fulltext - DiVA Portal

fulltext - DiVA Portal
3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON
SETTLING BASIN LAYOUT
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower
Project, Nepal
Bishwo Vijaya Shrestha
Hydropower Development
Submission date: June 2012
Supervisor:
Nils Rüther, IVM
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
FOREWORD
This report titled “3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout” is a
master thesis for the Master of Science in Hydropower Development and
submitted to the Department of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
The main aim of this thesis work is to do three dimensional numerical
investigations on settling basin layout for finding optimum layout and geometry
with respect to hydraulic, sediment distribution and trap performance by using
the SSIIM model. In this thesis work, a case study on settling basin of Mai Khola
Hydropower Project of Nepal has carried out.
The required data for this thesis work was collected from Sanima Hydropower
(P) Limited (developer of project) and Hydro Lab (P) Limited. The study is
carried out from January 2012 to June 2012 and this report is an outcome of the
study during my thesis work.
I certify that the work and result presented in this report is my own and that all
source of information, any significant outside inputs and contributions have been
fully acknowledged.
Bishwo Vijaya Shrestha
Trondheim. Norway
June 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
i
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to give my gratitude respect and utmost appreciation to all the people
who have helped and give me guidance during the studies of this master thesis.
I acknowledge the contribution of my supervisor Associate Professor Dr. Nils
Ruther for his invaluable assistance, guidance, suggestions, encouragement and
continuous support to complete this thesis work. I am very grateful to him for his
time and patience.
I would like to extent my gratitude to Mr. Hari Shankar Shrestha for his valuable
suggestions and sharing knowledge during this work.
I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Developer of SSIIM program
and Professor Dr. Nils Reidar B. Olsen for his guidance for this work.
Also, I would like to express thanks to Mrs. Hilbjørg Sandvik, the Course Cocoordinator of HPD, for her good sense of duty and warm-hearted support in
arranging necessary support in all respect.
Bishwo Vijaya Shrestha
Trondheim. Norway
June 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
ii
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study is about 3D Numerical Investigation of Settling basin layout by using
numerical modeling program SSIIM. This study is carried out by using SSIIM
windows version 1 (SSIIM 1.0). SSIIM is numerical modeling software, developed
at NTNU by Professor Nils Reidar B. Olsen. This program has been used for
investigation numerical modeling of hydraulic and sediment transport for different
layouts geometry of settling basin.
In this study a case study has carried out on settling basin layout of Mai Khola
Hydropower Project, Nepal. Hydraulics performance of proposed layout and one
alternative layout with shorter approach is numerically investigated by water and
sediment flow computation. For the Numerical investigation structured grid for
settling basin layout has developed with the help of drawing provided and excel
spread sheet program. Hydraulics performance is investigated for design discharge
with constant flow. The hydraulic performance of closing of one chamber and
operation of remaining chamber with design discharge of power plant is also
investigated. Based on water flow computation result, sediment computation was
carried out for one settling chamber, proposed, alternative and modifications of
proposed layouts. Effect of approach geometry on distribution of sediment on four
chambers of settling basin and sediment trap performance were studied by
sediment flow simulation. Effects of closing of chamber on distribution of
sediment concentration were also investigated with the help of sediment
simulation. Trapping efficiency is evaluated for one settling chamber, proposed
alternative and modification layouts and closing mode models. Trap efficiency of
one settling chamber model is compared with trap efficiency by analytical method.
Based on hydraulic performance, sediment distribution performance and trap
efficiency performance; recommendation of modification on approach geometry
has made. Also, studied result shows that SSIIM 1.0 version can be used for
investigating performance of hydraulic structures and settling basin.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
iii
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
CONTENTS
1. Introduction ............................................................................ 1-1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. settling basin............................................................................ 2-1 2.1 3. Introduction ................................................................................... 3-1 Model Overview............................................................................. 3-1 Theoretical basis ............................................................................ 3-1 3.3.1 The k-ɛ turbulence model .................................................... 3-2 3.3.2 Wall laws ............................................................................. 3-3 3.3.3 Sediment flow Calculation .................................................. 3-3 3.3.4 Different version of SSIIM ................................................. 3-4 3.3.5 Inputs and outputs files ....................................................... 3-5 Case studies On Mai Khola HPP .......................................... 4-1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. Settling Basin Design ..................................................................... 2-1 2.1.1 Design Principle .................................................................. 2-1 2.1.1.1 Particle fall velocity ...................................................... 2-1 2.1.1.2 Drag, lift and gravity ..................................................... 2-2 2.1.1.3 Shear stress and turbulence ........................................... 2-3 2.1.1.4 Start of motion .............................................................. 2-3 2.1.1.5 Erosion and deposition.................................................. 2-4 2.1.1.6 Concentration of particle on suspension ....................... 2-4 2.1.1.7 Calculation of sediment transport ................................. 2-4 2.1.1.8 Velocity in the settling chamber ................................... 2-5 2.1.1.9 Dimension of the settling chamber ............................... 2-6 2.1.1.10 Trapping efficiency .................................................... 2-6 2.1.2 Sediment Removal Techniques. .......................................... 2-8 2.1.2.1 Removal while the Basin is out of Operation ............... 2-8 2.1.2.2 Removal while the Basin is Operational....................... 2-8 2.1.2.3 Serpent sediment sluicing system ................................. 2-8 SSIIM model ........................................................................... 3-1 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. Background .................................................................................... 1-2 Objectives ....................................................................................... 1-3 Limitation of Study ....................................................................... 1-3 Introduction ................................................................................... 4-1 Salient feature of Mai Khola Hydropower Project .................... 4-2 Sediment Data ................................................................................ 4-3 4.3.1 Bed material ........................................................................ 4-3 4.3.2 Suspended Sediment ........................................................... 4-3 Headworks Arrangement ............................................................. 4-4 4.4.1 Settling basin layout ............................................................ 4-4 water flow simulation ............................................................. 5-1 5.1 Grid generation ............................................................................. 5-1 5.1.1 Detail of geometry ............................................................... 5-1 A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
iv
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
5.2 6. sediment flow simulation ....................................................... 6-1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7. General ........................................................................................... 6-1 Inputs files ...................................................................................... 6-2 Sediment flow simulation Result .................................................. 6-3 6.3.1 Sediment distribution on one settling basin ........................ 6-3 6.3.2 Sediment distribution on proposed layout settling basin .... 6-4 6.3.3 Sediment distribution on alternative layout settling basin .. 6-4 6.3.4 Sediment distribution on modification layouts ................... 6-5 6.3.5 Sediment distribution on closing of chambers .................... 6-7 Trap efficiency ............................................................................... 6-9 6.4.1 Trap efficiency evaluation by Analytical Method............... 6-9 6.4.2 Trap efficiency evaluation by SSIIM model ..................... 6-10 6.4.3 Sensitivity of control file parameters ................................ 6-12 6.4.3.1 Effect of Sediment pick-up rate, F 37 2 ...................... 6-12 6.4.3.2 Effect of change of F 16 data set ................................ 6-13 6.4.3.3 Effect of shield’s coefficient F 11 data set ................. 6-13 6.4.3.4 Effect of thickness of the upper active sediment layer 6-13 Flushing Interval ......................................................................... 6-14 CONCLUSION AND recommendation ............................... 7-1 7.1 7.2 8. 5.1.2 Inlet and Outlet .................................................................... 5-2 Water flow Simulation Results..................................................... 5-3 5.2.1 Result of water flow computation on one settling chamber 5-5 5.2.2 Result of water flow computation on Proposed Layout ...... 5-6 5.2.3 Result of water flow computation on Alternative Layout ... 5-7 5.2.4 Result of water flow computation on Modifications ........... 5-8 5.2.5 Discussion and comparison of velocity at X, Y and Z
direction ............................................................................. 5-12 5.2.6 Discussion and comparison on Horizontal velocity .......... 5-12 5.2.7 Discussion and Comparison on turbulence kinetic energy 5-13 5.2.8 Closing of chambers .......................................................... 5-13 Conclusion ...................................................................................... 7-1 7.1.1 SSIIM Scope ....................................................................... 7-1 7.1.2 Case Study on settling basin Layouts .................................. 7-1 Recommendation ........................................................................... 7-2 References ............................................................................... 8-1 A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page v
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
ANNEXURE
Annexure-A
Drawing
Annexure-B
Grid Generation
Annexure-C
Result
APPENDIX
Appendix-A
Inputs files for SSIIM Model
Appendix-B
Trap Efficiency Calculation by SSIIM Model
Appendix-C
Trap Efficiency Calculation by Analytical Method
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page vi
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
LIST OF TABLE
Table 4.1 Salient feature of Mai Khola Hydropower project .............................. 4-2 Table 4.2 Feature of Settling basin...................................................................... 4-5 Table 6.1 Sediment size, fall velocity and PSD .................................................. 6-2 Table 6.2 Trap percentage by SSIIM Model ..................................................... 6-11 Table 6.3 Trap percentage by SSIIM Model ..................................................... 6-12 Table 6.4 Trap efficiency variation due to F 37 data set ................................... 6-12 Table 6.5 Trap percentage with variation of F 16 data set ................................ 6-13 Table 6.6Trap percentage with changing F 11 data set ..................................... 6-13 Table 6.7 Trap percentage with changing F 106 data set .................................. 6-13 A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
vii
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 2.1 Fall velocity of quartz spheres in water and air after Rouse .............. 2-2 Figure 2.2 Shield’s diagram for start of motion .................................................. 2-4 Figure 2.3 Camps diagram for trap efficiency .................................................... 2-7 Figure 2.4 Serpent Sediment Sluicing System (S4) ............................................ 2-9 Figure 3.1 Input parameters for SSIIM Model Starting ...................................... 3-5 Figure 3.2 Windows version of SSIIM ............................................................... 3-5 Figure 3.3 Input and output files ......................................................................... 3-5 Figure 3.4 Sample of Boogie file ........................................................................ 3-6 Figure 3.5 Sample of control file ........................................................................ 3-6 Figure 3.6 Sample of Koordina file ..................................................................... 3-7 Figure 3.7 Sample of Koosurf file ....................................................................... 3-7 Figure 3.8 Sample of timei file............................................................................ 3-8 Figure 4.1 Location of Mai Khola hydropower Project ...................................... 4-1 Figure 4.2 Sediment Concentration and discharge in Mai Khola ....................... 4-4 Figure 4.3 Plan view of proposed and alternative layout .................................... 4-6 Figure 5.1 3D Grid view ..................................................................................... 5-2 Figure 5.2 Outlet of settling chambers with horizontal velocity vectors ............ 5-3 Figure 5.3 Residual Values for water flow simulation........................................ 5-3 Figure 5.4 3D view of velocity vector................................................................. 5-4 Figure 5.5 3D View of Velocity Vector of settling basin layput ........................ 5-4 Figure 5.6 Horizontal velocity Distribution on settling chamber model............. 5-5 Figure 5.7 Geometry of Approach on Proposed Layout ..................................... 5-6 Figure 5.8 Distribution of horizontal velocity on proposed layout ..................... 5-6 Figure 5.9 Geometry of Approach on Alternative Layout .................................. 5-7 Figure 5.10 Distribution of horizontal velocity on alternative layout ................. 5-7 Figure 5.11 Modification 1.................................................................................. 5-8 Figure 5.12 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 1. .................... 5-9 Figure 5.13 Modification 2.................................................................................. 5-9 Figure 5.14 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 2. .................. 5-10 Figure 5.15Modification 3................................................................................. 5-10 Figure 5.16 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 3 ................... 5-11 Figure 5.17 Modification 4................................................................................ 5-11 Figure 5.18 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 4 ................... 5-12 Figure 5.19 Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of first chamber ......... 5-13 Figure 5.20 Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of second chamber ... 5-14 Figure 5.21Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of third chamber ......... 5-14 Figure 5.22 Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of fourth chamber...... 5-15 Figure 6.1 High low and high sediment inflow ................................................... 6-2 Figure 6.2 Sediment Volumetric concentration input SSIIM Model .................. 6-3 Figure 6.3 Sediment concentration distribution on one settling chamber ........... 6-4 Figure 6.4 Sediment concentration distribution on proposed layout .................. 6-4 A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
viii
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 6.5Sediment concentration distribution on alternative layout ................. 6-5 Figure 6.6 Sediment concentration distribution on modification 1 ..................... 6-5 Figure 6.7Sediment concentration distribution on modification 2 ...................... 6-6 Figure 6.8Sediment concentration distribution on modification 3 ...................... 6-6 Figure 6.9 Sediment concentration distribution on modification 4 ..................... 6-7 Figure 6.10Sediment concentration distribution on closing of first chamber ..... 6-7 Figure 6.11Sediment concentration distribution on closing of second chamber 6-8 Figure 6.12Sediment concentration distribution on closing of third chamber .... 6-8 Figure 6.13 Sediment concentration distribution on closing of fourth chamber . 6-9 Figure 6.14 Trapping Efficiency by Analytical Method ..................................... 6-9 Figure 6.15 Trap percentage with time of computation .................................... 6-10 Figure 6.16 Comparison of trapping efficiency by SSIIM and Vetter Method 6-11 Figure 6.17 Flushing of sediment with respect to measured sediment data ...... 6-15 A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page ix
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
c
CFD
ε
Г
HPP i
j
k
km
km 2
kg/s
m
m/s
M
m3/s
masl
MW
NTNU
PPM
PSD
Sediment size 0
Sediment Size 1
Sediment Size 2
Sediment Size 3
Sediment Size 4
Sediment Size 5
s
SSIIM
u
Sediment concentration
Computational fluid dynamics
Epsilon
Turbulent diffusion coefficient
Hydropower Project
i direction
j direction
Turbulence kinetic energy
kilometer
kilometer square
Kilogram/second
meter
meter per second
Striker’s roughness value
Cubic meter per second
meter above sea level
Mega watt
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Parts per million
Particle Size Distribution
All size of sediment Size 1 to Size 5
Sediment size of 0.3mm
Sediment Size of 0.2 mm
Sediment Size of 0.15 mm
Sediment Size of 0.1 mm
Sediment Size of 0.06 mm
second
Sediment Simulation in Intake with Multiblock option
Velocity on X direction
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
x
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
1.
INTRODUCTION
All of the Himalayan Rivers have problem of sedimentation. Sediments are
fragments of rock and minerals, loosened from the surface of the earth due to
weathering processes and the impact of rain and snow, blowing winds, flowing
water and moving glaciers. When fragmented material is carried by water motion,
wind and other means, sediment transport occur.
Himalayan rivers have huge potential of power generation because of Himalayan
rivers are originated from the snowcapped mountains, glaciers, regular monsoon
rain and with high river gradient which provided substantial head for power
generation. In spite of enormous power production potential of Himalayan
Rivers, the rivers provide some of the greatest challenges in power project and
other water resource development. An important challenge of developing power
project in Himalayan Rivers is the difficulty of operation and maintenance of the
plant due to large quantity of sediment inflow with hard and abrasive minerals.
Most of power plants in the Himalayan Rivers are affected by excessive sediment
which decrease capacity of reservoir and cause erosion of turbine components.
Also sediment decreases the efficiency of turbine which reduces the power
production. Erosion of turbine components mostly depends upon mineral content,
shape and size of sediment particle flow through turbine. Power plants in
Himalayan Rivers are typically high head so turbines are more affected by
sediment.
Due to higher inflow and adverse effect on power production, sediment should be
trapped before flow for feeding power plant. Most of power plants in river with
sediment problem, there must be sediment trapping system. Generally, in the
Himalayan river headworks, settling basin is built for trapping suspended
sediment particle. Settling basin is one of major component in such river with
respect to cost and energy generation. The performance of settling basin is
depended upon its ability to trap suspended sediments and its ability to remove
the trapped deposits from the basin. Performance of settling basin can be studied
by Physical modeling and Numerical modeling before implementation.
It will be never be possible to trap all suspended sediment in trapping system.
However, most of sand fractions of suspended sediment should be removed
before flow to power generation to maintain the hydraulic transport capability of
the waterways, reduce the sediment load on turbine and minimize wear and
efficiency loss and obtain the require power generation regularity.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 1-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
1.1
Background
Due to high sedimentation problems in Himalayan Rivers especially in Nepalese
rivers, sustainability of project is in questioned. In Nepalese hydropower projects,
sediment can have a detrimental effect on the life of the various components. Due
to high concentration and hard mineral sediment, wear and tear of turbine
components is very high which reduce turbine efficiency and increases
operational and maintenance cost. Energy production is cut during maintenance
period. This will affect overall economic of project. On other hand, most of
project in Himalayan River have high head. High head plants which are subjected
to more vulnerable with sediment. To ensure good performance of plant,
sediment should be trapped as much as possible before feeding to power plant.
To minimize sediment flow to power plant, there are different intake
arrangements have been practiced. However, all suspended sediment could not be
bypass by such efficient headworks arrangement. Efficient settling basin should
be provided for trapping fine sediment.
The trap efficiency of settling basin is mainly governed by the geometry of basin,
i.e. size, shape. Larger basin will have more capacity to trap sediment while
shape is important with respect to flow distribution. Due to economic and space
restriction of site large settling basin may not possible to build. A good shape will
produce an even flow distribution in the basin and maintain optimum trapping
efficiency. So the hydraulic design of settling basin arrangement should secure an
even flow distribution for various discharges, efficient of deposits during flushing
of basin.
It is very important to know performance of headworks and settling basin during
planning phase. Performance of headworks and settling basin can be checked by
Physical modelling and Numerical modelling test. Computational fluid dynamic
(CFD) model is developed for numerical modelling practice. In practice, Physical
modelling has been used to find the performance of prototype. However, Physical
model test is more expensive and time consuming. Due to advancing in computer
technology, there is several numerical modelling software. The software has been
used for numerical modelling test. Due to complex nature of flow dynamics of
water, it is very difficult to developed numerical model. However, numerical
model test is less time consuming and also cheaper than physical modelling test.
Numerical model can be idle solution for small project where funding is less and
physical modelling test may not feasible due to cost and shortage of time. On
other hand physical model test has its own limitation. It is very difficult to do
physical modelling test for suspended and small size particles. It is very hard to
find natural material to model such suspended and small size particle. Settling
basin is generally subjected to suspended particle. In such case numerical model
gives more reliable results. On other hand it will be more costly and time
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 1-2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
consuming to investigate by physical modelling for different shapes and
geometry of structures. Numerical Modelling will be best solution of such studies
in planning of large projects.
1.2
Objectives
Among the civil work at Hydropower project, headworks arrangement, settling
basin is one major component with respect to cost and performance. It is very
important to optimize size of settling basin for a hydropower project. Especially
for small hydropower project the cost variation for settling basin might be
substantial.
The objective of this thesis work is to use numerical model for investigating
hydraulics of settling basin. Here SSIIM1 is used for investigation performance of
settling basin layout of Mai Khola hydropower project of Nepal. Effect on
hydraulics and sediment distribution on settling chambers with different
modification on approach culvert will be investigated.
Here simulation will be done for prototype and performance of settling basin will
be investigated with different respects such as Hydraulic performance, flow
distribution, turbulence, sediment distribution and trapping efficiency will be
checked. After investigation, reliability of SSIIM will be accessed.
1.3
Limitation of Study
The physical model studies only included headworks. So lack of physical
modelling study of settling basin, it is not possible to verify the result of this
numerical investigation. Also this study does not include flushing performance of
settling basin. Study of gravel trap also not included in this investigation.
Due to lack of particle size distribution of suspended sediment of river, PSD of
suspended sediment is adopted as Khimti River.
1
SSIIM: SSIIM is an abbreviation for Sediment Simulation In Intakes with Multiblock
option. The program is designed to be used in teaching and research for hydraulic /
river/ sedimentation engineering. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations using the control
volume method with the SIMPLE algorithm and the k-epsilon turbulence model. It also
solves the convection-diffusion equation for sediment transport, using van Rijn's formula for the
bed boundary. Also, a water quality module is included. The program is developed by Professor
Dr. Nils Reidar Olsen. [Olsen, SSIIM User’s Manual]
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 1-3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
2.
SETTLING BASIN
Water resources are nature’s gift to human in Himalayan region. However, it is
very challenging to use water resources in Himalayan Rivers due to extreme
sediment loads. Reliable and efficient systems for sediment control and removal
of sediment from withdrawn water will be needed for successful use of water
resource in Himalayan Rivers. So sediment settling basin is one of the most
important component for efficient use of water resource in Sediment River
especially in hydropower projects.
2.1
Settling Basin Design
2.1.1
Design Principle
It is very important to trap sediment before feeding power plant. However, it is
not possible to trap all sediments. The objective of a settling basin is to reduce the
turbulence level in the water flow to allow suspended sediment particles to settle
out from the water body and deposit on the bottom of the basin. Most of the
particles bigger than 0.15 to 0.3 m must be excluded to minimize costs related to
turbine wear and generation losses during maintenance of turbines. It is therefore
required to control the sediment content in the water released for power
generation .The deposits are then removed from the basin by use of the flushing
system or through excavation is the amount of sediments is small. In recent year
there are different sediment removal techniques has been developed. [Sediment
control, D.K]
Settling basin design is guided by the fall velocity of the sediment particle which
shall be excluded. The fall velocity is dependent on density, size, shape and
concentration of particles and some extent of water temperature. Turbine wear
generally cause by hard mineral sediment like quartz and feldspar. The water
with high concentration of quartz and feldspar has high rate of erosion rate of
steel. Sediment also reduce turbine efficiency and may cause blockage of water
way. Settling basin design should have following objectives:
 Uniform flow distribution in both plane, vertical plane and horizontal
plane.
 No dead pocket in basin at entrance or exit, and eddies should avoid
 An even flow distribution if there are more than one basins.
 Efficient removal during flushing of settling basin.
2.1.1.1 Particle fall velocity
The fall velocity is an important parameter for the understanding of sediment
motion. The turbulence motion of the flow tends to detach and lift the particles
but the falling motion is counteracting this effect as soon as the particles are free
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
of the bed. The fall velocity of different size particles are shown in Figure 2.1.
[Hydraulic Design, Dagfinn etl.]
Figure 2.1 Fall velocity of quartz spheres in water and air after Rouse
2.1.1.2 Drag, lift and gravity
The water exerts force on sediment particle is referred as drag and lift. The drag
force acts in the main direction of flow while lift acts transversally to the flow
direction. The drag and life forces are given by following expressions.
u2
FD  C D . A. .
2
1
u2
FL  C L . A. .
2
2
F stands for force and C for correction coefficient, which D and L stand for drag
and lift.
The third element in the stability analysis is the gravity force, which in suspended
transport is balanced by the forces of the turbulent current, and in bed load
motion also causes resistance due to friction against the stationary bed.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
2.1.1.3 Shear stress and turbulence
Sediment transport theory is generally studied with shear stress and turbulence as
determining factors for the bed because it is impossible to deal with each
individual particle.
The shear stress is the average force per area exerted by the water on the bed
while turbulence is defined as irregular flow motion resulting from eddies that are
carried by the flow and swirling in an irregular manner. Shear stress depends on
rate of change of velocity from bed to free surface above the bed level. Shear
stress is result of turbulence, transferring momentum towards the bed.
Practically, direct measurement of turbulence is impossible. However if the
average velocity in two points near the bed is known, it is possible to assess the
effect of turbulence and calculate the bed shear stress by using following
expressions.
u*  0.17
u1  u 2
log z1  z 2 
 0  u* 2 . w
3
4
Where, u* is fictitious parameter, shear velocity, and u1 and u2 are the two
measured velocities, z1 and z2 are corresponding distance from the bed, τ0 is bed
shear stress, and ρw is the density of water.
In uniform flow, i.e. when bed and surface are parallel, the bed shear stress is
found directly by combining slope, S fluid density and hydraulic radius, R.
[Hydraulic Design, Dagfinn etl.]
 0  g. w .R.S
5
2.1.1.4 Start of motion
Shields combined expressions for the destabilizing forces, drag and lift, against
weight or friction as the stabilizing force into a general formula for the
equilibrium of particles:
Cs 
0
 s   w .g.d
6
The famous Shield’s diagram is shown in Figure 2.2. Values of Cs below the
curve indicate stability against motion and values on curve indicates start of
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
motion also labeled as critical Shield value, Cc corresponding shear stress is
critical shear stress while value above the cure indicates particles are in motion.
Values of Cs below the curve indicate stability against motion and values on
curve indicates start of motion also labeled as critical Shield value, Cc
corresponding shear stress is critical shear stress while value above the cure
indicates particles are in motion
Figure 2.2 Shield’s diagram for start of motion
2.1.1.5
Erosion and deposition
When the flow current able to carry material away from area than it is called
erosion and if the flow current is not able to carry the sediment transport then
deposition will occur.
2.1.1.6 Concentration of particle on suspension
Concentration of particle on suspension generally depends upon fall velocity of
the suspension particles. Particles in suspension tend to settle down due to gravity
force but due to upward component of turbulence particles remains tend to in
suspension. The concentration gradient is affected mainly by the fall velocity of
the particle and by the turbulence intensity. In a stable flow the concentration of
particle decrease upward.
2.1.1.7 Calculation of sediment transport
Bed load transport
There are many formulae have developed for calculation of bed load transport.
Generally following formulae are used for calculation bed load transport.
g s  10.q.S .
0 c
 s   w  /  w 2 .d 50
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
7
Page 2-4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
The Meyer-Peter and Müller formula was developed to fit data from step flumes,
and is therefore useful in many hydropower cases with Step Rivers.


 g . .S .R. k / k '  0.047.g    .d 
50 
w
s
w
g s  
1

2/3

3     /  
0
.
25
.

s
s
w
s


8
g s is the bed load by weight per unit of time and width.
q is the unit discharge of water, i.e. flow per m width
S is the slope of the energy line.
k/k’ is a bed-form correction of the bed-friction
k/k’=1 for flat bed and k/k’=0.5 for a rough bed due to bed-form etc.
ρs and ρw is the density of particles and water respectively
τ0 and τc is bed shear stress and critical shear stress respectively .
Calculation of suspended load
If sufficient sampling data are available, it is possible to apply following formula
to compute the suspended load Qs passing the area A at the time of sampling.
A
Qs   c( y, z ).u ( y, z ).dz.dy
9
Where c is the concentration of suspended sediments and u is the velocity in
same point.
2.1.1.8 Velocity in the settling chamber
According to T.R. Camp, the critical velocity can be determined by following
relation.
V a d
10
Where,
V = flow through velocity in m/s
d = diameter of particle up to which sediment load is desired to be removed
a = constant which is 0.36 for d> 1 mm, 0.44 for 1mm>d>0.1 mm and 0.51 for
0.1 mm>d
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-5
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
2.1.1.9 Dimension of the settling chamber
Generally, preliminary dimension of settling chamber is calculated by the particle
approach. It is based on simple relation. If there is no turbulence inside the basin,
the ratio between the particle fall velocity, w and the horizontal transit velocity in
the basin is vt must be the same ratio between the fall distance.
If depth of basin is D, width B, flow through velocity ‘vt’ the discharge passing
through the settling chamber is
Q  B.D.vt
11
If w is settling velocity, settling time‘t’ is
t
D
w
12
Then length of basin is calculated as:
L  vt .t
13
From equation 12 and 13
L.w  D.vt
14
From equation 11 and 14 we can find length of basin by selecting values of D, Q,
vt and w.
2.1.1.10 Trapping efficiency
The trapping efficiency of a settling basin is mainly governed by the geometry.
Generally size and shape are main dominating parameters. Larger settling basin
will facilitate exclusion of more suspended sediment while the shape of basin is
very important to produce an even flow distribution in the basin. Even flow
distribution is very important to maintain optimum trapping efficiency and reduce
turbulence.
It is very important to have good design of inlet and out let geometry to obtain
evenly distributed flow over the depth and width of settling basin. It is very
difficult to find space to obtain optimum design of inlet so guide wall or
tranquillizer at inlet of settling basin might be introduced to obtain evenly flow
distribution.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-6
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
In preliminary studies, Camps diagram, shown in Figure2.3 may be used to find
trapping efficiency.
Figure 2.3 Camps diagram for trap efficiency
The trap efficiency η is found based on following parameters.
w
u*
and
w. As
Q
15
Where, u* is the shear velocity, w is settling velocity, As is surface area and Q
discharge and shear velocity can be found using Mannings’ formula for the
energy gradient Se. R is the hydraulic radius.
u*  g .R.S e
and

 Q
Se  
2

 M . A.R 3




2
16
For simplified calculation of trapping efficiency Vetter method, simplified
version of Hazen method also is used.
  1 e
 w. As 


 Q 
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
17
Page 2-7
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
By applying computational fluid dynamics, it is possible to include the effect of
the inflow and out flow condition in the computation of the trapping efficiency.
Here, SSIIM model is used to discuss about performance of settling basin of Mai
khola Hydropower project of Nepal.
2.1.2
Sediment Removal Techniques.
Deposited sediment can be removed from the basin while the basin is in operation
or while the basin is out of operation. When basin is out of operation; mechanical
means or different kinds of flushing systems may be used to remove settle
sediment deposits.
2.1.2.1 Removal while the Basin is out of Operation
The basin is taken out of operation and de-watering of basin is taken. Deposited
sediment can be removed by mechanical means or lowering water level inside the
basin generating a swift flowing free surface gravity flow throughout the basin.
This type of basin also called as “Conventional flushing system”. The main
disadvantage of this type of flushing system is generation loss or construction of
additional settling basin to avoid generation loss. However, flushing is straight
forward and easy to monitor flushing process.
2.1.2.2 Removal while the Basin is Operational
Deposited sediment in settling basin is continuously flushed while basin also in
operation. This can be done in two way i.e continuous flushing and intermittent
flushing. However, water level and water flow must be maintained in the basin
throughout the flushing period to order to maintain power generation.
Continuous flushing
Flushing flow to settling basin is abstracted continuously from the bottom of
settling basin to avoid sediment deposition at the bottom of basin. About 20 to 30
% of design discharge will be required for such system. Also it is necessary to
generate a current close to the particles to erode and carry the sediment particles
away with the flushing flow.
Intermittent flushing
This system is same as continuous flushing. Main advantage of this system with
respect to continuous is; there is no loss of water during the time between two
flushing.
2.1.2.3 Serpent sediment sluicing system
It is also known as S42. This has also been subjected to international patent
investigations and it is protected internationally.
The “serpent” ( a heavy-duty rubber tube) seals a longitudinal slit between the
settling basin and a flushing canal along the bottom of the basin when it is filled
2
S4 system patent rights are held by SINTEF and the investor Dr. Haakon Støle.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-8
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
with water. There is a flushing gate downstream end of the flushing canal and an
operation valve facilitating filling the serpent with water or dewatering the
serpent so it becomes buoyant. The S4 system works in two modes. i.e closing
mode and opening mode. in opening mode the serpent is gradually lifted from the
slit along the bottom of basin to the surface while in closing mode the serpent
gradually close the slit over the flushing canal in the bottom of the basin as it is
filled with water and subjected to the suction from the flushing canal. The
flushing water consumption is 10 % during flushing only. Figure 2.4 shows the
S4 system. [Hydraulic design. Dagfinn ele]
Figure 2.4 Serpent Sediment Sluicing System (S4)
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 2-9
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
3.
SSIIM MODEL
3.1
Introduction
SSIIM is an abbreviation for Sediment Simulation In Intakes with multiblock
option. First SSII program was developed in 1990-1991 by Dr. ing. Nils Reidar
B. Olsen during his dr. ing degree at the division of Hydraulic Engineering,
Norwegian Institute of Technology.
The main strength of SSIIM compared to other CFD program is the capability of
modeling sediment transport with moveable bed in a complex geometry. This
includes multiple sediment sizes, sorting, bed load and suspended load, bed forms
and effect of sloping beds. [SSIIM User manual, Olsen]
The
program
is
developed
for
hydraulics/river/sedimentation engineering.
3.2
teaching
and
research
for
Model Overview
The SSIIM program solves the Navier- Stockes3 equations with the k-ɛ model on
a three-dimensinal almost general non-orthogonal grid. A control volume method
is used for the discretization, together with the power-law scheme or the second
order upwind scheme. The SIMPLE method is used for the pressure coupling. An
implicit solver is used, producing the velocity field in the geometry. The
velocities are used when solving the convection-diffusion equations for different
sediment sizes. This gives trap efficiency and sediment deposition pattern.
[SSIIM User manual, Olsen]
3.3
Theoretical basis
The Navier-stokes equations for turbulence flow are solved to obtain the water
velocity.
The k-ɛ turbulence model is used for calculating the turbulence shear stress.
The Navier-Stokes equations for non-compressible and constant density flow can
be modeled as follow:
3
The Navier Stokes equations are set of coupled differential equations and could , in
theory, can be solved for a given flow problem by using methods from calculus. But, in
practice, these equations are too difficult to solve analytically. Presently, fast computers
are being used to solve approximations to the equations using variety of techniques like
finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods. The Navier Stokes
equations describe how the velocity, pressure, temperature and density of moving fluid
are related. The equations were derived independently by G.G.Stokes and Navier.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
U i
U i 1 
 P ij  ui u j 
Ui

t
x j
 x j
18
The left term on the left side of equation is transient term; the second term is
convective term while first term and second term on right side is pressure and
Reynold stress term respectively.
3.3.1
The k-ɛ turbulence model
The eddy viscosity concept is introduced with Boussineq approximation to model
the Reynolds stress term:
 U U i  2
  k ij
ui u j  vT  i 
 x

 j x j  3
19
The first two terms on the right side of the equation form the diffusive term in the
Navier-Stokes equation. The third tem on the right side is incorporated into the
pressure. The eddy viscosity in the k-ɛ is as:
vT  c
k
20
2
K is turbulent kinetic energy, defined as:
k
1
ui u j
2
21
k is modeled as:
k
ki

U j i 
x j x j
t
 vt U i 

 P 
 x x  k
j 
 j
22
Where Pk is given by:
 U j U i 



 x

 i x j 
23
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-2
Pk  vT
U i
x j
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
The dissipation of k is denoted ɛ, and modeled as:



U j

t
x j x j
2
 vT  

  C 1  Pk  C 2 


  x 
k
k
 k j
24
In all above equations ‘c’ are different constants. The k-ɛ model is used as default
turbulence model in SSIIM.
3.3.2
Wall laws
The wall law in SSIIM is given as default by Schilichting(1979)
U 1  30 y 

 ln
ux k  ks 
25
The roughness, ks is equivalent to a diameter of particles on the bed.
3.3.3
Sediment flow Calculation
In SSIIM model sediment transport is calculated by size fraction. Sediment
transport generally divided in to bed load and suspended load. The suspended
load can be calculated with the convection –diffusion equation for sediment
concentration Equation 26.
c
c
c

U j
w 
t
x j
z x j
 c

 x
j





26
In equation 26, ‘w’ denotes the fall velocity of the sediment, and Γ diffusion
coefficient, which is taken from the k-ɛ model.

vT
Sc
27
Where, Sc is the Scmidth number, set to 1.0 as default in model. However,
different value can be adopted in model.
In equation 26, the first term is for convection of sediments and the second term
is due to the fall velocity of sediments and can be said as extra convection term
added to the velocities in the vertical direction. On other hand side term is for
diffusion of sediments. Γ is diffusion coefficient due to the mixing by turbulence
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
in the water. It depicts amount of sediments transported through the walls of the
finite volume because of turbulence and the difference in concentration between
the two sides of the wall.
For this in SSIIM van Rijn’s formula is used.
cbed  0.015
   c 


 c 
1.5
D50
1 0.03
a 

   s   w g  3 
 D50 
 
2


w
 
 


28
Where D50 = Sediment particle diameter
τ = bed shear stress
τc = critical bed shear stress for movement of sediment particles
ρs = density of sediment
ρw = density of water
v = viscosity of water
g = acceleration due to gravity
a = reference level set equal to the roughness height
The influence of sediment concentration on the water flow is still a matter of
discussion and possess different opines.
3.3.4
Different version of SSIIM
OS/2 version and Windows version are available for users. In OS/2 version, the
main user interface consists of a dialog box and a menu bar while windows
version consist only one window with one menu. Here for studies, windows
version is used.
In the starting of simulation, SSIIM model needs length of initial channel, width
of initial channel and water depth. Figure 5.6 shows the initiation of SSIIM
model. Hydraulic performances for these layouts have been compared.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 3.1 Input parameters for SSIIM Model Starting
The content of the window can be changed by choosing different sub option in
the view menu. Picture of window version is shown on Figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2 Windows version of SSIIM
3.3.5
Inputs and outputs files
Following flow chart shows different inputs and outputs files used in SSIIM 1.
koosurf
control
koordina
result
geodata
timei
koomin
timeo
SSIIM 1.0
boogie
compres
interpol
interres
Figure 3.3 Input and output files
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-5
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
The boogie file
This is a file that shows a printout of intermediate results from the calculations. It
also shows parameters as average water velocity, shear stress and water depth.
Trap efficiency and sediment grain size distribution is also written in this file. If
errors occur, an explanation is also written to this file. [SSIIM User manual,
Olsen]
Figure 3.4 Sample of Boogie file
The control file
The control file gives most of the parameters the model needs. Control file also
contains most of the other data necessary for the program. The parameters are
given as different data sets. For example F data sets , G data sets etc. It is an
important input file of SSIIM.
Figure 3.5 Sample of control file
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-6
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
The koordina and koomin files
The koordina file describes the bed of the geometry with structured grid. The
main input data for koordina file is x, y and z coordinate of the point and the
format of the data is given as: i j x y z.
The data on the koordina file defines a surface. It is possible to make a file with
exactly the same format and called as koomin. This surface is then used as a
minimum elevation surface for bed changes. The bed will be stable on this
surface and will not be lowered under this surface.
Figure 3.6 Sample of Koordina file
The xyzc and koosurf files
The two files xyzc and koosurf files contain the geometry of grid. The koosurf
file is similar to koordina file, except that the surface elevation also written for
each line and similar to koordina file for tunnel option. The xyzc file contains the
x, y, and z values of all the grid intersections.
Figure 3.7 Sample of Koosurf file
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-7
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
The timei and timeo files
There are two files that are used for time series calculations. The timei file is
input file for time series of discharge, water level, sediment concentration and
control for output and the timeo file is an output file with time series from the
model.
Figure 3.8 Sample of timei file
The tecplot and paraview files
The tecplot files are result files used for graphics representation in the Tecplot
program. The file have the format that makes them directly importable into the
Tecplot program.
The result file
This file contains the results from the water flow calculations. The file is written
when the prescribed numbers of iterations have been calculated or when the
solution has converged. The results are velocities in three dimensions, k,ɛ,
pressure and the fluxes on all the walls of the cells. The data from this file is
used as input for the sediment flow calculations.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 3-8
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
4.
CASE STUDIES ON MAI KHOLA HPP
4.1
Introduction
Mai Hydropower project (MHP) is located in IIam District in Eastern
Development Region of Nepal. The project area is bounded by Soyak/
Chisapani/Danabari VDCs between 26ͦ 46’ 00” and 26ͦ 50’ 00” latitude north and
between 87ͦ 52’ 30” and 87ͦ 55’ 00” longitude east. The installed capacity of the
Mai Hydropower project was 15.6 MW but it was increased to 22 MW during the
model study.
Mai Khola is one of the tributary of Kankai Mai River. The river is monsoon as
well as spring fed perennial type originating at an altitude of 3600 m from
Mahabharat4 range.
The average gradient of this river is 0.0216, whereas within the project area, it is
0.01. The river bed within the proposed headworks area has alluvial deposit and
average particle size of the armoured layer is about 75 mm. Location map of Mai
khola hydropower project is show in Figure 4.1.
MaiKhola
Hydropower
Project
Figure 4.1 Location of Mai Khola hydropower Project
4
Mahabharat Range: A complex system of mountain range in elevation form 8000 feet
to 14000 feet. Hilly are of Nepal is lied in this range.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 4-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
4.2
Salient feature of Mai Khola Hydropower Project
Salient feature of Mai Khola Hydropower Project is shown on Table 4.1 .
Table 4.1 Salient feature of Mai Khola Hydropower project
Descriptions
Parameters
Location: Project Area
Danabari
&
Chisapani
Village
Development Committee, Ilam District
in Eastern Development Region , Nepal
Hydrology:
Catchment area of Mai Khola
589.0km2
Design flow
23.43 m3/s (for 22 MW)
Long term annual average flow
32.66 m3/s
Design flood at intake (1 in 100 years) 2352.0 m3/s
Headworks
General Hydraulics:
Gross Head
122.1 m
Net Head
108.93 m (for 22 MW)
Installed capacity
22 MW
Diversion weir:
Type
Concrete gravity Dam
Shape
Ogee profile
Crest elevation
321.1 masl
Crest length
82.7 m
Maximum flood level
325.6 masl.
Intake:
Type
Frontal intake, over the under sluice
No of orifice
3
Sill elevation
319.0 above masl
Design discharge
23.43 m3/s
Under sluice:
Invert level
314.5 m above masl
Width
4.0 m
Height
2.0 m
Number
3
Approach culvert to gravel trap:
Type
RCC pressure culvert
Width
6.8 m
Height
3.0 m
Gravel trap:
Type
RCC
Number of chamber
1
Width
6.8 m
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 4-2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Depth
Gravel flushing pipe
Type
Number of conduit
Inner Diameter
Length
Approach Culvert to settling basin:
Type
Number
Size
Settling Basin:
Type
Number of chambers
Size (parallel section)
Top wall level
4.3
Sediment Data
4.3.1
Bed material
11.4m
Mild steel encased by RCC
1
1.2
37.6 m
RCC pressurized conduit
2
35.82 m longX3.4 m wideX3.0 m
height
Conventional flushing
4
75.0 m longX 9.5 wide X 5.85 masl
321.0 masl
From modeling aspect, it is very important to have information on bed material
composition with respect to grain size distribution and suspended sediment loads.
Bed stability and development of armored layers are important for the
performance of headworks structure and thalweg control.
4.3.2
Suspended Sediment
Suspended sediment is very important while studying settling basin. A filed
measure suspended sediment sample has taken from physical modeling report of
Mai Khola Hydropower Project. Figure 4.2 shows suspended sediment data with
respected discharge at Mai khola River. Sediment flow to settling basin was
calculated by scaling the discharge to settling basin with respect to discharge in
river. Measure sediment data is listed in Appendix-A.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 4-3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 4.2 Sediment Concentration and discharge in Mai Khola
4.4
Headworks Arrangement
The head works includes major components like concrete ogee weir, stilling
basin, frontal intake, with bed load sluicing arrangements, gravel trap, approach
culvert and settling basin.
4.4.1
Settling basin layout
Settling basin in Mai khola hydropower project is conventional type. Settling
basin contains four chambers with equal sizes. Settling basin followed inlet
culvert, gravel trap, approach culvert. The length of settling basin is 75 m, width
is 9.5 m and depth is 5.85 m. The arrangement of settling basin is listed in
Annexure- A, provided by Sanima Hydropower (owner). In Numerical modeling,
inlet culvert, gravel trap, approach culvert and settling basin are included.
However, modeling of gravel trap has not done in this study. It is assumed that
flow from inlet culvert is only containing suspended sediment. Also for
optimization, different arrangement of settling basin with inlet and approach
geometry was modeled and results are compared. In this study two layouts were
studied i.e proposed and alternative layout. Alternative layout has made with
shorter length and larger curve angle with respect to proposed layout. Due to
shorter length than proposed layout, the alternative layout will save cost of
settling basin. The length of main part of settling basin is kept same as proposed
layout. However, approach geometry is changed. Figure 4.3 shows comparison
of plan view of alternative layout with respect to proposed layout.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 4-4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Table 4.2 shows the main feature of proposed settling basin. Water flow
computation was done for constant design discharge of 23.43 m3/s because it is
assumed that sediment problem is occurred during wet season while the sufficient
discharge available for power production.
Table 4.2 Feature of Settling basin
Type
Conventional type
Design discharge
23.43 m3/s
Effective Length
75 m
Width of one chamber
9.5 m
Depth
5.85 m
Water level at settling basin
320.5 masl
Number of settling chamber
4
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 4-5
Master Thesis 2012
Page 4-6
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 4.3 Plan view of proposed and alternative layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
5.
WATER FLOW SIMULATION
In this thesis work, settling basin of Mai Khola Hydropower Project of Nepal was
studied for 3D numerical investigation by SSIIM 1.0 model. To get optimum
approach geometry of settling basin different layouts have made and 3D
investigations have been done. After investigation optimum layout is
recommended for implementation with respect to settling basin performance.
5.1
Grid generation
In the model simulation, inlet culvert, gravel trap, approach culvert and settling
basin has simulated in same model. Grid is generated with the help of spread
sheet (Microsoft Excel). First layout settling basin is transferred approximately
parallel to x axis. With the help of orthogonal three axis co-ordinate system grid
has generated in the system ‘i’, ‘j’ and ‘k’ represent stream-wise, cross stream
and vertical elevations respectively. Figure 5.1 shows the grid mesh in three
dimensions. The details of grid generation are listed in Annexure- B.
The expansion and aspect ratio of grid should not be too great. To reduce
deviation with actual shape and dimension of the settling basin layout and to keep
proper requirement of expansion and aspect ratio; fine grid is made with higher
number of gridlines.
5.1.1
Detail of geometry
The grid geometry for proposed layout has 567X71X13 gridlines. 567 cross
section and 71 profiles and 13 profiles in vertical direction have been introduced.
By making blocks i.e using G 13 data sets approach culvert and settling chambers
are separated. To make culver, water levels are written on koosurf file which act
as culvert by keeping constant water level. Grid is generated with actual
dimension of proposed layouts of settling basin plan. Details of simulated cross
sections are listed in Annexure B. A sample of koordina file is listed in
Appendix-A.
For performance comparisons, alternative layout has made. The alternative layout
has less length and higher bend angle at approach culvert with same dimension of
main settling chambers. It has 423X71X13 gridlines. 423 cross sections and 71
profiles and 13 profiles in vertical direction were introduced.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 5.1 3D Grid view
To made comparison on settling basin performance, only one settling basin
chamber is also investigated. It has 117X11X13 gridlines. Here settling chamber
means there is no effect of approach geometry and it is an ideal layout. Also
discharge is taken as dividing design discharge with number of chamber i.e.
5.8575 m3/s.
To check the performance improvement on proposed layout of settling basin,
different modifications was made on approach of proposed layout. The
modifications are discussed later.
5.1.2
Inlet and Outlet
Inlet for settling basin layout is taken at downstream from the intake of
headworks. There is a slightly bed at intake to intake culvert. However, in this
model, straight only straight portion is considered. Inlet has a dimension of 6.8m
X 3 m.
The outlets, from the settling basin chamber to inlet chamber of headrace tunnel
are made with G 7 data sets. It is assumed that flow is equally distributed at
design discharge for all four chamber of settling basin. Outlets are rectangular
type orifices. Rectangular orifices on SSIIM Model are shown in Figure 5.2
below with help of horizontal velocity vector.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 5.2 Outlet of settling chambers with horizontal velocity vectors
Simulation parameters
Different parameters are given for simulation by using control file. Examples of
control files are listed in Appendix A. In control file, roughness, discharge and
other control parameters are written for SSIIM Model for water and sediment
flow computation.
5.2
Water flow Simulation Results
After preparing input for geometry i.e. koordina file and input for simulation i.e.
control file, models of settling basin layout were simulated.
Residual Values
Water flow simulation was converged for all simulated model because residual
values for all six partial differential equation that are solved are less than 10-3. An
example of residual values for simulated model is shown in Figure 5.3.
Figure 5.3 Residual Values for water flow simulation
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Velocity Vector
Velocity vectors represent flow direction on the grid. It is very the correctness of
geometry of grid with respect to actual layout. Velocity vectors for settling basin
and proposed layout are shown in Figure 5.4 and Figure 5.5. Velocity vectors on
plan and sectional views are listed in Annexure-C.
Figure 5.4 3D view of velocity vector
Figure 5.5 3D View of Velocity Vector of settling basin layput
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
5.2.1
Result of water flow computation on one settling chamber
Results of water flow computation are presented and discussed in this section.
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity on X direction is similar to distribution of horizontal
velocity because of settling basin layout is kept almost parallel with X- axis for
model studies. The distribution of velocity on X, Y and Z direction seems
uniform. Distribution of velocity on X direction is presented on Annexure-C.
However, distribution of velocity on Y and Z directions are more uniform. From
the distribution pattern of velocity it can be said that velocity is more on top layer
than bottom.
Distribution of horizontal and vertical velocity
Figure 5.6 shows horizontal velocity distribution on settling chamber. It has
uniform velocity distribution and most of velocities are between 0.1 to 0.3 m/s.
This model does not have effect of approach geometry. Minimum horizontal
velocity is 0.0504 m/s and maximum horizontal velocity is 0.3269 m/s.
Maximum vertical velocity is 0.0002 m/s.
Figure 5.6 Horizontal velocity Distribution on settling chamber model
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
Turbulence kinetic energy is one of important parameter which influences the
performance of settling basin. Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy is
presented on Annexure-C. Minimun turbulence kinetic energy is 1.53x10-4 and
maximum is 1.857x10-3.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-5
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
5.2.2
Result of water flow computation on Proposed Layout
Approach geometry of proposed layout is shown in Figure 5.7.
Figure 5.7 Geometry of Approach on Proposed Layout
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity at X axis is similar to horizontal velocity distribution.
Distribution of velocity on X axis is presented Annexure C. Velocity distribution
on Y and Z axis is uniform.
Distribution of horizontal and vertical velocity
Figure 5.8 shows horizontal velocity distribution on proposed settling basin
layout model the velocity between 0.1 m/s to 0.3 m/s. This model does not have
effect of approach geometry. Minimum horizontal velocity is 0.0721 m/s and
maximum horizontal velocity is 1.3536 m/s. Maximum vertical velocity is 0.2774
m/s.
Figure 5.8 Distribution of horizontal velocity on proposed layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-6
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
Distribution if kinetic energy presented in Annexure –C. The maximum value of
turbulence kinetic energy is 1.00x10-1 and minimum is 5.3x10-3.
5.2.3
Result of water flow computation on Alternative Layout
Figure 5.9 Geometry of Approach on Alternative Layout
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity at X axis is similar to horizontal velocity distribution.
Distribution of velocity on X axis is presented Annexure C. Velocity distribution
on Y and Z axis is uniform.
Distribution of horizontal and vertical velocity
Figure 5.10 shows horizontal velocity distribution on alternative layout the
velocity between 0.1 m/s to 0.3 m/s. This model does not have effect of approach
geometry. Minimum horizontal velocity is 0.0722 m/s and maximum horizontal
velocity is 1.3718 m/s. Maximum vertical velocity is 0.3 m/s.
Figure 5.10 Distribution of horizontal velocity on alternative layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-7
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
Distribution if kinetic energy presented in Annexure –C. The maximum value of
turbulence kinetic energy is 8.64x10-2 and minimum is 4.55x10-3.
5.2.4
Result of water flow computation on Modifications
The performance of settling basin chamber is greatly influence by approach
geometry. Modifications are done by introducing divide wall at approach culvert
on proposed layout. Width of divide walls is kept about 0.3 m so that flow width
at approach culvert will be reduced. Due to the divide wall velocity at approach
culvert will be increased and more turbulence will be passed to the settling basin
so that to keep velocity as proposed layout width of approach culvert is increased
by 0.3 m keeping flow width constant.
Modification 1
This modification is done by introducing divided wall at bend of approach
culvert. Modification 1 is shown on Figure 5.11.
Figure 5.11 Modification 1
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity at X axis is similar to horizontal velocity distribution.
Velocity distribution on Y and Z axis is uniform.
Distribution of horizontal and vertical velocity
Figure 5.12 shows horizontal velocity distribution on modification 1 the velocity
between 0.1 m/s to 0.3 m/s. This model does not have effect of approach
geometry. Minimum horizontal velocity is 0.0582 m/s and maximum horizontal
velocity is 1.29 m/s. Maximum vertical velocity is 0.29 m/s.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-8
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 5.12 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 1.
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
The maximum value of turbulence kinetic energy is 2.51x10-2 and minimum is
1.33x10-3.
Modification 2
Modification 2 is done by extending divider of transition to approach culvert end.
Modification 2 is shown on Figure 5.13.
Figure 5.13 Modification 2
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity at X axis is similar to horizontal velocity distribution.
Velocity distribution on Y and Z axis is uniform.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-9
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Distribution of horizontal and vertical velocity
Figure 5.14 shows horizontal velocity distribution on proposed settling basin
layout model the velocity between 0.1 m/s to 0.3 m/s. This model does not have
effect of approach geometry. Minimum horizontal velocity is 0.0557 m/s and
maximum horizontal velocity is 1.10 m/s. Maximum vertical velocity is 0.20 m/s.
Figure 5.14 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 2.
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
The maximum value of turbulence kinetic energy is 2.38x10-2 and minimum is
1.267x10-3.
Modification 3
Modification 3 is done by introducing divide wall at curve part of approach
culvert to transition part. Modification 3 is shown in Figure 5.15.
Figure 5.15Modification 3
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-10
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity at X axis is similar to horizontal velocity distribution.
Velocity distribution on Y and Z axis is uniform.
Distribution of horizontal velocity
Figure 5.16 shows horizontal velocity distribution on proposed settling basin
layout model the velocity between 0.1 m/s to 0.3 m/s. This model does not have
effect of approach geometry. Minimum horizontal velocity is 0.0545 m/s and
maximum horizontal velocity is 1.03 m/s. Maximum vertical velocity is 0.15 m/s.
Figure 5.16 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 3
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
The maximum value of turbulence kinetic energy is 2.38x10-2 and minimum is
1.26x10-3.
Modification 4
In modification 4 both modification 1 and modification 2 have made but length of
divide wall is shorter at bend than on modification 1. Modification 4 is shown in
Figure 5.17.
Figure 5.17 Modification 4
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-11
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Distribution of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity at X axis is similar to horizontal velocity distribution.
Velocity distribution on Y and Z axis is uniform.
Distribution of horizontal velocity
Figure 5.18 shows horizontal velocity distribution on proposed settling basin
layout model the velocity between 0.1 m/s to 0.3 m/s. This model does not have
effect of approach geometry. Minimum horizontal velocity is 0.0578 m/s and
maximum horizontal velocity is 1.09 m/s. Maximum vertical velocity is 0.15m/s.
Figure 5.18 Distribution of horizontal velocity on modification 4
Distribution of turbulence kinetic energy
The maximum value of turbulence kinetic energy is 2.47x10-2 and minimum is
1.31x10-3.
5.2.5
Discussion and comparison of velocity at X, Y and Z direction
Distribution of velocity on X, Y and Z direction is more uniform on settling
chamber model because it has no effect of approach geometry. However,
distribution of velocities on proposed, alternative layout and modification not
seen much difference. By eye inspection it can be said that distribution is
improved on modifications.
5.2.6
Discussion and comparison on Horizontal velocity
From horizontal distribution figure distribution is more uniform on settling
chamber model. However, velocity distribution also is more uniform on
modification than the proposed layout.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-12
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
5.2.7
Discussion and Comparison on turbulence kinetic energy
Turbulence kinetic energy distribution does not show significant difference for all
model. However, it is very low on one settling basin model due to no effect of
approach.
5.2.8
Closing of chambers
This study is done because for maintenance proposed some chamber might be
closed and other on operation. Here a case of one chamber is closed and other
remaining chambers are on full operation with design discharge of power plant;
has studied for proposed layout.
Closing of first chambers
During closing of first chamber; it seems that operation of remaining chamber
will be subjected to more velocities, which will decrease performance of settling
basin. Horizontal velocity distribution is shown in Figure 5.19 during closing of
first chamber.
Figure 5.19 Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of first chamber
Closing of second chambers
During closing of second chamber; it seems that operation remaining chambers
will be subjected to equally turbulence and higher velocities. Horizontal velocity
distribution is shown in Figure 5.20 during closing of second chamber.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-13
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 5.20 Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of second chamber
Closing of third chamber
During closing of third chamber; effect seems first and fourth chamber will be
subjected to more velocities. Horizontal velocity distribution is shown in Figure
5.21 during closing of third chamber.
Figure 5.21Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of third chamber
Closing of fourth chamber
During closing of fourth chamber first and second will be subjected more
velocities. Horizontal velocity distribution is shown in Figure 5.22 during closing
of fourth chamber.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-14
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 5.22 Horizontal velocity distribution on closing of fourth chamber
Comparing with operation of three chambers with closing of one chamber, it
seems that closing of one chamber will have poor performance for design
discharge. It may not have required trapping efficiency.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 5-15
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
6.
SEDIMENT FLOW SIMULATION
6.1
General
Sediment flow simulation was done to find trap efficiency and sediment flow
pattern studies. Sediment transport can be divided in two parts; one bed load and
suspended load. In SSIIM model it is assumed that most of sediment flow as
suspension.
The main aim of sediment computation is; to find effect of approach geometry on
sediment concentration distribution over four chambers, the trapping efficiency
for different size of sediment particles and sediment concentration distribution
over the settling basin with respect to time of computation. The results for
sediment computation are presented in this chapter.
First flow patterns were determined from water flow computation. Results of
water flow computation were used for sediment computation. During the
sediment simulation F 68 2 parameter is used. This means the transient sediment
computation will not re-compute water flow filed after an update of bed so a
quasi-steady was modeled. F 37 1 data set was used as the transient sediment
computation (TSC) algorithms and POW scheme is used for the convection
diffusion equation for sediment flow.
Sediment computation is done for particle sizes 0.06mm, 0.1mm, 0.15 mm, 0.2
mm and 0.3 mm. It is assumed that 100 % of the particle size of 0.4 mm and
0.5mm will be settled. These particles sizes are excluded because increasing the
number of set of particles on SSIIM model it will take longer time for simulation
so higher particle size sediment are excluded. The particle size, its fall velocity
and particle size distribution are presented on Table 6.1.
Due to lack of particle distribution diagram for suspended sediment of Mai Khola
River, PSD of suspended sediment is adapted as Khimti river of Nepal.
Also, it is assumed that specific gravity of sediment is 2.65 and Critical shield
coefficient is taken as 0.047 and roughness value is taken as 0.021 and a
sensitivity analysis has made taking roughness value from 0.014 to 0.021 for one
settling chamber model only.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6.2
Table 6.1 Sediment size, fall velocity and PSD
Particle size mm Fall velocity cm/s
% finner (PSD adopted)
0.5
6.8
100
0.4
5.4
85
0.3
3.8
80
0.2
2.3
66
0.15
1.25
50
0.1
0.65
46
0.06
0.30
38
Inputs files
For sediment computation, different input files are needed. The main input files
are presented below.
Control file (Sediment flow computation parameters)
It is the main input file, which contain parameters for sediment computation.
Detail of control file is presented in Appendix A.
timei files
This files used for input of sediment flow. Figure 6.1 shows actual measurement
of sediment at Mai Khola Rive and Figure 6.2 shows input of sediment
concentration with the help of the timei files. Detail of timei file is presented in
Appendix A.
High sediment
Concentration
Figure 6.1 High low and high sediment inflow
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 6.2 Sediment Volumetric concentration input SSIIM Model
6.3
Sediment flow simulation Result
When the models were run for 30000 seconds with time step of 50 seconds
following result were obtained. After the sediment simulation, result file are read
on Tecplot program. Sediment distribution and concentration is plotted. With the
help of distribution and concentration pictures, a visual inspection has made for
discussion and comparison of sediment simulation results. Distribution of
sediment concentration of plan and cross section view are listed in Annexure-C.
6.3.1
Sediment distribution on one settling basin
This model does not have any effect of approach geometry. So concentration is
distributed uniformly. Concentration level is higher at entrance and bottom level.
Concentration level goes down on downstream and upper level. Figure 6.3 show
the sediment concentration distribution on one settling chamber model.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 6.3 Sediment concentration distribution on one settling chamber
6.3.2
Sediment distribution on proposed layout settling basin
Sediment concentration is not equally distributed over four chamber of settling
chamber. Effect of approach geometry is clearly seen on distribution of sediment
concentration. More sediment is concentrated on inner chamber than outer
chamber of two approach bends. Figure 6.4 shows sediment concentration
distribution on proposed layout.
Figure 6.4 Sediment concentration distribution on proposed layout
6.3.3
Sediment distribution on alternative layout settling basin
Sediment concentration is not equally distributed over four chamber of settling
chamber. Effect of approach geometry is clearly seen on distribution of sediment
concentration. More sediment is concentrated on inner chamber than outer
chamber of two approach bends. As comparing with proposed layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
concentration is even more on inner chambers.
concentration distribution on alternative layout.
Figure 6.5 shows sediment
Figure 6.5Sediment concentration distribution on alternative layout
6.3.4
Sediment distribution on modification layouts
Results show modifications on approach geometry, improve in uniformity of
distribution of sediment concentration.
Modification 1
Modification 1 show more uniform distribution of sediment concentration over
four chambers. With visual inspection chamber four has little less sediment
concentration than other chamber however, it seems more uniform than propose
layout. Figure 6.6 shows sediment distribution over settling chamber due to
modification 1.
Figure 6.6 Sediment concentration distribution on modification 1
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-5
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Modification 2
Sediment concentration distribution is more similar with proposed layout
however, distribution can be said quite more uniform than proposed layout.
Figure 6.7 shows distribution of sediment concentration due to modification 2.
Figure 6.7Sediment concentration distribution on modification 2
Modification 3
Sediment concentration distribution is uniformly distributed on all four chambers
due to modification 3. Figure 6.8 shows distribution of sediment concentration
due to modification 3.
Figure 6.8Sediment concentration distribution on modification 3
Modification 4
Sediment concentration distribution is uniformly distributed on all four chambers
due to modification 4. Figure 6.9 shows distribution of sediment concentration
due to modification 4.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-6
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Figure 6.9 Sediment concentration distribution on modification 4
As comparing result of sediment distribution due to modifications on approach
geometry, distribution is more uniform and Modification 3 and 4 give more
uniformly distribution of sediment concentration.
6.3.5
Sediment distribution on closing of chambers
During closing of one chamber for full operation of plant, sediment concentration
also not uniform on remaining chambers. Also sediment concentration is more at
downstream of settling chamber than operation of four chambers. Figure 6.10 to
Figure 6.13 shows the concentration of sediment distribution on closing of first to
fourth.
Closing of first chambers
Figure 6.10Sediment concentration distribution on closing of first chamber
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-7
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Closing of second chambers
Figure 6.11Sediment concentration distribution on closing of second chamber
Closing of third chamber
Figure 6.12Sediment concentration distribution on closing of third chamber
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-8
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Closing of fourth chamber
Figure 6.13 Sediment concentration distribution on closing of fourth chamber
6.4
Trap efficiency
6.4.1
Trap efficiency evaluation by Analytical Method
For one settling chamber trap efficiency is evaluated by Vetter’s Method and
Camp’s Method. Trapping efficiency for different size of sediment is presented
on Figure 6.14.
Camp’s method seems more conservative because trapping efficiency for particle
size greater than 0.15mm is 100% while from Vetter’s method trapping efficiency
100% for particle size greater than 0.3mm.
Figure 6.14 Trapping Efficiency by Analytical Method
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-9
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
6.4.2
Trap efficiency evaluation by SSIIM model
Trapping efficiency is evaluated for during high sediment band of inflow shown
in Figure 6.1 and Figure 6.2 above and SSIIM was run only for five finest particle
sizes. In SSIIM model trapping efficiency is calculated by sediment inflow flux
and outflow flux, written in boogie file during the simulation.
One settling chamber was modeled with high sediment band and inflow and
outflow of sediment concentration flux is evaluated with respect to time. Trap
percentage for respected time is evaluated with inflow and out flow flux. Trap
percentage is considered as trapping efficiency. When the model was run for
66000 second with time step of 20 second following results were obtained which
is shown in Figure 6.15
Figure 6.15 shows trap percentage with respect to time of computation and
sediment concentration inflow shown in Figure 6.2. It shows percentage of trap
goes down with time of computation it may be due to high flow of sediment
concentration with respect to time. When sediment flow to settling basin most of
coarse particle settle down at entrance of basin and deposition may reduce the
flow depth. Due to reduced flow depth fine particle may not settle down because
of higher velocities. Settle fine particle may be become suspension and flow
toward the outlet.
Figure 6.15 Trap percentage with time of computation
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-10
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Comparison with analytical method
In Figure 6.16, trapping efficiency of SSIIM model is compared with trapping
efficiency by analytical method. For fine particle SSIIM model gives lower trap
value while for larger sediment particle SSIIM model gives higher trap value.
Figure 6.16 Comparison of trapping efficiency by SSIIM and Vetter Method
Trap percentage for proposed, alternative and modifications
SSIIM model were run for 65050 seconds with time step of 50 seconds Trap
percentage are found as Table 6.2. It was assumed that there is no bed erosion.
Table 6.2 Trap percentage by SSIIM Model
Layouts Size,mm 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.06 Average Trap % SC PL AL M1 M2 M3 M4 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
100.00
100.00 100.00
99.95 99.37 97.56 99.65
99.66
99.60 99.53
97.61 94.02 87.57 95.60
95.30
95.12 94.69
77.14 72.32 66.09 75.85
74.20
74.36 73.55
42.61 41.57 40.29 44.58
43.03
43.08 42.60
83.46 81.45 78.19 83.14
82.44
82.43 82.07
SC- Settling chamber
M1- Modification 1
M4- Modification 4
PL- Proposed layout
M2- Modification 2
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
AL- Alternative layout
M3- Modification 3
Page 6-11
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
From the Table 6.2 trap efficiency is more for settling basin chamber model it
may be due to no effect of approach geometry and for other models trap
percentage near to equal and modifications also increase trap percentage.
Trap percentage during closing of one chamber
Table 6.3 Trap percentage by SSIIM Model
Layouts Size,mm 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.06 Average Trap % C1 C2 C3 C4 99.96 99.95 99.94 99.91 96.60 96.59 96.86 97.70 84.53 84.86 86.17 88.19 57.95 58.72 61.84 63.86 31.56 74.12 32.13 74.45 35.40 76.04 36.11 77.15 C1- Closing of first chamber
C3- Closing of Third chamber
C2- Closing of second chamber
C4- Closing of Fourth chamber
From Table 6.2 and 6.3 it is clearly seen that trap percentage reduces with closing
one chamber and operation of remaining chambers with full design discharge.
All the calculation tables are presented on Appendix –C.
6.4.3
6.4.3.1
Sensitivity of control file parameters
Effect of Sediment pick-up rate, F 37 2
SSIIM model was run with F 37 2 data set and trap percentage is find out as on
Table 6.4. Comparing trap percentage of F 37 2 data set with F 37 1 data set on
Table 6.4 trap percentage is also most similar for coarse particle. However, for
fine particle, F 37 2 data set has higher trap percentage. It may be due to F 37 1
data set is used for re-suspension of sediment at a constant rate and while F 37 2
data set is used re-suspension become function of flux. In both cases all other
parameter are same.
Table 6.4 Trap efficiency variation due to F 37 data set
F 37 data set Size,mm 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.06 Average Trap % F 37 1 F 37 2 100.00% 100.00% 99.95% 99.95% 97.61% 97.70% 77.14% 78.15% 42.61% 83.46% 45.03% A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
84.17% Page 6-12
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
6.4.3.2 Effect of change of F 16 data set
When model was run varying F 16 data set following result were obtained. It has
very minor effect on trap percentage. The result is presented on Table 6.5.
Table 6.5 Trap percentage with variation of F 16 data set
Size mm
F 16 data set values
0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.06 0.021 100.00% 99.95% 97.61% 77.14% 42.61% 0.019 100.00% 99.95% 97.61% 77.15% 42.60% 0.017 0.014 100.00%
100.00%
99.95%
99.95%
97.61%
97.62%
77.16%
77.19%
42.61%
42.61%
6.4.3.3 Effect of shield’s coefficient F 11 data set
When model was run with shield’s coefficient 0.04 following result was obtained.
With comparing with result on Table 6.6 the result all most same so effect of
Shield’s coefficient is very minor. Defect percentage also reduces with shield
coefficient 0.04. Trap percentage with F 11 2.65 0.04 is shown in Table 6.6.
Table 6.6Trap percentage with changing F 11 data set
F 11 data set Size,mm 0.047 0.040 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.06 100.00% 100.00%
99.95% 99.95%
97.61% 97.60%
77.14% 77.05%
42.61% 42.40%
Average Trap % 83.46% 83.40% 6.4.3.4 Effect of thickness of the upper active sediment layer
To achieve a reduced defect SSIIM model was run providing F 106 data set. It
overrides the original value which is equal to maximum particle diameter. It
reduced defect percentage. The figure has very low difference. Trap percentage
with F 106 data set is presented on Table 6.7.
Table 6.7 Trap percentage with changing F 106 data set
F 106 data set Size,mm 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.06 Average Trap % Without F 106 With F 106 100.00% 100.00%
99.95% 99.94%
97.61% 97.61%
77.14% 77.13%
42.61% 83.46% 42.59%
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
83.45% Page 6-13
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
6.5
Flushing Interval
Flushing interval is calculated for only proposed layout by using trap average trap
percentage by SSIIM Model. Average trap percentage for proposed layout is
taken as 81.45%. Flush interval is calculated by using spread sheet program.
Capacity settling chamber is taken as dead storage of chamber; equal to 2532 m3.
Using measured sediment data dry volume of sediment trap is calculated
assuming specific gravity of sediment is 2.65. It is assumed that wet volume of
sediment is 1.5 times the dry volume and when deposited sediment volume reach
to capacity of settling basin there will be flushing. The flushing pattern with
respect to measure sediment data is presented on Figure 6.17. From the
calculation, it is found that if there is 80% of average trap percentage maximum
interval of flushing is 210 hours, i.e. 9 days and minimum interval of flushing is
12 hours .i.e. half day. However, flushing interval will be varied with PSD of
suspension sediment inflow to the settling basin. Also flushing interval is short
for high sediment concentration inflow to the settling basin. It is recommended
that flush should be done according to deposition level of sediment in the settling
basin and sediment inflow concentration because of the settling basin is
conventional.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 6-14
Third Flush
Fourth Flush
Fifth Flush
Figure 6.17 Flushing of sediment with respect to measured sediment data
Second Flush
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Master Thesis 2012
Page 6-15
Sixth Flush Seventh Flush
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Minimum and Maximum flushing interval = 12 hours and 210 hours
First flush
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
7.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
7.1
Conclusion
The study of hydraulics and sediment transport is very complex. CFD modeling
of hydraulic and sediment transport is in research stage. SSIIM is freely available
CFD modeling software to evaluate many problem associate with fluid dynamics.
Following conclusion has made.
7.1.1
SSIIM Scope
The study result shows that SSIIM can be used for 3D numerical investigation of
different hydraulic structures like headworks, settling basin, water way, headrace
tunnel, river sediment transport problems. It can be used to evaluate effect of
geometry on hydraulic performance and distribution of sediment concentration
over multiple settling basin chambers. Also it can be used to evaluate trap
efficiency of settling basin layouts.
It can be an ideal solution for small hydropower projects of sediment Problem
River, like Nepalese Rivers. For small project lack of sufficient fund and time;
physical modeling may not possible so for planning of hydraulic structures in
hydropower project SSIIM can be a powerful tool.
For analysis of hydraulic performance, sediment transport, trap efficiency, bed
deposition and sediment distribution pattern; SSIIM can be used at all stages of
project. Also it can be used for comparing result of physical model.
7.1.2
Case Study on settling basin Layouts
In this study a case study of settling basin layouts of Mai Khola Hydropower
Project, Nepal was carried out. Study of hydraulics and sediment transport
performance of proposed layout was studied. To save cost an alternative layout
with shorter length has studied but due to short approach from bend to settling
chamber alternative layout gives poor hydraulics than proposed layout.
Further investigation on proposed layout was carried out with modification on
approach geometry. From the investigation result, proposed layout may not
distribute the sediment flow equally to all four chamber of settling basin. It might
be problem on operation and flushing of sediment because some chamber might
be filled up faster and reduced the trap performance. While modification was
done on approach geometry, there will be more uniform distribution of sediment
over four chambers and results shows better performance of sediment trap. Also
case study of closing of chambers separately has done for full design discharge of
power plant. Result shows that closing of chambers also greatly influenced on
distribution and settlement of sediment.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 7-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Trapping efficiency for settling basin layouts are evaluated and it is fairly good
for time dependent flow of sediment concentration. Trap performance is also
better if there is divide wall at bend of approach culvert. It is concluded that to
improve the settling performance there should be divide watt at approach bend.
7.2
Recommendation
It’s strongly recommended for further study. Some recommendation has listed.
 Due to lack of user friendliness like commercial software it recommended
that there should be more examples with detail procedure in user
manual.
 While using the SSIIM, it need to great care while preparing grid and
control file. Convergence depends on proper planning of grid and
choosing of appropriate parameter. Trial should be done as much as
possible to get converged solution.
 It will be great if there is help tools on window version of SSIIM for new
user of SSIIM.
 It is found that SSIIM user manual is not updated and some data sets do
not work as considered. It is recommended that user manual and data
sets should be updated.
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 7-2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
8.
REFERENCES
1. Dagfinn lysne, Brian Glover, Hakon Stole, Einar Tesaker “ Hydraulic
Design , Volume 8 Hydropower development series “
2. Hakan Stole “ Headworks and Sedimentation Engineering” Hand-out
Literature for the course TVM5160”
3. Nils Reidar B. Olsen “ Numerical Modeling and Hydraulics, 3rd edition,
2011”
4. Nils Reider B. Olsen” A three dimensional numerical model for
simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock
options (SSIIM) Version 1 and 2, User’s Manual 2011”
5. Hydro Lab (P) Ltd. “Hydraulic Model Study of Headworks of Mai Khola
Hydropower Project”
6. Aravind Kumar Agrawal “Numerical Modeling of Sediment Flow in Tala
Desilting Chamber|”
7. Maskwy, Diwash lal “ CFD modeling of hydraulic and sediment at the
intake of Nyadi Hydropower Project, Nepal”
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Page 8-1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Annexure- A
DRAWINGS
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Annexure- 1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Annexure-B
GRID GENERATION
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Annexure- 2
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Layout Plan of Proposed Settling Basin
Grid of Section A-A
Annexure- 3
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
Master Thesis 2012
Annexure- 4
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Grid Plan View of Proposed Layout of Settling Basin
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Grid of Section B-B
Annexure- 5
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Grid of Section C-C
Annexure- 6
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Grid of Section D-D
Annexure- 7
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Grid of Section E-E
Annexure- 8
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Plan of Alternative Layout Settling Basin
Annexure- 9
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Master Thesis 2012
Annexure- 10
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Grid Plan View of Alternative Layout of Settling Basin
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Master Thesis 2012
Annexure- 11
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Grid Plan View of One Settling Chamber
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Grid of Section D-D
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Annexure- 12
Grid of Section E-E
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Annexure-C
Results
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Annexure- 13
Master Thesis 2012
Annexure- 14
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Examples of Velocity Vector On Proposed Layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Master Thesis 2012
Velocity Vector at approach bend of Proposed Layout
Annexure- 15
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Velocity Vector at intake culvert of Proposed Layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Velocity Vector at last cross section of Proposed Layout
Velocity Vector at settling chambers of Proposed Layout
Annexure- 16
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Master Thesis 2012
Annexure- 17
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Sediment Concentration on Proposed layout at 32000 of time of computation at level 2
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Master Thesis 2012
Annexure- 18
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Sediment Concentration on Proposed layout at 32000 of time of computation at level 9
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Sediment Concentration at settling chambers on proposed layout at 32000 of time of computation
Annexure- 19
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Master Thesis 2012
Sediment Concentration at approach bends on proposed layout at 32000 of time of computation
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Velocity distribution on X direction on settling chamber Model
Velocity distribution on X direction on Proposed layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Annexure- 20
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Velocity distribution on X direction on Alternative Layout
Turb.Kinetic Energy distribution on settling chamber model
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Annexure- 21
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Turb.Kinetic Energy distribution on Proposed Layout
Turb.Kinetic Energy distribution on Alternative Layout
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Annexure- 22
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Appendix-A
Input files for SSIIM Model
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 1
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Example of Control Files
Control file for water flow computation
T wfc settling basin only
F 1 D more extensive printout to the boogie file
F 2 W water flow computation
F 15 1 wall law at cornes
F 16 0.021
F 33 1 5 transient flow parameter
F 211 0.001
G 1 117 17 13 1 grid and array sizes
G 3 0 8.33 16.66 24.99 33.32 41.65 49.98 58.31 66.64 74.97 83.3
91.63 100 vertical grid distribution
G 7 0 1 2 17 2 13 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 inflow
G 7 1 -1 8 11 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 206 8 number of cpu
W 1 60 5.8575 320.500000
W 2 14 1
10
19
91
100
109
28
117
37
46
55
64
73
82
K 1 40000 60000
K201
K 3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.5 relax factors
K 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 block correction
K 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 second order
T sc settling basin only
F 2 RIS water flow computation
F 4 0.5 100 0.001
relaxation, iteration and convergence criteria
F 11 2.65 -0.047
F 15 1 wall law at cornes
Example control file sediment flow computation
F 33 20 100 transient flow parameter
F 37 2 sediment transport
F 48 8 tecplot
F 68 2 calculation without any bed change
G 1 117 17 13 5
grid and array sizes
G 3 0 8.33 16.66 24.99 33.32 41.65 49.98 58.31 66.64 74.97 83.3
91.63 100 vertical grid distribution
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
G 7 0 1 2 17 2 13 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 inflow
G 7 1 -1 8 11 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 24 9 u 1 0 w 1 0 p 2 0 c 5 0 c 5 1 c 5 2 c 5 3 c 5 4 c 5 5
G 206 8 number of cpu
S
S
S
S
S
1
2
3
4
5
0.0003 0.03 sediment size and fall velocity
0.0002 0.02 sediment size and fall velocity
0.00015
0.0125 sediment size and fall velocity
0.0001 0.0065 sediment size and fall velocity
0.00006
0.003 sediment size and fall velocity
N 0 1 0.175
N 0 2 0.2
N 0 3 0.05
N 0 4 0.1
N 0 5 0.475
B00000
where n is placed
P 10 40
W 1 80 5.8575 320.500000
W 2 14 1
10
19
91
100
109
28
117
37
46
55
64
73
82
K 1 3300 60000
K201
K 3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.5 relax factors
K 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 block correction
K 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 second order
Example control file water flow flow
T wfc peoposed layout
F 2 W water flow computation
F 15 1 wall law at cornes
F 16 0.021
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
F 33 5 100 transient flow parameter
F 211 0.001 convergent criteria
G 1 567 71 13 1 grid and array sizes
G 3 0 8.33 16.66 24.99 33.32 41.65 49.98 58.31 66.64 74.97 83.3
91.63 100 vertical grid distribution
G 7 0 1 2 71 2 13 0 0 23.43 1.0 0.0 0.0 inflow
G 7 1 -1 8 11 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 25 28 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 45 48 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 62 65 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 13 3 27 141 34 36 2 4
G 13 2 187 567 35 38 2 13
G 13 2 422 567 18 18 2 13
G 13 2 422 567 55 55 2 13
G 206 8 number of cpu
W 1 80.000000 23.43 320.500000
W 2 64 1
10
19
28
91
100
109
118
181
190
199
208
271
280
289
298
361
370
379
388
451
460
469
478
541
550
559
567
37
127
217
307
397
487
46
136
226
316
406
496
55
145
235
325
415
505
64
154
244
334
424
514
73
163
253
343
433
523
82
172
262
352
442
532
K 1 40000 60000
K201
K 3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.5 relax factors
K 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 block correction
K 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 second order
Example control file sediment flow
T Sediment computation
F 2 RIS water flow computation
F 4 0.5 100 0.001
relaxation, iteration and convergence criteria
F 11 2.65 -0.047
F 15 1 wall law at cornes
F 16 0.021
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
F 33 20 100 transient flow parameter
F 37 1 sediment transport
F 48 8 tecplot
F 68 2 calculation without any bed change
G 1 567 71 13 1 grid and array sizes
G 3 0 8.33 16.66 24.99 33.32 41.65 49.98 58.31 66.64 74.97 83.3
91.63 100 vertical grid distribution
G 7 0 1 2 71 2 13 0 0 23.43 1.0 0.0 0.0 inflow
G 7 1 -1 8 11 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 25 28 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 45 48 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 62 65 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 13 3 27 141 34 36 2 4
G 13 2 187 567 35 38 2 13
G 13 2 422 567 18 18 2 13
G 13 2 422 567 55 55 2 13
G 24 14 u 1 0 w 1 0 p 2 0 c 10 0 c 10 1 c 10 2 c 10 3 c 10 4 c 10 5 k 1 0 D 0 0 b 0
0v00L00
G 206 8 number of cpu
S
S
S
S
S
1
2
3
4
5
B00000
0.0003 0.051 sediment size and fall velocity
0.0002 0.02 sediment size and fall velocity
0.00015
0.0125 sediment size and fall velocity
0.0001 0.0065 sediment size and fall velocity
0.00006
0.003 sediment size and fall velocity
where n is placed
P 10 40
W 1 80.000000 23.43 320.500000
W 2 64 1
10
19
28
91
100
109
118
181
190
199
208
271
280
289
298
361
370
379
388
451
460
469
478
541
550
559
567
37
127
217
307
397
487
46
136
226
316
406
496
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
55
145
235
325
415
505
64
154
244
334
424
514
73
163
253
343
433
523
82
172
262
352
442
532
Appendix- 5
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
K 1 40000 60000
K201
K 3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.5 relax factors
K 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 block correction
K 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 second order
Example control file water flow flow
T wfc modi 2 m5
F 2 W water flow computation
F 15 1 wall law at cornes
F 16 0.021
F 33 1 5 transient flow parameter
F 211 0.001 convergent criteria
G 1 567 71 13 1 grid and array sizes
G 3 0 8.33 16.66 24.99 33.32 41.65 49.98 58.31 66.64 74.97 83.3
91.63 100 vertical grid distribution
G 7 0 1 2 71 2 13 0 0 23.43 1.0 0.0 0.0 inflow
G 7 1 -1 8 11 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 25 28 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 45 48 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 62 65 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 13 3 27 141 34 36 2 4
G 13 2 187 567 35 38 2 13
G 13 2 406 567 18 18 2 13
G 13 2 406 567 55 55 2 13
G 206 8 number of cpu
I 1 0.238
inflowing sediments in kg/s
S 1 0.0002 0.05
N 0 1 1.0
B00000
sediment fraction nr, size, fallvelo
sediment sample
bed koordinates, composed of sediment
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 6
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
W 1 80.000000 23.43 320.500000
W 2 64 1
10
19
28
91
100
109
118
181
190
199
208
271
280
289
298
361
370
379
388
451
460
469
478
541
550
559
567
37
127
217
307
397
487
46
136
226
316
406
496
55
145
235
325
415
505
64
154
244
334
424
514
73
163
253
343
433
523
82
172
262
352
442
532
K 1 40000 60000
K201
K 3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.5 relax factors
K 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 block correction
K 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 second order
Example control file sediment flow
T wfc modi 2 m5
F 2 RIS water flow computation
F 4 0.5 500 0.001
relaxation, iteration and convergence criteria
F 11 2.65 -0.047
F 15 1 wall law at cornes
F 16 0.021
F 33 50 1 transient flow parameter
F 37 1 sediment transport
F 48 8 tecplot
F 68 2 calculation without any bed change
G 1 567 71 13 6 grid and array sizes
G 3 0 8.33 16.66 24.99 33.32 41.65 49.98 58.31 66.64 74.97 83.3
91.63 100 vertical grid distribution
G 7 0 1 2 71 2 13 0 0 23.43 1.0 0.0 0.0 inflow
G 7 1 -1 8 11 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 25 28 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 45 48 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 7 1 -1 62 65 6 9 0 0 5.8575 1.0 0.0 0.0 outflow
G 13 3 27 141 34 36 2 4
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 7
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
G 13 2 187 567 35 38 2 13
G 13 2 406 567 18 18 2 13
G 13 2 406 567 55 55 2 13
G 24 5 u 1 0 w 1 0 p 2 0 c 7 0 v 0 0
G 206 8 number of cpu
S
S
S
S
S
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
0.001 0.5
bed martial
0.0003 0.051 sediment size and fall velocity
0.0002 0.02 sediment size and fall velocity
0.00015
0.0125 sediment size and fall velocity
0.0001 0.0065 sediment size and fall velocity
0.00006
0.003 sediment size and fall velocity
N011
N020
N030
N040
N050
N060
B00000
bed koordinates, composed of sediment
P 10 40
W 1 80.000000 23.43 320.500000
W 2 64 1
10
19
28
91
100
109
118
181
190
199
208
271
280
289
298
361
370
379
388
451
460
469
478
541
550
559
567
37
127
217
307
397
487
46
136
226
316
406
496
55
145
235
325
415
505
64
154
244
334
424
514
73
163
253
343
433
523
82
172
262
352
442
532
K 1 1500 60000
K201
K 3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.5 relax factors
K 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 block correction
K 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 second order
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 8
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Coordinate for Grid for settling chamber
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 69.89
69.85
69.81
69.77
69.73
69.69
69.64
69.60
69.56
69.52
69.48
69.44
69.40
69.35
69.31
69.27
69.23
70.39
70.35
70.31
70.27
70.23
70.18
70.14
70.10
70.06
70.01
69.97
69.93
69.89
69.84
69.80
69.76
69.72
70.90
70.85
70.81
70.77
70.72
70.68
70.64
70.59
70.55
70.51
70.47
69.11 69.42 69.73 70.04 70.35 70.66 70.97 71.28 71.59 71.90 72.21 72.52 72.83 73.14 73.45 73.77 74.08 69.08 69.39 69.71 70.03 70.34 70.66 70.98 71.29 71.61 71.93 72.24 72.56 72.87 73.19 73.51 73.82 74.14 69.04 69.37 69.69 70.01 70.33 70.66 70.98 71.30 71.63 71.95 72.27 317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.09
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
317.08
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
70.42
70.38
70.34
70.29
70.25
70.21
71.40
71.35
71.31
71.27
71.22
71.18
71.13
71.09
71.05
71.00
70.96
70.92
70.87
70.83
70.78
70.74
70.70
71.90
71.85
71.81
71.77
71.72
71.68
71.63
71.59
71.54
71.50
71.45
71.41
71.36
71.32
71.27
71.23
71.18
72.40
72.36
72.31
72.26
72.22
72.59 72.92 73.24 73.56 73.88 74.21 69.01 69.34 69.67 70.00 70.33 70.66 70.98 71.31 71.64 71.97 72.30 72.63 72.96 73.29 73.61 73.94 74.27 68.98 69.32 69.65 69.98 70.32 70.65 70.99 71.32 71.66 71.99 72.33 72.66 73.00 73.33 73.67 74.00 74.34 68.95 69.29 69.63 69.97 70.31 317.08 317.08 317.08 317.08 317.08 317.08 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.07 317.06 317.06 317.06 317.06 317.06 Appendix- 9
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 72.17
72.13
72.08
72.04
71.99
71.95
71.90
71.86
71.81
71.76
71.72
71.67
72.90
72.86
72.81
72.76
72.72
72.67
72.63
72.58
72.53
72.49
72.44
72.39
72.35
72.30
72.25
72.21
72.16
73.40
73.36
73.31
73.26
73.22
73.17
73.12
73.07
73.03
72.98
72.93
72.89
72.84
72.79
72.75
72.70
72.65
70.65 70.99 71.33 71.68 72.02 72.36 72.70 73.04 73.38 73.72 74.06 74.40 68.92 69.26 69.61 69.96 70.30 70.65 71.00 71.34 71.69 72.04 72.39 72.73 73.08 73.43 73.77 74.12 74.47 68.88 69.24 69.59 69.94 70.30 70.65 71.00 71.36 71.71 72.06 72.41 72.77 73.12 73.47 73.83 74.18 74.53 317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.06
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
317.05
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
73.91
73.86
73.81
73.76
73.71
73.67
73.62
73.57
73.52
73.48
73.43
73.38
73.33
73.28
73.24
73.19
73.14
74.41
74.36
74.31
74.26
74.21
74.16
74.12
74.07
74.02
73.97
73.92
73.87
73.82
73.77
73.73
73.68
73.63
74.91
74.86
74.81
74.76
74.71
74.66
74.61
74.56
74.51
74.46
74.41
74.37
68.85 69.21 69.57 69.93 70.29 70.65 71.01 71.37 71.73 72.08 72.44 72.80 73.16 73.52 73.88 74.24 74.60 68.82 69.19 69.55 69.92 70.28 70.65 71.01 71.38 71.74 72.11 72.47 72.84 73.20 73.57 73.93 74.30 74.66 68.79 69.16 69.53 69.90 70.27 70.64 71.02 71.39 71.76 72.13 72.50 72.87 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.05 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 317.04 Appendix- 2
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 74.32
74.27
74.22
74.17
74.12
75.41
75.36
75.31
75.26
75.21
75.16
75.11
75.06
75.01
74.96
74.91
74.86
74.81
74.76
74.71
74.66
74.61
75.91
75.86
75.81
75.76
75.71
75.66
75.61
75.56
75.50
75.45
75.40
75.35
75.30
75.25
75.20
75.15
75.10
76.42
76.36
76.31
76.26
76.21
76.16
76.10
73.24 73.61 73.99 74.36 74.73 68.76 69.13 69.51 69.89 70.27 70.64 71.02 71.40 71.77 72.15 72.53 72.91 73.28 73.66 74.04 74.42 74.79 68.72 69.11 69.49 69.87 70.26 70.64 71.02 71.41 71.79 72.18 72.56 72.94 73.33 73.71 74.09 74.48 74.86 68.69 69.08 69.47 69.86 70.25 70.64 71.03 317.04
317.04
317.04
317.04
317.04
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.03
317.02
317.02
317.02
317.02
317.02
317.02
317.02
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
76.05
76.00
75.95
75.90
75.84
75.79
75.74
75.69
75.64
75.58
76.92
76.86
76.81
76.76
76.71
76.65
76.60
76.55
76.49
76.44
76.39
76.34
76.28
76.23
76.18
76.13
76.07
77.42
77.37
77.31
77.26
77.20
77.15
77.10
77.04
76.99
76.94
76.88
76.83
76.78
76.72
76.67
76.62
76.56
77.92
77.87
71.42 71.81 72.20 72.59 72.98 73.37 73.76 74.15 74.54 74.92 68.66 69.06 69.45 69.85 70.24 70.64 71.03 71.43 71.82 72.22 72.62 73.01 73.41 73.80 74.20 74.59 74.99 68.63 69.03 69.43 69.83 70.23 70.64 71.04 71.44 71.84 72.24 72.64 73.05 73.45 73.85 74.25 74.65 75.06 68.60 69.00 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.02 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 317.01 Appendix- 3
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 77.81
77.76
77.70
77.65
77.59
77.54
77.49
77.43
77.38
77.32
77.27
77.21
77.16
77.10
77.05
78.42
78.37
78.31
78.26
78.20
78.15
78.09
78.04
77.98
77.93
77.87
77.82
77.76
77.70
77.65
77.59
77.54
78.92
78.87
78.81
78.76
78.70
78.64
78.59
78.53
78.48
78.42
78.36
78.31
78.25
78.20
69.41 69.82 70.23 70.63 71.04 71.45 71.86 72.27 72.67 73.08 73.49 73.90 74.30 74.71 75.12 68.56 68.98 69.39 69.81 70.22 70.63 71.05 71.46 71.87 72.29 72.70 73.12 73.53 73.94 74.36 74.77 75.19 68.53 68.95 69.37 69.79 70.21 70.63 71.05 71.47 71.89 72.31 72.73 73.15 73.57 73.99 317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.01
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
317.00
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
78.14
78.08
78.03
79.43
79.37
79.31
79.26
79.20
79.14
79.08
79.03
78.97
78.91
78.86
78.80
78.74
78.69
78.63
78.57
78.52
79.93
79.87
79.81
79.75
79.70
79.64
79.58
79.52
79.47
79.41
79.35
79.29
79.24
79.18
79.12
79.06
79.01
80.43
80.37
80.31
80.25
80.20
80.14
80.08
80.02
79.96
74.41 74.83 75.25 68.50 68.93 69.35 69.78 70.20 70.63 71.06 71.48 71.91 72.33 72.76 73.19 73.61 74.04 74.46 74.89 75.32 68.47 68.90 69.33 69.76 70.20 70.63 71.06 71.49 71.92 72.36 72.79 73.22 73.65 74.09 74.52 74.95 75.38 68.44 68.87 69.31 69.75 70.19 70.63 71.06 71.50 71.94 317.00 317.00 317.00 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.99 316.98 316.98 316.98 316.98 316.98 316.98 316.98 316.98 316.98 Appendix- 4
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 79.90
79.85
79.79
79.73
79.67
79.61
79.55
79.49
80.93
80.87
80.81
80.75
80.69
80.63
80.58
80.52
80.46
80.40
80.34
80.28
80.22
80.16
80.10
80.04
79.98
81.43
81.37
81.31
81.25
81.19
81.13
81.07
81.01
80.95
80.89
80.83
80.77
80.71
80.65
80.59
80.53
80.47
81.93
81.87
81.81
81.75
72.38 72.82 73.26 73.69 74.13 74.57 75.01 75.45 68.40 68.85 69.29 69.74 70.18 70.62 71.07 71.51 71.96 72.40 72.85 73.29 73.73 74.18 74.62 75.07 75.51 68.37 68.82 69.27 69.72 70.17 70.62 71.07 71.52 71.97 72.42 72.88 73.33 73.78 74.23 74.68 75.13 75.58 68.34 68.80 69.25 69.71 316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.98
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
316.97
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
81.69
81.63
81.57
81.51
81.45
81.39
81.33
81.27
81.20
81.14
81.08
81.02
80.96
82.44
82.37
82.31
82.25
82.19
82.13
82.07
82.00
81.94
81.88
81.82
81.76
81.70
81.63
81.57
81.51
81.45
82.94
82.88
82.81
82.75
82.69
82.63
82.56
82.50
82.44
82.38
82.31
82.25
82.19
82.13
82.06
82.00
70.16 70.62 71.08 71.53 71.99 72.45 72.90 73.36 73.82 74.27 74.73 75.19 75.64 68.31 68.77 69.23 69.69 70.16 70.62 71.08 71.54 72.01 72.47 72.93 73.40 73.86 74.32 74.78 75.25 75.71 68.27 68.74 69.21 69.68 70.15 70.62 71.09 71.56 72.02 72.49 72.96 73.43 73.90 74.37 74.84 75.30 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.97 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 316.96 Appendix- 5
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 81.94
83.44
83.38
83.31
83.25
83.19
83.12
83.06
83.00
82.93
82.87
82.81
82.74
82.68
82.62
82.55
82.49
82.43
83.94
83.88
83.81
83.75
83.69
83.62
83.56
83.49
83.43
83.36
83.30
83.24
83.17
83.11
83.04
82.98
82.92
84.44
84.38
84.31
84.25
84.18
84.12
84.05
83.99
83.92
83.86
83.79
75.77 68.24 68.72 69.19 69.67 70.14 70.62 71.09 71.57 72.04 72.52 72.99 73.47 73.94 74.41 74.89 75.36 75.84 68.21 68.69 69.17 69.65 70.13 70.61 71.10 71.58 72.06 72.54 73.02 73.50 73.98 74.46 74.94 75.42 75.90 68.18 68.67 69.15 69.64 70.13 70.61 71.10 71.59 72.07 72.56 73.05 316.96
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.95
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
316.94
30
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
33
33
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
83.73
83.66
83.60
83.53
83.47
83.41
84.95
84.88
84.81
84.75
84.68
84.62
84.55
84.49
84.42
84.35
84.29
84.22
84.16
84.09
84.03
83.96
83.89
85.45
85.38
85.31
85.25
85.18
85.11
85.05
84.98
84.91
84.85
84.78
84.72
84.65
84.58
84.52
84.45
84.38
85.95
85.88
85.81
85.75
85.68
85.61
73.53 74.02 74.51 75.00 75.48 75.97 68.15 68.64 69.13 69.63 70.12 70.61 71.10 71.60 72.09 72.58 73.08 73.57 74.06 74.56 75.05 75.54 76.03 68.11 68.61 69.11 69.61 70.11 70.61 71.11 71.61 72.11 72.61 73.11 73.60 74.10 74.60 75.10 75.60 76.10 68.08 68.59 69.09 69.60 70.10 70.61 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.94 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 316.93 Appendix- 6
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 85.54
85.48
85.41
85.34
85.28
85.21
85.14
85.07
85.01
84.94
84.87
86.45
86.38
86.31
86.25
86.18
86.11
86.04
85.97
85.91
85.84
85.77
85.70
85.63
85.56
85.50
85.43
85.36
87.20
87.13
87.06
86.99
86.91
86.83
86.74
86.67
86.57
86.47
86.40
86.31
86.22
86.15
86.07
86.00
85.94
87.95
71.11 71.62 72.12 72.63 73.13 73.64 74.14 74.65 75.15 75.66 76.17 68.05 68.56 69.07 69.58 70.10 70.61 71.12 71.63 72.14 72.65 73.16 73.67 74.19 74.70 75.21 75.72 76.23 68.00 68.47 68.95 69.42 69.89 70.47 71.05 71.52 72.15 72.79 73.26 73.84 74.42 74.89 75.36 75.83 76.31 67.95 316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.93
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
316.92
317.06
316.99
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.91
316.99
317.06
317.20
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
87.88
87.80
87.73
87.65
87.54
87.43
87.36
87.23
87.10
87.03
86.91
86.80
86.73
86.65
86.58
86.51
88.83
88.75
88.67
88.58
88.50
88.38
88.27
88.19
88.06
87.94
87.85
87.73
87.61
87.53
87.45
87.37
87.30
89.70
89.62
89.53
89.44
89.35
89.23
89.11
89.02
88.89
88.77
88.68
88.55
88.42
68.39 68.82 69.26 69.69 70.34 70.98 71.41 72.16 72.92 73.36 74.01 74.66 75.09 75.52 75.95 76.38 67.90 68.34 68.79 69.25 69.70 70.36 71.03 71.47 72.18 72.91 73.36 74.03 74.71 75.15 75.60 76.04 76.49 67.84 68.30 68.76 69.24 69.71 70.39 71.07 71.53 72.20 72.89 73.36 74.05 74.75 317.05 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 316.91 317.05 317.20 317.36 317.21 317.06 316.98 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.90 316.98 317.06 317.21 317.36 317.52 317.36 317.21 317.05 316.89 316.89 316.89 316.89 316.89 316.89 316.89 316.89 316.89 Appendix- 7
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 88.34
88.25
88.17
88.08
90.64
90.55
90.47
90.37
90.28
90.16
90.03
89.95
89.83
89.71
89.62
89.49
89.36
89.27
89.18
89.09
89.01
91.57
91.49
91.40
91.31
91.21
91.08
90.96
90.87
90.76
90.65
90.56
90.43
90.29
90.20
90.11
90.02
89.93
92.57
92.49
92.42
92.33
92.25
92.13
92.02
91.94
75.21 75.67 76.13 76.59 67.78 68.26 68.74 69.23 69.72 70.42 71.12 71.59 72.23 72.87 73.35 74.08 74.80 75.28 75.76 76.24 76.72 67.72 68.22 68.71 69.22 69.72 70.44 71.16 71.65 72.25 72.84 73.35 74.10 74.85 75.35 75.84 76.34 76.84 67.66 68.17 68.68 69.20 69.73 70.47 71.22 71.73 317.05
317.21
317.36
317.52
317.70
317.54
317.38
317.21
317.05
316.96
316.88
316.88
316.88
316.88
316.88
316.96
317.05
317.21
317.38
317.54
317.70
317.88
317.71
317.54
317.37
317.21
317.04
316.87
316.87
316.87
316.87
316.87
317.04
317.21
317.37
317.54
317.71
317.88
318.07
317.90
317.73
317.56
317.38
317.17
316.95
316.86
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
44
44
44
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
91.86
91.77
91.68
91.56
91.44
91.36
91.28
91.20
91.12
93.57
93.50
93.43
93.36
93.29
93.19
93.08
93.01
92.95
92.88
92.81
92.70
92.59
92.52
92.44
92.37
92.30
94.57
94.48
94.39
94.30
94.20
94.11
94.01
93.99
93.95
93.90
93.88
93.79
93.69
93.60
93.50
93.40
93.30
95.56
95.47
95.38
72.28 72.82 73.34 74.13 74.91 75.43 75.95 76.47 77.00 67.59 68.12 68.64 69.19 69.74 70.51 71.28 71.80 72.30 72.79 73.34 74.15 74.97 75.52 76.06 76.61 77.15 67.72 68.42 69.12 69.82 70.52 71.22 71.92 72.09 72.43 72.77 72.93 73.63 74.33 75.04 75.74 76.51 77.28 67.85 68.55 69.26 316.86 316.86 316.95 317.17 317.38 317.56 317.73 317.90 318.07 318.27 318.09 317.92 317.74 317.56 317.29 317.03 316.85 316.85 316.85 317.03 317.29 317.56 317.74 317.92 318.09 318.27 318.26 318.02 317.79 317.55 317.31 317.08 316.84 315.84 315.84 315.84 316.84 317.08 317.31 317.55 317.79 318.02 318.26 318.25 318.01 317.78 Appendix- 8
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 95.29
95.19
95.10
95.00
94.98
94.94
94.90
94.87
94.78
94.68
94.59
94.49
94.39
94.29
96.55
96.46
96.37
96.28
96.18
96.09
95.99
95.97
95.93
95.89
95.86
95.77
95.67
95.58
95.48
95.38
95.28
97.54
97.45
97.36
97.27
97.17
97.08
96.98
96.96
96.92
96.88
96.85
96.76
96.66
96.57
96.47
69.96 70.66 71.36 72.06 72.22 72.56 72.90 73.07 73.77 74.47 75.17 75.87 76.64 77.42 67.99 68.69 69.39 70.09 70.79 71.49 72.19 72.36 72.70 73.03 73.20 73.90 74.60 75.30 76.01 76.78 77.55 68.12 68.82 69.52 70.22 70.92 71.62 72.32 72.49 72.83 73.16 73.33 74.03 74.73 75.43 76.14 317.54
317.30
317.07
316.83
315.83
315.83
315.83
316.83
317.07
317.30
317.54
317.78
318.01
318.25
318.24
318.00
317.77
317.53
317.29
317.06
316.82
315.82
315.82
315.82
316.82
317.06
317.29
317.53
317.77
318.00
318.24
318.23
317.99
317.76
317.52
317.28
317.05
316.81
315.81
315.81
315.81
316.81
317.05
317.28
317.52
317.76
46
46
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
96.37
96.27
98.54
98.45
98.35
98.26
98.17
98.07
97.98
97.96
97.91
97.87
97.84
97.75
97.66
97.56
97.47
97.37
97.26
99.53
99.44
99.35
99.25
99.16
99.06
98.97
98.95
98.91
98.86
98.84
98.74
98.65
98.55
98.46
98.36
98.26
100.52
100.43
100.34
100.24
100.15
100.05
99.96
99.94
99.90
99.85
76.91 77.68 68.25 68.95 69.65 70.35 71.05 71.75 72.45 72.62 72.96 73.30 73.46 74.16 74.86 75.57 76.27 77.04 77.81 68.38 69.08 69.79 70.49 71.19 71.89 72.59 72.75 73.09 73.43 73.60 74.30 75.00 75.70 76.40 77.17 77.95 68.52 69.22 69.92 70.62 71.32 72.02 72.72 72.89 73.23 73.56 317.99 318.23 318.22 317.98 317.75 317.51 317.27 317.04 316.80 315.80 315.80 315.80 316.80 317.04 317.27 317.51 317.75 317.98 318.22 318.21 317.97 317.74 317.50 317.26 317.03 316.79 315.79 315.79 315.79 316.79 317.03 317.26 317.50 317.74 317.97 318.21 318.20 317.96 317.73 317.49 317.25 317.02 316.78 315.78 315.78 315.78 Appendix- 9
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
49 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 52 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 99.83
99.73
99.64
99.54
99.45
99.35
99.25
101.51
101.42
101.33
101.23
101.14
101.04
100.95
100.93
100.89
100.84
100.82
100.72
100.63
100.53
100.44
100.34
100.24
102.50
102.41
102.32
102.22
102.13
102.04
101.94
101.92
101.88
101.83
101.81
101.71
101.62
101.53
101.43
101.33
101.23
103.49
103.40
103.31
103.22
103.12
73.73 74.43 75.13 75.83 76.54 77.31 78.08 68.65 69.35 70.05 70.75 71.45 72.15 72.85 73.02 73.36 73.69 73.86 74.56 75.26 75.96 76.67 77.44 78.21 68.78 69.48 70.18 70.88 71.58 72.28 72.98 73.15 73.49 73.83 73.99 74.69 75.39 76.10 76.80 77.57 78.34 68.91 69.61 70.32 71.02 71.72 316.78
317.02
317.25
317.49
317.73
317.96
318.20
318.19
317.95
317.72
317.48
317.24
317.01
316.77
315.77
315.77
315.77
316.77
317.01
317.24
317.48
317.72
317.95
318.19
318.18
317.94
317.71
317.47
317.23
317.00
316.76
315.76
315.76
315.76
316.76
317.00
317.23
317.47
317.71
317.94
318.18
318.17
317.93
317.70
317.46
317.22
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
103.03
102.93
102.91
102.87
102.82
102.80
102.71
102.61
102.52
102.42
102.32
102.22
104.48
104.39
104.30
104.21
104.11
104.02
103.92
103.90
103.86
103.81
103.79
103.70
103.60
103.51
103.41
103.31
103.21
105.47
105.38
105.29
105.20
105.10
105.01
104.91
104.89
104.85
104.81
104.78
104.69
104.59
104.50
104.40
104.30
104.20
72.42 73.12 73.28 73.62 73.96 74.13 74.83 75.53 76.23 76.93 77.70 78.48 69.05 69.75 70.45 71.15 71.85 72.55 73.25 73.42 73.76 74.09 74.26 74.96 75.66 76.36 77.07 77.84 78.61 69.18 69.88 70.58 71.28 71.98 72.68 73.38 73.55 73.89 74.22 74.39 75.09 75.79 76.49 77.20 77.97 78.74 316.99 316.75 315.75 315.75 315.75 316.75 316.99 317.22 317.46 317.70 317.93 318.17 318.16 317.92 317.69 317.45 317.21 316.98 316.74 315.74 315.74 315.74 316.74 316.98 317.21 317.45 317.69 317.92 318.16 318.15 317.91 317.68 317.44 317.20 316.97 316.73 315.73 315.73 315.73 316.73 316.97 317.20 317.44 317.68 317.91 318.15 Appendix- 10
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 106.46
106.37
106.28
106.19
106.09
106.00
105.90
105.88
105.84
105.80
105.77
105.68
105.58
105.49
105.39
105.29
105.19
107.46
107.36
107.27
107.18
107.09
106.99
106.90
106.87
106.83
106.79
106.76
106.67
106.58
106.48
106.39
106.28
106.18
108.45
108.36
108.26
108.17
108.08
107.98
107.89
107.87
107.82
107.78
107.75
107.66
69.31 70.01 70.71 71.41 72.11 72.81 73.51 73.68 74.02 74.36 74.52 75.22 75.92 76.63 77.33 78.10 78.87 69.44 70.14 70.85 71.55 72.25 72.95 73.65 73.81 74.15 74.49 74.66 75.36 76.06 76.76 77.46 78.23 79.01 69.58 70.28 70.98 71.68 72.38 73.08 73.78 73.95 74.29 74.62 74.79 75.49 318.14
317.90
317.67
317.43
317.19
316.96
316.72
315.72
315.72
315.72
316.72
316.96
317.19
317.43
317.67
317.90
318.14
318.13
317.89
317.66
317.42
317.18
316.95
316.71
315.71
315.71
315.71
316.71
316.95
317.18
317.42
317.66
317.89
318.13
318.12
317.88
317.65
317.41
317.17
316.94
316.70
315.70
315.70
315.70
316.70
316.94
57
57
57
57
57
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
107.57
107.47
107.38
107.28
107.17
109.44
109.35
109.26
109.16
109.07
108.97
108.88
108.86
108.82
108.77
108.75
108.65
108.56
108.46
108.37
108.27
108.17
110.43
110.34
110.25
110.15
110.06
109.96
109.87
109.85
109.81
109.76
109.74
109.64
109.55
109.45
109.36
109.26
109.16
111.42
111.33
111.24
111.14
111.05
110.96
110.86
76.19 76.89 77.60 78.37 79.14 69.71 70.41 71.11 71.81 72.51 73.21 73.91 74.08 74.42 74.75 74.92 75.62 76.32 77.02 77.73 78.50 79.27 69.84 70.54 71.24 71.94 72.64 73.34 74.04 74.21 74.55 74.89 75.05 75.75 76.45 77.16 77.86 78.63 79.40 69.97 70.67 71.38 72.08 72.78 73.48 74.18 317.17 317.41 317.65 317.88 318.12 318.11 317.87 317.64 317.40 317.16 316.93 316.69 315.69 315.69 315.69 316.69 316.93 317.16 317.40 317.64 317.87 318.11 318.10 317.86 317.63 317.39 317.15 316.92 316.68 315.68 315.68 315.68 316.68 316.92 317.15 317.39 317.63 317.86 318.10 318.09 317.85 317.62 317.38 317.14 316.91 316.67 Appendix- 11
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 110.84
110.80
110.75
110.73
110.63
110.54
110.45
110.35
110.25
110.15
112.41
112.32
112.23
112.13
112.04
111.95
111.85
111.83
111.79
111.74
111.72
111.62
111.53
111.44
111.34
111.24
111.14
113.40
113.31
113.22
113.13
113.03
112.94
112.84
112.82
112.78
112.73
112.71
112.62
112.52
112.43
112.33
112.23
112.13
114.39
114.30
74.34 74.68 75.02 75.19 75.89 76.59 77.29 77.99 78.76 79.54 70.10 70.81 71.51 72.21 72.91 73.61 74.31 74.48 74.81 75.15 75.32 76.02 76.72 77.42 78.12 78.90 79.67 70.24 70.94 71.64 72.34 73.04 73.74 74.44 74.61 74.95 75.28 75.45 76.15 76.85 77.55 78.26 79.03 79.80 70.37 71.07 315.67
315.67
315.67
316.67
316.91
317.14
317.38
317.62
317.85
318.09
318.08
317.84
317.61
317.37
317.13
316.90
316.66
315.66
315.66
315.66
316.66
316.90
317.13
317.37
317.61
317.84
318.08
318.07
317.83
317.60
317.36
317.12
316.89
316.65
315.65
315.65
315.65
316.65
316.89
317.12
317.36
317.60
317.83
318.07
318.06
317.82
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
114.21
114.12
114.02
113.93
113.83
113.81
113.77
113.72
113.70
113.61
113.51
113.42
113.32
113.22
113.12
115.38
115.29
115.20
115.11
115.01
114.92
114.82
114.80
114.76
114.71
114.69
114.60
114.50
114.41
114.31
114.21
114.11
116.38
116.28
116.19
116.10
116.01
115.91
115.82
115.79
115.75
115.71
115.68
115.59
115.50
115.40
71.77 72.47 73.17 73.87 74.57 74.74 75.08 75.41 75.58 76.28 76.98 77.69 78.39 79.16 79.93 70.50 71.20 71.91 72.61 73.31 74.01 74.71 74.87 75.21 75.55 75.72 76.42 77.12 77.82 78.52 79.29 80.07 70.63 71.34 72.04 72.74 73.44 74.14 74.84 75.01 75.34 75.68 75.85 76.55 77.25 77.95 317.59 317.35 317.11 316.88 316.64 315.64 315.64 315.64 316.64 316.88 317.11 317.35 317.59 317.82 318.06 318.05 317.81 317.58 317.34 317.10 316.87 316.63 315.63 315.63 315.63 316.63 316.87 317.10 317.34 317.58 317.81 318.05 318.04 317.80 317.57 317.33 317.09 316.86 316.62 315.62 315.62 315.62 316.62 316.86 317.09 317.33 Appendix- 12
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 115.31
115.20
115.10
117.37
117.28
117.18
117.09
117.00
116.90
116.81
116.79
116.74
116.70
116.67
116.58
116.49
116.39
116.30
116.20
116.09
118.36
118.27
118.17
118.08
117.99
117.89
117.80
117.78
117.73
117.69
117.66
117.57
117.48
117.38
117.29
117.19
117.08
119.35
119.26
119.17
119.07
118.98
118.88
118.79
118.77
118.73
78.65 79.43 80.20 70.77 71.47 72.17 72.87 73.57 74.27 74.97 75.14 75.48 75.81 75.98 76.68 77.38 78.08 78.79 79.56 80.33 70.90 71.60 72.30 73.00 73.70 74.40 75.10 75.27 75.61 75.94 76.11 76.81 77.51 78.22 78.92 79.69 80.46 71.03 71.73 72.44 73.14 73.84 74.54 75.24 75.40 75.74 317.57
317.80
318.04
318.03
317.79
317.56
317.32
317.08
316.85
316.61
315.61
315.61
315.61
316.61
316.85
317.08
317.32
317.56
317.79
318.03
318.02
317.78
317.55
317.31
317.07
316.84
316.60
315.60
315.60
315.60
316.60
316.84
317.07
317.31
317.55
317.78
318.02
318.01
317.77
317.54
317.30
317.06
316.83
316.59
315.59
315.59
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
71
71
71
71
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
118.68
118.66
118.56
118.47
118.37
118.28
118.18
118.08
120.34
120.25
120.16
120.06
119.97
119.88
119.78
119.76
119.72
119.67
119.65
119.55
119.46
119.37
119.27
119.17
119.07
121.33
121.24
121.15
121.05
120.96
120.87
120.77
120.75
120.71
120.66
120.64
120.54
120.45
120.36
120.26
120.16
120.06
122.32
122.23
122.14
122.05
76.08 76.25 76.95 77.65 78.35 79.05 79.82 80.60 71.16 71.87 72.57 73.27 73.97 74.67 75.37 75.54 75.87 76.21 76.38 77.08 77.78 78.48 79.18 79.96 80.73 71.30 72.00 72.70 73.40 74.10 74.80 75.50 75.67 76.01 76.34 76.51 77.21 77.91 78.61 79.32 80.09 80.86 71.43 72.13 72.83 73.53 315.59 316.59 316.83 317.06 317.30 317.54 317.77 318.01 318.00 317.76 317.53 317.29 317.05 316.82 316.58 315.58 315.58 315.58 316.58 316.82 317.05 317.29 317.53 317.76 318.00 317.99 317.75 317.52 317.28 317.04 316.81 316.57 315.57 315.57 315.57 316.57 316.81 317.04 317.28 317.52 317.75 317.99 317.98 317.74 317.51 317.27 Appendix- 13
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 121.95
121.86
121.76
121.74
121.70
121.65
121.63
121.54
121.44
121.35
121.25
121.15
121.05
123.31
123.22
123.13
123.04
122.94
122.85
122.75
122.73
122.69
122.64
122.62
122.53
122.43
122.34
122.24
122.14
122.04
124.30
124.21
124.12
124.03
123.93
123.84
123.74
123.72
123.68
123.63
123.61
123.52
123.42
123.33
123.23
123.13
74.23 74.93 75.63 75.80 76.14 76.47 76.64 77.34 78.04 78.75 79.45 80.22 80.99 71.56 72.26 72.97 73.67 74.37 75.07 75.77 75.93 76.27 76.61 76.78 77.48 78.18 78.88 79.58 80.35 81.13 71.69 72.40 73.10 73.80 74.50 75.20 75.90 76.07 76.40 76.74 76.91 77.61 78.31 79.01 79.71 80.49 317.03
316.80
316.56
315.56
315.56
315.56
316.56
316.80
317.03
317.27
317.51
317.74
317.98
317.97
317.73
317.50
317.26
317.02
316.79
316.55
315.55
315.55
315.55
316.55
316.79
317.02
317.26
317.50
317.73
317.97
317.96
317.72
317.49
317.25
317.01
316.78
316.54
315.54
315.54
315.54
316.54
316.78
317.01
317.25
317.49
317.72
73
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
123.03
125.30
125.20
125.11
125.02
124.93
124.83
124.74
124.71
124.67
124.62
124.60
124.51
124.42
124.32
124.23
124.12
124.02
126.29
126.19
126.10
126.01
125.92
125.82
125.73
125.71
125.66
125.62
125.59
125.50
125.41
125.31
125.22
125.11
125.01
127.28
127.19
127.09
127.00
126.91
126.81
126.72
126.70
126.65
126.61
126.58
81.26 71.83 72.53 73.23 73.93 74.63 75.33 76.03 76.20 76.54 76.87 77.04 77.74 78.44 79.14 79.85 80.62 81.39 71.96 72.66 73.36 74.06 74.76 75.46 76.16 76.33 76.67 77.00 77.17 77.87 78.57 79.28 79.98 80.75 81.52 72.09 72.79 73.50 74.20 74.90 75.60 76.30 76.46 76.80 77.14 77.31 317.96 317.95 317.71 317.48 317.24 317.00 316.77 316.53 315.53 315.53 315.53 316.53 316.77 317.00 317.24 317.48 317.71 317.95 317.94 317.70 317.47 317.23 316.99 316.76 316.52 315.52 315.52 315.52 316.52 316.76 316.99 317.23 317.47 317.70 317.94 317.93 317.69 317.46 317.22 316.98 316.75 316.51 315.51 315.51 315.51 316.51 Appendix- 14
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 79 79 79 79 79 79 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 126.49
126.40
126.30
126.21
126.11
126.00
128.27
128.18
128.08
127.99
127.90
127.80
127.71
127.69
127.64
127.60
127.57
127.48
127.39
127.29
127.20
127.10
126.99
129.26
129.17
129.08
128.98
128.89
128.80
128.70
128.68
128.64
128.59
128.57
128.47
128.38
128.29
128.19
128.09
127.99
130.25
130.16
130.07
129.97
129.88
129.79
78.01 78.71 79.41 80.11 80.88 81.66 72.22 72.93 73.63 74.33 75.03 75.73 76.43 76.60 76.93 77.27 77.44 78.14 78.84 79.54 80.24 81.02 81.79 72.36 73.06 73.76 74.46 75.16 75.86 76.56 76.73 77.07 77.40 77.57 78.27 78.97 79.67 80.38 81.15 81.92 72.49 73.19 73.89 74.59 75.29 75.99 316.75
316.98
317.22
317.46
317.69
317.93
317.92
317.68
317.45
317.21
316.97
316.74
316.50
315.50
315.50
315.50
316.50
316.74
316.97
317.21
317.45
317.68
317.92
317.91
317.67
317.44
317.20
316.96
316.73
316.49
315.49
315.49
315.49
316.49
316.73
316.96
317.20
317.44
317.67
317.91
317.90
317.66
317.43
317.19
316.95
316.72
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
81
82
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
129.69
129.67
129.63
129.58
129.56
129.46
129.37
129.28
129.18
129.08
128.98
131.24
131.15
131.06
130.96
130.87
130.78
130.68
130.66
130.62
130.57
130.55
130.45
130.36
130.27
130.17
130.07
129.97
132.23
132.14
132.05
131.96
131.86
131.77
131.67
131.65
131.61
131.56
131.54
131.45
131.35
131.26
131.16
131.06
130.96
133.22
76.69 76.86 77.20 77.53 77.70 78.40 79.10 79.80 80.51 81.28 82.05 72.62 73.32 74.03 74.73 75.43 76.13 76.83 76.99 77.33 77.67 77.84 78.54 79.24 79.94 80.64 81.41 82.19 72.75 73.45 74.16 74.86 75.56 76.26 76.96 77.13 77.46 77.80 77.97 78.67 79.37 80.07 80.77 81.54 82.32 72.88 316.48 315.48 315.48 315.48 316.48 316.72 316.95 317.19 317.43 317.66 317.90 317.89 317.65 317.42 317.18 316.94 316.71 316.47 315.47 315.47 315.47 316.47 316.71 316.94 317.18 317.42 317.65 317.89 317.88 317.64 317.41 317.17 316.93 316.70 316.46 315.46 315.46 315.46 316.46 316.70 316.93 317.17 317.41 317.64 317.88 317.87 Appendix- 15
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 133.13
133.04
132.95
132.85
132.76
132.66
132.64
132.60
132.55
132.53
132.44
132.34
132.25
132.15
132.05
131.95
134.22
134.12
134.03
133.94
133.85
133.75
133.66
133.63
133.59
133.54
133.52
133.43
133.34
133.24
133.15
133.04
132.94
135.21
135.11
135.02
134.93
134.84
134.74
134.65
134.62
134.58
134.53
134.51
134.42
134.33
73.59 74.29 74.99 75.69 76.39 77.09 77.26 77.59 77.93 78.10 78.80 79.50 80.20 80.90 81.68 82.45 73.02 73.72 74.42 75.12 75.82 76.52 77.22 77.39 77.73 78.06 78.23 78.93 79.63 80.33 81.04 81.81 82.58 73.15 73.85 74.56 75.26 75.96 76.66 77.36 77.52 77.86 78.20 78.37 79.07 79.77 317.63
317.40
317.16
316.92
316.69
316.45
315.45
315.45
315.45
316.45
316.69
316.92
317.16
317.40
317.63
317.87
317.86
317.62
317.39
317.15
316.91
316.68
316.44
315.44
315.44
315.44
316.44
316.68
316.91
317.15
317.39
317.62
317.86
317.85
317.61
317.38
317.14
316.90
316.67
316.43
315.43
315.43
315.43
316.43
316.67
316.90
84
84
84
84
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
87
87
87
87
87
87
87
87
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
134.23
134.14
134.03
133.93
136.20
136.10
136.01
135.92
135.83
135.73
135.64
135.62
135.57
135.53
135.50
135.41
135.32
135.22
135.13
135.02
134.92
137.19
137.10
137.00
136.91
136.82
136.72
136.63
136.61
136.56
136.52
136.49
136.40
136.31
136.21
136.12
136.02
135.91
138.18
138.09
137.99
137.90
137.81
137.72
137.62
137.60
80.47 81.17 81.94 82.72 73.28 73.98 74.69 75.39 76.09 76.79 77.49 77.66 77.99 78.33 78.50 79.20 79.90 80.60 81.30 82.07 82.85 73.41 74.12 74.82 75.52 76.22 76.92 77.62 77.79 78.12 78.46 78.63 79.33 80.03 80.73 81.43 82.21 82.98 73.55 74.25 74.95 75.65 76.35 77.05 77.75 77.92 317.14 317.38 317.61 317.85 317.84 317.60 317.37 317.13 316.89 316.66 316.42 315.42 315.42 315.42 316.42 316.66 316.89 317.13 317.37 317.60 317.84 317.83 317.59 317.36 317.12 316.88 316.65 316.41 315.41 315.41 315.41 316.41 316.65 316.88 317.12 317.36 317.59 317.83 317.82 317.58 317.35 317.11 316.87 316.64 316.40 315.40 Appendix- 16
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 137.55
137.51
137.48
137.39
137.30
137.21
137.11
137.01
136.90
139.17
139.08
138.98
138.89
138.80
138.71
138.61
138.59
138.54
138.50
138.47
138.38
138.29
138.20
138.10
138.00
137.89
140.16
140.07
139.98
139.88
139.79
139.70
139.60
139.58
139.54
139.49
139.47
139.37
139.28
139.19
139.09
138.99
138.89
141.15
141.06
140.97
78.26 78.59 78.76 79.46 80.16 80.86 81.57 82.34 83.11 73.68 74.38 75.09 75.79 76.49 77.19 77.89 78.05 78.39 78.73 78.90 79.60 80.30 81.00 81.70 82.47 83.25 73.81 74.51 75.22 75.92 76.62 77.32 78.02 78.19 78.52 78.86 79.03 79.73 80.43 81.13 81.83 82.60 83.38 73.94 74.65 75.35 315.40
315.40
316.40
316.64
316.87
317.11
317.35
317.58
317.82
317.81
317.57
317.34
317.10
316.86
316.63
316.39
315.39
315.39
315.39
316.39
316.63
316.86
317.10
317.34
317.57
317.81
317.80
317.56
317.33
317.09
316.85
316.62
316.38
315.38
315.38
315.38
316.38
316.62
316.85
317.09
317.33
317.56
317.80
317.79
317.55
317.32
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
140.88
140.78
140.69
140.59
140.57
140.53
140.48
140.46
140.37
140.27
140.18
140.08
139.98
139.88
142.14
142.05
141.96
141.87
141.77
141.68
141.58
141.56
141.52
141.47
141.45
141.36
141.26
141.17
141.07
140.97
140.87
143.14
143.04
142.95
142.86
142.77
142.67
142.58
142.55
142.51
142.46
142.44
142.35
142.26
142.16
142.07
76.05 76.75 77.45 78.15 78.32 78.65 78.99 79.16 79.86 80.56 81.26 81.96 82.74 83.51 74.08 74.78 75.48 76.18 76.88 77.58 78.28 78.45 78.79 79.12 79.29 79.99 80.69 81.39 82.10 82.87 83.64 74.21 74.91 75.62 76.32 77.02 77.72 78.42 78.58 78.92 79.26 79.43 80.13 80.83 81.53 82.23 317.08 316.84 316.61 316.37 315.37 315.37 315.37 316.37 316.61 316.84 317.08 317.32 317.55 317.79 317.78 317.54 317.31 317.07 316.83 316.60 316.36 315.36 315.36 315.36 316.36 316.60 316.83 317.07 317.31 317.54 317.78 317.77 317.53 317.30 317.06 316.82 316.59 316.35 315.35 315.35 315.35 316.35 316.59 316.82 317.06 317.30 Appendix- 17
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
92 92 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 141.96
141.86
144.13
144.03
143.94
143.85
143.76
143.66
143.57
143.54
143.50
143.45
143.43
143.34
143.25
143.15
143.06
142.95
142.85
145.12
145.02
144.93
144.84
144.75
144.65
144.56
144.54
144.49
144.44
144.42
144.33
144.24
144.14
144.05
143.94
143.84
146.11
146.02
145.92
145.83
145.74
145.64
145.55
145.53
145.48
145.43
83.00 83.78 74.34 75.04 75.75 76.45 77.15 77.85 78.55 78.72 79.05 79.39 79.56 80.26 80.96 81.66 82.36 83.13 83.91 74.47 75.18 75.88 76.58 77.28 77.98 78.68 78.85 79.18 79.52 79.69 80.39 81.09 81.79 82.49 83.27 84.04 74.61 75.31 76.01 76.71 77.41 78.11 78.81 78.98 79.32 79.65 317.53
317.77
317.76
317.52
317.29
317.05
316.81
316.58
316.34
315.34
315.34
315.34
316.34
316.58
316.81
317.05
317.29
317.52
317.76
317.75
317.51
317.28
317.04
316.80
316.57
316.33
315.33
315.33
315.33
316.33
316.57
316.80
317.04
317.28
317.51
317.75
317.74
317.50
317.27
317.03
316.79
316.56
316.32
315.32
315.32
315.32
95
95
95
95
95
95
95
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
98
98
98
98
98
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
145.41
145.32
145.23
145.13
145.04
144.94
144.83
147.10
147.01
146.91
146.82
146.73
146.64
146.54
146.52
146.47
146.43
146.40
146.31
146.22
146.13
146.03
145.93
145.82
148.09
148.00
147.90
147.81
147.72
147.63
147.53
147.51
147.46
147.42
147.39
147.30
147.21
147.12
147.02
146.92
146.81
149.08
148.99
148.89
148.80
148.71
79.82 80.52 81.22 81.92 82.63 83.40 84.17 74.74 75.44 76.15 76.85 77.55 78.25 78.95 79.11 79.45 79.79 79.96 80.66 81.36 82.06 82.76 83.53 84.31 74.87 75.57 76.28 76.98 77.68 78.38 79.08 79.24 79.58 79.92 80.09 80.79 81.49 82.19 82.89 83.66 84.44 75.00 75.71 76.41 77.11 77.81 316.32 316.56 316.79 317.03 317.27 317.50 317.74 317.73 317.49 317.26 317.02 316.78 316.55 316.31 315.31 315.31 315.31 316.31 316.55 316.78 317.02 317.26 317.49 317.73 317.72 317.48 317.25 317.01 316.77 316.54 316.30 315.30 315.30 315.30 316.30 316.54 316.77 317.01 317.25 317.48 317.72 317.71 317.47 317.24 317.00 316.76 Appendix- 18
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 148.62
148.52
148.50
148.45
148.41
148.38
148.29
148.20
148.11
148.01
147.91
147.80
150.07
149.98
149.89
149.79
149.70
149.61
149.51
149.49
149.45
149.40
149.38
149.28
149.19
149.10
149.00
148.90
148.80
151.06
150.97
150.88
150.79
150.69
150.60
150.50
150.48
150.44
150.39
150.37
150.28
150.18
150.09
149.99
149.89
149.79
78.51 79.21 79.38 79.71 80.05 80.22 80.92 81.62 82.32 83.02 83.80 84.57 75.13 75.84 76.54 77.24 77.94 78.64 79.34 79.51 79.84 80.18 80.35 81.05 81.75 82.45 83.15 83.93 84.70 75.27 75.97 76.68 77.38 78.08 78.78 79.48 79.64 79.98 80.32 80.49 81.19 81.89 82.59 83.29 84.06 84.84 316.53
316.29
315.29
315.29
315.29
316.29
316.53
316.76
317.00
317.24
317.47
317.71
317.70
317.46
317.23
316.99
316.75
316.52
316.28
315.28
315.28
315.28
316.28
316.52
316.75
316.99
317.23
317.46
317.70
317.69
317.45
317.22
316.98
316.74
316.51
316.27
315.27
315.27
315.27
316.27
316.51
316.74
316.98
317.22
317.45
317.69
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
152.06
151.96
151.87
151.78
151.69
151.59
151.50
151.47
151.43
151.38
151.36
151.27
151.18
151.08
150.99
150.88
150.78
153.05
152.95
152.86
152.77
152.68
152.58
152.49
152.46
152.42
152.37
152.35
152.26
152.17
152.07
151.98
151.87
151.77
154.04
153.94
153.85
153.76
153.67
153.57
153.48
153.45
153.41
153.36
153.34
153.25
75.40 76.10 76.81 77.51 78.21 78.91 79.61 79.77 80.11 80.45 80.62 81.32 82.02 82.72 83.42 84.19 84.97 75.53 76.24 76.94 77.64 78.34 79.04 79.74 79.91 80.24 80.58 80.75 81.45 82.15 82.85 83.55 84.33 85.10 75.66 76.37 77.07 77.77 78.47 79.17 79.87 80.04 80.37 80.71 80.88 81.58 317.68 317.44 317.21 316.97 316.73 316.50 316.26 315.26 315.26 315.26 316.26 316.50 316.73 316.97 317.21 317.44 317.68 317.67 317.43 317.20 316.96 316.72 316.49 316.25 315.25 315.25 315.25 316.25 316.49 316.72 316.96 317.20 317.43 317.67 317.66 317.42 317.19 316.95 316.71 316.48 316.24 315.24 315.24 315.24 316.24 316.48 Appendix- 19
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
103 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 153.16
153.06
152.97
152.86
152.76
155.03
154.93
154.84
154.75
154.66
154.56
154.47
154.45
154.40
154.35
154.33
154.24
154.15
154.05
153.96
153.85
153.75
156.02
155.93
155.83
155.74
155.65
155.56
155.46
155.44
155.39
155.34
155.32
155.23
155.14
155.05
154.95
154.85
154.74
157.01
156.92
156.82
156.73
156.64
156.55
156.45
82.28 82.98 83.68 84.46 85.23 75.80 76.50 77.21 77.91 78.61 79.31 80.01 80.17 80.51 80.85 81.02 81.72 82.42 83.12 83.82 84.59 85.37 75.93 76.63 77.34 78.04 78.74 79.44 80.14 80.30 80.64 80.98 81.15 81.85 82.55 83.25 83.95 84.72 85.50 76.06 76.77 77.47 78.17 78.87 79.57 80.27 316.71
316.95
317.19
317.42
317.66
317.65
317.41
317.18
316.94
316.70
316.47
316.23
315.23
315.23
315.23
316.23
316.47
316.70
316.94
317.18
317.41
317.65
317.64
317.40
317.17
316.93
316.69
316.46
316.22
315.22
315.22
315.22
316.22
316.46
316.69
316.93
317.17
317.40
317.64
317.63
317.39
317.16
316.92
316.68
316.45
316.21
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
109
109
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
156.43
156.38
156.34
156.31
156.22
156.13
156.04
155.94
155.84
155.73
158.00
157.91
157.81
157.72
157.63
157.54
157.44
157.42
157.37
157.33
157.30
157.21
157.12
157.03
156.93
156.83
156.72
158.99
158.90
158.80
158.71
158.62
158.53
158.43
158.41
158.36
158.32
158.29
158.20
158.11
158.02
157.92
157.82
157.71
159.98
159.89
80.44 80.77 81.11 81.28 81.98 82.68 83.38 84.08 84.86 85.63 76.19 76.90 77.60 78.30 79.00 79.70 80.40 80.57 80.90 81.24 81.41 82.11 82.81 83.51 84.21 84.99 85.76 76.33 77.03 77.74 78.44 79.14 79.84 80.54 80.70 81.04 81.38 81.55 82.25 82.95 83.65 84.35 85.12 85.90 76.46 77.16 315.21 315.21 315.21 316.21 316.45 316.68 316.92 317.16 317.39 317.63 317.62 317.38 317.15 316.91 316.67 316.44 316.20 315.20 315.20 315.20 316.20 316.44 316.67 316.91 317.15 317.38 317.62 317.61 317.37 317.14 316.90 316.66 316.43 316.19 315.19 315.19 315.19 316.19 316.43 316.66 316.90 317.14 317.37 317.61 317.60 317.36 Appendix- 20
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 159.80
159.70
159.61
159.52
159.42
159.40
159.36
159.31
159.29
159.19
159.10
159.01
158.91
158.81
158.71
160.98
160.88
160.79
160.70
160.61
160.51
160.42
160.39
160.35
160.30
160.28
160.19
160.10
160.00
159.91
159.80
159.70
161.97
161.87
161.78
161.69
161.60
161.50
161.41
161.38
161.34
161.29
161.27
161.18
161.09
160.99
77.87 78.57 79.27 79.97 80.67 80.83 81.17 81.51 81.68 82.38 83.08 83.78 84.48 85.25 86.03 76.59 77.30 78.00 78.70 79.40 80.10 80.80 80.97 81.30 81.64 81.81 82.51 83.21 83.91 84.61 85.39 86.16 76.72 77.43 78.13 78.83 79.53 80.23 80.93 81.10 81.43 81.77 81.94 82.64 83.34 84.04 317.13
316.89
316.65
316.42
316.18
315.18
315.18
315.18
316.18
316.42
316.65
316.89
317.13
317.36
317.60
317.59
317.35
317.12
316.88
316.64
316.41
316.17
315.17
315.17
315.17
316.17
316.41
316.64
316.88
317.12
317.35
317.59
317.58
317.34
317.11
316.87
316.63
316.40
316.16
315.16
315.16
315.16
316.16
316.40
316.63
316.87
111
111
111
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
113
114
114
114
114
114
114
114
114
114
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
160.90
160.79
160.69
162.96
162.86
162.77
162.68
162.59
162.49
162.40
162.37
162.33
162.28
162.26
162.17
162.08
161.98
161.89
161.78
161.68
163.95
163.85
163.76
163.67
163.58
163.48
163.39
163.37
163.32
163.27
163.25
163.16
163.07
162.97
162.88
162.77
162.67
164.94
164.85
164.75
164.66
164.57
164.48
164.38
164.36
164.31
84.74 85.52 86.29 76.86 77.56 78.27 78.97 79.67 80.37 81.07 81.23 81.57 81.91 82.08 82.78 83.48 84.18 84.88 85.65 86.43 76.99 77.69 78.40 79.10 79.80 80.50 81.20 81.36 81.70 82.04 82.21 82.91 83.61 84.31 85.01 85.78 86.56 77.12 77.83 78.53 79.23 79.93 80.63 81.33 81.50 81.83 317.11 317.34 317.58 317.57 317.33 317.10 316.86 316.62 316.39 316.15 315.15 315.15 315.15 316.15 316.39 316.62 316.86 317.10 317.33 317.57 317.56 317.32 317.09 316.85 316.61 316.38 316.14 315.14 315.14 315.14 316.14 316.38 316.61 316.85 317.09 317.32 317.56 317.55 317.31 317.08 316.84 316.60 316.37 316.13 315.13 315.13 Appendix- 21
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 116 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 164.26
164.24
164.15
164.06
163.97
163.87
163.77
163.66
165.93
165.84
165.75
165.66
165.57
165.48
165.39
165.36
165.30
165.24
165.21
165.12
165.03
164.94
164.85
164.75
164.65
166.92
166.83
166.75
166.66
166.58
82.17 82.34 83.04 83.74 84.44 85.14 85.92 86.69 77.25 77.93 78.61 79.28 79.95 80.62 81.30 81.52 81.96 82.41 82.64 83.32 84.00 84.68 85.36 86.09 86.82 77.39 78.03 78.68 79.33 79.97 timei files
I
0
23.43 23.43
0.00000555394
0.00001319061
I
21600 23.43 23.43
0.00023564072
0.00055964670
I
43200 23.43 23.43
0.00021789372
0.00051749758
I
64800 23.43 23.43
0.00003785349
0.00008990205
315.13
316.13
316.37
316.60
316.84
317.08
317.31
317.55
317.54
317.30
317.07
316.83
316.59
316.36
316.12
315.12
315.12
315.12
316.12
316.36
316.59
316.83
317.07
317.30
317.54
317.53
317.29
317.06
316.82
316.58
116
116
116
116
116
116
116
116
116
116
116
116
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
166.49
166.41
166.37
166.29
166.22
166.18
166.09
166.01
165.92
165.83
165.74
165.65
167.91
167.83
167.75
167.67
167.58
167.50
167.42
167.38
167.29
167.20
167.15
167.07
166.98
166.90
166.81
166.73
166.64
80.62 81.26 81.54 82.10 82.66 82.94 83.60 84.26 84.92 85.58 86.27 86.96 77.52 78.14 78.76 79.38 79.99 80.61 81.23 81.56 82.23 82.90 83.24 83.88 84.52 85.17 85.81 86.45 87.09 -320.5 320.5 0
0.00000138849
0.00000485970
0.00000277697
-320.5 320.5 0
0.00005891018
0.00020618563
0.00011782036
-320.5 320.5 0
0.00005447343
0.00019065700
0.00010894686
-320.5 320.5 0
0.00000946337
0.00003312181
0.00001892675
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
316.35 316.11 315.11 315.11 315.11 316.11 316.35 316.58 316.82 317.06 317.29 317.53 317.52 317.28 317.05 316.81 316.57 316.34 316.10 315.10 315.10 315.10 316.10 316.34 316.57 316.81 317.05 317.28 317.52 Appendix- 22
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Measured Sediment data
River
Date As
Flow
B.S.
m3/s
24.04.063
530
24.04.063
526
25.04.063
518
25.04.063
507
26.04.063
492
26.04.063
492
27.04.063
484
27.04.063
481
28.04.063
473
28.04.063
465
29.04.063
454
30.04.063
454
30.04.063
738
30.04.063
446
31.04.063
435
31.04.063
431
3.05.063
454
3.05.063
446
4.05.063
643
4.05.063
643
5.05.063
492
5.05.063
473
6.05.063
465
6.05.063
454
7.05.063
450
7.05.063
450
8.05.063
446
8.05.063
443
9.05.063
435
9.05.063
431
10.05.063
908
10.05.063
870
10.05.063
681
10.05.063
681
11.05.063
549
11.05.063
549
11.05.063
530
11.05.063
530
12.05.063
515
12.05.063
515
12.05.063
511
12.05.063
511
13.05.063
643
Measured
Suspended
Sediment
Concentration
PPM
54.2
73.2
69.5
55.8
38.6
31.7
37
981.3
33.4
61.7
39.2
1483.7
43.2
869.2
2193.3
2602.4
48.3
95.6
389.4
105.8
118.9
116.7
128.8
134.5
923.1
76.8
37.2
65
79.2
167.4
1071.1
997.5
480.1
479.9
58.5
187.4
135.3
134.8
58.8
71.5
70.1
58.9
82
Measured
Suspended
Sediment
Discharge
kg/s
29
38
36
28
19
16
18
472
16
29
18
674
32
388
954
1122
22
43
250
68
58
55
60
61
415
35
17
29
34
72
973
868
327
327
32
103
72
71
30
37
36
30
53
Unmeasure
d Measured
Suspended
Sediment
Discharge
40% of
measured
kg/s
11.6
15.2
14.4
11.2
7.6
6.4
7.2
188.8
6.4
11.6
7.2
269.6
12.8
155.2
381.6
448.8
8.8
17.2
100
27.2
23.2
22
24
24.4
166
14
6.8
11.6
13.6
28.8
389.2
347.2
130.8
130.8
12.8
41.2
28.8
28.4
12
14.8
14.4
12
21.2
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Total
Suspended
Sediment
Discharge
kg/s
40.6
53.2
50.4
39.2
26.6
22.4
25.2
660.8
22.4
40.6
25.2
943.6
44.8
543.2
1335.6
1570.8
30.8
60.2
350
95.2
81.2
77
84
85.4
581
49
23.8
40.6
47.6
100.8
1362.2
1215.2
457.8
457.8
44.8
144.2
100.8
99.4
42
51.8
50.4
42
74.2
Estimated
Bed Load
25% of Total
Suspended
Sediment
kg/s
10.15
13.3
12.6
9.8
6.65
5.6
6.3
165.2
5.6
10.15
6.3
235.9
11.2
135.8
333.9
392.7
7.7
15.05
87.5
23.8
20.3
19.25
21
21.35
145.25
12.25
5.95
10.15
11.9
25.2
340.55
303.8
114.45
114.45
11.2
36.05
25.2
24.85
10.5
12.95
12.6
10.5
18.55
Total
Suspende
d
Sediment
to Settling
basin kg/s
1.79
2.37
2.28
1.81
1.27
1.07
1.22
32.19
1.11
2.05
1.30
48.70
1.42
28.54
71.94
85.39
1.59
3.16
12.75
3.47
3.87
3.81
4.23
4.41
30.25
2.55
1.25
2.15
2.56
5.48
35.15
32.73
15.75
15.75
1.91
6.15
4.46
4.39
1.91
2.36
2.31
1.93
2.70
Appendix- 23
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
13.05.063
13.05.063
13.05.063
14.05.063
14.05.063
14.05.063
14.05.063
15.05.063
15.05.063
15.05.063
16.05.063
16.05.063
16.05.063
16.05.063
17.05.063
17.05.063
17.05.063
17.05.063
8.05.063
18.05.063
19.05.063
19.05.063
20.05.063
20.05.063
21.05.063
21.05.063
22.05.063
22.05.063
23.05.063
23.05.063
23.05.063
24.05.063
25.05.063
25.05.063
26.05.063
26.05.063
27.05.063
27.05.063
28.05.063
28.05.063
29.05.063
29.05.063
30.05.063
30.05.063
31.05.063
31.05.063
1.06.063
1.06.063
643
624
624
1286
1286
757
757
700
681
738
590
590
568
568
549
549
541
624
549
545
530
530
511
507
499
496
488
484
477
477
477
1059
643
636
632
632
605
590
568
556
541
530
643
613
605
598
568
568
65.7
81.7
66.4
2787.4
2578.1
448.1
349.2
224.9
287.7
733.2
99.8
192
79.3
59.1
176.3
22.8
136.4
290.3
318.6
401.8
440.6
40.7
75.6
54.6
61.6
43.8
77.7
78.1
65.5
243.7
2848.7
2830.8
527
304.9
598
69.1
167
2697.2
92.7
102.2
179.5
43.2
860.6
119
113.6
114
84.6
110.7
42
51
41
3585
3315
339
264
157
196
541
59
113
45
34
97
12
74
181
175
219
234
22
39
28
31
22
38
38
31
116
1359
2998
339
194
378
44
101
1591
53
57
97
23
553
73
69
68
48
63
16.8
20.4
16.4
1434
1326
135.6
105.6
62.8
78.4
216.4
23.6
45.2
18
13.6
38.8
4.8
29.6
72.4
70
87.6
93.6
8.8
15.6
11.2
12.4
8.8
15.2
15.2
12.4
46.4
543.6
1199.2
135.6
77.6
151.2
17.6
40.4
636.4
21.2
22.8
38.8
9.2
221.2
29.2
27.6
27.2
19.2
25.2
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
58.8
71.4
57.4
5019
4641
474.6
369.6
219.8
274.4
757.4
82.6
158.2
63
47.6
135.8
16.8
103.6
253.4
245
306.6
327.6
30.8
54.6
39.2
43.4
30.8
53.2
53.2
43.4
162.4
1902.6
4197.2
474.6
271.6
529.2
61.6
141.4
2227.4
74.2
79.8
135.8
32.2
774.2
102.2
96.6
95.2
67.2
88.2
14.7
17.85
14.35
1254.75
1160.25
118.65
92.4
54.95
68.6
189.35
20.65
39.55
15.75
11.9
33.95
4.2
25.9
63.35
61.25
76.65
81.9
7.7
13.65
9.8
10.85
7.7
13.3
13.3
10.85
40.6
475.65
1049.3
118.65
67.9
132.3
15.4
35.35
556.85
18.55
19.95
33.95
8.05
193.55
25.55
24.15
23.8
16.8
22.05
Appendix- 24
2.14
2.68
2.16
91.44
84.56
14.69
11.44
7.36
9.44
24.05
3.28
6.28
2.60
1.96
5.80
0.72
4.49
9.51
10.46
13.18
14.48
1.36
2.50
1.81
2.04
1.45
2.55
2.58
2.13
7.98
93.45
92.86
17.29
10.01
19.62
2.28
5.48
88.45
3.06
3.36
5.88
1.42
28.21
3.91
3.74
3.73
2.77
3.64
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
Master Thesis 2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Appendix- B
RESULTS
Trap Efficiency Calculation by SSIIM Model
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix- 25
Msc. in Hydropower Development‐2012
Proposed
Time:
1300
Dt:
Sum:
Grain
Size:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Master 's Thesis
3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SETTLING BASIN LAYOUT
Layout
65050
Sedim.
4.43E‐01
2.41E+03
size
Inflow
1.00E‐04
2.11E+02
2.41E+02
6.02E+01
1.20E+02
5.72E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.55E‐01 ‐5.39E‐02 3.44E‐01
7.45E+02 3.49E+00 1.67E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
0.00E+00 ‐1.94E+00 1.90E+00
3.05E‐05 1.74E‐01 2.12E+02
1.52E+00 4.47E‐01 2.44E+02
3.60E+00 1.47E‐01 5.79E+01
3.33E+01 2.88E‐01 9.07E+01
3.34E+02 8.81E‐01 2.61E+02
Alternative Layout
Time:
65050
1300 Sedim.
Dt:
4.43E‐01
Sum:
2.41E+03
Grain
size
Size:
Inflow
1 2.11E+02
2 2.41E+02
3 6.02E+01
4 1.20E+02
5 5.72E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.43E‐01 ‐1.89E‐02 2.97E‐01
6.75E+02 3.25E+00 1.59E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
1.40E‐01 1.82E‐01 2.28E+02
8.72E‐01 3.77E‐01 2.47E+02
2.48E+00 1.31E‐01 5.65E+01
4.08E+01 2.90E‐01 8.78E+01
3.41E+02 9.95E‐01 2.54E+02
Settling
Time:
1300
Dt:
Sum:
Grain
Size:
1
2
3
4
5
6
basin
65050
Sedim.
1.11E‐01
6.02E+02
size
Inflow
0.00E+00
5.27E+01
6.02E+01
1.50E+01
3.01E+01
1.43E+02
only
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
3.51E‐02 ‐3.08E‐03 7.89E‐02
1.79E+02 5.83E‐01 4.23E+02
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
0.00E+00 ‐4.46E‐01 4.46E‐01
2.43E‐11 3.90E‐02 5.26E+01
3.17E‐02 8.55E‐02 6.00E+01
3.59E‐01 3.15E‐02 1.46E+01
6.88E+00 7.11E‐02 2.32E+01
8.20E+01 2.19E‐01 6.18E+01
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 7.88E‐05 7.89E‐02
2.21E‐12 3.47E‐01 4.23E+02
water)
Suspended Defect
0.00E+00 ‐3.72E‐09
0.00% 100.00%
7.39E‐03 ‐2.76E‐03
‐0.01% 100.00%
2.26E‐02 2.69E‐03
0.00%
99.95%
9.28E‐03 ‐2.75E‐03
‐0.02%
97.61%
3.26E‐02 ‐1.24E‐01
‐0.41%
77.14%
2.20E‐01 ‐1.38E+00
‐0.97%
42.61%
1
Modificatio
Time:
65050
1300 Sedim.
Dt:
4.43E‐01
Sum:
2.41E+03
Grain
size
Size:
Inflow
1 0.00E+00
2 2.11E+02
3 2.41E+02
4 6.02E+01
5 1.20E+02
6 5.72E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.47E‐01 ‐5.39E‐02 3.43E‐01
6.99E+02 3.36E+00 1.66E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
0.00E+00 ‐2.00E+00 1.97E+00
1.09E‐05 1.48E‐01 2.10E+02
8.44E‐01 4.02E‐01 2.40E+02
2.65E+00 1.46E‐01 5.74E+01
2.91E+01 3.11E‐01 9.14E+01
3.17E+02 9.98E‐01 2.64E+02
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 ‐7.94E‐03 3.43E‐01
9.16E‐12 ‐4.32E+01 1.66E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
2.97E‐02 ‐1.27E‐04
0.00% 100.00%
7.23E‐02 3.04E‐01
0.14% 100.00%
1.73E‐01 ‐1.09E+00
‐0.45%
99.65%
6.21E‐02 ‐9.23E‐02
‐0.15%
95.60%
1.84E‐01 ‐6.29E‐01
‐0.52%
75.85%
1.16E+00 ‐1.17E+01
‐2.05%
44.58%
A Case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 2.22E‐03 3.44E‐01
9.15E‐12 8.82E+00 1.67E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
%defect %trap
4.00E‐02 ‐1.46E‐04
0.00% 100.00%
8.29E‐02 ‐1.45E+00
‐0.69% 100.00%
1.92E‐01 ‐5.04E+00
‐2.10%
99.37%
6.71E‐02 ‐1.54E+00
‐2.55%
94.02%
1.93E‐01 ‐4.16E+00
‐3.45%
72.32%
1.17E+00 ‐2.51E+01
‐4.39%
41.57%
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 ‐2.20E‐02 2.97E‐01
9.15E‐12 ‐1.36E+02 1.59E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
% defect Trap %
8.61E‐02 ‐1.82E+01
‐8.66%
99.46%
1.87E‐01 ‐7.51E+00
‐3.12%
97.56%
6.18E‐02 1.05E+00
1.75%
87.57%
1.75E‐01 4.24E+00
3.52%
66.09%
1.09E+00 9.48E+00
1.66%
40.29%
Average
78.19%
Appendix‐C Msc. in Hydropower Development‐2012
Master 's Thesis
3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SETTLING BASIN LAYOUT
2
Modificatio
Time:
65050
1300 Sedim.
Dt:
4.43E‐01
Sum:
2.41E+03
Grain
size
Size:
Inflow
1 0.00E+00
2 2.11E+02
3 2.41E+02
4 6.02E+01
5 1.20E+02
6 5.72E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.51E‐01 ‐5.22E‐02 3.45E‐01
7.21E+02 3.47E+00 1.68E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
0.00E+00 ‐1.96E+00 1.92E+00
2.69E‐05 1.66E‐01 2.11E+02
8.09E‐01 4.22E‐01 2.43E+02
2.83E+00 1.47E‐01 5.83E+01
3.11E+01 2.98E‐01 9.16E+01
3.26E+02 9.29E‐01 2.60E+02
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 4.80E‐04 3.45E‐01
9.16E‐12 1.67E+00 1.68E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
3.87E‐02 ‐8.24E‐05
0.00% 100.00%
8.06E‐02 ‐9.70E‐01
‐0.46% 100.00%
1.90E‐01 ‐4.06E+00
‐1.69%
99.66%
6.65E‐02 ‐1.19E+00
‐1.98%
95.30%
1.92E‐01 ‐2.82E+00
‐2.35%
74.20%
1.17E+00 ‐1.61E+01
‐2.82%
43.03%
3
Modificatio
Time:
65050
1300 Sedim.
Dt:
4.43E‐01
Sum:
2.41E+03
Grain
size
Size:
Inflow
1 0.00E+00
2 2.11E+02
3 2.41E+02
4 6.02E+01
5 1.20E+02
6 5.72E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.51E‐01 ‐5.23E‐02 3.45E‐01
7.20E+02 3.46E+00 1.69E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
0.00E+00 ‐1.98E+00 1.95E+00
8.37E‐06 1.58E‐01 2.12E+02
9.52E‐01 4.37E‐01 2.45E+02
2.94E+00 1.51E‐01 5.86E+01
3.09E+01 3.04E‐01 9.26E+01
3.25E+02 9.34E‐01 2.64E+02
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 7.51E‐04 3.45E‐01
9.16E‐12 2.66E+00 1.69E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
3.23E‐02 ‐7.63E‐05
0.00% 100.00%
7.65E‐02 ‐1.80E+00
‐0.86% 100.00%
1.87E‐01 ‐5.52E+00
‐2.29%
99.60%
6.63E‐02 ‐1.55E+00
‐2.58%
95.12%
1.92E‐01 ‐3.56E+00
‐2.96%
74.36%
1.18E+00 ‐1.99E+01
‐3.49%
43.08%
4
Modificatio
Time:
60050
1200 Sedim.
Dt:
9.12E‐01
Sum:
2.34E+03
Grain
size
Size:
Inflow
1 0.00E+00
2 2.05E+02
3 2.34E+02
4 5.85E+01
5 1.17E+02
6 5.56E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
3.02E‐01 ‐9.07E‐02 7.02E‐01
7.08E+02 6.67E+00 1.63E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
0.00E+00 ‐2.08E+00 2.05E+00
8.78E‐06 1.46E‐01 2.07E+02
1.10E+00 4.52E‐01 2.39E+02
3.11E+00 1.59E‐01 5.71E+01
3.10E+01 3.21E‐01 8.97E+01
3.19E+02 9.98E‐01 2.57E+02
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 6.93E‐04 7.02E‐01
9.16E‐12 1.39E+00 1.63E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
2.29E‐02 ‐4.23E‐05
0.00% 100.00%
1.13E‐01 ‐2.27E+00
‐1.11% 100.00%
3.36E‐01 ‐7.12E+00
‐3.04%
99.53%
1.25E‐01 ‐1.98E+00
‐3.38%
94.69%
3.78E‐01 ‐4.35E+00
‐3.72%
73.55%
2.36E+00 ‐2.35E+01
‐4.23%
42.60%
Closing
Time:
1300
Dt:
Sum:
Grain
Size:
1
2
3
4
5
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.92E‐01 ‐3.06E‐02 2.80E‐01
9.19E+02 3.22E+00 1.48E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
8.67E‐02 2.01E‐01 2.38E+02
8.19E+00 4.18E‐01 2.61E+02
9.31E+00 1.14E‐01 5.59E+01
5.06E+01 1.80E‐01 7.65E+01
3.91E+02 4.93E‐01 2.07E+02
1
65050
Sedim.
4.43E‐01
2.41E+03
size
Inflow
2.11E+02
2.41E+02
6.02E+01
1.20E+02
5.72E+02
A Case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 ‐1.87E‐03 2.80E‐01
6.86E‐12 ‐2.55E+00 1.48E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
% defect Trap %
9.78E‐02 ‐2.76E+01 ‐13.11%
99.96%
2.25E‐01 ‐2.87E+01 ‐11.90%
96.60%
7.20E‐02 ‐5.20E+00
‐8.65%
84.53%
1.81E‐01 ‐7.14E+00
‐5.93%
57.95%
9.90E‐01 ‐2.76E+01
‐4.83%
31.56%
Average
74.12%
Appendix‐C Msc. in Hydropower Development‐2012
Closing
Time:
1300
Dt:
Sum:
Grain
Size:
1
2
3
4
5
Closing
Time:
1300
Dt:
Sum:
Grain
Size:
1
2
3
4
5
Closing
Time:
1300
Dt:
Sum:
Grain
Size:
1
2
3
4
5
2
65050
Sedim.
4.43E‐01
2.41E+03
size
Inflow
2.11E+02
2.41E+02
6.02E+01
1.20E+02
5.72E+02
3
65050
Sedim.
4.43E‐01
2.41E+03
size
Inflow
2.11E+02
2.41E+02
6.02E+01
1.20E+02
5.72E+02
4
65050
Sedim.
4.43E‐01
2.41E+03
size
Inflow
2.11E+02
2.41E+02
6.02E+01
1.20E+02
5.72E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.91E‐01 ‐2.71E‐02 2.74E‐01
9.10E+02 3.19E+00 1.48E+03
no
breakdown(m3,
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
1.04E‐01 1.99E‐01 2.37E+02
8.21E+00 4.23E‐01 2.58E+02
9.11E+00 1.14E‐01 5.51E+01
4.97E+01 1.81E‐01 7.62E+01
3.88E+02 5.06E‐01 2.06E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.82E‐01 ‐1.63E‐02 2.59E‐01
8.62E+02 3.09E+00 1.44E+03
breakdown(m3,
no
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
1.26E‐01 2.05E‐01 2.35E+02
7.55E+00 3.95E‐01 2.45E+02
8.33E+00 1.10E‐01 5.24E+01
4.59E+01 1.84E‐01 7.32E+01
3.69E+02 5.38E‐01 2.03E+02
seconds
continuity: In,
Out,
1.77E‐01 ‐1.40E‐02 2.68E‐01
8.43E+02 3.09E+00 1.48E+03
breakdown(m3,
no
Outflow LayerActiveLayerInac.
1.91E‐01 2.03E‐01 2.36E+02
5.54E+00 4.11E‐01 2.49E+02
7.10E+00 1.18E‐01 5.42E+01
4.35E+01 2.01E‐01 7.67E+01
3.65E+02 5.83E‐01 2.13E+02
A Case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project
Master 's Thesis
3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SETTLING BASIN LAYOUT
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 ‐6.26E‐03 2.74E‐01
6.87E‐12 ‐1.65E+01 1.48E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
% defect Trap %
9.68E‐02 ‐2.66E+01 ‐12.64%
99.95%
2.24E‐01 ‐2.62E+01 ‐10.90%
96.59%
7.14E‐02 ‐4.24E+00
‐7.05%
84.86%
1.79E‐01 ‐5.85E+00
‐4.86%
58.72%
9.84E‐01 ‐2.39E+01
‐4.18%
32.13%
Average
74.45%
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 ‐1.84E‐02 2.59E‐01
6.86E‐12 ‐9.90E+01 1.44E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
% defect Trap %
9.96E‐02 ‐2.46E+01 ‐11.67%
99.94%
2.15E‐01 ‐1.23E+01
‐5.10%
96.86%
6.87E‐02 ‐7.52E‐01
‐1.25%
86.17%
1.72E‐01 8.41E‐01
0.70%
61.84%
9.55E‐01 ‐2.57E+00
‐0.45%
35.40%
Average
76.04%
Susp,
Bedch.,
Bedmove, ContDef.,
0.00E+00 ‐1.23E‐02 2.68E‐01
6.97E‐12 ‐7.75E+01 1.48E+03
water)
Suspended Defect
% defect Trap %
9.76E‐02 ‐2.54E+01 ‐12.04%
99.91%
2.08E‐01 ‐1.43E+01
‐5.94%
97.70%
6.74E‐02 ‐1.31E+00
‐2.17%
88.19%
1.72E‐01 ‐2.07E‐01
‐0.17%
63.86%
9.70E‐01 ‐7.70E+00
‐1.35%
36.11%
Average
77.15%
Appendix‐C Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Trap percentage with F 37 2
Size: 1 2 3 4 5 Inflow Outflow LayerActive LayerInac. Suspended %Defect
1.38E+01 1.55E‐05 ‐7.89E‐03 1.38E+01 7.96E‐02 ‐0.004% 1.58E+01 8.31E‐03 ‐2.73E‐03 1.56E+01 1.39E‐01 0.01% 3.95E+00 9.08E‐02 2.38E‐03 3.80E+00 5.70E‐02 0.05% 7.90E+00 1.73E+00 7.51E‐03 5.96E+00 1.98E‐01 0.03% 3.75E+01 2.06E+01 7.30E‐04 1.56E+01 1.33E+00 ‐0.11% Trapp
efficiency
100.00% 99.95% 97.70% 78.15% 45.03% Trap percentage with changing F 11 data set
Size: 1 2 3 4 5 Inflow Outflow LayerActive LayerInac. Suspended %Defect
5.28E+01 2.62E‐04 ‐7.81E‐03 5.28E+01 1.30E‐02 -0.006%
6.04E+01 3.25E‐02 ‐2.76E‐03 6.03E+01 2.28E‐02 0.011%
1.51E+01 3.62E‐01 2.38E‐03 1.47E+01 9.30E‐03 0.057%
3.02E+01 6.93E+00 7.53E‐03 2.32E+01 3.23E‐02 0.070%
1.43E+02 8.26E+01 6.48E‐04 6.07E+01 2.17E‐01 -0.077%
Trapp
efficiency
100.00%
99.95%
97.60%
77.05%
42.40%
Trap percentage with F 106 data set
Size: 1 2 3 4 5 Inflow Outflow LayerActive LayerInac. Suspended %Defect
5.28E+01 2.17E‐03 ‐1.90E+00 5.47E+01 1.31E‐02 -0.007%
6.04E+01 3.63E‐02 ‐2.29E‐01 6.06E+01 2.27E‐02 0.010%
1.51E+01 3.61E‐01 8.20E‐01 1.39E+01 9.27E‐03 0.058%
3.02E+01 6.91E+00 2.14E+00 2.11E+01 3.22E‐02 0.079%
1.43E+02 8.23E+01 ‐8.21E‐01 6.18E+01 2.15E‐01 -0.057%
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Trapp
efficiency
100.00%
99.94%
97.61%
77.13%
42.59%
Appendix - 26
Master Thesis 2012
Msc. in Hydropower Development -2012
3D Numerical Investigation on Settling Basin Layout
Appendix- C
Trap Efficiency Calculation by Analytical
Method
A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project Nepal
Appendix-27
MASTER'S THESIS
3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SETTELING BASIN LAYOUT
Msc. IN HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT
Trapping Efficiency by Analytical Method Design discharge Installed capacity Head Flushing system
Estimated flushing flow Water temperature a) Review the adopted design with respect to trap efficiency Width of settling basin
Depth of hopper Width of flushing canal
Width of slope part of hopper Depth of settling basin (Rectangular Portion) Effective Length 3
m /s
MW
m
5.8575
22
122.1
Coventional Type 0.58575
10
m /s
Deg C
9.5
1
1
4.25
2.49
75
m
m
m
m
m
m
3
Wetted Perimeter
14.71
m
Cross Area 28.905
m2
As
712.5
m2
Settling particle Size
0.1
mm
0.65
cm/s
Settling Velocity of particle for given condition
Hydraulic Radius, R
1.96
m
Manning' s Value M
80.00
Energy slope , Se
0.0000007
Efficiency of the basin by vetter method for given settling particle 0.1 mm
Vetter's Method
79%
Camp's Method
90%
Trapping efficiency for different particle i) Vetter's Method ii) Camp's Method and compare the result Particle Size
w, cm/s wAs/Q
0.06
0.3
0.729834
0.1
0.65 1.581306
0.15
1.25 3.040973
0.2
2
4.865557
0.3
5.1
12.40717
0.4
6.8
16.54289
0.5
8.5
20.67862
η (Vetter)
0.52
0.79
0.95
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
u*
0.0035
0.0035
0.0035
0.0035
0.0035
0.0035
0.0035
w/u*
0.8464
1.8338
3.5265
5.6423
14.3880
19.1839
23.9799
η (Camp)
0.68
0.90
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Trapping efficiency
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.06
0.11
0.16
0.21
0.26
0.31
0.36
0.41
0.46
Particle Size d mm
Vetter's Method
A CASE STUDY ON MAI KHOLA HYDROPOWER PROJECT, NEPAL
Camp's Method
1
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement