Express L128T S/T ISDN Router/Bridge

Express L128T S/T ISDN Router/Bridge
'ZRTGUU".34:6"516
+5&0"4QWVGT1$TKFIG"
2CTV"0WODGTU"3424292.5"
&QEWOGPV"0WODGT"83424292.5/42#
/C["3;;;
Trademarks:
Ethernet is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation.
ExpertISDN (patent number 5,715,241) is a trademark of ADTRAN,
Inc.
Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Novell, NetWare, and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
5ESS is a registered trademark of LUCENT.
The Express L128T S/T incorporates Synchronous Data Compression
based on either IBM or hi/fn proprietary intellectual property depending on the time of manufacture. The following trademarks and
copyrights are applicable:
Stacker LZS Compression
Copyright © 1989 Carnegie Mellon University
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are duplicated in
all such forms and that any documentation, advertising materials, and
other materials related to such distribution and use acknowledge that the
software was developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The name of the
University may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission. This software is
provided “as is” and without any express or implied warranties, including, without limitation, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
hi/fn
5993 Avenida Encinas
Carlsbad, CA
901 Explorer Boulevard
P.O. Box 140000
Huntsville, AL 35814-4000
(256) 963-8000
© 1999 ADTRAN, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Printed in U.S.A.
FCC regulations require that the following information be provided in this manual:
1. This equipment complies with Part 68 of the FCC rules.
On the bottom of the equipment housing is a label that
shows the FCC registration number and Ringer Equivalence Number (REN) for this equipment. If requested,
provide this information to the telephone company.
2. If this equipment causes harm to the telephone network,
the telephone company may temporarily discontinue service. If possible, advance notification is given; otherwise,
notification is given as soon as possible. The telephone
company will advise the customer of the right to file a
complaint with the FCC.
3. The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment, operations, or procedures that could affect the proper operation of this equipment; advance
notification and the opportunity to maintain uninterrupted service is given.
4. If experiencing difficulty with this equipment, please contact ADTRAN for repair and warranty information. The
telephone company may require this equipment to be disconnected from the network until the problem is corrected or it is certain the equipment is not malfunctioning.
5. This unit contains no user-serviceable parts.
6. An FCC compliant telephone cord with a modular plug is
provided with this equipment. In addition, an FCC compliant cable appropriate for the dial backup option ordered is provided with this equipment. This equipment
is designed to be connected to the telephone network or
premises wiring using an FCC compatible modular jack,
which is Part 68 compliant.
7. The following information may be required when applying to the local telephone company for leased line facilities.
Service Type
ISDN
Digital Facility
Interface Code
021S5
Service Order
Code
6.0F
Network
Jacks
RJ-49C
To ADTRAN service personnel: For continued protection against risk
of fire, replace F1 with the same type and rating of fuse only: .2A, 250
V.
iii
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE STATEMENT:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits
for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a residential
environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio or
TV reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off
and on. The user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by
one or more of the following measures:
1. Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2. Increase the separation between the equipment and
receiver.
3. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different
from that to which the receiver is connected.
4. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician
for help.
Change or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by ADTRAN will void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment and may violate FCC regulations, in which case ADTRAN is not liable.
iv
ADTRAN YEAR 2000 (Y2K)
READINESS DISCLOSURE
ADTRAN has established a Year 2000 program to ensure that our
products and operations will correctly function in the new millennium. ADTRAN warrants that all products meet Year 2000 specifications regardless of model or revision. Information about ADTRAN’s
Year 2000 compliance program is available at the following:
Web Site
Product Matrix
Faxback Document Line
Y2K Project Line
www.adtran.com
www.adtran.com/Y2Kfax.html
(256) 963-8200
Y2K plans and product certifications
are listed in the matrix
(256) 963-2200
E-mail
year [email protected]
v
CANADIAN EMISSIONS REQUIREMENTS
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio
noise emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the interferencecausing equipment standard entitled "Digital Apparatus," ICES-003 of
the Department of Communications.
Cet appareil nuerique respecte les limites de bruits radioelectriques
applicables aux appareils numeriques de Class B prescrites dans la
norme sur le materiel brouilleur: "Appareils Numeriques," NMB-003
edictee par le ministre des Communications.
CANADIAN EQUIPMENT LIMITATIONS
Notice: The Canadian Industry and Science Canada label identifies
certified equipment. This certification means that the equipment
meets certain telecommunications network protective, operational,
and safety requirements. The Department does not guarantee the
equipment will operate to the user’s satisfaction.
Before installing this equipment, ensure that it is permissible to be
connected to the facilities of the local telecommunications company.
The equipment must also be installed using an acceptable method of
connection. In some cases, the company’s inside wiring associated
with a single-line individual service may be extended by means of a
certified connector assembly (telephone extension cord). Compliance
with the above conditions may not prevent degradation of service in
some situations.
Repairs to certified equipment should be made by an authorized Canadian maintenance facility designated by the supplier. Any repairs
or alterations made by the user to this equipment, or equipment malfunctions, may give the telecommunications company cause to request the user to disconnect the equipment.
Users should ensure for their own protection that the electrical ground
connections of the power utility, telephone lines, and internal metallic
water pipe system, if present, are connected together. This precaution
may be particularly important in rural areas.
Users should not attempt to make such connections
themselves, but should contact the appropriate electric
inspection authority, or an electrician, as appropriate.
vi
The Load Number (LN) assigned to each terminal device denotes the
percentage of the total load to be connected to a telephone loop which
is used by the device, to prevent overloading. The termination on a
loop may consist of any combination of devices subject only to the requirement that the total of the Load Numbers of all devices does not
exceed 100.
vii
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
When using your telephone equipment, basic safety precautions
should always be followed to reduce the risk of fire, electric shock and
injury to persons. The precautions are listed below.
1. Do not use this product near water (for example, near a
bath tub, wash bowl, kitchen sink or laundry tub, in a wet
basement or near a swimming pool).
2. Avoid using a telephone (other than a cordless type) during an electrical storm. There may be a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
3. Do not use the telephone to report a gas leak in the vicinity
of the leak.
4. Use only the power cord, power supply, and/or batteries
indicated in the manual. Do not dispose of batteries in a
fire. They may explode. Check local codes for any special
disposal instructions.
SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS.
viii
Table of Contents
Quick Startup Guide
Quick Start-1
Setting up the ISDN Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Quick Start-1
Connecting to an Internet Service Provider . . . . . . . . . .Quick Start-2
Internet Access using Network Address Translation
(NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Quick Start-2
Multiprotocol Routing Between Two LANS . . . . . . . . .Quick Start-3
Remote/Home Office Accessing the Corporate LAN Quick Start-3
Chapter 1 Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T . 1-1
ISDN Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
The Express L128T S/T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
Single User to Corporate LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
Single User IP to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using Network
Address Translation (NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
Multiple Users to Internet Service Provider (ISP)
using NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
Small Office - Home Office (SOHO) to Corporate LAN . . .1-5
Basic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
Demand Routing and Bridging with the Express L128T S/T . .1-6
Factory Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-6
Bridging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-7
IP Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8
IPX Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Connection List - Simplifying and Enhancing the Dial
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Concurrent Routing and Bridging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Routing over PPP Bridging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10
Network Address Translation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10
Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
LAN Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
WAN Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
Test Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-12
ISDN Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-12
Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-13
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Table of Contents
Connecting to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Chapter 2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Shipping Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
ISDN Network Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Local Area Network Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Telephone Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Basic Telephone Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Supplementary Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
DTMF Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Customer Premises Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Chapter 3 Terminal Menu Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Terminal Menu Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Navigating the Terminal Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
General Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Menu Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Moving Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Submenus [+] or [DATA] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Activation Field <+> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Editable Data Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Read-Only Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Navigation with the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Security Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Configuration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Configuration/System Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
System Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
System Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
System Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Firmware Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
System Uptime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Date/Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
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Table of Contents
Configuration/WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10
WAN/ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10
ISDN/Dial Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10
Dial Line/Switch Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
Dial Line/Area Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
Dial Line/Local Number 1 or 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
ISDN/Leased Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
Leased Line/Channel Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
WAN/POTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12
POTS/POTS Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12
POTS/Speech Calltype Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12
Configuration/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13
IP/IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13
IP/Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13
IP/Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
IP/Static Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
Static Routes/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
Static Routes/IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
Static Routes/Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
Static Routes/Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
Static Routes/Hops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
Static Routes/Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
IP/IP Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
IP Router/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
IP/RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
RIP/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
RIP/Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
RIP/Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
RIP/Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
RIP/V2 Secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
IP/NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
NAT/DHCP Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
NAT/DHCP Renewal Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
NAT/Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
IP/DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
DNS/Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
DNS/Server 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
DNS/Server 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
IP/UDP Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
UDP Relay/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
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Table of Contents
UDP Relay/UDP Relay List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
UDP Relay List/Relay Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
UDP Relay List/UDP Port Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
UDP Relay List/UDP Port 1, UDP Port 2, UDP Port 3 . 3-19
IP/Proxy ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Configuration/IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
IPX/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
IPX/Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
IPX/Frame Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
IPX/Seed Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
IPX/RIP Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
IPX/SAP Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Configuration/Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Bridge/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Bridge/WAN IP Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
WAN IP Bridge/Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
WAN IP Bridge/Netmask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
WAN IP Bridge/Triggered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
WAN IP Bridge/Proxy ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Bridge/WAN IPX Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
WAN IPX Bridge/Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
WAN IPX Bridge/Frame Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
WAN IPX Bridge/Seed Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
WAN IPX Bridge/Triggered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Bridge/Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Spanning Tree/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Spanning Tree/Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Spanning Tree/Maximum Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Spanning Tree/Hello Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Spanning Tree/Forward Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Spanning Tree/LAN Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
LAN Port/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
LAN Port/Path Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
LAN Port/Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Spanning Tree/WAN Port 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
WAN Port 0/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
WAN Port 0/Path Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
WAN Port 0/Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Spanning Tree/WAN Port 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
WAN Port 1/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
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WAN Port 1/Path Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29
WAN Port 1/Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29
Bridge/Address Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29
Address Table/Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29
Address Table/Forward Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29
Configuration/Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-30
Security/Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-30
Security/When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-31
Security/Radius Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-31
Radius Server/Primary Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-31
Radius Server/Secondary Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-31
Radius Server/UDP Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-31
Radius Server/Secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-32
Radius Server/Retry Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-32
Security/PPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-32
Security/Filter Defines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-33
Filter Defines /MAC Filter Defines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-33
Filter Defines /Pattern Filter Defines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-34
Filter Defines /IP Filter Defines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-34
Filter Defines /IPX Filter Defines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-35
Configuration/Connection List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-36
Connection List/Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-37
Connection List/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-37
Connection List/Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-38
Authentication/Tx Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-40
Authentication/Tx Username . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-40
Authentication/Tx Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-40
Authentication/Rx Username . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-40
Authentication/Rx Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-41
Authentication/Caller ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-41
Authentication/Call ID 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-41
Authentication/Call ID 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-41
Connection List/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-41
IP/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-42
IP/NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-42
IP/Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-42
Route/IP/Net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-42
Route/Netmask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-43
Route/Static Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-43
Route/Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-43
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Route/Hops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-43
Route/Force IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-43
IP/RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
RIP/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
RIP/Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
RIP/Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
RIP/Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
RIP/Triggered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
RIP/Retain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
Connection List/IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
IPX/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
IPX/Remote Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
IPX/Triggered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46
IPX/Retain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46
IPX/Type 20 Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46
Connection List/Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
Bridge/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
Connection List/Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
Probe/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
Probe/Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
Probe/Update Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
Connection List/PPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
PPP/Multilink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
Multilink/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49
Multilink/Fragment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49
Multilink/BACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49
PPP/Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49
PPP/VJ Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50
PPP/Max Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50
PPP/Max Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50
PPP/Max Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50
Connection List/Dial Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51
Dial Out/Number 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51
Dial Out/Number 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51
Dial Out/Call Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51
Dial Out/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
Dial Out/Connection Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
Dial Out/Attempts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
Dial Out/Initial Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
Connection List/Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
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Bandwidth/On Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-52
Bandwidth/Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-53
Bandwidth/Idle Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-53
Bandwidth/Preempt Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-53
Bandwidth/Upper Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-53
Bandwidth/Lower Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Bandwidth/Min Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Bandwidth/Max Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Bandwidth/Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Samples/Sample Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Samples/Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Samples/Time Between Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-55
Connection List/Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-55
Filters/WAN-to-LAN (In) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-55
Filters/In Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-56
Filters/LAN-to-WAN (Out) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-57
Filters/Out Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-57
Filters/Demand Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-57
Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-58
Configuration/Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-59
Management/Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-59
Telnet/Server Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-59
Telnet/User List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60
User List/Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60
User List/Authen Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60
User List/Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60
User List/Idle Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60
User List/Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60
Management/SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-61
SNMP Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-61
SNMP/Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-61
Communities/Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-61
Communities/Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-61
Communities/Manager IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-61
SNMP/Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-62
Traps/Manager Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-62
Traps/Manager IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-62
Management/Maint Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-62
Maint Port/Password Protect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-62
Maint Port/Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-62
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Maint Port/Baud Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63
Maint Port/Data Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63
Maint Port/Parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63
Maint Port/Stop Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63
Configuration/Terminal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-63
Dial Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
Dial/Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
Dial/Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
Dial/Hang Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65
Dial/Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65
Dial/Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65
Dial/Number 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65
Dial/Number 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-66
Status Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-66
Status/Call Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-66
Call Sessions/Session1 and Call Sessions/Session2 . . . . . . 3-67
Call Sessions/Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-68
Status/ARP Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-68
Status/Bridge Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69
Status/IP Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69
Status/IPX Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-70
Status/IPX Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-71
Status/WAN Stats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72
Status/LAN Stats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72
Status/IP Stats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-73
Test Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74
Test Menu/Echo Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74
Test Menu/Dial Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74
Logs Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
Logs/Sys log Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
Logs/PPP Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
PPP Log/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
PPP Log/Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
PPP Log/Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
PPP Log/View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
PPP Log/Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
Logs/Call Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
Call Log/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
Call Log/Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
Call Log/Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
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Call Log/View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-77
Call Log/Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-77
Logs/Network Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-78
Network Log/Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-78
Network Log/Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-78
Network Log/Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-78
Network Log/View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-78
Network Log/Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-78
Utilities Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79
Utilities/Ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-79
Utilities/Telnet Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-80
Utilities/Upgrade Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-80
Upgrade/Transfer Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-80
Upgrade/TFTP Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-80
Upgrade/Filename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-80
Upgrade/Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-81
Upgrade/Start Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-81
Upgrade/Abort Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-81
Upgrade/TFTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-81
Utilities/Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-81
Chapter 4 Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If self-test fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the Express L128T S/T does not read Ready* . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Troubleshooting Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If you are unable to connect calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-4
4-7
Chapter 5 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Specifications and Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Network Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Ethernet Interface (LAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Switch Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Dual POTS Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
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Table of Contents
Appendix A Loop Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Appendix B Log Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B
Appendix C SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-1
Appendix D Connector Pinouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
Appendix E Terminal Mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
Glossary
Glossary-1
Acronyms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acronyms-1
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1
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List of Figures
Figure 1-1. Express L128T S/T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Figure 1-2. Single User to Corporate LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Figure 1-3. Single User to Internet Service Provider . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Figure 1-4. Multiple User to Internet Service Provider. . . . . . . . 1-4
Figure 1-5. SOHO to Corporate LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Figure 1-6. Express L128T S/T LEDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Figure 1-7. Express L128T S/T Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Figure 2-1. Wiring Scheme 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Figure 2-2. Wiring Scheme 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Figure 3-1. Top Level Terminal Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Figure 3-2. Configuration/System Info Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Figure 3-3. Configuration/WAN Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Figure 3-4. Configuration/IP Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Figure 3-5. Configuration/IPX Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Figure 3-6. Configuration/Bridge Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Figure 3-7. Configuration/Security Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Figure 3-8. Configuration/Connection List Screen . . . . . . . . . . 3-37
Figure 3-9. Configuration/Management Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-59
Figure 3-10. Dial Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64
Figure 3-11. Status Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-66
Figure 3-12. Test Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74
Figure 3-13. Logs Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
Figure 3-14. Utilities Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79
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xix
List of Figures
xx
Express 128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
List of Tables
Table 2-1.
Table 4-1.
Table D-1.
Table D-2.
Table D-3.
Table D-4.
Using the Flash-Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Troubleshooting Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
IBM/AT Style EIA-232 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
RJ-45 ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
RJ-11 POTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
10BaseT Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
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List of Tables
xxii
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Quick Startup Guide
SETTING UP THE ISDN LINE
Before configuring the Express L128T S/T, ensure that the telephone
service has provided the switch type and local directory number.
Example:
Switch Type
Euro ISDN
Local Number1
5551212
Local Number 2
5551213
1.
Connect a VT 100 async terminal, or personal computer with a
terminal emulator running 9600 N-8-1, to the MAINTENANCE port.
2.
Hold down the Control key and press R; then press Enter to display the top menu.
3.
Using the arrow keys and Enter key to navigate the menu, go to
the Configuration/WAN/ISDN/Dial Line menu. Enter the local
numbers and switch type.
4.
Use the left arrow key or the Escape key to go back up the menu
tree. When asked to save ISDN parameters, type y.
5.
Connect the ISDN line to the RJ-45 jack labeled ISDN on the rear
panel.
6.
When the PWR LED remains solid, the Express L128T S/T is
ready for calling (see note below).
7.
If using POTS phones with the Express L128T S/T, connect the
POTS telephones to the POTS ports.
For EuroISDN, during periods of inactivity the central office switch may
deactivate the ISDN interface, causing the PWR LED to flash. Normal
usage will be restored when an incoming call is received or an outgoing
call is placed.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
Quick Start-1
Quick Startup Guide
CONNECTING TO AN INTERNET SERVICE
PROVIDER
Internet Access using Network Address
Translation (NAT)
1.
Connect the 10BaseT cable from the PC’s network card to the
Express L128T S/T. Select TO NIC on the Express L128T S/T
back panel.
2.
Go to the Configuration/Connection List menu, and then press
the right arrow key to place the cursor on the Num column.
3.
Type I to insert a new Connection List entry.
4.
Using the arrow keys, move the cursor over the Num column for
the inserted entry. Press Enter to place the subentries into the
right pane.
5.
Set the Description to an identifiable name (i.e., ISP).
6.
Go into the Authentication field and select PAP or CHAP for the
Tx Method.
7.
Enter your user name and password (provided by your ISP) into
the Tx Username and Tx Password fields.
8.
Move the cursor to the left pane and highlight the IP parameters.
9.
Set the NAT item to Yes. This is a very important step. The
Express L128T S/T will need to translate the “fake” IP
address(es) on the PC(s) connected to the Ethernet interface to the
“real” address provided dynamically by the ISP. See IP/NAT on
page 3-16 for more details.
10. All other IP parameters should be left at their default settings.
Navigate over to the Dial Out parameters.
11. Enter the number of the location to be dialed into Number 1.
Enter Number 2 if calling another ISDN device with two phone
numbers. Otherwise, Number 2 is not required.
12. Arrow left until the message Save Connection List Changes
appears. Type y to save.
13. Go to the Configuration/IP menu and enter an IP address and
net mask into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields. The factory default setting will work just as well (10.0.0.1, 255.255.255.0).
Quick Start-2
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Quick Startup Guide
14. If you want the L128T S/T to dynamically assign your computer
an IP address, go into the Configuration/IP/NAT submenu and
set DHCP Mode to On.
15. If you want to statically assign your computer an address on the
network of the L128T S/T’s Ethernet, set DHCP mode to Off.
16. Arrow left to save the configuration.
17. Go into the Dial menu.
18. Set the cursor over the Dial parameter for the Connection List
profile you just set up.
19. Press Enter; the Express L128T S/T will start dialing.
20. If the call is successful, the Status column will read active. If not,
make sure the number(s) are correct or reference Troubleshooting
on page 4-1 before going on to the next step.
21. Once the call is up, the PC must generate a DHCP request to
obtain the IP parameters needed to get on the Internet. Refer to
your PC’s user manual or help screen.
MULTIPROTOCOL ROUTING BETWEEN TWO
LANS
Remote/Home Office Accessing the Corporate
LAN
The following steps can be used to set up the Express L128T S/T on a
remote LAN to access a corporate or central LAN using demand dial
and dynamic bandwidth management.
1.
Connect the 10BaseT cable from the hub to the Express L128T S/T.
Select TO HUB on the Express L128T S/T back panel. The LI
indicator should be illuminated.
2.
Set the IP address and Subnet Mask assigned by the network
administrator in the Configuration/IP menu.
3.
For the Default Gateway, enter the IP address of the access server
at the remote site. This creates a default route in the IP routing
table that will be used with the dial-on-demand feature in the
Express L128T S/T. Arrow left and save the changes.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
Quick Start-3
Quick Startup Guide
4.
Use the arrow keys to get to the Configuration/IPX menu. Set
the Network value to the IPX network supplied by the network
administrator. Set the Seed Status to Seed if a Novell server is
not present on the LAN; otherwise select Non-seed or Autoseed.
Arrow left and save the changes with a y when prompted.
5.
Move to the Configuration/Connection List. Use the arrow keys to
move the cursor over the Num column. Type I to insert a new entry.
6.
Move the cursor over the Description field and press Enter. A
pop up window appears in which to enter a name for this Connection List profile.
7.
Move the cursor over the Authentication menu and press
Return. This will place the authentication parameters into the
right pane.
8.
Enter the username and password under Tx Username and Tx
Password. These items should be provided by the administrator
at the site being dialed. See Authentication/Rx Username on page 340 and Authentication/Rx Password on page 3-41 if expecting to
receive calls.
9.
Use the down arrow to display the IP menu parameters in the
right pane.
10. Move the cursor over the Route menu and press Return.
11. Enter the IP address and Netmask parameters of the access
server at the remote site. This creates a static route to the access
server’s network which is entered into the Express L128T S/T’s
IP route table.
12. Move the cursor over the RIP menu. Check with the network
administrator for the type of routing protocol used. The Express
L128T S/T supports RIP versions 1 and 2. The protocol is set in
the Protocol parameter.
13. Select Yes for the Triggered parameter. This will prevent periodic
RIP updates that keep the ISDN link from going “idle.”
14. Select Yes for the Retain parameter. This will allow the routes
learned from the access server to be saved in the IP routing table.
Access to any of those networks from the workstation will cause
this profile to be dialed.
15. Use the left arrow to get back to the previous menu. Use the
down arrow to view the IPX menu parameters in the right pane.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Quick Startup Guide
16. This is similar to steps 13 and 14. Select Yes for Triggered and Yes
for Retain. This will allow the ISDN link to go to an idle state
and permit the Express L128T S/T to “spoof” the server information obtained from the access server. A similar configuration must
be selected on the access server.
17. Use the arrows to get the Dial Out menu parameters for this profile.
18. Enter the phone number of the access server in Number 1. If
configured by the administrator to use two B-channels using
Multilink PPP, set the Initial Channels field to 2. Some PPP protocols, if they exist in the access server, will allow the second
channel to come into play only if the bandwidth is needed. If this
is the case, the Express L128T S/T will automatically negotiate
this with the access server.
19. Now move to the Bandwidth menu for this profile. Once there,
use the right arrow to move to the On Demand submenu.
20. Set the Mode parameter to On. This enables the dynamic bandwidth features of the Express L128T S/T.
21. Select the Idle Timeout parameter and enter the number of seconds the Express L128T S/T should wait before hanging up the
connection when no traffic is present. A value of 120 seconds is
typical. A value of 0 means never idle the link.
22. All the parameters for this Connection List profile are complete.
To save them, press the left arrow to get to the top (main) menu;
when Save Connection List changes? appears, enter y.
23. Set up the computer workstation’s IP and IPX parameters as
instructed by the network administrator. The Express L128T S/
T’s IP address should be the computer’s default gateway.
When the computer which is attached to the local LAN attempts to access a host on the access server, the Express L128T S/T will dial the
number provided in the Connection List profile. The Express L128T
S/T will provide one of two B-channels based on traffic demand and
POTS port usage. If no packet traffic is transmitted or received for the
specified number of seconds, the Express L128T S/T will disconnect
the link until a computer on the local LAN again attempts to access a
host on the access server.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
Quick Start-5
Quick Startup Guide
If Novell’s IPX protocol is being used, the link must be dialed first in
the Dial menu to obtain the server and route information needed by
the computer to boot up. Advanced users can use the Express L128T
S/T’s Probe feature to periodically dial the access server to obtain the
route and server information, thereby removing the need to manually
dial the first time.
Quick Start-6
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Chapter 1
Understanding ISDN and the
Express L128T S/T
ISDN OVERVIEW
The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a public or private
switched digital network. ISDN is an international standard for digital communications, allowing a full range of enhanced services supporting voice, data, and image applications through standard
interfaces over a single telephone wire. ISDN provides a means of integrating these services and modernizing communication networks
for information movement and management efficiency.
THE EXPRESS L128T S/T
The Express L128T S/T is a standalone device that links two Local
Area Networks (LANs) using a high-speed ISDN public network or
leased two-wire line. The Express L128T S/T has two plain old telephone service (POTS) connectors used for voice/modem applications.
See Figure 1-1 on page 1-2 for an illustration of the Express L128T S/T.
The 10BaseT connector operates at 10 megabits per second half duplex
and accepts standard Ethernet packets encapsulated using IEEE 802.3
or Ethernet II (DIX). Because the 10BaseT is a four-wire interface, a
crossover switch permits the user to connect to either a hub-concentrator or network interface card without the need for special cabling. The
maintenance port can connect to any asynchronous terminal emulating a VT 100 terminal for configuration.
61202070L3-20
Express L128T S/T User Manual
1-1
Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
LI
TX/RX
B1
PWR
B2
EXPRESS L128T
LINE
TEST
Figure 1-1. Express L128T S/T
Applications
Single User to Corporate LAN
• Telecommuter/Home Office Access to the corporate LAN
• Single device access
• User Datagram Protocol (UDP) broadcasts are “relayed” to
corporate LAN.
• Client device can obtain the Internet Protocol (IP) address
dynamically using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP).
• Compatible with popular central site LAN access devices
ISDN
Router
TO
TO
HUB NIC
1
OFF
ON
POWER
O
10 BASE T
EIA232
1
2
3
4
2
1
ISDN
Server
10 BT
10 BT
Figure 1-2. Single User to Corporate LAN
1-2
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
Single User IP to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using Network
Address Translation (NAT)
• Provides high speed home access to the Internet
• NAT provides translation from user assigned IP addresses to an
ISP assigned IP address.
• The PC’s IP address can be dynamically assigned by the Express
L128T S/T by using DHCP.
• Overcomes the serial port speed limitations of current terminal
adapter solutions
• Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) plus compression yields
effective throughput greater than 256 kbps depending on the
randomness and compressibility of the data.
• Compatible with popular ISP access devices
ISDN
TO
HUB
1
TO
NIC
OFF
ON
POWER
O
10 BASE T
INTERNET
EIA232
1
2
3
4
2
1
ISDN
10 BT
10 BT
Figure 1-3. Single User to Internet Service Provider
61202070L3-20
Express L128T S/T User Manual
1-3
Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
Multiple Users to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using NAT
• Provides high speed home access to the Internet
• NAT provides translation from user assigned IP addresses to an
ISP assigned IP address.
• Multiple and simultaneous access
• The PC’s IP address can by dynamically assigned by the Express
L128T S/T using DHCP.
• On-demand Internet access
• Multilink PPP plus compression yields effective throughput
greater than 256 kbps depending on the randomness and
compressibility of the data.
• Compatible with popular ISP access devices
TO TO
HUB NIC
1
O
10 BASE T
ISDN
OFF
ON
POWER
EIA232
1
2
3
INTERNET
4
2
1
ISDN
10 BT
Hub
Figure 1-4. Multiple User to Internet Service Provider
1-4
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61202070L3-20
Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
Small Office - Home Office (SOHO) to Corporate LAN
• Connects the small office or home office to the corporate LAN
• Routes IP and Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) traffic from
multiple devices to the corporate LAN
• Bridges all non-routed traffic (e.g., AppleTalk, NetBEUI, etc.)
• Provides dedicated or on-demand services
• Low-cost alternative to buying a high-end router
• Compatible with popular central site LAN access devices
TO
HUB
1
TO
NIC
O
10 BASE T
ISDN
ISDN
OFF
ON
POWER
EIA232
1
2
3
4
2
1
ISDN
Router
10 BT
Hub
Server
Figure 1-5. SOHO to Corporate LAN
Basic Functions
The Express L128T S/T provides the following basic functions:
1.
LAN Bridge: Bridging provides a point-to-point connection
between two LANs. The bridge learning function scans the
source and destination media access control (MAC) addresses of
all packets on its local LAN and determines which packets
should be transmitted over the ISDN link. Applications include
connectivity between single user or small offices to corporate
LANs. The Express L128T S/T uses the Spanning Tree
Algorithm (IEEE 802.1d-ISO/IEC10038), which provides a loopfree topology and redundancy.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
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Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
2.
IP Router: The Express L128T S/T can function as an IP router
using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for dynamically
advertising and learning routes among other routers. Static
routes may also be entered into the routing table.
3.
IPX Router: IPX routers and services can be dynamically
exchanged between the Express L128T S/T and other devices
using RIP and Service Advertising Protocol (SAP). Watchdog
serialization filtering and spoofing can permit the ISDN to be idle
during no application traffic periods.
4.
Network Address Translation (NAT): NAT allows a site to be
known to the Internet by one IP address. The IP addresses on the
LAN of the NAT router are private to the Internet. The IP
addresses (along with port numbers) are translated to the NAT
address that is assigned from the far-end router. NAT allows the
user to use only one IP address from the host site. While the LAN
of the NAT unit is hidden fro the Internet, a function called Webserver allows HTTP, FTP Telnet, and SMTP traffic to be directed
from the Internet to the hidden LAN network.
5.
POTS: The POTS interfaces can be used for interfacing to dual
tone multi-frequency (DTMF) analog devices such as telephones,
modems, fax machines, etc. Progress tones can be provided in µ-LAW
and A-LAW formats.
Demand Routing and Bridging with the
Express L128T S/T
The Express L128T S/T is a dial-up ISDN IP Router and Transparent
Learning Bridge that provides Dial-On-Demand and Dynamic Bandwidth Management. Its features can be easily configured and used
once several basic concepts are understood.
Factory Default
The Express L128T S/T comes from the factory configured for MAC
Bridging, IP routing, and IPX routing with no filters or connection information defined. An IP address of 10.0.0.1 with a network mask of
255.255.255.0 is preloaded. Dynamic bandwidth management features
are disabled. Although dynamic assignment of a B-channel for the analog (POTS) ports on the Express L128T S/T model is always available,
1-6
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Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
link idle time-out and adding/removing of B-channels based on traffic is initially disabled.
Bridging
In Bridge Mode, the Express L128T S/T can communicate with two remote networks at a time. The destination is dialed by setting up a
Connection List profile and choosing Dial on the Dial menu. See Configuration/Connection List on page 3-36 for instructions on setting up a
Connection List profile.
During a two B-channel PPP Multilink call, the Express L128T S/T automatically drops one B-channel and provides it to the POTS port
when a telephone call is placed or answered. When a POTS telephone
call terminates, the Express L128T S/T redials the second B-channel
and supplies the bandwidth back to the LAN connection. Since other
bandwidth management features are disabled in the factory default
configuration, the dialed links remain active until the Hang-up command is entered from the Dial menu, terminating the session with the
selected remote network.
The Connection List described in the next section may be used to automate dialing and to store additional information specific to the remote site being dialed (phone numbers, number of B-channels to dial,
authentication information, Caller ID, etc.). In addition, to reduce line
charges, Demand Dialing may be enabled to allow idle links to disconnect when not being used.
Simple Demand Bridging may be configured by enabling the Idle
Time-Out parameter under the Configuration/ Connection List [1]/
Bandwidth/On Demand option on the Connection List. Setting this
parameter to a non-zero value allows a bridge connection to disconnect after the specified number of seconds with no traffic crossing the
ISDN link. Bandwidth can be controlled using the Express L128T S/T’s
advanced filtering capability. When new traffic needs to be transmitted,
the Express L128T S/T will run each packet through its Demand filters
defined for each Connection List profile. If a packet can pass through
the filter, then the numbers for that profile are dialed. In addition,
when both B-channels are selected for use, the link may be configured
to add/remove the second B-channel based on the amount of traffic
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Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
crossing the link. The bridged connection is terminated when the
Hang-up option is selected from the Dial menu, but will redial if the
demand filter condition is met.
IP Routing
The Express L128T S/T operates as a dial-up IP router when the Configuration/IP/IP Router/Mode option is configured to On. The Express L128T S/T uses an IP unnumbered WAN interface; the IP
address and mask assigned to the unit’s LAN interface apply to all
routing and IP operations for the unit. If a default gateway is specified
on the network of the Ethernet interface, the unit attempts to reach the
gateway through that interface. If the gateway is specified on an unknown network, the unknown network is assigned to the router table
and remains unused until that gateway becomes the peer on a WAN
connection. If no default gateway is specified, the first connected peer
on the WAN interface becomes the default gateway (recommended
for remote applications when there are no other routers on the remote
LAN).
For each profile in the Connection List that includes an IP address and
has the Configuration/Connection List/IP/Route/Static Route option
set to Yes, the Network Address of the specified IP address is added
to the router table with the Host Address as the gateway. If the Configuration/Connection List/IP/Route/Private option is set to No, the
route is advertised at the specified metric through the unit’s interfaces
as if a connection is active to that network. These routes are referred
to as spoofed routes.
Attempts by any computer connected to the LAN interface to access a
host on a spoofed network causes a connection to be attempted using
the information from that Connection List profile. Once connected,
routes advertised by the peer router are learned and advertised to the
local LAN. If Bandwidth-On-Demand is enabled and an Idle Timeout value is specified, expiration of the Idle Timer causes the link to be
disconnected; the routes learned from the peer router are retained if
the Configuration/Connection List/IP/RIP/Retain option is set to Yes
and advertised as if the connection is still active. These routes are referred to as retained routes. Attempts by any connected computer to access a host on any of the retained routes causes the link to be redialed.
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If Hang Up is activated from the Dial menu when the link is down, the
retained routes are removed.
The Express L128T S/T can be connected to two WAN destinations at
the same time. Each B-channel is dialed to a different location. Routes
learned from one WAN destination are advertised to the other using
RIP.
IPX Routing
Like IP routing, the Express L128T S/T can connect to two different
sites and exchange IPX packets. Network routes and services are
learned and advertised using Novell’s RIP and SAP. Routes and services learned from a separate site can be retained in the Express L128T
S/T when the connection goes idle. While retained, the Express L128T
S/T can spoof RIP/SAP and watch-dog and filter serialization packets
that would normally be required between the Novell server and client.
Connection List - Simplifying and Enhancing the Dial Function
The Connection List, which is accessed from the Configuration menu,
provides a location to define information regarding 15 individual destinations that may be dialed. A Connection List entry is required for
each destination since authentication information (method, username,
password), number of B-channels, telephone numbers, Caller ID, IP,
or IPX address (for routed connections), and other information can be
stored for each destination defined. Defined destinations may be dialed by selecting the Dial activator in the Dial menu or by demand for
the desired Connection List profile.
Concurrent Routing and Bridging
The Express L128T S/T can route IP and IPX as well as bridge non-IP/
IPX packets simultaneously. The Connection List profile will by default negotiate PPP network protocols to support the transmission and
reception of IP, IPX, and Bridge packets. If the PPP peer does not accept a protocol, the Express L128T S/T will fall back to any combination of routing and bridging.
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Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
Routing over PPP Bridging
The Express L128T S/T can support legacy equipment which does not
support PPP IP (IPCP) or IPX (IPXCP) protocols by allowing routing
packets over the WAN connection using PPP Bridging (BCP). To perform this, the Express L128T S/T uses a “virtual” Ethernet port. This
port is set up under the Configuration/Bridge menu.
This feature identifies the calling party number for incoming
calls. This feature may not be functional for all countries or if
calling party information is not supplied by the central office
switch.
Network Address Translation Mode
NAT is a special mode of operation in which the Express L128T S/T
obtains a dynamically assigned IP address from the peer router (typically an Internet Service Provider). This allows a network of computers to benefit from Ethernet to ISDN speeds while still appearing to
the Internet Service Provider (or central site router) as a single IP address, which is typical of PC based serial dial-up solutions.
A call is initiated to the ISP using the Dial menu or demand for a Connection List profile that has the IP parameter NAT set to Yes. The network computer’s IP stack may use DHCP to request an IP address,
default gateway address, and domain name server addresses from the
Express L128T S/T.
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Front Panel
Figure 1-6 on page 1-11 shows the front panel of the Express L128T S/T.
The indicators are divided into LAN, WAN, and Test functions.
LAN Indicators
TX/RX
Flashes green when transmitting data onto the 10BaseT
connector. Flashes yellow when receiving data from the
10BaseT connector.
LI
Link integrity. Illuminates when there is a good connection
between the Express L128T S/T and the Hub/NIC card.
WAN Indicators
PWR
Flashes when the link is deactivated or disconnected; solid
when the link is active.
B1
Flashes green when the link is being negotiated; off when
the link is active. After the link is active, B1 flashes green
when a call on B1 channel is in progress; solid green when
a call is connected.
B2
Flashes green when the link is being negotiated; off when
the link is active. After the link is active, B2 flashes green
when a call on B2 channel is in progress; solid green when
a call is connected.
Test Indicators
B1/B2
A slow amber flash indicates test in progress; a fast amber
flash indicates test has failed.
LI
TX/RX
B1
B2
PWR
EXPRESS L128T
TEST
LINE
Figure 1-6. Express L128T S/T LEDs
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Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
Rear Panel
The Express L128T S/T has one RJ-45 jack, labeled ISDN, on the rear
panel for network connection (see Figure 1-7). There are two sets of
switches on the back panel. The TO HUB/TO NIC switch allows the
Express L128T S/T to connect directly to a Network Interface Card
(NIC) or a HUB without the need for special cabling. The OFF/ON
switch block is for factory default, firmware downloading, S/T bus
termination, and A-LAW/µ-LAW Pots tone selection. With switch 1
in the up or OFF position, the L128T S/T will go immediately into a
download mode when power is enabled. Switch 1 must be in the
down or ON postition in order to boot up normally. Switch 2 in the up
or OFF position will force the entire configuration to be factory defaulted. Switch 3 must be up or in the OFF position to disable passive
bus (enable 100 π termination). Switch 4 must be up or in the OFF position to disable µ-Law (enable A-LAW).
TO
HUB
1
TO
NIC
OFF
ON
POWER
O
10 BASE T
1
2
3
4
EIA232
2
1
ISDN
1202070L3
Figure 1-7. Express L128T S/T Rear Panel
ISDN Connection
From the network, ISDN is delivered by a single 4-wire S/T interface
which is connected directly to the Express L128T S/T. 100 ohm termination resistors can be enabled for point-to-point application and disabled for passive bus applications via a dip switch on the rear panel.
The Express L128T S/T has one RJ-45 jack, labeled ISDN, on the rear
panel for network connection (see Figure 1-7). ISDN basic rate service
divides a standard telephone line into three digital channels capable
of simultaneous voice and data transmission. The three channels are
comprised of two bearer (B) channels at 64 kbps and one Delta (D) or
Signalling channel at 16 kbps, known as 2B+D.
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The Express L128T S/T also supports a leased digital connection allowing data to be transferred at up to 128 kbps over a 4-wire facility
using the same RJ-45 jack. This type of service is a permanent connection between endpoints and is sometimes referred to as a leased connection, a dedicated connection, a nailed-up connection, or a private
circuit. Leased connection or leased line is used in this manual to represent these types of services.
Interoperability
The Express L128T S/T is standards based and uses PPP developed by
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). PPP provides a standard
method of transporting multiprotocol datagrams over point-to-point
links. PPP is widely accepted by many ISDN bridge/router manufacturers. The Express L128T S/T will negotiate Multilink PPP when
connecting both B-channels. The Bandwidth Allocation Protocol
(BAP) may also negotiate, which enhances the management of adding
and removing a B-channel. Data compression is also supported using
LZS® technology from hi/fn™.
Connecting to the Internet
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) assign an IP address to use when connected to their service using PPP negotiation. This assignment is
based on the assumption that the user has an ISDN terminal adapter
running PPP async-to-sync conversion or another rate adaption where
the PPP negotiation is terminated inside the PC’s IP stack. However,
if an ISDN-Ethernet gateway device is used, the ISP must preassign
the customer a subnet which uses multiple IP addresses. This may result in a much higher cost to the user.
The Express L128T S/T permits the user to assign any IP address to
the unit and computers. Operations on the network can occur normally. In fact, one B-channel can connect to the ISP using NAT while the
other B-channel connects to another “private” or “fake” network. All
packets transmitted or received over the ISP connection are translated.
The Express L128T S/T keeps track of the computers that request services over the Internet. A web server address can be assigned under
the Configuration/IP/NAT menu that allows incoming HTTP, FTP,
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Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express L128T S/T
and mail server requests from the Internet to be translated and forwarded to this address on the user network.
Configuration
The Express L128T S/T is configured using a menu-based interface.
This interface can be accessed via the maintenance port using any
asynchronous VT 100 terminal or personal computer running a terminal emulation program, or via the LAN using a Telnet client program.
To use the Telnet interface, the Express L128T S/T must first have an
IP address programmed into it via the maintenance port. The factory
default is 10.0.0.1.
Security
Security on network devices is a major concern for almost anyone with
a network. The Express L128T S/T provides many tools for securing
the local network from hostile users. Incoming calls can be authenticated using passwords and Caller ID.* A RADIUS client can also be
used.
The Telnet configuration can also be protected using the same authentication methods. Each menu item in the Express L128T S/T has a security level associated with it. A Telnet session is assigned a privilege
level which determines which menu items are accessible to the Telnet
client. See Security Levels on page 3-7 (in Chapter 3) for more information on menu security levels.
Filters can be defined to prevent certain addresses or protocols from
being transferred from LAN-to-WAN, WAN-to-LAN, or WAN-toWAN.
*This feature identifies the calling party number for incoming
calls. This feature may not be functional for all countries or if
calling party information is not supplied by the central office
switch.
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Chapter 2
Installation
SHIPPING DAMAGE
After unpacking the unit, immediately inspect it for possible shipping
damage. If damage is discovered, file a claim immediately with the
shipping carrier; then contact the ADTRAN Repair and Return department.
ISDN NETWORK CONNECTION
The Express L128T S/T supports either dial or leased operation. A
single RJ-45 modular jack labeled ISDN on the rear panel provides
connection to either network service.
Dial operation allows the user to dial out or receive calls over the public network. The leased operation mode supports dedicated data service at rates up to 128 kbps by using a nailed up circuit, or a permanent
connection between endpoints.
See Connector Pinouts on page D-1 for ISDN network connector pin assignments.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK CONNECTION
The Express L128T S/T has a 10BaseT connector that provides halfduplex 10 Mbps operation over a 4-wire twisted pair. Place the switch
in the TO HUB position when connecting to a 10BaseT concentrator or
Hub. Place the switch in the TO NIC position when connecting directly to a computer’s 10BaseT network interface card.
Other types of Ethernet interfaces (i.e., AUI, 10Base2, etc.) can be accommodated by obtaining an appropriate converter.
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Chapter 2. Installation
TELEPHONE CONNECTION
Basic Telephone Service
The Express L128T S/T supports an analog DTMF telephone type
(AT&T 2500) with the POTS interface. Two telephones or other analog
devices (like a fax machine or modem) plug into either RJ-11 jack (labeled with drawings of telephones) on the rear of the unit. Progress
tones can be generated in A-LAW or µ-LAW format.
Supplementary Services
Supplementary services such as call holding, three- or six-way conferencing, call transfer, and call waiting are fully supported by the Express L128T S/T on a touch-tone telephone. Table 2-1 on page 2-3
explains how the flash-hook is used for handling multi-call situations.
Supplementary services are not supported for all countries.
DTMF Keypad
The following functions are performed on a touch-tone phone:
Disable call waiting:
Enable call waiting:
Redial last number:
Enter Phone Number 1:
Enter Phone Number 2:
2-2
Press **0
Press **1
Press **5
Press **8XXXXXXX* (where
XXXXXXX is the phone number.
The terminal * indicates end of digits.
Press **9XXXXXXX* (where
XXXXXXX is the phone number. If only
one phone number is assigned, this
does not have to be entered.)
The terminal * indicates end of digits.
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Chapter 2. Installation
Table 2-1.
Using the Flash-Hook
Calling a second party with an active call:
Flash-hook to place active call on hold and dial new number.
Hanging up will terminate the call.
Answering an incoming call with an active call at call
waiting:
Flash-hook to place active call on hold and answer incoming call.
Hanging up will terminate both calls.
Conferencing Calls:
With an outgoing call on hold, and a second outgoing call active,
flash-hook to conference calls. Hanging up will transfer second call.
With an incoming call on hold, and outgoing call active, flash-hook to
conference calls. Hanging up will transfer calls.
With two incoming calls (one on hold and one active) flash-hook to
conference calls. Hanging up transfers calls.
Answering calls on hold, and holding incoming active
calls:
Flash-hook places the incoming call on hold and reconnects to
outgoing call. Hanging up will terminate both calls.
Customer Premises Wiring
Customer premises wiring requirements for the Express L128T S/T
vary depending on the application and existing wiring. It may be simpler for the ISDN provider to deliver another line to your location.
This would eliminate the need to modify existing wiring. Figures 2-1
on page 2-4 and 2-2 on page 2-5 illustrate two wiring scheme possibilities.
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Chapter 2. Installation
Current Wiring Scheme
To
Telephone
Company
Yellow
Red
Green
Black
New Wiring Scheme
Personal
Computer
Express L128T S/T
10-Base-T Phone S/T
Yellow
To
Telephone
Company
Red
Green
Black
Figure 2-1. Wiring Scheme 1
Use existing analog telephone equipment, but replace single analog
telephone service with ISDN service.
The S/T interface requires a 4-wire connection.
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Chapter 2. Installation
Current Wiring Scheme
To
Telephone
Company
Yellow
Red
Green
Black
New Wiring Scheme
Personal
Computer
Express L128T S/T
10-Base-T Phone
Red
S/T
Green
Yellow
To
Telephone
Company
Red
Green
Black
WARNING
Ensure other yellow and black wire functions are removed
before using this wiring scheme.
Figure 2-2. Wiring Scheme 2
Retain single analog telephone service and add ISDN service.
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Chapter 2. Installation
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Chapter 3
Terminal Menu Operation
TERMINAL MENU STRUCTURE
The Express L128T S/T uses a multilevel menu structure containing
both menu items and data fields. All menu operations and data display in the terminal menu window. The Express L128T S/T is shipped
in the Factory Default configuration. Connect any VT 100 or VT 220
type terminal emulator to the maintenance port with a straightthrough RS-232 cable. The default rate is 9600 baud 8-N-1. The terminal emulator can flow the Express L128T S/T off using software flow
control. Hardware flow control is not used.
The opening menu (the Main menu, or top-level menu) is the access
point to all other operations. Each Main menu item has several functions and submenus to identify and access specific parameters. Top
Level Terminal Menu on page 3-2 shows the top-level terminal menu.
The Main menu options are described in the following pages.
In order to edit items in the terminal menus, you must have the
appropriate security level. Each menu description in this section
indicates the required security level required for write access.
The maintenance port is always at security level 0, giving full
access to all configuration items.
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Right Pane
Lists available submenus. Additional submenus
available through this pane are indicated by the
[+] and [DATA] symbols.
61202070L3-20
Figure 3-1. Top Level Terminal Menu
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Left Pane
Lists available menus.
Mode
Describes current operating mode.
B-channel Status
Loop Status
Displays current status of Displays current status of
each B channel.
ISDN line.
Navigation Help
Displays list of characters you can use to navigate the terminal menus.
Press Control-Z.
System Time
Displays the current
time. See Date/Time
on page 3-9 for details
on setting the time.
Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
3-2
Menu Path
Describes the current position in
the terminal menu structure.
Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
Configuration
The Configuration menu provides options to set up the operational
configuration for the Express L128T S/T. See the section Configuration
Menu on page 3-8 for detailed information.
Dial
The Dial menu is used to connect to different sites based on the Connection List. See the section Dial Menu on page 3-64 for more details.
Status
The Status menu provides options to review and monitor the status of
the Express L128T S/T system. See the section Status Menu on page 366 for detailed information on the available options.
Test
The Test menu can be used for performing diagnostic testing of the Express L128T S/T. See the section Test Menu on page 3-74 for detailed
information on the tests available.
Logs
The Logs menu can be used for viewing the operational logs for the
Express L128T S/T. See the section Logs Menu on page 3-75 for detailed information on the available options.
Utilities
The Utilities menu provides tools for system diagnostics and upgrading the Express L128T S/T. See the section Utilities Menu on page 3-79
for detailed information on the available options.
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
NAVIGATING THE TERMINAL MENUS
The following sections provide information on how to navigate
through the terminal menus.
General Layout
When you first start a terminal mode session, the window shown in
Top Level Terminal Menu on page 3-2 displays. The screen is divided
into left and right panes. The left pane shows the current list of submenus, while the right pane shows the contents of a selected submenu.
Menu Path
The top line of the display shows this session’s current position (path)
in the menu tree. Figure 3-1 shows the top menu level with the cursor
on the Configuration submenu, so the path display shows Express
L128T/Configuration.
Moving Around
Press Tab or the right arrow key to move the cursor from the left pane
to the right pane. Press Shift+Tab or press the left arrow key to move
the cursor from the right pane back to the left pane. Use the up and
down arrows to move around within each pane. Press Enter to activate a menu. Press the left arrow key or the Escape key to go back up
the menu. The following options display throughout the menus.
Submenus [+] or [DATA]
Menus that display [+] or [DATA] indicate that more items are available when selected.
Activation Field <+>
Menus that display <+> indicate that an action is to be taken, such as
activating a test.
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
Editable Data Field
A highlighted menu item indicates that you can enter data in that
field.
Read-Only Field
An underlined field is a display field that contains read-only information.
Navigation with the Keyboard
You can use different keystrokes to navigate through the terminal
menu. Press Control-Z to activate a pop-up screen with the available
keystrokes. The following section provides a list of the available keystrokes and the results:
H
J
Arrow Keys
Enter
Escape
Tab and
Shift+Tab
A
Z
Backspace
61202070L3-20
General Navigation
Returns to the home screen.
Jumps between two menu items. Press J while on a menu
item of interest, and you will jump back to the main screen.
Go to another menu item of interest, press J, and you will
jump back to the screen that was displayed the first time you
pressed J. Press J anytime you want to jump between these
items.
Selects items and moves between the left and right panes.
The left arrow key allows you to go back up the menu.
Activates an item or moves into submenu.
Cancels an edit. Allows you to go back up the menu. Also
will dismiss the pop-up help screens.
Moves between the left and right panes.
Moves to the top of a screen.
Moves to the bottom of a screen.
Ascends one menu level.
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
Control-L
Control-S
Control-R
F
C
P
>
<
I
D
3-6
Session Management
Logs out of the session.
Invalidates the password entry and returns to the log in
screen. The Password prompt will display.
Refreshes the screen. To save time, only the portion of the
screen that has changed is refreshed. This option should be
necessary only if the display picks up incorrect characters.
Configuration
Restores factory default settings. This setting restores the
factory defaults based on the location of the cursor. Entire
submenus can be factory defaulted.
Copies selected items to the clipboard. The amount of
information you can copy depends on the cursor location
when you press C. For example, if the cursor is over an
editable field, only that item is copied. If the cursor is over
the index number of a list, then all of the items in the row of
the list are copied. For example, if the cursor is over the
Num field in the Connection List screen, all of the
information associated with the Connection List entry is
copied.
Pastes the item stored in the clipboard, if the information in
compatible. You must confirm all pastes except those to a
single editable field.
For certain types of fields, when you paste information into
the field, the value increments by 1.
For certain types of fields, when you paste information into
the field, the value decrements by 1.
Inserts a new item in a list. For example, add a new item to
the Connection List by pressing I while the cursor is over the
index number.
Deletes a list item. For example, delete an item from the
Connection List by pressing D while the index number is
active.
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
Security Levels
Each menu item on the configuration screens has an associated security level. The security level ranges from 0 (highest security level) to 5
(lowest security level). This level determines whether a Telnet session
can access that menu item. The Telnet session is assigned a security
level set by the user. Passwords can only be accessed as security level
0. The maintenance port is always at security level 0.
The security levels are assigned as follows:
Level
0
1
2
3
4
5
61202070L3-20
Description
Access all parameters including passwords
Access all parameters except passwords
Access all parameters except passwords and authentication
methods
Access all parameters except passwords, authentication
methods, and ISDN parameters
Access only test and status menus
Access status menus only
Express L128T S/T User Manual
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
CONFIGURATION MENU
Configuration/System Info
The System Info menu provides basic information about the unit and
displays data fields for editing information. Figure 3-2 displays the
submenus available under this menu item.
Figure 3-2. Configuration/System Info Screen
System Name
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Provides a user configurable text string for the name of the Express
L128T S/T. This name can help distinguish between different installations. You can enter up to 31 alpha-numeric characters in this field,
including spaces and special characters (such as an under bar). The
system name is also used for PPP authentication and IPX service
name.
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System Location
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Provides a user configurable text string for the location of the Express
L128T S/T. This helps to keep track of the physical location of the
unit. You can enter up to 31 alpha-numeric characters in this field, including spaces and special characters (such as an under bar).
System Contact
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Provides a user configurable text string for the contact name. This
field can contain a name, phone number, or e-mail address of a person
responsible for the Express L128T S/T. You can enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters in this field, including spaces and special characters (such as an under bar).
Firmware Revision
Read security: 5
Displays the current firmware revision level of the Express L128T S/T.
This field is a read-only field.
System Uptime
Read security: 5
Displays the length of time the Express L128T S/T has been running
since power up or reset. This field is a read-only field.
Date/Time
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Displays the current date and time as programmed in the real time
clock. This field can be edited. Enter the time in 24-hour format (such
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
as 23:00:00 to represent 11:00 PM). Enter the date in mm-dd-yyyy format (for example, 09-30-1998).
Configuration/WAN
The WAN menu is used to set up the ISDN and POTS parameters for
the Express L128T S/T. Figure 3-3 shows the WAN menu.
Figure 3-3. Configuration/WAN Screen
WAN/ISDN
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
Selects the mode the ISDN line is in. If connecting to the public network, select Dial (def). If connecting to a leased wire for back-to-back
operation, select Leased.
ISDN/Dial Line
Dial Line parameters are entered under this menu.
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
Dial Line/Switch Protocol
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
Find out what kind of ISDN switch protocol the local CO is
using by asking the local telephone administrator or the telephone company representative. The Express L128T S/T can be
configured for the following:
LUCENT 5ESS (def)
NEC, TDX10
EURO ISDN, TDX1B
LUCENT 5ESS© Custom
Nippon Electric Company Switch
NET3 or similar
Dial Line/Area Code
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
Enter 3-digit area code when using ExpertISDN.
Dial Line/Local Number 1 or 2
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This option allows the entry of 0, 1, or 2 Local Numbers. The
Local Number is used when placing or receiving calls. The Local
Number is the local phone number assigned to the line.
Local Number 1 = 5 5 5 1 2 1 2
Local Number 2 = 5 5 5 1 2 1 3
ISDN/Leased Line
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
Leased Line parameters are entered under this menu. Leased mode
would be used for permanent circuits.
Leased Line/Channel Rate
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
64k
2x64k
128k (def)
61202070L3-20
Only B1 is used.
B1 and B2 go to different locations.
B1 and B2 are used together.
Express L128T S/T User Manual
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
WAN/POTS
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
POTS parameters are under this menu.
POTS/POTS Assignment
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T can assign the POTS interface either POTS1 to
LDN 1 and POTS2 to LDN 2 (def), or POTS2 to LDN 1 and POTS1 to
LDN 2 . Once assigned, all incoming and outgoing calls on a particular
port are placed to/from the assigned number.
POTS/Speech Calltype Routing
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This allows the Express L128T S/T to treat incoming calls as “data
over voice" (DOV) when selected as LAN. Otherwise, when set to
POTS (def), incoming speech calls are sent to the POTS when the destination number is the same as the POTS assignment.
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Configuration/IP
The IP menu is used to set up the IP parameters for the Express L128T
S/T. Any general IP-related configuration item is under this menu.
Figure 3-4 shows the IP menu.
Figure 3-4. Configuration/IP Screen
IP/IP Address
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The IP address assigned to the Express L128T S/T’s Ethernet port is
set here. This address must be unique within the network. Factory default is 10.0.0.1.
IP/Subnet Mask
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The IP network mask to be applied to the Express L128T S/T’s Ethernet port is set here. Factory default is 255.255.255.0.
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IP/Default Gateway
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The default gateway is used by the Express L128T S/T for sending IP
packets whose destination address is not found in the route table. If
this address is all zeros, then the first WAN connection becomes the
default gateway. If the address entered is not on the Ethernet segment, then an “idle route” entry is added to the route table.
IP/Static Routes
Static Routes can be inserted under this menu.
Static Routes/Active
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
Adds this static route entry to the IP routing table when set to Yes (def)
and removes it (if it was previously added) if set to No.
Static Routes/IP Address
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This is the IP address of the host or network address of the network.
Static Routes/Subnet Mask
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This mask determines the bits in the previous IP address that are used.
If this is to be a host route, it must be set to all ones (255.255.255.255).
Static Routes/Gateway
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This is the IP address of the router to receive the forwarded IP packet.
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Static Routes/Hops
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This is the number of router hops required to get to the network or
host. Maximum distance is 15 hops.
Static Routes/Private
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
When set to No, the Express L128T S/T will advertise this static route
using RIP. Otherwise, setting to Yes means that the route is kept private.
IP/IP Router
The IP router is configured under this menu as follows.
IP Router/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this option is set to On (def), the Express L128T S/T will advertise and listen to routes from other IP routers. If Off, the route table is
still used but only static routes are used for routing IP packets and
only the Ethernet port is used. IP packets can be sent over the WAN,
but only when bridged.
IP/RIP
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is supported by the Express
L128T S/T. The following parameters are required for setting up the
mode on the Ethernet port:
RIP/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This option turns RIP On (def) or Off.
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RIP/Protocol
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Version can be V1 (def) or V2.
RIP/Method
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Split Horizon
Poison Reverse (def)
None
Only routes not learned on the Ethernet
port are advertised.
All routes are advertised, including
routes learned from the Ethernet port.
These routes are poisoned.
All routes are advertised, including
routes learned from the Ethernet port.
No attempt is made to poison these
routes.
RIP/Direction
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Tx and Rx (def)
Tx only
Rx only
RIP advertisements are transmitted and
listened to on the Ethernet port.
RIP advertisements are transmitted and
not listened to.
RIP advertisements are listened to but not
transmitted.
RIP/V2 Secret
Write security: 0; Read security: 0
This is a text string used for authenticating advertised routes.
IP/NAT
The Network Address Translation general parameters are set up under this menu.
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NAT/DHCP Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this option is set to On, the Express L128T S/T acts as a DHCP
server and will dynamically assign IP, network mask, default gateway, and DNS addresses to any device which transmits a broadcast
DHCP request. The addresses assigned are based on the Express
L128T S/T’s own IP address and will be within the same network.
This mode is most commonly used with the NAT functionality. The
default is Off.
NAT/DHCP Renewal Time
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the number of hours that the DHCP server should allow the device before it is required to send a new DHCP request. The default is
15 hours, and 0 represents an infinite lease.
NAT/Web Server
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the IP address of a web server on the Ethernet network. When
an active NAT connection is made to the Internet, any HTTP, FTP, or
Mail server requests from the WAN are translated and sent to this web
server.
IP/DNS
The Domain Name Server parameters used by the Express L128T S/T
are specified here. The DNS server addresses can be exchanged between PPP peers. When a connection occurs and IPCP is negotiated,
the Express L128T S/T will get the DNS server addresses from the PPP
peer. If the configured DNS server addresses (Server 1 and Server 2)
are all zeros, the addresses from the PPP peer are used. In NAT mode,
the PPP peer’s DNS addresses are always used. The DNS addresses set
in Server 1 and Server 2 are offered to a PPP peer if so requested.
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DNS/Domain Name
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is a text string used to represent the domain name used by the Express L128T S/T.
DNS/Server 1
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the IP address for the primary DNS device. It is the first server
that domain name requests are sent.
DNS/Server 2
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the IP address for the secondary DNS device. It is used as a
back-up in case the primary address does not respond to the request.
IP/UDP Relay
The Express L128T S/T can be configured as a relay agent for UDP
broadcast packets. Normally, a router will not forward UDP broadcast packets. However, many network applications use UDP broadcasts to configure addresses, host names, and other information. If
hosts using these protocols are not on the same network segment as
the servers providing the information, the client programs will not receive a response without enabling the UDP relay agent.
UDP Relay/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this option is set to On (def), the Express L128T S/T will act as
a relay agent.
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UDP Relay/UDP Relay List
Up to four relay destination servers can be specified in this list.
UDP Relay List/Relay Address
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the IP address of the server that will receive the relay
packet.
UDP Relay List/UDP Port Type
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Standard (def)
Specified
The following standard UDP protocols are
relayed when set: DHCP, TFTP, DNS, NTP
(Network Time Protocol, port 123). NBNS
(NetBIOS Name Server, port 137), NBDG
(NetBIOS Datagram, port 138), and BootP.
When set, the UDP port (1 to 65535) can be
specified in the UDP Port columns. (up to a
maximum of three per server).
UDP Relay List/UDP Port 1, UDP Port 2, UDP Port 3
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
UDP Port 1, UDP Port 2, and UDP Port 3 are used for specifying
UDP ports to be relayed. These fields only apply when UDP
Port Type is set to Specified.
IP/Proxy ARP
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This feature allows the network portion of a group of addresses to be
shared between several physical network segments. The ARP protocol
itself provides a way for devices to create a mapping between physical
(i.e., Ethernet) addresses and logical IP addresses. Proxy ARP makes
use of this mapping feature by instructing a router to answer ARP requests as a “proxy” for the IP addresses behind one of its ports. The
device which sent the ARP request will then correctly assume that it
can reach the requested IP address by sending packets to the physical
address that was returned to it. This technique effectively hides the
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fact that a network has been (further) subnetted. If this option is set to
Yes (def), when an ARP request is received on the Ethernet port the
address is looked up in the IP routing table. If the forwarding port is
not on the Ethernet port and the route is not the default route, the Express L128T S/T will answer the request with its own hardware address. If set to No, the Express L128T S/T will only respond to ARP
requests received for its own IP address.
Configuration/IPX
The IPX menu is used to set up the IPX parameters for the Express
L128T S/T. Any general IPX-related configuration item can be found
under this menu. Figure 3-5 shows the IPX menu.
Figure 3-5. Configuration/IPX Screen
IPX/Mode
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
When this option is set to On (def), the Express L128T S/T will route
IPX. Setting it to Off will disable all IPX functionality.
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IPX/Network
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The IPX network address for the Ethernet port is set here. This is an
eight-digit hexadecimal value that uniquely identifies the network
segment of the Ethernet port. Accidental selection of an IPX network
which is already in use on another network segment may cause hardto-diagnose problems. IPX network numbers should be carefully
tracked.
IPX/Frame Type
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T supports all four defined IPX frame types. The
possible frame types are: Ether Type II (def), Ether 802.3 (Raw), Ether
802.2, or Ether SNAP (802.2 SNAP). Only one frame type can be used
at one time.
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IPX/Seed Status
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The seed status defines what the Express L128T S/T is to do with the
network information on the selected frame type during startup. There
are three possible seeding selections specified:
Seed
Non-Seed
(def)
Auto-Seed
The Express L128T S/T will listen for an IPX network
number being sent by another router (including Novell
software routers residing on servers) on the Ethernet
segment connected to this port and use this number if it
exists. If it doesn’t discover a number in use, the Express
L128T S/T will use the configured IPX network number for
the Ethernet segment.
The Express L128T S/T will listen for an IPX network
number being sent by another router (including Novell
software routers residing on servers) on the Ethernet
segment connected to this port and use this number if it
exists. If it doesn’t discover a number in use, the Express
L128T S/T will wait indefinitely until a number is sent by
another router on the Ethernet segment.
The Express L128T S/T will listen for an IPX network
number being sent by another router (including Novell
software routers residing on servers) on the Ethernet
segment connected to this port and use this number if it
exists. If it doesn’t discover a number in use, the Express
L128T S/T will auto-generate a valid number using its
routing tables.
IPX/RIP Timer
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value specifies how often the Express L128T S/T sends out IPX
RIP packets on the network segment attached to the Ethernet port.
The RIP packets sent contain routing information about the networks
for which this Express L128T S/T is responsible. The default value is
60 seconds.
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IPX/SAP Timer
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value specifies how often the Express L128T S/T sends out IPX
SAP (Service Access Protocol) packets on the network segment attached to the Ethernet port. The SAP packets sent contain information
about the services (such as servers, printers, etc.) for which this Express L128T S/T is responsible. The default value is 60 seconds.
Configuration/Bridge
The Bridge menu is used to set up the bridge parameters for the Express L128T S/T. The bridging function runs at the Media Access
Control (MAC) level which allows any protocol packets that run over
Ethernet to be forwarded. Bridging can run concurrently with the IP
and IPX routing. However, certain rules apply for when packets are
bridged across a WAN connection. When IP routing is active, IP packets (which include ARP packets) are not bridged. When IPX routing
is active, IPX packets are not bridged. Also, the WAN IP Bridge and
WAN IPX Bridge menus allow the WAN connection to bridge packets
to the Express L128T S/T but get routed as soon as they arrive at the
unit. Figure 3-6 shows the Bridge menu.
Figure 3-6. Configuration/Bridge Screen
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Bridge/Mode
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
When this option is set to On (def), the Express L128T S/T bridge
function is enabled. Setting it to Off disables all bridge functionality.
Bridge/WAN IP Bridge
When IP routing is active, the Express L128T S/T allows another
WAN device to bridge IP packets to it using PPP BCP. Normally, two
IP routers would negotiate PPP IPCP to exchange IP packets. However, if a device can only support PPP BCP, IP packets are encapsulated
by the device as bridge packets. The Express L128T S/T can treat the
WAN IP Bridge as a virtual Ethernet port connected only to a WAN
device which has negotiated PPP BCP. This menu allows the IP parameters for this virtual Ethernet to be set up.
WAN IP Bridge/Network
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the IP address of the virtual Ethernet port.
WAN IP Bridge/Netmask
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the network mask to be applied to the virtual Ethernet port.
WAN IP Bridge/Triggered
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, only IP RIP updates are sent when the routing table
has changed. When set to No (def), updates are sent periodically. RIP
version, method, and direction are determined by the Ethernet parameters set in the Configuration/IP/IP Router/RIP menu.
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WAN IP Bridge/Proxy ARP
If this option is set to Yes (def), the Express L128T S/T will proxy ARP
on the bridge IP port. See the section IP/Proxy ARP on page 3-19 for an
explanation of the proxy ARP function.
Bridge/WAN IPX Bridge
When IPX routing is active, the Express L128T S/T will allow another
WAN device to bridge IPX packets to it using PPP BCP. Normally,
two IPX routers would negotiate PPP IPXCP to exchange IPX packets.
However, if a device can only support PPP BCP, IPX packets are encapsulated by the device as bridge packets. The Express L128T S/T
can treat the WAN IPX Bridge as a virtual Ethernet port connected
only to a WAN device which has negotiated PPP BCP. This menu allows the IPX parameters for this virtual Ethernet to be setup.
WAN IPX Bridge/Network
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the network address of the virtual Ethernet port. See IPX/Network on page 3-21 for an explanation of the IPX network number.
WAN IPX Bridge/Frame Type
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the frame type used for the virtual Ethernet port. See IPX/
Frame Type on page 3-21 for an explanation of the IPX frame type.
WAN IPX Bridge/Seed Status
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the seed status used for the virtual Ethernet port. See IPX/Seed
Status on page 3-22 menu for an explanation of the IPX seed status.
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WAN IPX Bridge/Triggered
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, only IPX RIP and SAP updates are sent when the
routing or service table has changed. When set to No (def), updates
are sent at the same rate set for the Ethernet port (see IPX/RIP Timer on
page 3-22 and IPX/SAP Timer on page 3-23).
Bridge/Spanning Tree
The Spanning Tree Algorithm and Protocol ensures a loop-free topology and provides redundancy. The protocol parameters can be specifically tuned from their defaults, though most applications require
no adjustment.
Spanning Tree/Mode
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
When the mode is set to On, the Express L128T S/T participates in the
Spanning Tree Protocol between other bridges. When Off (def), all
bridge ports remain permanently open for forwarding.
Spanning Tree/Priority
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This assigns a priority to the Express L128T S/T that permits the relative priority of multiple bridges to be managed. The range is 0 to
65535 with a default of 32768.
Spanning Tree/Maximum Age
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the timeout value used by the Express L128T S/T to test against
the root device. The value is in one-tenth seconds with a range between 60 (6.0 seconds) and 400 (40.0 seconds). The default is 200 (20.0
seconds).
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Spanning Tree/Hello Time
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the time between the generation of configuration BPDUs
(Bridging Protocol Data Units) by the root bridge. The value is in onetenth seconds with a range between 10 (1.0 second) and 100 (10.0 seconds). The default is 20 (2.0 seconds).
Spanning Tree/Forward Delay
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the time spent in the listening and learning state while moving
from the blocking state to the forwarding state. The value is in onetenth seconds with a range between 40 (4.0 seconds) and 300 (30.0 seconds). The default is 150 (15.0 seconds).
Spanning Tree/LAN Port
The path cost and priority parameters for the Ethernet port are specified under this menu.
LAN Port/Active
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The Ethernet port can be disabled when set to No. In this mode,
no bridge traffic will be forwarded in or out. Setting to Yes (def)
allows the port to participate in the spanning tree topology.
LAN Port/Path Cost
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the cost of using the Ethernet port in the total cost of the
path. The range is from 1 to 65535 with a default of 100 (for 10
Mbits/second).
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LAN Port/Priority
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The priority adjusts the relative priority of the Ethernet port
among the multiple bridge ports. The range is 0 to 255 with a
default of 128.
Spanning Tree/WAN Port 0
The WAN port 0 is considered to be the first PPP BCP connection that
occurs over the ISDN link. It can be a single B channel or two B channels running PPP Multilink.
WAN Port 0/Active
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The WAN 0 port can be disabled when set to No. In this mode,
no bridge traffic will be forwarded in or out. Setting to Yes (def)
allows the port to participate in the spanning tree topology.
WAN Port 0/Path Cost
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is the cost of using the WAN port 0 in the total cost of the
path. The range is from 1 to 65535 with a default of 15625 (for 64
kbits/second). Note that when running over two B channels
using PPP Multilink, the range does not adjust itself. If it is
known that the only WAN port will be WAN port 0 over two Bchannels, then the path cost for this port should be changed to
7812 (128 Kbits/second).
WAN Port 0/Priority
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The priority adjusts the relative priority of the WAN port 0
among the multiple bridge ports. The range is 0 to 255 with a
default of 128.
Spanning Tree/WAN Port 1
WAN port 1 is considered to be the second B channel PPP BCP connection made. This port is only used when the first B channel (WAN
Port 0) is going to an entirely different bridge.
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WAN Port 1/Active
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This setup is exactly like WAN Port 0 above.
WAN Port 1/Path Cost
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This setup is exactly like WAN Port 0 above.
WAN Port 1/Priority
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This setup is exactly like WAN Port 0 above.
Bridge/Address Table
The Express L128T S/T automatically maintains a table of MAC addresses detected and associates those addresses with the LAN,
WAN0, or WAN1 port from which they were received. This menu
permits the user to adjust the parameters or rules for the table as addresses are learned.
Address Table/Aging
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the maximum time an idle MAC address remains in the table
before being removed. The value is in minutes and can range from 0
(which means never age) to 65535. The default is 5.
Address Table/Forward Policy
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this parameter is set to Unknown (def), any bridge packet with
a destination MAC address that is not in the bridge table is forwarded
to all other ports. When set to Known, the packet with the unknown
destination MAC address is dropped and is not forwarded.
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Configuration/Security
The Security menu is used to set up the authentication parameters
needed to authenticate PPP connection over the ISDN B-channels. Also, the filter defines are placed under this menu. Figure 3-7 shows the
Security menu.
Figure 3-7. Configuration/Security Screen
Security/Authentication
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
The method used for authenticating the PPP peer is selected here. The
possible values are:
None (def)
Radius
Connection
List
No attempt is made to authenticate the PPP peer.
The Express L128T S/T will act as a RADIUS client and
authenticate the PPP peer using the RADIUS server. The
Radius server parameters must be set up properly for
this to work.
The Connection List profile is used to authenticate the
PPP peer.
See Configuration/Connection List on page 3-36 for more information on
authentication.
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Security/When
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
The Express L128T S/T can be configured to authenticate the PPP peer
(using the above method) for incoming calls using Answer Only (def),
or for outgoing and incoming calls using Originate and Answer.
Security/Radius Server
The parameters for the radius server are configured in this menu. The
RADIUS server can be used for authenticating a PPP peer (if defined
under Security/Authentication) and for Telnet server sessions.
Radius Server/Primary Server
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
This is the IP address of the first RADIUS server that the Express
L128T S/T should attempt to communicate with when authenticating
a PPP peer.
Radius Server/Secondary Server
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
This is the IP address of the back-up RADIUS server that the Express
L128T S/T should attempt to communicate with when the primary
server does not respond.
Radius Server/UDP Port
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
This is the UDP port that the Express L128T S/T should use when
communicating with the RADIUS server. The default is 1645, which
is the commonly used port.
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Radius Server/Secret
Write security: 0; Read security: 1
The RADIUS server and Express L128T S/T share this text string,
which is used by the RADIUS server to authenticate the Express L128T
S/T that is the RADIUS client. The factory default is not to use a secret.
Radius Server/Retry Count
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
This is the number of times the Express L128T S/T should send a request packet to the RADIUS server without a response before giving
up. If the number of attempts to communicate with the primary server is equal to the retry count, the secondary server (if defined) is tried.
If the secondary server does not respond within the retry count, the
PPP peer (or Telnet session) is not authenticated and is dropped. The
default is 5.
Security/PPP
Write security: 1; Read security: 2
The PPP peer can be authenticated using three standard methods:
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol), CHAP (Challenge Handshake Protocol) and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol). The
strength of the authentication is determined in the order EAP, CHAP,
followed by PAP, where EAP is the strongest and PAP is the weakest.
PAP is a clear-text protocol, which means it is sent over the PPP link
in a readable format. Care must be taken not to allow highly sensitive
passwords to become compromised using this method. CHAP and
EAP use a one-way hashing algorithm which makes it virtually impossible to determine the password. EAP has other capabilities which
allow more flexibility than CHAP.
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The following selections are possible:
PAP, CHAP,
or EAP (def)
The Express L128T S/T will ask for EAP during the first
PPP LCP negotiation and allow the PPP peer to
negotiate down to CHAP or PAP.
CHAP or EAP The Express L128T S/T will ask for EAP during the first
PPP LCP negotiation and allow the PPP peer to
negotiate down to CHAP but not PAP.
EAP
The Express L128T S/T will only allow EAP to be
negotiated. If the PPP peer is not capable of doing
EAP, then the connection will not succeed.
Security/Filter Defines
The Express L128T S/T can filter packets based on certain parameters
within the packet. The method used by the Express L128T S/T allows
the highest flexibility for defining filters and assigning them to a Connection List profile. The filters are set up in two steps: (1) defining the
packet types, and (2) adding them to a list under the Connection List
profile. See the section Connection List/Filters on page 3-55 for examples of how to set up filter profiles. This menu is used to define the
individual filter defines based on packet type.
Filter Defines /MAC Filter Defines
Write security: 2; Read security: 3
The MAC filter is applied to bridge packets only. Bridge packets
which are forwarded by the bridge functionality of the Express L128T
S/T are defined here. Up to 32 MAC defines can be specified.
Name
Src Addr
Src Mask
Dest Addr
Dest Mask
MAC Type
Type Msk
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Identifies the filter entry
48-bit MAC source address used for comparison.
(hexadecimal format)
Bits in the MAC source address which are compared.
(hexadecimal format)
48-bit MAC destination address used for comparison.
(hexadecimal format)
Bits in the MAC destination address used for
comparison. (hexadecimal format)
16-bit MAC type field used for comparison.
(hexadecimal format)
Bits in the MAC type field used for comparison.
(hexadecimal format)
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Filter Defines /Pattern Filter Defines
Write security: 2; Read security: 3
The pattern filter is applied to bridge packets only. That is, any packet
which is forwarded by the bridge functionality of the Express L128T
S/T. Up to 32 pattern defines can be specified.
Name
Offset
Pattern
Mask
Identifies the filter entry
Offset from beginning of packet of where to start
the pattern comparison
64 bits used for comparison. (hexadecimal
format)
Bits in the pattern to be compared. (hexadecimal
format)
Filter Defines /IP Filter Defines
Write security: 2; Read security: 3
The IP filter defines apply to any IP packet, whether it is routed or
bridged. Up to 32 IP defines can be specified.
Name
IP Src
Src Mask
IP Dest
Dest Mask
Src Port
Src Port Cmpr
3-34
Identifies the filter entry
IP address compared to the source address.
(dotted decimal format)
Bits which are used in the source comparison.
(dotted decimal format)
IP address compared to the destination address.
(dotted decimal format)
Bits which are used in the destination comparison.
(dotted decimal format)
IP source port number used for comparison
Range: 0 to 65535. (decimal format)
Type of comparison that is performed
= means ports equal to
not = means port not equal to
> means port greater than
< means port less than
None means the source port is not compared
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Dst Port
Dst Port Cmpr
Proto
Proto Cmpr
TCP Est
IP destination port number used for comparison
Range: 0 to 65535. (decimal format)
Type of comparison that is performed
= means ports equal to
not = means port not equal to
> means port greater than
< means port less than
None means the destination port is not
compared
Protocol used for comparison. Range: 0 to 255.
(decimal format)
Type of comparison that is performed
= means protocols equal to
not = means protocols not equal to
> means protocols greater than
< means protocols less than
None means the protocol is not compared
Yes - only when TCP established
No - only when TCP not established
Ignore - ignore TCP flags
Filter Defines /IPX Filter Defines
Write security: 2; Read security: 3
The IPX filter defines apply to any IPX packet whether it is routed or
bridged. Also, any IPX encapsulation type will be accounted for. Up
to 32 IPX defines can be specified.
Name
Src Net
Src Mask
Dest Net
Dest Mask
Src Socket
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Identifies the filter entry (15 characters max)
32-bit source network address
Bits in the source network address which are
compared. (hexadecimal format)
32-bit destination network address
Bits in the destination network address which
are compared. (hexadecimal format)
16-bit value which is the source socket. Range
is 0-65535.
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Src Socket Comp
Dest Socket
Dest Socket
Comp
Type
Type Comp
Type of comparison that is performed:
= means socket equal to
Not = means socket not equal to
> means socket greater than
< means socket less than
None - no comparison is done on source
socket
16-bit value which is the destination socket.
Range is 0-65535.
Type of comparison that is performed:
= means socket equal to
Not = means socket not equal to
> means socket greater than
< means socket less than
None - no comparison is done on destination
socket
8-bit value which is the IPX type
Type of comparison that is performed:
= means type equal to
Not = means type not equal to
> means type greater than
< means type less than
None - no comparison is done on IPX type
Configuration/Connection List
The Express L128T S/T uses the Connection List to specify the profile
each user or group of users are to have when connected. Each profile
or item in the Connection List has many configurable parameters giving high flexibility on a per-user basis.
Up to 15 profiles can be defined in the Connection List. Calls cannot
be originated or answered unless a Connection List profile is defined.
The Express L128T S/T factory defaults with one profile called DEFAULT. This profile is used for any incoming calls when Configuration/Security/Authentication = None or when the username of the
connecting PPP peer is not found in the Connection List.
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To insert a new profile press the I key when over the Num
column. A new inserted profile will always be set up with the
default parameters. To copy parameters from an old profile to
this newly inserted profile, use the copy (C) and paste (P)
keys. Entire configuration trees can be copied with this
method.
Figure 3-8 shows the Connection List menu.
Figure 3-8. Configuration/Connection List Screen
Connection List/Description
Write security: 3; Read security: 4
The description is a text string that identifies the profile.
Connection List/Active
Write security: 3; Read security: 4
When set to Yes (def), this profile is used for authentication and user
association of incoming calls. Setting to No is the same as deleting the
item but allows the information of the profile to be saved.
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To delete an unused profile, use the D key when the cursor is
over the number in the Num column. Once deleted, the
profile is permanently removed as soon as the Connection List
is saved. Items may be deleted when DEL appears below the
status bar.
Connection List/Authentication
The authentication menu contains the required parameters for the authentication of the PPP peer and for being authenticated by the PPP
peer. (PPP peer refers to the WAN’s far-end device, e.g., another router or bridge.)
Authentication is applied between the Express L128T S/T and the PPP
peer as follows:
1.
The Express L128T S/T as the authenticator:
•
When answering an incoming call:
•
Express L128T S/T uses PPP method configured in
Configuration/Security/PPP.
•
Authenticatee’s username is looked up in all active
Connection List profiles (Rx Username).
•
If found, the Rx Password is used for authenticating.
•
If not found, DEFAULT entry’s Rx Password is used if Rx
Username is blank.
When answering a call, the Express L128T S/T does not know
who the PPP peer is until the authentication phase is
completed. Two PPP protocols (EAP and CHAP) require the
authenticator to transmit a username which the authenticatee
uses to cross reference the password to use. Since the PPP peer
is unknown before the authentication phase is over, the
Express L128T S/T uses the Tx Username in the DEFAULT
profile to identify itself. If Tx Username is blank,
Configuration/System Info/System Name is used. If that
is blank, then the word “ADTRAN” is used.
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•
•
When originating an outgoing call:
•
Express L128T S/T uses PPP method configured in
Configuration/Security/PPP.
•
Authenticatee’s (i.e., WAN far-end device) username is
compared to the profile used to dial.
Authenticating with RADIUS:
•
When Configuration/Security/Authentication is set to
Radius, authentication is performed by a RADIUS server on
the near-end LAN.
•
The Express L128T S/T uses the DEFAULT Connection List
profile for all other parameters not supported by RADIUS
attributes.
•
RADIUS attributes currently supported are: framed ip,
framed netmask, framed ipx network, framed routing,
framed compression, and idle timeout.
2.
The Express L128T S/T as the authenticatee:
•
When answering an incoming call:
•
•
If the Configuration/Security/Authentication parameter is
set to None, the DEFAULT profile’s Tx Username and Tx
Password are used by the Express L128T S/T for
authenticating itself with the PPP peer.
•
If the Configuration/Security/Authentication parameter is
set to Connection List or RADIUS, the Express L128T S/T
will wait until the PPP peer is authenticated before
authenticating itself with the PPP peer (except when CHAP
or EAP is used). If CHAP or EAP is used, the username
transmitted by the PPP peer’s authentication challenge
packet is looked up in the Connection List. If found, the
Express L128T S/T responds with the profile’s Tx Username
and Tx Password parameters. If not found, the DEFAULT
profile’s Tx Username and Tx Password parameters are
used.
When originating an outgoing call:
•
The dial-out profile Tx Username and Tx Password are used
regardless of the PPP peer’s username received if PAP,
CHAP, or EAP is used.
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Authentication/Tx Method
Write security: 2; Read security: 3
This parameter specifies how the Express L128T S/T is to be authenticated by the PPP peer. There are four possible selections. See Security/
PPP on page 3-32 for an explanation of the three PPP standard authentication types.
None (def)
PAP, CHAP or
EAP
CHAP or EAP
EAP
The connection will not allow the PPP peer to
authenticate it.
The connection can be authenticated using PAP,
CHAP or EAP.
The connection can be authenticated using CHAP
or EAP only.
The connection will only allow authentication by the peer
using EAP.
Authentication/Tx Username
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
This is the username that is used when being authenticated by the PPP
peer.
Authentication/Tx Password
Write security: 0; Read security: 1
This is the password or secret that is used when being authenticated
by the PPP peer.
Authentication/Rx Username
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
This is the username that is used to match the user to the Connection
List profile. During an incoming call, the Express L128T S/T will scan
all active connection profiles and match the received PPP peer’s username. If the name is not found, then the DEFAULT profile is used,
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only if the DEFAULT profile has nothing in the Rx Username parameter. During an outgoing call, this username does not have to match
the username reported by the PPP peer.
Authentication/Rx Password
Write security: 0; Read security: 1
This is the password or secret that is used to authenticate the PPP peer.
This is only necessary when Configuration/Security/Authentication
= Connection List.
Authentication/Caller ID
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
Incoming calls can be verified using the ISDN supplied caller identifier when this is set to Yes. When set to No (def), the caller identifier is
not checked.
Authentication/Call ID 1
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
The caller identification from the ISDN incoming call is compared to
this number, starting from the right digits.
Authentication/Call ID 2
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
The caller identification from the ISDN incoming call is compared to
this number, starting from the right digits.
Connection List/IP
The IP menu contains the parameters for exchanging IP data with the
PPP peer. Static routes can also be created from here for IP dial-on-demand applications.
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IP/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Setting to On (def) permits this connection profile to negotiate PPP
IPCP with the PPP peer for exchanging of IP packets.
IP/NAT
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T can perform Network Address Translation.
This feature is most widely used when connecting to the Internet. The
Ethernet network can consist of private network numbers. When this
profile is connected, all IP addresses on the Ethernet side are translated into the one real IP address negotiated with the PPP peer (ISP).
Multiple stations on the Ethernet side can access the Internet simultaneously. See the section IP/NAT on page 3-16 for more global options.
Setting this option to On will cause the Express L128T S/T to perform
NAT. In the Off (def) position, the unit will route across the connection normally.
IP/Route
The IP parameters are configured in this menu. Adjusting these parameters is only necessary for certain dial-on-demand applications. Usually
the Express L128T S/T will automatically discover the PPP peer’s networks using PPP IPCP and/or RIP.
Route/IP/Net
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The PPP peer’s IP address or network can be set here, if known.
Leaving this at 0.0.0.0 means that the Express L128T S/T will
determine the PPP peer’s IP and network using the PPP IPCP.
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Route/Netmask
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This network mask is applied to the IP/NET address for determining the PPP peer’s network. If left as 0.0.0.0, a standard network mask is used.
Route/Static Route
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to Yes (def), the Express L128T S/T will add the network defined above as an idle route in the IP routing table.
When an IP packet is routed to this idle route, the Express L128T
S/T will dial using this profile. When set to No, an idle route is
not placed in the table. Yes is necessary for dial-on-demand
applications if the probe feature is not used.
Route/Private
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, the Express L128T S/T will not advertise this
static route entry. A setting of No (def) means any static route
added for this profile is advertised using RIP.
Route/Hops
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value is the metric or number of hops that RIP will use in
advertising the static route. The range is from 1 to 16 where 1 is
the default. The value 16 is considered an infinite distance in
RIP and is, in effect, poisoning the route.
Route/Force IP
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, the Express L128T S/T will force the PPP peer
to use the IP address in the IP/Net for this profile as its WAN IP
address. Forcing this to Yes may cause the connection to fail if
the peer doesn’t agree to the address. Normally this is set in the
No (def) position.
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IP/RIP
The RIP parameters can be adjusted from their defaults under this
menu. The RIP parameters for all WAN connections are set on a persession basis.
RIP/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T performs RIP over the WAN connection
when this is set to On (def).
RIP/Protocol
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T performs version 1, V1 (def), or version
2, V2, of RIP on this WAN connection.
RIP/Method
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Split Horizon
Poison
Reverse (def)
None
Only routes not learned on the WAN connection
are advertised on the WAN.
All routes are advertised on the WAN, including
routes learned from the WAN connection. These
routes are poisoned.
All routes are advertised on the WAN, including
routes learned from the WAN connection. No
attempt is made to poison these routes.
RIP/Direction
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Tx and Rx (def) RIP advertisements are transmitted and listened to
on the WAN connection.
Tx only
RIP advertisements are transmitted and not listened
to on the WAN.
Rx only
RIP advertisements are listened to but not
transmitted on the WAN.
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RIP/Triggered
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, only IP RIP updates are sent when the routing
table has changed and learned routes are not “aged.” When set
to No (def), updates are sent periodically.
RIP/Retain
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set to Yes, all routes learned from this WAN connection
are retained and their routing interface is set to idle. This permits dial-on-demand to occur using this profile for any IP network that might have been advertised by the particular PPP
peer. The idle routes can be flushed or “zombied” from the routing table if a manual hangup is performed when this WAN connection is not active. See Dial/Hang Up on page 3-65. When this
Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set
to No (def), routes learned from this session are “zombied” and
are not retained.
Connection List/IPX
The IPX menu contains the parameters for exchanging IPX data with
the PPP peer.
IPX/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Setting to On (def) will permit this connection profile to negotiate PPP
IPXCP with the PPP peer for exchanging of IPX packets.
IPX/Remote Network
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
A non-zero value in this remote network number will allow the Express L128T S/T to add a route to the PPP peer’s network to the routing table.
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The Express L128T S/T normally will treat the WAN network as an
unnumbered link. This is usually referred to as being a “half-router.”
However, a PPP peer which wants to assign a network address to the
WAN link can do so, in which case the Express L128T S/T will go into
“full-router” mode.
IPX/Triggered
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, only IPX RIP and SAP updates are sent when the
routing or service table has changed and learned routes are not
“aged.” When set to No (def), updates are sent periodically based on
the RIP and SAP timers set in Configuration/IPX/RIP Timer and Configuration/IPX/SAP Timer.
IPX/Retain
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is
set to Yes, all routes learned from this WAN connection are retained
and their routing interface is set to idle. This permits dial-on-demand
to occur using this profile for any IPX network or service that might
have been advertised by the particular PPP peer. The idle routes can
be flushed or “zombied” from the routing table if a manual hangup is
performed when this WAN connection is not active. See Dial /Hang
up. When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set to No (def), IPX routes and services learned from this session
are “zombied” and are not retained.
IPX/Type 20 Packets
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
In order for certain protocol implementations, like NetBIOS, to function in the NetWare environment, routes must allow a broadcast packet to be propagated throughout the IPX networks. The Type 20 IPX
packet is used specifically for this purpose. This causes special handling of this packet by the Express L128T S/T. When a router receives
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this type of packet, it rebroadcasts it across all interfaces except the one
it is received on and includes the network number of that interface in
the data portion of the packet. The IPX Router Specification from Novell notes that Type 20 packets should not be propagated across slower links with bandwidths of less than 1Mbps (like ISDN). However,
when set to Pass (def), the Express L128T S/T will allow these packets
to propagate over the WAN connection. This facilitates dial-on-demand applications. When set to Block, all Type 20 packets are not
propagated across the WAN connection.
Connection List/Bridge
The Bridge menu contains the parameters needed for exchanging
bridged packets with the PPP peer.
Bridge/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to On (def), the Express L128T S/T attempts to negotiate
PPP BCP with the PPP peer. Bridging can be used even in route mode
only if the PPP peer cannot support certain PPP protocols for that particular routing protocol. See Bridge/WAN IP Bridge on page 3-24 and
Bridge/WAN IPX Bridge on page 3-25 for further details.
Connection List/Probe
The Probe feature on the Express L128T S/T is mainly used for allowing a network to have multiple virtual network connections to many
destinations using the single ISDN link. The Express L128T S/T can
periodically obtain routing information from various locations and retain this in the routing tables, thereby permitting the LAN connection
to be aware of the networks at this location. Probe helps keep route tables updated. When a service or network connection is required, the
Express L128T S/T can demand dial that location. This can be beneficial for remote IPX workstations that cannot boot up properly without
knowing the IPX services that would be in the Express L128T S/T’s
SAP table.
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Probe/Active
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to Yes, the Express L128T S/T will periodically dial this profiles dial-out number to get routing and service table updates. The default is No.
Probe/Interval
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the time the Express L128T S/T waits between probes. The value is in minutes and ranges from 1 to 240. The default is 15 minutes.
Probe/Update Window
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the time the Express L128T S/T stays connected during a
probe. Normally route and service tables are exchanged immediately
after connection. However, some routers could wait until their regular RIP or SAP time period has been reached before they advertise
their routes or services to the Express L128T S/T. The value is in seconds and ranges from 5 to 180. The default is 5 seconds and assumes
that a routing update is received upon connection.
Connection List/PPP
The Express L128T S/T supports the IETF standards for the Point-toPoint Protocol. The PPP state machine running in the Express L128T
S/T can be fine-tuned to support many applications that can be employed. The configurable items under this menu can be changed from
their default values for special cases.
PPP/Multilink
Multilink PPP allows the two B-channels to be used together for increased bandwidth.
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Multilink/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this item is set to On (def), Multilink PPP is negotiated
with the PPP peer. When Off, the Express L128T S/T will only
allow one B-channel for this connection.
Multilink/Fragment
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this item is set to Yes (def), the Express L128T S/T will
split outgoing packets greater than 128 bytes into two Multilink
fragments and simultaneously transmit them one per B-channel.
The receiving PPP peer will then reassemble them. This
decreases the transport delay. However, some legacy equipment
might have trouble handling fragmented packets, in which case
this option should be set to No.
Multilink/BACP
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP) and Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) are used to enhance Multilink
PPP. Together, they allow phone numbers to be exchanged when
more bandwidth is needed and member links to be dropped
when bandwidth is to be decreased. When this item is set to On,
BACP is negotiated with the PPP peer. When Off, the Express
L128T S/T will not run BACP/BAP but dynamic bandwidth can
still be operated.
Certain rules for bandwidth-on-demand apply, depending on
whether BACP is negotiated. If BACP is not negotiated, the originator of the call will perform the dynamic bandwidth adjustments on its own. If BACP is negotiated, the decisions are made
on either side but the call is always from the originator.
PPP/Compression
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T uses LZS® technology from hi/fnTM (formerly
known as STAC) for data compression. The Ascend Communications
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version of this compression is also supported. The Express L128T S/T
will automatically select the type of compression. Compression is negotiated when this item is set to STAC (def). No compression will be
attempted when set to None.
PPP/VJ Compression
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this item is set to On, the Express L128T S/T will perform TCP/
IP header compression known as Van Jacobson compression to the
PPP peer. Normally, this is not necessary over ISDN connections and
can be set to Off (def) to disable it.
PPP/Max Config
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value is the number of unanswered configuration-requests that
should be transmitted before giving up on a call. The possible values
are 5, 10 (def), 15 and 20.
PPP/Max Timer
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value is the number of seconds to wait between unanswered configuration-requests. The possible values are 1 sec, 2 secs (def), 3 secs, 5
secs and 10 secs.
PPP/Max Failure
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Due to the nature of PPP, configuration options may not be agreed
upon between two PPP peers. This value is the number of configuration-naks that should occur before an option is configuration-rejected.
This allows a connection to succeed that might otherwise fail. The possible values are 5 (def), 10, 15 and 20.
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Connection List/Dial Out
The dialing parameters for establishing this connection are defined
under this menu.
Dial Out/Number 1
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the first number used for dialing up this connection.
Dial Out/Number 2
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the second number used for dialing a second B-channel when
adding bandwidth. If BACP/BAP is negotiated, this number is not
necessary. If this number is not specified and BACP/BAP is not used,
the Number 1 number is re-dialed when adding bandwidth.
Dial Out/Call Type
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
The call type can be configured in four different ways:
Speech
Audio
64K (def)
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Speech directs the call control software to request a Mulaw encoded speech circuit as the bearer capability for
the outgoing calls. The speech option is used with an
ISDN line configured for voice service. In some areas,
voice service costs less than data services. A speech
call type does not always guarantee an end-to-end
digital connection with some local and long distance
carriers.
Audio directs the call control software to request a 3.1
kHz audio circuit as the bearer capability for the
outgoing calls. The audio option is used with an ISDN
line configured for voice service. In some areas, audio
service costs less than data services. An audio call type
does guarantee a digital end-to-end digital connection.
The default call type for ISDN service is Data 64 kbps.
This directs the call control software to request an
unrestricted 64 kbps circuit.
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Dial Out/Delay
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the number of seconds between unsuccessful call attempts
made during dial-on-demand or during dynamic bandwidth. The
range is between 0 and 255, with a default of 15 seconds.
Dial Out/Connection Timeout
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the amount of time the Express L128T S/T waits for a call to be
answered before giving up the attempt. Possible values are 15 secs
(def), 30 secs, 1 min, 2 mins and 4 mins.
Dial Out/Attempts
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value is the number of attempts the Express L128T S/T will make
before giving up on the connection. This is effective for manual dialing
or dynamic bandwidth calls only. The range is from 1 (def) to 255.
Dial Out/Initial Channels
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the number of B-channels to dial-up on the initial connection.
Possible choices are 1 (def) and 2.
Connection List/Bandwidth
The bandwidth parameters that govern this connection are set here.
Bandwidth/On Demand
The parameters under this menu control the data rates required to
change bandwidth.
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Bandwidth/Mode
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When this option is set to On, the Express L128T S/T will apply
its bandwidth-on-demand features for this Connection List profile. If set to Off, none are performed.
Bandwidth/Idle Timeout
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the number of seconds the ISDN line must be idle before
hanging up this connection. A value of 0 (def) means the
Express L128T S/T will never drop the link based on the idle
timer. The range is 0 to 255.
Bandwidth/Preempt Time
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
Occasionally an application will require to connect to a different
location before the current connection’s idle timer has timed out.
This causes the application to have to wait for idle timer before it
can use the B-channel. This preempt time allows the Connection
List that is active to be dropped sooner than the normal idle
time. The value ranges from 0 to 255 and is in seconds. When
bandwidth is needed for another application, the idle timer is
compared to this preempt time. If the idle timer is greater, the
connection is preempted. If set to 255 (def), the connection is
never preempted. If set to 0, the connection is disconnected
immediately when another application is requested.
Bandwidth/Upper Threshold
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the percentage of bandwidth that must be at least present
on one B-channel before a second B-channel is added. The range
is 0 to 100 and is in percentages. The default is 80 percent, which
is equivalent to 51.2 kbps. See the section Bandwidth/Samples
(below) for more information on how the bandwidth rate is calculated.
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Bandwidth/Lower Threshold
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the percentage of maximum bandwidth the bit rate must
go below on two B-channels before one is dropped. The range is
0 to 100 and is in percentages. The default is 30%, which is
equivalent to 38.4 kbps. See the section Bandwidth/Samples
(below) for more information on how the bandwidth rate is calculated.
Bandwidth/Min Channels
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This represents the minimum number of B-channels that must
be up for this Connection List profile. This value ranges from 0
to 2. The default is 0.
Bandwidth/Max Channels
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This represents the maximum number of B-channels this Connection List profile can have. The allowed values are 1 and 2.
The default is 2. A value of 1 means that no extra bandwidth can
be obtained for this connection.
Bandwidth/Samples
The parameters under this menu control the rate at which the Express
L128T S/T samples the bandwidth on the B-channel(s).
Samples/Sample Rate
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the time between samples used for calculating data rates
on the ISDN call. The value is in seconds and ranges from 1 to
255. The default is 5 seconds.
Samples/Samples
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This is the number of WAN data rate samples taken before a
decision to change bandwidth is performed. The range is 1 (def)
to 255 samples.
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Samples/Time Between Changes
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
This value is the minimum time between bandwidth changes for
this Connection List profile. The range is 0 to 255 seconds. The
default is 60 seconds.
Connection List/Filters
The Express L128T S/T can block packets in and out of a WAN port
by use of the filters. These filters are set up on a per-Connection List
profile basis. They are set up in two steps: 1) define the types of packets that would be of interest in the Configuration/Security/Filter Defines menu, and 2) set up the filter type and combination of defines
that will cause a packet block.
Filters/WAN-to-LAN (In)
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The packets which come into the Express L128T S/T can be filtered in
three ways:
Disabled (def)
Block All
Forward All
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Turns off packet input filtering. No incoming
packets are blocked from the WAN.
All incoming packets from the WAN are
blocked except as defined in the Filters/In
Exceptions list.
All incoming packets from the WAN are not
blocked except as defined in the Filters/In
Exceptions list.
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Filters/In Exceptions
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is a list of up to 32 filter entries which can be combined using the
operations field. The operations are performed in the order they appear on the list.
Active
Type
MAC
Pattern
IP
IPX
Filter List
Name
Next Oper
END
AND
OR
3-56
Turns this entry active when set to On.
Selects the filter define list to reference:
from the Configuration/Security/
Filter Defines/MAC Filter
Defines list.
from the Configuration/Security/
Filter Defines/Pattern Filter
Defines list.
from the Configuration/Security/
Filter Defines/IP Filter Defines
list.
from the Configuration/Security/
Filter Defines/IPX Filter Defines
list.
Selects between filters defined in the list.
The next operation to use to combine with the next
filter in the list:
the last filter to combination.
logically AND this filter with the next
filter in the list.
logically OR this filter with the next
filter in the list.
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Filters/LAN-to-WAN (Out)
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The packets which come out toward the WAN from the Express
L128T S/T can be filtered in three ways:
Disabled (def)
Block All
Forward All
Turns off packet output filtering. No outgoing
packets are blocked from the WAN.
All outgoing packets to the WAN are blocked
except as defined in the Filters/Out
Exceptions list.
All outgoing packets to the WAN are not blocked
except as defined in the Filters/Out
Exceptions list.
Filters/Out Exceptions
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is a list of up to 32 filter entries. The setup is exactly the same as
the Filter/In Exceptions list.
Filters/Demand Dial
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
The demand dial filters have two purposes: 1) cause the Express
L128T S/T in Bridge mode to dial this Connection List profile, and 2)
determine which traffic will cause the idle timer to be reset, keeping
the connection active. The latter is used in Bridge or IP/IPX Router
mode. The idle timer is a timer in the Express L128T S/T which continually increments until it reaches the idle time-out parameters value
set in the Connection List, at which point the connection is hung-up.
When this filter is enabled, direct control can be placed over which
packets are considered as demand and which are ignored. Packets
that are ignored cause a connection not to be dialed and do not reset
the idle timer of an active connection. This is especially helpful for
bridged connections since bridges cannot easily distinguish true de-
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mand traffic from overhead traffic like certain broadcast and multicast
packets. There are three possible selections for this parameter:
Disabled (def)
Ignore All
Demand All
Turns off demand dial filtering. No packets cause
demand dialing for this profile and all outgoing
and incoming packets reset the idle timer.
When connected in any mode (Bridge, IP Router,
or IPX router), the idle timer is reset only when
there is a match in the Filters/Dem Dial
Exceptions list.
When not connected in Bridge mode only, causes
the Express L128T S/T to dial using this
Connection List profile if there is a match in the
Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions.
When connected in any mode (Bridge, IP Router,
or IPX router), the idle timer is always reset except
when there is a match in the Filters/Dem Dial
Exceptions list. When not connected in Bridge
mode only, causes the Express L128T S/T to dial
using this Connection List profile if there is NOT a
match in the Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions list.
Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This is a list of up to 32 filter entries. The setup is exactly the same as
the Filter/In Exceptions list.
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Configuration/Management
The Express L128T S/T can be managed using Telnet, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), or the maintenance port. SNMP
support is limited to MIB definitions. See SNMP on page C-1 for a description of the MIBs supported by the Express L128T S/T. Each of the
three methods can be protected using authentication. Figure 3-9
shows the Configuration/Management menu.
Figure 3-9. Configuration/Management Screen
Management/Telnet
Any telnet client application can bring up a session to the Express
L128T S/T’s Telnet server using the standard telnet TCP port. Only
one session is supported at a time. All sessions require a user name
and password.
Telnet/Server Access
Write security: 2; Read security: 5
This option must be set to On (def) to access the Express L128T S/T
via Telnet. Turning it Off means that access is denied.
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Telnet/User List
Up to four users can be configured for access to the Express L128T S/
T. Each user can be assigned a privilege and time out.
User List/Name
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
A text string of the user name for this session.
User List/Authen Method
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
The user can be authenticated in two ways:
Password
Radius
The Password field is used to authenticate the user.
The Radius client is used for authenticating the user.
User List/Password
Write security: 0; Read security: 3
When the authenticating method is password, this text string is
used for the password.
User List/Idle Time
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
When set to non-zero, the session is automatically logged out
when no activity occurs for this amount of time. The range is 0
to 255 and is in minutes. The default is 10 minutes, and a setting
of 0 will never time out the session. When a timeout occurs during an edit session, all changes are saved.
User List/Level
Write security: 0; Read security: 1
This is the security level privilege that is assigned for this user.
See Security Levels on page 3-7 for an explanation of what those
levels imply. Level 0 is the default.
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Management/SNMP
The Express L128T S/T is an SNMP agent. It can respond to Get-Requests and generate traps. These two lists set up the manager, communities, and levels. See SNMP on page C-1 for more information on
SNMP.
SNMP Access
Write security: 3; Read security: 5
When set to No, SNMP access is denied. When set to On (def), the Express L128T S/T will respond to SNMP managers based on the following lists.
SNMP/Communities
This list is used to set up to eight SNMP communities names that the
Express L128T S/T will allow. Factory default sets the community
“public” with “Get” privileges.
Communities/Name
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
This is a text string for the community name.
Communities/Privilege
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
The access for this manager can be assigned three levels.
None
Get
Get/Set
No access is allowed for this community or manager.
Manager can only read items.
Manager can read and set items.
Communities/Manager IP
Write security: 1; Read security: 3
This is the IP address of SNMP manager. If set to 0.0.0.0, any
SNMP manager can access the Express L128T S/T for this community.
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SNMP/Traps
The Express L128T S/T can generate SNMP traps. This list allows up
to four managers to be listed to receive traps.
Traps/Manager Name
Write security: 2; Read security: 4
This is the text string describing the name of the entry. It is
intended for easy reference and has no bearing on the SNMP
trap function.
Traps/Manager IP
Write security: 2; Read security: 4
This is the IP address of the manager that is to receive the traps.
Management/Maint Port
The Express L128T S/T has an EIA-232 connector on the back of the
unit. The setup for that port is under this menu.
Maint Port/Password Protect
Write security: 0; Read security: 1
When set to No, the maintenance port is not password protected.
When On (def), the Express L128T S/T will prompt for a password
upon startup.
Maint Port/Password
Write security: 0; Read security: 1
This is the text string that is used for comparison when password protecting the maintenance port. By default, no password is entered.
The security level for the maintenance port is always set to 0.
This gives full access to all menus.
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Maint Port/Baud Rate
Write security: 5; Read security: 5
This is the asynchronous rate that the maintenance port will run. The
possible values are 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 (def), 19200, 38400,
57600.
Maint Port/Data Bits
Write security: 5; Read security: 5
This is the asynchronous bit rate that the maintenance port will run.
The possible values are 7 or 8 (def) bits.
Maint Port/Parity
Write security: 5; Read security: 5
This is the asynchronous parity that the maintenance port will run.
The possible values are None (def), Odd, or Even.
Maint Port/Stop Bits
Write security:5; Read security:5
This is the stop bit used for the maintenance port. The possible values
are 1 (def), 1.5 or 2.
Configuration/Terminal Mode
This is an activator which places the Express L128T S/T terminal session into a command prompt mode. All menu options are accessible
during this mode. See Terminal Mode Commands on page E-1 for the
command structure and command list. Type exit to leave the terminal
mode and return to the menus.
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DIAL MENU
The Dial menu is used for dialing the Connection List profile setup under Configuration/Connection List and for checking the status of
each Connection List. This list is in the same order as the Connection
List entries. Figure 3-10 shows the Dial menu.
Figure 3-10. Dial Screen
Dial/Description
Read security: 5
This read-only field is the name entered for the profile under Configuration/Connection List/Description.
Dial/Dial
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This is an activator used for dialing the phone numbers in the profile.
Place the cursor over the field and press Enter to activate the dialing
function.
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Dial/Hang Up
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
This is an activator used for hanging up a Connection List entry. It
also removes retained routes from the IP and IPX routing tables when
the call is not connected. Place the cursor over the field and press Enter
to activate the hang up function.
Dial/Status
Read security: 5
This reflects the current status of the call:
No call
Connecting
Ringing
PPP negotiating
Active
No call is active for this Connection List profile.
Outgoing call is being placed for this profile.
Incoming call is being answered with this profile.
Call is connected and is bringing up PPP.
A session with this profile is active.
Dial/Channels
Read security: 5
This is the number of B-channels being used for this call.
Dial/Number 1
Read security: 5
This read-only field is the number entered for the profile under Configuration/Connection List/Dial Out/Number 1.
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Dial/Number 2
Read security: 5
This read-only field is the number entered for the profile under Configuration/Connection List/Dial Out/Number 2.
STATUS MENU
The Express L128T S/T’s Status menu contains comprehensive status
and diagnostic information used in verifying configuration and identifying problems. The menus are divided into protocol types and sessions. Figure 3-11 shows the Status menu.
Figure 3-11. Status Screen
Status/Call Sessions
This menu contains the current status of all dial-in sessions and spanning tree ports.
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Call Sessions/Session1 and Call Sessions/Session2
Read security: 5
The Express L128T S/T can support up to two active connections at
one time. These two menus reflect the results of PPP negotiations,
user name, time connected, idle timer, and data rates for the session.
PPP Links
BCP
IPCP
IPXCP
CCP
BACP
User
Number(s)
Connect Time
Up Time
Idle Timer
Tx Pkts
Rx Pkts
Tx Bytes
Rx Bytes
Tx Rate
Rx Rate
Tx Link Rate
Rx Link Rate
Tx Comp Ratio
Rx Comp Ratio
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Reflects LCP layers active
Shows UP if PPP Bridge Control Protocol has
negotiated successfully
Shows UP if PPP IP Control Protocol has negotiated
successfully
Shows UP if PPP IPX Control Protocol has negotiated
successfully
Shows UP if PPP Compression Control Protocol has
negotiated successfully
Shows UP if PPP Bandwidth Allocation Control
Protocol has negotiated successfully
Displays the user name of the PPP peer
Shows the phone number dialed if outgoing call or
caller ID if incoming call
Shows the date and time when the call last
connected
Displays how long the call has been connected
Current value of the idle timer (number of seconds
since filtered packet was passed through)
Number of packets transmitted toward the WAN
direction
Number of packets received from the WAN direction
Number of bytes transmitted toward the WAN direction
Number of bytes received from the WAN direction
Current application data transmission rate toward the
WAN
Current application data reception rate from the WAN
Current actual data transmission rate on the WAN in
bytes/sec
Current actual data reception rate on the WAN in
bytes/sec
Current transmission compression ratio
Current reception compression ratio
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Call Sessions/Spanning Tree
Read security: 5
When Bridge mode and Spanning Tree mode are active, this reflects
the current state of the LAN and WAN ports. The following can appear:
Off
Disabled
Listening
Learning
Forwarding
root
designated
Blocking
Appears when spanning tree mode is disabled
Port is not connected (for WAN) or disabled in
configuration
Port is in the listening state
Port is in the learning state
Port is in the forwarding state with the following
possible properties:
is the root port
is designated port
Port is in the blocked state
Status/ARP Cache
Read security: 5
This lists the contents of the Express L128T S/T’s ARP table. All resolved cache entries time out after 20 minutes. Unresolved entries
time out in 3 minutes.
ARP Cache/IP
IP address used for resolving MAC address
Address
ARP Cache /
Ethernet address resolved (0=no resolution)
MAC Address
ARP Cache/Time Minutes since entry was first entered
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Status/Bridge Table
Read security: 5
This lists the contents of the Express L128T S/T’s bridge table.
Bridge Cache/MAC
Address
Bridge Cache/Port
Bridge Cache/TTL
Ethernet address for device learned
Port device learned from: LAN,
WAN0, or WAN1
Seconds until address is removed from
table
Status/IP Routes
Read security: 5
This lists the contents of the Express L128T S/T’s IP router table.
IP Routes /IP Address
IP Routes /Netmask
IP Routes /Gateway
IP Routes /Port
local
eth0
wan0
wan1
idle
IP Routes /Use
IP Routes/Flags
H
G
D
I
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Network or host destination address
Network mask applied to the
destination address
Host or router to receive this packet
Port gateway is located on:
sent directly to the Express L128T S/T
router
Express L128T S/T’s ethernet port
Express L128T S/T’s first PPP bundle
Express L128T S/T’s second PPP
bundle
non-connected or “spoofed” route
used for dial-on-demand
Number of times the Express L128T S/T
has referenced the route
Important tags associated with this route
entry
route is a host route
route is a gateway route
route learned dynamically from RIP
route learned from an ICMP redirect
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P
T
IP Routes/Hops
IP Routes/TTL
route is private and is not advertised
with RIP
route is to a triggered port (updates
only when table changes)
Number of routers that must go through
to get to destination. Ranges from 0-15
or 16 for infinite (can’t get there from
here).
Seconds until address is removed from
table or “zombied.” Value of 999
means route is static.
Status/IPX Routes
Read security: 5
This lists the contents of the Express L128T S/T’s IPX router table.
IPX Routes /Network
IPX Routes /Gateway
IPX Routes /Port
local
eth0
wan0
wan1
idle
IPX Routes /Use
IPX Routes/Hops
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Network destination address
Node or Ethernet address of gateway to
receive this packet
Port gateway is located on:
sent directly to the Express
L128T S/T router
Express L128T S/T’s ethernet port
Express L128T S/T’s first PPP bundle
Express L128T S/T’s second PPP
bundle
non-connected or “spoofed” route
used for dial-on-demand
Number of times the Express L128T S/T
has referenced the route
Number of routers that must go through
to get to destination. Ranges from 0-15
or 16 for infinite (can’t get there from
here).
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IPX Routes/Ticks
IPX Routes/TTL
Router determined value for
representing time packets take to reach
the network destination. One tick is
equivalent to one-eighteenth of a
second.
Seconds until address is removed from
table. Value of 999 means route is
static.
Status/IPX Servers
Read security: 5
This lists the contents of the Express L128T S/T’s IPX server table.
IPX
IPX
IPX
IPX
IPX
IPX
Servers/Type
Servers/Name
Servers/Network
Servers /Address
Servers/Socket
Servers/Hops
IPX Servers/TTL
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The server type
The server name
The server network address
The servers node address
The servers socket address
Number of routers that must go through
to get to server. Ranges from 0-15 or
16 for infinite.
Seconds until address is removed from
table. Value of 999 means server is
static.
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Status/WAN Stats
Read security: 5
This menu contains generic WAN statistics on both B-channel HDLC
hardware ports.
HDLC Port 1
Tx Bytes
Rx Bytes
Rx CRCs
HDLC Port 2
Tx Bytes
Rx Bytes
Rx CRCs
Clear Counts
total number of raw bytes sent out HDLC port 1
total number of raw bytes received in HDLC port 1
total number of CRC errors detected on HDLC port
1
total number of raw bytes sent out HDLC port 2
total number of raw bytes received in HDLC port 2
total number of CRC errors detected on HDLC port
2
When activated, clears all WAN stat counts
Status/LAN Stats
Read security: 5
This menu contains statistics for the Ethernet port.
Tx Packets
Rx Packets
Tx Errors
Single Collisions
Packets transmitted out the Ethernet port
Packets received from the Ethernet port
Total transmit errors encountered on Ethernet port
total single collisions before successful
transmission
Multiple Collisions
total multiple collisions before successful
transmission
Excessive Collisions
total collisions that resulted in packet being
dropped
Deferred
total packets deferred due to collisions
Transmissions
Carrier Sense
total carrier sense errors encountered (no link
Errors
integrity)
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Rx Errors
CRCs
Giants
Total packets received in error and dropped
total packets detected with CRC errors
total packets received that were greater than
1518 bytes
total packets received that were less than 64
bytes
total collision occurred during reception
When activated, clears all LAN Stat counts.
Runts
Rx Collisions
Clear Counts
Status/IP Stats
Read security: 5
This menu contains IP statistics that can be useful when diagnosing
problems. All are taken from the SNMP MIB-2 variables.
TCP failed attempts
TCP passive connections
TCP current connections
TCP segments sent
TCP segments received
Total TCP resets
Active TCP connections
Total TCP retransmits
UDP datagrams sent
No application at dest. port
UDP datagrams received
UDP bad packets
ICMP redirected messages
ICMP packet errors
ICMP timeouts received
ICMP messages sent
ICMP messages received
ICMP specif if errors
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IP datagrams reassembled
IP datagrams sent
IP datagrams received
Total forwarded datagrams
IP reassembly timeout
Discarded routing entries
Total IP fragments
Failed fragments
IP reassembly failures
Disassembled fragments
Errorfree discards
Routeless discards
Default TTL
Bad IP addresses
Successful fragments
Bad header packets
Sent datagrams to upper layers
Datagrams discarded
Bad protocol discards
Clear Counts - clears all IP stats
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TEST MENU
The Express L128T S/T’s Test menu contains built in tests that can be
used to diagnose problems. Figure 3-12 shows the Test menu screen.
Figure 3-12. Test Screen
The following tests can be run:
Test Menu/Echo Request
Write security: 4, Read security: 5
When activated, the echo request test will begin sending continuous
PPP echo request packets to any open LCP ports. Results are displayed on the screen. At least one PPP session must be up.
Test Menu/Dial Self
Write security: 4, Read security: 5
The dial self-test can be activated to check the ISDN parameters set under the Configuration/WAN/ISDN menu. This test starts the Express
L128T S/T dialing itself using the configured Local numbers. Once a
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connection is established, it will send a PPP echo request until the test
is terminated. Any error or success messages will appear on the
screen.
LOGS MENU
The Logs menu contain logs displaying important information about
the running condition of the Express L128T S/T. The logs can be set
to capture diagnostics of error conditions only by way of a log level.
The levels are divided up as follows:
level 0 - Fatal event (causes reset)
level 1 - Critical event
level 2 - Error event
level 3 - Warning event
level 4 - Notify event
level 5 - Informational event
level 6 - Debugging event
Figure 3-13 shows the Logs menu. The three logs available are listed
after the figure.
Figure 3-13. Logs Screen
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Logs/Sys log Host
Set this to the IP address or domain name (if DNS configured) of the
sys log host device. All log events are sent to this device.
Logs/PPP Log
Information pertaining to the PPP negotiation and authentication will
be logged here.
PPP Log/Active
When set to Yes (def), PPP events below or equal to the log level are
logged into the log.
PPP Log/Wrap
When set to Yes (def), new PPP events will overwrite old PPP events
when the log is full. All logging will stop when the log is full and set
to No.
PPP Log/Level
In order to log events, they must be at or below this level. Range is 0
to 6. The default is 3.
PPP Log/View
This menu displays the log list. The fields are as follows:
Date/Time
Level
Message
Date and time event occurred.
Level associated with this event (0-6).
Text message for this event. If message is too long
to fit on the line, another event appears below it
continuing the message.
PPP Log/Clear
This clears the log when activated.
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Logs/Call Log
Information pertaining to the call placement and answering over the
ISDN link.
Call Log/Active
When set to Yes (def), call events below or equal to the log level are
logged into the log.
Call Log/Wrap
When set to Yes (def), new Call events will overwrite old Call events
when the log is full. All logging will stop when the log is full and set
to No.
Call Log/Level
In order to log events, they must be at or below this level. Range is 0
to 6. The default is 3.
Call Log/View
This menu displays the log list. The fields are as follows:
Date/Time
Level
Message
Date and time event occurred.
Level associated with this event (0-6).
Text message for this event. If message is too long
to fit on the line, another event appears below it
continuing the message.
Call Log/Clear
This clears the log when activated.
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Logs/Network Log
Information pertaining to the routing protocols is placed in this log.
Network Log/Active
When set to Yes (def), call events below or equal to the log level are
logged into the log.
Network Log/Wrap
When set to Yes (def), new Network events will overwrite old Network events when the log is full. All logging will stop when the log is
full and set to No.
Network Log/Level
In order to log events, they must be at or below this level. Range is 0
to 6. The default is 3.
Network Log/View
This menu displays the log list. The fields are as follows:
Date/Time
Level
Message
Date and time event occurred.
Level associated with this event (0-6).
Text message for this event. If message is too
long to fit on the line, another event appears
below it continuing the message.
Network Log/Clear
This clears the log when activated.
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UTILITIES MENU
The Express L128T S/T has utilities embedded in it to help manage
and test the network and to facilitate software upgrades. Figure 3-14
shows the Utilities menu.
Figure 3-14. Utilities Screen
Utilities/Ping
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
The ping menu is used to send ICMP ping messages to hosts. The following items are under this menu:
Start/Stop
Host Address
Size
# of Packets
# of Transmits
# of Receives
% Loss
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Activator to start and cancel a ping test.
IP address or domain name (if DNS is configured)
of device to receive the ping
Total size of ping to send. Range is 40 (def) to
1500 bytes.
Total packets to send every two seconds
Total packets sent (read only)
Total packets received (read only)
Percentage loss based on ping returned form host
(read only)
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Utilities/Telnet Client
Write security: 4; Read security: 5
The Telnet menu can be used to activate the telnet client function in
the Express L128T S/T.
Host
Activate
IP address or domain name (if DNS is configured)
of Telnet server.
Starts Telnet client function. The key combination
Control ] cancels the session.
Utilities/Upgrade Menu
Write security: 2; Read security: 3
The Express L128T S/T’s firmware can be upgraded using this menu.
Upgrade/Transfer Method
The two methods for upgrading are TFTP and XMODEM. TFTP requires a TFTP server running somewhere on the network. The Express L128T S/T starts a TFTP client function which gets the upgrade
code from the TFTP server. Selecting XMODEM will load the upgrade
code through the maintenance port using any PC terminal emulator
with xmodem capability. It is recommended to set the baud rate to
57.6 kbps on the maintenance port to expedite the upgrade process.
Upgrade/TFTP Host
This is required when the transfer method is TFTP. It is the IP address
or domain name (if DNS is configured) of the TFTP server.
Upgrade/Filename
This is required when the transfer method is TFTP. It is the case-sensitive file name which is the upgrade code.
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Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation
Upgrade/Status
This appears when TFTP is used. It displays the status of the transfer
as it happens. Any error or success message will be displayed here.
Upgrade/Start Transfer
This activator is used when the configurable items in this menu are
complete.
Once started, the Express L128T S/T will prompt for erasing
the flash. When the flash is erased and the upgrade transfer
fails, do not turn off the unit. Retry the transfer until
successful. Otherwise, if power is removed before upgrade has
finished, the upgrade will have to occur from the maintenance
port using XMODEM. If this happens, set a PC terminal
emulation program to 9600 baud and attach to the Express
L128T S/T’s maintenance port. Press Return to display a
simple terminal menu for upgrading. This menu appears
when the flash code has been erased or is corrupt. The menu
will also appear if you power up with switch 1 in the UP
position.
Upgrade/Abort Transfer
Use this activator to cancel any TFTP transfer in progress.
Upgrade/TFTP Server
Setting this to Yes allows another Express L128T S/T to upgrade its
code using TFTP client. This, in effect, turns on the Express L128T S/T
TFTP server function and allows its code to be “cloned.” Setting to No
(def) will deny any request from TFTP clients.
Utilities/Exit
Write security: 5; Read security: 5
Activating this feature will exit the terminal session from the maintenance port or telnet. It is equivalent to the key combination Control L.
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Chapter 4
Troubleshooting
When the Express L128T S/T powers up, it performs an internal selftest. This takes about 10 seconds. At the end of the test, the PWR LED
should flash.
IF SELF-TEST FAILS
If the PWR LED is not on or does not flash after power-up, the following steps will verify whether or not the problem can be fixed locally.
1.
Ensure the Express L128T S/T is receiving power.
2.
Power off the Express L128T S/T. Place switch 2 in the off position; then power back up. This will reset all internal settings to
their factory default.
3.
If the Express L128T S/T still does not pass self-test, call ADTRAN
Technical Support for assistance. See the inside back cover of this
manual for information on contacting ADTRAN.
IF THE EXPRESS L128T S/T DOES NOT READ
READY*
*For switch types other than Lucent 5ESS, the central office
switch may deactivate the line if no calls are active. Placing or
receiving a call will activate the line, causing the PWR LED
to turn on solidly.
When the Express L128T S/T has been set up and connected to a line,
but the PWR LED does not remain on after a few minutes, proceed
with the following steps:
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
1.
Cycle power on the Express L128T S/T, leaving it off for a
minimum of two seconds; then turn the power on for one minute
to ensure the PWR LED still does not stay on.
2.
Disconnect the Express L128T S/T. From a functioning voice
phone, call the local directory number(s) provided with your line.
Calling a good ISDN line with nothing connected usually results
in a ring or fast busy tone. If someone answers, or you get a notin-service intercept, there is probably something wrong with the
translation of the line. The phone service provider should be able
to help.
3.
If the PWR LED still flashes, there is a physical problem with the
phone line (more than likely, a problem with the Layer 1 setup).
The problem is in one or more of the places listed below:
•
The Express L128T S/T software setup
•
The Express L128T S/T hardware
•
The wiring on your premises
•
The telephone service provider’s wiring
•
The telephone service provider’s hardware
•
The telephone service provider’s software setup
To isolate the problem, perform the following procedure:
A. Ensure the line is plugged into the Express L128T S/T connector marked ISDN on the back of the Express L128T S/T.
B. Make sure the Express L128T S/T is configured for Dial line
service.
C. If possible, try another piece of functioning ISDN equipment
with an S/T interface on the line.
D. Talk to your service provider and ensure you have an ISDN
Basic Rate S/T Interface.
E. Ensure that your phone line is connected to the actual telephone line (S/T interface) provided by your telephone company. Make sure your line is not connected through another
piece of equipment in a wiring closet.
F.
Make sure nothing else is bridged across the line pair.
G. With a minimum of extra wiring, try connecting to the line
pair at the point where the service provider’s wiring ends.
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
H. With the Express L128T S/T connected to the line and powered up, talk to your service provider’s repair group and inform them that your ISDN basic rate line has a physical Layer
1 problem. Ask them to check the line.
4.
If the Loop Status in the Express L128T S/T Status menu continuously reads Getting TEI #1, then the Express L128T S/T is physically connected to your local telephone service provider but is
unable to establish logical layer 2. The problem is in one or more
of the places listed below:
•
The Express L128T S/T software setup
•
The telephone service provider’s software setup
•
Hardware configuration, if the line is extended from the
switch
To isolate the problem, perform the following procedure:
A. Ensure the Express L128T S/T is setup for the correct switch
type.
B. If possible, try another piece of functioning ISDN equipment
with an S/T interface on the line.
C. With the Express L128T S/T connected to the line and powered up, talk to your service provider’s repair group and tell
them you have an ISDN basic rate line that appears physically okay but has no terminal endpoint identifier (TEI). Ask
them to check the line translation and ensure that the line supports dynamic TEI allocation.
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS
The following sequence of troubleshooting steps is usually the best
method of checking the connection. If more in-depth troubleshooting
is required, it may be necessary to contact ADTRAN Technical Support (see inside back cover).
To troubleshoot, it is usually best to verify layer 1, then layer 2, and
then layer 3.
1.
Layer 1 WAN Operation: Verify that the ISDN circuit is
established by following the procedures listed previously in this
chapter. Look at the bottom bar on the menu screen to see if call is
connected on B1 and/or B2.
2.
Layer 1 LAN Operation: Verify that the LINK LED is active on
the hub (if applicable) and the L128T S/T.
3.
Layer 2 WAN Operation: Verify that PPP and associated control
protocols are established by looking in the Status/Call Session
menu for the following status.
A. Check to see if the LCP (Link Control Protocol) is up. If LCP
cannot converge, the other control protocols cannot be established. Check the PPP settings of the devices at both ends of
the circuit. Make sure that the authentication setup agrees at
both ends.
B. If STAC compression is enabled, check whether CCP (Compression Control Protocol) is up. If STAC is enabled and this
compression attempt failed, make sure that the called party
supports STAC LZS compression.
C. If BACP (Bandwidth Allocation Protocol) is enabled, check
whether BACP is up. If this failed, verify the called party supports BACP.
D. If Bridging is enabled in the connection list and on the Ethernet, check whether BCP (Bridge Control Protocol) is up. If this
failed, verify that the called party supports bridging.
E. If IP Routing is enabled in the connection list and on the Ethernet, check whether IPCP (Internet Control Protocol) is up. If
this failed, verify that the called party supports IP routing.
F.
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If IPX Routing is enabled in the connection list and on the
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
Ethernet, check whether IPXCP (Internet Control Protocol) is
up. If this failed, verify that the called party supports IPX
routing.
4.
Layer 2 LAN Operation: After an attempt to pass traffic from the
host machines on the LAN, verify that ARP exists on the router
and on the host computer.
5.
Layer 2 General Bridging Troubleshooting Tips (skip if not bridging):
A. Check to see that Bridging is enabled on both the LAN and the
WAN (connection list) of the L128T S/T.
B. Make sure that the IP and/or IPX network numbers are the
same as the network numbers on the peer bridge. For instance, if the far end has an IP address of 172.16.1.100 with a
255.255.255.0 mask, the Ethernet address of the near end router should be unique and on the 172.16.1.x network (e.g.,
172.16.1.101). With IPX, the same scenario applies. If the far
end has an IPX address of 1111:1111, the near end router
should also have an IPX network address of 1111:1111.
C. Verify in the bridging table that an entry to the network you
are trying to reach is present.
D. Verify that the addresses of the hosts you are trying to connect
to are on the correct network.
E. Try to PING the far end bridge’s IP address with the L128T S/
T’s PING utility to verify connection.
F.
Verify that the host IP network addresses agree with the local
router’s Ethernet port IP address.
G. From a host machine, try to PING the far end IP address. If unsuccessful, perform a trace route operation and see where the
ICMP request stopped.
6.
Layer 3 General IP Routing Troubleshooting Tips:
A. Check to see that IP Routing is enabled on both the LAN and
the WAN (connection list) of the L128T S/T.
B. Make sure that the IP and/or IPX network numbers are different from the network numbers on the peer router. For instance, if the far end has an IP address of 172.16.1.100 with a
255.255.255.0 mask, the Ethernet address of the near end router should be unique and on a different network (e.g.,
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
172.16.2.101). With IPX, the same scenario applies. If the far
end has an IPX address of 1111:1111, the near end router
should also have an IPX network address of 1111:1111.
C. Verify in the IP routing table that an entry to the network you
are trying to reach is present and associated with the correct
port (ETH0 or WAN0).
D. Try to PING the far end router’s IP address with the L128T S/
T’s PING utility to verify connection.
F.
Verify that the host IP network addresses agree with the local
router’s Ethernet port IP address.
G. From a host machine, try to PING the far end IP address. If unsuccessful, perform a trace route operation and see where the
ICMP request stopped.
7.
Layer 3: General IPX Routing Troubleshooting Tips
A. Check to see that IP Routing is enabled on both the LAN and
the WAN (connection list) of the L128T S/T.
B. Make sure that the IPX network numbers are different from
the network numbers on the peer router. For instance, if the
far end has an IPX address of 1111:1111, the near end router
should have a different IPX network address (e.g., 2222.2222).
C. Verify in the IPX routing table that an entry to the network
you are trying to reach is present and associated with the correct port (ETH0 or WAN0).
D. Verify in the IPX SAP table that an entry to the server you are
trying to reach is present and associated with the correct port
(ETH0 or WAN0).
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO CONNECT CALLS
See Table 4-1 for corrective actions if you cannot connect calls.
Table 4-1. Troubleshooting Calls
Condition
The PWR LED
remains on, but
calls cannot be
placed.
Local voice calls
can be
transmitted, but
data calls to the
same exchange
cannot.
Local data calls
go through, but
long distance
data calls do not.
Single B-channel
calls can be
made, but two Bchannel calls
cannot.
61202070L3-20
Corrective Action
Most likely a problem exists in the software setup
(translation) at the CO switch, or the network setup in
the Express L128T S/T.
The line is probably not set up to support data calls.
Ensure the far end is working. If not already doing so,
place the call explicitly specifying the prefix of the long
distance service (for example, 10288 for AT&T). If this
does not work, then most likely the problem is that the
long distance service provider is not providing long
distance access.
There is most likely a problem in the software setup
(translation) at the CO switch, or the network setup in
the Express L128T S/T.
Check with the local service provider to ensure that the
line supports two data calls. The Express L128T S/T
status log buffer shows the sequence of events that
occurred. You need to know which piece of equipment
first caused the Multilink PPP process to terminate. The
status logs from both ends may be necessary to
determine this.
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Chapter 4. Troubleshooting
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Chapter 5
Specifications
SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES
This section describes the standard specifications and features incorporated in the Express L128T S/T.
Network Interface
RJ-45 for ISDN Basic Rate S/T Interface or RJ-45 for leased S/T service.
Ethernet Interface (LAN)
Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 10BaseT.
Switch Compatibility
• LUCENT 5ESS
• TDX10
• TDX1B
• NEC
• EURO ISDN
Dual POTS Interface
• Maximum REN = 3
• Caller ID
• Ringing Signal Amplitude = 185 Vp-p (+/- 5V)
• Ringing Signal Frequency = 20 Hz (+/- 3 Hz)
• Supports 3 phones (18 mA loop current each) at 1,000 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
• Supports 2 phones (26 mA loop current each) at 1,000 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
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Chapter 5. Specifications
•
Supports 1 phone (49 mA loop current each) at 1,000 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 4 phones (14 mA loop current each) at 600 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 3 phones (18 mA loop current each) at 600 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 2 phones (27 mA loop current each) at 600 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 5 phones (12 mA loop current each) at 300 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 4 phones (15 mA loop current each) at 300 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 3 phones (19 mA loop current each) at 300 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 2 phones (28 mA loop current each) at 300 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 1 phone (53 mA loop current each) at 300 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 5 phones (12 mA loop current each) at 100 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 4 phones (15 mA loop current each) at 100 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 3 phones (20 mA loop current each) at 100 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 5 phones (13 mA loop current each) at 8 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 4 phones (16 mA loop current each) at 8 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
•
Supports 3 phones (21 mA loop current each) at 8 ft, 24 AWG
(.5 mm)
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Chapter 5. Specifications
Display
Available through terminal interface or Telnet session
Environmental
• Operating Temperature: 0 - 50 °C
• Storage Temperature: 20 - 70 °C
• Relative Humidity: Up to 95% non-condensing
Physical
• Dimensions: 1.625" H x 9.0" W x 6.375" D
• Weight: 2.5 lbs
Power
• 120 VAC, 60 Hz, 7.5 W typical dissipation with POTS
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Chapter 5. Specifications
5-4
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Appendix A
Loop Status Messages
The Express L128T S/T displays current loop status of the ISDN on the
bottom center line of the terminal screen. The following messages are
defined as follows:
CALL <number>
The Express L128T S/T is dialing the number.
Call Connect B1
Bearer channel B1 is active with a call.
Call Connect B2
Bearer channel B2 is active with a call.
Call Connect B1/B2
Bearer channels B1 and B2 are active with a call.
Connected 64K/2X64K/128K/144K
When the Express L128T S/T is in leased mode, this will appear when
the link’s layer 1 is up. The rate is determined by what it is configured
for under Configuration/WAN/ISDN/Leased/Rate.
DISCONNECTING
A call is in the process of being disconnected.
Disconnected
The ISDN line is inactive and no parameter information has been exchanged with the switch.
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Appendix A. Loop Status Messages
Deactivated
The ISDN line is inactive but parameter information has previously
been exchanged with the switch.
Echo: Tx: X Rx: Y
The current transmit and receive count for the PPP echo request test.
Getting TEI #1
The Express L128T S/T’s ISDN layer 1 is up and is now getting the
first TEI from the ISDN network.
Layer 1 up
The Express L128T S/T’s ISDN layer 1 is up.
Link down
The ISDN link is not synchronized.
Link In Sync
The ISDN link is synchronized but layer 1 is not up.
LUCENT-5ESS Ready
The ISDN link layers 1 through 3 are up against a LUCENT 5E switch
and ready for calls.
EURO ISDN Ready
The ISDN link layers 1 through 3 are up against a EURO ISDN switch
and ready for calls.
TDX1B Ready
The ISDN link layers 1 through 3 are up against a TDX1B switch and
ready for calls.
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Appendix A. Loop Status Messages
TDX10 Ready
The ISDN link layers 1 through 3 are up against a TDX10 switch and
ready for calls.
NEC Ready
The ISDN link layers 1 through 3 are up against an NEC switch and
ready for calls.
RINGING
An incoming call is ringing.
B1 AND B2 BEARER CHANNEL STATUS
MESSAGES
64K
Connected at 64K call type.
Audio
Connected at audio call type.
Dialing
Dialing out.
Holding
Connection is on hold.
Idle
No call up.
Speech
Connected at speech call type.
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Appendix A. Loop Status Messages
Release
Call being hung up.
Retriv
Held call being retrieved.
Ringing
Incoming call.
Routing
Incoming call state in transition.
Waiting
Call is between states or waiting for switch.
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Appendix B
Log Messages
The Express L128T S/T Logs menu contains messages of events that
occur. The definitions for some of those log messages are as follows:
PPP LOG MESSAGES
B-Channels bundled
level 5
Both B-channels are bundled under multilink PPP going to a single
PPP peer.
BACP <X> down
level 5
Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol port <X> has been dropped
between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
BACP <X> up
level 5
Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol port <X> has been successfully negotiated between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
BCP <X> down
level 5
Bridge Control Protocol port <X> has been dropped between Express
L128T S/T and PPP peer.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
BCP <X> up
level 5
Bridge Control Protocol port <X> has been successfully negotiated between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
Can't find user profile
level 2
The Express L128T S/T could not find an appropriate user profile for
an incoming call. Make sure that a profile has been entered under
Configuration/Connection List or that a default profile exists. A default profile is one which has the name DEFAULT in the description
field.
CCP <X> down
level 5
Compression Control Protocol port <X> has been dropped between
Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
CCP <X> up
level 5
Compression Control Protocol port <X> has been successfully negotiated between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
CHAP authen failed
level 3
The PPP peer has rejected the Express L128T S/T’s username and/or
password used for authenticating. Check to make sure the Configuration/Connection List/Authentication parameters Tx Method, Tx
Username, and Tx Password are correct.
EAP authen failed
level 3
The PPP peer has rejected the Express L128T S/T’s username and/or
password used for authenticating. Check to make sure the Configu-
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Appendix B. Log Messages
ration/Connection List/Authentication parameters Tx Method, Tx
Username, and Tx Password are correct.
IPCP <X> down
level 5
IP Control Protocol port <X> has been dropped between Express
L128T S/T and PPP peer.
IPCP <X> up
level 5
IP Control Protocol port <X> has been successfully negotiated between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
IPXCP <X> down
level 5
IPX Control Protocol port <X> has been dropped between Express
L128T S/T and PPP peer.
IPXCP <X> up
level 5
IPX Control Protocol port <X> has been successfully negotiated between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
LCP <X> down
level 5
Link Control Protocol port <X> has been dropped between Express
L128T S/T and PPP peer.
LCP <X> up
level 5
Link Control Protocol port <X> has been successfully negotiated between Express L128T S/T and PPP peer.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Link is looped back
level 3
The Express L128T S/T has dialed a location which is looping back all
data. Essentially, it has negotiated PPP with itself.
MP options not the same
level 2
It is required that when LCP links are bundled that specific PPP options (MRRU and short sequence header format) be negotiated the
same for all LCP links. This message occurs when those options mismatch. Probably due to misconfiguration of the PPP peer.
Negot not converging
level 2
Negotiation of the LCP layer is unattainable due to misconfiguration
or the Express L128T S/T or PPP peer is requiring authentication and
the other is refusing.
No IP addr for peer
level 2
The Express L128T S/T cannot continue the connection because there
was no IP address received from the PPP peer or it was not set in Configuration/Connection List/IP/Route/IP/Net parameter.
No more bundles avail
level 3
The Express L128T S/T cannot bundle more than two Multilink sessions at one time.
No Response from peer
level 2
The Express L128T S/T has dialed or answered a call and no PPP negotiation packets were seen.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
PAP authen failed
level 3
The PPP peer has rejected the Express L128T S/T’s username and/or
password used for authenticating. Check to make sure the Configuration/Connection List/Authentication parameters Tx Method, Tx
Username, and Tx Password are correct.
Peer failed CHAP authen
level 3
The PPP peer’s reported CHAP username and/or password does not
match the Express L128T S/T’s parameters. This is most likely caused
by PPP peer sending an incorrect username and/or password. Make
sure the Configuration/Connection List/Authentication parameters
Rx Username and Rx Password are correctly entered. Also, if using
RADIUS, ensure that the server is configured and running properly.
Peer failed EAP authen
level 3
The PPP peer’s reported EAP username and/or password does not
match the Express L128T S/T’s parameters. This is most likely caused
by PPP peer sending incorrect username and/or password. Make
sure the Configuration/Connection List/Authentication parameters
Rx Username and Rx Password are correctly entered. Also, if using
RADIUS, ensure that the server is configured and running properly.
Peer failed PAP authen
level 3
The PPP peer’s reported PAP username and/or password does not
match the Express L128T S/T’s parameters. This is most likely caused
by PPP peer sending incorrect username and/or password. Make
sure the Configuration/Connection List/Authentication parameters
Rx Username and Rx Password are correctly entered. Also, if using
RADIUS, check that the server is configured and running properly.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Peer refused authen
level 3
The PPP peer would not allow the Express L128T S/T to authenticate
it using the method set in Configuration/Security/PPP.
Peer refused SpanTree
level 4
The PPP peer would not participate in the Spanning Tree protocol.
This is a warning message only. Bridging will still occur across the
WAN port, so make certain that no loop topologies exist across the
connection.
PPPtx[x] …
level 6
Advance debugging decode of transmitted PPP configuration packets.
PPPrx[x] …
level 6
Advanced debugging decode of received PPP configuration packets.
CALL LOG MESSAGES
Answer <number>
level 5
An incoming call from <number> was answered. If no caller ID is
available for the ISDN line then <number> will be blank.
Bad call type
level 1
Internal error as a result of outgoing call attempt.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Bad Host_Call_ID
level 1
Internal error as a result of call control.
Bad phone number
level 2
An outgoing call was attempted with a badly formatted or empty
phone number.
Bandwidth drop
level 4
The Express L128T S/T is dropping a B-channel call in order to reduce
bandwidth.
Bandwidth request
level 4
The Express L128T S/T is dialing another B-channel in order to increase bandwidth.
Bandwidth Restore
level 4
The Express L128T S/T is re-dialing destination to restore original
bandwidth after POTS call bump or unexpected call drop.
Bearer Info Cap Incorrect
level 2
The bearer capability received in an information element from the
switch was invalid.
Bearer Mode Incorrect
level 2
The bearer mode received in an information element from the switch
was invalid.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
BUSY
level 2
Called location was busy.
Call lost <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T attemptedto retrieve a previously held call but
the call was lost for unknown reasons. If no caller ID is available for
the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for incoming calls.
Caller ID mismatch
level 3
The caller ID number did not match the numbers placed in Configuration/Connection List/Authentication parameters Call ID 1 or Call
ID 2.
CallID 1 in use
level 2
An outgoing call on LDN 1 was dumped because it was already busy
with a call.
CallID 2 in use
level 2
A outgoing call on LDN 2 was dumped because it was already busy
with a call.
Can't answer, Call not ringing
level 1
Internal error as a result of trying to answer a non-existent incoming
call.
B-8
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Cause: ‘<cause>’ diag=<num>
level 3
The ISDN switch has sent a Cause information element describing the
reason reported from the ISDN switch as <cause> for a call failure.
The value <num> is the diagnostic which can be helpful for diagnosing by the telephone company or ADTRAN technical support. The
following will be reported for the <cause> value:
BAD_INFO_ELEM
BEAR_CAP_NOT_AVAIL
BEARER_CAP_NOT_AUTH
CALL_REJECTED
CAP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED
CHAN_DOES_NOT_EXIST
CHAN_NOT_IMPLEMENTED
CHANNEL_UNACCEPTABLE
DEST_OUT_OF_ORDER
FACILITY_NOT_IMPLEMENT
FACILITY_NOT_SUBSCRIBED
FACILITY_REJECTED
INCOMING_CALL_BARRED
INCOMPATIBLE_DEST
INVALID_CALL_REF
INVALID_ELEM_CONTENTS
INVALID_MSG_UNSPEC
INVALID_NUMBER_FORMAT
MANDATORY_IE_LEN_ERR
MANDATORY_IE_MISSING
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Appendix B. Log Messages
NETWORK_CONGESTION
NETWORK_OUT_OF_ORDER
NO_CIRCUIT_AVAILABLE
NO_ROUTE
NO_ROUTE_TO_DEST
NO_USER_RESPONDING
NON_SEL_USER_CLEAR
NONEXISTENT_MSG
NORMAL_CLEARING
NUMBER_CHANGED
OUTGOING_CALL_BARRED
PRE_EMPTED
PROTOCOL_ERROR
REQ_CHANNEL_NOT_AVAIL
RESOURCE_UNAVAIL
SERVICE_NOT_AVAIL
SERVICE_OPER_VIOLATED
TEMPORARY_FAILURE
TIMER_EXPIRY
UNASSIGNED_NUMBER
USER_ALERT_NO_ANS
USER_BUSY
WRONG_MESSAGE
WRONG_MSG_FOR_STATE
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Conference <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T has conferenced the held call with the active
call. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line then <number> will
be blank for incoming calls.
Conference Rej <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T attempted to conference but was rejected by
the ISDN switch. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line, then
<number> will be blank for incoming calls.
Connect Timeout
level 3
An outgoing call attempt has failed because the call was not answered
or it was not routed through the ISDN network.
Connected <number>
level 5
A call from or to <number> was connected. If no caller ID is available
for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for incoming calls.
Demand calling ‘<user>’
level 4
A new call is being placed due to incoming packet routed to “idle” interface or bridge packet passing through demand filter. The Connection List profile used is the one with <user> in the description field.
DEST NOT ISDN
level 4
The number dialed is not ISDN. This is a warning and is most often
seen for POTS calls.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Dial <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T is dialing <number>.
Dialing ...
level 5
A phone on the Express L128T S/T POTS port is dialing.
Disconnect <number>
level 5
A call from or to <number> was disconnected. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for incoming
calls.
Dump <number>
level 5
A call or call attempt to or from <number> has been refused. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for
incoming calls.
Dump call
level 3
The Express L128T S/T has dropped an incoming call because it was
busy with calls.
FarDN=<number>
level 5
This is far-end directory number for an incoming call.
Hangup <number>
level 5
A call from or to <number> was hung up. If no caller ID is available
for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for incoming calls.
B-12
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Hold <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T has placed a call on hold. If no caller ID is
available for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for incoming
calls.
Hold Reject <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T attempted to put a call on hold and it was rejected by the ISDN switch. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line,
then <number> will be blank for incoming calls.
Idle timeout
level 4
The Express L128T S/T’s idle timer has expired and the current session has dropped.
L1 not up
level 2
A call attempt was stopped because ISDN layer 1 is down.
L2 not up
level 2
A call attempt was stopped because ISDN layer 2 is down trying to get
first TEI.
LDN TOO LONG
level 1
The number in either LDN 1 or LDN 2 is longer than 20 characters.
NETWORK BUSY
level 2
Called location was busy or network could not route call.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Network down
level 4
The ISDN network is unavailable due to layers 1,2, or 3 dropping.
Network up
level 4
The ISDN network layer 3 is up and is ready for calls.
No calling ID
level 2
An incoming call did not provide the caller ID number required for
authentication.
No previous number
level 1
An internal error occurred with dial-on-demand function.
NOT end2end ISDN
level 4
The path that the call was routed over is not ISDN from end-to-end.
This is a warning and is most often seen for POTS calls.
Power Up - last down cause: <reason>
level 0 (displayed as level 1 after the unit is reset)
This is the <reason> for the last reset. Most are caused by internal errors. Possible reasons are:
Bus Error - Bad address occurred on the internal bus
Kernel error - General operating system error
No SBCs - Mail resources used up or lost
Router stack error - Fatal error in protocol stack
general panic - general error
B-14
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Appendix B. Log Messages
no rip - rip tasks could not start
out of memory - out of available memory
out of TCP ports - all TCP ports are used up
unknown error - unknown fatal error has occurred
Set timer error - Cannot set real time clock
Software Watch Dog Reset - Software watchdog was not updated
Probe: all ports busy
level 3
All ports were busy when it was time to probe. An attempt will be
made on the next probe interval.
Probe failed
level 2
An attempt to connect to a probe site failed.
Probing <name>
level 4
The Express L128T S/T is making an outgoing call to the destination
specified by the description in the Connection List in order to get an
update on routes.
POTS call bump
level 4
The Express L128T S/T has dropped bandwidth on an existing data
call so that a POTS call can be connected.
Retrieved <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T has retrieved a previously held call. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for
incoming calls.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Ring <number>
level 5
An incoming call from <number> was ringing. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line then <number> will be blank.
SOURCE NOT ISDN
level 4
The incoming calling party is not ISDN. This is a warning and is most
often seen for POTS calls.
Signal 0xNN
level 4
A signal information element was received from the ISDN switch with
the value NN in hexadecimal.
Transfer <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T has transferred the held call with the active
call. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line, then <number> will
be blank for incoming calls.
Transfer Rej <number>
level 5
The Express L128T S/T attempted to transfer but was rejected by the
ISDN switch. If no caller ID is available for the ISDN line, then <number> will be blank for incoming calls.
B-16
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Appendix B. Log Messages
NETWORK LOG MESSAGES
Attempting to add bad IP iface route: ifnum=<inter>
dest=<ip>
level 4
An IP address <ip> could not be used for the interface number <inter>.
DHCP couldn't alloc mem
level 1
A DHCP response could not be generated due to memory allocation
problems.
DHCP response sent
level 4
A DHCP response was successfully sent to requesting device.
DHCP socket failed
level 1
Internal error occurred when attempting to start DHCP server.
DHCP: Host not added to ARP table
level 2
The DHCP server could not add requesting host to ARP table.
Installing bad default route: ifnum=<inter> metric=<hops>
gw=<ip>
level 6
The Express L128T S/T did not install a default route because the <inter> or <hops> was zero.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Rejecting packet with Source Routing option - src=<srcip>
dest=<destip>
level 4
The Express L128T S/T has dropped a source routed IP packet due to
invalid parameters.
setmask: local IP iface(0), not done
level 6
Debug error used in determining router stack problems.
syslog: bad host
level 2
Syslog function cannot use host name or IP set in Configuration/
Logs/Syslog Host.
syslog: no port
level 2
Syslog function cannot open port to send Log entries.
TEL: Telnet Session Closed
level 4
Telnet server session has been closed.
telclient bad host
level 2
Telnet client could not use host name or IP address set in Configuration/Utilities/Telnet Client/Host.
telclient bad init
level 2
Telnet client could not initialize a session.
B-18
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Appendix B. Log Messages
Telnet Client: Clr TCBF_BUFFER flag failed
level 6
Debugging message related to Telnet client function.
Telnet Client: Set TCBF_DONTBLOCK flag failed
level 6
Debugging message related to Telnet client function.
Telnet Client socket failed
level 2
Telnet client function could not open TCP socket.
Telnet server connect to <ip>
level 4
Telnet server has connected to Telnet client with IP address <ip>.
Telnet Session Closed
level 4
Telnet server has closed connection.
Telnet Session failed, error <errnum>
level 2
Telnet server could not connect to Telnet client due to error.
TELNETD: accept failed
level 2
Telnet server could not open TCP socket to incoming Telnet client.
TELNETD: Set TCPC_LISTENQ failed
level 6
Debugging message related to Telnet server function.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
TELNETD: Clr TCBF_BUFFER flag failed
level 6
Debugging message related to Telnet client function.
TELNETD: could not obtain peer ip
level 2
Telnet server function could not get IP address of Telnet client.
TELNETD: Session failed, error
level 2
A Telnet server session has failed because of an error.
TELNETD: Set TCBF_DONTBLOCK flag failed
level 6
Debugging message related to Telnet client function.
TELNETD: SOCKET creation error
level 2
Telnet server could not be started due to TCP socket error.
TFTP: can't get to host
level 2
TFTP client could not get to host.
TFTP client: unable to open port
level 2
TFTP client function could not open a UDP port.
TFTP: error rcvd - <message>"
level 2
Received error with <message> from TFTP server.
B-20
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Appendix B. Log Messages
TFTP: lost communication
level 2
Lost communication to TFTP client or server during transfer.
TFTP server: unable to open port
level 2
TFTP server function could not open a UDP port.
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Appendix B. Log Messages
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Appendix C
SNMP
Understanding SNMP
As Local Area Network (LAN) environments became standardized
over the past ten years, multi-vendor equipment grew with competition. It became necessary to manage the various vendor equipment
from a single control console. Thus, the Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP) emerged as the de facto standard for managing commercial Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
networks.
The term SNMP broadly refers to the message protocols used to exchange information between the network and the managed devices, as
well as to the structure of network management databases. SNMP has
three basic components:
•
Network Manager: This is a control program that collects,
controls, and presents data pertinent to the operation of the
network devices. It resides on a network management station.
•
Agent: This is a control program that responds to queries and
commands from the network manager and returns requested
information or invokes configuration changes initiated by the
manager. It resides in each network device connected.
•
MIB: This is an index to the organized data within a network
device. It defines the operating parameters that can be controlled
or monitored.
When requesting the network manager to retrieve or modify a particular piece of information about a network device, the network manager transmits the request to that network device. The agent in that
device interprets the incoming request, performs the requested task,
and sends its response to the network manager. The network manag-
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C-1
Appendix C. SNMP
er collects all the data from the various network devices and presents
it in a consistent form.
Using SNMP Version 1, the network manager can issue three types of
commands:
•
GetRequest: This command retrieves a single item or the first in
a series from a network device.
•
GetNextRequest: This command retrieves the next item in a
series from a network device.
•
SetRequest: This command writes information to a network
device.
The network device issues two types of messages:
•
GetResponse: This message is the response to a network
manager GetRequest or GetNextRequest command.
•
Trap: This is an unsolicited message issued by a network device
to report an operational anomaly or an alarm condition to the
network manager.
These messages are typically encased within informational packets
and transported over the LAN or WAN.
SNMP Embedded Agent
The Express L128T S/T supports the following groups from MIB-II:
(RFC 1213)
•
System Group
•
UDP Group
•
Interfaces Group
•
ICMP Group
•
Address Translation Group
•
IP Group
•
TCP Group
C-2
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Appendix C. SNMP
Also, the Ethernet transmission MIB is supported (RFC 1643).
The following manager requests are supported:
•
Get object
•
Get next object
•
Set object
Communities
The Express L128T S/T permits up to eight communities to be defined. The privilege level of each community can be set. The default
community is public with read-only privileges. When the IP address
is all zeros, any manager of the community can access the Express
L128T S/T.
Traps
Up to four hosts can be set to receive traps. Each host entry requires
an IP address of the manager.
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Appendix C. SNMP
C-4
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Appendix D
Connector Pinouts
Table D-1. IBM/AT Style EIA-232 Interface
EIA-232
Pin
Name
I/O
Description
1
CD
N/C
Carrier Detect
2
RD
O
Receive Data
3
TD
I
Transmit Data
4
DTR
N/C
Data Terminal
Ready
5
GND
N/A
Signal Ground
6
DSR
N/C
Data Set Ready
7
RTS
I
Request to Send
8
CTS
O
Clear to Send
9
RI
N/C
Ring Indicator
I = Input O = Output N/A = Not Applicable N/C = Not Connected
Table D-2. RJ-45 ISDN
ISDN
61202070L3-20
Pin 3
Pin 4
Tx Positive
Rx Positive
Pin 5
Pin 6
Rx Negative
Tx Negative
Express L128T S/T User Manual
D-1
Appendix D. Connector Pinouts
Table D-3. RJ-11 POTS
PHONE
Pin 3
Ring
Pin 4
Tip
Table D-4. 10BaseT Ethernet
Switch Position
10BT
TO NIC
TO HUB
Pin 1
TX1
RX1
Pin 2
TX2
RX2
Pin 3
RX1
TX1
Pin 6
RX2
TX2
The switch position can be set for either TO NIC or TO HUB
on the back panel of the Express L128T S/T. The rear panel is
illustrated in Figure 1-7 on page 1- 12.
D-2
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Appendix E
Terminal Mode Commands
The Express L128T S/T supports a command line interface. All menu
options are configurable and readable from the terminal mode. Additional commands are also available.
MENU COMMANDS
Every menu item in the menu structure can be accessed through the
terminal mode interface. Terminal commands are as follows:
top_menu sub_menu1 sub_menu2 … config_item
Each config_item is entered as shown below.
Type
string
password
IP address
Hex
enum
unsigned
date
time
date/time
activator
list
array
61202070L3-20
Entered as
printable characters within double quotes
printable characters within double quotes
xx.xx.xx.xx (0..9) separated by ‘.’
xx:xx:xx:xx (0..9,a..f) separated by ‘:’
sub-string or [#index]
digits (0..9)
mm-dd-yyyy
hh:mm:ss
mm-dd-yyyy hh:mm:ss
read only
followed by index with first record being 1
followed by index with first record being 1
Express L128T S/T User Manual
E-1
Appendix E. Terminal Mode Commands
One of the following key words must be used first:
Key Word
info
isdn
pots
ip
ipx
bridge
security
connect
telnet
snmp
maint
dial
status
test
logs
util
Goes directly to this menu
Configuration/System Inf
Configuration/WAN/ISDN
Configuration/WAN/POTS
Configuration/IP
Configuration/IPX
Configuration/Bridge
Configuration/Security
Configuration/Connection List
Configuration/Management/Telnet
Configuration/Management/SNMP
Configuration/Management/Maint
Configuration/Dial .
Configuration/Status
Configuration/Test
Configuration/Logs
Configuration/Utilities
Some examples are listed below:
Example
telnet user 1 name
“guest”
dial 3 dial
status ip 1 gateway
E-2
Description
sets user name for Telnet user
list entry 1 to “guest”
dials the numbers for
connection list profile number 3
returns the gateway address for
IP route table entry 1
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Appendix E. Terminal Mode Commands
ADDITIONAL COMMANDS
Other commands available from the terminal mode are given below:
Command
save
mac
version
reset
exit
download
Description
Saves the configuration to non-volatile RAM
(flash).
Returns the MAC address for the Express L128T
S/T.
Returns the firmware version and routing stack
version.
Resets the unit.
Leaves terminal mode and returns to menus.
Downloads complete configuration to the
terminal screen for capture.
DOWNLOAD/UPLOADING
CONFIGURATION
The Express L128T S/T’s configuration can be captured to a text file
using the download command. The text file can be edited if required.
Upload of the configuration can be accomplished by sending the text
file to the Express L128T S/T in terminal mode. A baud rate of 9600 is
strongly recommended when uploading. As soon as the upload has
been completed, type “save” to save the new configuration to flash. A
“reset” command or power cycle 10 seconds after the save command
is recommended to ensure that the new configuration is complete.
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Appendix E. Terminal Mode Commands
E-4
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Glossary
10Base2
IEEE 802.3 specification, similar to Ethernet, using thin coaxial cable that runs at 10 Mbps, with a maximum distance of 185
meters per segment. Also known as Thin Ethernet or Thinwire Ethernet.
10BaseT
IEEE 802.3 specification, using unshielded twisted-pair cabling and running at 10 Mbps.
AEP
AppleTalk Echo Protocol. Allows a node on an AppleTalk
network to send a packet to another node and in return, receive an echoed copy of the packet.
B-Channel
64 kbps bearer channel used for voice, circuit, or packet
switched data.
bearer service
As defined by CCITT standards, a type of telecommunication
service that provides the capability for the transmission of information between user-to-network interfaces. Bearer services defined for ISDN are circuit mode and packet mode.
BOOTP
The Bootstrap Protocol allows a network node to determine
certain startup information such as its IP address.
Bridge
A data communications device that connects two or more networks. A bridge stores and forwards complete packets between the networks. Bridges operate at the data-link layer of
the OSI model.
CCITT
Consultative Committee on International Telephony and Telegraphy. A body of the International Telegraph Union (ITU)
which prepares recommendations, commonly referred to as
international standards, to resolve technical telegraph and
telephone problems.
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Glossary-1
Glossary
central office (CO)
In telephony, the phone company switching facility or center,
usually a Class 5 end office, at which subscribers local loops
terminate. Handles a specific geographic area, identified by
the first three digits of the local telephone number. Usually
the facilities of the local BOC.
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect. A channel access mechanism where devices check the channel for a carrier
before transmitting. If no carrier is sensed for the specified
period of time, the device can transmit. If two devices transmit at once, a collision occurs and is detected by all colliding
devices. This collision subsequently delays their retransmissions for a random length of time. CSMA/CD is used by
Ethernet and IEEE 802.3.
D-channel
The ISDN channel that carriers signalling information to control the call setup, teardown, or invocation of supplementary
services. The D-Channel may also be used to provide packet
mode data service.
DDS
Dataphone Digital Service. AT&T private line service for
transmitting data over a digital system. The digital transmission system transmits electrical signals directly, instead of
translating the signals into tones of varied frequencies as with
traditional analog transmission systems. Digital techniques
provide more efficient use of transmission facilities, resulting
in lower error rates and costs than analog systems.
digital hub
Designated office where DDS channels are interconnected
and where synchronous network timing, testing access, and
additional service features are provided.
Ethernet
A local area network used for connecting computers, printers,
workstations, a terminals, servers, etc., within the same building or campus. Ethernet operates over twisted wire and coaxial cable at speeds up to 10 Mbps. Ethernet specifies a CSMA/
CD.
four-wire circuits
Telephone lines using two wires for transmitting and two
wires for receiving, offering much higher quality than a 2wire circuit. All long distance circuits are 4-wire. Almost all
local phone lines and analog phones are 2-wire.
group 4
A high-speed (56 kbps) facsimile protocol specific to ISDN.
Glossary-2
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Glossary
hop count
A routing metric used to measure the distance between a
source and a destination. Particularly used by RIP.
hub
IEEE
(1) Communications center, (2) Major routing station for connecting channels, (3) DDS connecting center.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Professional
organization that defines network standards. IEEE LAN standards are the predominant LAN standards today and include
protocols similar or virtually equivalent to Ethernet and Token Ring.
IEEE 802.1d
An algorithm used to prevent bridging loops by creating a
spanning tree.
IEEE 802.2
An IEEE LAN protocol that specifies an implementation of
the LLC sublayer of the data link layer. It handles errors,
framing, flow control, network layer (Layer 3) service interface, and is used in LANs.
IEEE 802.3
A physical layer standard specifying a linear bus network
LAN with a CSMA/CD access method on a bus topology.
Ethernet follows the 802.3 standard, transmitting at 10 megabits per second. This is the most common local area network
specification. Physical variations of IEEE 802.3 include
10Base2 and 10BaseT.
in-band signalling
Signalling made up of tones which pass within the voice frequency band and are carried along the same circuit as the talk
path being established by the signals. Virtually all signalling
(request for service, dialing, disconnect, etc.) in the U.S. is inband signalling. Most of that signalling is MF (Multi-Frequency) dialing. The more modern form of signalling is outof-band.
interexchange carrier
Since divestiture, any carrier registered with the FCC authorized to carry customer transmissions between LATAs interstate, or if approved by a state public utility commission,
intrastate. Includes carriers such as AT&T Communications,
Satellite Business Systems, GTE Telenet, GTE Sprint, and
MCI.
information element
The name for the data fields within an ISDN Layer 3 message.
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Glossary-3
Glossary
interworking
Communication between two types of networks or end
equipment. This may or may not involve a difference in signalling or protocol elements supported.
Internet Protocol
A TCP/IP protocol describing software that tracks the Internet address of nodes, routes outgoing message, and recognizes incoming messages. Used in gateways to connect networks
at OSI network Level 3 and above.
IPX
ISDN
jabber
jitter
LATA
Internetwork Packet Exchange. A Novell NetWare protocol
used to move information across networks.
Integrated Services Digital Network. A network architecture
that enables end-to-end digital connections. The network
supports diverse services through integrated access arrangements and defines a limited set of standard, multipurpose interfaces for equipment vendors, network providers, and
customers. Interworking with a public switched telephone
network is retained.
An error condition in which a network device continually
transmits garbage onto the network. In IEEE 802.3, a data
packet whose length exceeds that prescribed in the standard.
The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase
that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization for highspeed synchronous communications. See phase jitter.
Local Access and Transport Area. One of 161 local telephone
serving areas in the United States, generally encompassing
the largest standard statistical metropolitan areas. Subdivisions established as a result of the AT&T divestiture that now
distinguish local from long distance service. Circuits with
both end-points within the LATA (intraLATA) are generally
the sole responsibility of the local telephone company, while
circuits that cross outside the LATA (interLATA) are passed
on to an interexchange carrier.
loopback
A diagnostic procedure where data is sent to the device being
tested, and the output of the device is fed directly back to its
input, looped around, and the returning data is checked
against that which was sent.
Glossary-4
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Glossary
Media Access Control (MAC)
As defined by the IEEE, the lower of the two sublayers of the
OSI reference model data link layer. The MAC sublayer is
concerned with media access issues, such as whether token
passing or contention is used.
message
The Layer 3 information that is passed between the CPE and
SPCS for signalling.
multipoint line
A communications line having multiple cable access points.
Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
The AppleTalk transport-level protocol that translates a character string name into the internet address of the corresponding socket client; NBP enables AppleTalk protocols to
understand user-defined zones and device names by providing and maintaining translation tables that map these names
to corresponding socket addresses.
NAT
Network Address Translation occurs at the borders of stub
domains. Its purpose is to translate the IP address of passing
packets by changing all references of one IP address to another. Translation is performed as per RFC 1631.
netmask
A 32-bit bit mask which shows how an Internet address is to
be divided into network, subnet, and host parts. The netmask
has ones in the bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to
be used for the network and subnet parts, and zeros for the
host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion (as determined by the address's class), and the
subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion.
non-ISDN line
Any connection from a CPE to a SPCS that is not served by DChannel signalling.
non-ISDN trunk
Any trunk not served by either SS7 or D-Channel signalling.
NT1
Network Termination 1. A unit that provides physical and
electromagnetic termination of the U-interface 2-wire transmission line, converts between Layer 1 formats used at the Uand T- reference points, and performs some maintenance
functions.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
Glossary-5
Glossary
phase jitter
In telephony, the measurement in degrees out-of-phase that
an analog signal deviates from the reference phase of the main
data-carrying signal. Often caused by alternating current
components in a telecommunications network.
point-to-point protocol (PPP)
An implementation of TCP/IP which is intended for transmission using telephone lines. PPP provides router-to-router
and host-to-network connections over both synchronous and
asynchronous circuits.
poison routes
Routes which have an infinite metric which to other routers
means the network for the route is inaccessible.
PRA
Primary Rate Access. Connects high-capacity CPE, such as
PBXs, to the network. In the US, this is composed of twentythree 64 kbps channels and one 64 kbps D-channel. Also
known as Primary Rate Interface (PRI).
RIP
Routing Information Protocol. A protocol used to exchange
routing information among a set of computers connected by a
LAN. RIP uses hop counts as a routing metric.
router
An interface which finds the best route between two networks. Routers forward packets from one network to another, based on network layer information.
routing metric
The method by which a routing algorithm determines one
route is better than another. This information is stored in
routing tables. Such tables include reliability, delay bandwidth, load, MTUs, communication costs, and hop count.
RS-232-C
An EIA-specified physical interface with associated electrical
signalling between DCE and DTE. The most commonly employed interface between computer devices and modems.
RTMP
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol. The AppleTalk protocol used to establish and maintain the routing information
that is required by internet routers in order to route datagrams from any source socket to any destination socket in the
internet. Using RTMP, internet routers dynamically maintain
routing tables to reflect changes in internet topology.
Glossary-6
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Glossary
service advertising protocol (SAP)
An IPX protocol through which network resources such as
servers become known to clients.
serving area
Region surrounding a broadcasting station where signal
strength is at or above a stated minimum. The geographic
area handled by a telephone central office facility. Generally
equivalent to a LATA.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP provides a
means to monitor and set network configuration and runtime
parameters.
spanning tree
A loop-free subset of the topology of a network.
SPCS
Stored Program Controlled Switch. A digital switch that supports call control, routing, and supplementary services provision under software control. All ISDN switches are SPCSs.
spoofing
Spoofing reduces the required bandwidth by having devices,
such as bridges or routers, answer for the remote devices.
This causes the remote LAN to appear as if it is still connected
to the LAN device even though it is not. The spoofing saves
the WAN bandwidth, because no packet is ever sent out on
the WAN.
synchronous
(1) The condition occurring when two events happen in a specific time relationship with each other, both under control of
a master clock; (2) A method of data transmission requiring
the transmission of timing pulses to keep the sender and receiver synchronized in their communication used to send
blocks of information. Synchronous data transmission is used
in high speed data circuits because there is less overhead than
asynchronous transmission of characters which contain two
extra bits per character to effect timing.
T1
Also T-1. A digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544
Mbps. T1 uses two pairs of normal twisted wires. T1 normally can handle 24 voice conversations with each conversation
being digitized at 64 kbps. With more advanced digital voice
encoding techniques, it can handle more voice channels. T1 is
a standard for digital transmission in North America.
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
Glossary-7
Glossary
TA
Terminal Adaptor. A DCE that connects to the ISDN S-Interface and enables non-ISDN terminal equipment to communicate over the ISDN.
TE1
Terminal Equipment Type 1. ISDN-compatible terminals.
Telnet
The TCP/IP standard protocol for remote terminal connection service. Telnet allows a user at one site to interact with a
remote timesharing system at another site as if the user's terminal were connected directly to the remote machine.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A set of
protocols developed by the Department of Defense to link dissimilar computers across many kinds of networks.
twisted pair
Two wires twisted around each other to reduce induction (interference) from one wire to the other. Several sets of twisted
pair wires may be enclosed in a single cable. Twisted pair is
the normal cabling from a central office to your home or office, or from your PBX to your office phone. Twisted pair wiring comes in various thicknesses. As a general rule, the
thicker the cable is, the better the quality of the conversation
and the longer cable can be and still get acceptable conversation quality. However, the thicker it is, the more it costs.
2B+D
The Basic Rate Interface (BRI) in ISDN. A single ISDN circuit
divided into two 64 kbps digital channels for voice or data
and one 16 kbps channel for low speed data (up to 9,600 baud)
and signalling. 2B+D is carried on one or two pairs of wires
depending on the interface, the same wire pairs that today
bring a single voice circuit into your home or office. See ISDN.
23B+D
In ISDN, also known as the Primary Rate Interface. A circuit
with a wide range of frequencies that is divided in twentythree 64 kbps paths for carrying voice, data, video, or other information simultaneously. It bears a remarkable similarity to
today’s T1 link, except that T1 carries 24 voice channels. In ISDN,
23B+D gives twenty-three channels and one D channel for
out-of-band signalling. However, in T1, signalling is handled
in-band. See ISDN.
Glossary-8
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Glossary
two-wire circuit
A transmission circuit composed of two wires, signal and
ground, used to both send and receive information. In contrast, a 4-wire circuit consists of two pairs. One pair is used to
send and one pair is used to receive. All trunk circuits (long
distance) are 4-wire. A 4-wire circuit delivers better reception, but also costs more. All local loop circuits (those coming
from a Class 5 central office to the subscriber’s phone system)
are 2-wire, unless a 4-wire circuit is requested.
U-interface
A twisted pair subscriber loop that connects the NT1 reference point to the ISDN network, as defined in the I.411 Recommendation. This interface provides Basic Rate Access with
an operating frequency of 160 kbps and an information rate of
144 kbps. Under U.S. regulations, this also marks the line of
demarcation between customer-owned equipment and the
public network.
ZIP
Zone Information Protocol. The AppleTalk session-layer protocol used to maintain and discover the internet-wide mapping of network number ranges to zone names.
Zombie Routes
Routes that have been identified by the router to be deleted.
They remain in the router’s route table for a specified amount
of time with an infinite metric so that all other routers will
learn of this router’s intention to delete them.
61202070L3-20
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Glossary-9
Glossary
Glossary-10
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Acronyms
AEP ......................... AppleTalk Echo Protocol
AMI......................... Alternate Mark Inversion
ARP......................... Address Resolution Protocol
B (Channel) .......... A 64 kbps digital information channel
BCP ......................... Bridge Control Protocol
BONDING ............ Bandwidth On Demand Interoperability
Group
BOOTP................... Bootstrap Protocol
BPDU...................... Bridging Protocol Data Unit
bps........................... Bits per second
Bps .......................... Bytes per second
BRI .......................... Basic Rate Interface
CA ........................... Call Appearance
CCP ......................... Compression Control Protocol
CCITT..................... Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony
CD ........................... Carrier Detect
CPE ......................... Customer Premises Equipment
CRC......................... Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSMA/CD ............. Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect
DHCP ..................... Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DMS ....................... Digital Multiplex Switching
DTE......................... Data Terminal Equipment
DTMF ..................... Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
EKTS....................... Electronic Key Telephone Service
ESS .......................... Electronic Switching System
FAX ......................... Facsimile
FEBE ....................... Far End Block Errors
FTP.......................... File Transfer Protocol
ICMP ...................... Internet Control Message Protocol
ID ............................ Identification
IETF ........................ Internet Engineering Task Force
I/O ........................... Input/Output
IP ............................. Internet Protocol
IPCP ........................ Internet Protocol Control Protocol
IPX........................... Internetwork Packet Exchange
I2L ............................ Integrated Injected Logic
IEC .......................... Inter-Exchange Carrier
ISDN....................... Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO .......................... International Standardization Organization
ISP........................... Internet Service Provider
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Express L128T S/T User Manual
Acronyms-1
Acronyms
kbps ........................ Kilobits per second
kHz.......................... Kilohertz
LAN......................... Local Area Network
LCP.......................... Link Control Protocol
LDN ........................ Local Directory Number
MAC ....................... Media Access Control
MIB ......................... Management Information Base
MP ........................... Multilink Protocol
MRU ....................... Maximum Receivable Unit
MRRU..................... Maximum Receivable Reconstructable Unit
NBP ......................... Name Binding Protocol
NEBE....................... Near End Block Errors
NIC.......................... Network Interface Card
NI-1 ......................... National ISDN-1
NT ........................... Network Termination
PBX.......................... Private Branch Exchange
PC ............................ Personal Computer
PING....................... Packet InterNet Groper
POTS....................... Plain Old Telephone Service
PPP ......................... Point-to-Point Protocol
PRI........................... Primary Rate Interface
RFC ......................... Request For Comments
RIP .......................... Routing Information Packet, Routing Information Protocol
RTMF...................... Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
SAP ......................... Service Advertising Protocol
SNMP ..................... Simple Network Monitoring Protocol
SPCS ......................... Stored Program Controlled Switching System
SPID........................ Service Profile Identifier
TCP ......................... Transmission Control Protocol
TEI........................... Terminal Endpoint Identifier
TFTP ....................... Trivial File Transfer Protocol
UDP......................... User Datagram Protocol
WAN ....................... Wide Area Network
ZIP........................... Zone Information Protocol
Acronyms-2
Express L128T S/T User Manual
61202070L3-20
Index
Numerics
B
10-base-T interface D-2
64K 3-51
B1 and B2 bearer channel status
messages A-3
BACP 3-49
A
bandwidth 3-52
address table 3-29
bandwidth on demand 1-7
address table/aging 3-29
bandwidth/idle timeout 3-53
address table/forward policy
bandwidth/lower threshold 3-54
3-29
bandwidth/max channels 3-54
agent C-1, C-2
bandwidth/min channels 3-54
applications
bandwidth/mode 3-53
multiple users to ISP using
bandwidth/on demand 3-52
NAT 1-4
single user to corporate LAN bandwidth/preempt time 3-53
bandwidth/samples 3-54
1-2
single user to ISP using NAT bandwidth/upper threshold 3-53
BAP 1-13, 3-49
1-3
SOHO to corporate LAN 1-5 basic telephone service 2-2
baud rate 3-63
area code 3-11
bridge 3-47
ARP cache 3-68
bridge menu 1-10, 3-23
audio 3-51
bridge table 3-69
authentication 3-30, 3-38
bridge/address table 3-29
with Express L128T S/T as
bridge/mode 3-24, 3-47
authenticatee 3-39
bridge/spanning tree 3-26
with Express L128T S/T as
bridge/WAN IP bridge 3-24
authenticator 3-38
bridge/WAN IPX bridge 3-25
authentication/call ID 1 3-41
bridging 1-7
authentication/call ID 2 3-41
concurrent routing and
authentication/caller ID 3-41
bridging 1-9
authentication/Rx password 3-41
demand 1-6
authentication/Rx username 3-40
C
authentication/Tx method 3-40
authentication/Tx password 3-40 call log 3-77
authentication/Tx username 3-40 call log messages B-6
call log/active 3-77
call log/clear 3-77
61202070L3-20
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-1
Index
call log/level 3-77
call log/view 3-77
call log/wrap 3-77
call sessions 3-66
call sessions/session1 and
session2 3-67
call sessions/spanning tree 3-68
call type 3-51
call waiting 2-3
caller ID 3-41
channel rate 3-11
CHAP 3-33, 3-40
command line interface E-1
command prompt mode 3-63
commands E-3
communities C-3
communities/manager IP 3-61
communities/name 3-61
communities/privilege 3-61
compression 3-49
concurrent routing and bridging
1-9
conferencing calls 2-3
configuration 1-14
downloading/uploading E-3
configuration menu 3-3, 3-8
configuration/bridge 3-23
configuration/connection list
3-36
configuration/IP 3-13
configuration/IPX 3-20
configuration/management 3-59
configuration/management
menu 3-59
configuration/security 3-30
configuration/system info 3-8
configuration/terminal mode
3-63
configuration/WAN 3-10
connecting to the internet 1-13
61202070L3-20
connection
ISDN 1-12
LAN 2-1
telephone 2-2
connection list 1-7, 1-9, 3-30, 3-36
connection list profile
deleting 3-38
inserting 3-36
connection list/active 3-37
connection list/authentication
3-38
connection list/bandwidth 3-52
connection list/bridge 3-47
connection list/description 3-37
connection list/dial out 3-51
connection list/filters 3-55
connection list/IP 3-41
connection list/IPX 3-45
connection list/PPP 3-48
connection list/probe 3-47
connector pinouts D-1
corporate LAN Quick Start-3, 1-2,
1-5
customer premises wiring 2-3
D
data bits 3-63
date/time 3-9
default gateway 3-14
demand bridging 1-6
demand dial filters 3-57
demand routing 1-6
DHCP mode 3-17
Dial 3-11
dial 1-9
dial line 3-10
dial line/area code 3-11
dial line/LDN 1 or 2 3-11
dial line/switch protocol 3-11
dial menu 3-3, 3-64
dial out 3-51
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-2
Index
dial out/attempts 3-52
dial out/call type 3-51
dial out/connection timeout 3-52
dial out/delay 3-52
dial out/initial channels 3-52
dial out/number 1 3-51
dial out/number 2 3-51
dial self 3-74
dial/channels 3-65
dial/description 3-64
dial/dial 3-64
dial/hang up 3-65
dial/number 1 3-65
dial/number 2 3-66
dial/status 3-65
display 5-3
DNS 3-17
DNS server 3-17
DNS/domain name 3-18
DNS/server 1 3-18
DNS/server 2 3-18
domain name 3-18
download/uploading configuration E-3
DTMF keypad 2-2
filter
setting up 3-33
filter defines 3-33
filter defines /IP filter defines
3-34
filter defines /IPX filter defines
3-35
filter defines /MAC filter defines
3-33
filter defines /pattern filter defines 3-34
filters
setting up 3-55
filters/dem dial exceptions 3-58
filters/demand dial 3-57
filters/in exceptions 3-56
filters/LAN-to-WAN (out) 3-57
filters/out exceptions 3-57
filters/WAN-to-LAN (in) 3-55
firmware revision 3-9
forward delay 3-27
frame type 3-21
front panel 1-11
E
H
EAP 3-33, 3-40
echo request 3-74
EIA-232 interface D-1
embedded agent C-2
environmental specifications 5-3
Ethernet interface D-2
Ethernet interface (LAN) 5-1
EURO ISDN 3-11
Express L128T S/T
overview 1-1
F
factory default 1-6
features 5-1
61202070L3-20
G
GetNextRequest C-2
hang up 1-9
hang-up 1-8
hello time 3-27
I
idle timeout 1-7
IETF 1-13
if the Express L128T S/T does not
read ready 4-1
if you are unable to connect calls
4-7
indicators
LAN 1-11
test 1-11
WAN 1-11
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-3
Index
installation 2-1
interface
Ethernet 5-1
network 5-1
POTS (dual) 5-1
internet
connecting to 1-13
internet access
using NAT Quick Start-2
internet service provider
connecting Quick Start-2
interoperability 1-13
IP filter defines 3-34
IP menu 3-13
IP router 1-6, 3-15
IP router/mode 3-15
IP routes 3-69
IP routing 1-8
IP stats 3-73
IP/default gateway 3-14
IP/DNS 3-17
IP/IP address 3-13
IP/IP router 3-15
IP/mode 3-42
IP/NAT 3-16, 3-42
IP/proxy ARP 3-19
IP/RIP 3-15, 3-44
IP/route 3-42
IP/static routes 3-14
IP/subnet mask 3-13
IP/UDP relay 3-18
IPX filter defines 3-35
IPX menu 3-20
IPX protocol Quick Start-6
IPX router 1-6
IPX routes 3-70
IPX routing 1-9
IPX servers 3-71
IPX/frame type 3-21
IPX/mode 3-20, 3-45
61202070L3-20
IPX/network 3-21
IPX/remote network 3-45
IPX/retain 3-46
IPX/RIP timer 3-22
IPX/SAP timer 3-23
IPX/seed status 3-22
IPX/triggered 3-46
IPX/type 20 packets 3-46
ISDN
connection 1-12
network connection 2-1
overview 1-1
setting up the line Quick
Start-1
ISDN line
selecting mode 3-10
ISDN/dial line 3-10
ISDN/leased line 3-11
ISP 1-13
L
LAN bridge 1-5
LAN connection 2-1
LAN indicators 1-11
LAN port 3-27
LAN port/active 3-27
LAN port/path cost 3-27
LAN port/priority 3-28
LAN stats 3-72
leased line 3-11
leased line/channel rate 3-11
LEDs 1-11
log messages B-1
logs menu 3-3, 3-75
logs/call log 3-77
logs/network log 3-78
logs/PPP log 3-76
logs/sys log host 3-76
loop status messages A-1
LUCENT 5ESS 3-11
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-4
Index
M
MAC addresses 1-5
MAC bridging 1-6
MAC filter defines 3-33
maint port/baud rate 3-63
maint port/data bits 3-63
maint port/parity 3-63
maint port/password 3-62
maint port/password protect
3-62
maint port/stop bits 3-63
maintenance port 3-62
management 3-59
management/maint port 3-62
management/SNMP 3-61
management/Telnet 3-59
maximum age 3-26
menu commands E-1
menu structure 3-1
MIB 3-59, C-1
mode 1-8
multilink 3-48
multilink call 1-7
multilink/BACP 3-49
multilink/fragment 3-49
multilink/mode 3-49
multiprotocol routing Quick
Start-3
N
NAT 1-3, 1-4, 1-6, 3-16, 3-17
NAT mode 1-10
NAT/DHCP mode 3-17
NAT/DHCP renewal time 3-17
NAT/web server 3-17
NEC 3-11
network address translation
(NAT)
internet access using Quick
Start-2
61202070L3-20
network connection
ISDN 2-1
network device
GetResponse C-2
network interface 5-1
network log 3-78
network log messages B-17
network log/active 3-78
network log/clear 3-78
network log/level 3-78
network log/view 3-78
network log/wrap 3-78
network manager C-1
GetRequest C-2
none 3-16
Novell 1-9
IPX protocol Quick Start-6
P
packets
filtering 3-33
PAP 3-33, 3-40
parity 3-63
password 3-60, 3-62
pattern filter defines 3-34
physical specifications 5-3
ping 3-79
poison reverse 3-16, 3-44
POTS 1-6, 3-12
POTS interface (dual) 5-1
POTS/POTS assignment 3-12
POTS/speech calltype routing
3-12
power requirements 5-3
PPP 1-13, 3-32, 3-48
PPP log 3-76
PPP log messages B-1
PPP log/active 3-76
PPP log/clear 3-76
PPP log/level 3-76
PPP log/view 3-76
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-5
Index
RIP/V2 secret 3-16
RJ-11 interface D-2
RJ-45 interface D-1
route/force IP 3-43
route/hops 3-43
route/IP/net 3-42
route/netmask 3-43
route/private 3-43
route/static route 3-43
routing
concurrent routing and
bridging 1-9
demand 1-6
IP 1-8
IPX 1-9
multiprotocol Quick Start-3
Q
over PPP bridging 1-10
quick startup guide Quick Start-1
Rx
only
3-16
R
PPP log/wrap 3-76
PPP peer 3-17
PPP/compression 3-49
PPP/max config 3-50
PPP/max failure 3-50
PPP/max timer 3-50
PPP/multilink 3-48
PPP/VJ compression 3-50
private 1-8
probe 3-47
probe/ update window 3-48
probe/active 3-48
probe/interval 3-48
proxy ARP 3-19
PWR 1-11
radius 3-30, 3-60
radius server 3-31
radius server/primary server 331
radius server/retry count 3-32
radius server/secondary server
3-31
radius server/secret 3-32
radius server/UDP port 3-31
rear panel 1-12
remote/home office
accessing corporate LAN
Quick Start-3
retain 1-8
RIP 1-6, 1-9, 3-15, 3-44
RIP timer 3-22
RIP/direction 3-16, 3-44
RIP/method 3-16, 3-44
RIP/mode 3-15, 3-44
RIP/protocol 3-16, 3-44
RIP/retain 3-45
RIP/triggered 3-45
61202070L3-20
S
safety instructions viii
samples/sample rate 3-54
samples/samples 3-54
samples/time between changes
3-55
SAP 1-6, 1-9
SAP timer 3-23
security 1-14
security levels 3-7
security menu 3-30
security/authentication 3-30
security/filter defines 3-33
security/PPP 3-32
security/radius server 3-31
security/when 3-31
seed status 3-22
self test
if self test fails 4-1
SetRequest C-2
shipping damage 2-1
SNMP 3-61, C-1
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-6
Index
SNMP access 3-61
SNMP/communities 3-61
SNMP/traps 3-62
SOHO (small office - home office)
1-5
spanning tree 3-26, 3-68
spanning tree algorithm 1-5, 3-26
spanning tree/forward delay 327
spanning tree/hello time 3-27
spanning tree/LAN port 3-27
spanning tree/maximum age 326
spanning tree/mode 3-26
spanning tree/priority 3-26
spanning tree/WAN port 0 3-28
spanning tree/WAN port 1 3-28
specifications 5-1
environmental 5-3
physical 5-3
speech 3-51
speech calltype routing 3-12
split horizon 3-16, 3-44
static route 1-8
static routes/active 3-14
static routes/gateway 3-14
static routes/hops 3-15
static routes/IP address 3-14
static routes/private 3-15
static routes/subnet mask 3-14
status menu 3-3, 3-66
status/ARP cache 3-68
status/bridge table 3-69
status/call sessions 3-66
status/IP routes 3-69
status/IP stats 3-73
status/IPX routes 3-70
status/IPX servers 3-71
status/LAN stats 3-72
status/WAN stats 3-72
61202070L3-20
stop bits 3-63
subnet mask 3-13
supplementary services 2-2
switch compatibility 5-1
switch position D-2
switch protocol 3-11
system contact 3-9
system info menu 3-8
system location 3-9
system mame 3-8
system uptime 3-9
T
telephone connection 2-2
Telnet 1-14, 3-59
client 3-80
Telnet/server access 3-59
Telnet/user list 3-60
terminal menu
navigating 3-4
structure 3-1
top level 3-2
terminal mode 3-63
terminal mode commands E-1
test indicators 1-11
test menu 3-3, 3-74
test menu/dial self 3-74
test menu/echo request 3-74
TFTP 3-80
TFTP host 3-80
transfer methods 3-80
Trap C-2
traps C-3
traps/manager IP 3-62
traps/manager name 3-62
troubleshooting 4-1
calls 4-7
if self test fails 4-1
if the Express L128T S/T does
not read ready 4-1
if unable to connect calls 4-7
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-7
Index
Tx and Rx 3-16
Tx methods 3-40
Tx only 3-16
type 20 packets 3-46
utilities/Telnet client 3-80
utilities/upgrade menu 3-80
U
W
V
VJ compression 3-50
UDP port type 3-19
UDP relay 3-18
UDP relay list 3-19
UDP relay list/relay address 3-19
UDP relay list/UDP port type
3-19
UDP relay list/UDP ports 1, 2, 3
3-19
UDP relay/mode 3-18
UDP relay/UDP relay list 3-19
upgrade menu 3-80
upgrade/abort transfer 3-81
upgrade/filename 3-80
upgrade/start transfer 3-81
upgrade/status 3-81
upgrade/TFTP host 3-80
upgrade/TFTP server 3-81
upgrade/transfer method 3-80
user list 3-60
user list/authen method 3-60
user list/idle time 3-60
user list/level 3-60
user list/name 3-60
user list/password 3-60
using keyboard to navigate menu
3-5
utilities menu 3-3, 3-79
utilities/exit 3-81
utilities/ping 3-79
61202070L3-20
WAN indicators 1-11
WAN IP bridge 3-24
WAN IP bridge proxy ARP 3-25
WAN IP bridge/netmask 3-24
WAN IP bridge/network 3-24
WAN IP bridge/triggered 3-24
WAN IPX bridge 3-25
WAN IPX bridge/frame type
3-25
WAN IPX bridge/network 3-25
WAN IPX bridge/seed status 325
WAN IPX bridge/triggered 3-26
WAN menu 3-10
WAN port 3-28
WAN port 0/active 3-28
WAN port 0/path cost 3-28
WAN port 0/priority 3-28
WAN port 1/active 3-29
WAN port 1/path cost 3-29
WAN port 1/priority 3-29
WAN stats 3-72
WAN/ISDN 3-10
WAN/POTS 3-12
wiring 2-3, 2-4, 2-5
X
xmodem 3-80
Y
Y2K v
Express L128T S/T User Manual
Index-8
Product Support Information
Presales Inquiries and Applications Support
Please contact your local distributor, ADTRAN Applications
Engineering, or ADTRAN Sales:
Applications Engineering
(800) 615-1176
Sales
(800) 827-0807
Post-Sale Support
Please contact your local distributor first. If your local distributor cannot help, please contact ADTRAN Technical Support
and have the unit serial number available.
Technical Support
(888) 4ADTRAN
Repair and Return
If ADTRAN Technical Support determines that a repair is
needed, Technical Support will coordinate with the Customer
and Product Service (CAPS) department to issue an RMA
number. For information regarding equipment currently in
house or possible fees associated with repair, contact CAPS
directly at the following number:
CAPS Department
(256) 963-8722
Identify the RMA number clearly on the package (below address), and return to the following address:
ADTRAN Customer and Product Service
6767 Old Madison Pike
Progress Center
Building #6 Suite 690
Huntsville, Alabama 35807
RMA # _____________
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