EM4 & EM7 Electromagnet Manual

EM4 & EM7 Electromagnet Manual
User’s Manual
EM7-HV
Electromagnet
EM7 magnets include:
Models EM7-HV and EM7-HV-O H-Yoke, Variable Gap 7-inch Electromagnet, Horizontal Field
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, Ohio 43082-8888 USA
E-Mail Addresses:
[email protected]
[email protected]
Visit Our Website:
www.lakeshore.com
Fax: (614) 891-1392
Telephone: (614) 891-2243
Methods and apparatus disclosed and described herein have been developed solely on company funds of Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
No government or other contractual support or relationship whatsoever has existed which in any way affects or mitigates proprietary
rights of Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. in these developments. Methods and apparatus disclosed herein may be subject to U.S. Patents
existing or applied for. Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. reserves the right to add, improve, modify, or withdraw functions, design
modifications, or products at any time without notice. Lake Shore shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with furnishing, performance, or use of this material.
Revision 1.7
P/N 119-622
15 February 2013
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
LIMITED WARRANTY STATEMENT
WARRANTY PERIOD: THREE (3) YEARS
1. Lake Shore warrants that products manufactured by Lake Shore (the "Product") will be free from defects
in materials and workmanship for three years from the date of Purchaser's physical receipt of the Product
(the "Warranty Period"). If Lake Shore receives notice of any such defects during the Warranty Period and
the defective Product is shipped freight prepaid back to Lake Shore, Lake Shore will, at its option, either
repair or replace the Product (if it is so defective) without charge for parts, service labor or associated
customary return shipping cost to the Purchaser. Replacement for the Product may be by either new or
equivalent in performance to new. Replacement or repaired parts, or a replaced Product, will be
warranted for only the unexpired portion of the original warranty or 90 days (whichever is greater).
2. Lake Shore warrants the Product only if the Product has been sold by an authorized Lake Shore
employee, sales representative, dealer or an authorized Lake Shore original equipment manufacturer
(OEM).
3. The Product may contain remanufactured parts equivalent to new in performance or may have been
subject to incidental use when it is originally sold to the Purchaser.
4. The Warranty Period begins on the date of Purchaser's physical receipt of the Product or later on the date
of operational training and verification (OT&V) of the Product if the service is performed by Lake Shore,
provided that if the Purchaser schedules or delays the Lake Shore OT&V for more than 30 days after
delivery then the Warranty Period begins on the 31st day after Purchaser's physical receipt of the
Product.
5. This limited warranty does not apply to defects in the Product resulting from (a) improper or inadequate
installation (unless OT&V services are performed by Lake Shore), maintenance, repair or calibration, (b)
fuses, software, power surges, lightning and non-rechargeable batteries, (c) software, interfacing, parts or
other supplies not furnished by Lake Shore, (d) unauthorized modification or misuse, (e) operation
outside of the published specifications, (f) improper site preparation or site maintenance (g) natural
disasters such as flood, fire, wind, or earthquake, or (h) damage during shipment other than original
shipment to you if shipped through a Lake Shore carrier.
6. This limited warranty does not cover: (a) regularly scheduled or ordinary and expected recalibrations of
the Product; (b) accessories to the Product (such as probe tips and cables, holders, wire, grease, varnish,
feed throughs, etc.); (c) consumables used in conjunction with the Product (such as probe tips and
cables, probe holders, sample tails, rods and holders, ceramic putty for mounting samples, Hall sample
cards, Hall sample enclosures, etc.); or, (d) non-Lake Shore branded Products that are integrated with the
Product.
7. To the extent allowed by applicable law,, this limited warranty is the only warranty applicable to the
Product and replaces all other warranties or conditions, express or implied, including, but not limited to,
the implied warranties or conditions of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Specifically,
except as provided herein,
LakeShore undertakes no responsibility that the products will be fit for any particular purpose for which
you may be buying the Products. Any implied warranty is limited in duration to the warranty period. No
oral or written information, or advice given by the Company, its Agents or Employees, shall create a
warranty or in any way increase the scope of this limited warranty. Some countries, states or provinces do
not allow limitations on an implied warranty, so the above limitation or exclusion might not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you might also have other rights that vary from country to
country, state to state or province to province.
8. Further, with regard to the United Nations Convention for International Sale of Goods (CISC,) if CISG is
found to apply in relation to this agreement, which is specifically disclaimed by Lake Shore, then this
limited warranty excludes warranties that: (a) the Product is fit for the purpose for which goods of the
same description would ordinarily be used, (b) the Product is fit for any particular purpose expressly or
impliedly made known to Lake Shore at the time of the conclusion of the contract. (c) the Product is
contained or packaged in a manner usual for such goods or in a manner adequate to preserve and
protect such goods where it is shipped by someone other than a carrier hired by Lake Shore.
9. Lake Shore disclaims any warranties of technological value or of non-infringement with respect to the
Product and Lake Shore shall have no duty to defend, indemnify, or hold harmless you from and against
Revision 1.7
P/N 119-622
15 February 2013
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
10.
11.
12.
13.
any or all damages or costs incurred by you arising from the infringement of patents or trademarks or
violation or copyrights by the Product.
THIS WARRANTY IS NOT TRANSFERRABLE. This warranty is not transferrable.
Except to the extent prohibited by applicable law, neither Lake Shore nor any of its subsidiaries, affiliates
or suppliers will be held liable for direct, special, incidental, consequential or other damages (including
lost profit, lost data, or downtime costs) arising out of the use, inability to use or result of use of the
product, whether based in warranty, contract, tort or other legal theory, regardless whether or not Lake
Shore has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Purchaser's use of the Product is entirely at
Purchaser's risk. Some countries, states and provinces do not allow the exclusion of liability for incidental
or consequential damages, so the above limitation may not apply to you.
This limited warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary within or
between jurisdictions where the product is purchased and/or used. Some jurisdictions do not allow
limitation in certain warranties, and so the above limitations or exclusions of some warranties stated
above may not apply to you.
Except to the extent allowed by applicable law, the terms of this limited warranty statement do not
exclude, restrict or modify the mandatory statutory rights applicable to the sale of the product to you.
CERTIFICATION
Lake Shore certifies that this product has been inspected and tested in accordance with its published
specifications and that this product met its published specifications at the time of shipment. The accuracy and
calibration of this product at the time of shipment are traceable to the United States National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST); formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS).
TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as
trademarks. Where those designations appear in this manual and Lake Shore was aware of a trademark
claim, the designations have been printed in initial capital letters and the ™ or ® symbol used.
CalCurve™, Carbon-Glass™, Cernox™, Duo-Twist™, High-Temperature Cernox™, Gamma Probe™, SoftCal™,
Quad-Lead™, Quad-Twist™, and Thermox™ are trademarks of Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
IDEAS™ is a trademark of Unisys Corporation and is licensed for use with Lake Shore software drivers.
Copyright © 1995 – 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2013 by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No portion of this
manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission of Lake Shore.
Revision 1.7
P/N 119-622
15 February 2013
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter/Paragraph
Title
Page
1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.0
General ...................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1
General Description ................................................................................................................... 1-1
2
INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.0
General ...................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1
Site Planning.............................................................................................................................. 2-1
2.2
Cooling Water Requirements .................................................................................................... 2-1
2.3
Unpacking .................................................................................................................................. 2-1
2.4
Accessories ............................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.5
Installation Procedure ................................................................................................................ 2-2
2.6
Return and Shipping Procedure ................................................................................................ 2-3
3
OPERATION .......................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.0
General ...................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1
General Check ........................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.2
Operation ................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.3
Pole Cap Replacement.............................................................................................................. 3-1
4
MAINTENANCE ..................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.0
General ...................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1
Adjusting the Pole-Locking Lever Motion .................................................................................. 4-1
4.2
Rust Prevention ......................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.3
Rust Removal ............................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.4
Foreign Matter ........................................................................................................................... 4-1
5
OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES ........................................................................................................... 5-1
5.0
General ...................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1
System Options ......................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2
Accessories ............................................................................................................................... 5-2
APPENDIX A – FLOW SWITCH INSTALLATION .......................................................................................A-1
A1.0
General ...................................................................................................................................... A-1
A2.0
EM7 Coolant Connector Kit List of Parts ................................................................................... A-1
A3.0
EM7 Flow Switch Specifications ................................................................................................ A-1
A4.0
EM7 Flow Switch Installation ..................................................................................................... A-1
A5.0
EM7 Flow Switch Adjustment .................................................................................................... A-3
APPENDIX B – UNITS FOR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES ............................................................................B-1
Table of Contents
i
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
ii
Table of Contents
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0
GENERAL
The EM7-HV electromagnet is a compact electromagnet suited for many applications such as
susceptibility measurements, Hall effect studies, magneto-optical studies, and magnetic resonance
demonstrations.
We welcome comments concerning this manual. Although we try to keep it error-free, some may occur.
When reporting a problem, describe it briefly and include the manual title and page number. Send your
comments to Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Attn: Technical Publications, 575 McCorkle Blvd.,
Westerville, Ohio 43082-8888.
1.1
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Refer to Table 1-1 for detailed specifications. For dimensional diagrams, see Figures 1-1
and 1-2.
• Continuously adjustable air gap, by means of rotating hand spokes or moveable poles, allowing rapid
air gap changes to suit individual experiments assures magnet versatility. The poles lock in place by
locking levers on each side of the electromagnet frame.
• Use air gaps up to 17.8 cm (7 inches) with cylindrical or tapered pole caps.
• Water-cooled coils provide excellent field stability and uniformity when high power is required to
achieve the maximum field capability for the electromagnet.
• Easy pole cap exchange by 4-bolt pole caps, for variations in pole face diameters.
• Accurate pole alignment by precise construction of the air gap adjustment mechanism.
• Precision cast yokes of magnetically soft, ultra-pure steel assure precise pole face alignment critical
for good homogeneity and reproducibility. The yoke incorporates large radius corners to reduce stray
magnetic fields and reduce residual magnetic forces for more linear operation. The H-Yoke is at a
45° angle for optimum air gap accessibility.
• Couple the EM7-HV with a Model 648 magnet power supply (MPS) to form a versatile laboratory
electromagnet characterization system. The Model 648 MPS provides rapid, uniform magnetic field
reversal to avoid discontinuities that often occur during zero cross-over when using non-bipolar power
supplies.
Introduction
1-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
Table 1-1. Model EM7 Electromagnet Specifications
Specifications
Air Gap
Coil Resistance
(Type)
Water Flow Rate
Water Chiller Cooling
Capacity
Coil Spacing
Coil Width
Coil Diameter
Turns per Coil
Amp-Turns
Current (Max.
Continuous
Operating)
Width
Height
Depth
Weight
Shipping Weight
Shipping Size
Magnet Power Supply
Operating Current
Operating Voltage
Power Consumption
1-2
EM7
Up to 17.8 cm (7 in.)
continuously variable.
1  per coil, at
equilibrium temp., wired in
parallel (0.5  total).
11.4 liters per minute
(3.0 gallons per minute)
8.3 kW
(28250 BTU/Hr)
17.8 cm (7 in.)
13.2 cm (5.2 in.)
44.5 cm (17.5 in.)
624
31,200
±135 A
101.6 cm (40 in.) at max.
17.8 cm (7 in.) gap
Magnet: 63.5 cm (25 in.)
set at 45°
Stand: 30.5 cm (12 in.)
66 cm (26 in.)
636 kg (1400 lbs.)
682 kg (1500 lbs.)
122 cm (48 in.) x
119 cm (47 in.) x
86 cm (34 in.)
Model 648
±135 A
±68 volts nominal
9.2 kW nominal
Introduction
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
3/8-16 Tap Holes (2)
101.6 cm (40 in.)
44.5 cm (17.5 in.)
12.2 cm
(5.2 in.)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in.)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in.)
35 cm (13.75 in.)
Intercoil Space
17.8 cm (7 in.)
44.5 cm
(17.5 in.)
Air Gap
0-17.8 cm
(0-7 in.)
63.5 cm
(25 in.)
31 cm
(12.2 in.)
30.5 cm
(12 in.)
55.9 cm (22 in.)
2.5 cm (1 in.)
1.5 cm (0.6 in.)
B Holes (4)
for mounting to floor
50.8 cm (20 in.)
C-EM-1-5.eps
Figure 1-1. Model EM7-HV Electromagnet Front View
Introduction
1-3
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
6.1 cm (2.4 in.)
B = 4.1 cm (1.6 in.)
52 cm (20.5 in)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in.)
31 cm
(12.2 in)
94 cm
(37 in.)
25 cm
(9.9 in.)
45.8 cm (18 in.)
1.5 cm (0.6 in.)
B Holes (4)
for mounting to floor
5.1 cm (2 in.)
30.5 cm
(12 in.)
35.6 cm (14 in.)
66 cm (26 in.)
C-EM-1-6.eps
Figure 1-2. Model EM7-HV Electromagnet Side View
1-4
Introduction
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
To Power
Supply
­
+
B+
­
+
4A=H8EAM
Water Inlet
Ground Lug
(Not Used)
To Power Supply Remote Inhibit
(DB-25 included only if Lake Shore
MPS is part of system)
Flow Switch
Water Outlet
C-EM-1-7.eps
Figure 1-3. Model EM7-HV Electromagnet Rear View Wiring and Connections
Introduction
1-5
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
Figure 1-4. Model EM7-HV Magnetic Field Versus Current for a 2 inch pole face
Figure 1-5. Model EM7-HV Magnetic Field Versus Current for a 3 inch pole face
1-6
Introduction
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
Figure 1-6. Model EM7-HV Magnetic Field Versus Current for a 4 inch pole face
Figure 1-4. Model EM7-HV Magnetic Field Versus Current Charts for a 6 inch pole face
Introduction
1-7
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
1-8
Introduction
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
CHAPTER 2
INSTALLATION
2.0
GENERAL
This chapter covers electromagnet installation: Site planning in Paragraph 2.1, cooling water
requirements in Paragraph 2.2, unpacking in Paragraph 2.3, accessories in Paragraph 2.4, installation
procedure in Paragraph 2.5, and the return and shipping procedure in Paragraph 2.6.
2.1
SITE PLANNING
Consider these things when choosing the installation site:
Magnetic Environment – Minimize environmental magnetic fields. Common sources of interference
are fluctuating loads on adjacent power lines, heavy-duty power transformers, elevator motors and
similar electromagnetic devices.
Structural Support/Floor Strength – Allow for adequate support of components and handling
equipment. The floor must be sufficiently rigid for minimum vibration from adjacent dynamic loads.
Service Utilities – Maintain room temperature and cooling water specifications.
Ambient Temperature – Magnet cooling water system operates at designed thermal efficiency when
room temperature is within normal bounds.
Equipment Handling – Ensure adequate moving equipment, transportation route clearances, and
supervision by qualified personnel.
Ventilation – Ensure adequate ventilation, especially during use of cryogens.
Other Factors – Existing or planned facilities; local safety, electrical, and building codes; access to all
sides of the equipment for operating and servicing.
2.2
COOLING WATER REQUIREMENTS
Standard municipal water systems are generally suitable to cool the magnet, provided proper flow is
maintained (do not use distilled water). Use a water filter, flowmeter, and pressure gauges to monitor
coolant water flow. If the water temperature is well above 32 °C (90 °F), install a water cooling device at
the magnet water inlet. To avoid moisture condensation on the magnet, adjust the cooling system to
keep the magnet coils several degrees above ambient air temperature.
2.3
UNPACKING
Inspect shipping container for damage. If it is damaged or the inside cushioning material appears
stressed, check the shipment for completeness and proper operation (following procedures outlined in
this manual). Keep all packing material in case of return.
If components are missing from your shipment, or if there is mechanical damage or defect (apparent or
concealed), notify Lake Shore. If the shipping container or cushioning material shows signs of stress,
notify the carrier as well as Lake Shore. Keep the shipping materials for inspection by the carrier.
2.4
ACCESSORIES
The standard Model EM7 electromagnet includes the following accessories:
Quantity
Description
2
Power Cables (Attached)
1
Flow Switch Kit (Refer to Appendix A)
Refer to Chapter 5 for a complete list of electromagnet accessories.
Installation
2-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
2.5
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
CAUTION: The coils are not designed to rigidly attach to the magnet yoke. Damage may result if the
magnet tilts without bracing between the coils. During shipment, dense packing foam or
wedges between the coils hold them firmly in place. Do not remove this material until the
magnet is installed in the final location.
1. Leave magnet bolted to shipping pallet during transportation to the installation site; it protects the
magnet from vibration and the effects of an uneven floor. Do not subject the magnet to sudden
bumps or jolts.
WARNING To avoid danger to personnel and equipment damage, bolt magnet to the stand, and
bolt the stand to the floor. If not using the stand, bolt magnet directly to floor.
2. Remove shipping pallet and use appropriate lifting equipment to position the magnet and stand at
the planned location. Mark the bolt holes, move the magnet, and drill the bolt holes. Insert bolt
studs in the holes and secure. Replace the magnet and stand over the studs and bolt in place.
3. Connect the water supply to the fittings on the magnet rear (see Appendix A for flow switch
installation). The inlet is located on one of the coils with the outlet located on the other coil. There is
no distinction between the inlet and outlet.
4. Adjust the pole gap to the desired setting. To do this, unlock the pole pieces with locking levers,
then rotate the spokes to move the poles to set the air gap. Lock the pole pieces in place.
5. Ground the yoke to the power supply chassis for safety.
WARNING: Do not connect or disconnect the electromagnet to or from the magnet power
supply without first reducing output current to zero amperes and turning off
the supply.
6. The power supply connections are located on the rear of the coils (if the cables are already
connected, check screw tightness). To access the electrical connection, remove the safety cover
plates. Connect the power supply cables to the terminal blocks on the rear of the coils. Use two
jumpers between the two coils for parallel operation. Replace safety cover plates before operating
the magnet.
7. Turn on the cooling water and adjust the flow rate to 11.4 liters per minute (3 gallons per minute).
Readjust the fittings if any leaking is observed.
2-2
Installation
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
2.6
RETURN AND SHIPPING PROCEDURE
If the electromagnet appears to operate incorrectly, contact Lake Shore or a factory representative for a
Returned Goods Authorization (RGA) Number. Returns may not be accepted without an RGA number.
Attach a tag with the following information when returning:
1. RGA Number.
2. Model and Serial Number.
3. User’s Name, Company, Address, Phone Number, and Fax Number.
4. Malfunction Symptoms.
CAUTION: Any water left in the cooling lines may freeze during shipping and cause irreversible
damage to the magnet coils.
Pack the magnet in the original shipping crate (if possible). Fasten it upright to a pallet large enough
and rated to handle the magnet weight. Use compressed air to force water out of the cooling lines in
the coils.
CAUTION: The coils freely rest on the poles. To prevent damage, fix coils in place during
shipment.
Wedge padded wood blocks or high density foam between the coils to hold them against the magnet
frame.
Protect the magnet by wrapping in heavy paper or plastic. Seal with plastic tape. Make a wood box
large enough to cover the whole magnet without touching it and fasten it to the pallet.
Affix shipping labels, FRAGILE warnings, UPRIGHT labels, and weight of the shipment on the outside
of the crate. Also write the RGA number on the outside of the shipping crate and on packing slip. Use a
shipping company that can handle the weight.
Installation
2-3
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
2-4
Installation
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
CHAPTER 3
OPERATION
3.0
GENERAL
Read the entire manual and check all instruments for proper operation prior to operating the system.
This chapter covers a general check in Paragraph 3.1, operation in Paragraph 3.2, pole caps in
Paragraph 3.3, and locking screws in Paragraph 3.4.
3.1
GENERAL CHECK
Before operating the magnet, verify proper electrical connections cooling water flow, inlet pressure, and
temperature.
3.2
OPERATION
The magnet power supply provides current to the magnet. There are no operating controls on the
magnet. The rotating hand knobs on the side of the magnet allow users to vary the air gap from 0 to
17.8 cm (0 to 7 inches).
WARNING: Always set current to zero amps and turn off the power supply before adjusting the
magnet. After adjusting the pole spacing, lock the poles in place by securing the
locking levers on the EM7.
3.3
POLE CAP REPLACEMENT
The Model EM7-HV electromagnet uses replaceable pole caps. If another geometry of pole cap is
desired, the existing pole caps can be unbolted and another pair can be installed. Most pole caps are of
either a straight or a tapered design, focusing the magnetic flux from the 178 mm (7 in) pole core to the
diameter of the installed pole cap’s face. Generally, pole caps with a larger pole face diameter will give
higher field uniformity and lower magnetic field density, while pole caps focused to a smaller pole face
will yield higher fields and lower field uniformity. Standard pole caps are made of high purity iron with a
thin electroless nickel finish for corrosion resistance. Pole caps comprised of materials with higher
saturation induction, such as FeCo, can also be installed to further increase field strength.
To remove a pole cap, you must unbolt the four pole cap retaining screws, remove the old pole caps,
and attach the new pole caps using four socket head cap screws of appropriate length. A hex key kit is
provided to assist in fastening the socket head cap screws. Due to changes in the mounting geometry
of the pole caps, screw lengths vary with pole cap geometry. See the table below for the correct screw
length when attaching standard Lake Shore pole caps.
NOTE:
You may wish to Degauss the pole caps before removing them. Residual
magnetism may hold the pole caps in contact with the pole with enough force to
make it difficult to separate them. You can reduce residual magnetism to a
minimum by alternately reversing the magnetic field polarity and gradually reducing
the energizing current to near zero. The pole caps are then easily removed from the
pole caps using a wrench. Use a light oil on the threads of the pole core.
CAUTION: Handle the pole caps with care. Deep dents or scratches on pole caps can impair
the magnetic field homogeneity. When installing the pole caps, place a piece of soft
material (cardboard, towel, etc.) beneath them to prevent accidental damage if they
fall during installation.
Operation
3-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
Follow this procedure to replace a pole cap.
1. Set power supply current output to zero.
2. Turn the power supply off.
3. Make certain you have the correct length of screws for the pole cap geometry you will be using.
The pole caps you want to install may have a different length than the ones on the
electromagnet now. See the table below to make certain you have the correct mounting
screws.
Nominal pole cap face
diameter
5/16–18 screw length
175 mm
7 in
70 mm
2.75 in
150 mm
6 in
51 mm
2.00 in
125 mm
5 in
44 mm
1.75 in
100 mm
4 in
29 mm
1.13 in
75 mm
3 in
19 mm
0.750 in
50 mm
2 in
19 mm
0.750 in
4. Unlock the pole-locking levers so the pole caps move in and out freely.
5. Rotate one pole adjuster’s spokes to move one pole cap outward until the front of the pole cap
is as far out as it can be moved.
6. Rotate the opposite pole adjuster's spokes to move the other pole cap inward until the pole cap
is outside of the coil surface. The pole cap is now ready to be removed.
7. Using the hex wrench provided, unscrew the mounting bolts one turn counter-clockwise.
Continue carefully unscrewing the pole cap mounting bolts until the pole cap is free.
CAUTION:
It is important to hold onto the pole cap when unscrewing the mounting bolts.
The pole cap may be damaged if it suddenly disengages from the pole piece and
drops against a hard surface.
NOTE:
Standard right-hand threads are used in the pole cap to pole core mounting.
When installing pole caps, keep the threads and surface free of any foreign
material. A thin film of grease on all the surfaces prevents rust.
8. Align the new pole cap with the pole core threaded holes.
9. Using the mounting bolts, attach the new pole cap to the pole core. Before final tightening, turn
the pole adjuster to move the pole cap outward by five turns. This will draw the polecap into the
pole sleeve and perform a final alignment of pole cap, pole core and sleeve.
10. Use the hex wrench to finally tighten the cap against the pole piece.
11. Rotate the pole adjuster spokes to move the new pole cap’s pole outward until the front of the
pole cap is as far outward as it can be moved.
12. Repeat Steps 4 thru 11 to change the other pole cap.
13. Rotate the pole adjuster spokes to move the poles to set the air gap. As the final adjustment of
airgap, it is preferable to rotate the pole adjuster at least one turn outward to eliminate the
backlash in the pole adjuster’s screw mechanism.
NOTE:
Eliminating the screw backlash will minimize unwanted pole deflection when
large pull forces develop due to the large fields in the electromagnet airgap.
14. Lock pole caps in place.
3-2
Operation
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
CHAPTER 4
MAINTENANCE
4.0
GENERAL
This chapter describes the pole cap replacement procedure for the Model EM7.
4.1
ADJUSTING THE POLE-LOCKING LEVER MOTION
The pole-locking lever has a ratcheting mechanism which may be used to adjust the movement of the pole
locking levers. To change their movement, follow this procedure.
1. Pull up on the central portion of the pole-locking lever. This frees the pole-locking lever from the polelocking screw.
2. Rotate the pole-locking lever (it should move independently of the screw) to the desired position. You
may need to hold the central screw with a hex key to ensure it moves independently.
3. Release the pole locking lever to re-engage the screw. Generally, it is desirable that the pole-locking
lever be able to lock and unlock the pole caps in one motion, without having to re-adjust the
ratcheting mechanism.
4.2 RUST PREVENTION
Follow these tips to prevent rust on your electromagnet.




Wipe clean all pole and polecap surfaces with a clean, lint-free cloth lightly oiled with high quality light
oil. Maintaining a layer of light oil will prevent rust build-up on the steel parts of the electromagnet.
Even corrosion-resistant parts are subject to deterioration.
To oil the pole and sleeve, retract the left pole fully into the electromagnet coil, extend the right pole
fully, and lubricate the extended pole. Repeat for the opposite pole.
Running the pole adjuster’s screw mechanism from end to end is also good for the electromagnet.
Verify the motion is smooth and does not jam at any point in the travel. If problems are encountered
when moving the mechanism, the lead screw and/or sleeve may need to be cleaned and lubricated.
Consult with the factory.
When exchanging pole caps, be certain to use light oil on the exposed pole core mating surface to
keep it rust-free. Keeping these parts oiled and free from contamination is a good preventative
measure. If condensation is seen on the exterior of the electromagnet, wipe it away with a soft clean
dry cloth to prevent corrosion.
4.3 RUST REMOVAL
Remove all traces of rust with crocus cloth 4/0 grit or finer. Remove all traces of abrasives with a soft clean
cloth.
4.4 FOREIGN MATTER
Remove all traces of foreign matter from the pole caps with a soft clean cloth. Do not let foreign material fall
into the sleeve of the electromagnet. Due to tight pole-to-sleeve tolerances, any foreign matter introduced into
the sleeve when the poles are retracted may cause future operating problems.
Maintenance
4-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
4-2
Maintenance
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
CHAPTER 5
OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES
5.0
GENERAL
This chapter lists EM7 options in Paragraph 5.1 and accessories in Paragraph 5.2.
5.1
SYSTEM OPTIONS
Table 5-1 lists available EM7 electromagnets. The electromagnets can be tailored to fit many custom
applications. Consult the factory for assistance in configuring electromagnets for your application.
Table 5-1. Lake Shore Electromagnets
MODEL NUMBER
EM7-HV
EM7-HV-O
Options and Accessories
DESCRIPTION
7-inch diameter pole caps, H-yoke, variable gap (set by rotating hand spokes).
Same as EM7-HV with optical access.
5-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
5.2
ACCESSORIES
Accessories are devices that perform a secondary duty as an aid or refinement to the primary unit.
Table 5-2 lists EM7 accessories.
The standard EM7 electromagnet includes the following accessories:
• 2 Sets of pole caps (3 and 6 inch).
• Corresponding pair of lead screws.
• Flow switch.
• Power cables, #4 AWG, 10 feet long.
• Base, 30.5 cm (12 inches) high.
Table 5-2. EM7 Electromagnet Accessories
MODEL #
DESCRIPTION
Additional Standard Pole Caps (does not include bolts, order separately)
EM7-2P-FECO
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 2-inch face, FeCo
EM7-2P
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 2-inch face
EM7-3P
Pole cap, 7 inch diameter tapered to 3-inch face
EM7-4P
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 4-inch face
EM7-6P
Pole cap, 7 inch diameter with 6-inch face
Additional Pole Caps with Optical Access Hole(s) (does not include bolts, order separately)
EM7-3P-O-1-2
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 3-inch face, optical access 1 pole (1/8 inch diameter)
EM7-3P-O-2-2
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 3-inch face, optical access both poles (1/8 inch diameter)
EM7-3P-O-1-4
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 3-inch face, optical access 1 pole (1/4-inch diameter)
EM7-3P-O-2-4
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 3-inch face, optical access both poles (1/4-inch diameter)
EM7-6P-O-1-2
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 6-inch face, optical access 1 pole (1/8 inch diameter)
EM7-6P-O-2-2
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 6-inch face, optical access both poles (1/8 inch diameter)
EM7-6P-O-1-4
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 6-inch face, optical access 1 pole (1/4-inch diameter)
EM7-6P-O-2-4
Pole cap, 7-inch tapered to 6-inch face, optical access both poles (1/4-inch diameter)
Bolts
EM7-BOLT-V
EM7-BOLT-V-O
Pair of lead screws for EM7-HV Variable gap electromagnets
Pair of lead screws for EM7-HV Variable gap electromagnets, with optical access holes
Other Accessories
EM7-BASE
EM7-CABLE
Cable from magnet to supply (4# AWG, 3 m [10 ft])
EM7-FLOW
Flow switch, replacement
651-533
5-2
Magnet Base, 30.5 cm (12 inches) high
Coolant Connector Kit – This kit includes parts that complete the installation of the Water Flow
Switch, which is partially installed at the factory. The kit contains:
Quantity
Description
1
Hose, 5/8-inch I.D.
4
Hose clamps
1
Adapter, Male Garden Hose Threads to 5/8-inch barbed
1
Adapter, Female Garden Hose Threads to 5/8-inch barbed, with washer
Options and Accessories
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
APPENDIX A
FLOW SWITCH INSTALLATION
A1.0 GENERAL
This appendix details installation of the cooling water flow switch kit (Lake Shore P/N 651-523) for the
Model EM7 electromagnet and the Model 648 magnet power supply (or any power supply with an
external prohibit/interlock feature). Refer to Paragraphs A2.0 to A5.0 for EM7 flow switch installation.
A2.0 EM7 COOLANT CONNECTOR KIT LIST OF PARTS
The coolant connector kit (P/N 651-533) includes parts that complete the installation of the water flow
switch, which is partially installed at the factory. The kit contains:
Quantity
1
4
1
1
Description
Hose, 5/8 inch I.D., 4 foot section
Hose clamps
Adapter, male garden hose thread to 5/8 inch barb
Adapter, female garden hose thread to 5/8 inch barb, with washer
A3.0 EM7 FLOW SWITCH SPECIFICATIONS
The factory adjusts the EM7 flow switch to close at 2 gallons per minute (gpm) and to operate normally
open (N.O.). It can be field adjusted to a different flow rate (refer to Paragraph A5.0).
The flow switch operates with both normally closed (N.C.) and normally opened (N.O.) contacts. The
flow switch incorporates a single pole single throw (SPST) switch set to activate by a moving magnet at
a flow rate of 2 gallons (8 liters) per minute. The contacts are rated at 60 VA. All necessary fittings are
provided to connect the switch to the coolant outlet of most electromagnets. (For additional information,
see the flow switch users manual.)
A4.0 EM7 FLOW SWITCH INSTALLATION
For proper switch operation, keep it out of the field generated by the electromagnet. In general,
connecting the switch at the end of a 10-inch long hose is sufficient to avoid any interference. During
normal operation, cooling water flows through the magnet at a minimum rate of 2 gallons per minute,
which allows the power supply to be turned on. To prevent damage to the electromagnet, connect the
flow switch to the system before operating the power supply.
CAUTION: Do not manually bypass the interlock feature on the MPS.
The power supply interlock needs a closed contact to operate with the Lake Shore Model 648 MPS.
Connect the two wires to the remote inhibit terminals. In this setup, the flow switch contacts close when
the flow is above 2 gallons per minute to allow the power supply to provide current for the magnet. If
additional interlock is to be connected externally to the unit, it can be one or more N.C. contacts
connected in series, such as an emergency stop pushbutton. See Figure A-1.
Appendix A: Flow Switch Installation
A-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
1
2
9
3
4
5
6
7
8
NOTES:
1. NC = Normal Closed.
2. Power Supply Light and
Remote Emergency Stop
Switch are optional: not
provided by Lake Shore.
10 11 12 13 14 15
Remote
Power Off (NC)
24V
Flow
Switch (NC)
Power Supply Remote Emergency
Stop (NC)
Output Available
F-EM-A-3.eps
Figure A-1. EM7 Flow Switch Wiring Diagram
NOTE: Both the flow switch and emergency circuits must be closed for the power supply to operate.
For non-Lake Shore power supplies, consult the power supply manual for details on where to connect
flow switch leads. If required, the flow switch can be reconfigured for a normally closed (N.C.). Consult
the flow switch manual for the procedure to accomplish changing the switch.
A-2
Appendix A: Flow Switch Installation
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
Rear View
Hose, 5/8 inch I.D.
1 foot minimum
Water Inlet
Either magnet hose connection may
be used for water inlet and outlet
To Power Supply Remote Inhibit
(DB-25 included only if Lake Shore
MPS is part of system)
Flow Switch set at 2 gpm
Hose Clamp (6)
Adapter, 3/4 NPT
to 5/8 inch barb (2)
Water Outlet
C-EM-A-4.eps
Figure A-2. EM7 Flow Switch Installation
A5.0 EM7 FLOW SWITCH ADJUSTMENT
The flow switch is set at the factory for 2 gpm and
normally open (N.O.) operation. The flow rate can
be adjusted in the field using the following
procedure. See Figure A-3.
1. Loosen the friction plate screws to allow
movement of the reed contact.
NOTE: Very small millimeter increments (in either
direction) are all that is necessary to
change flow cutoff point settings.
2. To reduce the flow cutoff point, push the contact
housing further into the housing.
3. To increase the flow cutoff point, pull the contact
housing out from the housing.
Please consult the flow switch users manual for
additional details.
Figure A-3. Flow Switch Rate Adjustment
Appendix A: Flow Switch Installation
A-3
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
A-4
Appendix A: Flow Switch Installation
Lake Shore EM7-HV Electromagnet User’s Manual
APPENDIX B
UNITS FOR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
Conversion from CGS to SI Units
Quantity
Symbol
Gaussian
& CGS emua
Conversion
Factor, Cb
SI &
Rationalized mksc
Magnetic flux density,
Magnetic induction
B
gauss (G)d
10-4
tesla (T), Wb/m2
Magnetic Flux

maxwell (Mx), G•cm2
10-8
Magnetic potential difference,
magnetomotive force
U, F
gilbert (Gb)
10/4
weber (Wb),
volt second (V•s)
ampere (A)
Magnetic field strength,
magnetizing force
g
(Volume) magnetization
(Volume) magnetization
e
f
H
oersted (Oe), Gb/cm
103/4
A/m
M
4M
emu/cm3h
G
103
103/4
A/m
A/m
Magnetic polarization,
intensity of
magnetization
J, I
emu/cm3
4 x 10-4
T, Wb/m
(Mass) magnetization
, M
emu/g
1
-7
4 x 10
Magnetic moment
m
emu, erg/G
10-3
Magnetic dipole moment
j
(Volume) susceptibility
, 
emu, erg/G
dimensionless
emu/cm3
4 x 10-10
(4)2 x 10-7
A•m2/kg
Wb•m/kg
A•m2, joule per
tesla (J/T)
i
Wb•m
Henry per meter
(H/m), Wb/(A•m)
(Mass) susceptibility
, 
3
cm /g, emu/g
4 x 10
(4)2 x 10-10
(Molar) susceptibility
mol, mol
3
cm /mol, emu/mol
4 x 10
(4)2 x 10-13
Permeability
j
Relative permeability
µ
µr
dimensionless
not defined
(Volume) energy density,
k
energy product
Demagnetization factor
W
D, N
2i
-3
m3/kg
H•m2/kg
-6
4 x 10-7
-
m3/mol
H•m2/mol
H/m, Wb/(A•m)
dimensionless
erg/cm3
10-1
J/m3
dimensionless
1/4
dimensionless
NOTES:
a. Gaussian units and cgs emu are the same for magnetic properties. The defining relation is B = H + 4M.
-4
-4
b. Multiply a number in Gaussian units by C to convert it to SI (e.g. 1 G x 10 T/G = 10 T).
c. SI (Système International d'Unités) has been adopted by the National Bureau of Standards. Where two conversion factors
are given, the upper one is recognized under, or consistent with, SI and is based on the definition B = µ0(H + M), where to
-7
µ0 = 4 x 10 H/m. The lower one is not recognized under SI and is based on the definition B = µ0H + J, where the symbol
I is often used in place of J.
5
d. 1 gauss = 10 gamma ().
-½
e. Both oersted and gauss are expressed as cm
f.
½
-1
•g •s in terms of base units.
A/m was often expressed as "ampere-turn per meter" when used for magnetic field strength.
g. Magnetic moment per unit volume.
h. The designation "emu" is not a unit.
i.
Recognized under SI, even though based on the definition B = µ0H + J. See footnote c.
j.
µr = µ/µ0 = 1 + , all in SI. µr is equal to Gaussian µ.
3
3
k. B • H and µ0M • H have SI units J/m , M • H and B • H/4 have Gaussian units erg/cm .
R.B. Goldfarb and F.R. Fickett, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Bolder, Colorado 80303,
March 1985, NBS Special Publication 696. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
Appendix B: Units for Magnetic Properties
B-1
Lake Shore EM7 Electromagnet User’s Manual
B-2
Appendix B: Units for Magnetic Properties
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