Foundations of Physics I

Foundations of Physics I
Foundations of Physics I
Fall 2003
Physics 191
PEngel 173
Instructor:
Lab:
Name: Dr. Tom Kirkman Phone: 363–3811
Office: PEngel 111 Office Hour: 11:00 a.m. Day 4
email: [email protected]
You must be registered in one of the lab sections required for this course. Labs meet most (but not all)
cycles on Days 4–6 for three hours. Time in lab is limited so prepare for each lab by reading the lab manual
before lab. Pre-lab exercises and short pre-lab quizzes
must be turned in at the beginning of lab. Your completed lab report must be turned in at the end of
the lab. You will need to purchase three lab notebooks with quad ruled paper (so they can be used for
graphs) and a sewn binding (e.g., Ampad #26–251).
Read the introduction to the Laboratory Manual
ASAP for further information on the lab.
Texts:
• Fundamentals of Physics by David Halliday,
Robert Resnick & Jearl Walker (Wiley, 2001 6th
edition) Chapters: 1–14, 16
• Problem Supplement by Jearl Walker
• Laboratory Manual for Foundations of Physics I
• An Introduction to Error Analysis (recommended for lab)
• http://www.physics.csbsju.edu/191/
Good lab skills are the key to success in science. Almost certainly your first job in science will not resemble an exam: with lots of pencil pushing on madeup problems; rather it will most resemble lab: where
you use equipment to collect data on real—less than
perfect—objects. If you enjoy lab, but struggle on
exams, do not despair: there is plenty of demand for
folks who can do and only a handful of scientists end
up like Einstein working at a blackboard.
Grading:
Questions:
Your grade will be determined by averaging seven
scores: total quiz/homework score, total lab score,
three exam scores, and the final exam score (which
is double-counted). Assigned homework is due at the
beginning of the next class period. Late homework
is generally not accepted. The quizzes are 10 minute
in-class exams on just completed material. Missed
quizzes cannot be made up. The hour exams indlucde both multiple choice and numerical problems.
You may use a single-sided 8 12 ” × 11” “formula sheet”
to assist you on the exam. The formula sheet should
be limited to formulas and definitions—no worked examples. Exam dates are: September 19 (Friday), October 17 (Friday), and November 14 (Friday). If informed in advance, I may be able to accommodate
exam conflicts. The final exam will be comprehensive and have a structure similar to the other exams,
but proportionally longer. The final exam has not yet
been scheduled by the registrar.
There is no such thing as a dumb question. Questions
during lecture do not “interrupt” the lecture, rather
they indicate your interests or misunderstandings. I’d
much rather clear up a misunderstanding or discuss
a topic of interest than continue a dull lecture.
Remember: you are almost never alone in your interests, your misunderstandings, or your problems.
Please help your classmates by asking any question
vaguely related to physics. If you don’t want to ask
your question during class, that’s fine too: I can be
found almost any time in my office (EngelSC 111) or
the nearby labs. Drop in any time!
Topics:
This course covers the discoveries of Isaac Newton
(1642–1727) which are the foundation of the science
and technology that transformed the animal powered
world of Newton into the mechanized world of today. The basis for Newton’s discoveries was that the
universe follows mathematical laws, so improvements
to technology can be calculated rather than found
by trial and error. This idea of a mathematical universe is ancient (e.g., often attributed to Pythagoras (ca. 585–497 b.c.)) so one might wonder why it
didn’t happen much earlier: Why, for example, didn’t
Archimedes (287–212 b.c.), often called the Newton
of the ancient world, “scoop” Newton and discover the
mathematical rules that govern the universe? Imagine: Joseph an auto mechanic rather than a carpenter.
The key discovery that Newton made (and that
Archimedes “almost” made) was the differential equation. Differential equations are probably a couple
of years beyond your current mathematical studies
(math 337: Differential Equations) but the idea is
simple enough that I can explain it now. When you
think of an equation you may be thinking of something like:
y = a + bx
which, as you learned in analytical geometry, describes a line when displayed as a graph of y vs. x
for constant a (the y-intercept) and b (the slope):
translates to the differential equation:
d2 y
=0
dx2
or
y 00 = 0
Thus a differential equation is an equation that includes derivatives, i.e., changes. (A philosophical
question: Why are the universe’s laws differential
equations rather than some other sort of magic or
mathematics?) A mathematics course in differential
equations teaches you how to go from a differential
equation, which tells you how things change, to an
equation, which gives you the complete story. Science courses then explain which differential equations
are used by nature. Remark: mathematics usually
uses the generic variable names x and y, whereas
in science we’re most commonly concerned with how
things change in time. Thus the thing that in your
math class is labeled x will most often in your science
classes be labeled t. In this physics class, we’ll often
be concerned with the position of objects which we’ll
often label x. Thus to translate from your math class
to your physics class: x → t and y → x. Thus a
typical physics equation is:
1
x = x0 + v0 t + at2
2
y
and a typical physics differential equation is:
slope: b

 y intercept: a

x
Equations like this are particularly nice because if you
know the numerical values of all the things on the
right hand side (x, a, b) you can calculate the value
of the thing on the left hand side (y). In some sense
such an equation gives the relationship between x and
y completely and immediately. For example, in the
case of the ideal gas law: P V = nRT , if you know
the numerical value of any four of the quantities you
can calculate the fifth. What Newton discovered was
that the fundamental laws of nature are not equations
like the above. Instead of giving us the the whole
story in one package (an equation) nature’s rules focus
on change, reporting how things change with time or
position. For example, one could equally well describe
a straight line by saying it has unchanging slope which
d2 x
=a
dt2
or
x00 = a
A major stumbling block should now be evident. The
universe speaks in the language of differential equations and most of you are years away from taking the
intro course in that language. Thus the process of
translating from the fundamental laws of nature (like
Newton’s three laws) to the immediately usable equations will sometimes seem mystifying, awkward and
uninteresting. One might make the mistake of trying
to “learn physics” by memorizing dozens of equations
rather than understanding the fundamental differential equations that apply to any possible situation.
“Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day; teach
a man to fish, and you get rid of him on weekends.”
This course will focus on applying Newton’s laws of
motion to four situations: (A) motion with a constant applied force, (B) motion in a circle at constant
speed, (C) oscillatory motion and (D) orbital motion
(the space shuttle orbiting the Earth or the Earth orbiting the Sun). Clearly these four situations are a
small subset of real life motions. Please realize that
Newton’s laws explain equally easily all real-life motions, but we need the methods taught in a differential
equations class to apply them to more complicated
situations.
Implicit in the concept “motion” is the idea of change.
Nevertheless, physics has discovered quantities that
stay constant even as most every common-sense quantity associated with a motion varies. These quantities that stay constant—called conserved quantities—
provide simple ways of understanding motions. In
this course we will be particularly interested in the
conservation of (A) energy, (B) linear momentum,
and (C) angular momentum. (An analogy: when a
log burns initially we have wood and oxygen and finally we have hot gases and ash. Everything seems
changed. Nevertheless you’ve learned that the number of carbon atoms stayed constant during the reaction. In chemistry the conservation of atoms during
chemical reactions is a great unifying principle.)
There are a couple of aspects of this course that make
it particularly difficult. First, things do not work the
way common sense tells you: often you’ll find your
intuition misleading you. You step on the car’s accelerator and you’re pushed back in the seat; commonsense says the cause is “inertia”. You round a corner
and the books that were sitting on the car seat are
thrown to the side; common sense says the cause is
“centrifugal force”. In this course you will learn that
“centrifugal force” and “inertia” play no role in the
true explanation of motion. I know it is impossible for
you to throw out the understanding of how the world
works that you’ve developed over your lifetime and
substitute the correct but weird and abstract laws of
motion discovered by Newton. 42 hours of instruction
can not overcome a lifetime of experience. About the
most I can hope for is that in a few artificial examples
you’ll know—but perhaps not believe—how to apply
the true laws of motion. Think about it: you’ve spent
a lifetime observing the universe and have come to
wrong conclusions about how it works. (But those
wrong conclusions are still useful to predict the behavior of your car. A follower of Bokononism would
call your conclusions—and Newton’s—foma 1 .) You
might now conclude that the human mind was not
1
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr created the religion of Bokononism in
his book Cat’s Cradle. Foma are the useful lies of that madeup religion. Vonnegut actually knows something about how the
universe works. He wrote that “freshman physics is invariably
the most satisfying course offered by any American university.”
built to comprehend the true causes of the universe.
But the actual result is far stranger than that. First
the famous Einstein quote: “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible.” Now the true causes of the universe are not yet
totally known, and it is quite possible that when/if
discovered they will be understandable only to a few
thousand physicists. What we already know is that
the road to comprehending the universe has been a
series of steps. Common sense ideas of how the world
works were written down by Aristotle (384–322 b.c.)
replacing unwritten ideas that served mankind for the
previous million years. Aristotle’s physics was good
enough to build cathedrals and catapults and is probably accurate enough for the vast majority of people
who do not need understand how their car works let
alone design a car engine. Newton’s “F = ma” is a
tremendous leap forward in understanding, explaining 99% of everyday experience, but it is not the last
word. Electrodynamics, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, relativity, relativistic quantum field
theory. . . , each step forward has been based on the
previous steps, in such a way that each advancement
seems impossible without the previous steps. (I cannot imagine how quantum mechanics could have been
discovered unless Newtonian mechanics had been discovered first.) Thus our growing comprehension as to
how the world works has been structured like learning from a good user’s manual: the most useful stuff
comes first and then each further refinement is explained. While the universe might not be comprehensible in one gulp, it seems there is a step-by-step
approach you can follow to understand it. Your interests and abilities will determine how much of the
universe you care to understand, but expect “common
sense” to fight every step forward.
Second, since the universe follows mathematical laws,
in order to understand the universe you must be able
to do mathematics. In this course we will use 110%
of the mathematics you’ve learned over your lifetime:
arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, and calculus. Trying to recall the mathematics you learned
a couple of years ago and apply it in new situations
is challenging. The best tonics for this problem are
to ask lots of questions and work lots of problems.
(Yes, work problems that are not assigned.) In addition carefully study the “Problem Solving Tactics”
listed on the inside back cover to our book and read
the advice recorded on the class web page.
Schedule
Day
1/1
1/3
1/5
2/1
2/3
2/5
3/1
3/3
3/5
4/1
4/3
4/5
5/1
5/3
5/5
6/1
6/3
6/5
7/1
7/3
7/5
8/1
8/3
8/5
9/1
9/3
9/5
10/1
10/3
10/5
11/1
W
F
W
F
T
R
M
W
F
T
R
M
W
F
T
M
W
F
T
R
M
W
F
T
R
M
W
F
T
R
M
Date
Aug 27
Aug 29
Sep 3
Sep 5
Sep 9
Sep 11
Sep 15
Sep 17
Sep 19
Sep 23
Sep 25
Sep 29
Oct 1
Oct 3
Oct 7
Oct 13
Oct 15
Oct 17
Oct 21
Oct 23
Oct 27
Oct 29
Oct 31
Nov 4
Nov 6
Nov 10
Nov 12
Nov 14
Nov 18
Nov 20
Nov 24
Text
1.1–1.6
2.1–2.4
2.5–2.8
3.1–3.7
4.1–4.4
4.5–4.6
4.7–4.9
1.1–4.9
1.1–4.9
5.1–5.7
5.8
6.1–6.3
6.4
7.1–7.7
8.1–8.4
8.4–8.7
8.4–8.7
5.1–8.7
9.1–9.5
9.4–9.7
10.1–10.5
10.6
11.1–11.5
11.6–11.7
11.7–11.10
12.1–12.9
9.1–12.9
12.6–12.10
13.1–13.4
13.5–13.6
Topics
Measurements
Position, Velocity
Acceleration, Gravity
Vectors
Vector Calculus, Motion
Projectile Motion
Circular & Relative Motion
Review
Math & Motion
Newton’s Laws
Applying Newton’s Laws
Friction
Circular Motion
K.E. & Work
Potential Energy
Conservation of Energy
Conservation of Energy
Force & Energy
Systems of Particles
Momentum
Collisions
2-Dimensional Collisions
Rotational Motion
Rotational Inertia
Rotational Dynamics
Rolling, Torque
Problems
Collisions & Rotations
Angular Momentum
Statics
Stress/Strain
Exams
Labs (Days: 4–6)
Data Analysis
Quiz 1
Free Fall
Quiz 2
Exam 1
Projectile Motion
Quiz 3
Atwood Machine
Quiz 4
Kinetic Friction
Quiz 5
Quiz 6
Exam 2
Quiz 7
Ballistic Pendulum
Quiz 8
Two-body Collisions
Quiz 9
Exam 3
Rotational Dynamics
Quiz 10
Thanksgiving Break: Wednesday–Friday
11/3
11/5
12/1
12/3
12/5
M
W
F
T
R
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
1
3
5
9
11
14.1–14.6
14.6–14.9
16.1–16.4
16.5–16.9
1–14, 16
1–14, 16
Gravitation
P.E. & Orbits
Oscillations
Harmonic Oscillators
Review
Everything!
Quiz 11
Simple Harmonic Motion
Final Exam
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement