TLE_CAREGIVING LM
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum
Technology and Livelihood Education
Learning Module
CAREGIVING
EXPLORATORY COURSE
Grade 7 and Grade 8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
What Is This Module About ? .................................................................................................. 2
How Do You Use This Module ............................................................................................... 3
LESSON 1 – Use and Maintenance of Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia..4-32
LESSON 2 – Perform Calculations ........................................................................... 33-58
LESSON 3 – Practice Occupational Health and Safety Procedures .................. 59-94
LESSON 4 – Maintain Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia............................ 80-95
Answer Keys ................................................................................................................... 96-103
Acknowledgment ................................................................................................................... 104
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
1
What Is This Module About?
Welcome to the world of Caregiving!
This Module is an exploratory and introductory course which leads you to Caregiving
National Certificate Level II ( NC II)1. It covers four common competencies that a Grade
7/Grade 8 Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) student like you ought to possess,
namely:
1).
2).
3).
4).
Use Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia
Perform Calculations
Practice Occupational Health and Safety Procedures
Maintain Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia
These four common competencies are covered separately in four lessons. As shown below,
each Lesson is directed to the attainment of one, two, or three learning outcomes:
Lesson 1 – Use Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia
LO1. Identify caregiving tools, equipment, and paraphernalia applicable
to a
specific job.
LO2. Use caregiving tools, equipment, and paraphernalia properly.
Lesson 2 – Perform Calculations
LO1. Perform simple calculations
Lesson 3 – Practice Occupational Health and Safety Procedures
LO1. Identify hazards and risks
LO2. Evaluate and control hazards and risks
Lesson 4 – Maintain Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia
LO1.Perform aftercare activities for tools, equipment, and paraphernalia.
Your success in this exploratory course on Caregiving is shown in your ability to perform the
following at the end of this Module:
1NATIONAL
CERTIFICATE (NC) is a certification issued to individuals who achieved all the required units of competency for a national
qualification as defined under the Training Regulations. NCs are aligned to specific levels within the PTQF. (TESDA Board Resolution
No. 2004-13, Training Regulations Framework)
NATIONAL CERTIFICATE LEVEL refers to the four (4) qualification levels defined in the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework
(PTQF) Where the worker in:
a. NC I performs a routine and predictable tasks; has little judgment; and, works under supervision;
b. NC II performs prescribe range of functions involving known routines and procedures; has limited choice and complexity of
functions, and has little accountability;
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2
How Do You Use This Module?
This Module has 4 Lessons. Each Lesson has the following:
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Learning Outcomes
Performance Standards
Materials
Definition of Terms
What Do You Already Know?
What Do You Need to Know?
How Much Have You Learned?
How Do You Apply What You Learned?
How Well Did You Perform?
How Do You Extend Your Learning?
References
To get the most from this Module, you’ve got to do the following:
1. Begin by reading and understanding the Learning Outcome/s and Performance
Standards. These tell you what you should know and be able to do at the end of this
Module.
2. Find out what you already know by taking the Pretest then check your answer
against the Answer Key. If you get 99 to 100% of the items correctly, you may
proceed to the next Lesson. This means that you do not have to go through the
Lesson because you already know what it is supposed to teach you. If you failed to
get 99 to 100% of the items correctly, repeat the Lesson and review especially
those items which you failed to get.
3. Do the required Learning Activities. It begins with one or more Information Sheets.
An Information Sheet contains important notes or basic information that you need to
know. After reading the Information Sheet, test yourself on how much you have
learned by way of the Self-check. Refer to the Answer Key for correction. Do not
hesitate to go back to the Information Sheet when you do not get all test items
correctly. This will ensure your mastery of basic information.
4. It is not enough that you acquire content or information. You must be able to
demonstrate what you have learned by doing what the Activity / Operation /Job
Sheet directs you to do. In other words, you must be able to apply what you learned
in real life.
5. How well did you perform? Accomplish the Scoring Rubrics.
Each Lesson also provides you with references and definition of key terms for your guide.
They can be of great help. Use them fully.
If you have questions, ask your teacher for assistance.
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
3
LESSON 1
Use Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to do
the following:
LO 1. Identify caregiving tools, equipment, and paraphernalia
applicable to specific job
LO 2. Use caregiving tools,equipment and paraphernalia
properly
LO 3. perform preventive maintenance.
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
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
Tools and equipment are cleaned immediately after use in line with farm procedures.
Routine check-up and maintenance are performed.
Tools and equipment are stored in designated areas in line with farm procedures.
Farm tools and equipment are regularly sharpened and oiled from time to time.
Definition of Terms
Bulb – a rubber which is squeezed to inflate the cuff
Carafe – a glass pot with a pouring spout
Caregiver – a worker who is qualified to provide personal care independently or with
minimal supervision, to children, elderly or people with special needs (disabilities)
Chestpiece – also called the head, contains the diaphragm or bell that vibrates with
sound
Child – an individual with age ranging from 0-13 years old
Countertop – a flat surface on top of a cabinet or display case as in a kitchen
Cuff – a fabric that is wrapped around a patient’s arm
Ear Tubes – attach the earpieces to the main body of the stethoscope
Earpieces – part of the stethoscope which are placed into the ears and transmit
sounds directly into them
Elderly – an individual with age ranging from sixty (60) years old and above
Emulsify – the process of combining two liquids that do not normally mix easily
Infant – an individual with age ranging from 0- 12 months (1 yr. old)
Lever – a projecting handle used to adjust or operate a function
People with special needs (Disabilities) – person incapable of performing specific
tasks either physically, mentally, and/or behaviorally.
Rectum – the end part of the large intestine
Reservoir – a receptacle for storing fluid
Suction – a force that causes a fluid or solid to be drawn into an interior space or to
stick on to a surface because of the difference between the external and internal
pressures.
Toddlers – individuals with age ranging from 1-3 years old
Tubing – also called acoustic tubes which connect two ear tubes to the chestpiece
(diaphragm or bell)
Valve – allows air in to inflate the cuff when the bulb is squeezed, then can be
unscrewed to release the air and remove the cuff.
Vessel – is a hollow container used to hold liquid
Whip – is the process of striking something with continual, repetitive strokes
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
5
LEARNING OUTCOME 1
Identify caregiving tools, equipment and
paraphernalia applicable to the specific job
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
1. Equipment, tools, and paraphernalia are identified according to their types,
functions and classifications.
2. Equipment, tools, and paraphernalia are determined based on the specified task.
Materials
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
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LCD projector or OHP
Computer desktop or laptop
Pictures of tools, equipment, and paraphernalia
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
6
What Do You Already Know?
Let us determine how much you already know about the tools, equipment, and
paraphernalia used in caregiving Take this test.
Pretest LO 1
I.
Directions: Match the pictures in Column A with the descriptions in Column B.
Write the letter of your choice in the space provided before each item.
Column A
Column B
1
A. It destructs microorganisms in containers.
2
B. It is a multi-tasking tool used in preparing
food.
3
C. It removes moisture through ventilation.
4
D. It is used for listening to the action of the
heart, lungs etc.
5
E. It is an instrument for grasping and holding.
II. Directions: Identify the tool, equipment, or paraphernalia used in the given specific
tasks.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cleans the dishes without doing it manually
Presses clothes or draperies
Reheats food for the client
Emulsifies food ingredients
Hangs garments on
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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What Do You Need To Know?
Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.
Information Sheet 1.1
Caregiving Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia
One of the most important tasks of a caregiver is to make sure that he/she uses the right
equipment, tool, or paraphernalia that is applicable to a specific job. You, as a future
caregiver, therefore, should be well versed with the different tools and equipment that you
will use when you are already in the health care profession.
Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia Used in Meal Preparation
Airpot
An air pot is a vessel usually rounded which is used for
holding liquid to maintain heat or coldness.
Blender
A blender is a kitchen and laboratory appliance which is used
to mix, puree, or emulsify food and other substances
Coffee Maker
A coffee maker is an electric countertop appliance that brews
hot coffee automatically.
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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Chopping Board
A chopping board is a flat, wooden, or plastic board where
meats or vegetables can be cut.
Electric Knife
An electric knife is a kitchen device which is used for
slicing food. It requires less physical effort than an ordinary
knife and makes neater slices.
Electric Can Opener
An electric can opener is a very useful device which is used
to open canned goods with ease and accuracy.
Food Processor
A food processor is a multi-tasking tool which is used to slice,
dice, or whip food ingredients.
Food Tongs
A food tongs is an instrument with two hinged or sprung arms
for grasping and holding.
Ladle
A ladle is a long-handled spoon with a deep bowl at the end
for serving food specially broth or soup.
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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Microwave Oven
A microwave oven is an oven that uses microwave to cook or
heat food.
Stove
A stove is an appliance in which electricity/gas is utilized to
supply heat to be used for cooking or reheating.
Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia for Cleaning, Washing, and Ironing
Bottle Sterilizer
A bottle sterilizer is an apparatus which is used in destructing
microorganisms in containers like feeding bottle through
boiling.
Broom
A broom is a tool which is used for sweeping dirt. It consists
of twigs and bristles bound together and attached to a
handle.
Clothes Hanger
A hanger resembles the shape of a person’s shoulders
and is used to hang garments on.
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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Dishwasher
A dishwasher is a mechanical device for
cleaning dishes, eating utensils and pots.
Dryer
A dryer is a machine or apparatus that removes moisture
through ventilation or heat.
Dustpan
A dustpan is a handled pan or scoop into which dust is swept.
Duster
A duster is a cloth or brush which is used in removing dirt and
dust.
Flat Iron
A clothes iron is an electric appliance which is used along
with an ironing board, to iron or press clothing, fabric or
draperies.
Ironing Board
An ironing board is a long, narrow padded board, often with
collapsible supporting legs, used as a working surface for
ironing.
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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Laundry/Sorting Basket
A laundry basket is a hamper that is used for holding dirty
clothes for washing or wet clothes for drying. It may also be
used for sorting clean clothes to be folded.
Vacuum Cleaner
A vacuum cleaner is an electrical appliance which is used for
cleaning floors, carpets, and furniture by suction.
Washing Machine
A washing machine is an electric appliance which is used for
washing clothes and linen.
Tools, Equipment, and Paraphernalia for Taking Vital Signs
BP Apparatus Aneroid (sphygmomanometer)
An aneroid unit is mercury free and consists of a cuff that can
be applied with one hand for self-testing; a stethoscope that
is built in or attached; and a valve that inflates and deflates
automatically with the data displayed on an easy-to-read
gauge that will function in any position.
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BP Apparatus Mercurial (sphygmomanometer)
A mercury-based unit has a manually inflatable cuff attached
by tubing to the unit that is calibrated in millimeters of
mercury. During blood pressure measurement, the unit must
be kept upright on a flat surface and the gauge read at eye
level.
BP Apparatus Digital (sphygmomanometer)
A digital unit is mercury free and consists of a cuff that can be
applied with one hand for self-testing; a stethoscope that is
built in or attached; and a valve that inflates and deflates
automatically with the data displayed on the LCD
Stethoscope
A stethoscope is an instrument which is used for listening to
the action of the heart, lungs, etc., usually consisting of a
circular piece placed against the chest, with tubes leading to
earpieces.
Thermometer
A thermometer is an instrument for measuring temperature.
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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How Much Have You Learned?
Self-Check 1.1
Self-Check 1.1
I.
Directions: Search for the ten (10) different caregiving equipment, tools or paraphernalia
found in this puzzle. Encircle the word/words vertically, horizontally, backward,
upward or downward.
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II. Directions: Identify the tool, equipment, or paraphernalia used in the given specific
tasks.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
For sorting clean clothes
For sweeping dirt on the floor
For measuring blood pressure
For removing dirt from the surface of a television
For scooping dust on the floor
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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III. Directions: Group the following tools, equipment, and paraphernalia according to
their classifications. Write each word in the appropriate box.
Dryer
Electric knife
Sphygmomanometer
Food Processor
Ironing board
Stethoscope
Used for meal preparation
Used for cleaning, laundry,
and ironing
Iron
Ladle
Thermometer
Used for taking vital signs
Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?
Show that you learned something by doing this activity
Activity sheet 1.1
Directions:
Compile pictures of the different caregiving equipment, tools, and
paraphernalia. Make a handbook that will be useful for a future caregiver like you. Provide
a summary which presents the equipment, tools, and paraphernalia according to its
classification, use and function. A sample guide is provided for you.
Name
Sample picture of
duster
Classification
Equipment, tools and
paraphernalia for
cleaning, washing,
laundry and ironing
Use
Used for cleaning
Function
Removes dust
Submitted by:
Submitted to:
___________________
Name of Student
_________________________
TLE Teacher
Date: ______________
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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How Do You Extend Your Learning?
Assignment Sheet 1.1
Directions: Make a list of the different tools, equipment and paraphernalia that may be
found in your home. Identify the function of each and determine whether or not
this can be used in a health care environment.
Tools, equipment, and
paraphernalia
Functions
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Can these be used in a
health care environment?
16
LEARNING OUTCOME 2
Use caregiving tools, equipment, and paraphernalia properly
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
.
 Equipment, tools, and paraphernalia are used properly.
 Equipment, tools, and paraphernalia are used based on the task requirement.
Materials

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













LCD projector or OHP
Computer desktop or laptop
Pictures of tools, equipment, and paraphernalia
DVD player
Blender
Coffee maker
Electric can opener
Food processor
Microwave oven
Electric bottle sterilizer
Iron
Washing machine
Clinical thermometer
Digital thermometer
Ear digital thermometer
Infrared thermometer with laser pointer
Sphygmomanometer (mercurial and aneroid)
Stethoscope
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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What Do You Already Know?
Let us determine how much you already know about the proper way of using
tools,equipment, and paraphernalia used on Caregiving. Take this test.
Pretest LO 2
I.
Directions: Write True if the statement is correct, or False if it is incorrect.
___________1.
Infrared thermometers are commonly called laser thermometers.
___________2.
Temperatures are bodily functions that reflect the body’s state of health
and are easily measurable.
___________3.
The first step in washing clothes is sorting them according to color and
type of garment.
___________4.
Iron should cool down before storing.
___________5.
When measuring the client’s temperature, it is not important for the
caregiver to wash his/her hands because he/she does not come in
contact with the client’s bodily fluid.
II. Directions: Encircle the letter of the best answer.
1. What is the balance between heat produced and heat lost in the body?
a.
b.
c.
d.
pulse rate
body temperature
respiratory rate
blood pressure
2. This type of thermometer uses mercury and, therefore, is considered unsafe to use.
a. ear thermometer
b. infrared thermometer
c. digital thermometer
d. clinical thermometer
3. Which of the following is not proper when operating a blender?
a.
b.
c.
d.
operating a blender in a dry, flat surface
plugging the blender first before putting the pitcher onto the base
choosing the setting appropriate for the specified task
placing all the parts of the blender in their appropriate places before operating
it
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
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4. The kind of temperature when the thermometer is placed under the armpit.
a.
b.
c.
d.
oral temperature
rectal temperature
axillary temperature
none of the above
5. These should be checked before ironing as some fabrics need special care
instructions.
a.
b.
c.
d.
labels of the garments to be ironed
pleats and pockets of skirts
collars and sleeves of shirts
pants’ waistbands
What Do You Need To Know?
Read the Information Sheet 2.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 2.1.
Information Sheet 2.1
Operating Caregiving Equipment, Tools and Paraphernalia
Now that you have successfully identified the different equipment, tools, and paraphernalia
used in providing health care, it is a must that you master the proper utilization of each. As
an efficient and dependable caregiver, you must learn the procedures in operating them,
since you will be expected to use them in your particular job.
Common Equipment in Meal Preparation
Blender
1. Choose a flat, dry surface on which to operate your blender.
2. Make sure that all the parts are placed in their appropriate places
before operating.
3. Put the pitcher onto the base and plug the blender.
4. Place the ingredients in the pitcher and put the lid on firmly.
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5. Start operating by choosing the setting appropriate for the task you are going to do.
6. You may add food or ingredients through the secondary lid while the blender is running.
7. Clean the blender after use.
Coffee Maker
1. Fill the carafe with water according to the number of cups of
coffee you need to make.
2. Pour the water from the carafe into the reservoir of the coffee
maker, and place the carafe back into position.
3. Place a coffee filter into the filter basket. The amount of coffee
you'll need to add depends on how strong or weak your clients
like it. Then, add the coffee into the filter using a spoon.
4. Turn on the coffee maker and wait for your coffee to brew.
Electric Can Opener
1. Plug the electric can opener into an outlet.
2. Lift up the lever that raises the cutting wheel
into the air. Place the lip of the can under
the wheel. Put the lever down and press
hard enough so that the wheel gets into the
can.
3. Turn on the opener while holding the
bottom of the can and it will automatically
turn as the wheel slices through the can.
4. Remove the can from the opener when it
reaches the end and you feel a slight drop
of the can. The lid will remain attached to
the magnet on the opener and the can is
ready to dump.
5. Unplug the opener from the outlet.
Food Processor
1. Remove the food processor from its box container.
2. Place it on a stable, flat surface.
3. Plug it on the electrical outlet safely.
4. Remove the cover and put the food ingredients to be
processed.
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5. Put back the cover and turn on the processor to start with the procedure.
6. As soon as you have reached the desired size or texture for your food ingredients,
remove the cover and pour the ingredients into your bowl or plate.
7. Unplug the food processor and clean it based on the manufacturer’s instructions.
Microwave Oven
Microwave oven is a very useful tool specially
during mealtime, but you should exercise special
care when using it to cook or reheat food to ensure
that it is prepared safely.
Microwave Oven Cooking

Position evenly the food items in a covered dish. You may add some liquid if necessary.
Cover the dish with a lid or plastic wrap, but make sure not to cover it completely to let
steam come out. The moist heat that is created will help destroy harmful bacteria and
ensure uniform cooking.

It is better to cook large cuts of meat on medium power for longer periods than on high
power. This way, heat reaches the center without overcooking outer areas.

Mix or rotate food midway through the microwaving time. This is important so as to
eliminate cold spots where harmful bacteria can survive, and for more even cooking.

When partially cooking food in the microwave oven to finish cooking on the grill or in a
conventional oven, it is important to transfer the microwaved food to the other heat
source immediately. Never partially cook food and store it for later use.

Use a food thermometer or the oven's temperature probe to verify the food has reached
a safe minimum internal temperature. Cooking times may vary because ovens vary in
power and efficiency. Always allow standing time, which completes the cooking, before
checking the internal temperature with a food thermometer.
Microwave Defrosting

Remove food from the package before defrosting. Do not use foam trays and plastic
wraps because they are not heat stable at high temperatures. Melting or warping may
cause harmful chemicals to migrate into food.

Immediately after defrosting meat and poultry in microwave oven, they should be cooked
since some areas of the frozen food may begin to cook during the defrosting time.
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Bottle Sterilizer
1. Place the recommended amount of water as
specified in the manufacturer’s instructional
manual. Then, plug in the unit.
2. Place the bottle upside down (use the prongs to
support them individually). Place the nipples,
nipple rings and caps in such a way that they
do not touch each other. Either prop them
between the lower prongs, or place them on the
supplied surface.
3. Cover the sterilizer and turn on the unit.
Sterilization typically takes about 10 minutes
with an automatic cycle that raises water
temperature to a sufficient level to kill off any bacteria (212 degrees Fahrenheit). Once
this cycle ends, the unit automatically begins to cool. Some models or units will not allow
you to open the cover until the cooling cycle is completed.
4. Unplug the unit.
5. Remove the feeding bottles from the sterilizer.
6. Clean the sterilizer based on the manufacturer’s specifications.
Common Equipment in Cleaning, Laundry, and Ironing
Flat Iron
1. Check the label of every garment before ironing.
This is necessary as some fabrics need special care
instructions.
2. Unfold your ironing board near the outlet. Plug in
your iron and choose the appropriate setting based
on the material of the clothes you are ironing.
3. Preheating the flat iron should be done before starting. You will have to wait about 2-5
minutes to let the iron warm up.
4. Stretch the garment across the ironing board to make sure it is flat.
5. Run the iron over one part of the garment such as the hem just to be sure that it is not
too hot.
6. Move the iron over the pants, blouse, or shirt and take note of pleats and pockets. For
the shirts, start with the collar next to the sleeves, and then the shirt itself. For pants and
shorts, start with the inside then the outside of the pants starting from the waistband
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down. Generally, skirts and dresses are ironed from the top to the hem. If there are
pleats, iron from the bottom and work upward with fast strokes. Each pleat should be
pressed individually. Hang each garment that you have ironed to keep it from wrinkling
again.
7. Unplug the iron and allow the unit to cool before storing it.
Washing Machine
1. The very first step in washing is sorting the clothes
of your client. Separate white and light-colored from
dark-colored clothes. Also, they should be sorted
according to their material. Wash clothes with
heavy fabrics together and clothes with light fabrics
together.
2. Put detergent into the washing machine. Let the
detergent go to the bottom of the washing machine.
3. Put the clothes loosely into the washing machine.
4.
Load the laundry as high as the manufacturer
specifies or to the top row of holes in the tub.
5. Close the lid and choose the setting of the washing machine according to what you are
washing.
6. Turn on the machine. Let the unit work through all of the cycles. Wait for the machine to
turn off before you unload the washed laundry.
7. Load the next batch of clothes and do steps 5 and 6 again until you are done with the
laundry.
8. Turn off and unplug the unit.
Common Equipment in Taking the Vital Signs
When caring for an infant, toddler, child, elderly or person with special needs, measuring the
vital signs is of utmost concern. This is also a concern of your client. Hence, he/she has the
right to know her vital signs.
This module will walk you through the basics of taking two of the important measurements.
As you learn the different processes, you will also get your hands on the crucial pointers
necessary in obtaining an accurate reading. But first, let us talk about vital signs. Vital signs
are bodily functions that reflect the body’s state of health and are easily measurable: body
temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. In some cases, the fifth vital
sign is considered to be the pain that a person experiences.
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Thermometer
Body temperature is a measurement of the amount of heat in the body. The balance
between heat produced and heat lost is the body temperature. The normal adult body
temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. There is a normal range in which a person’s body
temperature may vary and still be considered normal. Take a look at these normal ranges of
body temperature:
Oral
Rectal
Axillary
:
:
:
36.4 to 37.2 degrees Celsius
37 to 37.8 degrees Celsius
35.9 to 36.7 degrees Celsius
The following are the different types of thermometers:
Clinical thermometer may be inserted either into the
rectum through the anus (rectal temperature), into the
mouth under the tongue (oral or sub-lingual) or armpit
(axillary temperature). It is made of glass with a narrowing
above the bulb so that the mercury column stays in
position even when the instrument is removed. The use of
this type is now being eradicated as the mercury content
is dangerous to people.
Digital thermometer may be inserted into the mouth
under the tongue, under the armpit or into the anus. This
thermometer displays the reading in the LCD. This type of
thermometer does not use mercury which is hazardous to
humans. That is why more and more people are using it
now. Also, using this is simple, quick and effective.
Ear digital thermometer measures the heat coming from
the eardrum. This release of heat is converted into a
temperature and displayed on an LCD. It is very easy to
use this. You just have to place the tip in the ear of a
person, press the button and in a few seconds, the
measurement is seen on the LCD.
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Infrared thermometer with laser pointer measures
temperature using thermal radiation emitted by the body.
It is also called laser thermometer if a laser is utilized to
aid in aiming the thermometer. Others call it non-contact
thermometer because of its ability to measure temperature
from a distance. It provides temperature reading without
physically touching the object. All you have to do is aim at
the object (as in the forehead), pull the trigger and
immediately, you can see the temperature reading on the
LCD.
Using a Digital Thermometer (rectum through the anus)
1. Wash your hands and take the thermometer out of its holder.
2. Clean the probe (pointed end) of the thermometer with rubbing alcohol or soap and
then rinse it in cool water.
3. Put a probe cover over the pointed end of the thermometer. If your thermometer did
not come with a probe cover then you can use it without one.
4. Lubricate the end of the probe with a small amount of lubricating jelly.
5. Place your child (taking the temperature through the rectum is usually done on
children) on his stomach across a firm surface or your lap before taking his
temperature.
6. Gently slide the probe of the thermometer into the rectum about a half inch. Stop
inserting the thermometer if it becomes difficult to insert. Never force the
thermometer into the rectum.
7. Continue to hold the thermometer the entire time you are taking the temperature.
Always stay with your client while taking the temperature.
8. Keep the thermometer in place until it beeps then remove the thermometer
9. Read the numbers on the LCD. These numbers are your client's temperature.
10.
11. If you used a probe cover, remove it and throw it away.
12. Wash the probe of the thermometer with soap, water and rubbing alcohol when you
are done. Put the thermometer’s tip cover. Place the thermometer in its
holder/container.
13. Record the reading
14. Wash your hands.
Using a Digital Thermometer (mouth)
1. Wash your hands and take the thermometer from its holder.
2. Clean the probe (pointed end) of the thermometer with rubbing alcohol or soap and
then rinse it in cool water.
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3. Inform the client that you are going to take his temperature orally.
4. Ask the client to wet his/her lips and pick up his tongue.
5. Place the thermometer under the client’s tongue on one side of his/her mouth. Ask
him/her to close his/her lips. (You may have to hold the thermometer specially if your
client is sick and weak enough to even hold the thermometer with his/her lips.)
6. Leave the thermometer in place until the thermometer signals it is finished. When it
beeps, it signifies that it can be removed.
7. Remove the thermometer carefully and read the temperature on the digital display.
Clean the tip of the thermometer with a cotton ball soaked in alcohol. Put the
thermometer’s tip cover. Place the thermometer in its container.
8. Record the reading and wash your hands.
Using a Digital Thermometer (armpit)
1. Wash your hands and take the thermometer from its holder.
2. Clean the probe (pointed end) of the thermometer with rubbing alcohol or soap and
then rinse it in cool water.
3. Inform the client that you are going to take his temperature under the armpit.
4. Place the thermometer under the client’s armpit. (You may have to hold the
thermometer specially if your client is very sick and weak that he/she cannot even hold
the thermometer with his/her armpit.)
5. Leave the thermometer in place until the thermometer signals it is finished. When the
thermometer beeps, it means that it can be removed.
6. Remove the thermometer carefully and read the temperature on the digital display.
Clean the tip of the thermometer with a cotton ball soaked in alcohol. Put the
thermometer’s tip cover. Place the thermometer in its container.
7. Record the reading and wash your hands.
BP Apparatus
Another important measurement that you should learn to take is the blood pressure. Blood
pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of the blood vessels. The heart
contracts as it pumps the blood into the arteries. When the heart is contracting, the pressure
is highest. This pressure is what we know as the systolic pressure. Now, as the heart
relaxes between each contraction, the pressure decreases. When the heart is at its most
relaxed state, the pressure is lowest. And we call this diastolic pressure. The following
steps will help you measure blood pressure accurately.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Wash your hands and prepare the equipment you will use.
Introduce yourself and let the patient/client know the procedure to be done.
Sanitize the earpieces of the stethoscope with an antiseptic pad.
Ask your client to rest quietly. Have him/her lie down or sit on a chair whichever is more
comfortable for him/her.
5. If you are using a mercurial apparatus, the measuring scale should be within the level of
your eyes.
6. Expose the arm of your client by rolling the sleeves up. Have your client’s arm from the
elbow down to rest fully extended on the bed or the arm of a chair.
7. Unroll the cuff, loosen the screw and squeeze the cuff with your hands to remove air
completely.
8. Wrap the cuff around your client’s arm above the elbow, not too tight or too loose.
9. Find your client’s brachial pulse at the inside of the elbow. Hold the diaphragm there and
inflate the cuff until the pulse disappears. Take note of the reading and immediately
deflate the cuff. This is the client’s approximate systolic reading and is called the
palpated systolic pressure.
10. Place the stethoscope’s earpieces into your ears and place the diaphragm on the
brachial pulse.
11. Turn the screw to close it. Inflate the cuff until the dial points to 30 mm above the
palpated systolic pressure.
12. Turn the screw to open it. Let the air escape slowly until the sound of the pulse comes
back. Take note of the calibration that the pointer passes as you hear the first sound.
This indicates the systolic pressure.
13. You have to continue releasing the air from the cuff. When you hear the sounds change
to something softer and faster and disappear, take note of the calibration. This is now
the diastolic pressure
14. Deflate the cuff complete. Remove it from the arm of your client and record the reading
on the client’s chart.
15. Wipe the earpieces of the stethoscope with an antiseptic pad and place the equipment
back to their proper place and wash your hands.
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How Much Have You Learned?
Self-Check 2.1
Directions: Encircle the letter of the best answer.
1. When an adult client asks you about his/her vital signs, your best answer would be:
A. “I am only allowed to report them to my superior.”
B. “Your temperature is 37 degrees orally; your blood pressure is 128/70, and your
respirations are 24. Is there anything more that you would like to know sir/ma’am?”
C. “Oh, they are not that important. There is no need for you to know about it.”
D. “Even if I tell you sir/ma’am, you will not understand them.”
2. The fifth vital sign is
A. blood pressure
B. pain
C. temperature
D. respiration
3. This appliance is useful especially at mealtime.
A. blender
B. food processor
C. microwave oven
D. electric can opener
4. This uses a magnet so that the lid will remain attached to it.
A. blender
B. coffee maker
C. microwave oven
D. electric can opener
5. When the heart is contracting, the pressure is highest. This is called the
A. blood pressure.
B. systolic pressure.
C. heart pressure.
D. diastolic pressure.
Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?
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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?
Show that you learned something by doing this activity
Activity Sheet 2.1
Directions: Watch the following videos by following the links provided. Work with a partner
and answer the questions that follow.
Video No. 1
1. What is the video all about?
2. What are the three most important steps you have seen in the video? Explain your
answer.
3. Do you think the caregiver handled her client well? Why do you think so? Can you cite
situations that would prove that the caregiver handled her client well?
Video No. 2
1. What is the video all about?
2. What are the three most important steps you have seen in the video? Explain your
answer.
3. What are the advantages of using the equipment shown in the video? Cite three (3)
advantages.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S648xZDK7b0&feature=fvsr
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHosKND-kZk&feature=fvsr
Activity Sheet 2.2
Directions: You will be provided with five (5) equipment, tools or paraphernalia. Prepare
them for use by identifying and demonstrating the function of each. You must get 100%
accuracy. Students with the score of 9 and below are required to perform again the activity.
Complete the table below in a separate sheet of paper.
Task to be
undertaken


Equipment,
tool or
paraphernali
a to be used
Function of the
equipment, tool
or paraphernalia

Prepare
apple and
banana
smoothie

Blender
Sterilize
feeding
bottles

Sterilizer

For mixing,
puree or
emulsifying
food and other
substances
For destroying
microorganism
s in containers
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Functionality
Functional
Defective
Remarks


29



Iron shirt
and pants of
the client
Take
temperature
reading
Open a
canned good
for the client

Iron and
ironing
board

For pressing
clothes


Thermom
eter

For measuring
temperature


Electric
can
opener

For opening a
canned good

How Well Did You Perform?
Find out by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely.
Remember it is your learning at stake!
ACCURACY (100%)
Identified and demonstrated the function of 5 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 4 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 3 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 2 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 1 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Failed to identify and demonstrate the function of any of the given
equipment, tools, or paraphernalia
ACCURACY (100%)
SCORING
CRITERIA
10
9
7
5
3
1
STUDENT’S
SCORE
Identified and demonstrated the function of 5 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 4 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 3 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 2 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Identified and demonstrated the function of 1 equipment, tools, or
paraphernalia
Failed to identify and demonstrate the function of any of the given
equipment, tools, or paraphernalia
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Congratulations! You did a great job!
Rest and relax a while then move on to the next
lesson. Good luck!
REFERENCES
LO1
Elana D. Zucker. The Caregiver’s Resourcebook 6th Edition Pearson Education South
Asia PTE. LTD. 2009.
National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc. Public Health Nursing in the
Philippines 10th Edition National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc.
Online Resources:
http://www.ehow.com/how_7719401_clean-air-pot.html
http://www.aptkitchen.com/kitchen-accessories-articles/electric-knife-cleaning.php
http://home.howstuffworks.com/how-to-repair-small-appliances6.htm
http://howtoeasy.blogspot.com/2010/01/clean-your-microwave-oven-with-vinegar.html
http://navyadministration.tpub.com/14163/css/14163_78.htm
http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/heloise/heloise-spring-cleaning-dishwashergrime
http://housekeeping.about.com/od/laundry/ht/ironcleaning.htm
http://blog.lydiasuniforms.com/blog/uniforms-and-scrubs-qanda/caring-for-yourstethoscope
http://www.geratherm.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/user-manual-Gerathermclinic.pdf
http://www.healthaidindia.com/digital-thermometers/maintenance-of-digitalthermometers.html
http://www.dableducational.org/pdfs/spring07/Chapter4_Measurement_of_blood_pressur
e_Part2.pdf
http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/medical-equipment-articles/medicalinstruments-maintenance-how-clean-sphygmomanometer-269087.html
http://www.adctoday.com/images/PDF/IB/93-7001-00.pdf
http://www.thefreedictionary.com
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LO2
Elana D. Zucker. The Caregiver’s Resourcebook 6th Edition Pearson Education South
Asia PTE. LTD. 2009.
National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc. Public Health Nursing in the
Philippines 10th Edition National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc.
Online Resources:
http://www.ehow.com/how_7719401_clean-air-pot.html
http://www.aptkitchen.com/kitchen-accessories-articles/electric-knife-cleaning.php
http://home.howstuffworks.com/how-to-repair-small-appliances6.htm
http://howtoeasy.blogspot.com/2010/01/clean-your-microwave-oven-with-vinegar.html
http://navyadministration.tpub.com/14163/css/14163_78.htm
http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/heloise/heloise-spring-cleaning-dishwashergrime
http://housekeeping.about.com/od/laundry/ht/ironcleaning.htm
http://blog.lydiasuniforms.com/blog/uniforms-and-scrubs-qanda/caring-for-yourstethoscope
http://www.geratherm.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/user-manual-Gerathermclinic.pdf
http://www.healthaidindia.com/digital-thermometers/maintenance-of-digitalthermometers.html
http://www.dableducational.org/pdfs/spring07/Chapter4_Measurement_of_blood_pressu
re_Part2.pdf
http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/medical-equipmentarticles/medical-instruments-maintenance-how-clean-sphygmomanometer-269087.html
http://www.adctoday.com/images/PDF/IB/93-7001-00.pdf
http://www.ehow.com/how_2063587_use-washing-machine.html
www.google.com
http://www.ehow.com/how_8162704_use-clothes-iron.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared_thermometer
http://www.digitalthermometers.net/digitalthermometers.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared_thermometer
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S648xZDK7b0&feature=fvsr
http://www.drugs.com/cg/taking-a-rectal-temperature.html
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5048247_parts-stethoscope.html
http://www.ehow.com/how_7416851_identify-parts-stethoscopesphygmomanometer.html
http://jproffcomm.tripod.com/id4.html
http://www.thefreedictionary.com
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LESSON 2
Perform Calculations
LEARNING OUTCOME:
At the end of this Lesson you are expected to:
LO 1. Perform simple calculations
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Definition of Terms
Dosage – the measured quantity of a medicine
Equation – a statement of equivalence in mathematical expressions
Equivalent – the same in number, value or meaning
Intravenous Injection – a means of administering medicine or feeding a patient through
injection
Substernal – situated below or behind the sternum or breastbone
Vial – a small, closable vessel for fluids
Suppository – small piece medicine designed to melt within a body opening other than the
mouth, especially the rectum or vagina.
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LEARNING OUTCOME 1
Perform simple calculations
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
.




Computations involving ratios, fractions, proportions and conversions are
performed.
Oral drug dosages are computed.
Rectal dosages are determined.
Pediatric dosages are calculated.
Materials









LCD projector or OHP
Computer desktop or laptop
Suppository
Vial
Syringe
Sample drug labels
Measuring cup for syrups
Dropper
Hollow-handle spoon
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What Do You Already Know?
Pretest LO 1
Pretest LO1
I.
Directions: True or False. Write an O if the statement is true, or write an X if the
statement is false.
1. _____ Oral drugs can be in tablet, capsule, or suppository form.
2. _____ Reading carefully the drug labels is very important in administering medicines
to the
patients.
3. _____ Medicines of the same brand name and generic name always has the same
dosage
strength.
4. _____ The unknown value in calculation is usually represented by a "?".
5. _____ The adult's average Body Surface Area (BSA) is 1.73 m².
II. Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer by encircling the letter of your
choice.
1.
A patient who weighs 65 kg is scheduled to receive 75 mg / kg of her medicine.
How much mg should the patient receive?
a. 487.5 mg
b. 4875 mg
c. 86.67 mg
d. 75mg
2. Determine the weight of your patient in kilograms who weighs125 lbs.
a. 65.8 kg
b. 68.5 kg
c. 58.6 kg
d. 56.8 kg
3. How many milligrams of a medicine are in 3 tablets if 2 contain 10mg?
a. 5 mg
b. 10 mg
c. 15 mg
d. 20 mg
4.
Each nurse station at the hospital requires 8 nurses every shift schedule. If there
are 3 shifts in one day, how many nurses are required to be at the hospital each shift
if it has a total of 48 nurse stations?
a. 1,152 nurses
b. 248 nurses
c. 1,248 nurses
d. 384 nurses
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5.
3,600 ml / day is equal to ___________
a. 150 ml / hr or 2.5 ml / min
b. 120 ml / hr or 2.2 ml / min
c. 120 ml / hr or 2.0 ml / min
d. 100 ml / hr or 1.7 ml / min
Directions: Convert the following as indicated
6. 7.5 ml
= _____ tsp
7.
5 in
= _____ cm
8.
440 lbs = _____ kg
9.
2.5 cc = _____ ml
10. 3 hr
= _____ min
What Do You Need To Know?
Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.
Information Sheet 1.1
CALCULATIONS THAT COUNT
A glance at numerical relationships
Ratios, fractions, and proportions describe relationships between numbers.
Ratio is a quick way to compare numbers. It uses a colon between the numbers in
relationship.
Ex.:
3:5
8:12 4:7
Fraction, as we all know, is a part of a whole or a portion of a certain number. It uses a
slash between numbers in the relationship.
Ex.:
2/3
4/5
6/8
A proportion is an equation written in the form
stating that two ratios are equivalent.
For instance, to show that 3:6 is equal to 9:18, we would write:
3:6::9:18
or
3/6 = 9/18
2:3::4:6
or
2/3 = 4/6
5:8::10:16
or
5/8 = 10/16
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Major problem solvers
For dosages computation, we use ratios, fractions, and proportions most of the time. We will
be using them in calculating I.V. infusion rates, administering medication, converting weights
between systems of measurement, and in performing many other related tasks.
RATIOS AND FRACTIONS
Ratios and fractions are numerical ways to compare anything. We can’t simply ignore them.
We use them every day, whether we realize it or not.
Bring it on! Do the comparison!
If 1 pad has 20 tablets, then the number of pads compared to the number of tablets is 1 to
20.
In ratio, it is written as:
1:20
In fraction, it is written as:
1/20
Want more? Just go on!
If there are 5 nurses for every 35 patients in a hospital, what would be the ratio? What
would be the fraction?
In ratio, it is written as:
5:35
In fraction, it is written as:
5/35 or 1/7
MATH TIP!
The terms of a ratio are the numerator (always to the left of the colon) and
the denominator (always to the right of the colon) of a fraction. Like
fractions, ratios should always be in lowest term.
PROPORTIONS
A proportion is an equation of two ratios which can also be expressed as two fractions.
Using ratios in proportions
When using ratios in a proportion, a double colon serves as a separator. Double colon
shows equality between the two ratios.
In the example previously given, the ratio of pads with the tablets is 1:20, then 2 pads have
40 tablets. In proportion, it is written as:
1 pad : 20 tablets :: 2 pads : 40 tablets
or
1:20 :: 2:40
Go marathon using ratios in proportions!
On the second example, there are 5 nurses for every 35 patients and the ratio is 5:35. We
can therefore say that there are 10 nurses for 70 patients. In a proportion, we can express
the comparison as:
5 nurses : 35 patients :: 10 nurses :: 70 patients
or
5:35 :: 10:70
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Using fractions in proportions
A proportion that can be expressed using ratios can also be expressed using fractions. Let’s
refer to the examples given before.
1 pad has 20 tablets which means that 2 pads have 40 tablets. Using fractions, we can write
the proportion as:
Or
Enjoy using fractions in proportions
There are 5 nurses for every 35 patients which equals to 10 nurses for 70 patients. We can
express this in fraction as:
Or
Math Tip: We use colon for ratios while we use forward slash or horizontal bar
for fractions. Double colon (::) used for ratios also means equal (=) used for
fractions.
WHAT IS AN “X”?
Finding the value of X is very important in dosage calculations. X is the unknown amount or
quantity we are going to compute so we can identify what is being asked for in an equation.
Steps in Solving the Value of X Using Ratios in Proportion
1. Prepare the equation.
2. Start with the solution by doing a multiplication.
Note: The product of the means is equivalent to the product of the extremes. Means are the
middle quantities while the extremes are the external quantities
3. Solve for the value of X.
4. Double check your work by completing the equation.
Example 1:
How many nurses will take charge of 15 patients if 6 nurses handle 30 patients?
Step 1. Prepare the equation.
X : 15 patients :: 6 nurses : 30 patients
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Step 2. Start with the solution by doing a multiplication. Multiply the means (middle) using
the left side and multiply the extremes (external items) using the right side. Put an equal
sign between both sides.
15 patients x 6 nurses = X x 30 patients
Step 3: Solve for the value of X. In the given problem, the value of X refers to
15 patients x 6 nurses = X x 30 patients
90 = 30 X
90 / 30 = X
or
X = 3 nurses
Therefore, 3 nurses will take charge of 15 patients while 6 nurses handle 30 patients.
Step 4: Double check your work by completing the equation.
3 nurses : 15 patients :: 6 nurses : 30 patients
Example 2:
Find the value of X using the equation given below:
2500 mg : 10 tablets :: X : 3 tablets
To compute,
10 tablets x X = 2500 mg x 3 tablets
10 X = 7500 mg
X = 7500 / 10
X = 750 mg
Check and complete the equation
2500 mg : 10 tablets :: 750 mg : 3 tablets
Steps in Solving the Value of X Using Fractions in Proportion
1.
2.
3.
4.
Prepare the equation.
Start with the solution by doing cross multiplication.
Solve for the value of X.
Double check your work by completing the equation.
Example 1:
How many nurses will take charge of 15 patients if 6 nurses handle 30 patients?
Step 1. Prepare the equation.
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Step 2. Start with the solution by doing a cross multiplication.
15 patients x 6 nurses = X x 30 patients
Step 3: Solve for the value of X. In the given problem, the value of X refers to
15 patients x 6 nurses = X x 30 patients
90 = 30 X
90 / 30 = X
or
X = 3 nurses
Therefore, 3 nurses will take charge of 15 patients while 6 nurses handle 30 patients.
Step 4: Double check your work by completing the equation.
Example 2:
Find the value of X using the equation given below:
To compute, cross multiply first.
10 tablets x X = 2500 mg x 3 tablets
10 X = 7500 mg
X = 7500 / 10
X = 750 mg
Check and complete the equation
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
We use a colon ( : ) or a double colon ( :: ) in ratios

We use a forward slash ( / ) or a horizontal bar ( -------- ) in fractions

Proportion is an equation showing 2 sets of equal ratios

The middle items in a proportion is called “means”

The external items in a proportion are called “extremes”

X in an equation which stands for the missing or unknown value
A GLANCE AT MEASUREMENTS AND
CONVERSIONS
Dosage calculations involve measurements and
conversions of the formulation, ingredients, and
components of drugs.
Measurements and
conversions must be calculated accurately to ensure
that we will be able to give the correct dosage to our
patients.
Below is a table of most commonly used measurements with its corresponding conversions.
DOSAGE CALCULATION CONVERSIONS
1 liter (L)
1 ounce (oz)
1 ounce (oz)
1 milliliter (ml)
1 gram (g)
1 pint
1 milligram (mg)
1 kilogram (kg)
1 kilogram (kg)
1 inch (in) (")
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1000 milliliters (ml)
30 milliliters (ml)
2 tablespoons (tbsp)
1 cubic centimeter (cc)
1000 milligrams (mg)
500 milligrams (mg)
1000 micrograms (mcg)
1000 grams (g)
2.2 pounds (lb)
2.5 centimeters (cm)
42
8 ounces (oz)
8 ounces (oz)
grains (gr) X
240 milliliters (ml)
1 coffee cup
1 cup
1 quart
1 quart
1 centimeter
1 glass
Convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
1 cup (c)
240 milliliters (ml)
650 milligrams (mg)
1 cup (c)
6 ounces
8 ounces
1 liter
2 pints
10 millimeters
12 ounces
Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius
subtract 32 then divide by 1.8
multiply by 1.8 then add 32
DRUG DOSE CALCULATION USING MEASUREMENTS / CONVERSIONS
Formula:
Example 1. Doctor orders 5 mg of morphine to be administered intravenously to a patient
with substernal chest pain. You have 1 ml vial that contains 10mg of morphine (10 mg/ml).
How many milliliters are you going to have to draw up into a syringe and push IV into your
patient’s IV line port?
What are given?
Desired Dose – 5 mg of morphine IV
Concentration – 10 mg
Volume on Hand – 1 ml
What is asked? Dosage to be given to the patient, in ml
Formula:
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METRIC CONVERSIONS
There are instances when we need to convert a unit of measurement to another when
calculating for drug dosages.
The metric system of measurements is based on a number of basic measures or units.
Take a quick look at the table below.
QUANTITY
length
mass
volume
time
UNIT
metre
gram
litre
second
SYMBOL
m
g
l
s
Large and small amounts of these units often have a prefix. Also, some common units of
measurement are prefix symbol multiplication factor.
PREFIX
SYMBOL
mega
kilo
hector
deka
unit
deci
centi
milli
micro
m
k
h
da
g, m, l, or s
d
c
m
mcg or µ
MULTIPLICATION
FACTOR
1,000,000
1,000
100
10
1
.1
0.01
0.001
0.000001
For conversion of one metric unit to another will require us to move the decimal place to the
left or to the right.
To know how many decimal places to move, follow these steps:
1. Write the metric scale.
2. Find out what the two units in the problem are.
3. Count the number of units from the given one to the desired one.
Example 1.
Convert .1 decigrams to micrograms
The decimal place is moved 3 places to the right using
mg -- kg -- hg -- dag -- g -- dg -- cg -- mg -- mcg
Therefore, 0.1 dg = 1000 mg
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Example 2.
Convert 250 millilitres to litres
The decimal place is moved 3 places to the left
ml -- kl -- hl -- dal -- l -- dl -- cl -- ml -- mcl
Therefore, 250 ml = 0.250 l
Still a lot of health professionals are having difficulty with drug calculations. Is it because
they don’t like Math? Before administration, some drugs require some sort of calculation
and some of which requires simple to complex conversion. Don’t make life complicated.
Look for the best alternative measurement system which could make all the difference and
make things easy for you.
CALCULATING ORAL DRUG DOSAGES
A Glance at Oral Drugs
These substances which are administered orally can be in the form of tablet, capsule, or
liquid. Oral drugs are mostly available in a limited number of strengths or concentrations. It
is, therefore, very important that you have the skill to calculate prescribed dosages for
different drug forms.
Interpreting Oral Drug Labels
For you to administer an oral drug safely, you must make sure that it is the correct drug with
the right dosage. Therefore, it is very vital that you would be able to read and interpret oral
drug labels.
1. Identify the Drug Name
Know the difference between the brand name and generic name. Verify the generic name
first. If the drug has two names, the generic name usually appears in lowercase print
and sometimes in parentheses.
The generic names are the active ingredients in the medicine. Whether the brand name of
generic name is used, be very careful when reading the label to avoid errors.
Important:
Pay attention to the active, or generic name, since too much of an active ingredient can be
harmful if you take more than one product with the same active ingredient without knowing it.
2. See the Dosage Strength
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After identifying the drug name, look for the dose strength on the label.
Important:
Pay close attention to the labels of two same drugs which may look exactly alike aside from
that of the dose strength. One of them might indicate 125mg and the other one is 250mg.
Be keen in checking the dose strength because it forms part of the dosage calculation.
3. Check the Expiration Date
You also have to check the expiry date. It is a vital information which is sometimes
overlooked.
Tip:
For best shelf life, store all medications in a cool, dry place.
Calculating Drug Dosages
Most of the time, you will use ratios in proportion to compute for drug dosages. At this point
in time, you should already be familiar in dealing with the equation using ratios in
proportions.
Rules in Calculating Drug Dosages
Remember the rules to accurately calculate drug dosages and eliminate errors as well.
1. Use the correct units of measure to avoid errors in calculating doses.
2. Be careful in placing decimal and zero.
3. Double-check strange answers.
Steps in Calculating Drug Dosages Using Ratios in Proportion
1. Prepare the equation by using ratios in proportion.
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2. Start with the solution by considering that the product of the means is equivalent to the
product of the extremes. Means being the middle items and extremes being the external
items.
3. Solve for the value of X.
4. Double check your work by completing the equation using ratios in proportion.
Example 1:
How many ml of a medicine are in two bottles if one bottle has 60 ml?
Step 1. Prepare the equation by using ratios in proportion.
1 bottle : 60 ml :: 2 bottles : X
Step 2: Start with the solution by considering that the product of the means is equivalent to
the product of the extremes. Means being the inner items and extremes being the external
items.
60 ml x 2 bottles = 1 bottle x X
Step 3: Solve for the value of X. In the given problem, the value of X refers to
60 ml x 2 bottles = 1 bottle x X
120 ml = 1 X
or
X = 120 ml
Therefore, the 2 bottles contain 20ml of medicine.
Step 4: Double check your work by completing the equation using ratios in proportion.
1 bottle : 60 ml :: 2 bottles : 120 ml
Example 2:
How many mg of a drug are in 4 capsules if 3 capsules contain 1500 mg?
Equation:
3 capsules : 1500 mg :: 4 capsules : X
Solution:
1500 mg x 4 capsules = 3 capsules x X
6000 mg = 3 X
X = 6000 mg / 3
X = 2000 mg
Complete Equation:
3 capsules : 1500 mg :: 4 capsules : 2000 mg
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



Always read the drug labels carefully.
Identify the difference between the brand and generic name.
Paying close attention to the dosage strength is very vital in calculating the dosage for
oral drugs
Expiry date is an important information as well in interpreting the drug labels.
A GLANCE AT RECTAL DRUGS
Rectal drugs are medications prepared specifically for insertion into the rectum. They could
be in the form of cream, lotion, or ointment. Administering the drugs rectally is best for
patients who cannot take drugs orally. Rectal drugs include enemas and suppositories.
Interpret Rectal Drug Labels
As we administer medicines to our patients, it is vital to read drug labels at all times. Paying
close attention to the drug labels helps us calculate the dosage we will give to our patients.
-
identify the drug name / generic name
check for the dose strength
expiration date
Types of Rectal Drugs
1. Enema - the injection of liquid into the rectum through the anus for cleansing, for
stimulating evacuation of the bowels, or for other therapeutic or diagnostic purposes
2. Suppository - a small piece of medicated substance, usually conical, ovoid, or cylindrical,
introduced into a body passage, as the rectum or vagina, where body heat causes it to melt
Dosage Calculation for Rectal Drugs
Suppository is considered to be the most used form of rectal medicine. By calculating the
number of suppositories we give to the patient, we will use the ratios in proportion method.
Example 1:
Calculate for a suppository dosage supposing a patient needs 250 mg of a suppository and
the package label says 125 mg.
Using ratios in proportion, we will find the value of X (number of suppository needed) and our
equation will be written as follows:
1 suppository : 125 mg :: X ( # of suppository needed) : 250 mg
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Let us compute…
125 mg x X ( # of suppository needed ) = 1 suppository x 250 mg
125 mg ( X ) = 1 x 250 mg
125 mg ( X ) = 250 mg
X = 250 mg / 125 mg
X = 2 suppositories
To sum it up, we will have to give 2 suppositories to the patient since 2 suppositories equal
250 mg.
Example 2:
A doctor asked the nurse to give the patient 20 mg of suppository. The suppositories on the
shelf show 10 mg each. How many pieces of suppository should you give to the patient?
This is how to solve it using ratios in proportion method. Let our equation be read as:
1 suppository : 10 mg :: X ( # of suppository needed ) : 20 mg
Let us compute for X which is the number of suppository needed
10 mg x X = 1 suppository x 20 mg
10 mg ( X ) = 1 x 20 mg
X = 20 mg / 10 mg
X = 2 suppositories
Since the patient needs 20 mg of suppository, we will give him / her 2 suppositories with 10
mg each. To check, 2 suppositories multiplied to 10 mg will give us 20 mg of suppository.




Make sure to read or interpret the labels carefully.
The two types of rectal drugs are enema and suppository.
Suppository is the most commonly used rectal drug.
Using ratios in proportion method is the best way to calculate the dosage for rectal
drugs.
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A GLANCE AT CALCULATING PEDIATRIC DOSAGES FOR ORAL DRUGS
In calculating drug dosages for pediatric patients, we have to bear in mind that children are
completely different from adults. An inaccurate dosage is more likely to harm a child than
that of an adult.
Administering Pediatric Oral Drugs
Infants and young children who can hardly take tablets or capsules are given oral drugs in
the form of liquid. In some cases wherein liquid medicines are not available, you may crush
a tablet and mix it with a little amount of liquid. If the medication is mixed in a large amount
of liquid (full bottle), the child will not get the entire dose if he is unable to finish the liquid.
Important:
Do not mix crushed tablet with breast milk and infant formula because it may lead to feeding
refusal in the future.
Devices Used in Giving Out Pediatric Oral Drugs

cup - can be used by bigger children

dropper - usually used for infants

syringe - usually used for infants

hollow-handle spoon - usually used for toddlers
Safety Key Points in Giving Medications to Children


Check the child's mouth to ensure that he has swallowed the oral drugs.
Carefully mix oral drugs that come in suspension form.
Tips in Calculating Safe Pediatric Drug Dosages



Use a calculator in solving equations.
Ask advice from a formulary or consult a drug handbook to verify a drug dose. If still in
doubt, call a pharmacist.
Keep a record of your patient's weight in kilograms so you do not have to estimate it or
weigh him all the time.
Methods Used in Calculating Pediatric Doses
1. Body Surface Area (BSA) Method - also called the dosage-per-kilogram-of-body-weight
method; considered to be the most accurate and safest method in calculating pediatric
doses
2. Clark's Rule - uses child's weight to calculate approximate dosage
3. Young's Rule - normally used for children who are two years of age or more
4. Fried's Rule - normally used for children who are two years of age or less
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Body Surface Area (BSA) Method
We will have to use the nomogram to determine a child's BSA then setup an equation using
the formula.
Here is the formula:
Average adult dose ( child's BSA in m² ÷ average adult BSA ) = Child's dose in mg
Note: Average adult BSA = 1.73 m²
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Sample:
We have to compute for a child's dose who weighs 40 lbs. and 36" tall. What is the safe
drug dose if the average adult dose is 500mg. Using the nomogram, the child's BSA is 0.72
m².
Computation Based on BSA Method
500mg ( 0.72 m² ÷ 1.73 m² ) = child's dose in mg
500mg ( .42 ) = child's dose
500mg ( .42 ) = 210mg
child's dose = 210mg
Clark’s Rule
Clark's Rule uses Weight in lbs., NEVER in kg.
Here is the formula:
Adult dose (child's weight ÷ 150) = Approximate child's dose
Simple Sample:
We have to compute for a 2-year old child's dose who weighs 28 lbs. wherein the adult dose
is 500mg.
Computation Based on Clark's Rule
500mg ( 28 ÷ 150 ) = approximate child's dose
500mg ( .19 ) = approximate child's dose
500mg ( .19 ) = 95mg
approximate child's dose = 95mg
Young’s Rule for Children from 1 to 12 years old
Young’s Rule uses age in years.
(which makes it easier to remember, the word young refers to age)
Here is the formula:
Adult dose [ child's age in year ÷ ( child's age in year +12 ) ] = Approximate child's
dose
Same Simple Sample:
We have to compute for a 2-year old child's dose who weighs 28 lbs. Wherein the adult dose
is 500mg. Note that the weight has no bearing using Young's Rule.
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Computation Based on Young's Rule
500mg [ 2 ÷ ( 2 + 12 ) ] = approximate child's dose
500mg ( 2 ÷ 14 ) = approximate child's dose
500mg ( .14 ) = approximate child's dose
500mg ( .14 ) = 70 mg
Approximate child's dose = 70 mg
Fried’s Rule for Infants and Children up to 2 years
Fried's Rule uses age in months.
Here is the formula:
Adult dose ( child's age in months ÷ 150 ) = Approximate child's dose
Still the Same Simple Sample:
We have to compute for a 2-year old child's dose who weighs 28 lbs. wherein the adult dose
is 500mg. Note that the weight has no bearing using Fried's Rule.
Computation Based on Fried's Rule
500mg [ ( 2 x 12 months ) ÷ 150 ] = approximate child's dose
500mg ( 24 ÷ 150 ) = approximate child's dose
500mg ( .16 ) = approximate child's dose
500mg ( .16 ) = 80 mg
Approximate child's dose = 80 mg
Important:
Every medical caregiver, including the medical assistant needs to be familiar with these
rules.



Children need special medication and require special care because of their size,
metabolism, and other factors.
Choose the best device for administering pediatric oral drugs
Be familiar with all the methods used in calculating pediatric doses
- Body Surface Area (BSA) Method
- Clark's Rule
- Young's Rule
- Fried's Rule
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How Much Have You Learned?
Self-Check 1.1 A
I. Directions: Match the items in Column A with their descriptions in Column B. Write the
letter of your choice in the space provided for each item.
Column A
Column B
_____ 1. dosage calculations
a. medication prepared for insertion into
the rectum
_____ 2. ratio
b. a part of a whole
_____ 3. rectal drugs
c. comparison of two numbers
_____ 4. Body Surface Area (BSA) Method
d. used in writing fractions
_____ 5. proportion
e. an equation stating that two ratios or
two fractions are equal
_____ 6. nomogram
f. missing or unknown value
_____ 7. fraction
g. the middle numbers in two ratios
_____ 8. x in an equation
h. dosage-per-kilogram-of-body weight
_____ 9. colon
i. used to determine a child's BSA
_____ 10. slash
j. used in writing ratios
k. conversion of the formulation,
ingredients and components of
drugs
II. Directions: Convert the following as stated. Write your answer on the space provided
for each item.
1. 15 ml = _____ tsps.
2. 5 kgs = _____ lbs.
3. 36 °C = _____ °F
4. 2.5 ft = _____ in
5. 60 cc = _____ ml
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III.
Directions: Write an O, if the statement is true and an X, if the statement is false.
1. _____ Oral drugs can be in tablet, capsule, or liquid form.
2. _____ Reading carefully the drug labels is useless in administering medicines to the
patients.
3. _____ Medicines of the same brand name and generic name do not necessarily
have the same dosage strength.
4. _____ The unknown value in calculation is usually represented by a " ___ ".
5. _____ The adult's average Body Surface Area (BSA) is 1.68 m².
6. _____ An inaccurate dosage can more likely harm an adult than a child.
7. _____ Body Surface Area (BSA) Method is considered to be the most accurate and
safest method in calculating pedriatic dosages.
8. _____ A suppository is the most common form of rectal drugs.
9. _____ Administering the drugs rectally is also best for patients who are unable to
take drugs orally.
10. ____ Generic name in a drug label is usually written in uppercase and in
parentheses.
Self-Check 1.1 B
I.
Directions: Encircle the letter of the best answer.
1. Gwyneth weighs 15 kg and scheduled to receive .5 ml / kg of her medicine. How
much ml should the patient receive?
a. 7.5 ml
b. 75 ml
c. 86.67 ml
d. 7 ml
2. Determine the weight of your patient in kilograms who weighs105 lbs.
a. 47.2 kg
b. 47.7 kg
c. 42.7 kg
d. 42.2 kg
3. How many milligrams of a medicine are in 5 capsules if 3 contain 15 mg?
a. 10 mg
b. 15 mg
c. 20 mg
d. 25 mg
4.
3,600 ml / day is equal to ___________
a. 2.5 ml / min
b. 2.2 ml / min
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c. 2.0 ml / min
d. 1.7 ml / min
5. Marion was ordered by the doctor to take 500 mg of a paracetamol every 6 hours.
Each paracetamol contains 250 mg. How many paracetamol will be taken in a day?
a. 8 pcs
b. 6 pcs
c. 4 pcs
d. 2 pcs
II.
Directions: List down what is/are being asked in each item.
Enumeration:
1-4. Enumerate the four methods in calculating drug dosages for pediatric patients.
5-6. Give the 2 types of rectal drugs.
7-10 What devices can be used in administering oral drugs to children?
Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?
Show that you learned something by doing this activity
ACTIVITY 1.1
Directions: Work with your group mates and come up with a good script covering the topics
in ratios, proportions, fractions, conversions and dosage calculations. Submit a hardcopy of
your script to your teacher, and present your role play to the class making sure that your
computations are 100% accurate.
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ACTIVITY 1.2
Directions: Prepare yourself for a gallery walk. You will notice that your classroom setup
looks like a gallery of dosage calculations. Five big cards (where sample computations on
dosages are written) are displayed in the different parts of the room. Imagine these cards as
exhibits. You will be divided into five groups, but it does not necessarily mean that you will
work as a team. Your groupings will be used to facilitate this activity making sure that you
do the gallery walk properly. You can, however, share your work with your groupmates. Do
the following steps in performing the gallery walk:
1. Together with your groupmates, physically roam around the room starting from the first
card to the fifth card. Make sure that you have your notebook and ballpen with you.
2. Every time you stop by a card, read and study the computation given. Check whether or
not the given answer is correct. If it is not right, compute for the correct answer. You
may share your work with any of your groupmates or you may ask questions from them.
If you believe the answers written on the cards are correct, then show the solutions to
prove that they are indeed correct.
3. Wait for your teacher’s instructions or announcement on when your group should move
to the next card or exhibit. Never go to the next card unless your teacher tells you so.
4. As soon as you have studied all the cards, you may go back to your seat and wait for the
next instructions from your teacher.
Congratulations! You did a great job!
Rest and relax a while then move on to the next
lesson. Good luck!
REFERENCES
LO1
th
Elana D. Zucker. The Caregiver’s Resourcebook 6 Edition Pearson Education South Asia PTE.
LTD. 2009.
Workbook for International Nursing Seminars 2007 Kaplan Inc.
rd
Karen Gahan Tarnow. Dosage Calculations Made Incredibly Easy! 3
Edition Lippincott Williams
and Wilkins 2005
Mildred O. Hogstel and Linda Cox Curry Practical Guide to Health Assessment Through the Life Span
rd
3 Edition F. A. Davs Company 2001
Assessment Technologies Institute Fundamentals of Nursing Practice 2004
Online Resources:
http://www.mathleague.com
http://www.icoachmath.com
http://www.mathsisfun.com
http://mathcentral.uregina.ca
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http://www.homeschoolmath.net
http://webtools.delmarlearning.com
http://www.cwu.edu/~landeisb/webquery.html
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=GEM2004
http://www.purplemath.com/modules/ratio4.htm
http://cstl.syr.edu/fipse/decunit/ratios/revprop.htm
http://flashcarddb.com/cardset/8071-dosage-calculation-conversions-flashcards
http://www.ehow.com/info_8368127_three-measurement-systems-pharmacy-calculations.html
http://www.davesems.com/files/drug_dose_calculations.pdf
http://www.testandcalc.com/quiz/testmeth.htm
http://nursesaregreat.com/articles/drugcal.htm
http://www.google.com.ph
http://wps.pearsoned.com/chet_giangrasso_dosagecalc_1/106/27158/6952596.cw/index.html
http://otcsafety.org/en/experts/how-to-read-a-drug-facts-label1/
http://www.teenoverthecounterdrugabuse.com/expired-drug-danger.html
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460159
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.yourdictionary.com
http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/rectal-medication-administration
http://www.pork.org/filelibrary/youthpqaplus/6grp.pdf
http://www.enotes.com/rectal-medication-administration-reference/rectal-medication-administration
http://www.pharmacy-tech-study.com/dosecalculation.html
http://armymedical.tpub.com/md0913/md09130032.htm
http://www.mapharm.com/med_calc_pedi.htm
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LESSON 3
Practice Occupational Health and Safety
Procedures
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson you are expected to do the
following:
LO 1. Identify hazards and risks
LO 2. Evaluate and control hazards and risks
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Definition of Terms
Assess – to determine the value or extent of something
Contaminate – to make unclean through contact
Crucial – significant to the solution of a problem
Discard – to put away or throw away
Double-bagged– a technique of putting contaminated items/things in a plastic bag and then
placing the closed bag into another plastic bag
Fuse – a device used for protecting an electric circuit
Potential – capable of growth, development and coming into being
Respirator – an instrument that supplies oxygen for breathing
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LEARNING OUTCOME 1
Identify Hazards and Risks
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS



Workplace hazards and risks are identified.
Hazards, risks and their corresponding indicators are identified in the
workplace.
Effects of hazards are determined.
Materials




LCD projector or OHP
Computer desktop or laptop
DVD player
Video clips
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What Do You Already Know?
Let us determine how much you already know about different hazards and risks.
Take this test.
Pretest LO 1
I. Directions: Write True, if the statement is correct, or False, if it is incorrect.
1. __________Too much bending and reaching is an example of physical hazard.
2. __________Psychological hazards happen when a worker’s environment becomes
stressful.
3. __________Observing the nursing home environment is one of the ways in determining
health problems in the workplace.
4. __________Accidents happen because people are not mindful of their environment.
5. __________Too much lifting of heavy loads does not result in injury.
II. Directions: Determine the type of hazard a worker is exposed to based on the
description given in each item. Unscramble the letter by placing the correct letter sequence
in the shaded boxes to come up with the correct answer for each number.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
repetitive and forceful movements
R O G I
M C E N
spillages of toxic materials
H A L E C M C
I
bacteria and viruses
L O B G I
I
O
C
twisted extension cords
H I
Y S C A
P
L
stress from night shifts
P C O S Y H
O
L
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O
L
A
A
G
I
C
L
62
What Do You Need To Know?
Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.
Information Sheet 1.1
HAZARDS AND RISKS
Hazard is anything that may cause harm to an individual, such as chemicals, electricity,
open drawers, and inadequate ventilation.
Risk is the possibility that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards and the
indication of how serious the harm can be.
Occupational Health and Safety
Occupational Health and Safety is the campaign and maintenance of the well-being of
workers in every occupation. It talks about providing a safe working environment to achieve
an injury-free workplace and a healthy atmosphere that protects every worker against
illness. As an effect, it may also protect co-workers, family members, clients, and other
members of the community who are affected by the workplace environment.
Types of Hazards
Physical hazards are the most normal occurrences in workplaces. They are usually easy to
detect, however, very often are neglected because people are too accustomed to them.
Another reason may be due to lack of knowledge or people do not see situations as hazards.
Examples of physical hazards that a caregiver may be exposed to:


Electrical hazards: Even in day care institutions or nursing homes where care should be
of utmost concern, improper wiring and frayed cords may still go unnoticed. Misuse of
electrical equipment also happens in any type of work environment.
Endless loud noise: If one is going to work in a nursing home, frequent noise from
patients who are suffering from depression is definitely a hazard.

Spills on floors or tripping hazards: There are times when
even the caregivers themselves do not mind spills on
floors. This, definitely, poses hazard to everyone.
Some of the Effects of Physical Hazards
 Fire
 Decreased efficiency
 Annoyance
 Falls
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Biological hazards come from working with animals,
people or infectious materials. This is, therefore, one
of the most common hazards that a caregiver faces. If
one is working in a day care, hospital, hotel laundry,
nursing home, laboratories, he/she may be exposed to
biological hazards.
Examples of physical hazards that a caregiver may be
exposed to:




blood or other body fluids
fungi
bacteria and viruses
contaminated wastes
Some of the Effects of Biological Hazards
 infections
 skin irritations
 allergy
 Tuberculosis
 AIDS
Ergonomic hazards occur when a caregiver’s nature of work, body position and working
conditions put pressure on his/her body. It is difficult to spot this type of hazard, because
caregivers do not immediately notice the effect to their bodies. At first, sore muscles may be
experienced. But long term exposure to this type of hazard can cause musculoskeletal
problems.
Examples of ergonomic hazards that a caregiver may
be exposed to:






performing tasks that require lifting heavy loads
too much bending and reaching
standing for long periods of time
holding body parts for long period of time
awkward movements, especially if they are
repetitive
repeating the same movements over and over
Some of the Effects of Ergonomic Hazards
 pain in the shoulders
 back injury
 too much impact on wrist and hands
 numbness in some parts of the body
 muscle cramps
Chemical hazards are present when a worker is exposed to any chemical preparation in the
workplace in any form (solid, liquid or gas). There may be chemicals which are safe, but
some caregivers who are sensitive to solutions may cause skin irritation, illness or breathing
problems.
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Examples of chemical hazards that a caregiver
may be exposed to:


liquids like cleaning products
disinfecting solutions
Effects of Chemical Hazards



Lung diseases
Difficulty in breathing
Allergy
Psychological Hazards take place when a caregiver’s work environment becomes stressful
or demanding.
Examples of psychological hazards that a caregiver
may be exposed to:




“Burn out”, fatigue and on call duty
Unreasonable expectations from patients or clients
Verbal abuse form dissatisfied clients
Unreasonable expectations from supervisors and
management.
Some of the Effects of Psychological Hazards
 Depression
 Anxiety
 Loss of confidence
 Loss of concentration at work
 Deterioration of performance at work
Recognizing Hazards and Risks in the Workplace
Hazards and risks vary from one workplace to another. Even in day care or nursing homes
where work routines may be the same, hazards will differ depending on the type of building
the establishment is situated, and the attitudes of caregivers, clients, or employers.
The good news is hazards and risks can be prevented! However, before thinking about what
control measures are needed, first a caregiver has to know whether there are health and
safety problems in his/her workplace. So, how can someone identify the hazards in the
workplace? The following are some ways for a caregiver to determine health and safety
problems:
1. A caregiver should observe the workplace.
2. A caregiver may examine complaints from his/her co-workers.
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3. A caregiver should check accident records.
4. A caregiver should examine chart on results of inspections done by the employers or
private organizations.
5. A caregiver may use checklists and inspect the workplace.
6. A caregiver may study reports or any other vital information about the nursing home.
Nursing home and day care institution services are of great value to everyone. As such,
owners of these establishments are highly reliant on their staff, particularly the caregivers,
for the delivery of safe, efficient and responsive service. It is, therefore, the responsibility of
the management to ensure a safe and healthy work environment. Every caregiver, on the
other hand, should also take part in determining the hazards and risks in the workplace in
the attainment of a conducive organizational climate within the nursing home or day care
he/she is working for.
How Much Have You Learned?
Self-Check 1.1 A
Directions: Write True if the statement is correct, or False if it is incorrect.
1. __________Occupational hazards and risks can be prevented.
2. __________Hazard is the possibility that somebody could be harmed by these and other
hazards and the indication of how serious the harm can be.
3. __________Performing repeated movements in the workplace are an example of
biological hazard.
4. __________Occupational health and safety is the promotion of health and safety of
every working man.
5. __________Every caregiver should take part in determining the hazards and risks in the
workplace.
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Self-Check 1.1 B
I. Directions: Match the word in Column A with that of the description in Column B. Write
the letter of your choice in the space provided in each item.
Column A
1
2
3
4
5
Biological hazard
Hazard
Risk
Occupational health
and safety
Physical hazard
Column B
A.
B.
C.
D.
It is anything that may cause harm to an individual.
The type of hazard that is usually the easiest to spot.
It comes from working with infectious materials.
The indication of how serious the harm can be.
E. The promotion and maintenance of the well-being of
workers.
Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?
Show that you learned something by doing this activity
Activity sheet 1.1 A
Directions: For you to be able to understand more the concepts about hazards and risks,
do this interactive online activity by following the link below:
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/ActivitiesAndTests/Hunt
TheHazards/hunt.htm
Try to identify the hazards in every scene by dragging the given solution situated at the right
side of the scene. If in case you will find it difficult to find the hazards, you can ask for help
by using the “indicate hazards” button. You will definitely enjoy this as you go through each
scene. Also, you will acquire additional knowledge about hazards and risks. So what are
you waiting for? Take pleasure in searching for the different hazards that may be seen in
the workplace.
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Activity sheet 1.1 B
Directions: Watch these videos by following the links that follow. Then, answer the
questions direct to the point. Write your answers on a sheet of paper. Use additional sheet
if necessary.
A. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWSPIHGiuFs&feature=related
1. What is the video all about?
2. Have you seen any hazard or risk in the video? What are these?
3. Do you believe the caregiver handled her task well as seen in the video? Defend
your answer.
B. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvldyOyv--0
1. What does the video tell about the potential threats of chemotherapy drugs to health
care workers?
2. What will be the role of a caregiver or a health care worker in this type of possible
hazard?
How Do You Extend Your Learning?
Find out by accomplishing the Assignment sheet below
Assignment sheet 1.1
Directions: Walk around your house and list down 10 possible hazards and risks that you
may find. Explain why these things that you have identified or listed pose
danger to the members of your family. Follow the format given.
Possible hazard/risk
CAREGIVING
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Reason/s why it poses danger to me
and my family
68
LEARNING OUTCOME 2
Evaluate and control hazards and risks
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
.
1. OHS procedures for controlling hazards and risk are strictly followed.
2. Procedures in dealing with workplace accidents, fire and emergencies are followed
in accordance with the organization’s OHS policies.
3. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is correctly used in accordance with
organization’s OHS procedures and practices.
Procedures in providing appropriate assistance in the event of workplace
emergencies are identified in line with the established organizational protocol
4. Procedures in providing appropriate assistance in the event of workplace
emergencies are identified in line with the established organizational protocol.
Materials





LCD projector or OHP
Computer desktop or laptop
DVD player
PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
- Surgical apron
- Surgical gown
- Medical mask
- Gloves
Paper towel
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What Do You Already Know?
Let us determine how much you already know about evaluating and controlling
hazards and risks. Take this test.
Pretest LO 2
I.
Directions: Write True if the statement is correct, or False if it is incorrect.
1. __________Human wastes should be discarded in the street.
2. __________Every time a risk assessment is done, details should be recorded.
3. __________Engineering control is the best control measure for hazards and risks.
4. __________Appliances may be turned on at the same time to save time and effort on
the part of the caregiver.
5. __________A wet mask is not considered contaminated.
II. Directions: Match the picture in Column A with that of the description in Column B.
Write the letter of your choice in the space provided in each item.
Column A
Column B
1
A. It protects a caregiver’s clothing from contamination.
2
B. It is used to protect the hands from contamination.
3
C. This may be used when gown is not available.
4
D. It is used to avoid droplets of saliva from reaching other
people.
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What Do You Need To Know?
Read the Information Sheet 2.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 2.1.
Information Sheet 2.1
EVALUATING AND CONTROLLING HAZARDS AND RISKS
Once you recognize a hazard in the workplace, then you can proceed with risk assessment,
that is focusing on the risks that really matter in the workplace. Evaluating hazards and risks
is the process of determining the level of risk created by the hazard and the likelihood of
injury or illness occurring. Most of the time, simple measures can be done, with no trouble, to
control risks. An example of this is making sure that cabinet drawers are kept closed so that
people do not trip.
Needless to say, the concern for control increases as the recognized level of risk increases.
A person identifying the risk of harm or injury from a hazard in a nursing home or day care
should consider these questions:



how likely it is that a hazard will cause harm;
how serious that harm is likely to be;
how often (and how many) workers are exposed.
It is a must that you have a record of every risk assessment done. If a certain accident or
damage happens again, it might be that you will trace back the original records to check if
the assessment overlooked a potential hazard. Assessing or evaluating the hazards and
risks is crucial in making a decision on the mode of control to be used.
CONTROL HAZARDS AND RISKS
It is possible that workplace hazards can be controlled by a variety of methods. Of course,
the very reason why hazards should be controlled is to prevent workers from being exposed
to occupational hazards. Hazard control comes in different processes. But one method may
be more effective than the others.
When we speak of controlling hazards and risks, it means settling on the measure that will
solve the trouble most successfully. There are five major categories of control measures:
elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls and personal
protective equipment.
1. Eliminating a hazard means removing it completely.
2. Substitution is replacing or substituting a hazardous agent or work process with a less
dangerous one.
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3. An engineering control may mean changing a piece of machinery (for example, using
proper machine guards) or a work process to reduce exposure to a hazard.
4. An administrative control may mean working a limited number of hours in a hazardous
area is an example of an administrative control (for example, job rotation)
5. Personal Protective Equipment includes ear and eye protection, respirators and
protective clothing.
Obviously, the best method of controlling hazards and risks is through elimination. That is to
take away or to get rid of the hazard. However, more often than not, this is not possible. So,
employers make use of any of the remaining control measures. The general rule is that the
use of personal protective equipment (PPE) should be the last alternative in controlling
hazards and risks in a workplace. Although it is said that the best method of control
measure is through elimination of hazards, a very good technique for a safe and healthy
environment is through the utilization of a combination of methods.
PRACTICAL WAYS TO PREVENT HAZARDS AND RISKS
A Closer Look at Electricity





As common sense dictates, you have to ensure that all electrical equipment you use is in
good condition.
Check electrical cords and make sure they are not frayed.
Your hands should be dry before attempting to use any electrical equipment.
Do not attempt to change fuses unless you know what you are doing.
Do not turn on all appliances at the same time just because you want to save time.
Use of Personal Protective Equipment
Caregivers should religiously abide by the following
to prevent biological hazards from happening:


Wear gown that is long enough to cover your
clothing. Because the outside of the gown is
considered contaminated, this should not be
touched when it is removed. A gown that is
wet is, of course, considered contaminated
also. A caregiver should wear a clean gown
every client care. In case the gown is not
available, apron should be worn to mask
clothing during client contact.
 Masks should fit comfortably over the nose
and mouth. The same with a gown or apron,
a wet mask is considered contaminated.
The front of the mask is also contaminated.
Masks should not be worn around the neck. For each client contact, a clean mask
should be used.
Gloves should be used when issue on contamination is present. Also, when a
caregiver has open wound on the hands, it is a must that he/she use gloves. The
outside of the gloves should not be touched when removed as this is considered
contaminated.
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Gloves
Disposal of Health Care Wastes
In order to reduce the burden of disease, health care wastes should be managed
appropriately. Whether a caregiver is working in a hospital, a day care, or even at home,
proper discarding of medical wastes should be of great consideration.
Human waste products. Obviously, these wastes should be flushed down the toilet without
delay and should not be discarded in the street or in any public places.
Blood and bloody fluids. These must be removed right away. It is best if they can be directly
flushed down the toilet. If clothes are contaminated, they should be washed separately
using hot water and should be dried. Dressings with blood need to be double-bagged in
plastic and disposed of based on existing community or local rules.
Needles (sharps). Sharps should be kept in a container which is not easy to pierce like
metal (coffee can). Some items may be kept while some should be discarded right away. It
is advisable to discuss with the supervisor for the best disposal method.
Medical equipment. If the equipment is contaminated, it should be thrown away. It is ideal
that the equipment be double-bagged and disposed of based on the existing regulations in
the community. Also, this should be discussed with the immediate supervisor as to whether
or not the said equipment can be kept or should be disposed of already.
Proper Handwashing
As you touch people, tables, chairs, books, sinks, handrails, and other objects and surfaces, there is a
possibility that you contaminate your hands. The germs that have accumulated when touching things
may be the means for you to get sick and spread illness to others. The importance of hand washing
comes in. It is by far the best and simplest way to prevent germs from spreading and to keep the
people around you from getting sick. Though it is said that hand washing is the first line of defense
against the spread of illnesses, you should be aware of the proper way of doing it. Otherwise, you
may just be wasting your time doing it because you do not really wipe out what should be eliminated.
The following steps will help you in performing proper hand washing to rid yourself of germs in no
time.
1. Prepare your materials before washing your hands: paper towel, bar or liquid soap.
2. Turn on the faucet and wet wrists and hands thoroughly. Use a generous amount of
soap.
3. Rub your hands together and between fingers. Be sure to use friction when washing as
this helps in cleaning your hands. Do not forget the surface of your hands, palms, the
spaces within the fingers and above the wrists. Do this process for at least 20 seconds.
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4.
5.
6.
7.
You might want to sing “happy birthday” twice slowly to make sure you attained the
minimum number of seconds in washing your hands.
Clean your nails by rubbing the soap later through them. If your nails are long (it is
advisable that health care workers do not grow their nails long), use a soft stick or the
nails of the other hand to remove the dirt under them.
Rinse your hands thoroughly under running water. Remember to rinse from above the
wrist down to the fingers.
Use a paper towel to dry hands and discard immediately.
Use a new paper towel to close faucet being careful not to contaminate your hands. This
paper towel should be discarded right away.
Put a Stop to Ergonomic Hazard
Efficient control measures are now being utilized by employers to avoid ergonomic hazards
among health care workers. Manual handling of patients, for example, has become less
stressful due to some paraphernalia being used that facilitate the task. Adjustable height
work stations, improved tool design, and adjusted work pace are now part of a worker’s life.
Unfortunately, ergonomic hazard effects continue to happen. Why? At times, the workers
themselves invite these hazards due to the wrong way they do their tasks. Conscious or not,
they have to examine their work routine and consider these simple rules:





Avoid twisting the body.
Bend knees if it is needed.
Avoid too much stretching when reaching for something.
Use a ladder when reaching for hard-to-reach materials or objects.
Ask for help from someone if the task cannot be done by one person.
CAREGIVERS’ ACCOUNTABILITY
A caregiver has to have a sense of duty for her own health and safety at work. He/She has
the responsibility, therefore, to follow safety instructions in the workplace. In addition, he/she
has to use tools, equipment and paraphernalia with care. When hazards or injuries happen,
the caregiver must report the same to the person in charge or directly to the immediate
supervisor. Although a health worker’s concern primarily focuses on his/her safety, he/she
has to take all reasonable care not to put other people at risk. After all, a caregiver gives
care not only to the client but also to co-workers, supervisors, and the people within the
working environment.
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How Much Have You Learned?
Self-Check 2.1
I. Directions: Write True if the statement is correct, or False if it is incorrect.
1. Twisting the body when doing a task is important to avoid ergonomic hazard.
2. Proper hand washing is the first line of defense against the spread of illness to other
people.
3. A wet gown is considered contaminated.
4. The best method of control measure is through substitution.
5. Providing improved tools and equipment to workers to prevent hazard is an example of
engineering control.
II. Directions: Give an example for each type of control measure.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Elimination
Substitution
Engineering control
Administrative control
EPP
Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?
Show that you learned something by doing this activity
Activity sheet 2.1
Directions: Do this interactive online activity by following the link provided to you.
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/ActivitiesAndTests/Virtu
alKitchen/vkitchenframe.htm
Part of a caregiver’s work is to prepare meal for a client. Therefore, moving around in the
kitchen becomes a common experience. This activity will test how well you have learned
from this module. You will enter the world of the kitchen and examine the environment for
possible hazards. You will then be given a situation which you need to think about. Choices
will be given and you must choose the best possible control measure.
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Activity sheet 2.2
Directions: Work with a partner and read the situation given. Then, answer the questions
that follow:
Case Study:
On December 20, 2011, Velanie Lopez was working in the kitchen to prepare an applewatermelon smoothie for her client. Paper towels or floor mops were not in sight. When she
left the kitchen, another caregiver named Rafael went inside to prepare a meal. The next
day, Velanie found out that Rafael was brought to a hospital.
Situation:
The blender which Velanie used on December 20 was found in the kitchen still plugged in
the outlet. There was a spill on the floor which seems to be a fruit shake.
The Accident:
After Rafael finished his client’s meal, he hurriedly went out of the kitchen moving his way
through the floor where the spill was situated. He badly fell on the floor and heavily bumped
his head to it.
Questions
1. What do you think were the reasons which caused this accident to happen?
2. How could this misfortune have been prevented?
3. Who is to blame in this scenario, Velanie or Rafael? Defend your answer.
Activity sheet 2.3
Directions: You are to be evaluated on a skill particularly in hand hygiene. You will
demonstrate the proper way of hand washing. Remember to follow the steps correctl
You will be rated according to the following criteria.
ACCURACY (100%)
Demonstrated all the steps correctly
Failed to perform 4 steps, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform 3 steps, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform 2 steps, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform 1 step, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform any of the steps in hand washing correctly
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
SCORING CRITERIA
10
9
7
5
3
1
76
How Well Did You Perform?
Find out by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely. Remember it is
your learning at stake!
ACCURACY (100%)
Demonstrated all the steps correctly
Failed to perform 4 steps, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform 3 steps, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform 2 steps, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform 1 step, but demonstrated the rest correctly
Failed to perform any of the steps in hand washing correctly
STUDENT’S SCORE
Congratulations! You did a great job!
Rest and relax a while then move on to the next
lesson. Good luck!
REFERENCES
LO1
Elana D. Zucker. The Caregiver’s Resourcebook 6th Edition Pearson Education South Asia
PTE. LTD. 2009.
National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc. Public Health Nursing in the
Philippines 10th Edition National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc.
Mildred O. Hogstel and Linda Cox Curry Practical Guide to Health Assessment Through the
Life Span 3rd Edition F. A. Davs Company 2001
Assessment Technologies Institute Fundamentals of Nursing Practice 2004
Online Resources:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/12040887/DOLE-Occupational-Safety-and-Health-Standards
http://foodsafety.unl.edu/haccp/start/physical.html
http://www.worksmartontario.gov.on.ca/scripts/default.asp?contentID=2-61&mcategory=health#H2
http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/hazard/hamain.htm
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http://www.agius.com/hew/resource/ohsilo.htm
http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/fivesteps.htm
http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/fivesteps.htm
http://www.chepinc.org/public/640.pdf
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipfMiANTqFE&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-opN-c7hajY&feature=endscreen
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFXTskZfCWo&feature=related
http://www.envisnioh.org/occupational-hazards.htm
http://www.safetyresource.org/fire_safety/fire_drills.html
http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/biol_hazards/
http://unionsafe.labor.net.au/hazards/10717236108849.html
http://unionsafe.labor.net.au/hazards/10717229937618.html
http://unionsafe.labor.net.au/hazards/104787141324939.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWSPIHGiuFs&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvldyOyv--0
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/show_page.jsp?id=6421
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/ActivitiesAndTests/Hunt
TheHazards/hunt.htm
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/ActivitiesAndTests/Virtu
alKitchen/vkitchenframe.htm
http://nj.gov/health/peosh/ergonomics.shtml
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/double-bag
http://www.thefreedictionary.com
LO2
Elana D. Zucker. The Caregiver’s Resourcebook 6th Edition Pearson Education South Asia
PTE. LTD. 2009.
National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc. Public Health Nursing in the
Philippines 10th Edition National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc.
Mildred O. Hogstel and Linda Cox Curry Practical Guide to Health Assessment Through the
Life Span 3rd Edition F. A. Davs Company 2001
Assessment Technologies Institute Fundamentals of Nursing Practice 2004
Making Your Illness/Injury Program Work UCLA - LOSH Program, 1001 Gayley Avenue,
Los Angeles, Cal. U.S.A.
Online Resources:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/12040887/DOLE-Occupational-Safety-and-Health-Standards
http://foodsafety.unl.edu/haccp/start/physical.html
http://www.worksmartontario.gov.on.ca/scripts/default.asp?contentID=2-61&mcategory=health#H2
http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/hazard/hamain.htm
http://www.agius.com/hew/resource/ohsilo.htm
http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/fivesteps.htm
http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/fivesteps.htm
http://www.chepinc.org/public/640.pdf
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipfMiANTqFE&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-opN-c7hajY&feature=endscreen
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFXTskZfCWo&feature=related
http://www.envisnioh.org/occupational-hazards.htm
http://www.safetyresource.org/fire_safety/fire_drills.html
http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/biol_hazards/
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http://unionsafe.labor.net.au/hazards/10717236108849.html
http://unionsafe.labor.net.au/hazards/10717229937618.html
http://unionsafe.labor.net.au/hazards/104787141324939.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWSPIHGiuFs&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvldyOyv--0
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/show_page.jsp?id=6421
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/ActivitiesAndTests/Hunt
TheHazards/hunt.htm
http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/ActivitiesAndTests/Virtu
alKitchen/vkitchenframe.htm
http://nj.gov/health/peosh/ergonomics.shtml
http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=tOR3DtDU3MC&pg=PA63&lpg=PA63&dq=PPE+for+caregivers&source=bl&ots=7cpJdjrpl&sig=fKfRiHbH2zoVoXyz60Z3YrKsZ1I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=GjFOT8PgDamwiQeX1_B1&
redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/sick/hand_washing.html
http://nj.gov/health/peosh/ergonomics.shtml
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/double-bag
http://www.thefreedictionary.com
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LESSON 4
Maintain Tools, Equipment and Paraphernalia
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson you are expected to:
LO 1. Perform aftercare activities for tools, equipment, and
paraphernalia
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Definition of Terms
Abrasive – harsh or hurtful in nature
Bulb – a rubber which is squeezed to inflate the cuff
Countertop – a flat surface on top of a cabinet or display case as in a kitchen
Cuff – a fabric that is wrapped around a patient’s arm
Descale – to remove hard deposits in water
Dispenser – something that gives out
Ear Tubes – attach the earpieces to the main body of the stethoscope
Earpieces – placed into the ears and transmit sounds directly into them
Funnel – a tube or pipe used for pouring liquid or powder into an opening
Plate – the metal part of an iron which touches the clothes for pressing
Reservoir – a receptacle for storing a fluid
Submerge – to place under water
Tubing – also called acoustic tubes, connect ear tubes to the chestpiece (diaphragm or bell)
Valve – allows air in to inflate the cuff when the bulb is squeezed, then can be unscrewed to
release the air and remove the cuff.
White vinegar – a type of vinegar which is more commonly used to clean and disinfect,
rather than for food
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LEARNING OUTCOME 1
Perform aftercare activities for tools, equipment and
paraphernalia
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
 Tools, equipment, and paraphernalia are cleaned after use according to
standard operating procedures and in accordance with relevant safety
procedures.
 Tools, equipment, and paraphernalia are placed / stored in the appropriate
area following safety procedures.
 Tools, equipment, and paraphernalia are checked regularly for
orderliness/tidiness in accordance with employer’s requirements.
 Routine maintenance is carried out or arranged as per standard operating
procedures.
Materials














LCD projector or OHP
Computer desktop or laptop
DVD player
Airpot
Blender
Coffee maker
Electric knife
Electric can opener
Food processor
Food tongs
Microwave oven
Flat iron
Ironing board
Washing machine
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education












Bottle sterilizer
Sphygmomanometer (aneroid,
mercurial and digital)
Stethoscope
Thermometer
Sponge-head bottle cleaner
Lint-free cloth
Towel
Baking soda
Spray bottle
Paper towels
Mop
Video clips
82
What Do You Already Know?
Let us determine how much you already know about the processes in caring for
tools ,equipment, and paraphernaliaused in Caregiving service. Take this test.
Pretest LO 1
Directions: Write True if the statement is correct, or False if it is incorrect.
1. __________Before attempting to clean any electrical device, it is a must that you turn it
off and unplug from the outlet.
2. __________Blender base may be plastic or steel, but both deserve proper cleaning.
3. __________The removable pieces of the food processor should not be washed with
water.
4. __________White vinegar is very useful as a cleaning agent.
5.
6.
7.
8.
__________The cuff (sphygmomanometer) should not be washed with water.
__________All electric knife cords are detachable.
__________Food tongs should be cleaned as soon as one is done using it.
__________Use of aluminum foil and salt is useful in removing melted plastic on an
iron’s plate.
9. __________Ironing board should not be folded down so that it is ready for use the next
time a user irons clothes.
10. __________Aneroid gauge should not be wiped.
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What Do You Need To Know?
Information Sheet 1.1
CARING FOR TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND PARAPHERNALIA
In dealing with tools, equipment, and paraphernalia, attention to details is the best means to
prevent future problems from happening. It is a must, therefore, that tools, equipment and
paraphernalia are properly cleaned and stored after usage. In addition, a maintenance
schedule should be in place to make sure that they will operate efficiently. As a future
caregiver, it will be to your advantage if you check them daily to help avoid jams, leakages,
or breakdowns. It is, of course, necessary that you follow the usage and maintenance
instructions from the manufacturer. It would be wise also to keep the same for future
reference. Now, it is time for you to get going and walk your way through the following steps
that you must carry out to ensure that your tools, equipment and paraphernalia will work
properly,
Cleaning an Airpot
1. In cleaning any electrical device, it is basic to always
turn it off and unplug. If you don't have an electric
airpot with a power button, continue with the rest of
the process.
2. Take the container to a sink and open the lid. If there
is any remaining liquid inside, pour out and set aside
the pot to let it cool.
3. Rinse the inner lining with hot water. Clean the inside
with a sponge-head bottle cleaner to remove any
loose deposits and then rinse again.
4. Put hot water and two to three drops of mild dish
detergent to the dispenser. Wait for about 8-10 minutes and then clean the inside with a
sponge-head cleaner. Wash the dispenser with water making sure to remove all
detergent residues.
5. Put hot water and 2 tbsp.of vinegar inside the airpot to descale at least once a month.
Let the solution stay in the airpot for 1 hour. If mineral deposits are seen, descaling may
be done right away.
6. You may now close the lid and dispense some of the solution out of the spout to clean it
also. This will clear any buildup in it. Open the lid. Clean the interior again with a
sponge-head cleaner. Pour the water out and wash the interior again with water.
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7. Put clean hot water into the airpot, close the lid and dispense the water out the spout.
This will rinse the spout of the traces of vinegar. Open the lid and pour out remaining
water.
8. You now have to wipe the lid and exterior of the dispenser with a slightly damp, lint-free
cloth and then wipe it dry with a cloth. If you notice stains in the exterior, add one or two
drops of mild detergent to the cloth and wipe the exterior. Rinse with another cloth and
then wipe dry.
9. It is important that you wipe the countertop where the airpot is placed.
Cleaning a blender
1. Clean the funnel and blender lid with liquid soap and water. Rinse well with water and
use a clean towel to dry them.
2. Put about ¾ hot water into the blender jar and
squirt a small amount of dish soap about ½
teaspoon. You might want to add a tablespoon of
baking soda to the water also to remove odor and
stains. This will also aid in loosening tough food
particles.
3. Turn on the blender and let it run at high speed for
about 20 seconds. Doing this works well to get the
blender clean.
4. If there are really sticky and dried messes in your
blender, repeat the second and third steps a few
times until the mess is dissolved.
5. You need to rinse well the jar with hot water and towel dry carefully, or you may turn it
upside down on a clean, dry towel or dish strainer to air dry.
6. If your blade assembly is removable, remove it and rinse it with hot water. Wipe it dry
with a clean towel. Make sure that it is completely dry. Of course, you have to be very
careful when doing this so that you will not cut yourself while drying the blades.
7. Remove the dirt of a steel base blender with glass cleaner or a mixture of half vinegar
and half water placed in a spray bottle. All you have to do is spray it on and wipe with a
soft cloth.
8. If your blender base is plastic, you can use a damp soapy rag, or an all-purpose kitchen
spray cleaner, or a mixture of baking soda and water.
9. It is acceptable to use a damp rag to wipe the electric cord also. But you have to be sure
to unplug the base first. In addition, be sure not to get the electric plug wet.
10. It is important that you wipe the countertop where the blender is placed.
11. Protect the blender with a fabric cover.
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Cleaning a coffee maker
1. Make a mixture of one part white vinegar and two parts water. The amount of mixture
depends on the size of the coffee pot.
2. Put the mixture into the reservoir of coffee maker.
3. Turn on the coffee maker and let the vinegar-water mixture cycle through.
4. This time, turn off the coffee maker and let the pot cool for 15 to 20 minutes.
5. Pour the solution into the sink and rinse the pot.
6. Perform two cycles with the coffee maker with cold water. Doing this will wash away the
vinegar-water solution out of the coffee maker.
7. It is important that you wipe the countertop where the coffee maker is placed.
8. Protect the coffee maker with a fabric cover.
Cleaning and storing an electric knife
1. Turn off and unplug the electric knife.
2. Detach the cord from the knife. If the cord is not detachable, you have to be more
careful so that the cord does not get wet. Wash the blade with water and detergent
3. Rinse the blade well and wipe with a clean cloth. Then, wipe the exterior with a damp
cloth followed by a dry one.
4. Place the knife inside its box and store in a kitchen cabinet.
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Cleaning and storing an electric opener
1. Unplug the electric can opener.
2. Because the parts are small and difficult to
clean, use a toothbrush and a mild detergent to
remove food particles left after opening cans.
3. Wipe with a dry and clean cloth and lubricate the
cutter with a light oil. Make sure to wipe away
excess lubricant to make certain that it does not
transfer to the components of the can that will
be opened next.
4. Place the can opener inside its box and store in
a kitchen cabinet.
Cleaning and storing a food processor
1. Turn off and unplug the food processor.
2. Take the parts of the food processor apart.
Take them all apart so that you get all the little
pieces of food removed.
3. All the removable pieces of the food processor
can be washed in warm water with a mild dish
soap. Do not scrub the parts of the processor
with abrasive cleaners or pads. Be careful with
the blades. They should not soak in water but
be gently wiped down first thing to preserve
them.
4. Using a damp cloth, wipe down the base/motor area. Do not submerge this in water. Of
course, you should not pour water over the base/motor unit. If you encounter stubborn
stains, wipe it with a clean cloth using mild dish soap, or a baking soda paste may be
able to lift out the stain.
5. Dry the pieces of the processor completely. Put it back together and store. If you use
your food processor on a regular basis, store it on a countertop or in another accessible
location.
6. It is important that you wipe the countertop where the food processor is placed.
7. Protect the food processor with a fabric cover.
Cleaning and storing food tongs
1. Wash food tongs as soon as you are finished using it to prevent food particles from
sticking to it
2. Wipe it dry with a clean cloth.
3. Since you will frequently use food tongs, store it inside a kitchen cabinet drawer.
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Cleaning and storing microwave oven
1. Unplug the microwave oven.
2. In a microwave –safe bowl, mix ½ cup of water and ½ cup of vinegar (white vinegar,
apple cider or any type of vinegar will do). Put the bowl inside the oven and cook on
high for about 2 minutes. The mixture of water and vinegar will aid in removing dirt and
foul odors from the inside of the oven.
3. Remove the bowl from the oven. As you open the oven, be very careful because steam
will be coming out. Also the bowl will be most likely very hot.
4. Remove the splattered grease and food inside the oven using a sponge.
5. Wipe the outside of the oven with water and mild detergent.
6. Wipe the oven dry with a clean cloth.
7. It is important that you wipe the countertop where the oven is placed.
8. Protect the oven with a fabric cover.
Cleaning an iron
1. Clean inside of the iron (for steam iron).
If your iron automatically descales water using a replaceable filter, you just have to make
sure to replace your filter on the recommended schedule. Some irons may need to be
descaled manually. Mix one part of water and one part of vinegar and pour into the water
chamber of the iron. The iron will steam out this solution. Then repeat the process this
time with plain water.
2. Clean non-coated sole plates.
Use baking soda or metal polish cleaner to clean the sole plate.
Use extra fine steel wool for plates that need extra help. However, this should only be
done as a last resort.
3. Clean non-stick sole plates.
Use clean soft cloth, warm water and mild detergent for non-stick coated irons.
For non-stick coated irons, clean with a soft cloth, warm water, and mild detergent.
Always wait until your iron is completely cool and unplugged before cleaning it. Never
use an abrasive cleaner because it will wear away the coating on your iron.
 Wise Tips! 
Do not panic when a plastic melted on your sole plate, because it can be removed! Put a
piece of aluminum foil on the ironing board and sprinkle it with salt. Ironing over the salt and
foil will help loosen the plastic. Do not try to scrape the plastic off with metal tools. This may
permanently damage the sole plate. If the vent holes of your iron have become blocked with
starch or buildup, you may clean them with cotton buds dipped in a 1 to 1 ratio of water and
vinegar.
Cleaning and storing an ironing board
1. Remove the ironing board cover and pad.
2. Wipe the entire ironing board down with a damp cloth. Since most ironing boards are
made of metal, be sure to dry the board thoroughly to prevent rust.
3. Spot clean the ironing board cover with a slightly damp cloth. Most ironing board covers
are coated with a scorch and stain protectant, so cleaning should be easy.
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4. Replace the ironing board's cover by stretching it evenly on top of the ironing board and
making sure it doesn't form any wrinkles that could leave marks on clothes. Be sure the
surface of the ironing board is completely dry before reattaching the pad and cover.
5. Fold down the ironing board and store in a place where it will be safe from bumping and
falling.
Cleaning and caring for a washing machine
1. Wipe the top, front and sides of the washing machine with spray cleaner and paper
towels.
2. Wipe the underside of the lid with spray cleaner and a couple of paper towels.
3. It is time to clean the basin or the container of the washer. Fill it with hot water, 2 cups of
lemon or lime juice (for rust problems) or 2 cups of vinegar for odor problems. If both
problems are present, you have to run a cycle of each.
4. For the second time, fill the washer with hot water on the largest load setting. Put 2 cups
of bleach to the water to help in removing stains. Run a wash and rinse cycle.
5. Fill the washer with plain water and run one more cycle to rinse away any residue.
6. Clean the bleach dispenser by soaking it in a bucket of warm water. When the buildup
has loosened, remove the dispenser from the pad and place on a paper towel. Wipe
away any remaining dirt with the use of spray cleaner and paper towels. Dry the
dispenser and return to the original place in the machine.
7. Clean the outside of the hoses with a cloth and spray cleaner.
8. When the washer has completely dried, place its lid back. Mop the floor specially the
portion where the washer stands.
 Wise Tips! 
You may use a vacuum with hose attachment to clean under the washer. Dusts tend to
accumulate in this place. Be extra careful when doing this taking into account the cords and
electrical outlet areas.
Cleaning and storing a sterilizer
1. Remove the racks of the sterilizer. Wipe the interior with a clean, damp sponge.
2. Put 1 cup of white vinegar into the sterilizer.
3. Turn on the sterilizer and allow it to run through its cycle. When the cycle is done, unplug
the sterilizer and allow it to cool down, then pour any remaining liquid down the sink.
4. Wash the interior well with cool water and use a clean sponge to remove any build-up
that came loose as a result of the cleaning process.
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5. Plug again the sterilizer and add the regular amount of water you use for normal
sterilization. Run a cycle with just this water. This will remove the remaining traces of
vinegar from the unit.
6. Unplug the sterilizer, let it cool down and then pour any remaining liquid down the sink.
Rinse the sterilizer one last time with cool water and a sponge. Put back the racks inside
the sterilizer.
7. When the sterilizer has cooled down completely, place it in a kitchen cabinet.
Cleaning and storing a sphygmomanometer
1. You may clean the aneroid gauge,
valve, and inflation bulb by wiping
with slightly dampened cloth or
alcohol pad.
2. Integrated One-Piece Cuff: You may
safely clean the cuffs with a damp
cloth (70% alcohol or 0.5% bleach
solution may be used) or washed in
warm water (140°F / 60°C maximum)
with mild detergent.
Before laundering the cuff:
1. Take off the inflation bulb and valve
from the cuff.
2. Make sure to close off the end of the tubing with tube plug accessory .
3. Also, close off the cuff port with cuff port.
Laundering the cuff.
1. When using a washing machine, use gentle cycle, warm water, and mild detergent.
2. Completely air dry the cuff and reassemble the components.
3. Keep the unit in its protective case after cleaning/using.
Cleaning and storing a stethoscope
1. If you need to disinfect your stethoscope, you may wipe it with a 70% isopropyl alcohol
solution.
2. Wipe down stethoscope starting at the earpieces (which helps prevent the spread of
ear infections if you are not the only person using it), continuing down the tubing, and
ending around the bell and diaphragm. Take the diaphragm apart to remove dust, lint,
or debris and clean it well before reassembling it.
3. Store the unit in its protective case after using.
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 Wise Tips! 
Do not immerse the stethoscope in water or in any liquid. Also, to maintain the good
condition of your stethoscope, do not subject it to any sterilization process.
Cleaning and storing a thermometer
1. Clean the tip of the thermometer by using isopropyl alcohol and water.
2. Wipe away any lubricant from the digital thermometer with a tissue or a paper towel.
3. Store the unit in some protective case when you don’t use it.
Cleaning, caring for, and storing tools, equipment, and paraphernalia are tasks that all
caregivers shall undertake. It is not easy to do these, but with concern for the people and
environment where one works for, doing them seem to be motivating.
As a future caregiver, you should be aware that this job entails dependability on your part. It
is your duty to ensure that all tools, equipment, and paraphernalia are cleaned and stored
properly.
In addition, it is your task to observe a maintenance schedule for these. This
involves doing the preservation yourself by using the equipment as it should be. Of course,
part of this important job is to call and arrange for a repair service not only when needed, but
when the timetable is set.
Maintaining tools, equipment, and paraphernalia becomes worthy of note because of the
satisfaction a caregiver feels when he/she realizes the valuable benefits of the responsibility.
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How Much Have You Learned?
Self-Check 1.1
Directions: Solve the crossword puzzle. Use the given clues to arrive at the right answer.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Across
2.
5.
8.
9.
10.
remove hard deposits in water
to place under water
a type of vinegar used for cleaning than for
food
part of a blender which may be plastic or
steel
a thing that gives out something
Down
1.
3.
4.
6.
7.
very useful in wiping most tools and
equipment
part of an electric knife which should
be lubricated
harsh or hurtful in nature
used to protect devices specially from
dust
receptacle for storing fluid
Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?
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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?
Show that you learned something by doing this activity
Activity Sheet 1.1
Directions: Watch these videos by following the given links. Then, write a reaction paper
indicating your observations and opinions on the proper way of caring for a particular tool,
equipment or paraphernalia. You may use the questions below as your guide in preparing
your activity.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dflDnG3pqQs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9sHujPOgVYE&feature=related
Guide questions:
1. Was the process correctly done? Explain your answer.
2. Was there any part in the video/s that tell/s you that there is something wrong? What
part was it? Why did you come up with this observation?
3. What was your favorite part in the video/s? Why do you like it?
4. What is the best tip given by the demonstrator/s?
Activity Sheet 1.2
Directions: You will be provided with five (5) tools, equipment, or paraphernalia used in
caregiving. You are to be evaluated on how well you can demonstrate the proper ways of
cleaning, caring for and storing the given tools, equipment or paraphernalia. Remember to
follow the steps correctly. You must get 100% accuracy. Students with the score of 9 and
below are required to perform the activity again.
You will be rated according to the following criteria.
ACCURACY (100%)
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
5 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
4 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
3 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
2 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
1 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Failed to demonstrate the proper way of cleaning, caring for and
storing of any tool, equipment and paraphernalia
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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
SCORING CRITERIA
10
9
7
5
3
1
93
Activity Sheet 1.3
Directions: Take your own pictures showing the different processes in cleaning, caring for,
and storing caregiving tools, equipment, and paraphernalia. Then, make a portfolio out of
these picture compilations coupled with notations explaining each picture taken. Choose
only three (3) tools, equipment, or paraphernalia available in your house.
How Well Did You Perform?
Find out by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely. Remember it is
your learning at stake!
ACCURACY (100%)
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
5 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
4 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
3 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
2 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Demonstrated the proper way of cleaning, caring for and storing of
1 tools, equipment and paraphernalia
Failed to demonstrate the proper way of cleaning, caring for and
storing of any tool, equipment and paraphernalia
SCORING CRITERIA
Congratulations! You did a great job! Rest
and relax a while then move on to the next
lesson. Good luck!
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REFERENCES
th
Elana D. Zucker. The Caregiver’s Resourcebook 6 Edition Pearson Education South Asia
PTE. LTD. 2009.
National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc. Public Health Nursing in the
th
Philippines 10 Edition National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc.
Mildred O. Hogstel and Linda Cox Curry Practical Guide to Health Assessment Through the
rd
Life Span 3 Edition F. A. Davs Company 2001
Assessment Technologies Institute Fundamentals of Nursing Practice 2004
Nursing Procedures Incredibly Easy 2002 Springhourse Corporation
Online Resources:
http://www.ehow.com/how_7719401_clean-air-pot.html
http://www.aptkitchen.com/kitchen-accessories-articles/electric-knife-cleaning.php
http://home.howstuffworks.com/how-to-repair-small-appliances6.htm
http://howtoeasy.blogspot.com/2010/01/clean-your-microwave-oven-with-vinegar.html
http://navyadministration.tpub.com/14163/css/14163_78.htm
http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/heloise/heloise-spring-cleaning-dishwasher-grime
http://housekeeping.about.com/od/laundry/ht/ironcleaning.htm
http://blog.lydiasuniforms.com/blog/uniforms-and-scrubs-qanda/caring-for-your-stethoscope
http://www.geratherm.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/user-manual-Geratherm-clinic.pdf
http://www.healthaidindia.com/digital-thermometers/maintenance-of-digitalthermometers.html
http://www.dableducational.org/pdfs/spring07/Chapter4_Measurement_of_blood_pressure_P
art2.pdf
http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/medical-equipment-articles/medicalinstruments-maintenance-how-clean-sphygmomanometer-269087.html
http://www.adctoday.com/images/PDF/IB/93-7001-00.pdf
http://www.ehow.com/how_2063587_use-washing-machine.html
www.google.com
http://www.ehow.com/how_8162704_use-clothes-iron.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared_thermometer
http://www.digitalthermometers.net/digitalthermometers.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared_thermometer
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=airpot+dispenser&um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbnid=eMMySm
WHWFV2WM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ebay.com/itm/3L-Electric-Airpot-Dispenser-Hot-WaterDispensing-Pot-Stainless-Steel/190574711684&docid=nKgED4fbi0yVMM&imgurl=http://img.gmcmarket.com/customer/Twin
horse/5.jpg&w=450&h=662&ei=CzpQT5bvFuKTiQey1P33Cw&zoom=1&biw=1241&bih=567
http://www.howtocleanawashingmachine.org/
http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/product-reviews/research-institute/how-to-clean-awashing-machine
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-white-vinegar.htm
http://www.howtocleanstuff.net/how-to-clean-a-washing-machine/
http://www.puzzlefast.com/
http://thinks.com/daily-crossword/how-to-play.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dflDnG3pqQs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9sHujPOgVYE&feature=related
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
95
ANSWER KEYS
Lesson 1 – USE TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, AND PARAPHERNALIA
WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?
LO1
Pretest 1.1
Test I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
C
A
D
E
B
Test II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Dishwasher
Iron
Microwave oven
Blender
Hanger
LO2
Pretest 2.1
Test I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
TRUE
FALSE
Test II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B
D
B
C
A
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
96
HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED?
LO1
I. Search for the ten (10) different caregiving equipment, tools or paraphernalia found in
this puzzle
1.
Dish Washer
2.
Sphygmomanometer
3.
Ironing board
4.
Food tongs
5.
Sterilizer
6.
Blender
7.
Dryer
8.
Stethoscope
9.
Thermometer
10. Duster
A
Q
T
Q
A
D
A
Q
Q
I
W
D
Y
U
I
O
P
N
S
N
M
R
E
W
S
D
T
Y
A
S
I
Q
C
U
I
D
R
I
K
O
P
L
R
T
O
P
K
L
J
E
R
Q
I
S
D
S
W
V
I
I
F
Y
W
Q
A
S
D
F
E
G
H
J
K
T
V
J
Q
A
L
F
H
C
N
O
O
G
E
H
J
K
L
D
F
R
R
R
R
T
Y
U
K
Q
Q
S
T
W
V
B
P
P
H
R
Q
W
E
R
T
Y
I
A
S
D
F
G
H
I
E
W
C
V
A
B
H
H
H
H
H
H
J
K
L
N
M
L
R
T
Y
Q
W
S
O
R
E
V
G
S
N
J
I
O
P
Q
W
E
R
A
S
D
I
R
T
D
D
F
F
P
B
R
B
T
H
W
G
P
A
S
S
S
D
F
S
R
T
Z
Y
H
J
K
L
O
A
N
X
N
Y
E
U
K
S
T
Q
R
T
Y
U
G
O
P
E
I
J
K
M
N
G
S
G
C
R
H
R
I
I
T
K
G
F
S
A
A
N
L
K
R
J
J
H
B
T
Y
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
S
J
V
E
N
G
O
U
Y
Q
I
U
I
O
P
O
L
K
J
H
T
G
L
Y
N
S
I
B
T
J
Y
O
O
U
E
S
L
C
Q
A
T
Z
R
F
V
U
O
E
P
K
T
O
N
E
I
U
P
P
U
R
D
Q
L
K
J
D
H
G
G
F
F
F
N
D
S
E
P
M
M
K
N
K
R
I
T
G
S
V
E
E
O
M
Z
Q
F
X
M
D
Q
Y
T
A
A
O
A
J
L
E
Q
Y
H
D
B
L
T
O
N
X
W
G
M
H
E
W
G
H
Q
W
M
S
Z
J
T
W
U
J
F
N
K
F
F
B
C
E
H
N
H
R
E
V
O
W
T
R
W
A
H
S
E
I
K
G
X
J
G
T
V
V
R
J
B
J
S
R
T
S
C
Y
E
C
G
H
U
R
O
L
H
C
H
H
Y
V
B
T
K
H
L
D
T
F
C
V
U
H
V
H
Y
D
V
P
J
J
B
G
J
U
C
N
Y
L
G
P
F
Y
C
O
B
I
T
B
I
U
B
F
P
A
Q
N
Y
H
N
U
J
I
I
F
D
F
U
T
P
N
O
N
N
O
I
N
G
P
O
P
I
J
H
Y
T
G
R
F
T
G
G
B
E
E
M
P
J
J
P
R
E
T
E
M
O
N
A
M
O
M
G
Y
H
P
S
F
G
H
X
K
A
K
K
M
E
M
H
H
U
J
M
K
Q
A
Z
W
S
X
E
D
C
R
V
97
C
L
S
L
L
K
R
K
J
J
W
S
S
X
R
F
V
T
G
B
Y
H
N
U
J
V
G
D
O
P
L
T
L
K
K
M
N
B
D
R
A
O
B
G
N
I
N
O
R
I
II. Identify the tool, equipment, or paraphernalia used in the given specific tasks.
1. Sorting basket
2. Broom
3. Sphygmomanometer
4. Duster
5. Dustpan
III. Group the following tools, equipment and paraphernalia according to their
classifications.
Write each word in the appropriate box.
Used for meal preparation
Electric knife
Ladle
Food Processor
Used for cleaning,
laundry, and ironing
Dryer
Iron
Ironing board
Used for taking vital signs
Sphygmomanometer
Stethoscope
Thermometer
LO2
Self check 2.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
b
b
c
d
b
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
98
Lesson 2 – PERFORM CALCULATIONS
WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?
LO1
Test I
1. X
2. O
3. X
4. X
5. O
Test II
1. B
2. D
3. C
4. D
5. A
6. 1.5 tsp
7. 12.7 cm.
8. 200 kg.
9. 2.5 ml.
10. 180 mins.
HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED?
Self-Check 1.1
Test I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
k
c
a
h
e
i
b
f
j
d
Test II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3 tsps
11 lbs
96.8 °F
30 in
60 ml
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
99
Test III
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
O
X
O
X
X
X
O
O
O
X
Self-check 1.2
Test I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A
B
D
A
A
Test II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Body Surface Area (BSA) Method
Clark's Rule
Young's Rule
Fried's Rule
Enema
Suppository
cup
dropper
syringe
hollow-handle spoon
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
100
Lesson 3 – PRACTICE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?
LO1
Test I
1. FALSE
2. TRUE
3. TRUE
4. TRUE
5. FALSE
Test II
1.
repetitive and forceful movements
R
E
2.
M
N
C
O
E
M
N
I
M
C
C
A
I
L
I
G
O
I
C
C
P
A
L
L
O
L
L
O
O
C
A
H
L
E
E
M
C
I
O
I
B
O
G
L
I
O
L
A
A
L
A
G
G
I
twisted extension cords
H
P
5.
I
O
bacteria and viruses
L
B
4.
G
G
spillages of toxic materials
H
C
3.
O
R
I
H
Y
Y
S
S
C
I
A
C
stress from night shifts
P
P
C
S
O
Y
S
C
Y
H
H
O
I
C
C
A
L
L
LO2
Test I
1. FALSE
2. TRUE
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
101
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. FALSE
Test II
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. C
HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED?
LO1
Self-check 1.1
1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. FALSE
4. TRUE
5. TRUE
Self-Check 1.2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
C
A
D
E
B
LO2
Self-Check 2.1
TEST I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
FALSE
TRUE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
TEST II
1. Elimination—If the hazard is a protruding nail stuck on the wall, then this has to be
removed.
2. Substitution—Use a milder cleaning solution instead of a strong one
3. Engineering control—Provision of movable cabinets instead of fixed ones
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
102
4. Administrative control—Better job rotation
5. EPP—Use of gown, mask, and gloves
Lesson 4 – MAINTAIN TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, AND PARAPHERNALIA
WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?
LO1
Test I
1. TRUE
2. TRUE
3. FALSE
4. TRUE
5. FALSE
6. FALSE
7. TRUE
8. TRUE
9. FALSE
10. FALSE
HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED?
LO1
Self-Check 1.1
P
2D E
S C A L
P
B M E R G E
R
T
O
8W H
9B A
S E
L
S
1
C
5S U
T
T
E
R
3
D I
10
S
P
E N S
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
E
A
6F
B
A
7R
R
B
E
A
R
S
S
I T E V I
N E G A R
C
R
V
C
V
E
O
O
V
I
E
R
E R
4
103
Acknowledgement
This Learning Module was developed for the Exploratory Courses in Technology and
Livelihood Education, Grades 7 and 8 of the K to 12 Curriculum with the assistance of the
following persons:
This Learning Module on Caregiving was developed by the following personnel:
MODULE WRITER
WINNIE LOPEZ CRUZ
Teacher 1
City of Mandaluyong Science High School
National Capital Region
REVIEWERS
GIL P. CASUGA
Chief TESD Specialist, TESDA
REYNALDO S. DANTES
MARIA A. ROQUE
Senior TESD Specialist, TESDA
Senior TESD Specialist, TESDA
BERNADETTE S. AUDIJE
VICTORIO N. MEDRANO
Senior TESD Specialist, TESDA
Principal IV, SPRCNHS
PARALUMAN R. GIRON, Ed.D.
BRENDA B. CORPUZ, Ph.D.
Chair, Sub-TWG on K to 10
TA for K to 12 Curriculum
OFELIA O. FLOJO
BEATRIZ A. ADRIANO
Retired Assistant Chief, EED, Region IV-A
Principal IV, ERVHS
AIDA T. GALURA
DOMINGA CAROLINA F. CHAVEZ
VSA II, ACNTS
Principal II, MBHS
DOCUMENTORS / SECRETARIAT
PRISCILLA E. ONG
K to 12 Secretariat
FREDERICK G. DEL ROSARIO
Head Teacher III, BNAHS
EMMANUEL V. DIONISIO
Head Teacher III, AFGBMTS
LYMWEL P. LOPEZ
Teacher I, AFGBMTS
DANTE D. VERMON JR.
Teacher I, AFGBMTS
ROMANO T. LOPEZ JR.
Teacher I, AFGBMTS
JOANNA LISA C. CARPIO
Teacher I, BNAHS
LOUIE ANGELES
Teacher I, BNAHS
Dir. IMELDA B. TAGANAS
Executive Director, Qualifications Standards Office
K to 12 Learning Area Team Convenor, TLE/TVE
CAREGIVING
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
104
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