ABAQUS CONTENTS Lecture 1 Introduction Overview of Some User Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.2 Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard . . . . . . . . . . L1.6 User Subroutine Calls in the First Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.10 Including User Subroutines in a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.11 Using Multiple User Subroutines in a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.12 Restart Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.12 Writing Output from User Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.13 Path Names for External Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.14 Compiling and Linking User Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.15 FORTRAN Compiler Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.17 Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits . . . . . . L1.18 Required FORTRAN Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.18 Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.20 Subroutine Argument Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.20 Solution-Dependent State Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.21 Testing Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1.24 Lecture 2 User Subroutine: DLOAD Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABAQUS Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DLOAD vs. UEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DLOAD Subroutine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables to be Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables for Information Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.2 L2.3 L2.4 L2.5 L2.6 L2.6 L2.8 TOC.1 ABAQUS Partial Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.9 User Subroutine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.10 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.11 Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.12 Partial Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.14 User Subroutine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.15 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L2.16 Lecture 3 User Subroutine: FILM Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.2 ABAQUS Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.3 FILM Subroutine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.4 Variables to be Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.5 Variables for Information Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.6 Example: Radiation in Finned Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.8 Partial Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.12 User Subroutine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.13 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.15 Workshop: User Subroutine FILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.16 Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.16 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L3.16 Lecture 4 User Subroutine: USDFLD Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L4.2 ABAQUS Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L4.3 Defining Field-Variable-Dependent Material Properties . . . . . L4.5 Defining Field Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L4.9 Accessing Solution Data at Material Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L4.11 Explicit vs. Implicit Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L4.12 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS TOC.2 ABAQUS Using Solution-Dependent State Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User Subroutine GETVRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GETVRM Subroutine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables Provided to GETVRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables Returned by GETVRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements Supported by GETVRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . USDFLD Subroutine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables to be Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables that may be Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables for Information Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . USDFLD and Automatic Time Incrementation . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User Subroutine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L4.13 L4.15 L4.15 L4.15 L4.16 L4.18 L4.19 L4.20 L4.21 L4.22 L4.24 L4.27 L4.29 L4.38 L4.41 L4.45 L4.48 Lecture 5 User Subroutine: URDFIL Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.2 ABAQUS Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.4 Utility Routine POSFIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.5 Utility Routine DBFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.7 URDFIL Subroutine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.9 Variables to be Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.10 Variables for Information Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.11 Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis . . . . . . . . . . L5.12 Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.13 User Subroutine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.16 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L5.21 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS TOC.3 ABAQUS Lecture 6 Writing a UMAT or VUMAT Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.2 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.4 Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.12 UMAT Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.20 UMAT Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.25 UMAT Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.28 UMAT Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.29 UMAT Formulation Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.30 Usage Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.32 Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.33 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.33 Coding for Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.34 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.36 Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.38 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.38 Coding for Non-Isothermal Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.39 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.43 Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.44 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.44 Coding for Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.47 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.53 Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.54 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.54 Integration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.56 Coding for Kinematic Hardening Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.58 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.66 Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.69 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.69 Integration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.71 Coding for Isotropic Mises Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.73 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS TOC.4 ABAQUS Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.83 VUMAT Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.85 VUMAT Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.90 Comparison of VUMAT and UMAT Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.92 VUMAT Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.94 VUMAT Formulation Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.96 Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.98 Coding for Kinematic Hardening Plasticity VUMAT . . . . . . . . L6.99 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.105 Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.107 Coding for Isotropic Hardening Plasticity VUMAT . . . . . . . . L6.108 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6.117 Lecture 7 Creating a Nonlinear User Element Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.2 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.3 Defining a User Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.8 Key Characteristics of a User Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.8 Other Important Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.9 Defining the User Element Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.10 UEL Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.13 ABAQUS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.13 Parameter Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.14 Data Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.15 More on Keywords and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.19 User Element Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.22 UEL Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.23 UEL Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.24 UEL Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.27 UEL Formulation Aspects and Usage Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.28 Coding and Testing the UEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.30 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS TOC.5 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.32 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.32 Coding Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.33 Element Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.35 Element Definition in the Input File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.39 Coding for Planar Beam Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.40 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.45 Generalized Constitutive Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.46 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.50 Example 2: Force Control Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.51 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.51 Element Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.54 Element Definition in the Input File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.56 Coding for Force Control Element Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.57 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.61 Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures L7.63 Overview of Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.63 Perturbation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.66 Transient Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.69 Transient Heat Transfer Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.70 Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L7.73 Workshops Workshop Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WP.1 User Subroutine FILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W1.1 User Subroutine UMAT: Tangent Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W2.1 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS TOC.6 ABAQUS Lecture 1 Introduction Overview • Overview of Some User Subroutines • Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard • Including User Subroutines in a Model • Writing Output from User Subroutines • Compiling and Linking User Subroutines • Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.1 ABAQUS Overview of Some User Subroutines Overview of Some User Subroutines • ABAQUS/Standard provides users with an extensive array of user subroutines that allow them to adapt ABAQUS to their particular analysis requirements. • Chapter 24 of the ABAQUS/Standard Users’ Manual details all 40+ user subroutines available in ABAQUS/Standard. Some popular user subroutines include CREEP: Use this subroutine to define time-dependent, viscoplastic deformation in a material. The deformation is divided into deviatoric behavior (creep) and volumetric behavior (swelling). DLOAD: Use this subroutine to define nonuniform, distributed mechanical loads (pressures and body forces). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.2 ABAQUS Overview of Some User Subroutines FILM: Use this subroutine to describe complex film coefficient behavior (temperature and field variable dependence) and complex sink temperature behavior. FRIC: Use this subroutine when more complex models than those provided with the ∗FRICTION option are needed to describe the transmission of shear forces between surfaces. The models defined in this subroutine must be local models (information is provided only at the node making contact). HETVAL: Use this subroutine to define complex models for internal heat generation in a material, such as might occur when the material undergoes a phase change. UEL: Use this subroutine when it is necessary to create elements with an element formulation that is not available in ABAQUS/Standard. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.3 ABAQUS Overview of Some User Subroutines UEXPAN: Use this subroutine to define incremental thermal strains when the material’s thermal expansion is too complex to model with the ∗EXPANSION option. UEXTERNALDB: Use this subroutine to help manage external databases that may be used by other user subroutine or other software programs that are providing ABAQUS data and/or using data generated by ABAQUS. UGENS: Use this subroutine to define complex, nonlinear mechanical behavior for shell elements directly in terms of the shell element’s section stiffness. UMAT: Use this subroutine to define any complex, constitutive models for materials that cannot be modeled with the available ABAQUS material models. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.4 ABAQUS Overview of Some User Subroutines UPOREP: Use this subroutine to define the initial pore fluid pressures in a coupled pore fluid diffusion and stress analysis as a function of node location. URDFIL: Use this subroutine to read the data from the results (.fil) file at the end of an increment. The information can be used to make decisions such as when to terminate the analysis or whether to overwrite the results of the previous increment. USDFLD: Use this subroutine to define the values of field variables directly at the integration points of elements. The field variable values can be functions of element variables such as stress or strain. UWAVE: Use this user subroutine to define complex wave kinematics in an ABAQUS/Aqua simulation or to determine when the configuration of the model should be updated in a stochastic wave analysis. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.5 ABAQUS Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard While a complete understanding of the structure of ABAQUS is not required to develop a user subroutine, it helps if the developer has an understanding of at least the overall structure. Figure 1–1 shows the basic flow of data and actions from the start of an ABAQUS/Standard analysis to the end of a step. Figure 1–2 shows a much more detailed accounting of how ABAQUS/Standard calculates the element stiffness during an iteration. In the figures a signifies a decision point in the code or a specific state (i.e., beginning of increment) during the analysis. A analysis. 7/01 signifies an action that is taken during the Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.6 ABAQUS Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard Beginning of Analysis UEXTERNALDB Define Initial Conditions UPOREP Start of Step Start of Increment UEXTERNALDB Start of Iteration Define K DLOAD, FILM, HETVAL, UWAVE 7/01 CREEP, FRIC, UEL, UEXPAN, UGENS, UMAT, USDFLD el Define Loads R α Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.7 ABAQUS Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard To Start of Iteration To Start of Step To Start of Increment el Solve K c = R Converged? α No Write Output UEXTERNALDB URDFIL End of Step? No Yes Figure 1–1. Global Flow in ABAQUS/Standard 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.8 ABAQUS Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard Start of Increment Calculate Integration Point Field Variable from Nodal Values CREEP: ∆ε Start of Iteration UEL UMAT USDFLD FILM dh ⁄ d θ , HETVAL ∂r ⁄ ∂θ , cr UEXPAN: ∆ε ∆ε sw th Calculate ∆ε FRIC: ∂∆τ ⁄ ∂∆γ ∂∆σ Calculate σ , ---------∂∆ε UGENS: ∂N ⁄ ∂E Define Loads ∂P ⁄ ∂ x DLOAD, UWAVE Figure 1–2. A More Detailed Flow of ABAQUS/Standard 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.9 ABAQUS Where User Subroutines Fit into ABAQUS/Standard User Subroutine Calls in the First Iteration • The flow chart in Figure 1–2 is idealized. In the first iteration of an increment all of the user subroutines shown in the figure are called twice. – During the first call the initial stiffness matrix is being formed using the configuration of the model at the start of the increment. – During the second call a new stiffness, based on the updated configuration of the model, is created. • In subsequent iterations the subroutines are called only once. – In these subsequent iterations the corrections to the model’s configuration are calculated using the stiffness from the end of the previous iteration. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.10 ABAQUS Including User Subroutines in a Model Including User Subroutines in a Model • To include user subroutines in an analysis, specify the name of a file with the user parameter on the ABAQUS execution command. abaqus job=my_analysis user=my_subroutine The file should be either source code (my_subroutine.f) or an object file (my_analysis.o). The file extension can be included (user=my_analysis.f); otherwise, ABAQUS will determine automatically which type of file is specified. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.11 ABAQUS Including User Subroutines in a Model Using Multiple User Subroutines in a Model • When multiple user subroutines are needed in the analysis, the individual routines can be combined into a single file. • A given user subroutine (such as UMAT or FILM) should appear only once in the specified user subroutine source or object code. Restart Analyses • When an analysis that includes a user subroutine is restarted, the user subroutine must be specified again because the subroutine object or source code is not stored on the restart (.res) file. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.12 ABAQUS Writing Output from User Subroutines Writing Output from User Subroutines • The following unit numbers can be used within a user subroutine to read and write data from files: 15–18 100+ • In ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines can write debug output to the message (.msg) file (unit 7) or to the printed output (.dat) file (unit 6). – These units do not have to be opened within the user subroutine— they are opened by ABAQUS. – These unit numbers cannot be used by user subroutines in ABAQUS/Explicit. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.13 ABAQUS Writing Output from User Subroutines Path Names for External Files • When a file is opened in a user subroutine, ABAQUS assumes that it is located in the scratch directory created for the simulation; therefore, full path names must be used in the OPEN statements in the subroutine to specify the location of the files. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.14 ABAQUS Compiling and Linking User Subroutines Compiling and Linking User Subroutines • When a model that contains user subroutines is submitted to ABAQUS, the correct compile and link commands should be used automatically. – HKS includes the correct compile and link commands for every platform on which ABAQUS is supported in the default environment file (abaqus.env) located in the abaqus_dir/site directory. abaqus_dir is the directory in which ABAQUS was installed. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.15 ABAQUS Compiling and Linking User Subroutines – For example on the Windows NT release, the following commands are defined in the abaqus_dir\site\abaqus.env file: compile=”fl32 /c” link=”link /defaultlib:libf.lib libc.lib user32.lib netapi32.lib advapi32.lib mpr.lib libelm.lib /subsystem:console /out:” • If you encounter compile or link errors, check that the abaqus_dir\site\abaqus.env file defines the compile and link commands. If it does not, please contact HKS. We will provide you with the correct commands for your system. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.16 ABAQUS Compiling and Linking User Subroutines FORTRAN Compiler Levels • The FORTRAN compiler levels used to create ABAQUS are shown at www.abaqus.com/support on the World Wide Web. – Digital Visual Fortran and Microsoft Visual C++ must be installed to run user subroutines on computers running Windows NT 4.0. • If the version of your FORTRAN compiler does not correspond to that specified on the HKS web site, incompatibilities may occur. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.17 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits Some programming habits and suggested debugging techniques are discussed in this section. Required FORTRAN Statements • Every user subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard must include the statement INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ as the first statement after the argument list. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.18 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits • The file ABA_PARAM.INC is installed on the computer system by the ABAQUS installation procedure. – The file specifies either IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H, O-Z) for double precision machines or IMPLICIT REAL (A-H, O-Z) for single precision machines. – The ABAQUS execution procedure, which compiles and links the user subroutine with the rest of ABAQUS, will include the ABA_PARAM.INC file automatically. – It is not necessary to find this file and copy it to any particular directory: ABAQUS will know where to find it. • Every user subroutine in ABAQUS/Explicit must include the statement include ‘vaba_param.inc’ 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.19 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits Naming Conventions • If user subroutines call other subroutines or use COMMON blocks to pass information, such subroutines or COMMON blocks should begin with the letter K since this letter is never used to start the name of any subroutine or COMMON block in ABAQUS. Subroutine Argument Lists • The variables passed into a user subroutine via the argument list are classified as either variables to be defined, variables that can be defined, or variables passed in for information. • The user must not alter the values of the “variables passed in for information.” – Doing so will have unpredictable results. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.20 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits Solution-Dependent State Variables • Solution-dependent state variables (SDVs) are values that can be defined to evolve with the solution of an analysis. – An example of a solution-dependent state variable for the UEL subroutine is strain. • Several user subroutines allow the user to define SDVs. Within these user subroutines the SDVs can be defined as functions of any variables passed into the user subroutine. – It is the user’s responsibility to calculate the evolution of the SDVs within the subroutine; ABAQUS just stores the variables for the user subroutine. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.21 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits • Space must be allocated to store each of the solution-dependent state variables defined in a user subroutine. – For most subroutines the number of such variables required at the integration points or nodes is entered as the only value on the data line of the ∗DEPVAR option. *USER MATERIAL *DEPVAR 8 – For subroutines UEL and UGENS the VARIABLES parameter must be used on the ∗USER ELEMENT and ∗SHELL GENERAL SECTION options, respectively. *USER ELEMENT, VARIABLES=8 – For subroutine FRIC the number of variables is defined with the DEPVAR parameter on the ∗FRICTION option. *FRICTION, USER, DEPVAR=8 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.22 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits • There are two methods available for defining the initial values of solution-dependent variables. – The ∗INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=SOLUTION option can be used to define the variable field in a tabular format – For complicated cases user subroutine SDVINI can be used to define the initial values of the SDVs. Invoke this subroutine by adding the USER parameter to the ∗INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=SOLUTION option. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.23 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits Testing Suggestions • Always develop and test user subroutines on the smallest possible model. • Do not include other complicated features, such as contact, unless they are absolutely necessary when testing the subroutine. • Test the most basic model of the user subroutine before adding additional complexity to the subroutine. – Whenever a “new” feature is added to the model in a user subroutine, test it before adding an additional feature. • When appropriate, try to test the user subroutine in models where only values of the nodal degrees of freedom (displacement, rotations, temperature) are specified. Then test the subroutine in models where fluxes and nodal degrees of freedom are specified. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.24 ABAQUS Debugging Techniques and Proper Programming Habits • Ensure that arrays passed into a user subroutine with a given dimension are not used as if they had a larger dimension. – For example, if a user subroutine is written such that the number of SDVs is 10 but only 8 SDVs are specified on the ∗DEPVAR option, the user subroutine will overwrite data stored by ABAQUS; the consequences of this accident will be unpredictable. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L1.25 ABAQUS Lecture 2 User Subroutine: DLOAD Overview • Introduction • ABAQUS Usage • DLOAD Subroutine Interface • Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading • Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.1 ABAQUS Introduction Introduction • User subroutine DLOAD is typically used when a load is a complex function of time and/or position. – Loads that are simple functions of time can usually be modeled with the ∗AMPLITUDE option. – The subroutine can also be used to define a load that varies with element number and/or integration point number. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.2 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage ABAQUS Usage • The subroutine is called when the ∗DLOAD or *DSLOAD options contain a nonuniform load type label. Load type label – For example, *DLOAD ELTOP,P1NU, 10.0 Load magnitude specifies that the elements in element set ELTOP will be subject to a force per area on the 1-face of solid (continuum) elements or a force per unit length in the beam local 1-direction when used with beam elements. The magnitude specified on the data line is passed into the subroutine as the value of variable F. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.3 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage • A list of the nonuniform distributed load types that are available for use with any particular element is given in the ABAQUS/Standard Users’ Manual. • The AMPLITUDE parameter cannot be used with the ∗DLOAD or *DSLOAD options when the user subroutine is used to define the magnitude of the distributed load. • The distributed load magnitude cannot be written as output with the ∗EL FILE or ∗EL PRINT options. DLOAD vs. UEL • If the distributed load is dependent on the element’s deformation rather than the position of the element, a stiffness is being defined and a user element subroutine (UEL), not user subroutine DLOAD, is required. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.4 ABAQUS DLOAD Subroutine Interface DLOAD Subroutine Interface The interface to user subroutine DLOAD is SUBROUTINE DLOAD(F, KSTEP, KINC, TIME, NOEL, NPT, 1 LAYER, KSPT, COORDS, JLTYP, SNAME) C INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ C DIMENSION TIME(2), COORDS(3) CHARACTER*80 SNAME user coding to define F RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.5 ABAQUS DLOAD Subroutine Interface Variables to be Defined The user has to define only the variable F. It is the magnitude of the distributed load and has units that depend on the type of distributed load applied: • FL –1 for line loads along one-dimensional (beam) elements, • FL –2 for surface loads (e.g., pressures), and • FL –3 for body forces (e.g., gravity, centripetal, acceleration). Variables for Information Only The following variables are passed into the subroutine: • The step (KSTEP) and increment number (KINC) in which the routine is being called. • The current value of the step (TIME(1)) and the total time (TIME(2)). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.6 ABAQUS DLOAD Subroutine Interface • The element number (NOEL) and integration point number (NPT). • The layer (LAYER) and section point numbers (KSPT), where appropriate. • The coordinates of the integration point (COORDS). – These are the current coordinates if the ∗STEP, NLGEOM option is used in this or a previous step. • The identifier (JLTYP) specifying the type of load to be defined in this call to the user subroutine. – If multiple user-defined DLOAD types are specified in a model, the coding for all load types must appear in the subroutine, and this variable (JLTYP) must be used to test for which load type is to be defined when the subroutine is called. • The surface name (SNAME) for a surface-base load definition (JLTYP=0). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.7 ABAQUS Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading • The problem models the viscoelastic response in rocket propellent as the transient pressure load, due to rocket ignition, is applied to the inner diameter of the rocket motor. – The transient pressure load is an exponential function of time. p = 10 ( 1 – e – 23.03t ) MPa. • The rocket motor is modeled with a single row of 21 elements. • The model is fully described in Problem 2.2.7 of the ABAQUS Verification Manual. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.8 ABAQUS Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading Partial Input Data *HEADING : : *BOUNDARY ALL,2 *STEP, INC=50 *VISCO, CETOL=7.E-3 0.01, 0.5 *DLOAD Apply nonuniform DLOAD to face 4 of element 1 1, P4NU : : *END STEP 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.9 ABAQUS Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading User Subroutine SUBROUTINE DLOAD(F, KSTEP, KINC, TIME ,NOEL, NPT, 1 LAYER, KSPT, COORDS, JLTYP, SNAME) C C C EXPONENTIAL PRESSURE LOAD INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ C DIMENSION COORDS(3),TIME(2) CHARACTER*80 SNAME DATA TEN,ONE,CONST /10.,1.,-23.03/ F=TEN*(ONE-(EXP(CONST*TIME(1)))) IF(NPT.EQ.1) WRITE(6,*) ‘ LOAD APPLIED’,F,’AT TIME=’,TIME(1) RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.10 ABAQUS Example: Transient Internal Pressure Loading Remarks • The load in this model is defined as a function of step time, time(1). • The load is applied only to the one element on the inner diameter of the rocket motor, element 1. • The load is monitored by writing output to the printed output (.dat) file, once per iteration, when the distributed load value is defined at the first integration point. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.11 ABAQUS Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads • In this problem asymmetric pressure loads are applied to a cylindrical structure, which is modeled with the CAXA family of elements. – These elements have axisymmetric geometry but asymmetric deformation. – For CAXA elements the third coordinate, COORD(3), of a point is its θ position around the circumference of the structure ( 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180 ). – The radial stress distribution at the outer radius, R o , is σ rr = – p cos θ , and at inner radius, R i , it is Ro σ rr = – ------ p cos θ . Ri 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.12 ABAQUS Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads – The magnitude of p is 10.E3. – This model is described fully in Problem 1.3.31 of the ABAQUS Verification Manual. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.13 ABAQUS Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads Partial Input Data *HEADING ASYMMETRIC INTERAL AND EXTERNAL PRESSURE LOADS ** 6-IN LONG CYLINDER OF 2-IN & 6-IN INNER AND OUTER RADII : *ELSET, ELSET=INWALL 1 Ri Ro *ELSET, ELSET=OUTWALL 10 : *STEP *STATIC : *DLOAD INWALL, P4NU OUTWALL, P2NU *END STEP 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.14 ABAQUS Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads User Subroutine SUBROUTINE DLOAD(F, KSTEP, KINC, TIME, NOEL, NPT, 1 LAYER, KSPT, COORDS, JLTYP, SNAME) INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ DIMENSION COORDS(3) CHARACTER*80 SNAME C NOTE THAT COORDS(3) IS THE ANGULAR COORD IN DEGREES PI=2.* ASIN(1.D0) THETA=PI*COORDS(3)/180.D0 P=0. IF(JLTYP.EQ.22) P=10.D3 Test for load type P4NU IF(JLTYP.EQ.24) P=30.D3 F=P* COS(THETA) RETURN END Test for load type P2NU 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.15 ABAQUS Example: Asymmetric Pressure Loads Remarks • In this model subroutine DLOAD is used to define two different nonuniform distributed pressure loads. – In this model the load type label clearly determined which pressure distribution should be used. – In a different model perhaps the element number (NOEL) or radial position (COORDS(1)) would have to be used to identify which distribution to define. – What are some of the methods that could be used to allow the subroutine to define pressure distributions with different values of p on the inner and outer radii? 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L2.16 ABAQUS Lecture 3 User Subroutine: FILM Overview • Introduction • ABAQUS Usage • FILM Subroutine Interface • Example: Radiation in Finned Surface • Workshop: User Subroutine FILM 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.1 ABAQUS Introduction Introduction • User subroutine FILM is typically used when either the film coefficient, s h , or sink temperature, θ , is a complex function of time, position, and/or surface temperature. s – h and θ that are simple functions of time usually can be modeled with the ∗AMPLITUDE option. – The subroutine can also be used to define a load that varies with element number and/or integration point number. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.2 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage ABAQUS Usage • The subroutine is called when the ∗FILM or *SFILM options contain a nonuniform load type label or when the USER parameter is used with the *CFILM option. Load type label • For example, *FILM ELLEFT, F6NU, 10.0, 1500 θ s h specifies that the elements in element set ELLEFT will be subject to a film load (convection boundary condition) on face six (6) of solid (continuum), heat transfer elements. – The variable H(1) will be passed into the routine with the value of h specified on the data line of the ∗FILM option. – The variable SINK will be passed into the routine with the value of s θ specified on the data line of the ∗FILM option. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.3 ABAQUS FILM Subroutine Interface FILM Subroutine Interface The interface to user subroutine FILM is: SUBROUTINE FILM(H, SINK, TEMP, KSTEP, KINC, TIME, 1 NOEL, NPT, COORDS, JLTYP, FIELD, NFIELD, SNAME, 2 NODE, AREA) C INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ C DIMENSION H(2), TIME(2), COORDS(3), FIELD(NFIELD) CHARACTER*80 SNAME user coding to define H(1), H(2), and SINK RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.4 ABAQUS FILM Subroutine Interface Variables to be Defined The user has to define the following variables: • H(1). The film coefficient, h , at this surface point. –1 –2 –1 Its units are J T L θ . • H(2). The rate of change of the film coefficient with respect to the dh –1 –2 –2 surface temperature at this point ( ------ ). Its units are J T L θ . dθ – The rate of convergence during the solution of the nonlinear equations in an increment is improved by defining this value, especially when the film coefficient is a strong function of surface temperature (TEMP). s • SINK, the sink temperature, θ . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.5 ABAQUS FILM Subroutine Interface Variables for Information Only • The estimated surface temperature at this time at this point (TEMP). • The step (KSTEP) and increment number (KINC) in which the routine is being called. • The current value of the step (TIME(1)) and the total time (TIME(2)). • The element number (NOEL) and integration point number (NPT). • The coordinates of the integration point (COORDS). – These are the current coordinates if the ∗STEP, NLGEOM option is used in this or a previous step. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.6 ABAQUS FILM Subroutine Interface • The identifier (JLTYP) specifying the type of load to be defined in this call to the user subroutine. – If multiple user-defined FILM types are specified in a model, the coding for all film types must appear in the subroutine, and this variable (JLTYP) must be used to test for which film type is to be defined when the subroutine is called. • The interpolated values of field variables, f i , at this point (FIELD). s – Any of the variables, h or θ , can be made functions of f i . • The number of field variables (NFIELD). • The surface name (SNAME) for a surface-based film definition (JLTYP=0). • The node number (NODE) and area (AREA) for a node-based film definition. The area is passed in as the value specified on the data line of the *CFILM option. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.7 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface Example: Radiation in Finned Surface • This problem is described in detail in Section 4.1.4 of the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual. • This problem models the heat transfer through a finned structure. – In Step 1 the steady-state conditions are obtained. – In Step 2 the transient response of a 30-minute fire is obtained. The finned surface is exposed to the fire. – In Step 3 the 60-minute transient response of the structure when the steady-state boundary conditions are returned is obtained. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.8 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface o External fluid (38o C to 800 C) .01m 1 .15m 2 .06m .1m Wall 3 o F. E. model Internal fluid (100 C) Figure 3–1. Sketch of Finned Structure 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.9 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface Element set TOPF3 Element set TOPF4 Element set TOPF2 2 3 1 Element set BOTF1 Figure 3–2. Finite Element Mesh and Element Sets That Use FILM 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.10 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface • Along the inner wall (element set BOTF1) natural convection transfers heat between the structure and surrounding fluid, which is at 100° C. h ( θ ) = 500 θ w – s 1⁄3 θi θ w is the temperature of the wall of the structure. s θ i is the internal fluid temperature. • Along the outer, finned surface, radiation and natural convection boundary conditions exist. During Steps 1 and 3, s 1⁄3 h ( θ ) = 2 θw – θ f . s θ f is the external fluid temperature ( 38° C). During Step 2 (the fire transient), h = 10 . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.11 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface Partial Input Data *HEADING : *STEP, INC=500 *HEAT TRANSFER, STEADY STATE 1.0 *BOUNDARY NAMB, 11, , 38.D0 *FILM BOTF1, F1NU *FILM User subroutine FILM used for all these TOPF3, F3NU element sets TOPF4, F4NU TOPF2, F2NU : *END STEP 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.12 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface User Subroutine subroutine film(h, sink, temp, jstep, jinc, time, 1 noel, npt, coords, jltyp, field, nfield, sname, node, area) c include ‘aba_param.inc’ dimension h(2), coords(3), time(2), field(nfield) character*80 sname parameter (two=2.0d0, third=1.0d0/3.0d0) c h(1) = 0.0d0 Test to see if the elements are in h(2) = 0.0d0 element set BOTF1 sink = 0.0d0 a2 = 1.0d0 if (noel.le.11) then sink = 100.d0 a1 = sign(a2,temp-sink) h(1) = 500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**third 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.13 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface h(2) = a1*third*500.0d0* 1 (abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) else if (jstep.eq.1.or.jstep.eq.3) then sink = 38.d0 a1 = sign(a2,temp-sink) h(1) = 2.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**third h(2) = a1*third*2.0d0* 1 (abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) else s h ( θ ) and fluid temperature ( θ f ) for the sink = 800.d0 fire event h(1) = 10.0d0 end if c return end 7/01 If the first condition is not satisfied, the element must be on the finned surface. The h ( θ ) for these elements varies from step to step. Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.14 ABAQUS Example: Radiation in Finned Surface Remarks • It can be helpful to define constants, in this example 2.0 and 0.333 as parameters in user subroutines. • Using element numbers as values for conditional statements can limit a user subroutine to a specific mesh layout. – This programming/design technique can make the use of the subroutine in general production work tedious. – Can you think of other techniques that can be used with this user subroutine? dh • Defining ------ correctly is extremely important in this application. dθ – Analyses will converge very slowly if it is incorrect. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.15 ABAQUS Workshop: User Subroutine FILM Workshop: User Subroutine FILM Goals • To learn how to find the compile and link commands used on your system. dh • To see how sensitive the rate of convergence is on the value of ------ . dθ dh • To see if the results are sensitive to the value of ------ . dθ Problem Description • User subroutine FILM will be used to define s 1⁄3 h ( θ ) = 500 θ w – θ i , s where θ i = 100° C is the fluid temperature. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.16 ABAQUS Workshop: User Subroutine FILM • The subroutine is tested on a two-element model. – All nodes initially have a temperature of 77° C ( θ ( t = 0 ) = 77 ). – The nodes on one end are set to 277° C. The other end has the film condition applied. – The steady-state solution is obtained. • The rate of convergence and results are compared with the following dh values of ------ : dθ h(2) h(2) h(2) h(2) 7/01 = = = = a1*third*500.d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) third*500.d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) a1*third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-third) a1*third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(two*third) Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L3.17 ABAQUS Lecture 4 User Subroutine: USDFLD Overview • Introduction • ABAQUS Usage • User Subroutine GETVRM • USDFLD Subroutine Interface • Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.1 ABAQUS Introduction Introduction • User subroutine USDFLD is typically used when complex material behavior needs to be modeled and the user does not want to develop a UMAT subroutine. – Most material properties in ABAQUS/Standard can be defined as functions of field variables, f i . – Subroutine USDFLD allows the user to define f i at every integration point of an element. pl – The subroutine has access to solution data, so f i ( σ, ε, ε , ε̇, etc. ) ; therefore, the material properties can be a function of the solution data. • Subroutine USDFLD can be used only with elements that have material behavior defined with a ∗MATERIAL option [see Elements Supported by GETVRM (p. L4.18) for details]. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.2 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage ABAQUS Usage • Including user subroutine USDFLD in a model requires considerably more effort than what is needed for user subroutines DLOAD or FILM. • Typically the user must define the dependence of material properties, such as elastic modulus or yield stress, as functions of field variables, f i . – This can be accomplished using either tabular input or additional user subroutines. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.3 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage • The USDFLD routine is then written to define the values of f i on an integration point by integration point basis. – The ∗USER DEFINED FIELD option is included in the material definition to indicate that the USDFLD subroutine will be called for those elements using that material definition. – The f i can be defined as functions of solution data, such as stress or strain, available at the integration points. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.4 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Defining Field-Variable-Dependent Material Properties There are two methods that can be used to create field-variable-dependent material properties: • Using tabular definition for built-in ABAQUS material models. • Using other user subroutines, such as CREEP, to define the material behavior as a function of f i . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.5 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Tabular Definition: • Use the DEPENDENCIES parameter on the material options to specify how many different field variables exist for a given material option: *MATERIAL, NAME=POLYMER *ELASTIC, DEPENDENCIES=1 2000., 0.3, 0., 0.00 1200., 0.3, 0., 0.02 1000., 0.3, 0., 0.04 *EXPANSION, DEPENDENCIES=2 5E-4, 0., 0.00, 0.0 3E-4, 0., 0.02, 0.0 1E-4, 0., 0.04, 0.0 ** 5E-5, 0., 0.00, 1.0 2E-5, 0., 0.03, 1.0 8E-6, 0., 0.04, 1.0 7/01 f1 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS f2 L4.6 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage – The elastic modulus ( E ) is a function of field variable #1, f 1 . As f 1 increases, E decreases— f 1 might represent damage to the material. – The thermal expansion coefficient, α , is a function of both f 1 and field variable #2, f 2 . – A change in the value of f 1 will affect both E and α . – ABAQUS will use linear interpolation between data points in the tabular input and will use the last available material data if f i is outside of the range specified—it does not extrapolate the data provided. – The range of f i does not have to be the same for each material property. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.7 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Defining Field Variable Dependence within a User Subroutine: • The values of f i defined in USDFLD are passed into the following user subroutines: CREEP HETVAL UEXPAN UHARD UHYPEL UMAT UMATHT UTRS UINTER • The material properties defined in these subroutines can be made functions of the f i . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.8 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Defining Field Variables • Field variables ( f i ) are normally considered nodal data by ABAQUS. • When ABAQUS begins to calculate the element stresses and stiffness (i.e., the element loop), it interpolates the nodal values of f i to the integration (material) points of the elements. • When subroutine USDFLD is used, these interpolated f i are replaced with the values defined in the USDFLD subroutine before the material properties of an element are calculated. • The values defined by USDFLD are not stored by ABAQUS. – If you need access to previous values of f i , you must save them as solution-dependent variables (SDVs) inside USDFLD. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.9 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage • If you bypass the USDFLD subroutine (perhaps because the material properties are not going to change in a given step), the integration points will use the interpolated values of f i . – Typically these interpolated f i are the initial values assigned to the nodes—the default in ABAQUS is to assign a value of 0.0 if no initial value is given explicitly. – It is quite possible that using these interpolated values when defining the material behavior will create incorrect results. Make sure you understand what ABAQUS is doing. • The values of f i at the element integration points can be written as output to the printed output (.dat), results (.fil), and output database (.odb) files using the output variable FV on the ∗EL PRINT, ∗EL FILE, and *ELEMENT OUTPUT options, respectively. – ABAQUS/Viewer can make contour plots of FV#. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.10 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Accessing Solution Data at Material Points • ABAQUS/Standard allows the f i to be defined as functions of solution data, such as stress or strain, at the material points. • The values of the solution data provided are from the beginning of the current increment. • Subroutine USDFLD must use the ABAQUS utility routine GETVRM to access this material point data. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.11 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Explicit vs. Implicit Solution • Since the USDFLD subroutine has access to material point quantities only at the start of the increment, the solution dependence introduced in this way is explicit. – The material properties for a given increment are not influenced by the results obtained during the increment. – Hence, the accuracy of the results depends on the size of the time increment. – Therefore, the user can control the time increment in the USDFLD subroutine by means of the variable PNEWDT. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.12 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage • For most nonlinear material behavior (i.e., plasticity) ABAQUS/Standard uses an implicit integration method to calculate the material behavior at the end of the current increment. – Such an implicit integration method allows ABAQUS/Standard to use any size time increment and yet still have the solution remain bounded. Using Solution-Dependent State Variables • Solution-dependent state variables (SDVs) must be used in USDFLD if f i have any history dependence. – ABAQUS/Standard does not store the values of f i calculated in USDFLD. • The SDVs updated in USDFLD are then passed into other user subroutines that can be called at this material point, such as those listed 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.13 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage in Defining Field-Variable-Dependent Material Properties (p. L4.5). • The number of state variables is specified with the ∗DEPVAR option: *ELASTIC, DEPENDENCIES=1 ** Table of modulus values decreasing as a function ** of field variable 1. 2000., 0.3, 0., 0.00 1500., 0.3, 0., 0.01 1200., 0.3, 0., 0.02 1000., 0.3, 0., 0.04 *USER DEFINED FIELD *DEPVAR 1 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.14 ABAQUS User Subroutine GETVRM User Subroutine GETVRM The subroutine GETVRM provides USDFLD with access to the solution data stored in databases during the analysis. GETVRM Subroutine Interface CALL GETVRM(‘VAR’, ARRAY, JARRAY, FLGRAY, JRCD, 1 JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, LACCFLA) Variables Provided to GETVRM • The variables provided to GETVRM are the output variable key, VAR, for the desired solution data, and JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, LACCFLA (these variables are not discussed further in these notes) • The available output variable keys are listed in the output table in Section 4.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual. – The variable must be available for results file output at the element integration points; e.g., S for stress. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.15 ABAQUS User Subroutine GETVRM Variables Returned by GETVRM • An array containing individual floating-point components of the output variable (ARRAY). • An array containing individual integer value components of the output variable (JARRAY). • A character array (FLGRAY) containing flags corresponding to the individual components. – Flags will contain either YES, NO, or N/A (not applicable). • A return code (JRCD). JRCD=0 indicates that GETVRM encountered no errors, while a value of 1 indicates that there was an output request error or that all components of the output variable requested are zero. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.16 ABAQUS User Subroutine GETVRM • The components for a requested variable are written as follows. – Single index components (and requests without components) are returned in positions 1, 2, 3, etc. – Double index components (tensors) are returned in the order 11, 22, 33, 12, 13, 23 for symmetric tensors, followed by 21, 31, 32 for unsymmetric tensors, such as the deformation gradient. – Thus, the stresses for a plane stress element are returned as ARRAY(1) = S11, ARRAY(2) = S22, ARRAY(3) = 0.0, and ARRAY(4) = S12. – Three values are always returned for principal value requests, the minimum value first and maximum value third, regardless of the dimensionality of the analysis. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.17 ABAQUS User Subroutine GETVRM Elements Supported by GETVRM • Since the GETVRM capability pertains to material point quantities, it cannot be used for most of the element types that do not require a ∗MATERIAL definition. • The following element types are, therefore, not supported: DASHPOTx ROTARYI SPRINGx all acoustic elements JOINTC all contact elements JOINTxD all gasket elements DRAGxD all hydrostatic fluid elements ITSxxx USA elements MASS 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.18 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface USDFLD Subroutine Interface The interface to user subroutine USDFLD is: SUBROUTINE USDFLD(FIELD, STATEV, PNEWDT, DIRECT, T, 1 CELENT, TIME, DTIME, CMNAME, ORNAME, NFIELD, 2 NSTATV, NOEL, NPT, LAYER, KSPT, KSTEP, KINC, NDI, 3 NSHR, COORD, JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, LACCFLA) C INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ C CHARACTER*80 CMNAME,ORNAME CHARACTER*8 FLGRAY(15) DIMENSION FIELD(NFIELD), STATEV(NSTATV), DIRECT(3, 3), 1 T(3, 3), TIME(2), COORD(*), JMAC(*), JMATYP(*) DIMENSION ARRAY(15), JARRAY(15) user coding to define FIELD and, if necessary, STATEV and PNEWDT 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.19 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface Variables to be Defined • The array FIELD(NFIELD) contains the field variables ( f i ) at the current material (integration) point. – These are passed in with the values interpolated from the nodes at the end of the current increment, as specified with the ∗INITIAL CONDITIONS option or the ∗FIELD option. – The updated f i are used to calculate the values of material properties that are a function of field variables. The updated f i are passed into other user subroutines (CREEP, HETVAL, UEXPAN, UHARD, UHYPEL, UMAT, UMATHT, and UTRS) that are called at this material point. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.20 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface Variables that may be Defined • The array containing the solution-dependent state variables, STATEV(NSTATV), can be defined in USDFLD. – These are passed in as the values at the beginning of the increment. – In all cases STATEV can be updated in this subroutine, and the updated values are passed into other user subroutines (CREEP, HETVAL, UEXPAN, UMAT, UMATHT, and UTRS) that are called at this material point. – The number of state variables associated with this material point is defined with the ∗DEPVAR option. • The ratio, PNEWDT, of suggested new time increment to the time increment being used (DTIME, see below) can be given. – This variable allows the user to provide input to the automatic time incrementation algorithms in ABAQUS. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.21 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface Variables for Information Only • The number of field variables (NFIELD) that exist at this point. • The direction cosines in the global coordinate system of the material directions associated with the current integration point (DIRECT). – DIRECT(#, 1) defines the first material direction. • The direction cosines (T) of any rotations of the shell or membrane material direction about the element’s normal. • The characteristic element length in the model (CELENT). • The name (CNAME) of the associated ∗MATERIAL option. • The name (ORNAME) of the ∗ORIENTATION associated with this element. • The number of direct stress components (NDI) and the number of shear stress components (NSHR). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.22 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface • The step (KSTEP) and increment number (KINC) in which the routine is being called • The value of step time (TIME(1)) and the value of total time (TIME(2)) at the end of the current increment. • The current time increment (DTIME). • The element number (NOEL) and integration point number (NPT). • The layer (LAYER) and section point numbers (KSPT), where appropriate. • The coordinates (COORD) at the material point. • Variables that must be passed into the GETVRM utility routine (JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, and LACCFLA). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.23 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface USDFLD and Automatic Time Incrementation • ABAQUS/Standard uses an automatic time incrementation algorithm to control the size of the time increment used in an analysis. – This algorithm allows ABAQUS/Standard to reduce the time increment size when convergence is unlikely or the results are not accurate enough and to increase the time increment when convergence is easily obtained. • Subroutines such as USDFLD can make it impossible for this algorithm to function properly. – Therefore, these subroutines are given the variable PNEWDT to provide information to the incrementation algorithm. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.24 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface • PNEWDT is set to a large value before each call to USDFLD. • If PNEWDT is redefined to be less than 1.0, ABAQUS must abandon the time increment and attempt it again with a smaller time increment. – The suggested new time increment provided to the automatic time integration algorithms is PNEWDT∗DTIME, where the PNEWDT used is the minimum value for all calls to user subroutines that allow redefinition of PNEWDT for this iteration. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.25 ABAQUS USDFLD Subroutine Interface • If PNEWDT is given a value that is greater than 1.0 for all calls to user subroutines for this iteration and the increment converges in this iteration, ABAQUS may increase the time increment. – The suggested new time increment provided to the automatic time integration algorithms is PNEWDT∗DTIME, – where the PNEWDT used is the minimum value for all calls to user subroutines for this iteration. • If the time increment size should be maintained, set PNEWDT =1.0. • If automatic time incrementation is not selected for the analysis procedure, values of PNEWDT that are greater than 1.0 will be ignored and values of PNEWDT that are less than 1.0 will cause the job to terminate. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.26 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • This problem is described in detail in the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual, Section 1.1.14. • This problem models the damage that occurs in a laminated composite plate with a hole in the center as it is subjected to in-plane compression. – The plate consists of graphite-epoxy plies with fiber directions that are in a ( – 45 / 45 ) layup. • A quarter-symmetry finite element model (shown in Figure 4–1) was used in this problem. – Rather than model the composite plate with shell elements, two layers of CPS4 elements were used—the thickness of the plate is large enough that out-of-plane displacements should be minimal. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.27 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure E 4.0 0.25 0.135 2 1.0 3 1 Figure 4–1. Problem Geometry and Finite Element Mesh 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.28 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Material Model • The material behavior of each ply is described in detail by Chang and Lessard. Chang, F-K., and L. B. Lessard, “Damage Tolerance of Laminated Composites Containing an Open Hole and Subjected to Compressive Loadings: Part I—Analysis,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 25, pp. 2–43, 1991. • The initial elastic ply properties are: longitudinal modulus E 11 = 22700 ksi, transverse modulus E 22 = 1880 ksi, shear modulus G = 1010 ksi, and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.23 . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.29 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • The material accumulates damage in shear, leading to a nonlinear stress-strain relation of the form 3 –1 γ 12 = G 12 σ 12 + ασ 12 , (Eq. 4.1) where G 12 is the (initial) ply shear modulus and the nonlinearity is – 14 characterized by the factor α = 0.8 ×10 . • To account for the nonlinearity, the nonlinear stress-strain relation (Equation 4.1) must be expressed in a different form: The stress at the end of the increment must be given as a linear function of the strain. • The most obvious way to do this is to linearize the nonlinear term, leading to the relation (i + 1) γ 12 7/01 –1 (i) 2 (i + 1) = ( G 12 + α ( σ 12 ) )σ 12 . Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS (Eq. 4.2) L4.30 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • Inverting the relation given in Equation 4.2 gives (i + 1) σ 12 G 12 (i + 1) = -------------------------------------2- γ 12 , (i) 1 + αG 12 ( α 12 ) (Eq. 4.3) which provides an algorithm to define the effective shear modulus. – However, this algorithm is not very suitable because it is unstable at higher strain levels, which is readily demonstrated by stability analysis (see the Example Problems Manual for details). • To obtain a more stable algorithm, we write the nonlinear stress-strain law in the form 3 –1 3 γ 12 + βσ 12 = G 12 σ 12 + ( α + β )σ 12 , (Eq. 4.4) where β is an as yet unknown coefficient. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.31 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • Using a stability analysis of the expression in Equation 4.4, the optimal stress-strain algorithm is found to be (i + 1) σ 12 (i) 3 (i) 1 + ( 2α ( σ 12 ) ) ⁄ γ 12 (i + 1) = -----------------------------------------------γ . G 12 12 (i) 2 1 + 3αG 12 ( α 12 ) (Eq. 4.5) Writing this expression in terms of a damage parameter, d , gives (i + 1) σ 12 (i + 1) = ( 1 – d )G 12 γ 12 , where (i) 2 (i) 3 (i) 3αG 12 ( α 12 ) – 2α ( σ 12 ) ⁄ γ 12 d = ------------------------------------------------------------------------. (i) 2 1 + 3αG 12 ( α 12 ) (Eq. 4.6) • This relation is implemented in user subroutine USDFLD, and the value of the damage parameter is assigned directly to the third field variable (FV3) used for definition of the elastic properties. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.32 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • The following strength properties are used for the composite material: transverse tensile strength Y t = 14.82 ksi, ply shear strength S c = 15.5 ksi, matrix compressive strength Y c = 36.7 ksi, and fiber buckling strength X c = 392.7 ksi. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.33 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • The strength parameters can be combined into failure criteria for multiaxial loading. Three different failure modes are considered in the model analyzed. – Fiber bucking failure is not considered in this model because the primary mode of failure is fiber-matrix shear. Matrix Tensile Cracking The failure index for matrix tensile cracking with nonlinear shear behavior is 4 2 2 em 2 σ 2σ 12 ⁄ G 12 + 3ασ 12 22 = -------- + ---------------------------------------------. 2 4 Yt 2S ⁄ G + 3αS c 12 c When the composite fails in this mode, transverse stiffness ( E 22 ) and Poisson’s ratio become zero. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.34 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Matrix Compressive Cracking The form of the failure index is identical to that for the tensile cracking mode. The same failure index (field variable) is used in USDFLD because these two modes will not occur simultaneously at the same point. Fiber-Matrix Shearing Failure The failure criterion has essentially the same form as the other two criteria: 4 2 2 e fs 2 σ 2σ 12 ⁄ G 12 + 3ασ 12 11 = -------- + ---------------------------------------------. 2 4 Xc 2S ⁄ G + 3αS c 12 c This failure mechanism can occur simultaneously with the other two criteria; therefore, a separate failure index is used in USDFLD. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.35 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • User subroutine USDFLD is used to calculate the values of the active failure indices: The value for the matrix tensile cracking/matrix compressive failure index ( e m ) is stored as SDV(1). – When the index exceeds a value of 1.0, the value of f 1 is set to 1.0. The value for the fiber-matrix shear failure index ( e fs ) is stored as SDV(2). – When the index exceeds a value of 1.0, the value of f 2 is set to 1.0. • Subroutine USDFLD is also used to calculate the value of the damage parameter, d , in the nonlinear stress-strain relationship. – The value of d is stored as SDV(3) and f 3 . • Table 4–1 shows the dependence of material properties on the f i . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.36 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Table 4–1. Dependence of Elastic Material Properties on f i Material State No failure or damage Matrix failure Fiber-matrix failure Shear damage Matrix & fiber-matrix Matrix & damage Fiber-matrix & damage All failure modes 7/01 Elastic Properties E 11 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 22 ν 12 0 E 22 E 22 f1 f2 f3 0 0 0 0 G 12 G 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ν 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 E 22 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.37 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Partial Input Data *HEADING : **NONLINEAR SHEAR WITH BUILT-IN EXPLICIT FAILURE ** ** FV1: MATRIX COMPRESSIVE/TENSILE FAILURE ** FV2: FIBER-MATRIX SHEAR FAILURE ** FV3: SHEAR NONLINEARITY (DAMAGE) PRIOR TO FAILURE ** TOTAL OF 2^3 = 8 STATES em ** *MATERIAL, NAME=T300 *ELASTIC, TYPE=LAMINA, DEPENDENCIES=3 22.7E6, 1.88E6, 0.23, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 0, 0, 0 22.7E6, 1.00E0, 0.00, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 1, 0, 0 22.7E6, 1.88E6, 0.00, 1.00E0, 1. 01E6 ,1.01E6, 0., 0, 1, 0 = 1.0 e fs = 1.0 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.38 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure 22.7E6, 1.00E0, 0.00, 1, 0 22.7E6, 1.88E6, 0.23, 0, 1 22.7E6, 1.00E0, 0.00, 0, 1 22.7E6, 1.88E6, 0.00, 1, 1 22.7E6, 1.00E0, 0.00, 1, 1 *DEPVAR 3 *USER DEFINED FIELD ** 7/01 1.00E0, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 1, 1.00E0, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 0, 1.00E0, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 1, 1.00E0, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 0, 1.00E0, 1.01E6, 1.01E6, 0., 1, Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS Shear damage L4.39 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure ** ANALYSIS HISTORY *STEP, INC=200, NLGEOM *STATIC, DIRECT 0.05, 1.0 *BOUNDARY XSYMMTRY, XSYMM YSYMMTRY, YSYMM 1000, 2, , -0.027 : *END STEP 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.40 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure User Subroutine SUBROUTINE USDFLD (FIELD, STATEV, PNEWDT, DIRECT, T, 1 CELENT, TIME, DTIME, CMNAME, ORNAME, NFIELD, NSTATV, 2 NOEL, NPT, LAYER, KSPT, KSTEP, KINC, NDI, NSHR, 3 COORD, JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, LACCFLA) C INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’C MATERIAL AND STRENGTH PARAMETERS PARAMETER (YT=14.86D3, XC=392.7D3, YC=36.7D3) PARAMETER (SC=15.5D3, G12=1.01D6, ALPHA=0.8D-14) C CHARACTER*80 CMNAME, ORNAME CHARACTER*8 FLGRAY(15) DIMENSION FIELD(NFIELD), STATEV(NSTATV), DIRECT(3,3) DIMENSION T(3, 3), TIME(2), ARRAY(15), JARRAY(15) DIMENSION COORD(*), JMAC(*), JMATYP(*) C C INITIALIZE EM EFS DAMAGE 7/01 FAILURE FLAGS FROM STATEV. = STATEV(1) = STATEV(2) = STATEV(3) Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.41 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure C GET STRESSES FROM PREVIOUS INCREMENT CALL GETVRM(‘S’, ARRAY, JARRAY, FLGRAY, JRCD, 1 JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, LACCFLA) S11 = ARRAY(1) S22 = ARRAY(2) S12 = ARRAY(4) CALL GETVRM(‘E’, ARRAY, JARRAY, FLGRAY, JRCD, 1 JMAC, JMATYP, MATLAYO, LACCFLA) E12 = ARRAY(4) C C DAMAGE INDEX: = 0 IF NO STRAIN TO PREVENT DIVIDE BY ZERO C IF (E12.NE.0) THEN DAMAGE = (3.D0*ALPHA*G12*S12**2 & 2.D0*ALPHA*(S12**3)/E12) / & (1.D0 + 3.D0*ALPHA*G12*S12**2) ELSE DAMAGE = 0.D0 ENDIF 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.42 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure C F1 = S12**2/(2.D0*G12) + 0.75D0*ALPHA*S12**4 F2 = SC**2 /(2.D0*G12) + 0.75D0*ALPHA*SC**4 C C MATRIX TENSILE/COMPRESSIVE FAILURE IF (EM .LT. 1.D0) THEN IF (S22 .LT. 0.D0) THEN EM = SQRT((S22/YC)**2 + F1/F2) ELSE EM = SQRT((S22/YT)**2 + F1/F2) ENDIF STATEV(1) = EM ENDIF Value of matrix failure modes is stored as C solution-dependent state variable 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.43 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure C FIBER-MATRIX SHEAR FAILURE IF (EFS .LT. 1.D0) THEN IF (S11 .LT. 0.D0) THEN EFS = SQRT((S11/XC)**2 + F1/F2) ELSE EFS = 0.D0 ENDIF STATEV(2) = EFS ENDIF C C UPDATE FIELD VARIABLES FIELD(1) = 0.D0 FIELD(2) = 0.D0 IF (EM .GT. 1.D0) FIELD(1) = 1.D0 IF (EFS .GT. 1.D0) FIELD(2) = 1.D0 FIELD(3) = DAMAGE STATEV(3) = FIELD(3) C RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.44 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Results • The material model implemented with USDFLD in this example does a reasonably good job of modeling the experimentally observed behavior (see Figure 4–2). • The extent of damage predicted in the composite plate (see Figure 4–3) during the analysis was very similar to the damage seen in the experimental specimens. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.45 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure 4000 Experiment (Chang et al., 1989) ABAQUS (CPS4) ABAQUS (CPS4R) Applied load P (lb) 3000 2000 1000 0 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 Extensometer measurement ∆E (in) Figure 4–2. Experimental and Numerical Load-Deflection Curves 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.46 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure fiber-matrix shear failure 2 3 1 Figure 4–3. Material Damage in the Plate 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.47 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure Remarks • The values of the failure indices are not assigned directly to the f i : instead, they are stored as solution-dependent state variables. – Only if the value of a failure index exceeds 1.0 is the corresponding user-defined field variable set equal to 1.0. – After the failure index has exceeded 1.0, the associated f i continues to have the value 1.0 even though the stresses may reduce significantly, which ensures that the material does not “heal” after it has become damaged. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.48 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • The material model implemented with USDFLD assumes that after failure occurs the stresses in the failed directions drop to zero immediately, which corresponds to brittle failure with no energy absorption. • This assumption is not very realistic: in reality, the stress-carrying capacity degrades gradually with increasing strain after failure occurs. – Hence, the behavior of the composite after onset of failure is not likely to be captured well by this model. • Moreover, the instantaneous loss of stress-carrying capacity also makes the postfailure analysis results strongly dependent on the refinement of the finite element mesh and the finite element type used. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.49 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure • In this example the only significant nonlinearity in the model is failure of the composite material. Hence, fixed time incrementation can be used effectively. – However, the results of this analysis are highly sensitive to the size of the time increment. The time increment used in the model shown, ∆t = 0.05 , is close to the largest allowable value (see Figure 4–4 and Figure 4–5). • If other nonlinearities were present in the analysis, the automatic time incrementation algorithm would likely be needed. – In those types of analyses the variable PNEWDT would have to be used in user subroutine USDFLD to help control the size of the time increment. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.50 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure 3.5 3 [ x10 ] T25_1000 T15_1000 T05_1000 3.0 REACTION FORCE - RF2 2.5 XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0.000E+00 2.409E-02 0.000E+00 3.409E+03 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0. 4. 8. 12. DISPLACEMENT - U2 16. 20. [ x10 24. -3 ] Figure 4–4. Force Deflection Curves for Analyses with ∆t = 0.05 , ∆t = 0.15 , and ∆t = 0.25 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.51 ABAQUS Example: Laminated Composite Plate Failure 2 3 1 Figure 4–5. Extent of Material Damage in Analysis with ∆t = 0.25 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L4.52 ABAQUS Lecture 5 User Subroutine: URDFIL Overview • Introduction • ABAQUS Usage • URDFIL Subroutine Interface • Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.1 ABAQUS Introduction Introduction • Subroutine URDFIL is used to read the results (.fil) file at the end of an increment. – Thus, the user can examine the results as the analysis is running. – This information can be used to make decisions such as whether to stop the analysis. – Results can also be extracted from the results file, stored in COMMON blocks, and passed into other subroutines. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.2 ABAQUS Introduction • Subroutine URDFIL must call the utility routine DBFILE to read records from the results file. – A detailed discussion of this routine is provided in the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual, Section 5.1.4. • Subroutine URDFIL can call the utility routine POSFIL to begin reading the results file at a specified step and increment. – The default behavior is to begin reading the data from the beginning of the file. – A detailed discussion of this routine is provided in the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual, Section 5.1.4. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.3 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage ABAQUS Usage • If an analysis requests that data be written to the results (.fil) file using the ∗EL FILE, ∗NODE FILE, ∗CONTACT FILE, or ∗ENERGY FILE options, subroutine URDFIL will be called at the end of any increment in which new information is written to the results file. – The coding for the subroutine must also be provided via the user parameter on the command line. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.4 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Utility Routine POSFIL • The utility routine POSFIL is used to locate the position of a specific increment of results data stored on the results (.fil) file. – Once this position is found, the data for that increment can be read. • The interface for this utility is: CALL POSFIL(NSTEP, NINC, ARRAY, JRCD) Variables to be provided to the utility routine: – The desired step (NSTEP). If this variable is set to 0, the first available step will be read. – The desired increment (NINC). If this variable is set to 0, the first available increment of the specified step will be read. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.5 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Variables returned from the utility routine: – A real array (ARRAY) containing the values of record 2000 from the results file for the requested step and increment. – A return code (JRCD). If it has a value of 0, the specified increment was found; if it is has a value of 1, the specified increment was not found. • If the step and increment requested are not found on the results file, POSFIL will return an error and leave the user positioned at the end of the results file. • POSFIL cannot be used to move backward in the results file. – The user cannot use POSFIL to find a given increment in the file and then make a second call to POSFIL later to read an increment earlier than the first one found. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.6 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage Utility Routine DBFILE • The utility routine DBFILE is used to extract data from the results file. • The interface for this utility is: CALL DBFILE(LOP,ARRAY,JRCD) The only variable to be provided to the utility routine is: – A flag, LOP, which must be set to 0 when this utility is used in URDFIL. Variables returned from the utility routine are: – The array, ARRAY, containing one record from the results file. – The flag JRCD is returned as nonzero if an end-of-file marker is read when DBFILE is called with LOP=0. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.7 ABAQUS ABAQUS Usage • The formats of the data records for the results file are described in the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual, Section 5.1.2. – ARRAY must be dimensioned adequately in the user’s routines to contain the largest record on the file. – For almost all cases 500 words is sufficient. – The exceptions arise if the problem definition includes user elements or user materials that use more than this many state variables. – When the results file has been written on a system on which ABAQUS runs in double precision, ARRAY must be declared double precision in the user’s routine. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.8 ABAQUS URDFIL Subroutine Interface URDFIL Subroutine Interface The interface to user subroutine URDFIL is: SUBROUTINE URDFIL(LSTOP, LOVRWRT, KSTEP, KINC, 1 DTIME, TIME) C INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ C DIMENSION ARRAY(513), JRRAY(NPRECD, 513), TIME(2) EQUIVALENCE (ARRAY(1), JRRAY(1 ,1)) user coding to read the results file RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.9 ABAQUS URDFIL Subroutine Interface Variables to be Defined • The flag (LSTOP) to indicate whether an analysis should continue. – The analysis will be terminated if LSTOP is set to 1. – Otherwise, the analysis will continue. • The flag (LOVRWRT) to indicate that the information written to the results file for the current increment can be overwritten. – If LOVRWRT is set to 1, information for the current increment will be overwritten by information written to the results file in a subsequent increment unless the current increment is the final increment written to the results file. – The purpose of this flag is to reduce the size of the results file by allowing information for an increment to be overwritten by information for a subsequent increment. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.10 ABAQUS URDFIL Subroutine Interface • The variable DTIME allows the user to provide input to the automatic time incrementation algorithms in ABAQUS (if automatic time incrementation is chosen). – It is passed in as the size of the next time increment to be taken and can be updated to increase or reduce the time increment. – If automatic time incrementation is not selected in the analysis procedure, updated values of DTIME are ignored. Variables for Information Only • The step (KSTEP) and increment number (KINC) in which the routine is being called. • The value of step time (TIME(1)) and the value of total time (TIME(2)) at the end of the current increment. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.11 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis • In this example the values of Mises stress and the displacement in the 2-direction of a specific node, 63, are monitored, and if they exceed a given value, the analysis is stopped. • The structure is a cantilever beam subjected to a tip load in the 2-direction. Node 63 2 3 7/01 1 Figure 5–1. Model Geometry Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.12 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis Input Data *HEADING Demonstration of URDFIL user subroutine *RESTART,WRITE *NODE 1, 0, 0 21, 1, 0 85, 0, .1 105 ,1, .1 *NGEN, NSET=BOTTOM 1, 21, 1 *NGEN, NSET=TOP 85, 105, 1 *NFILL, NSET=ALL BOTTOM, TOP, 4, 21 *NSET, NSET=LEFT, GEN 1, 85, 21 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.13 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis *ELEMENT, TYPE=CPS4R 1, 1, 2, 23, 22 *ELGEN, ELSET=ALL 1, 20, 1, 1, 4, 21, 20 *SOLID SECTION, ELSET=ALL, MATERIAL=STEEL, ORIENTATION=BEAM 0.1 *ORIENTATION, NAME=BEAM 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0 1, 0 *MATERIAL, NAME=STEEL *ELASTIC 2E11, 0.3 *PLASTIC 2E8, 0 2E9, 0.1 *BOUNDARY LEFT, 1, 2, 0 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.14 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis *STEP, NLGEOM, INC=30 *STATIC 0.1, 1 *CLOAD 63, 2, -1E6 *NODE PRINT, FREQ=0 *EL PRINT, FREQ=0 *EL FILE, FREQUENCY=1 SINV *NODE FILE, FREQUENCY=1 U *END STEP 7/01 Write data to the results file frequently to ensure that you can monitor the progress of the analysis. Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.15 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis User Subroutine SUBROUTINE URDFIL(LSTOP, LOVRWRT, KSTEP, KINC, 1 DTIME,TIME) C INCLUDE ‘ABA_PARAM.INC’ DIMENSION ARRAY(513), JRRAY(NPRECD, 513), TIME(2) EQUIVALENCE (ARRAY(1),JRRAY(1,1)) PARAMETER(TOL=5.0D8) PARAMETER(DEFL=1.5D-1) LMISES=0 LDEFL=0 C C Assume that we do not mind if .fil file results are C overwritten. C LOVRWRT=1 C C Find current increment 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.16 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis C CALL POSFIL(KSTEP, KINC, ARRAY, JRCD) C C Loop over all of the records Loop over large number C to ensure that all records DO K1=1,999999 are read. CALL DBFILE(0,ARRAY,JRCD) IF (JRCD .NE. 0) GO TO 110 KEY=JRRAY(1,2) Check for end-of-file. C C Record 1 contains element information for subsequent C records C IF (KEY .EQ. 1) THEN IELM = JRRAY(1, 3) IMATPT = JRRAY(1, 4) END IF C 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.17 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis C Record 12 contains values for SINV C IF (KEY .EQ. 12) THEN IF (ARRAY(3) .GT. TOL) THEN LMISES=1 GOTO 210 END IF END IF C C Record 101 contains U C IF (KEY .EQ. 101) THEN IF (JRRAY(1, 3) .EQ. 63) THEN IF (ABS(ARRAY(5)) .GT. DEFL) THEN LDEFL=1 GOTO 210 END IF Write why analysis is END IF terminated to message file 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.18 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis END IF END DO 110 CONTINUE C 210 IF (LMISES .EQ. 1) THEN WRITE(7, *) WRITE(7, 1023) TOL, IELEM, IMATPT WRITE(7, *) LSTOP=1 END IF IF (LDEFL .EQ. 1) THEN WRITE(7, *) WRITE(7, 1024) DEFL WRITE(7, *) LSTOP=1 END IF RETURN 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.19 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis C C 1023 FORMAT (‘***NOTE: ANALYSIS TERMINATES MISES &STRESS EXCEEDS’, 2X, E9.3, 1X, ‘IN ELEMENT’, 1X, I6, &1X, ‘AT INT. PT.’, 1X, I6) 1024 FORMAT (‘***NOTE: ANALYSIS TERMINATES AS DEFLECTION &OF NODE 63 EXCEEDS’, 2X, E9.3) END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.20 ABAQUS Example: Using URDFIL to Terminate an Analysis Remarks • The analysis terminates when only 12.3% of the defined load is applied to the model because the tolerance for Mises stress was exceeded in element 1. ***NOTE: ANALYSIS TERMINATES MISES STRESS EXCEEDS 0.500E+09 IN ELEMENT 1 AT INT. PT. 1 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L5.21 ABAQUS Lecture 6 Writing a UMAT or VUMAT Overview • Motivation • Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • UMAT Interface • Examples • VUMAT Interface • Examples 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.1 ABAQUS Overview Overview • ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit have interfaces that allow the user to implement general constitutive equations. – In ABAQUS/Standard the user-defined material model is implemented in user subroutine UMAT. – In ABAQUS/Explicit the user-defined material model is implemented in user subroutine VUMAT. • Use UMAT and VUMAT when none of the existing material models included in the ABAQUS material library accurately represents the behavior of the material to be modeled. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.2 ABAQUS Overview • These interfaces make it possible to define any (proprietary) constitutive model of arbitrary complexity. • User-defined material models can be used with any ABAQUS structural element type. • Multiple user materials can be implemented in a single UMAT or VUMAT routine and can be used together. In this lecture the implementation of material models in UMAT or VUMAT will be discussed and illustrated with a number of examples. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.3 ABAQUS Motivation Motivation • Proper testing of advanced constitutive models to simulate experimental results often requires complex finite element models. – Advanced structural elements – Complex loading conditions – Thermomechanical loading – Contact and friction conditions – Static and dynamic analysis 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.4 ABAQUS Motivation • Special analysis problems occur if the constitutive model simulates material instabilities and localization phenomena. – Special solution techniques are required for quasi-static analysis. – Robust element formulations should be available. – Explicit dynamic solution algorithms with robust, vectorized contact algorithms are desired. • In addition, robust features are required to present and visualize the results. – Contour and path plots of state variables. – X–Y plots. – Tabulated results. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.5 ABAQUS Motivation • The material model developer should be concerned only with the development of the material model and not the development and maintenance of the FE software. – Developments unrelated to material modeling – Porting problems with new systems – Long-term program maintenance of user-developed code 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.6 ABAQUS Motivation • “Finite Element Modelling of the Damage Process in Ice,” R. F. McKenna, I. J. Jordaan, and J. Xiao, ABAQUS Users’ Conference Proceedings, 1990. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.7 ABAQUS Motivation • “The Numerical Simulation of Excavations in Deep Level Mining,” M. F. Snyman, G. P. Mitchell, and J. B. Martin, ABAQUS Users’ Conference Proceedings, 1991. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.8 ABAQUS Motivation • “Combined Micromechanical and Structural Finite Element Analysis of Laminated Composites,” R. M. HajAli, D. A. Pecknold, and M. F. Ahmad, ABAQUS Users’ Conference Proceedings, 1993. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.9 ABAQUS Motivation • “Deformation Processing of Metal Powders: Cold and Hot Isostatic Pressing,” R. M. Govindarajan and N. Aravas, private communication, 1993. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.10 ABAQUS Motivation • “Macroscopic Shape Change and Evolution of Crystallographic Texture in Pre-textured FCC Metals,” S. R. Kalidindi and Anand, Acta Metallurgica, 1993. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.11 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • Proper definition of the constitutive equation, which requires one of the following: – Explicit definition of stress (Cauchy stress for large-strain applications) – Definition of the stress rate only (in corotational framework) • Furthermore, it is likely to require: – Definition of dependence on time, temperature, or field variables – Definition of internal state variables, either explicitly or in rate form 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.12 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • Transformation of the constitutive rate equation into an incremental equation using a suitable integration procedure: – Forward Euler (explicit integration) – Backward Euler (implicit integration) – Midpoint method 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.13 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT This is the hard part! Forward Euler (explicit) integration methods are simple but have a stability limit, ∆ε < ∆ε stab, where ∆ε stab is usually less than the elastic strain magnitude. – For explicit integration the time increment must be controlled. – For implicit or midpoint integration the algorithm is more complicated and often requires local iteration. However, there is usually no stability limit. – An incremental expression for the internal state variables must also be obtained. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.14 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • Calculation of the (consistent) Jacobian (required for ABAQUS/Standard UMAT only). • For small-deformation problems (e.g., linear elasticity) or large-deformation problems with small volume changes (e.g., metal plasticity), the consistent Jacobian is ∂∆σ C = ---------- , ∂∆ε where ∆σ is the increment in (Cauchy) stress and ∆ε is the increment in strain. (In finite-strain problems, ε is an approximation to the logarithmic strain.) – This matrix may be nonsymmetric as a result of the constitutive equation or integration procedure. – The Jacobian is often approximated such that a loss of quadratic convergence may occur. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.15 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT – It is easily calculated for forward integration methods (usually the elasticity matrix). – If large deformations with large volume changes are considered (e.g., pressure-dependent plasticity), the exact form of the consistent Jacobian 1 ∂∆ ( Jσ ) C = --- -----------------J ∂∆ε should be used to ensure rapid convergence. Here, J is the determinant of the deformation gradient. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.16 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • Hyperelastic constitutive equations – Total-form constitutive equations relating the Cauchy stress σ and the deformation gradient F are commonly used to model, for example, rubber elasticity. – In this case, the consistent Jacobian is defined through: δ ( Jσ ) = JC : δD , where J = F , C is the material Jacobian, and δD is the virtual rate of deformation, defined as δD = sym ( δF ⋅ F – 1 ) . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.17 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • Coding the UMAT or VUMAT: – Follow FORTRAN 77 or C conventions. – Make sure that the code can be vectorized (for VUMAT only, to be discussed later). – Make sure that all variables are defined and initialized properly. – Use ABAQUS utility routines as required. – Assign enough storage space for state variables with the ∗DEPVAR option. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.18 ABAQUS Steps Required in Writing a UMAT or VUMAT • Verifying the UMAT or VUMAT with a small (one element) input file. 1. Run tests with all displacements prescribed to verify the integration algorithm for stresses and state variables. Suggested tests include: – Uniaxial – Uniaxial in oblique direction – Uniaxial with finite rotation – Finite shear 2. Run similar tests with load prescribed to verify the accuracy of the Jacobian. 3. Compare test results with analytical solutions or standard ABAQUS material models, if possible. If the above verification is successful, apply to more complicated problems. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.19 ABAQUS UMAT Interface UMAT Interface • These input lines act as the interface to a UMAT in which isotropic hardening plasticity is defined. *MATERIAL, NAME=ISOPLAS *USER MATERIAL, CONSTANTS=8, (UNSYMM) 30.E6, 0.3, 30.E3, 0., 40.E3, 0.1, 50.E3, 0.5 *DEPVAR 13 *INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=SOLUTION Data line to specify initial solution-dependent variables *USER SUBROUTINES,(INPUT=file_name) • The ∗USER MATERIAL option is used to input material constants for the UMAT. The unsymmetric equation solution technique will be used if the UNSYMM parameter is used. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.20 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • The ∗DEPVAR option is used to allocate space at each material point for solution-dependent state variables (SDVs). • The ∗INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=SOLUTION option is used to initialize SDVs if they are starting at a nonzero value. • Coding for the UMAT is supplied in a separate file. The UMAT is invoked with the ABAQUS execution procedure, as follows: abaqus job=... user=.... – The user subroutine must be invoked in a restarted analysis because user subroutines are not saved on the restart file. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.21 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • Additional notes: – If a constant material Jacobian is used and no other nonlinearity is present, reassembly can be avoided by invoking the quasi-Newton method with the input line *SOLUTION TECHNIQUE, REFORM KERNEL=n – n is the number of iterations done without reassembly. – This does not offer advantages if other nonlinearities (such as contact changes) are present. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.22 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • Solution-dependent state variables can be output with identifiers SDV1, SDV2, etc. Contour, path, and X–Y plots of SDVs can be plotted in ABAQUS/Viewer. • Include only a single UMAT subroutine in the analysis. If more than one material must be defined, test on the material name in UMAT and branch. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.23 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • The UMAT subroutine header is shown below: SUBROUTINE UMAT(STRESS, STATEV, DDSDDE, SSE, SPD, SCD, RPL, 1 DDSDDT, DRPLDE, DRPLDT, STRAN, DSTRAN, TIME, DTIME, TEMP, DTEMP, 2 PREDEF, DPRED, CMNAME, NDI, NSHR, NTENS, NSTATV, PROPS, NPROPS, 3 COORDS, DROT, PNEWDT, CELENT, DFGRD0, DFGRD1, NOEL, NPT, LAYER, 4 KSPT, KSTEP, KINC) C INCLUDE ’ABA_PARAM.INC’ C CHARACTER*8 CMNAME C DIMENSION STRESS(NTENS), STATEV(NSTATV), DDSDDE(NTENS, NTENS), 1 DDSDDT(NTENS), DRPLDE(NTENS), STRAN(NTENS), DSTRAN(NTENS), 2 PREDEF(1), DPRED(1), PROPS(NPROPS), COORDS(3), DROT(3, 3), 3 DFGRD0(3, 3), DFGRD1(3, 3) – The include statement sets the proper precision for floating point variables (REAL*8 on most machines). – The material name, CMNAME, is an 8-byte character variable. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.24 ABAQUS UMAT Interface UMAT Variables • The following quantities are available in UMAT: – Stress, strain, and SDVs at the start of the increment – Strain increment, rotation increment, and deformation gradient at the start and end of the increment – Total and incremental values of time, temperature, and user-defined field variables – Material constants, material point position, and a characteristic element length – Element, integration point, and composite layer number (for shells and layered solids) – Current step and increment numbers 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.25 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • The following quantities must be defined: – Stress, SDVs, and material Jacobian • The following variables may be defined: – Strain energy, plastic dissipation, and “creep” dissipation – Suggested new (reduced) time increment Complete descriptions of all parameters are provided in the UMAT section in Chapter 24 of the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.26 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • The header is usually followed by dimensioning of local arrays. It is good practice to define constants via parameters and to include comments. DIMENSION EELAS(6), EPLAS(6), FLOW(6) C PARAMETER(ZERO=0.D0, ONE=1.D0, TWO=2.D0, THREE=3.D0, SIX=6.D0, 1 ENUMAX=.4999D0, NEWTON=10, TOLER=1.0D-6) C C ---------------------------------------------------------------C UMAT FOR ISOTROPIC ELASTICITY AND ISOTROPIC MISES PLASTICITY C CANNOT BE USED FOR PLANE STRESS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C PROPS(1) - E C PROPS(2) - NU C PROPS(3..) - YIELD AND HARDENING DATA C CALLS UHARD FOR CURVE OF YIELD STRESS VS. PLASTIC STRAIN C ---------------------------------------------------------------- – The PARAMETER assignments yield accurate floating point constant definitions on any platform. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.27 ABAQUS UMAT Interface UMAT Utilities • Utility routines SINV, SPRINC, SPRIND, and ROTSIG can be called to assist in coding UMAT. – SINV will return the first and second invariants of a tensor. – SPRINC will return the principal values of a tensor. – SPRIND will return the principal values and directions of a tensor. – ROTSIG will rotate a tensor with an orientation matrix. – XIT will terminate an analysis and close all files associated with the analysis properly. • For details regarding the arguments required in making these calls, refer to the UMAT section in Chapter 24 of the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual and the examples in this lecture. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.28 ABAQUS UMAT Interface UMAT Conventions • Stresses and strains are stored as vectors. – For plane stress elements: σ 11, σ 22, σ 12 . – For (generalized) plane strain and axisymmetric elements: σ 11, σ 22, σ 33, σ 12. – For three-dimensional elements: σ 11, σ 22, σ 33, σ 12, σ 13 , σ 23 . • The shear strain is stored as engineering shear strain, γ 12 = 2ε 12 . • The deformation gradient, F ij , is always stored as a three-dimensional matrix. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.29 ABAQUS UMAT Interface UMAT Formulation Aspects • For geometrically nonlinear analysis the strain increment and incremental rotation passed into the routine are based on the Hughes-Winget formulae. – Linearized strain and rotation increments are calculated in the mid-increment configuration. – Approximations are made, particularly if rotation increments are large: more accurate measures can be obtained from the deformation gradient if desired. • The user must define the Cauchy stress: when this stress reappears during the next increment, it will have been rotated with the incremental rotation, DROT, passed into the subroutine. – The stress tensor can be rotated back using the utility routine ROTSIG if this is not desired. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.30 ABAQUS UMAT Interface • If the ∗ORIENTATION option is used in conjunction with UMAT, stress and strain components will be in the local system (again, this basis system rotates with the material in finite-strain analysis). • Tensor state variables must be rotated in the subroutine (use ROTSIG). • If UMAT is used with reduced-integration elements or shear flexible shell or beam elements, the hourglass stiffness and the transverse shear stiffness must be specified with the ∗HOURGLASS STIFFNESS and ∗TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS options, respectively. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.31 ABAQUS UMAT Interface Usage Hints • At the start of a new increment, the strain increment is extrapolated from the previous increment. – This extrapolation, which may sometimes cause trouble, is turned off with ∗STEP, EXTRAPOLATION=NO. • If the strain increment is too large, the variable PNEWDT can be used to suggest a reduced time increment. – The code will abandon the current time increment in favor of a time increment given by PNEWDT*DTIME. • The characteristic element length can be used to define softening behavior based on fracture energy concepts. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.32 ABAQUS Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity Governing Equations • Isothermal elasticity equation (with Lamé’s constants): σ ij = λδ ij ε kk + 2µε ij , or in a Jaumann (corotational) rate form: σ̇ J ij = λδ ij ε̇ kk + 2µε̇ ij. • The Jaumann rate equation is integrated in a corotational framework: J ∆σ ij = λδ ij ∆ε kk + 2µ∆ε ij . The appropriate coding is shown on the following pages. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.33 ABAQUS Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity Coding for Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity C ---------------------------------------------------------------C UMAT FOR ISOTROPIC ELASTICITY C CANNOT BE USED FOR PLANE STRESS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C PROPS(1) - E C PROPS(2) - NU C ---------------------------------------------------------------C IF (NDI.NE.3) THEN WRITE (7, *) ’THIS UMAT MAY ONLY BE USED FOR ELEMENTS 1 WITH THREE DIRECT STRESS COMPONENTS’ CALL XIT ENDIF C C ELASTIC PROPERTIES EMOD=PROPS(1) ENU=PROPS(2) EBULK3=EMOD/(ONE-TWO*ENU) EG2=EMOD/(ONE+ENU) EG=EG2/TWO EG3=THREE*EG ELAM=(EBULK3-EG2)/THREE 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.34 ABAQUS C C C Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity ELASTIC STIFFNESS DO K1=1, NDI DO K2=1, NDI DDSDDE(K2, K1)=ELAM END DO DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EG2+ELAM END DO DO K1=NDI+1, NTENS DDSDDE(K1 ,K1)=EG END DO C C C CALCULATE STRESS DO K1=1, NTENS DO K2=1, NTENS STRESS(K2)=STRESS(K2)+DDSDDE(K2, K1)*DSTRAN(K1) END DO END DO C RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.35 ABAQUS Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity Remarks • This very simple UMAT yields exactly the same results as the ABAQUS ∗ELASTIC option. – This is true even for large-strain calculations: all necessary large-strain contributions are generated by ABAQUS. • The routine can be used with and without the ∗ORIENTATION option. • It is usually straightforward to write a single routine that handles (generalized) plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional geometries. – Generally, plane stress must be treated as a separate case because the stiffness coefficients are different. • The routine is written in incremental form as a preparation for subsequent elastic-plastic examples. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.36 ABAQUS Example 1: Isotropic Isothermal Elasticity • Even for linear analysis, UMAT is called twice for the first iteration of each increment: once for assembly and once for recovery. Subsequently, it is called once per iteration: assembly and recovery are combined. • A check is performed on the number of direct stress components, and the analysis is terminated by calling the subroutine, XIT. – A message is written to the message file (unit=7). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.37 ABAQUS Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity Governing Equations • Non-isothermal elasticity equation: el el σ ij = λ ( T )δ ij ε kk + 2µ ( T )ε ij , el ε ij = ε ij – αT δ ij , or in a Jaumann (corotational) rate form: J el + 2µε̇ el + λ̇δ ε el + 2µ̇ε el, σ̇ ij = λδ ij ε̇ kk ij ij kk ij ε̇ ijel = ε̇ ij – αT˙ δ ij. • The Jaumann rate equation is integrated in a corotational framework: el + 2µ∆ε el + ∆λδ ε el + 2∆µε el, ∆ε el = ∆ε – α∆T δ . ∆σ ijJ = λδ ij ∆ε kk ij ij kk ij ij ij ij The appropriate coding is shown on the following pages. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.38 ABAQUS Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity Coding for Non-Isothermal Elasticity C LOCAL ARRAYS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C EELAS - ELASTIC STRAINS C ETHERM - THERMAL STRAINS C DTHERM - INCREMENTAL THERMAL STRAINS C DELDSE - CHANGE IN STIFFNESS DUE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE C ---------------------------------------------------------------DIMENSION EELAS(6), ETHERM(6), DTHERM(6), DELDSE(6,6) C PARAMETER(ZERO=0.D0, ONE=1.D0, TWO=2.D0, THREE=3.D0, SIX=6.D0) C ---------------------------------------------------------------C UMAT FOR ISOTROPIC THERMO-ELASTICITY WITH LINEARLY VARYING C MODULI - CANNOT BE USED FOR PLANE STRESS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C PROPS(1) - E(T0) C PROPS(2) - NU(T0) C PROPS(3) - T0 C PROPS(4) - E(T1) C PROPS(5) - NU(T1) C PROPS(6) - T1 C PROPS(7) - ALPHA C PROPS(8) - T_INITIAL 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.39 ABAQUS C C Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity ELASTIC PROPERTIES AT START OF INCREMENT FAC1=(TEMP-PROPS(3))/(PROPS(6)-PROPS(3)) IF (FAC1 .LT. ZERO) FAC1=ZERO IF (FAC1 .GT. ONE) FAC1=ONE FAC0=ONE-FAC1 EMOD=FAC0*PROPS(1)+FAC1*PROPS(4) ENU=FAC0*PROPS(2)+FAC1*PROPS(5) EBULK3=EMOD/(ONE-TWO*ENU) EG20=EMOD/(ONE+ENU) EG0=EG20/TWO ELAM0=(EBULK3-EG20)/THREE C C C ELASTIC PROPERTIES AT END OF INCREMENT FAC1=(TEMP+DTEMP-PROPS(3))/(PROPS(6)-PROPS(3)) IF (FAC1 .LT. ZERO) FAC1=ZERO IF (FAC1 .GT. ONE) FAC1=ONE FAC0=ONE-FAC1 EMOD=FAC0*PROPS(1)+FAC1*PROPS(4) ENU=FAC0*PROPS(2)+FAC1*PROPS(5) EBULK3=EMOD/(ONE-TWO*ENU) EG2=EMOD/(ONE+ENU) EG=EG2/TWO ELAM=(EBULK3-EG2)/THREE 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.40 ABAQUS C C C Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity ELASTIC STIFFNESS AT END OF INCREMENT AND STIFFNESS CHANGE DO K1=1,NDI DO K2=1,NDI DDSDDE(K2,K1)=ELAM DELDSE(K2,K1)=ELAM-ELAM0 END DO DDSDDE(K1,K1)=EG2+ELAM DELDSE(K1,K1)=EG2+ELAM-EG20-ELAM0 END DO DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS DDSDDE(K1,K1)=EG DELDSE(K1,K1)=EG-EG0 END DO C C C CALCULATE THERMAL EXPANSION DO K1=1,NDI ETHERM(K1)=PROPS(7)*(TEMP-PROPS(8)) DTHERM(K1)=PROPS(7)*DTEMP END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.41 ABAQUS Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS ETHERM(K1)=ZERO DTHERM(K1)=ZERO END DO C C C CALCULATE STRESS, ELASTIC STRAIN AND THERMAL STRAIN DO K1=1, NTENS DO K2=1, NTENS STRESS(K2)=STRESS(K2)+DDSDDE(K2,K1)*(DSTRAN(K1)-DTHERM(K1)) 1 +DELDSE(K2,K1)*( STRAN(K1)-ETHERM(K1)) END DO ETHERM(K1)=ETHERM(K1)+DTHERM(K1) EELAS(K1)=STRAN(K1)+DSTRAN(K1)-ETHERM(K1) END DO C C C STORE ELASTIC AND THERMAL STRAINS IN STATE VARIABLE ARRAY DO K1=1, NTENS STATEV(K1)=EELAS(K1) STATEV(K1+NTENS)=ETHERM(K1) END DO RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.42 ABAQUS Example 2: Non-Isothermal Elasticity Remarks • This UMAT yields exactly the same results as the ∗ELASTIC option with temperature dependence. • The routine is written in incremental form, which allows generalization to more complex temperature dependence. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.43 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity Governing Equations • The ∗ELASTIC option does not work well for finite elastic strains because a proper finite-strain energy function is not defined. • Hence, we define a proper strain energy density function: 1 2 U = U ( I 1, I 2, J ) = C 10 ( I 1 – 3 ) + ------ ( J – 1 ) . D1 – Here I 1 , I 2 , and J are the three strain invariants, expressed in terms of the left Cauchy-Green tensor, B : I 1 = tr ( B ) , 7/01 1 2 I 2 = --- ( I 1 – t r ( B ⋅ B ) ) , 2 B = F ⋅ F T, Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS J = det ( F ) . L6.44 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity • In actuality, we use the deviatoric invariants I1 and I 2 (see Section 4.6.1 of the ABAQUS Theory Manual for more information). – The constitutive equation can be written directly in terms of the deformation gradient: 2 1 2 σ ij = --- C 10 B ij – --- δ ij B kk + ------ ( J – 1 )δ ij , D1 J 3 B ij = B ij ⁄ J 2 / 3 . • We define the virtual rate of deformation as 1 –1 –1 δD ij = --- ( δF im F mj + F mi δF jm ) . 2 • The Kirchhoff stress is defined through τ ij = J σ ij . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.45 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity • The material Jacobian derives from the variation in Kirchhoff stress: δτ ij = J C ijkl δD kl , where C ijkl are the components of the Jacobian. Using the Neo-Hookean model, 2 1 C ijkl = --- C 10 --- ( δ ik B jl + B ik δ jl + δ il B jk + B il δ jk ) 2 J 2 2 2 2 – --- δ ij B kl – --- B ij δ kl + --- δ ij δ kl B mm + ------ ( 2J – 1 )δ ij δ kl D1 3 9 3 . – The expression is fairly complex, but it is straightforward to implement. – For details of the derivation see Section 4.6.1 of the ABAQUS Theory Manual. The appropriate coding is shown on the following pages. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.46 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity Coding for Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity C LOCAL ARRAYS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C EELAS - LOGARITHMIC ELASTIC STRAINS C EELASP - PRINCIPAL ELASTIC STRAINS C BBAR - DEVIATORIC RIGHT CAUCHY-GREEN TENSOR C BBARP - PRINCIPAL VALUES OF BBAR C BBARN - PRINCIPAL DIRECTION OF BBAR (AND EELAS) C DISTGR - DEVIATORIC DEFORMATION GRADIENT (DISTORTION TENSOR) C ---------------------------------------------------------------C DIMENSION EELAS(6), EELASP(3), BBAR(6), BBARP(3), BBARN(3, 3), 1 DISTGR(3,3) C PARAMETER(ZERO=0.D0, ONE=1.D0, TWO=2.D0, THREE=3.D0, FOUR=4.D0, 1 SIX=6.D0) C C ---------------------------------------------------------------C UMAT FOR COMPRESSIBLE NEO-HOOKEAN HYPERELASTICITY C CANNOT BE USED FOR PLANE STRESS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C PROPS(1) - E C PROPS(2) - NU 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.47 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity C ---------------------------------------------------------------C C ELASTIC PROPERTIES C EMOD=PROPS(1) ENU=PROPS(2) C10=EMOD/(FOUR*(ONE+ENU)) D1=SIX*(ONE-TWO*ENU)/EMOD C C JACOBIAN AND DISTORTION TENSOR C DET=DFGRD1(1, 1)*DFGRD1(2, 2)*DFGRD1(3, 3) 1 -DFGRD1(1, 2)*DFGRD1(2, 1)*DFGRD1(3, 3) IF(NSHR.EQ.3) THEN DET=DET+DFGRD1(1, 2)*DFGRD1(2, 3)*DFGRD1(3, 1) 1 +DFGRD1(1, 3)*DFGRD1(3, 2)*DFGRD1(2, 1) 2 -DFGRD1(1, 3)*DFGRD1(3,1)*DFGRD1(2, 2) 3 -DFGRD1(2, 3)*DFGRD1(3, 2)*DFGRD1(1, 1) END IF SCALE=DET**(-ONE/THREE) DO K1=1, 3 DO K2=1, 3 DISTGR(K2, K1)=SCALE*DFGRD1(K2, K1) END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.48 ABAQUS C C Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity END DO CALCULATE DEVIATORIC LEFT CAUCHY-GREEN DEFORMATION TENSOR BBAR(1)=DISTGR(1, 1)**2+DISTGR(1, 2)**2+DISTGR(1, 3)**2 BBAR(2)=DISTGR(2, 1)**2+DISTGR(2, 2)**2+DISTGR(2, 3)**2 BBAR(3)=DISTGR(3, 3)**2+DISTGR(3, 1)**2+DISTGR(3, 2)**2 BBAR(4)=DISTGR(1, 1)*DISTGR(2, 1)+DISTGR(1, 2)*DISTGR(2, 2) 1 +DISTGR(1, 3)*DISTGR(2, 3) IF(NSHR.EQ.3) THEN BBAR(5)=DISTGR(1, 1)*DISTGR(3, 1)+DISTGR(1, 2)*DISTGR(3, 2) 1 +DISTGR(1, 3)*DISTGR(3, 3) BBAR(6)=DISTGR(2, 1)*DISTGR(3, 1)+DISTGR(2, 2)*DISTGR(3, 2) 1 +DISTGR(2, 3)*DISTGR(3, 3) END IF C C C CALCULATE THE STRESS TRBBAR=(BBAR(1)+BBAR(2)+BBAR(3))/THREE EG=TWO*C10/DET EK=TWO/D1*(TWO*DET-ONE) PR=TWO/D1*(DET-ONE) DO K1=1,NDI STRESS(K1)=EG*(BBAR(K1)-TRBBAR)+PR END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.49 ABAQUS C C Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity DO K1=NDI+1,NDI+NSHR STRESS(K1)=EG*BBAR(K1) END DO CALCULATE THE STIFFNESS EG23=EG*TWO/THREE DDSDDE(1, 1)= EG23*(BBAR(1)+TRBBAR)+EK DDSDDE(2, 2)= EG23*(BBAR(2)+TRBBAR)+EK DDSDDE(3, 3)= EG23*(BBAR(3)+TRBBAR)+EK DDSDDE(1, 2)=-EG23*(BBAR(1)+BBAR(2)-TRBBAR)+EK DDSDDE(1, 3)=-EG23*(BBAR(1)+BBAR(3)-TRBBAR)+EK DDSDDE(2, 3)=-EG23*(BBAR(2)+BBAR(3)-TRBBAR)+EK DDSDDE(1, 4)= EG23*BBAR(4)/TWO DDSDDE(2, 4)= EG23*BBAR(4)/TWO DDSDDE(3, 4)=-EG23*BBAR(4) DDSDDE(4, 4)= EG*(BBAR(1)+BBAR(2))/TWO IF(NSHR.EQ.3) THEN DDSDDE(1, 5)= EG23*BBAR(5)/TWO DDSDDE(2, 5)=-EG23*BBAR(5) DDSDDE(3, 5)= EG23*BBAR(5)/TWO DDSDDE(1, 6)=-EG23*BBAR(6) DDSDDE(2, 6)= EG23*BBAR(6)/TWO DDSDDE(3, 6)= EG23*BBAR(6)/TWO DDSDDE(5, 5)= EG*(BBAR(1)+BBAR(3))/TWO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.50 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity DDSDDE(6, 6)= EG*(BBAR(2)+BBAR(3))/TWO DDSDDE(4,5)= EG*BBAR(6)/TWO DDSDDE(4,6)= EG*BBAR(5)/TWO DDSDDE(5,6)= EG*BBAR(4)/TWO END IF DO K1=1, NTENS DO K2=1, K1-1 DDSDDE(K1, K2)=DDSDDE(K2, K1) END DO END DO C C C CALCULATE LOGARITHMIC ELASTIC STRAINS (OPTIONAL) CALL SPRIND(BBAR, BBARP, BBARN, 1, NDI, NSHR) EELASP(1)=LOG(SQRT(BBARP(1))/SCALE) Call to SPRIND EELASP(2)=LOG(SQRT(BBARP(2))/SCALE) EELASP(3)=LOG(SQRT(BBARP(3))/SCALE) EELAS(1)=EELASP(1)*BBARN(1,1)**2+EELASP(2)*BBARN(2, 1)**2 1 +EELASP(3)*BBARN(3, 1)**2 EELAS(2)=EELASP(1)*BBARN(1, 2)**2+EELASP(2)*BBARN(2, 2)**2 1 +EELASP(3)*BBARN(3, 2)**2 EELAS(3)=EELASP(1)*BBARN(1, 3)**2+EELASP(2)*BBARN(2, 3)**2 1 +EELASP(3)*BBARN(3, 3)**2 EELAS(4)=TWO*(EELASP(1)*BBARN(1, 1)*BBARN(1, 2) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.51 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity 1 2 +EELASP(2)*BBARN(2, 1)*BBARN(2, 2) +EELASP(3)*BBARN(3, 1)*BBARN(3, 2)) IF(NSHR.EQ.3) THEN EELAS(5)=TWO*(EELASP(1)*BBARN(1, 1)*BBARN(1, 3) 1 +EELASP(2)*BBARN(2, 1)*BBARN(2, 3) 2 +EELASP(3)*BBARN(3, 1)*BBARN(3, 3)) EELAS(6)=TWO*(EELASP(1)*BBARN(1, 2)*BBARN(1, 3) 1 +EELASP(2)*BBARN(2, 2)*BBARN(2, 3) 2 +EELASP(3)*BBARN(3, 2)*BBARN(3, 3)) END IF C C C STORE ELASTIC STRAINS IN STATE VARIABLE ARRAY DO K1=1, NTENS STATEV(K1)=EELAS(K1) END DO C RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.52 ABAQUS Example 3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelasticity Remarks • This UMAT yields exactly the same results as the ∗HYPERELASTIC option with N = 1 and C 01 = 0 . • Note the use of the utility SPRIND. CALL SPRIND(BBAR, BBARP, BBARN, 1, NDI, NSHR) – Tensor BBAR consists of NDI direct components and NSHR shear components. – SPRIND returns the principal values and direction cosines of the principal directions of BBAR in BBARP and BBARN, respectively. – A value of 1 is used as the fourth argument to indicate that BBAR contains stresses. (A value of 2 is used for strains.) • Hyperelastic materials are often implemented more easily in user subroutine UHYPER. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.53 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Governing Equations • Elasticity: el el σ ij = λδ ij ε kk + 2µε ij , or in a Jaumann (corotational) rate form: J el el σ̇ ij = λδ ij ε̇ kk + 2µε̇ ij . – The Jaumann rate equation is integrated in a corotational framework: el el ∆σ ijJ = λδ ij ∆ε kk + 2µ∆ε ij . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.54 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity • Plasticity: – Yield function: 3 --- ( S ij – α ij ) ( S ij – α ij ) – σ y = 0 . 2 – Equivalent plastic strain rate: ε̇ pl = 2 pl pl --- ε̇ ij ε̇ ij . 3 – Plastic flow law: 3 pl ε̇ ijpl = --- ( S ij – α ij )ε̇ ⁄ σ y . 2 – Prager-Ziegler (linear) kinematic hardening: 2 α̇ ij = --- hε̇ ijpl . 3 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.55 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Integration Procedure • We first calculate the equivalent stress based on purely elastic behavior (elastic predictor): σ pr = 3 pr o o --- ( S ij – α ij ) ( S ijpr – α ij ) , 2 S ijpr = S ijo + 2µ∆e ij . • Plastic flow occurs if the elastic predictor is larger than the yield stress. The backward Euler method is used to integrate the equations: 3 o ∆ε ijpl = --- ( S ijpr – α ij )∆ε pl ⁄ σ pr . 2 • After some manipulation we obtain a closed form expression for the equivalent plastic strain increment: ∆ε pl = ( σ pr – σ y ) ⁄ ( h + 3µ ) . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.56 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity • This leads to the following update equations for the shift tensor, the stress, and the plastic strain: ∆α ij = η ij h∆ε pl, 3 ∆ε ijpl = --- η ij ∆ε pl 2 1 pr , σ ij = α ijo + ∆α ij + η ij σ y + --- δ ij σ kk 3 η ij = ( S ijpr – α ijo ) ⁄ σ pr . • In addition, you can readily obtain the consistent Jacobian: h ∆σ̇ ij = λ * δ ij ∆ε̇ kk + 2µ * ∆ε̇ ij + ----------------------- – 3µ * η ij η kl ∆ε̇ kl 1 + h ⁄ 3µ µ * = µ ( σ y + h∆ε pl ) ⁄ σ pr , 2 λ * = k – --- µ * . 3 – The integration procedure for kinematic hardening is described in Section 21 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User’s Manual. The appropriate coding is shown on the following pages. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.57 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Coding for Kinematic Hardening Plasticity C LOCAL ARRAYS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C EELAS - ELASTIC STRAINS C EPLAS - PLASTIC STRAINS C ALPHA - SHIFT TENSOR C FLOW - PLASTIC FLOW DIRECTIONS C OLDS - STRESS AT START OF INCREMENT C OLDPL - PLASTIC STRAINS AT START OF INCREMENT C DIMENSION EELAS(6), EPLAS(6), ALPHA(6), FLOW(6), OLDS(6), OLDPL(6) C PARAMETER(ZERO=0.D0, ONE=1.D0, TWO=2.D0, THREE=3.D0, SIX=6.D0, 1 ENUMAX=.4999D0, TOLER=1.0D-6) C C ---------------------------------------------------------------C UMAT FOR ISOTROPIC ELASTICITY AND MISES PLASTICITY C WITH KINEMATIC HARDENING - CANNOT BE USED FOR PLANE STRESS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C PROPS(1) - E C PROPS(2) - NU C PROPS(3) - SYIELD C PROPS(4) - HARD 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.58 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity C ---------------------------------------------------------------C C ELASTIC PROPERTIES C EMOD=PROPS(1) ENU=MIN(PROPS(2), ENUMAX) EBULK3=EMOD/(ONE-TWO*ENU) EG2=EMOD/(ONE+ENU) EG=EG2/TWO EG3=THREE*EG ELAM=(EBULK3-EG2)/THREE C C ELASTIC STIFFNESS C DO K1=1, NDI DO K2=1, NDI DDSDDE(K2, K1)=ELAM END DO DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EG2+ELAM END DO DO K1=NDI+1, NTENS DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EG END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.59 ABAQUS C C C C Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity RECOVER ELASTIC STRAIN, PLASTIC STRAIN AND SHIFT TENSOR AND ROTATE NOTE: USE CODE 1 FOR (TENSOR) STRESS, CODE 2 FOR (ENGINEERING) STRAIN CALL ROTSIG(STATEV( 1), DROT, EELAS, 2, NDI, NSHR) CALL ROTSIG(STATEV( NTENS+1), DROT, EPLAS, 2, NDI, NSHR) CALL ROTSIG(STATEV(2*NTENS+1), DROT, ALPHA, 1, NDI, NSHR) C C C C SAVE STRESS AND PLASTIC STRAINS AND CALCULATE PREDICTOR STRESS AND ELASTIC STRAIN Calls to ROTSIG DO K1=1, NTENS OLDS(K1)=STRESS(K1) OLDPL(K1)=EPLAS(K1) EELAS(K1)=EELAS(K1)+DSTRAN(K1) DO K2=1, NTENS STRESS(K2)=STRESS(K2)+DDSDDE(K2, K1)*DSTRAN(K1) END DO END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.60 ABAQUS C C C Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity CALCULATE EQUIVALENT VON MISES STRESS SMISES=(STRESS(1)-ALPHA(1)-STRESS(2)+ALPHA(2))**2 1 +(STRESS(2)-ALPHA(2)-STRESS(3)+ALPHA(3))**2 2 +(STRESS(3)-ALPHA(3)-STRESS(1)+ALPHA(1))**2 DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS SMISES=SMISES+SIX*(STRESS(K1)-ALPHA(K1))**2 END DO SMISES=SQRT(SMISES/TWO) C C C GET YIELD STRESS AND HARDENING MODULUS SYIELD=PROPS(3) HARD=PROPS(4) C C C DETERMINE IF ACTIVELY YIELDING IF(SMISES.GT.(ONE+TOLER)*SYIELD) THEN C C 7/01 ACTIVELY YIELDING Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.61 ABAQUS C C C Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity SEPARATE THE HYDROSTATIC FROM THE DEVIATORIC STRESS CALCULATE THE FLOW DIRECTION SHYDRO=(STRESS(1)+STRESS(2)+STRESS(3))/THREE DO K1=1,NDI FLOW(K1)=(STRESS(K1)-ALPHA(K1)-SHYDRO)/SMISES END DO DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS FLOW(K1)=(STRESS(K1)-ALPHA(K1))/SMISES END DO C C C SOLVE FOR EQUIVALENT PLASTIC STRAIN INCREMENT DEQPL=(SMISES-SYIELD)/(EG3+HARD) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.62 ABAQUS C C C C C Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity UPDATE SHIFT TENSOR, ELASTIC AND PLASTIC STRAINS AND STRESS DO K1=1,NDI ALPHA(K1)=ALPHA(K1)+HARD*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL EPLAS(K1)=EPLAS(K1)+THREE/TWO*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL EELAS(K1)=EELAS(K1)-THREE/TWO*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL STRESS(K1)=ALPHA(K1)+FLOW(K1)*SYIELD+SHYDRO END DO DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS ALPHA(K1)=ALPHA(K1)+HARD*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL EPLAS(K1)=EPLAS(K1)+THREE*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL EELAS(K1)=EELAS(K1)-THREE*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL STRESS(K1)=ALPHA(K1)+FLOW(K1)*SYIELD END DO CALCULATE PLASTIC DISSIPATION SPD=ZERO DO K1=1,NTENS SPD=SPD+(STRESS(K1)+OLDS(K1))*(EPLAS(K1)-OLDPL(K1))/TWO END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.63 ABAQUS C C C C Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity FORMULATE THE JACOBIAN (MATERIAL TANGENT) FIRST CALCULATE EFFECTIVE MODULI EFFG=EG*(SYIELD+HARD*DEQPL)/SMISES EFFG2=TWO*EFFG EFFG3=THREE*EFFG EFFLAM=(EBULK3-EFFG2)/THREE EFFHRD=EG3*HARD/(EG3+HARD)-EFFG3 DO K1=1, NDI DO K2=1, NDI DDSDDE(K2, K1)=EFFLAM END DO DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EFFG2+EFFLAM END DO DO K1=NDI+1, NTENS DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EFFG END DO DO K1=1, NTENS DO K2=1, NTENS DDSDDE(K2, K1)=DDSDDE(K2, K1)+EFFHRD*FLOW(K2)*FLOW(K1) END DO END DO ENDIF 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.64 ABAQUS C C C C Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity STORE ELASTIC STRAINS, PLASTIC STRAINS AND SHIFT TENSOR IN STATE VARIABLE ARRAY DO K1=1,NTENS STATEV(K1)=EELAS(K1) STATEV(K1+NTENS)=EPLAS(K1) STATEV(K1+2*NTENS)=ALPHA(K1) END DO C RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.65 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Remarks • This UMAT yields exactly the same results as the ∗PLASTIC option with KINEMATIC hardening. – This is also true for large-strain calculations. The necessary rotations of stress and strain are taken care of by ABAQUS. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.66 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity • Rotation of the shift tensor and the elastic and plastic strains is accomplished by the calls to ROTSIG. The call CALL ROTSIG(STATEV(1), DROT, EELAS, 2, NDI, NSHR) applies the incremental rotation, DROT, to STATEV and stores the result in ELAS. – STATEV consists of NDI direct components and NSHR shear components. – A value of 1 is used as the fourth argument to indicate that the transformed array contains tensor shear components such as α ij . A value of 2 indicates that the array contains engineering shear pl components, such as ε ij . • The rotation should be applied prior to the integration procedure. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.67 ABAQUS Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity • The routine is written for linear hardening because the classical Prager-Ziegler theory is limited to this case. – More complex nonlinear kinematic hardening models are much more difficult to integrate. – However, once a suitable integration procedure is obtained, the implementation in UMAT is straightforward and follows the examples discussed here. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.68 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity Governing Equations • Elasticity: el el σ ij = λδ ij ε kk + 2µε ij , or in a Jaumann (corotational) rate form: J el el σ̇ ij = λδ ij ε̇ kk + 2µε̇ ij . – The Jaumann rate equation is integrated in a corotational framework: el el ∆σ ijJ = λδ ij ∆ε kk + 2µ∆ε ij . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.69 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity • Plasticity: – Yield function: 1 S ij = σ ij – --- δ ij σ kk . 3 3 --- S ij S ij – σ y ( ε pl ) = 0 , 2 – Equivalent plastic strain: t ε pl = ∫ pl ε̇ dt, ε̇ pl = 2 pl pl --- ε̇ ij ε̇ ij . 3 0 – Plastic flow law: 3 S ij pl ε̇ ijpl = --- -----ε̇ . 2 σy 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.70 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity Integration Procedure • We first calculate the von Mises stress based on purely elastic behavior (elastic predictor): σ pr = 3 pr pr --- S ij S ij , 2 S ijpr = S ijo + 2µ∆e ij . • If the elastic predictor is larger than the current yield stress, plastic flow occurs. The backward Euler method is used to integrate the equations. – After some manipulation we can reduce the problem to a single equation in terms of the incremental equivalent plastic strain: σ pr – 3µ∆ε pl = σ y ( ε pl ). – This equation is solved with Newton’s method. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.71 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity • After the equation is solved, the following update equations for the stress and the plastic strain can be used: 1 pr , σ ij = η ij σ y + --- δ ij σ kk 3 3 ∆ε ijpl = --- η ij ∆ε pl 2 η ij = S ijpr ⁄ σ pr. • In addition, you can readily obtain the consistent Jacobian: h ∆σ̇ ij = λ * δ ij ∆ε̇ kk + 2µ * ∆ε̇ ij + ----------------------- – 3µ * η ij η kl ∆ε̇ kl 1 + h ⁄ 3µ 2 µ * = µσ y ⁄ σ pr, λ * = k – --- µ * , 3 h = dσ y ⁄ dε pl. – A detailed discussion about the isotropic plasticity integration algorithm can be found in Section 4.2.2 of the ABAQUS Theory Manual. The appropriate coding is shown on the following pages. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.72 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity Coding for Isotropic Mises Plasticity C LOCAL ARRAYS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C EELAS - ELASTIC STRAINS C EPLAS - PLASTIC STRAINS C FLOW - DIRECTION OF PLASTIC FLOW C ---------------------------------------------------------------C DIMENSION EELAS(6),EPLAS(6),FLOW(6), HARD(3) C PARAMETER(ZERO=0.D0, ONE=1.D0, TWO=2.D0, THREE=3.D0, SIX=6.D0, 1 ENUMAX=.4999D0, NEWTON=10, TOLER=1.0D-6) C C ---------------------------------------------------------------C UMAT FOR ISOTROPIC ELASTICITY AND ISOTROPIC MISES PLASTICITY C CANNOT BE USED FOR PLANE STRESS C ---------------------------------------------------------------C PROPS(1) - E C PROPS(2) - NU C PROPS(3..) - SYIELD AN HARDENING DATA C CALLS UHARD FOR CURVE OF YIELD STRESS VS. PLASTIC STRAIN C ---------------------------------------------------------------- 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.73 ABAQUS C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity ELASTIC PROPERTIES EMOD=PROPS(1) ENU=MIN(PROPS(2), ENUMAX) EBULK3=EMOD/(ONE-TWO*ENU) EG2=EMOD/(ONE+ENU) EG=EG2/TWO EG3=THREE*EG ELAM=(EBULK3-EG2)/THREE C C C ELASTIC STIFFNESS DO K1=1, NDI DO K2=1, NDI DDSDDE(K2, K1)=ELAM END DO DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EG2+ELAM END DO DO K1=NDI+1, NTENS DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EG END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.74 ABAQUS C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity RECOVER ELASTIC AND PLASTIC STRAINS AND ROTATE FORWARD ALSO RECOVER EQUIVALENT PLASTIC STRAIN CALL ROTSIG(STATEV( 1), DROT, EELAS, 2, NDI, NSHR) CALL ROTSIG(STATEV(NTENS+1), DROT, EPLAS, 2, NDI, NSHR) EQPLAS=STATEV(1+2*NTENS) C C C CALCULATE PREDICTOR STRESS AND ELASTIC STRAIN DO K1=1, NTENS DO K2=1, NTENS STRESS(K2)=STRESS(K2)+DDSDDE(K2, K1)*DSTRAN(K1) END DO EELAS(K1)=EELAS(K1)+DSTRAN(K1) END DO C C C CALCULATE EQUIVALENT VON MISES STRESS SMISES=(STRESS(1)-STRESS(2))**2+(STRESS(2)-STRESS(3))**2 1 +(STRESS(3)-STRESS(1))**2 DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS SMISES=SMISES+SIX*STRESS(K1)**2 END DO SMISES=SQRT(SMISES/TWO) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.75 ABAQUS C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity GET YIELD STRESS FROM THE SPECIFIED HARDENING CURVE NVALUE=NPROPS/2-1 CALL UHARD(SYIEL0, HARD, EQPLAS, EQPLASRT,TIME,DTIME,TEMP, 1 DTEMP,NOEL,NPT,LAYER,KSPT,KSTEP,KINC,CMNAME,NSTATV, 2 STATEV,NUMFIELDV,PREDEF,DPRED,NVALUE,PROPS(3)) C C C DETERMINE IF ACTIVELY YIELDING IF (SMISES.GT.(ONE+TOLER)*SYIEL0) THEN C C C C C ACTIVELY YIELDING SEPARATE THE HYDROSTATIC FROM THE DEVIATORIC STRESS CALCULATE THE FLOW DIRECTION SHYDRO=(STRESS(1)+STRESS(2)+STRESS(3))/THREE DO K1=1,NDI FLOW(K1)=(STRESS(K1)-SHYDRO)/SMISES END DO DO K1=NDI+1, NTENS FLOW(K1)=STRESS(K1)/SMISES END DO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.76 ABAQUS C C C C SOLVE FOR EQUIVALENT VON MISES STRESS AND EQUIVALENT PLASTIC STRAIN INCREMENT USING NEWTON ITERATION 1 2 C C C SYIELD=SYIEL0 DEQPL=ZERO DO KEWTON=1, NEWTON RHS=SMISES-EG3*DEQPL-SYIELD DEQPL=DEQPL+RHS/(EG3+HARD(1)) CALL UHARD(SYIELD,HARD,EQPLAS+DEQPL,EQPLASRT,TIME,DTIME,TEMP, DTEMP,NOEL,NPT,LAYER,KSPT,KSTEP,KINC,CMNAME,NSTATV, STATEV,NUMFIELDV,PREDEF,DPRED,NVALUE,PROPS(3)) IF(ABS(RHS).LT.TOLER*SYIEL0) GOTO 10 END DO WRITE WARNING MESSAGE TO THE .MSG FILE 2 1 10 7/01 Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity WRITE(7,2) NEWTON FORMAT(//,30X,’***WARNING - PLASTICITY ALGORITHM DID NOT ’, ’CONVERGE AFTER ’,I3,’ ITERATIONS’) CONTINUE Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.77 ABAQUS C C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity UPDATE STRESS, ELASTIC AND PLASTIC STRAINS AND EQUIVALENT PLASTIC STRAIN DO K1=1,NDI STRESS(K1)=FLOW(K1)*SYIELD+SHYDRO EPLAS(K1)=EPLAS(K1)+THREE/TWO*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL EELAS(K1)=EELAS(K1)-THREE/TWO*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL END DO DO K1=NDI+1,NTENS STRESS(K1)=FLOW(K1)*SYIELD EPLAS(K1)=EPLAS(K1)+THREE*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL EELAS(K1)=EELAS(K1)-THREE*FLOW(K1)*DEQPL END DO EQPLAS=EQPLAS+DEQPL C C C CALCULATE PLASTIC DISSIPATION SPD=DEQPL*(SYIEL0+SYIELD)/TWO 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.78 ABAQUS C C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity FORMULATE THE JACOBIAN (MATERIAL TANGENT) FIRST CALCULATE EFFECTIVE MODULI EFFG=EG*SYIELD/SMISES EFFG2=TWO*EFFG EFFG3=THREE/TWO*EFFG2 EFFLAM=(EBULK3-EFFG2)/THREE EFFHRD=EG3*HARD(1)/(EG3+HARD(1))-EFFG3 DO K1=1, NDI DO K2=1, NDI DDSDDE(K2, K1)=EFFLAM END DO DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EFFG2+EFFLAM END DO DO K1=NDI+1, NTENS DDSDDE(K1, K1)=EFFG END DO DO K1=1, NTENS DO K2=1, NTENS DDSDDE(K2, K1)=DDSDDE(K2, K1)+EFFHRD*FLOW(K2)*FLOW(K1) END DO END DO ENDIF 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.79 ABAQUS C C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity STORE ELASTIC AND (EQUIVALENT) PLASTIC STRAINS IN STATE VARIABLE ARRAY DO K1=1, NTENS STATEV(K1)=EELAS(K1) STATEV(K1+NTENS)=EPLAS(K1) END DO STATEV(1+2*NTENS)=EQPLAS C RETURN END SUBROUTINE UHARD(SYIELD,HARD,EQPLAS,EQPLASRT,TIME,DTIME,TEMP, 1 DTEMP,NOEL,NPT,LAYER,KSPT,KSTEP,KINC, 2 CMNAME,NSTATV,STATEV,NUMFIELDV, 3 PREDEF,DPRED,NVALUE,TABLE) INCLUDE ’ABA_PARAM.INC’ CHARACTER*80 CMNAME DIMENSION HARD(3),STATEV(NSTATV),TIME(*), 1 PREDEF(NUMFIELDV),DPRED(*) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.80 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity C DIMENSION TABLE(2, NVALUE) C PARAMETER(ZERO=0.D0) C C C C C SET YIELD STRESS TO LAST VALUE OF TABLE, HARDENING TO ZERO SYIELD=TABLE(1, NVALUE) HARD(1)=ZERO IF MORE THAN ONE ENTRY, SEARCH TABLE IF(NVALUE.GT.1) THEN DO K1=1, NVALUE-1 EQPL1=TABLE(2,K1+1) IF(EQPLAS.LT.EQPL1) THEN EQPL0=TABLE(2, K1) IF(EQPL1.LE.EQPL0) THEN WRITE(7, 1) 1 FORMAT(//, 30X, ’***ERROR - PLASTIC STRAIN MUST BE ‘, 1 ‘ENTERED IN ASCENDING ORDER’) CALL XIT ENDIF 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.81 ABAQUS C C C Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity CURRENT YIELD STRESS AND HARDENING DEQPL=EQPL1-EQPL0 SYIEL0=TABLE(1, K1) SYIEL1=TABLE(1, K1+1) DSYIEL=SYIEL1-SYIEL0 HARD(1)=DSYIEL/DEQPL SYIELD=SYIEL0+(EQPLAS-EQPL0)*HARD(1) GOTO 10 ENDIF END DO 10 CONTINUE ENDIF RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.82 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity Remarks • This UMAT yields exactly the same results as the ∗PLASTIC option with ISOTROPIC hardening. – This result is also true for large-strain calculations. The necessary rotations of stress and strain are taken care of by ABAQUS. – The rotation of elastic and plastic strain, prior to integration, is accomplished by the calls to ROTSIG. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.83 ABAQUS Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity • The routine calls user subroutine UHARD to recover a piecewise linear hardening curve. – It is straightforward to replace the piecewise linear curve by an analytic description. – A local Newton iteration is used to determine the current yield stress and hardening modulus. – If the data are not given in ascending order of strain, the routine XIT is called, which closes all files and terminates execution. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.84 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface VUMAT Interface • These input lines act as the interface to a VUMAT in which kinematic hardening plasticity is defined. *MATERIAL, NAME=KINPLAS *USER MATERIAL, CONSTANTS=4 30.E6, 0.3, 30.E3, 40.E3 *DEPVAR 5 *INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=SOLUTION Data line to specify initial solution-dependent variables 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.85 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface • The input lines are identical to those for the UMAT interface. – The user subroutine must be kept in a separate file, and is invoked with the ABAQUS execution procedure, as follows: abaqus job=... user=.... – The user subroutine must be invoked in a restarted analysis because user subroutines are not saved in the restart file. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.86 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface • Additional notes: – Solution-dependent state variables can be output with identifiers SDV1, SDV2, etc. Contour, path, and X–Y plots of SDVs can be plotted in ABAQUS/Viewer. – Include only a single VUMAT subroutine in the analysis. If more than one material must be defined, test on the material name in the VUMAT routine and branch. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.87 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface • The VUMAT subroutine header is shown below: SUBROUTINE VUMAT( C Read only 1 NBLOCK, NDIR, NSHR, NSTATEV, NFIELDV, NPROPS, LANNEAL, 2 STEPTIME, TOTALTIME, DT, CMNAME, COORDMP, CHARLENGTH, 3 PROPS, DENSITY, STRAININC, RELSPININC, 4 TEMPOLD, STRETCHOLD, DEFGRADOLD, FIELDOLD, 5 STRESSOLD, STATEOLD, ENERINTERNOLD, ENERINELASOLD, 6 TEMPNEW, STRETCHNEW, DEFGRADNEW, FIELDNEW, C Write only 7 STRESSNEW, STATENEW, ENERINTERNNEW, ENERINELASNEW) C INCLUDE ’VABA_PARAM.INC’ C 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.88 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface DIMENSION PROPS(NPROPS), DENSITY(NBLOCK), COORDMP(NBLOCK), 1 CHARLENGTH(NBLOCK), STRAININC(NBLOCK, NDIR+NSHR), 2 RELSPININC(NBLOCK, NSHR), TEMPOLD(NBLOCK), 3 STRETCHOLD(NBLOCK, NDIR+NSHR),DEFGRADOLD(NBLOCK,NDIR+NSHR+NSHR), 4 FIELDOLD(NBLOCK, NFIELDV), STRESSOLD(NBLOCK, NDIR+NSHR), 5 STATEOLD(NBLOCK, NSTATEV), ENERINTERNOLD(NBLOCK), 6 ENERINELASOLD(NBLOCK), TEMPNEW(NBLOCK), 7 STRETCHNEW(NBLOCK, NDIR+NSHR),DEFGRADNEW(NBLOCK,NDIR+NSHR+NSHR), 8 FIELDNEW(NBLOCK, NFIELDV), STRESSNEW(NBLOCK,NDIR+NSHR), 9 STATENEW(NBLOCK, NSTATEV), ENERINTERNNEW(NBLOCK), 1 ENERINELASNEW(NBLOCK) C CHARACTER*8 CMNAME 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.89 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface VUMAT Variables • The following quantities are available in VUMAT, but they cannot be redefined: – Stress, stretch, and SDVs at the start of the increment – Relative rotation vector and deformation gradient at the start and end of an increment and strain increment – Total and incremental values of time, temperature, and user-defined field variables at the start and end of an increment – Material constants, density, material point position, and a characteristic element length – Internal and dissipated energies at the beginning of the increment – Number of material points to be processed in a call to the routine (NBLOCK) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.90 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface – A flag indicating whether the routine is being called during an annealing process • The following quantities must be defined: – Stress and SDVs at the end of an increment • The following variables may be defined: – Internal and dissipated energies at the end of the increment Many of these variables are equivalent or similar to those in UMAT. Complete descriptions of all parameters are provided in the VUMAT section in Chapter 21 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User’s Manual. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.91 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface Comparison of VUMAT and UMAT Interfaces There are a number of significant differences between the UMAT and VUMAT interfaces. • VUMAT uses a two-state architecture: the initial values are in the OLD arrays, the new values must be put in the NEW arrays. • The VUMAT interface is written to take advantage of vector processing. • The material Jacobian does not need to be defined. • No information is provided about element numbers. • The time increment cannot be redefined. • Utility routines are not available because they would prevent vectorization. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.92 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface • The header is usually followed by dimensioning of local arrays. It is good practice to define constants via parameters and to include comments. C C C C C C C PARAMETER( ZERO = 0.D0, ONE = 1.D0, TWO = 2.D0, THREE = 3.D0, 1 THIRD = 1.D0/3.D0, HALF = .5D0, TWO_THIRDS = 2.D0/3.D0, 2 THREE_HALFS = 1.5D0 ) J2 Mises Plasticity with kinematic hardening for plane strain case. The state variables are stored as: STATE(*, 1) = back stress component 11 STATE(*, 2) = back stress component 22 STATE(*, 3) = back stress component 33 STATE(*, 4) = back stress component 12 STATE(*, 5) = equivalent plastic strain – The PARAMETER assignments yield accurate floating point constant definitions on any platform. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.93 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface VUMAT Conventions • Stresses and strains are stored as vectors. – For plane stress elements: σ 11, σ 22, σ 12 . – For plane strain and axisymmetric elements: σ 11, σ 22, σ 33, σ 12. – For three-dimensional elements: σ 11, σ 22, σ 33, σ 12, σ 23, σ 31 . For three-dimensional elements, this storage scheme is inconsistent with that for ABAQUS/Standard. • The shear strain is stored as tensor shear strains: 1 ε 12 = --- γ 12 . 2 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.94 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface • The deformation gradient is stored similar to the way in which symmetric tensors are stored. – For plane stress elements: F 11, F 22, F 12, F 21. – For plane strain and axisymmetric elements: F 11, F 22, F 33, F 12, F 21. – For three-dimensional elements: F 11, F 22, F 33, F 12, F 23, F 31, F 21, F 32, F 13. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.95 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface VUMAT Formulation Aspects Vectorized Interface • In VUMAT the data are passed in and out in large blocks (dimension NBLOCK). NBLOCK typically is equal to 64 or 128. – Each entry in an array of length NBLOCK corresponds to a single material point. All material points in the same block have the same material name and belong to the same element type. • This structure allows vectorization of the routine. – A vectorized VUMAT should make sure that all operations are done in vector mode with NBLOCK the vector length. • In vectorized code, branching inside loops should be avoided. – Element type-based branching should be outside the NBLOCK loop. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.96 ABAQUS VUMAT Interface Corotational Formulation • The constitutive equation is formulated in a corotational framework, based on the Jaumann stress rate. – The strain increment is obtained with Hughes-Winget. – Other measures can be obtained from the deformation gradient. • The user must define the Cauchy stress: this stress reappears during the next increment as the “old” stress. • There is no need to rotate tensor state variables. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.97 ABAQUS Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening The governing equations and integration procedure are the same as in Example 4: Kinematic Hardening Plasticity (p. L6.54). The Jacobian is not required. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.98 ABAQUS Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening Coding for Kinematic Hardening Plasticity VUMAT C E XNU YIELD HARD C C C = = = = PROPS(1) PROPS(2) PROPS(3) PROPS(4) ELASTIC CONSTANTS TWOMU THREMU SIXMU ALAMDA TERM CON1 = = = = = = E / ( ONE + XNU ) THREE_HALFS * TWOMU THREE * TWOMU TWOMU * ( E - TWOMU ) / ( SIXMU - TWO * E ) ONE / ( TWOMU * ( ONE + HARD/THREMU ) ) SQRT( TWO_THIRDS ) C C 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.99 ABAQUS Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening C C If stepTime equals to zero, assume the material pure elastic and use C initial elastic modulus C IF( STEPTIME .EQ. ZERO ) THEN C DO I = 1,NBLOCK C C Trial Stress TRACE = STRAININC (I, 1) + STRAININC (I, 2) + STRAININC (I, 3) STRESSNEW(I, 1)=STRESSOLD(I, 1) + ALAMDA*TRACE 1 + TWOMU*STRAININC(I,1) STRESSNEW(I, 2)=STRESSOLD(I, 2) + ALAMDA*TRACE 1 + TWOMU*STRAININC(I, 2) STRESSNEW(I, 3)=STRESSOLD(I, 3) + ALAMDA*TRACE 1 + TWOMU*STRAININC(I,3) STRESSNEW(I, 4)=STRESSOLD(I, 4) 1 + TWOMU*STRAININC(I, 4) END DO C ELSE 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.100 ABAQUS C C C C C C C 7/01 Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening PLASTICITY CALCULATIONS IN BLOCK FORM DO I = 1, NBLOCK Elastic predictor stress TRACE = STRAININC(I, 1) + STRAININC(I, 2) + STRAININC(I, 3) SIG1= STRESSOLD(I, 1) + ALAMDA*TRACE + TWOMU*STRAININC(I, 1) SIG2= STRESSOLD(I, 2) + ALAMDA*TRACE + TWOMU*STRAININC(I, 2) SIG3= STRESSOLD(I, 3) + ALAMDA*TRACE + TWOMU*STRAININC(I, 3) SIG4= STRESSOLD(I, 4) + TWOMU*STRAININC(I, 4) Elastic predictor stress measured from the back stress S1 = SIG1 - STATEOLD(I, 1) S2 = SIG2 - STATEOLD(I, 2) S3 = SIG3 - STATEOLD(I, 3) S4 = SIG4 - STATEOLD(I, 4) Deviatoric part of predictor stress measured from the back stress SMEAN = THIRD * ( S1 + S2 + S3 ) DS1 = S1 - SMEAN DS2 = S2 - SMEAN DS3 = S3 - SMEAN Magnitude of the deviatoric predictor stress difference DSMAG = SQRT( DS1**2 + DS2**2 + DS3**2 + TWO*S4**2 ) Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.101 ABAQUS C C C C C C C C C C 7/01 Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening Check for yield by determining the factor for plasticity, zero for elastic, one for yield RADIUS = CON1 * YIELD FACYLD = ZERO IF( DSMAG - RADIUS .GE. ZERO ) FACYLD = ONE Add a protective addition factor to prevent a divide by zero when DSMAG is zero. If DSMAG is zero, we will not have exceeded the yield stress and FACYLD will be zero. DSMAG = DSMAG + ( ONE - FACYLD ) Calculated increment in gamma ( this explicitly includes the time step) DIFF = DSMAG - RADIUS DGAMMA = FACYLD * TERM * DIFF Update equivalent plastic strain DEQPS = CON1 * DGAMMA STATENEW(I, 5) = STATEOLD(I, 5) + DEQPS Divide DGAMMA by DSMAG so that the deviatoric stresses are explicitly converted to tensors of unit magnitude in the following calculations DGAMMA = DGAMMA / DSMAG Update back stress FACTOR = HARD * DGAMMA * TWO_THIRDS STATENEW(I, 1) = STATEOLD(I, 1) + FACTOR * DS1 STATENEW(I, 2) = STATEOLD(I, 2) + FACTOR * DS2 STATENEW(I, 3) = STATEOLD(I, 3) + FACTOR * DS3 STATENEW(I, 4) = STATEOLD(I, 4) + FACTOR * S4 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.102 ABAQUS C C C Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening Update stress FACTOR = TWOMU * DGAMMA STRESSNEW(I, 1) = SIG1 - FACTOR * DS1 STRESSNEW(I, 2) = SIG2 - FACTOR * DS2 STRESSNEW(I, 3) = SIG3 - FACTOR * DS3 STRESSNEW(I, 4) = SIG4 - FACTOR * S4 Update the specific internal energy STRESS_POWER = HALF * ( 1 ( STRESSOLD(I, 1)+STRESSNEW(I, 1) )*STRAININC(I, 2 + ( STRESSOLD(I, 2)+STRESSNEW(I, 2) )*STRAININC(I, 3 + ( STRESSOLD(I, 3)+STRESSNEW(I, 3) )*STRAININC(I, 4 + TWO*( STRESSOLD(I, 4)+STRESSNEW(I, 4) )*STRAININC(I, ENERINTERNNEW(I) = ENERINTERNOLD(I) 1 + STRESS_POWER/DENSITY(I) Update the dissipated inelastic specific energy SMEAN = THIRD* (STRESSNEW(I, 1)+STRESSNEW(I, 2) 1 + STRESSNEW(I, 3)) EQUIV_STRESS = SQRT( THREE_HALFS 1 * ( (STRESSNEW(I, 1)-SMEAN)**2 2 + (STRESSNEW(I, 2)-SMEAN)**2 3 + (STRESSNEW(I, 3)-SMEAN)**2 4 + TWO * STRESSNEW(I, 4)**2 ) ) 1) 2) 3) 4) ) C 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.103 ABAQUS Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening 1 PLASTIC_WORK_INC = EQUIV_STRESS * DEQPS ENERINELASNEW(I) = ENERINELASOLD(I) + PLASTIC_WORK_INC / DENSITY(I) C END DO C END IF RETURN END 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.104 ABAQUS Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening Remarks • In the datacheck phase, VUMAT is called with a set of fictitious strains and a TOTALTIME and STEPTIME both equal to 0.0. – A check is done on the user’s constitutive relation, and an initial stable time increment is determined based on calculated equivalent initial material properties. – Ensure that elastic properties are used in this call to VUMAT; otherwise, too large an initial time increment may be used, leading to instability. – A warning message is printed to the status (.sta) file informing the user that this check is being performed. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.105 ABAQUS Example 6: VUMAT for Kinematic Hardening • Special coding techniques are used to obtain vectorized coding. – All small loops inside the material routine are “unrolled.” – The same code is executed regardless of whether the behavior is purely elastic or elastic plastic. • Special care must be taken to avoid divides by zero. – No external subroutines are called inside the loop. – The use of local scalar variables inside the loop is allowed. – The compiler will automatically expand these local scalar variables to local vectors. – Iterations should be avoided. • If iterations cannot be avoided, use a fixed number of iterations and do not test on convergence. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.106 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening The governing equations and integration procedure are the same as in Example 5: Isotropic Hardening Plasticity (p. L6.69). The increment of equivalent plastic strain is obtained explicitly through ∆ε pl σ pr – σ y = -------------------- , 3µ + h where σ y is the yield stress and h = dσ y ⁄ dε pl is the plastic hardening at the beginning of the increment. The Jacobian is not required. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.107 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening Coding for Isotropic Hardening Plasticity VUMAT C C parameter ( zero = 0.d0, one = 1.d0, two = 2.d0, * third = 1.d0 / 3.d0, half = 0.5d0, op5 = 1.5d0) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 7/01 For plane strain, axisymmetric, and 3D cases using the J2 Mises Plasticity with piecewise-linear isotropic hardening. The state variable is stored as: STATE(*,1) = equivalent plastic strain User needs to input props(1) Young’s modulus props(2) Poisson’s ratio props(3..) syield and hardening data calls vuhard for curve of yield stress vs. plastic strain Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.108 ABAQUS e xnu twomu alamda thremu nvalue Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening = = = = = = props(1) props(2) e / ( one + xnu ) xnu * twomu / ( one - two * xnu ) op5 * twomu nprops/2-1 C if ( stepTime .eq. zero ) then do k = 1, nblock trace = strainInc(k,1) + strainInc(k,2) + strainInc(k,3) stressNew(k,1) = stressOld(k,1) * + twomu * strainInc(k,1) + alamda * trace stressNew(k,2) = stressOld(k,2) * + twomu * strainInc(k,2) + alamda * trace stressNew(k,3) = stressOld(k,3) * + twomu * strainInc(k,3) + alamda * trace stressNew(k,4)=stressOld(k,4) + twomu * strainInc(k,4) if ( nshr .gt. 1 ) then stressNew(k,5)=stressOld(k,5) + twomu * strainInc(k,5) stressNew(k,6)=stressOld(k,6) + twomu * strainInc(k,6) end if end do else 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.109 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening do k = 1, nblock peeqOld=stateOld(k,1) call vuhard(yieldOld, hard, peeqOld, props(3), nvalue) trace = strainInc(k,1) + strainInc(k,2) + strainInc(k,3) s11 = stressOld(k,1) + twomu * strainInc(k,1) + alamda * trace s22 = stressOld(k,2) + twomu * strainInc(k,2) + alamda * trace s33 = stressOld(k,3) + twomu * strainInc(k,3) + alamda * trace s12 = stressOld(k,4) + twomu * strainInc(k,4) if ( nshr .gt. 1 ) then s13 = stressOld(k,5) + twomu * strainInc(k,5) s23 = stressOld(k,6) + twomu * strainInc(k,6) end if 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.110 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening C smean = third * ( s11 + s22 + s33 ) s11 = s11 - smean s22 = s22 - smean s33 = s33 - smean if ( nshr .eq. 1 ) then vmises = sqrt( op5*(s11*s11+s22*s22+s33*s33+two*s12*s12) ) else * vmises = sqrt( op5 * ( s11 * s11 + s22 * s22 + s33 * s33 + two * s12 * s12 + two * s13 * s13 + two * s23 * s23 ) ) end if C sigdif = vmises - yieldOld facyld = zero if ( sigdif .gt. zero ) facyld = one deqps = facyld * sigdif / ( thremu + hard ) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.111 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening C C Update the stress C yieldNew = yieldOld + hard * deqps factor = yieldNew / ( yieldNew + thremu * deqps ) stressNew(k,1) stressNew(k,2) stressNew(k,3) stressNew(k,4) = = = = s11 s22 s33 s12 * * * * factor + smean factor + smean factor + smean factor if ( nshr .gt. 1 ) then stressNew(k,5) = s13 * factor stressNew(k,6) = s23 * factor end if C C Update the state variables C stateNew(k,1) = stateOld(k,1) + deqps 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.112 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening C C Update the specific internal energy C if ( nshr .eq. 1 ) then * * * * stressPower = half * ( ( stressOld(k,1) + stressNew(k,1) ) * strainInc(k,1) + ( stressOld(k,2) + stressNew(k,2) ) * strainInc(k,2) + ( stressOld(k,3) + stressNew(k,3) ) * strainInc(k,3) ) + ( stressOld(k,4) + stressNew(k,4) ) * strainInc(k,4) else * * * * * * stressPower = half * ( ( stressOld(k,1) + stressNew(k,1) ) * strainInc(k,1) + ( stressOld(k,2) + stressNew(k,2) ) * strainInc(k,2) + ( stressOld(k,3) + stressNew(k,3) ) * strainInc(k,3) ) + ( stressOld(k,4) + stressNew(k,4) ) * strainInc(k,4) + ( stressOld(k,5) + stressNew(k,5) ) * strainInc(k,5) + ( stressOld(k,6) + stressNew(k,6) ) * strainInc(k,6) end if enerInternNew(k) = enerInternOld(k) + stressPower / density(k) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.113 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening C C Update the dissipated inelastic specific energy C plasticWorkInc = half * ( yieldOld + yieldNew ) * deqps enerInelasNew(k) = enerInelasOld(k) * + plasticWorkInc / density(k) end do end if C return end 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.114 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening subroutine vuhard(syield, hard, eqplas, table, nvalue) include ’vaba_param.inc’ c dimension table(2, nvalue) c parameter(zero=0.d0) c c c set yield stress to last value of table, hardening to zero syield=table(1, nvalue) hard=zero c c c if more than one entry, search table if(nvalue.gt.1) then do k1=1, nvalue-1 eqpl1=table(2,k1+1) if(eqplas.lt.eqpl1) then eqpl0=table(2, k1) c c c yield stress and hardening deqpl=eqpl1-eqpl0 syiel0=table(1, k1) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.115 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening syiel1=table(1, k1+1) dsyiel=syiel1-syiel0 hard=dsyiel/deqpl syield=syiel0+(eqplas-eqpl0)*hard goto 10 endif end do 10 continue endif return end 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.116 ABAQUS Example 7: VUMAT for Isotropic Hardening Remarks • This VUMAT yields the same results as the ∗PLASTIC option with ISOTROPIC hardening. – This result is also true for large-strain calculations. The necessary rotations of stress and strain are taken care of by ABAQUS. • The routine calls user subroutine VUHARD to recover a piecewise linear hardening curve. – It is straightforward to replace the piecewise linear curve by an analytic description. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L6.117 ABAQUS Lecture 7 Creating a Nonlinear User Element Overview • Motivation • Defining a User Element • UEL Interface • Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior • Example 2: Force Control Element • Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.1 ABAQUS Overview Overview ABAQUS/Standard has an interface that allows users to implement linear and nonlinear finite elements. • A nonlinear finite element is implemented in user subroutine UEL. The interface makes it possible to define any (proprietary) element of arbitrary complexity. • If coded properly, user elements can be utilized with most analysis procedures in ABAQUS/Standard. • Multiple user elements can be implemented in a single UEL routine and can be utilized together. In this lecture the implementation of nonlinear finite elements only will be discussed and illustrated with examples. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.2 ABAQUS Motivation Motivation ABAQUS/Standard is a versatile analysis tool with a large element library that allows analysis of the most complex structural problems. However, situations arise in which augmenting the ABAQUS library with user-defined elements is useful: • Modeling nonstructural physical processes that are coupled to structural behavior • Applying solution-dependent loads • Modeling active control mechanisms 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.3 ABAQUS Motivation The advantages of implementing user elements in an analysis code such as ABAQUS, instead of writing a complete analysis code, are obvious: • ABAQUS offers a large selection of structural elements, analysis procedures, and modeling tools. • ABAQUS offers pre- and postprocessing. – Many third-party vendors offer pre- and postprocessors with interfaces to ABAQUS. • Maintaining and porting subroutines is much easier than maintaining and porting a complete finite element program. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.4 ABAQUS Motivation • “Finite Element Simulations in Mechanics of Materials and Deformation Processing Research,” Mary C. Boyce, ABAQUS Users’ Conference Proceedings, 1992. Figure 7–1. Calculated Binder Force Trajectory Using Active Global Binder Displacement and Local Strain Control 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.5 ABAQUS Motivation • “User Elements Developed for the Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Thomas Wenk, Peter Linde, and Hugo Bachmann, ABAQUS Users’ Conference Proceedings, 1993. Figure 7–2. Macro Model Simulating Structural Wall Behavior (left), Corresponding User Element U3 (right) Hysterectic Rules For Flexural Springs K f in Macro Model (above) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.6 ABAQUS Motivation • “User Element for Crack Propagation in Concrete-Like Materials,” R. Vitali and G.L. Zanotelli, ABAQUS Users’ Conference Proceedings, 1994. Figure 7–3. Configuration at a General Increment i. Definition of the User Element 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.7 ABAQUS Defining a User Element Defining a User Element Key Characteristics of a User Element Before a UEL subroutine can be written, the following key characteristics of the element must be defined: • The number of nodes on the element • The number of coordinates present at each node • The degrees of freedom active at each node 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.8 ABAQUS Defining a User Element Other Important Element Properties In addition, the following properties must be determined: • The number of element properties to be defined external to the UEL • The number of solution-dependent state variables (SDVs) to be stored per element • The number of (distributed) load types available for the element These items need not be determined immediately: they can be added easily after the basic UEL subroutine is completed. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.9 ABAQUS Defining a User Element Defining the User Element Behavior The element’s main contribution to the model during general analysis N steps is to provide “fluxes” F at the nodes that depend on the values of N the degrees of freedom u at the nodes. N • F is defined as a residual quantity: F N N N = F ext – F int . N N – F ext is the external flux (due to applied distributed loads) and F int is the internal flux (due to stresses, e.g.) at node N. • If the degrees of freedom are displacements, the associated fluxes are the nodal forces. Similarly, rotations correspond to moments and temperatures to heat fluxes. • In nonlinear user elements the fluxes/forces will often depend on the N increments in the degrees of freedom ∆u and the internal state α variables H . – State variables must be updated in the user subroutine. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.10 ABAQUS Defining a User Element The solution of the (nonlinear) system of equations in general steps requires that you define the element Jacobian (stiffness matrix): K NM N dF = – ---------. M du • The Jacobian should include all direct and indirect dependencies of N N F on u , which includes terms of the form N α ∂F ∂H . – ----------α ---------M ∂H ∂u • A more accurately defined Jacobian improves convergence in general steps. • The Jacobian (stiffness) determines the solution for linear perturbation steps, so it must be exact. – The Jacobian can be symmetric or nonsymmetric. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.11 ABAQUS Defining a User Element The complexity of the formulation of a user element can vary greatly. • Simple elements can be developed to function as “control” and “feedback” mechanisms in an analysis that consists of regular elements. • Complex nonlinear structural elements often require significant effort in their development. If the element is built out of a nonlinear material, you should create a separate subroutine (or series of subroutines) to describe the material behavior. • If the material model is implemented in user subroutine UMAT, a call to UMAT can be included in UEL. • The integration issues discussed for UMAT also apply to the material models used in UEL. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.12 ABAQUS UEL Interface UEL Interface ABAQUS Options A user element is defined with the ∗USER ELEMENT option. This option must appear in the input file before the user element is invoked with the ∗ELEMENT option. The syntax for interfacing to UEL is as follows: *USER ELEMENT, TYPE=Un, NODES=, COORDINATES=, PROPERTIES=, I PROPERTIES=, VARIABLES=, UNSYMM Data line(s) *ELEMENT,TYPE=Un, ELSET=UEL Data line(s) *UEL PROPERTY, ELSET=UEL Data line(s) *USER SUBROUTINES, (INPUT=file_name) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.13 ABAQUS UEL Interface Parameter Definition Parameter Definition TYPE (User-defined) element type of the form Un, where n is a number NODES Number of nodes on the element COORDINATES Maximum number of coordinates at any node 7/01 PROPERTIES Number of floating point properties I PROPERTIES Number of integer properties VARIABLES Number of SDVs UNSYMM Flag to indicate that the Jacobian is unsymmetric Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.14 ABAQUS UEL Interface Data Lines A data line of the form dof_1, dof_2, …, where dof_1 is the first degree of freedom active at the node and dof_2 is the second degree of freedom active at the node, etc., follows the ∗USER ELEMENT option. If all nodes of the user element have the same active degrees of freedom, no further data are needed. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.15 ABAQUS UEL Interface However, if some nodes have different active degrees of freedom, enter subsequent data lines of the form position, dof_1, dof_2, … , where position is the (local) node number (position) on the element, dof_1 is the first degree of freedom active at this and following nodes, and dof_2 is the second degree of freedom active at this and following nodes, etc. The active degrees of freedom can be changed at any node in the element. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.16 ABAQUS UEL Interface The dimensional units of a degree of freedom for a user element are the same as those for regular elements in ABAQUS (1–3 are displacements, 4–6 are rotations, etc.). • This correspondence is important for convergence controls in nonlinear analysis. • It is also relevant for three-dimensional rotations in geometric nonlinear analysis because of the nonlinear nature of finite rotations. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.17 ABAQUS UEL Interface User elements can have “internal” degrees of freedom in the sense that they belong to nodes that are not connected to other elements. • Convergence will be checked for the internal degrees of freedom, so it is important to choose the internal degrees of freedom appropriately (i.e., an internal degree of freedom 1 should have the dimension of displacement). • For efficiency reasons you should choose internal degree of freedom numbers that are present at external nodes on the element or elsewhere in the model. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.18 ABAQUS UEL Interface More on Keywords and Parameters The maximum number of coordinates at any node of the element is specified with the COORDINATES parameter. • The value of COORDINATES may be increased to match the highest displacement degree of freedom active on the element. The total number of SDVs per element is set with the VARIABLES parameter. • If the element is integrated numerically, VARIABLES should be set equal to the number of integration points times the number of SDVs per point. • Solution-dependent state variables can be output with the identifiers SDV1, SDV2, etc. SDVs for any element can be printed only to the data (.dat), results (.fil), or output database (.odb) files and plotted as X–Y plots in ABAQUS/Viewer. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.19 ABAQUS UEL Interface The number of user element properties is given with the PROPERTIES and I PROPERTIES parameters. • PROPERTIES determines the number of floating point property values. • I PROPERTIES determines the number of integer property values. Property values are given with the ∗UEL PROPERTY option. • The properties are assigned on an element set basis; hence, the same UEL subroutine can be used for user elements with different properties. – With this approach “hard-coding” the property values in the user subroutine is not necessary. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.20 ABAQUS UEL Interface Coding for the UEL is supplied in a separate file and invoked with the ABAQUS execution procedure as follows: abaqus job=... user=.... • The user subroutine must be invoked in a restarted analysis because user subroutines are not saved on the restart file. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.21 ABAQUS UEL Interface User Element Loads Distributed load and flux types can be applied with the ∗DLOAD and ∗DFLUX options by using load type keys Un and UnNU. • In either case the equivalent nodal load vector for the distributed load type must be defined in user subroutine UEL. – If load type key Un is used, the load magnitude is defined on the data line and can be varied in time with the ∗AMPLITUDE option. – If load type key UnNU is used, all of the load definition is applied in user subroutine UEL: a time-dependent load magnitude vector must be coded. • If the load depends on the solution variables, the corresponding “load stiffness” contributions matrix to the Jacobian should be included for best performance. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.22 ABAQUS UEL Interface UEL Interface The interface to user subroutine UEL is: SUBROUTINE UEL(RHS, AMATRX, SVARS, ENERGY, NDOFEL, NRHS, NSVARS, 1 PROPS, NPROPS, COORDS, MCRD, NNODE, U, DU, V, A, JTYPE, TIME, 2 DTIME, KSTEP, KINC, JELEM, PARAMS, NDLOAD, JDLTYPE, ADLMAG, 3 PREDEF, NPREDF, LFLAGS, MLVARX, DDLMAG, MDLOAD, PNEWDT, JPROPS, 4 NJPRO, PERIOD) C INCLUDE ’ABA_PARAM.INC’ C DIMENSION RHS(MLVARX,*), AMATRX(NDOFEL, NDOFEL), PROPS(*), 1 SVARS(*), ENERGY(*), COORDS(MCRD, NNODE), U(NDOFEL), 2 DU(MLVARX,*), V(NDOFEL), A(NDOFEL), TIME(2), PARAMS(*), 3 JDLTYP(MDLOAD, *), ADLMAG(MDLOAD, *), DDLMAG(MDLOAD, *), 4 PREDEF(2, NPREDF, NNODE), LFLAGS(*), JPROPS(*) The “include” statement sets the proper precision for floating point variables (REAL*8 on most machines). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.23 ABAQUS UEL Interface UEL Variables The following quantities are available in UEL: • Coordinates; displacements; incremental displacements; and, for dynamics, velocities and accelerations • SDVs at the start of the increment • Total and incremental values of time, temperature, and user-defined field variables • User element properties • Load types as well as total and incremental load magnitudes • Element type and user-defined element number • Procedure type flag and, for dynamics, integration operator values • Current step and increment numbers 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.24 ABAQUS UEL Interface The following quantities must be defined: • Right-hand-side vector (residual nodal fluxes or forces) • Jacobian (stiffness) matrix • Solution-dependent state variables The following variables may be defined: • Energies associated with the element (strain energy, plastic dissipation, kinetic energy, etc.) • Suggested new (reduced) time increment A complete description of all parameters is provided in Section 24.2.19 of the ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.25 ABAQUS UEL Interface The header is usually followed by dimensioning of local arrays. It is good practice to define constants via parameters and to include comments. dimension b(2, 7), gauss(2) c parameter(zero=0.d0, one=1.d0, two=2.d0, three=3.d0, four=4.d0, 1 six=6.d0, eight=8.d0, twelve=12.d0) data gauss/.211324865d0, .788675135d0/ c c simple 2-d linear beam element with generalized section properties c c get length and direction and cross section dimensions c • The PARAMETER assignments yield accurate floating point constant definitions on any platform. • Arrays can be initialized with a DATA statement. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.26 ABAQUS UEL Interface UEL Conventions The solution variables (displacement, velocity, etc.) are arranged on a node/degree of freedom basis. • The degrees of freedom of the first node are first, followed by the degrees of freedom of the second node, etc. – Consider a planar beam that uses degrees of freedom 1, 2, and 6 ( u x, u y, φ z ) at its first and second node and degrees of freedom 1 and 2 at its third (middle) node. The ordering is: Element variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Node 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 Degree of freedom 1 2 6 1 2 6 1 2 • The flux vector and Jacobian matrix must be ordered in the same way. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.27 ABAQUS UEL Interface UEL Formulation Aspects and Usage Hints The displacement, velocities, etc. passed into the UEL are in the global system, regardless whether the ∗TRANSFORM option is used at any of the nodes. • The flux vector and Jacobian matrix must also be formulated in the global system. The Jacobian must be formulated as a full matrix, even if it is symmetric. • If the UNSYMM parameter is not used, ABAQUS will symmetrize the Jacobian defined by the user. For transient heat transfer and dynamic analysis, heat capacity and inertia contributions must be included in the flux vector. • UELs for these procedures will be discussed later in this lecture. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.28 ABAQUS UEL Interface At the start of a new increment, the increment in solution variable(s) is extrapolated from the previous increment. • The flux vector and the Jacobian must be based on these extrapolated values. • If extrapolation is not desired, it can be switched off with ∗STEP, EXTRAPOLATION=NO. If the increment in solution variable(s) is too large, the variable PNEWDT can be used to suggest a new time increment. • ABAQUS will abandon the current time increment and will attempt the increment again with one that is a factor PNEWDT smaller. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.29 ABAQUS UEL Interface Coding and Testing the UEL Follow the basic rules for writing ABAQUS user subroutines. • Follow FORTRAN 77 or C conventions. • Make sure that all variables are defined and initialized. • Assign enough storage space for state variables. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.30 ABAQUS UEL Interface Complex UELs may have many potential problem areas. Do not use a large model when trying to debug a UEL. Verify the UEL with a one-element input file. 1. Run tests using general steps in which all solution variables are prescribed to verify the resultant fluxes. 2. Run tests using linear perturbation steps in which all loads are prescribed to verify the element Jacobian (stiffness). 3. Run tests using general steps in which all loads are prescribed to verify the consistency of the Jacobian and the flux vector. Gradually increase the complexity of the test problems. Compare the results with standard ABAQUS elements, if possible. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.31 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Objective Analyze a planar concrete frame structure. • The frame is loaded to an extent where significant nonlinearity occurs in the concrete but the displacements are still small enough that geometric nonlinearity may be neglected. • Develop a model that describes the nonlinear section behavior directly in terms of axial force and bending moment. – This is similar to the ∗BEAM GENERAL SECTION, SECTION=NONLINEAR GENERAL option, but allows coupling between the axial and bending terms. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.32 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior • The transverse shear deformation can be neglected. Coding Requirements The element is integrated numerically; hence, the following quantities require definition in the UEL: • The element [B] matrix, which relates the axial strain, ε , and curvature, κ , to the element displacements, { u e } : ε = [ B]{u } . e κ • A constitutive law [D] relating axial force, F , and moment, M , to axial strain and curvature: ε F = [ D] . κ M 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.33 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior • The element stiffness matrix: [K e] = ∫ l T [ B ] [ D ] [ B ]dl . 0 • The element internal force vector: {Fe} = ∫ 0 l T F [ B ] dl . M • The integration is done numerically: l n ∫ Adl = ∑ A l , i i 0 i=1 where n is the number of integration points and l i is the length associated with integration point i . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.34 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Element Formulation The element formulation is based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. • The interpolation is described purely in terms of the displacements, which are C 1 continuous at the nodes. • The curvature is obtained as the second derivative of the displacement normal to the beam. The simplest two-dimensional beam element has two nodes, with two displacements and one rotation (u x, u y, φ z ) at each node. • The active degrees of freedom are 1, 2, and 6. v loc u loc B A 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.35 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior In its basic form linear interpolation is used for the tangential displacement, u loc , and cubic interpolation for the normal displacement, v loc . • The cubic interpolation for the normal displacement yields a linear variation for the curvature. • The linear interpolation for the tangential displacement yields a constant axial strain. The constant axial strain and linear curvature variation are inconsistent and may lead to excessive local axial forces if the axial and bending behavior are coupled. • Considering that the intent is to analyze nonlinear concrete behavior, such coupling will be present. • The excessive axial forces may lead to overly stiff behavior. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.36 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior To prevent this problem, an extra “internal” node is added to the element. The internal node has one degree of freedom: the tangential displacement. u c B C A Both the axial strain and the curvature now vary linearly. The interpolation functions are: A 2 B 2 C 2 u loc = u loc ( 1 – 3ξ + 2ξ ) + u loc ( – ξ + 2ξ ) + u ( 4ξ – 4ξ ) A 2 3 B 3 B 2 2 3 v loc = v loc ( 1 – 3ξ + 2ξ ) + v loc ( 3ξ – 2ξ ) A 2 3 + φ l ( ξ – 2ξ + ξ ) + φ l ( – ξ + ξ ) where l is the element length and ξ = s ⁄ l is the dimensionless position along the beam. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.37 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior • This yields the following expressions for the axial strain and the curvature: 1 A B C ε = --- [ u loc ( – 3 + 4ξ ) + u loc ( – 1 + 4ξ ) + u ( 4 – 8ξ ) ] l 1 A B A B κ = ---2- [ v loc ( – 6 + 12ξ ) + v loc ( 6 – 12ξ ) + φ l ( – 4 + 6ξ ) + φ l ( – 2 + 6ξ ) ] l • These linear relations are implemented in the B-matrix of the element. – The B-matrix also handles the transformation from local to global displacements at the nodes. • The element is integrated numerically with a two-point Gauss scheme. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.38 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Element Definition in the Input File The following data lines define the user element in the input file: *user element, type=u1, nodes=3, coordinates=2, properties=3, variables=8 1, 2, 6 3, 1 *element, type=u1, elset=one 1, 1, 2, 3 *uel property, elset=one 2., 1., 1000. • The user element name is U1, which is used in the ∗ELEMENT option. • Eight state variables are allocated, so four variables can be defined at each integration point. • Three element properties are allocated: the section height, the section width, and Young’s modulus. • The element has three nodes: the third “internal” node is unique to each element. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.39 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Coding for Planar Beam Example c c c simple 2-d linear beam element with generalized section properties subroutine uel(rhs, amatrx, svars, energy, ndofel, nrhs, nsvars, 1 props, nprops, coords, mcrd, nnode, u, du, v, a, jtype, time, dtime, 2 kstep, kinc, jelem, params, ndload, jdltyp, adlmag, predef, npredf, 3 lflags, mlvarx, ddlmag, mdload, pnewdt, jprops, njprop, period) c include ’aba_param.inc’ c dimension rhs(mlvarx, *), amatrx(ndofel, ndofel), svars(*), props(*), 1 energy(7), coords(mcrd,nnode), u(ndofel), du(mlvarx, *), v(ndofel), 2 a(ndofel), time(2), params(*), jdltyp(mdload, *), adlmag(mdload, *), 3 ddlmag(mdload, *),predef(2, npredf, nnode), lflags(4), jprops(*) c dimension b(2, 7), gauss(2) c parameter(zero=0.d0, one=1.d0, two=2.d0, three=3.d0, four=4.d0, 1 six=6.d0, eight=8.d0, twelve=12.d0) data gauss/.211324865d0, .788675135d0/ c 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.40 ABAQUS c c Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior calculate length and direction cosines dx=coords(1, 2)-coords(1, 1) dy=coords(2, 2)-coords(2, 1) dl2=dx**2+dy**2 dl=sqrt(dl2) hdl=dl/two acos=dx/dl asin=dy/dl c c c initialize rhs and lhs do k1=1, 7 rhs(k1, 1)= zero do k2=1, 7 amatrx(k1, k2)= zero end do end do c nsvint=nsvars/2 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.41 ABAQUS c c c Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior loop over integration points do kintk=1, 2 g=gauss(kintk) c c c make b-matrix b(1, b(1, b(1, b(1, b(1, b(1, b(1, b(2, b(2, b(2, b(2, b(2, b(2, b(2, 1)=(-three+four*g)*acos/dl 2)=(-three+four*g)*asin/dl 3)=zero 4)=(-one+four*g)*acos/dl 5)=(-one+four*g)*asin/dl 6)=zero 7)=(four-eight*g)/dl 1)=(-six+twelve*g)*-asin/dl2 2)=(-six+twelve*g)* acos/dl2 3)=(-four+six*g)/dl 4)= (six-twelve*g)*-asin/dl2 5)= (six-twelve*g)* acos/dl2 6)= (-two+six*g)/dl 7)=zero c 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.42 ABAQUS c c Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior calculate (incremental) strains and curvatures eps=zero deps=zero cap=zero dcap=zero do k=1, 7 eps=eps+b(1, k)*u(k) deps=deps+b(1, k)*du(k, 1) cap=cap+b(2, k)*u(k) dcap=dcap+b(2, k)*du(k, 1) end do c c c call constitutive routine ugenb 1 7/01 isvint=1+(kintk-1)*nsvint bn=zero bm=zero daxial=zero dbend=zero dcoupl=zero call ugenb(bn, bm, daxial, dbend, dcoupl, eps, deps, cap, dcap, svars(isvint), nsvint, props, nprops) Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.43 ABAQUS c c c Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior assemble rhs and lhs do k1=1, 7 rhs(k1, 1)=rhs(k1, 1)-hdl*(bn*b(1, k1)+bm*b(2, k1)) bd1=hdl*(daxial*b(1, k1)+dcoupl*b(2, k1)) bd2=hdl*(dcoupl*b(1, k1)+dbend *b(2, k1)) do k2=1, 7 amatrx(k1, k2)=amatrx(k1, k2)+bd1*b(1, k2)+bd2*b(2, k2) end do end do end do c return end 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.44 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Remarks • This UEL uses essentially the same formulation as the simple B23 element for geometrically linear analysis. • The routine can be used with and without the ∗TRANSFORM option. • It would be relatively straightforward to generalize this routine for three-dimensional analyses. – It is much more complicated to extend the routine to geometrically nonlinear analysis. • Even for linear analysis this routine is called twice (for each element) during the first iteration of an increment: once for assembly and once for recovery. Subsequently, it is called once per iteration: assembly and recovery are combined. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.45 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Generalized Constitutive Behavior At each integration point the generalized constitutive behavior is processed in the user-created subroutine UGENB. • This subroutine is patterned after user subroutine UGENS, which allows you to model the behavior of a shell. • The following quantities are passed into UGENB: – Total and incremental axial strain and curvature – State variables at the start of the increment – User element properties • You must define: – The axial force and bending moment, as well as the linearized force/moment-strain/curvature relations – The solution-dependent state variables 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.46 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior A simple linear elastic subroutine UGENB follows: subroutine ugenb(bn,bm,daxial,dbend,dcoupl,eps,deps,cap,dcap, 1 svint,nsvint,props,nprops) c include ’aba_param.inc’ c parameter(zero=0.d0,twelve=12.d0) c dimension svint(*),props(*) c c c c c c c c c c c c 7/01 variables to be defined by the user bn bm daxial dbend dcoupl - axial force bending moment current tangent axial stiffness current tangent bending stiffness tangent coupling term variables that may be updated svint - state variables for this integration point Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.47 ABAQUS c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior variables passed in for information eps deps cap dcap props nprops nsvint - axial strain incremental axial strain curvature change incremental curvature change element properties # element properties # state variables current assumption props(1) - section height props(2) - section width props(3) - Young’s modulus h=props(1) w=props(2) E=props(3) 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.48 ABAQUS c c c Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior formulate linear stiffness daxial=E*h*w dbend=E*w*h**3/twelve dcoupl=zero c c c calculate axial force and moment bn=svint(1)+daxial*deps bm=svint(2)+dbend*dcap c c c store internal variables svint(1)=bn svint(2)=bm svint(3)=eps svint(4)=cap c return end 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.49 ABAQUS Example 1: Planar Beam Element with Nonlinear Section Behavior Remarks • The coding in this routine is very similar in nature to what would be coded in the subroutines UMAT and UGENS. • The routine stores the axial strain, curvature, axial force, and bending moment at each Gauss point. – For nonlinear material behavior additional quantities would be stored. • The constitutive relation is written in incremental form for easy generalization to nonlinear section behavior. • UGENB and UEL must be combined in one external file. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.50 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element Example 2: Force Control Element Objective Implement an active control mechanism in a finite element model. • The specific objective is to model a deep drawing operation in which the blank holder force is dynamically adapted during the process. – The punch force is measured during the deep drawing process. – If the punch force approaches a value that might cause tearing of the sheet, the blank holder force is decreased. – If the punch force decreases significantly below the critical value for tearing, the blank holder force is increased to minimize the danger of wrinkling. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.51 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element The problem is an adaptation of ABAQUS Example Problem 1.3.4, Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup. punch blank holder Rp = 50 mm RH = 56.25 mm R = 13 mm t = 0.82 mm r R = 5 mm RB = 100 mm RD = 51.25 mm die 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.52 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element In this problem a user element is inserted that measures the punch force (by adding a stiff spring to the rigid body reference node) and, if necessary, modifies the blank holder force. u presc rigid body reference node for punch 7/01 user element F presc rigid body reference node for blank holder Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.53 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element Element Formulation The element has three nodes, with a single degree of freedom ( u z ) , active at each node. B C A • Nodes A and B are connected by a spring with stiffness K, so the element internal forces at nodes A and B are A B A B F int = – F int = K ( u z – u z ) . – The stiffness is entered as a user element property. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.54 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element • The magnitude of the force generated at node C is determined as follows: – Prescribe the initial value (as an element property). – Define the target value of the punch force. – If the spring force has not yet exceeded the target value, keep the force on node C the same. – If the spring force exceeds the target value by more than a user-defined tolerance, decrease the force on node C. – If the spring force drops below the target value by more than a user-defined tolerance, increase the force on node C. • The algorithm uses the value of the spring force at the start of the increment. – Consequently, there is no stiffness contribution due to the application of the force on node C. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.55 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element Element Definition in the Input File The following data lines define the user element in the input file: *USER ELEMENT, TYPE=U1, NODES=3, COORD=2, PROPERTIES=5, VARIABLES=3 2 *UEL PROPERTY, ELSET=FEEDBACK 1.E12, 7.5E4, 1.0E5, 0.04, 0.04 *ELEMENT, TYPE=U1, ELSET=FEEDBACK 1001, 200,500,300 • Five property values are specified: the spring stiffness, the target value of the punch force, the initial force on the blank holder, the allowable fractional change in holder force, and the punch force tolerance. • Three state variables are stored: the punch force, the blank holder force, and the maximum punch force during the load history. • The first and the last nodes are the rigid body reference nodes of the punch and blank holder, respectively. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.56 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element Coding for Force Control Element Example c c Blankholder force control element for deep drawing applications c subroutine uel(rhs,amatrx,svars,energy,ndofel,nrhs,nsvars, 1 props,nprops,coords,mcrd,nnode,u,du,v,a,jtype,time,dtime, 2 kstep,kinc,jelem,params,ndload,jdltyp,adlmag,predef,npredf, 3 lflags,mlvarx,ddlmag,mdload,pnewdt,jprops,njprop,period) c include ’aba_param.inc’ c dimension rhs(mlvarx,*),amatrx(ndofel,ndofel),svars(*),props(*), 1 energy(7),coords(mcrd,nnode),u(ndofel),du(mlvarx,*),v(ndofel), 2 a(ndofel),time(2),params(*),jdltyp(mdload,*),adlmag(mdload,*), 4 ddlmag(mdload,*),predef(2,npredf,nnode),lflags(4),jprops(*) c c Pick up the input data c sPunch = props(1) !Spring stiffness fPunchTarget = props(2) !Target punch force fHolderInit = props(3) !Initial blankholder force fractHolder = props(4) !Fractional change allowed tolPunch = props(5) !Tolerance on punch force 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.57 ABAQUS c c c Example 2: Force Control Element Calculate the punch force fPunchNew = sPunch * (u(1)-u(2)) c c c Generate force vector and rhs(1,1) = -fPunchNew rhs(2,1) = +fpunchNew c c c Generate stiffness matrix amatrx(1,1) amatrx(1,2) amatrx(2,1) amatrx(2,2) c c c = = = = +sPunch -sPunch -sPunch +sPunch The holder force is only applied during steps 2 and 3 if(kstep.eq.2) then c c 7/01 Ramp the punch force to the desired starting value Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.58 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element c fHolder = time(1)*fHolderInit/period svars(2) = fHolder rhs(3,1) = -fHolder else if(kstep.eq.3) then c c c c c Adjust the punch force to control the blankholder force Values of state variables at start of increment fPunchOld = svars(1) fHolderOld = svars(2) fPunchMax = svars(3) c c c !Punch force !Blankholder force !Maximum blankholder force Allowed change in blankholder force dfHolderMax = fractHolder * fHolderOld c c c Allowed tolerance in the targetforce dfPunchTol = tolPunch * fPunchTarget c 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.59 ABAQUS c c Calculate the holder force if (fPunchOld.gt.fPunchTarget+dfPunchTol) then fHolderNew = fHolderOld - dfHolderMax !Decrease else if(fPunchMax.lt.fPunchTarget+dfPunchTol .or. fPunchOld.gt.fPunchTarget-dfPunchTol) then fHolderNew = fHolderOld !Keep constant else fHolderNew = fHolderOld + dfHolderMax !Increase end if 1 c c c Example 2: Force Control Element Generate holder force vector rhs(3,1) = -fHolderNew c c c Update state variables svars(1) = fPunchNew svars(2) = fHolderNew svars(3) = max(fPunchMax,fPunchNew) end if c return end 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.60 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element Remarks • No stiffness contribution is associated with the change in blank holder force because the force does not depend on the solution of the current increment. – An additional advantage is that the change in blank holder force will always be based on a converged solution. • In principle, this explicit algorithm is only conditionally stable. – However, since the punch force depends weakly on the blank holder force and the change in blank holder force is small, instability is unlikely to occur. • More sophisticated feedback algorithms are readily implemented. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.61 ABAQUS Example 2: Force Control Element • The blank holder force can also be made dependent on other solution variables. – Subroutine URDFIL can be used to read any solution variable from the results (.fil) file during analysis. – The selected variable or variables (for example, the maximum strain or plastic strain anywhere in the model) can be stored in a common block, and the variables can be used in the UEL. • All ABAQUS common block names start with the letter “C,” so name conflicts can easily be avoided. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.62 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Overview of Procedures Nonlinear user elements can be utilized in most ABAQUS/Standard analysis procedures. • LFLAGS(1) indicates which procedure type is used: – LFLAGS(1)=11: Dynamic procedure with automatic time incrementation – LFLAGS(1)=12: Dynamic procedure with fixed time incrementation 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.63 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures • To this point in the lecture, the usages described have applied only to ∗STATIC (LFLAGS(1)=1, 2). • The usage in many procedures is the same or similar to that for ∗STATIC: ∗VISCO ∗HEAT TRANSFER, STEADY STATE ∗COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, STEADY STATE ∗GEOSTATIC ∗SOILS, STEADY STATE ∗COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL, STEADY STATE 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.64 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures A special case of static analysis is ∗STATIC, RIKS. • An additional force vector containing only forces proportional to the applied loads, as well as the usual force vector and the Jacobian, must be supplied. – These additional forces must include thermal expansion effects if any are present in the element. • If no forces are applied to the element, the usage is the same as that for a regular ∗STATIC analysis. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.65 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Perturbation Procedures User elements can also be used in most “linear perturbation” procedures. • For a static linear perturbation analysis (∗STATIC, PERTURBATION), a stiffness matrix and two force vectors must be returned by the UEL. – The value of LFLAGS(3) denotes the matrix to be returned in a call. – LFLAGS(3)=1: Assembly—return the stiffness matrix for the base state and the force vector that contains only external perturbation loads. – LFLAGS(3)=100: Recovery—return the force vector that contains the difference between external perturbation loads and internal perturbation forces: F N N = ∆P – K NM M ∆u . This force vector is used for the reaction force calculation. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.66 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures • For a ∗FREQUENCY analysis a stiffness and mass matrix must be returned by the UEL. – The value of LFLAGS(3) denotes the matrix to be returned in a call. LFLAGS(3)=2: Return the stiffness matrix LFLAGS(3)=4: Return the mass matrix – No element output is available for user elements utilized with the ∗FREQUENCY option. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.67 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures – The eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors obtained with the ∗FREQUENCY option can be used in all modal dynamics procedures: ∗MODAL DYNAMIC ∗STEADY STATE DYNAMICS ∗RESPONSE SPECTRUM ∗RANDOM RESPONSE • User elements cannot be used in the ∗STEADY STATE DYNAMICS, DIRECT and ∗BUCKLE procedures. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.68 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Transient Analysis First-order transient effects must be included in UELs that are used with the following procedures: ∗HEAT TRANSFER (transient) ∗SOILS, CONSOLIDATION ∗COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT (transient) ∗COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL, TRANSIENT • The heat (pore fluid) capacity term must be included in the flux vector and the Jacobian. • If the user element has no heat (pore fluid) capacity, the user element usage is the same as in the corresponding steady-state analysis. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.69 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Transient Heat Transfer Analysis LFLAGS(1) indicates the transient heat transfer procedure type being used: • LFLAGS(1)=32: Transient heat transfer analysis with automatic time incrementation • LFLAGS(1)=33: Transient heat transfer analysis with fixed time incrementation Additional coding related to the transient terms in the equilibrium equation is required for the flux vector and Jacobian. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.70 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures • The flux vector must contain the externally applied fluxes, the fluxes due to conduction, and the fluxes due to changes in internal energy: F N N N N = F ext + F cond + F cap. – If the heat capacity matrix C capacity terms is N NM F cap = – C is constant, the flux due to the heat NM M ∆θ ⁄ ∆t , M where ∆θ is the temperature increment. – If the heat capacity matrix varies with temperature (such as is the case during phase transformations), the flux vector must be calculated from the energy change vector: N M F cap = – ∆U ⁄ ∆t . 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.71 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures • The Jacobian will contain contributions from the conductivity and heat capacity terms. – If the heat capacity matrix is constant, the Jacobian has the form K where K NM NM +C NM ⁄ ∆t, is the conductivity matrix. – If the heat capacity matrix is a function of temperature, the Newton algorithm requires the heat capacity at the temperature at the end of the increment: C NM = C NM ( θ t + ∆t ) . For cases in which the heat capacity varies strongly (such as in case of latent heat), convergence may be difficult. If the user element contains no heat capacity terms, the formulation for transient heat transfer is the same as for steady-state heat transfer. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.72 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Dynamic Analysis Second-order transient (inertial) effects must be included in UELs that are used with direct integration dynamic analysis (∗DYNAMIC). LFLAGS(1) indicates the dynamics procedure type being used: • LFLAGS(1)=11: Dynamic procedure with automatic time incrementation • LFLAGS(1)=12: Dynamic procedure with fixed time incrementation Additional coding related to transient terms, sudden changes in velocities or accelerations, and evaluation of the half-step residual (if automatic time incrementation is used) is required in the UEL. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.73 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures The value of LFLAGS(3) indicates the coding being executed and the matrices to be returned. LFLAGS(3)=1 Normal time increment. The user must specify the forces and Jacobian corresponding to the integration procedure used. • The force vector has the form F N = –M NM M u̇˙t + ∆t NM N N + ( 1 + α )G t + ∆t – αG t , N where M is the element mass matrix, G is the “static” force vector, and α is the Hughes-Hilbert-Taylor integration operator. N – The static force vector G must also contain the rate-dependent (damping) terms. N – The vector G t must be stored as a set of state variables. – The parameter α is passed into the subroutine as PARAMS(1). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.74 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures • The Jacobian has the form M NM du̇˙ ------ + ( 1 + α )C du NM du̇ ------ + ( 1 + α )K du NM where C is the element damping matrix and K tangent stiffness matrix. NM NM , is the static – ( du̇˙ ⁄ du ) and ( du̇ ⁄ du ) follow from the integration operator. For the HHT operator, 1 γ ( du̇˙ ⁄ du ) = ----------2-, ( du̇ ⁄ du ) = --------- , β∆t β∆t 2 where β = ( 1 ⁄ 4 ) ( 1 – α ) and γ = 1 ⁄ 2 – α are the coefficients in the Newmark- β operator – The parameters β and γ are passed into the subroutine as PARAMS(2) and PARAMS(3). 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.75 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Remarks • The coding is simplified considerably if the HHT parameter α =0. N – In particular, there is no need to store the static residual vector, G t . – The variable, α , can be set to zero with the ALPHA parameter on the ∗DYNAMIC option. • If the user element has no inertia or damping terms (i.e., if the force vector does not depend on the velocities and accelerations), the α parameter can be ignored in the subroutine. – If the user element includes viscous effects but no inertia terms, the same approach can be used as for transient heat transfer analysis. NM M The force vector then should contain the term – C ∆u ⁄ ∆t , and NM the term C ⁄ ∆t must be added to the stiffness. – In that case the α parameter can again be ignored. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.76 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures LFLAGS(3)=5 Half step residual calculation, which is needed only for automatic time incrementation. • Only the force vector must be supplied, which has the form F N = M NM α N N N u̇˙t + ∆t ⁄ 2 + ( 1 + α )G t + ∆t ⁄ 2 – --- ( G t + G t 0 ) , 2 N where G t 0 is the static residual at the beginning of the previous increment. N – G t 0 must be stored as a solution-dependent state vector. N N – The vector u̇˙t + ∆t ⁄ 2 is passed into the subroutine, G t + ∆t ⁄ 2 , and G t must be calculated. – It is obvious that this expression simplifies considerably if α =0. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.77 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures LFLAGS(3)=4 Velocity jump calculation, which will be done at the start of each dynamic step and after contact changes. • The purpose of this calculation is to make the velocities conform to constraints imposed by ∗MPC, ∗EQUATION, or contact conditions while preserving momentum. • The Jacobian is equal to the mass matrix, and the force vector should be set to zero. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.78 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures LFLAGS(3)=6 Acceleration calculation, which will be done at the start of each dynamic step (unless INITIAL=NO on the ∗DYNAMIC option) and after contact changes. • The purpose of this calculation is to create dynamic equilibrium at the start of a step or after contact changes. • The Jacobian is equal to the mass matrix, and the force vector should contain static and damping contributions only. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.79 ABAQUS Using Nonlinear User Elements in Various Analysis Procedures Remarks Implementation of a user element with inertia effects in a dynamic analysis is fairly complicated. Simplifications to the UEL can be realized if: • The ALPHA parameter on the ∗DYNAMIC option is set to zero. • No inertia effects are included in the user element. – Inertia effects can be included “indirectly” by overlaying standard ABAQUS elements on top of user elements. In this case, the ABAQUS elements should have negligible stiffness. For example, it is possible to overlay B23 elements on top of the beam elements with nonlinear section behavior shown in the first example. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS L7.80 ABAQUS Workshop Preliminaries Setting Up the Workshop Directories and Files If you are taking this seminar in an HKS office, the steps in the following section have already been done for you: skip to Basic Operating System Commands (p. WP.3). If everyone in your group is familiar with the operating system, skip directly to the workshops. The workshop files are included on the ABAQUS release CD. If you have problems finding the files or setting up the directories, ask your systems manager for help. Note for systems managers: If you are setting up these directories and files for someone else, please make sure that there are appropriate privileges on the directories and files so that the user can write to the files and create new files in the directories. Workshop File Setup (Note: UNIX is case-sensitive. Therefore, lowercase and uppercase letters must be typed as they are shown or listed.) 1. Find out where the ABAQUS release is installed by typing UNIX and Windows NT: abqxxx whereami where abqxxx is the name of the ABAQUS execution procedure on your system. It can be defined to have a different name. For example, the command for the 6.2–1 version might be aliased to abq621. This command will give the full path to the directory where ABAQUS is installed, referred to here as abaqus_dir. 2. Extract all the workshop files from the course tar file by typing UNIX: abaqus_dir/exec/perl abaqus_dir/samples/course_setup.pl Windows NT: abaqus_dir\exec\Perl abaqus_dir\samples\course_setup.pl An alternative method is to edit the script course_setup.pl and change the first line of the script to the local installation of the Perl interpreter or the one available in abaqus_dir/exec. For example: #!/usr/bin/perl becomes #!abaqus_dir/exec/perl 7/01 Preliminaries for ABAQUS Workshops WP.1 ABAQUS Workshop Preliminaries 3. The script will install the files into the current working directory. You will be asked to verify this and to choose which files you wish to install. Choose “y” for the appropriate lecture series when prompted. Once you have selected the lecture series, type “q” to skip the remaining lectures and to proceed with the installation of the chosen workshops. 9/01 Preliminaries for ABAQUS Workshops WP.2 Workshop Preliminaries ABAQUS Basic Operating System Commands (You can skip this section and go directly to the workshops if everyone in your group is familiar with the operating system.) Note: The following commands are limited to those necessary for doing the workshop exercises. Working with Directories 1. Start in the current working directory. List the directory contents by typing UNIX: ls Windows NT: dir Both subdirectories and files will be listed. On some systems the file type (directory, executable, etc.) will be indicated by a symbol. 2. Change directories to a workshop subdirectory by typing Both UNIX and Windows NT: cd dir_name 3. To list with a long format showing sizes, dates, and file, type UNIX: ls -l Windows NT: dir 4. Return to your home directory: UNIX: cd Windows NT: cd home-dir List the directory contents to verify that you are back in your home directory. 5. Change to the workshop subdirectory again. 6. The * is a wildcard character and can be used to do a partial listing. For example, list only ABAQUS input files by typing UNIX: ls *.inp Windows NT: dir *.inp Working with Files Use one of these files, filename.inp, to perform the following tasks: 1. Copy filename.inp to a file with the name newcopy.inp by typing UNIX: cp filename.inp newcopy.inp Windows NT: copy filename.inp newcopy.inp 7/01 Preliminaries for ABAQUS Workshops WP.3 Workshop Preliminaries ABAQUS 2. Rename (or move) this new file to newname.inp by typing UNIX: mv newcopy.inp newname.inp Windows NT: rename newcopy.inp newname.inp (Be careful when using cp and mv since UNIX will overwrite existing files without warning.) 3. Delete this file by typing UNIX: rm newname.inp Windows NT: erase newname.inp 4. View the contents of the files filename.inp by typing UNIX: more filename.inp Windows NT: type filename.inp | more This step will scroll through the file one page at a time. Now you are ready to start the workshops. 9/01 Preliminaries for ABAQUS Workshops WP.4 ABAQUS Workshop 1 User Subroutine FILM Goals • To learn how to find the compile and link commands used on your system. dh • To see how sensitive the rate of convergence is on the value of ------ . dθ dh • To see if the results are sensitive to the value of ------ . dθ Problem Description User subroutine FILM will be used to define s 1⁄3 h ( θ ) = 500 θ w – θ i , (EQ 1) s where θ i = 100° C is the fluid temperature, and θ w is the surface temperature. The subroutine will be tested on a two-element model, which is shown in Figure W1–1. All nodes are initially at 77° C. Convection boundary condition applied with FILM 3 2 θ = 277° 1 Figure W1–1. Two-Element Model 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W1.1 Workshop 1: User Subroutine FILM ABAQUS Steady-State Solution: Correct Model The input file film_test-1.inp calculates the steady-state solution for the problem shown in Figure W1–1. 1. Look at the file film_test-1.f. It is in the directory user_subroutines/ film. dh This file contains the correct format for h and ------ . dθ dh Question W1–1: Which variable is assigned the value of ------ ? dθ Question W1–2: What is the derivative of the absolute value of a variable; that is, dy what is ------ when y = x ? dx 2. Submit the input file film_test-1.inp to ABAQUS. The command to submit the file is abaqus j=film_test-1 user=film_test-1.f By default on our system, the analysis will run as a background process. Look at the contents of the film_test-1.log file to see how the analysis is progressing. 3. Look at the number of iterations ABAQUS needed for each increment of the analysis; this information can be found in either the status (.sta) or the message (.msg) files. Enter the total number of iterations that ABAQUS needed during the analysis to obtain the solution in Table W1–1. Question W1–3: Where is the easiest place to find the total number of iterations used during an analysis? 4. If you want to provide the functionality of a user subroutine to another user, but you do not want to provide them with the source code, you will have to compile the user subroutine prior to running ABAQUS. However, to do this, you need to know what the proper compile command is for your system. Question W1–4: How can you find out the proper compile command for your system? Optional: 1. Once you find the proper compile commands for your system, try precompiling the user subroutine. 2. Create symbolic links to the ABA_PARAM.INC file. The syntax to create this link is found in the communications (.com) file; it will vary from system to system. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W1.2 Workshop 1: User Subroutine FILM ABAQUS 3. Submit the input file and the precompiled user subroutine to ABAQUS: abaqus j=film_test-2 input=film_test-1 user=film_test-1.o 4. Compare the wall clock times for the two simulations. How much time was saved? Steady-State Solution: Model with Error 1 1. Submit the input file film_test-e1.inp to ABAQUS using the subroutine in film_test-e1.f. dh This model contains an error in the definition of ------ : dθ h(2) = third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) The correct definition of h(2) should contain a term, a1, which is defined by the sign of temp-sink: a1 = sign(1.0, temp-sink) h(2) = a1*third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) Question W1–5: Do you think this is a significant error? 2. Look at the number of iterations ABAQUS needed for each increment of the analysis. Enter the total number of iterations that ABAQUS needed during the analysis to obtain a solution in Table W1–1. 3. Compare the final temperature values from this analysis with those from the film_test-1 analysis. Steady-State Solution: Model with Error 2 1. Submit the input file film_test-e2.inp to ABAQUS using the subroutine in film_test-e2.f dh This model contains an error in the definition of ------ : dθ h(2) = third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-third) The correct definition of h(2) should have the term (abs(temp-sink)) raised to the – 2 ⁄ 3 power: h(2) = a1*third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) 2. Look at the number of iterations ABAQUS needed for each increment of the analysis. Enter the total number of iterations that ABAQUS needed during the analysis to obtain a solution in Table W1–1. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W1.3 Workshop 1: User Subroutine FILM ABAQUS 3. Compare the final temperature values from this analysis with those from the film_test-1 analysis. Question W1–6: Were there any differences in the results? Were they significant? Steady-State Solution: Model with Error 3 1. Submit the input file film_test-e3.inp to ABAQUS using the subroutine in film_test-e3.f. dh This model contains an error in the definition of ------ : dθ h(2) = third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(two*third) The correct definition of h(2) should have the term (abs(temp-sink)) raised to the – 2 ⁄ 3 : h(2) = a1*third*500.0d0*(abs(temp-sink))**(-two*third) 2. Look at the number of iterations ABAQUS needed for each increment of the analysis. Enter the total number of iterations that ABAQUS needed during the analysis to obtain a solution in Table W1–1. 3. The analysis has failed to converge. Question W1–7: Why does the analysis fail to converge? Table W1–1 Model Number of Iterations film_test-1.inp film_test-e1.inp film_test-e2.inp film_test-e3.inp 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W1.4 Answers to Workshop 1 ABAQUS Answers 1 User Subroutine FILM Question W1–1: Answer: Question W1–2: Answer: Question W1–3: Answer: dh Which variable is assigned the value of ------ ? dθ The second position in the array H, H(2), is given the value. dy What is the derivative of the absolute value of a variable; that is, what is -----dx when y = x ? The derivative of the absolute value of a variable is either – 1 or +1 depending on the sign of the variable. Where is the easiest place to find the total number of iterations used during an analysis? The easiest place to find the total number of iterations is in the summary at the end of the message file. ANALYSIS SUMMARY: TOTAL OF 1 5 45 45 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 INCREMENTS CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION ITERATIONS PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH INVOLVE MATRIX DECOMPOSITION, INCLUDING DECOMPOSITION(S) OF THE MASS MATRIX ADDITIONAL RESIDUAL EVALUATIONS FOR LINE SEARCHES ADDITIONAL OPERATOR EVALUATIONS FOR LINE SEARCHES WARNING MESSAGES DURING USER INPUT PROCESSING WARNING MESSAGES DURING ANALYSIS ANALYSIS WARNINGS ARE NUMERICAL PROBLEM MESSAGES ANALYSIS WARNINGS ARE NEGATIVE EIGENVALUE MESSAGES ERROR MESSAGES THE SPARSE SOLVER HAS BEEN USED FOR THIS ANALYSIS. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS WA1.1 ABAQUS Answers to Workshop 1 The status file does not provide a total number of iterations used in an analysis if there are any cutbacks in the increment size and may not provide the correct number if there are any severe discontinuity iterations. Question W1–4: Answer: How can you find out the proper compile command for your system? You could look in the communications (.com) file, or you could use the abaqus help=environment command. If you look in the communications file, you will find the following lines: ln -s /usr/abaqus60/abqver/sgi4000/../../release/sgi4000/ r5-07-001/site/aba_param_dp.inc aba_param.inc ln -s /usr/abaqus60/abqver/sgi4000/../../release/sgi4000/ r5-07-001/site/aba_param_dp.inc ABA_PARAM.INC . . . echo Compiling... film_test-e3.f f77 -G 0 -mp -c -mips2 -32 -O2 film_test-e3.f The symbolic links (ln -s commands) are needed to include the ABA_PARAM.INC file during the compile command. It is important to use all the flags and settings on the compile command that are found by either method. 7/01 Question W1–5: Answer: Do you think this is a significant error? It is not likely to be a significant error because the sign of the derivative will s always be positive in this example ( θ w – θ i > 0 ). Question W1–6: Answer: Were there any differences in the results? Were they significant? There were differences between the two analyses; however, the differences were minor errors in the fourth significant figure of the numbers. Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS WA1.2 ABAQUS Question W1–7: Answer: 7/01 Answers to Workshop 1 Why does the analysis fail to converge? The analysis fails to converge because the rate of convergence is very slow and ABAQUS continues to cut back the increment size. The rate of dh convergence is slow because the value calculated for ------ contains a large dθ error. Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS WA1.3 ABAQUS Workshop 2 User Subroutine UMAT: Tangent Stiffness Goals • To investigate the effect of the tangent stiffness matrix on convergence. • To see how a poorly developed material model can cause problems in simulations that are under load control. Problem Description The tangent stiffness matrix calculated in user subroutine UMAT plays a critical role in the Newton-Raphson algorithm in ABAQUS/Standard. Errors in the formulation of the tangent stiffness matrix will result in analyses that require more iterations and, in some cases, diverge. In this workshop the importance of calculating tangent stiffness correctly is explored by analyzing a small problem under uniaxial tension. Both displacement and load control simulations are considered. The material response being modeled is elastic-plastic; Mises plasticity is assumed. The analysis is carried out by modifying the material stiffness calculated with user subroutine UMAT, which effectively introduces an error into the tangent stiffness matrix. To build confidence in user subroutine UMAT, the problem is first solved using the built-in Mises plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS/Standard. Analyses with the ∗PLASTIC Material Model 1. Submit the file umat/axi1.inp to ABAQUS. This input file is set up for a displacement-control analysis and uses the Mises plasticity routine that is built into ABAQUS. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W2.1 ABAQUS Workshop 2: User Subroutine UMAT: Tangent Stiffness 2. Enter the number of increments and the total number of iterations required to complete this displacement control analysis in Table W2–1. Under the heading “Flag Setting” enter “built in.” Table W2–1 Displacement Control Flag Setting Number of Increments Number of Iterations Load Control Flag Setting Number of Increments Number of Iterations 3. Copy axi1.inp into another file name, and modify it as follows: remove the nonzero displacement boundary conditions, and add a negative pressure loading of 40000 on the element in the axial direction. 4. Submit the new file to ABAQUS. 5. Repeat Step 2, except put the results in the load control portion of the table. Displacement-Control Analyses with the UMAT Material Model Now solve the same problem using user subroutine UMAT. • The material constants used in the user subroutine are specified with the ∗USER MATERIAL option. • Seven material constants are specified in this problem. • The seventh material constant is used as a flag in user subroutine UMAT: when it is set to 1, UMAT returns the actual (i.e., correct) material stiffness; when it is set to 0, UMAT returns only the elastic stiffness. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W2.2 Workshop 2: User Subroutine UMAT: Tangent Stiffness ABAQUS 1. The file umat/axi2.inp contains the input data for the model, and the file umat/iso_mises_umat.f contains the source code for the UMAT. The file axi2.inp is set up for a displacement-control analysis; the seventh material constant is set to 1, which provides ABAQUS/Standard with the correct tangent stiffness. 2. Submit the input file. 3. Compare the results of this analysis with those obtained for the displacement-control analysis using the built-in Mises plasticity routine. 4. Enter the flag setting, number of increments, and the total number of iterations required to complete the analysis in the displacement-control section of Table W2–1. 5. Modify the material constants so that the seventh constant under the ∗USER MATERIAL option is set to 0, which provides ABAQUS/Standard with the incorrect tangent stiffness. 6. Repeat Step 2–Step 4. Question W2–1: Are the results obtained with the modified stiffness matrix correct? Load-Control Analyses with the UMAT Material Model Now repeat the analysis under a state of load control. 1. Copy axi2.inp into another file name, and modify it as follows: remove the nonzero displacement boundary conditions, and add a negative pressure loading of 40000 on the element in the axial direction. 2. Set the seventh material constant to 1. 3. Submit the job. Enter the flag setting, number of increments, and the total number of iterations required to complete the analysis in Table W2–1. 4. Repeat Step 3 when the seventh material constant is set to 0. Question W2–2: 7/01 What can you say about the difference in the convergence behavior of this problem when a pressure loading is applied instead of a boundary condition? Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS W2.3 Answers to Workshop 2 ABAQUS Answers 2 User Subroutine UMAT: Tangent Stiffness Question W2–1: Answer: Are the results obtained with the modified stiffness matrix correct? Yes. Errors in the tangent stiffness will only affect the convergence behavior, not the final result. When the elastic stiffness is used instead of the true stiffness, the number of iterations is increased. The results (when obtained) are still correct. Question W2–2: What can you say about the difference in the convergence behavior of this problem when a pressure loading is applied instead of a boundary condition? Displacement-control problems are more stable than load-control problems. When the elastic stiffness is used instead of the true stiffness, the displacement-control analysis ran successfully but the load-control analysis failed. Answer: 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS WA2.1 Answers to Workshop 2 ABAQUS Table W2–1 Displacement Control Flag Setting Number of Increments Number of Iterations built in 6 8 1 6 8 0 6 21 Load Control Flag Setting Number of Increments Number of Iterations built in 9 28 1 9 28 0 6* 59* *Did not run to completion. 7/01 Writing User Subroutines with ABAQUS WA2.2

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