of mutation detection will decrease as the
control Ct increases above these values.
The Control Ct value of sample DNA is based on the concentration as
determined by PCR. Values based on Optical Density readings do not correspond
to control assay Ct values in fragmented DNA samples. Additional control
reaction mix is supplied to allow assessment of the sample Ct’s before running the
kit.
If a sample gives a mutation positive result where the mutation Ct ≥38 the assay
must be scored as negative or below the limits of the kit. This is carried out
automatically by the LightCycler® Adapt Software
Page 25 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Some cross reactivity may occur between mutation reactions. For example, if a
high level 12ALA mutation is seen some of the other mutation reactions will also
give a positive result. This is due to the ARMS primers detecting other mutations
within a few bases of one another. On synthetic control material the cross
reactivity forms a readable pattern on the ABI7500 that allows the true positive to
be determined from several signals (see Table 15).
Table 15: Cross reactivity Pattern on the ABI7500 from Synthetic Control Material
Yes indicates the true signal. Numbers indicate the approximate number of cycles
after the true signal, that a cross reactivity signal may be seen. Beyond 9 cycles
values have not been entered as these will be in the negative zone.
Positive Sample
12ALA
12ASP
12ARG
12CYS
12SER
12VAL
13ASP
12ALA 12ASP 12ARG 12CYS 12SER 12VAL 13ASP
signal signal
signal
signal Signal signal signal
Yes
9
6
3
6
9
Yes
Yes
7
4
Yes
9
6
9
Yes
8
4
Yes
Yes
Note: The cross reactivity pattern may be different on DNA samples, e.g. paraffin
embedded DNA samples.
The K-RAS Kit is designed to detect one mutation in a DNA sample. If a second
mutation assay gives a positive result this is likely to be cross reactivity.
However, although rare, double mutants have been observed. If the pattern does
not fit the cross reactivity pattern, further investigation may be required.
11. Assay Performance Characteristics
Assay performance has been characterised for the K-RAS Kit on the ABI7500 and
the LightCycler® 480 Instrument (using the LightCycler® Adapt Software to
obtain Ct values). A variety of tests have been performed on each instrument.
These results of these tests are summarised below.
1% Cut-off Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: The detection of 1% mutation in a background of
K-RAS mutation negative cell line DNA was determined over a range of three
different concentrations of cell line DNA to assign a cut-off ∆Ct value for each
mutation assay.
For each assay, 1% standards were tested in triplicate, on 3 separate runs, for
both the control assay and mutation assay. This was repeated by 3 different
operators. Ct values were obtained from the LightCycler® Adapt Software.
The 1% ∆Ct values were calculated from all combinations of mutation and control
Ct values over the replicates within a run.
Page 26 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
The cut-off ∆Ct values were set as the mean value over all runs and
concentrations. The results of this testing are summarised in the data
interpretation section.
ABI7500: For each assay, 1% dilutions were tested in triplicate, for 3 kit lots, on 3
separate runs, for both the control assay and mutation assay. The mixed standard
was used on each plate to ensure that the assays were performing within the
specified criteria.
The 1% ∆Ct values were calculated from averaged Ct values over the replicates
within a run and lot. The cut-off ∆Ct values were set as the mean value (to the
nearest 0.5) over all lots, runs and concentrations, for concentrations where all
replicates gave a Ct value. The results of this testing are summarised in Table 16
below.
Table 16: ABI7500 1% Cut-Off Values Validation Results
Assay
Avg
1% ∆Ct values
12ALA
6.68
6.5
12ASP
8.2
8
12ARG
8.16
8
12CYS
6.94
7
12SER
8.83
9
12VAL
7.67
7.5*
13ASP
8.89
9
* The 1% cut-off for 12Val was changed to 6.5 based on the Breakthrough study. See
discussion below.
Mixed Standard ∆Ct Determination:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: The mixed standard ∆Ct values are mean values
taken from 50 runs on which the mixed standard was tested. Ct values were
obtained from the LightCycler® 480 Adapt Software.
The expected ∆Ct values for the mixed standard are shown in the data
interpretation section.
ABI7500: Mixed standard values have been set using the mean of 422 ∆Ct values.
These were calculated over many different kit lots and runs.
The expected ∆Ct values for the mixed standard are shown in the data
interpretation section.
Breakthrough Validation: Breakthrough is defined as the non-specific amplification
in the mutation assays of a wild-type DNA target present in a particular sample.
This causes a measurable level of background noise. The breakthrough from wildtype DNA was assessed for each mutation assay. The breakthrough study ensured
that the 1% cut-off values previously established were below the breakthrough
level and would prevent reporting of a false-positive result.
Page 27 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: Ten K-RAS mutation negative cell line DNA
samples at different concentrations, 5 FFPE K-RAS mutation negative samples and
5 FFPE K-RAS mutation positive samples were tested in duplicate across 5 plates.
The mutation positive samples were positive for a single mutation and the other
mutations were used to test breakthrough. Ct values were obtained from the
LightCycler® Adapt Software and all combinations of Ct values were used to
calculate ∆Ct values.
The results from cell line DNA and FFPE samples mutation negative assays gave
∆Ct values that were all above the 1% cut-off values indicating that the 1% cut-off
values are robust. Table 17 shows the worst breakthrough levels from the 5 runs.
Table 17: Breakthrough Results
Assay
12ALA
12ASP
12ARG
12CYS
12SER
12VAL
13ASP
Worst breakthrough
∆Ct values
12.35
11.36
No breakthrough
No breakthrough
11.74
12.29
11.29
ABI 7500: Breakthrough has been assessed using pooled cell line DNA from
K-RAS mutation negative cell lines at 3 different levels of DNA. Three identical
PCR plates were tested. Each plate included 3 lots of reagents. The Mixed
Standard was used as the positive control. In addition, positive FFPE samples were
tested in duplicate. The majority of mutation positive samples are positive for one
mutation only. The other mutation assays can be used to assess breakthrough
(although some cross reactivity is expected between some assays and positive
mutations. However, this produces a known pattern). Ct values and ∆Ct values
have been obtained and compared to the 1% cut-off values.
The data from cell line DNA and FFPE samples gave ∆Ct values that were all
above the 1% cut-off values, apart from one FFPE sample that gave a ∆Ct just
below (6.84) the cut-off of 7.5. As the 1% cut-off determination data range
covered 6.84 the 1% ∆Ct value for the 12VAL assay was changed from 7.5 to 6.5
to avoid the possibility of a false positive result. Table 18 below shows the
current 1% ∆Ct values, based on the Breakthrough validation results.
Page 28 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table 18: Breakthrough Validation Results
Assay
12ALA
12ASP
12ARG
12CYS
12SER
12VAL
13ASP
1% ∆Ct values
6.5
8
8
7
9
6.5
9
Precision Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: Precision was tested using 1% synthetic controls in
3 different levels of K-RAS mutation negative cell line DNA. Each control was
tested in triplicate for the relevant assay on a plate that also contained duplicate
mixed standard and single NTC reactions to ensure that the reactions were
working within the specifications. The same plate was repeated 54 times over 6
days. Incorporated into this matrix of runs were the use of 3 instruments, 3
reagent lots and 3 operators.
Ct values were obtained from the LightCycler® Adapt Software and all
combinations of Ct values were used to calculate ∆Ct values. Any ∆Ct values
that exceed three times the inter-quartile range were considered outliers and
removed from the analysis. Means, standard errors and standard deviations were
calculated and the data was grouped by the kit lot, instrument or operator to
assess the variation caused by these variables. The overall repeatability of the
assays was also assessed.
The data indicates that overall variability within the assays is low and 2 standard
deviations around the mean covers a range of ±1.4 cycles from the mean for the
assay with the maximum standard deviation.
For every test, the mean ∆Ct for each operator lay within 0.15 cycles of the
overall mean for the whole data set. Differences between operators were no
more than 0.2 Ct, demonstrating that the inter operator variation was no greater
than the variation within the whole data set and the assays are robust enough to
withstand inter operator variability.
For every test, the difference between the means for individual instruments and
the overall mean were ±0.097 and the difference between means for individual
instruments was no worse than ±0.186, demonstrating that the inter instrument
variation was no greater than the variation within the whole data set and the
assays are robust enough to withstand inter instrument variability.
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
For every test, the biggest difference between a single lot and the overall mean
was ±0.195 and the worst inter-lot differences were ± 0.38, demonstrating that
the inter lot variation was no greater than the variation within the whole data set
and the assays are robust enough to withstand inter lot variability.
ABI7500: Experiments were performed to establish the precision performance of
each assay by repeating one PCR plate, with a range of samples at high and low
DNA concentration and high and low mutation level, for 3 reagent lots within a
day, between days, between operators, and between instruments.
A one-way ANOVA was used to assess the variation between replicates, lots of
reagent, runs, day of testing, instrument, and operator. The null hypothesis was
that the mean values across categories were equal. Total means, SD, and %CV
were also calculated for the Ct values.
None of the assays showed significant deviation, at the p=0.05 level, from the null
hypothesis of the means being equal across categories. This indicates that the
assays are robust enough to withstand instrument to instrument, operator to
operator, lot to lot, day to day and run to run variations.
Accuracy Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: Accuracy has been assessed using 92 FFPE samples
and 28 mutation positive cell line dilutions. These have been tested with the
K-RAS kit and have also been sequenced using Sanger sequencing. K-RAS
mutation calls have been compared between the 2 methods and there were 18
discrepant results (5 FFPE’s and 13 cell lines), where sequencing indicated a
negative results but the sample was positive using the DxS assay. To confirm the
presence of a mutation in these 18 samples each has had the region around the
mutations cloned. The presence of a mutation positive clone has been used to
resolve the discrepancy.
ABI 7500: Accuracy was assessed using synthetic controls diluted into 2 levels of
K-RAS mutation negative cell line DNA to give 3 different percentages of
mutation covering both positive and negative mutation levels. Three identical
plates, each using 3 reagent lots, were run for each mutation. 25%, 5%, and 0.5%
mutation levels were tested. (The 25% and 5% samples should give a mutation
positive result (∆Ct below the 1% cut-off values); the 0.5% sample should give a
mutation negative result (∆Ct above the 1% cut-off values)). The results are
summarized in Table 19 below.
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table 19: ABI7500 Accuracy Validation Results
Assay
25%
5%
0.5%
Assay
100%
100%
94%
12ALA
100%
100%
100%
12ASP
100%
100%
100%
12ARG
100%
100%
100%
12CYS
100%
100%
100%
12SER
100%
100%
100%
12VAL
100%
100%
100%
13ASP
100%
100%
100%
The reduction in accuracy of the 12ALA assay is due to variation between
replicates at one level of DNA.
Linearity Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: Linearity has been assessed using synthetic
standards at 100%, 1% and 0% mutation levels for each assay. At each percentage
of mutation a serial dilution has been performed to maintain the mutation level
but reduce the total amount of DNA. Standard curves have been produced by
running each dilution in triplicate on 3 replicate plates for the control assay and
relevant mutation assay. Ct values have been produced using the LightCycler®
Adapt Software. For each mutation a graph has been produced (data not shown)
where the control assay Ct and mutation assay Ct have been plotted against one
another and a regression performed for each mutation level. The 95% confidence
intervals have also been plotted for each mutation level.
There were no mutation Ct values obtained from the 0% testing. The 100% and
1% graphs have shown that there was clear discrimination between the data sets
and the slopes of the curves were substantially equivalent, indicating similar
amplification efficiency across a range of mutation concentrations.
ABI7500: This study assessed the efficiency of each of the mutation assays across
a range of DNA concentrations in a background of wild type DNA and in water.
Each mutation assay should have an efficiency of 90 - 110% (100% +10%).
Standard curves were set up using a 5 fold serial dilution and one PCR plate
containing three batches of kit reagents was run for each assay. The 100%
mutation standards were tested at 50 ng, 10 ng, 2 ng, and 0.4 ng of DNA on each
of the mutation assays by diluting into water. The mutation assays were also
tested using a 5 fold serial dilution into 10 ng/µl of cell line DNA to assess the
effect of breakthrough.
Page 31 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Standard curves were generated for each mutation assay, from the experimental
data. The PCR efficiencies were calculated using the equation:
100((10-1/Slope)-1)
The higher level of breakthrough in the 10 ng/µl cell line dilutions gave efficiencies
of above 100%.
Overall efficiencies across reagent batches were calculated. All values were
similar and within 10% of the control assay efficiency. Parallel standard curves
between the control assay and mutation assays means that the ∆Ct method of
analysis is suitable for use.
Linearity was maintained acceptably over the range of 0.4 ng DNA to 50 ng DNA.
Cross reactivity Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: Cross reactivity validation has not been performed
since the LightCycler® Adapt Software will only report a single mutation with the
smallest ∆Ct.
ABI7500: Since all the mutations detected by the K-RAS Kit occur within a 5 base
pair region, it is expected that some cross reactivity between primers would
occur. This study determined the cross reactivity pattern for the K-RAS Kit.
Testing was performed using synthetic mutation controls to establish how many
cycles after a true positive a cross reactivity signal could be detected. Each
mutation reaction mix was run with six replicates of the seven individual 100%
mutation controls. In addition, each control was assayed with the matched
reaction mix and all other reaction mixes on the same run.
The cross reactivity pattern was determined by calculating the difference between
the real amplification Ct value from the matched cassette and the cross reactivity
signal from every other primer.
The expected cross reactivity pattern is shown in Table 20 below. The cross
reactivity pattern has been shown to be consistent and will allow the user to read
a pattern of amplification, where more than one assay gives a positive result, to
obtain the correct assay result. The numbers in each cell indicate the approximate
number of cycles after the true positive signal is detected that a cross reactivity
signal may be seen. Values above 9 cycles have not been included because these
are classified as mutation negative results.
Page 32 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Table 20: ABI7500 Cross Reactivity Validation Results
Positive
Sample
12ALA
12ASP
12ARG
12CYS
12SER
12VAL
13ASP
12ALA
signal
Yes
9
9
4
-
12ASP
signal
9
Yes
7
6
-
12ARG
signal
Yes
4
9
-
12CYS
signal
6
Yes
-
12SER
signal
3
Yes
-
12Val
signal
6
Yes
-
13ASP
signal
8
Yes
Cycling Tolerance Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: These studies determined the tolerance of the
mutation assays to variations in cycling temperature. Since the annealing
temperature is the most critical temperature that affects assay performance, the
annealing temperature is the parameter that was varied.
Cycling tolerance has been assessed using 1% synthetic standards in 3 different
levels of DNA. For each mutation these samples have been run in triplicate
alongside duplicate mixed standard and single NTC reactions to ensure that the
assays were performing within the specifications.
Each plate was tested at 59˚C, 60˚C and 61˚C annealing temperature. 60˚C is the
optimal temperature for the assay to be run at but variation across or between
PCR blocks mean that the assay must be robust over the range given. Each plate
was run in triplicate at each temperature. Ct values were obtained from the
LightCycler® Adapt Software and all combinations of control and mutation Ct
values for each sample were used to calculate ∆Ct values.
All assays met the acceptance criteria that the values at 59˚C and 61˚C must not
differ from the mean value at 60˚C ± the standard deviation at 60˚C. This
indicates that the assays are robust enough to withstand a 1˚C deviation in
annealing temperature.
ABI7500: Three identical PCR plates, each containing 3 kit reagent lots, were run
at each annealing temperature. The Mixed Standard was tested, as was 50 ng of
pooled mutation negative cell line DNA. Since 60°C is the recommended
annealing temperature, the plates were run at 58°C, 60°C, and 62°C. If the
assays were robust enough to tolerate the experimental temperatures, the Mixed
Standard ∆Ct values should be within +1.5 of the set values for the Mixed
Standard and the pooled cell line ∆Ct values should be above the 1% cut-off
points.
12ASP showed the most susceptibility to temperature variation; however all of
the assays performed acceptably at the 3 temperatures, showing that the assays
are robust when run at temperatures 2°C higher or lower than optimal.
Page 33 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Taq Tolerance Validation:
LightCycler® 480 Instrument: These studies determined the tolerance of the
mutation assays to variations in the level of Taq polymerase, a potential source of
user variation since this is added by the user. The tolerance of the assays to
different levels of Taq was assessed using 1% synthetic standards in 3 different
levels of DNA. Each sample was tested in triplicate for a high, normal and low
level of Taq (high level is 20% extra Taq, low level is 20% less Taq than normally
used). Duplicate mixed standard and single NTC reactions were also run to
ensure that the assays were working within the specifications. Triplicate runs
were performed for each plate and 3 different lots of Taq were tested.
Ct values were obtained from the LightCycler® Adapt Software and all
combinations of Ct values from replicates on a plate were used to calculate ∆Ct
values.
All assays met the acceptance criteria that the means from the high Taq and low
Taq samples do not differ from the mean of the normal level of Taq by more than
1 standard deviation of the normal Taq data.
ABI7500: Three identical PCR plates, each containing 3 reagent lots, were run for
each mutation assay, with the Taq polymerase varied at +10% and -10% from the
recommended amount; the recommended amount was also tested. The Mixed
Standard was tested, as were 1% standards in 2 levels of DNA and 50 ng mutation
negative cell line DNA. The assay data were analysed for mean, standard
deviation, and coefficient of variation.
The results showed little variation (equivalent SD between assays, %CV <10%) in
assay results when the Taq level was varied by +10%, showing that the assays
could tolerate as much as a 10% variation in Taq polymerase levels.
12. Technical Assistance
For Technical Assistance and further information please contact your Roche
distributor. A list of contact details for the main Roche distributors can be found in
Section 13.
Page 34 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
13. Manufacturer and Distributor Details
DxS Limited
48 Grafton Street, Manchester
M13 9XX, United Kingdom
Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.,
Branchburg, NJ, 08876 USA
A Member of the Roche Group
UNITED
KINGDOM
FRANCE
SPAIN
Roche Diagnostics
Charles Avenue
Burgess Hill,
West Sussex,
United Kingdom RH15 9RY
Roche Diagnostics S.A.
2 Avenue du Vercors
BP 59, Meylan Cedex, 38240
GERMANY
Roche Diagnostics GmbH
Sandhoferstr. 116
Dept. VM-G
Mannheim, D-68298,
SWITZERLAND
Roche Diagnostics S.L.
Av. de la Generalitat, s/n
Sant Cugat del Valles
Barcelona, E-08190
ITALY
Roche Diagnostics (Schweiz)
AG
Industriestr. 7
Rotkreuz, CH-6343
Roche Diagnostics – Italy
V. le G.B. Stucchi 110
Monza (MI), I-20052
If you have purchased this kit in a country which is not included in the list of Roche
Diagnostics offices above, please contact Roche Diagnostics GmbH, in Mannheim, at
the address given below.
MAIN
DISTRIBUTION
CENTRE
Roche Diagnostics GmbH
Sandhofer Strasse 116
68305 Mannheim
14. Date of issuance of last revision
Date of Last Version: February 2009
Change Summary: Change of value in Tables 5 and 11. Some minor typographical
changes.
Page 35 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
15. References
1.
R.A. Hilger, M.E. Scheulen, D. Strumberg. (2002). The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK
Pathway in the Treatment of Cancer. Onkologie 25: 511-518.
2.
Pavan Bachireddy, Pavan K. Bendapudi, Dean W. Felsher. (2005). Getting at
MYC through RAS. Clin Cancer Res 11(12):4278-4281.
3.
Sae-Won Han, Tae-You Kim, Yoon Kyung Jeon, Pil Gyu Hwang, Seock-Ah Im,
Kyung-Hun Lee, Jee Hyun Kim, Dong-Wan Kim, Dae Seog Heo, Noe Kyeong
Kim, Doo Hyun Chung, Yung-Jue Bang. (2006). Optimization of Patient
Selection for Gefitinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by combined analysis of
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation, K-ras Mutation, and AKT
Phosphorylation. Clin Cancer Res 12(8):2538-2544.
4.
William Pao, Theresa Y. Wang, Gregory J. Riely, Vincent A. Miller, Qiulu Pan,
Marc Ladanyi, Maureen SF. Zakowski, Robert T. Heelan, Mark G. Kris, Harold
E. Varmus. (2005). KRAS Mutations and Primary Resistance of Lung
Adenocarcinomas to Gefitinib or Erlotinib. PloS Medicine 2(1):57-61.
5.
Astrid Lievre, Jean-Baptiste Bachet, Delphine Le Corre, Valerie Boige, Bruno
Landi, Jean-Francois Cote, Gorana Tomasic, Christophe Penna, Michel
Ducreux, Philippe Rougier, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Pierre Laurent-Puig.
(2006). KRAS Mutation Status is Predictive of Response to Cetuximab Therapy
in Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Res 66 (8): 3992-3995.
6.
Silvia Benvenuti, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Carlo
Zanon, Mauro Moroni, Silvio Veronese, Salvatore Siena, Alberto Bardelli.
(2007). Cancer Res 67 (6): 2643-2648.
7.
W. De Roock, J. De Schutter, G. De Hertogh, M. Jannsens, B. Biesmans, N.
Personeni, K. Geboes, C. Verslyp, E. Van Cutsem, S. Tejpar. (2007). Journal of
Clinical Oncology 25 (18S): 4132.
8.
G. Finocchiaro, F. Cappuzzo, P.A. Janne, K. Bencardino, C. Carnaghi, W.A.
Franklin, M. Roncalli, L. Crino, A. Santoro, M. Varella-Garcia. (2007). Journal of
Clinical Oncology 25 (18S): 4021.
9.
F. Di Fiore, F. Blanchard, F. Charbonnier, F. Le Pessot, A. Lamy, M.P. Galais, L.
Bastit, A. Killian, R. Sesboue, J.J. Tuech, A.M. Queuniet, B. Paillot, J.C. Sabourin,
F. Michot, P. Michel, T. Frebourg (2007). British Journal of Cancer 96: 11661169.
10. Shirin Khambata-Ford, Christopher R. Garrett, Neal J. Meropol, Mark Basik,
Christopher T. Harbison, Shujian Wu, Tai W. Wong, Xin Huang, Chris H.
Takimoto, Andrew K. Godwin, Benjamin R. Tan, Smitha S. Krishnamurthi,
Howard A. Burris III, Elizabeth A. Poplin, Manuel Hidalgo, Jose Baselga, Edwin
A. Clark, David J. Mauro. (2007). Journal of Clinical Oncology 25(22): 32303237.
11. Newton CR, Graham A, Heptinstall LE, Powell SJ, Summers C et al. (1989).
Analysis of any point mutation in DNA. The amplification refractory mutation
system (ARMS) Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (7): 2503-16.
12. Whitcombe, D., Theaker J., Guy, S.P., Brown, T., Little, S. (1999). Detection of
PCR products using self-probing amplicons and fluorescence. Nature Biotech
17: 804-807.
13. Thelwell, N., Millington, S., Solinas, A., Booth, J. and Brown, T. (2000). Mode of
Action and Application of Scorpion Primers to Mutation Detection. Nucleic
Acids Research 28(19): 3752-3761
Page 36 of 38
For Diagnostic Use Only
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
De Roock W, Piessevaux H, De Schutter J, Janssens M, De Hertogh G,
Personeni N, Biesmans B, Van Laethem JL, Peeters M, Humblet Y, Van Cutsem
E, Tejpar S. KRAS wild-type state predicts survival and is associated to early
radiological response in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.
Ann Oncol. 2007, Nov. 12.
Lièvre A, Bachet JB, Le Corre D, Boige V, Landi B, Emile JF, Côté JF, Tomasic
G, Penna C, Ducreux M, Rougier P, Penault-Llorca F, Laurent-Puig P. KRAS
mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal
cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:3992-5.
Lièvre A, Bachet JB, Boige V, Cayre A, Le Corre D, Buc E, Ychou M, Bouché O,
Landi B, Louvet C, André T, Bibeau F, Diebold MD, Rougier P, Ducreux M,
Tomasic G, Emile JF, Penault-Llorca F, Laurent-Puig P. KRAS mutations as an
independent prognostic factor in patients with advanced colorectal cancer
treated with cetuximab. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:374-9.
C. Bokemeyer et al., K-RAS status and efficacy of first-line treatment of patients
with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with FOLFOX with or without
cetuximab: The OPUS experience. J Clin Oncol 26: 2008 (May 20 suppl; abstr
4000)
E. Van Cutsem et al., K-RAS status and efficacy in the first-line treatment of
patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with FOLFIRI with
or without cetuximab: The CRYSTAL experience. J Clin Oncol 26: 2008 (May
20 suppl; abstr 2)
S. Tejpar et al., Relationship of efficacy with K-RAS status (wild type versus
mutant) in patients with irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer
(mCRC), treated with irinotecan (q2w) and escalating doses of cetuximab
(q1w): The EVEREST experience (preliminary data). J Clin Oncol 26: 2008 (May
20 suppl; abstr 4001).
10th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer: Abstract o-037. Presented
June 27, 2008. "KRAS mutation status is a predictive biomarker for cetuximab
benefit in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Results from NCIC
CTG CO.17: A phase III trial of cetuximab versus best supportive care".
Christos Karapetis et al.
Rafael G. Amado, Michael Wolf, Marc Peeters, Eric Van Cutsem, Salvatore
Siena, Daniel J. Freeman, Todd Juan, Robert Sikorski, Sid Suggs, Robert
Radinsky, Scott D. Patterson and David D, Chang. Wild-Type KRAS Is
Required for Panitumumab Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal
Cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2008; 26: 1626-1634.
Page 37 of 38
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TheraScreen: K-RAS Mutation Kit
Notes To The Purchaser:
Neither this product, the TheraScreen® K-RAS Mutation, nor any of its components
can be resold or otherwise transferred or modified for resale without the written
approval of DxS Limited.
TheraScreen® and Scorpions® are registered trademarks of DxS Limited.
ARMS® is a registered trademark of AstraZeneca UK Limited.
LIGHTCYCLER and ROCHE are trademarks of Roche.
ABI7500 is a trademark of Applied BioSystems.
This product is a CE-marked diagnostic device in accordance with the European
Union in vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Directive 98/79/EC.
Purchase of this product is accompanied by a limited non-transferable licence to use
ARMS® and Scorpions® technologies for in vitro diagnostic use only.
ARMS® is covered by US patent 5,595,890 and EP 332435; Scorpions® by US
patent 6,326,145 and EP1088102.
Information in this document is subject to change. DxS Limited assumes no
responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. In no event shall DxS
Limited be liable in any way (whether in contract, tort (including negligence) or
otherwise) for any claim arising in connection with or from the use of this product.
Nothing in this document excludes or limits any liability which it is illegal for DxS
Limited to exclude or limit.
© Copyright 2009. DxS Limited. All rights reserved.
DxS Limited,
48 Grafton Street,
Manchester,
M13 9XX
UK
www.dxsdiagnostics.com
Page 38 of 38
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