pco.edge family pco.
user manual
pco.edge family
pco.
Target Audience: This camera is designed for use by technicians,
engineers, and scientists.
In case of any questions or comments, please contact us at PCO.
telephone
+49 (0) 9441 2005 50
fax
+49 (0) 9441 2005 20
email
[email protected]
postal address
PCO AG
Donaupark 11
93309 Kelheim, Germany
The cover photo shows an exemplary PCO camera system.
The lens is sold separately.
Copyright © 2015 PCO AG (called PCO in the following text), Kelheim,
Germany. All rights reserved. PCO assumes no responsibility for errors or
omissions in these materials. These materials are provided as is without
warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to,
the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or
non-infringement. PCO further does not warrant the accuracy or
completeness of the information, text, graphics, links or other items
contained within these materials. PCO shall not be liable for any special,
indirect, incidental, or consequential damages, including without limitation,
lost revenues or lost profits, which may result from the use of these materials.
The information is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of PCO in the future. PCO hereby authorizes you to
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consideration of this authorization, you agree that any copy of these
documents, which you make, shall retain all copyright and other proprietary
notices contained herein. Each individual document published by PCO may
contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that
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conferring by implication or otherwise any license or right under any patent or
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nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right
under any PCO copyright. Note that any product, process, or technology in
this document may be the subject of other intellectual property rights
reserved by PCO, and may not be licensed hereunder.
Released January 2015 © PCO AG
pco.edge family User Manual V2.01 © PCO AG, Germany
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOP
1. INTRODUCTION
4
2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
6
3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
7
4. INSTALLATION
8
4.1 CAMERA DRIVER
8
4.2 CAMWARE
9
5. QUICK START
10
5.1 PREPARATION
10
5.2 START
10
5.3 YOUR FIRST IMAGE
11
6. CAMERA CONTROL
12
6.1 THE CAMERA CONTROL WINDOW
12
6.2 THE TIMING TAB
13
6.2.1 ROLLING SHUTTER
15
6.2.2 GLOBAL SHUTTER
19
6.2.3 GLOBAL RESET
22
6.3 THE SENSOR (SIZE) TAB
24
6.4 THE SENSOR (MISC.) TAB
25
6.5 THE RECORDING TAB
26
6.6 THE I/O SIGNALS TAB
29
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
31
7.1 IF NO CAMERA IS DETECTED (DEMO MODE)
31
7.2 OVERVIEW
32
7.3 THE FILE MENU
33
7.4 THE CAMERA MENU
37
7.5 THE ACQUISITION MENU
38
7.6 THE VIEW MENU
39
7.7 THE WINDOW MENU
42
7.8 THE HELP MENU
42
7.9 THE LOCAL MENU
43
7.10 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
44
2
APPENDIX
45
A1 MECHANICAL DIMENSIONS
46
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
48
A3 USB 2.0/3.0 FOL EXTENDER
49
A4 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
50
A4.1 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
50
A4.2 FIRST TIME INSTALLATION
51
A4.3 OPERATION
52
A4.4 DIMENSIONS
53
A5 CAMERA LINK
54
A5.1 INSTALLATION OF THE GRABBER CARD
54
A5.2 MICRODIAGNOSTICS TOOL
55
A5.3 IMAGE DATA FLOW
56
A6 USB 3.0
58
A6.1 HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS
58
A6.2 INSTALLATION OF THE USB 3.0 CARD
60
A7 BINNING IN CMOS SENSORS
61
A8 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
62
A9 SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
64
A10 CUSTOMER SERVICE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
65
ABOUT PCO
66
3
1 INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
Advantages of the pco.edge family
The pco.edge family is a breakthrough in scientific imaging
cameras. It has the distinctive ability to simultaneously
deliver extremely low noise, high frame rates, wide dynamic
range, high quantum efficiency, high resolution and a large
field of view - all in one image.
The camera’s main features (camera-specific)
•
•
•
•
ultra low noise 0.8 electrons med (pco.edge (gold) 4.2)
high resolution 5.5 megapixel (pco.edge 5.5)
best dynamic range 36000:1 (pco.edge (gold) 4.2)
high-speed 100 fps @ full resolution (pco.edge 4.2 & 5.5, Camera Link)
•
high quantum efficiency up to 70% (pco.edge 4.2)
• deep cooling down to - 30 °C (pco.edge gold, water cooling)
• flexibility user selectable choice of shutter mode
• free of drift stabilized Peltier cooling in order to avoid any drift
phenomena in image sequences
Areas of Application
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
live cell microscopy
single molecule detection
localization microscopy
lightsheet microscopy
selective plane illumination
microscopy
SPIM
structured illumination
microscopy
SIM
TIRF microscopy /
waveguides
spinning disk confocal
microscopy
genome sequencing (2nd
and 3rd gen)
FRET
4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FRAP
lucky astronomy / imaging
adaptive optics
solar astronomy
fluorescence spectroscopy
bio- & chemiluminescence
high content screening
photovoltaic inspection
x-ray tomography
ophthalmology
flow cytometry
biochip reading
machine vision
spectral (hyperspectral)
imaging
• laser induced breakdownspectroscopy (LIBS)
PCO.EDGE FAMILY
Overview – Available camera models
This table shows an overview over all available camera models.
Read Out
Frequency
FPS
(Max)
Sensor
110 MHz
40
mono
95.3 MHz
(slow scan)
30
mono
272.3 MHz
(fast scan)
100
mono
Rolling (RS)
110 MHz
40
mono
Rolling (RS)
86 MHz
30
Global (GS)
under
development
-
95.3 MHz
(slow scan)
30
286 MHz
(fast scan)
100
286 MHz
(fast scan)
50
95.3 MHz
(slow scan)
30
286 MHz
(fast scan)
90
Rolling (RS)
86 MHz
30
Global (GS)
under
development
-
Type
Interface
Shutter
pco.edge 4.2
USB 3.0
Rolling (RS)
pco.edge 4.2
Camera
Link
Rolling (RS)
pco.edge
gold 4.2
USB 3.0
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
Rolling (RS)
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
Global (GS)
Global
Reset
(GR)
pco.edge
gold 5.5
USB 3.0
mono &
color
mono &
color
mono &
color
*since the image quality in Global Shutter Mode decreases with
slower readout frequency, the slow scan mode is disabled.
5
2 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Please read the safety instructions completely
Never operate the camera in humid or dusty environments or in
places with high amounts of X-ray radiation. Humidity, dust or Xrays could damage the camera.
To avoid the risk of water condensation, protect the camera
against extreme changes of ambient temperature. If condensation
enters the camera, there is the risk of electric shock.
To prevent damage to the camera, the system must be kept stable
and protected against strong jolts or vibrations. The socket at the
bottom of the camera is to be used for mounting purposes only.
Electric shock warning – Never slide any items through slits or holes
into the camera because of the risk of electric shock if the voltage
parts inside are touched.
Each time the camera is used, check the power cable for any
damage.
Never position the cable in a way that it could become a tripping
hazard.
Do not force the lens onto the camera. To protect the lens
connector thread from damage, use minimal force when attaching a
lens to the camera.
If any of the following conditions apply, immediately switch off the
camera, separate it from the power line and contact our customer
support:
If the power cable or the power plug seems to be worn or
damaged.
If liquids have penetrated the device.
If, after thoroughly reviewing the instruction manual, the
device is still not operating properly.
If the camera has been dropped or the casing is damaged.
6
3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The camera system includes the following parts.
Camera Head
F-mount optical connection (standard)
For standard F-mount / SLR lenses and adapters.
C-mount ring provided (see appendix A2)
For standard C-mount and microscopy connectors.
DC Power Jack (connect to power supply)
Input/Output 4x SMA connectors (2x input - 2x output)
Interface (user selectable) Dual Camera Link full or USB 3.0
LED indicates camera status
Green continuous: camera is booting
Green blinking:
camera is ready for operation
Yellow blinking: recording on
error
Red blinking:
Serial Number Tag (on the bottom of the camera)
Mounting Thread
1/4-20 UNC mounting thread
Camera Link Grabber Card / USB 3.0 PCI Interface Card
PCI Express x4 Card (Camera Link full) or
PCI Express x1 Card (2 x USB 3.0 connections)
A PCI Card with 4 x USB 3.0 connections is also available, contact PCO for further
details. A PCIe x4 slot is necessary for this card.
Power Supply
Your system will be equipped with either a 24 V or a 12 V power supply,
depending on the model you selected. (connector: Lemo FGG.0B)
Cable
CameraLink Cable (picture) or USB-A/USB-B cable (5m)
Digital Camera Tools (USB storage device content)
•
•
•
CamWare: software for camera control & image acquisition
Camera driver & tools
Software development kit (SDK) & demo programs in C and C++
7
4 INSTALLATION
4. INSTALLATION
You will find all necessary files on the accompanying USB storage
device. You may also download the newest versions of our software,
camera driver and third party software drivers from our Website
(www.pco.de).
Minimum system requirements:
•
•
•
•
•
Clock speed > 2 GHz
RAM > 4 GB
Windows 7 or higher
1280 x 1024 pixel resolution display
USB 3.0 or Camera Link
4.1 CAMERA DRIVER
There are two different camera interfaces available:
Camera Link (Frame Grabber)
When operating the camera with Camera Link Interface: Please run
the appropriate grabber driver installation (provided with the
accompanying USB stick) with default settings.
For detailed installation instructions please see appendix A5 (ME4
Grabber Instruction).
USB 3.0
When USB 3.0 is used as a camera interface, it is recommended to
use the enclosed PCI Interface card. For detailed installation
instructions or further hardware recommendations, see A6.
Install PCO USB 3.0 Driver
For pco.edge USB 3.0 you always need to install the latest USB
Driver version. After these two screens 1 2 the driver is completely
installed.
2
1
8
4.2 CAMWARE
The CamWare Windows application software enables you to control
every camera parameter or setting. Images can be displayed on a
monitor and may be downloaded and stored. The USB storage
device contains the installation files for the software for latest
Windows operating systems in 32 & 64 bit.
After a successful installation, you will find the program file Digital
Camera Toolbox in your program directory and a CamWare32/64
button on your desktop. Other helpful tools are also installed in the
same directory.
To uninstall the CamWare program, please use the Software feature
under Windows’ System Control.
Please follow the installation wizard
•1
Install CamWare as Admin to install to program folder, instead it
will be installed only to user folder.
•2
Then choose install directory.
•3
Choose components: Select additional drivers for camera Link
Interface
•4
After the next two screens installation is complete.
1
2
3
4
9
5 QUICK START
5. QUICK START
In order to get familiar with your new camera and software it might be
helpful, if you first aim at an object that is easy to focus and that can
be seen at standard light conditions.
5.1 PREPARATION
•
Computer is turned on
• Installation is finished (see chapter 4)
• An appropriate lens is attached (remove cap) or the camera is
attached properly to the microscope, spectrograph or other
scientific device
• Camera is connected to the PC (USB 3.0 or CameraLink)
• Camera is connected to the power supply and ready (LED green
blinking)
5.2 START
Start CamWare and the graphical user interface will start up:
NOTE
Always install latest CamWare version to to get access to the full
functionality of your pco camera.
10
5.3 YOUR FIRST IMAGE
Please follow the instructions:
1• CamWare must be started
2• Open view window (b/w or color)
3• Start live preview
4• Apply auto range peak
5• You may adjust exposure time, aperture and focus
6•
Now you should clearly see the object in the window
If you need to change exposure time
(e.g. the image is still either too dark or
too bright), please go to chapter 6.1.
If you want to record and save images,
please see chapter 6 and chapter 7 for
detailed information.
(Screenshot shows color camera)
NOTE
Live preview: Useful for fast and easy camera adjustment and
focusing. This command disables the Camera Control window if it
is opened (except exposure time setting).
11
6 CAMERA CONTROL
6. CAMERA CONTROL
The Camera Control window in CamWare is the main interface for all
camera settings. For further CamWare features please see chapter 7.
6.1 THE CAMERA CONTROL WINDOW
The camera control window can be opened by selecting the
proper command in the Camera-Menu or by the corresponding
button in the toolbar.
1
The camera control dialog always adapts
to the camera type connected. For the
pco.edge the camera control settings are
spread over five property sheets 1 ,
which will be explained at the next pages.
Changes to the camera control sheets
must be completed by pressing the
Accept button 2 .
3
In the information field 3 you can see
some information about the camera. Click
into the info field to change the displayed
views.
2
There are three available views of the information field 3
Camera type
Actual temperatures
Image size and frame
rate
NOTE
If the Accept button is not pressed, these changes will be ignored
and lost. If the changes are within the allowed condition limits of
the camera, a message is sent to the computer, the button
disappears and the green lamp will be highlighted. The camera
control dialog automatically adjusts settings in case they are out
of limits.
12
6.2 THE TIMING TAB
In this context trigger means exposure
trigger, i.e. the trigger signal controls the
exposure of a single image (light
integration time).
Trigger Mode 1
1
NOTE
If the trigger rate of the
external signal is quite
near the maximum
possible frame rate
(difference < 1/1000),
then it will be random,
whether or not a trigger
is accepted!
Auto Sequence The camera will optimize
the image recording to achieve the best
possible frame rate.
In the auto sequence exposure control
mode, the camera determines the fastest
possible frame rate depending on the
adjusted exposure time and the required
readout time.
After a start command is given, the sequential recording is started
until a stop command is given.
Soft Trigger Single images can be recorded with this CamWare
command. The single image can be acquired by pressing the Single
Trigger button. This button appears after pressing the Start Record
button (see 7.2). Other signals cannot influence this operating mode.
For test purposes only.
In the External Exp. Start exposure control mode, single image
recording is started by the falling or rising edge of the voltage signal
at the BNC input #1(see 6.6). The frame rate cannot be set, as the
frame rate is defined by the frequency of the external signal. However
the predefined exposure time and ROI settings affect the maximum
possible frame rate.
The Busy Status signal at BNC #3 (BNC explanation see 6.6) will
indicate if a new trigger is accepted.
Exp trig (in)
Exp Stat (out)
Busy Stat (out)
acc. not acc.
accepted
accepted
The maximum achievable frame rate in external trigger mode is
negligibly less (about 0.1%) than operating the camera in Auto
Sequence mode.
If the trigger rate of the external signal is higher than the maximum
possible frame rate, then every second trigger pulse is ignored.
Therefore the actual frame rate drops to half of the external trigger
rate. If the trigger rate is increased further, then only every third, every
fourth etc. trigger edge will be accepted.
13
6 CAMERA CONTROL
Exp trig (in)
Exp Stat (out)
Busy Stat (out)
acc.
not acc.
acc. not acc. acc.
not acc. acc.
not acc.
In order to avoid trade-offs at maximum frame rate use either the
Busy Status signal or make sure that the external trigger rate follows
this condition: External Trigger Rate ≤ fmax / 1.001.
External Exp. Ctrl An external signal applied at BNC #1 (see 6.6),
controls the start and the duration of the exposure.
A new exposure is started by the falling or rising edge of the voltage
signal at the BNC input. The exposure is finished when the opposite
edge is detected. Thus in this mode, the start as well as the length of
the exposure time can be controlled.
No further settings can be made, as the image timing is completely
controlled by the external trigger signal.
Be aware, that the externally controlled exposure time is limited. The
integration will be stopped automatically if the maximum exposure
time is achieved.
Camera
pco.edge 4.2
pco.edge gold 4.2
pco.edge 5.5
Max.
exposure time
10 s
20 s
Interface
Shutter Mode
Camera Link
USB 3.0
Rolling Shutter
USB 3.0
Rolling Shutter
60 s
Global Shutter
100 ms
Rolling Shutter
2s
Global Reset
2s
Camera Link
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
Rolling Shutter
2s
pco.edge gold 5.5
USB 3.0
Rolling Shutter
10 s
The Busy Status signal at BNC #3 (see 6.6) indicates if a new trigger
is accepted.
Exp trig (in)
Exp Stat (out)
Busy Stat (out)
treadout
acc.
not acc.
14
accepted
accepted
6.2.1 ROLLING SHUTTER
In Rolling Shutter mode the pixel reset and exposure start is carried
out row by row. Each row has the same exposure time, but a different
start of exposure. The pco.edge image sensor consists of two
discrete halves, which are exposed and read out simultaneously, i.e.
from the outside to the center. Within one row, the exposure starts
simultaneously for all pixels. Available RS readout modes see 7.4.
General Timing Diagram
reset
start
reset
end
readout
start
tglobal
tframe
readout
end
tframe
texposure (first row)
t t
texposure (last row)
tall rows
The exposure time of each row starts with the corresponding reset of
the row. Then after a predefined time, the exposure is stopped. The
light induced accumulated charge carriers of the pixels in a row are
recorded into memory in a low noise (readout) mode. This results in
the total image appearing in memory corresponding to the row
readout.
Timing
The exposure and delay time can be adjusted in steps of 10µs.
Camera (RS only)
Interface
Camera Link &
USB 3.0
pco.edge 4.2
pco.edge gold 4.2
pco.edge 5.5
pco.edge gold 5.5
15
Exposure time
Delay time
100 µs … 10 s
0 µs … 1s
USB 3.0
100 µs ... 60 s
0 µs … 1s
Camera Link &
USB 3.0
500 µs … 2 s
0 µs … 1s
USB 3.0
500 µs ... 10 s
0 µs … 1s
6 CAMERA CONTROL
FPS based The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve
the selected frame rate with chosen exposure time as close as
possible.
• Only for Auto Sequence trigger mode
• FPS based mode only available with Camera Link Interface
First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image
is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced to 1 /
treadout.
The frame rate can be adjusted in steps of 1 mHz (Rolling Shutter).
If the selected exposure time would require a lower frame rate, the
exposure time is cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate.
Camera
(RS only)
Interface
pco.edge 4.2
(@ full resol.)
Camera
Link
pco.edge 5.5
(@ full resol.)
Camera
Link
Frame rate (FPS Based)
0.1…35 Hz @ 95.3 MHz
0.1…100 Hz @ 272.3 MHz
0.5…33.3 Hz @ 95.3 MHz
Exposure time
100 µs…10 s
500 µs…2 s
Exposure time > Sensor frame readout time (Auto Sequence)
In case the required exposure is longer than the frame readout time,
the image sensor is completely exposed to light for some time (tglobal).
In case of a triggered flash illumination, this would be the best
moment to illuminate the image sensor.
t exposure
1st row, 2nd
image
t exposure
1st row, 1st
image
Trigger
(in)
Start
Busy
(out)
Start
Expos
(out)
Start
Global
(out)
Start
tframe
t all rows 1st
t all rows 2nd
16
Δt
=t
The hardware signal for the time tglobal is available on connector #4
(Global out see 6.6). Setting can only be made through SDK (not
available in CamWare).
Obviously, if during exposure and readout, parts of the viewed image
are moving horizontally, this would result in image distortion. This is
why the global shutter mode may be a prerequisite for some
applications.
However, most dynamic events can be captured in 1 ms, which is a
common integration time with SLR cameras set at 1/1000 exposure.
The time shift from one row to another is only about 10 µs (fast scan).
The resulting maximum readout time of 10 ms (@ full resolution)
seems to be sufficient for a broad spectrum of dynamic events.
The 10 ms is also faster than the image shift process of most frame
transfer emCCD image sensors previously used for low light
applications. If this does not influence the image recording and
processing, then rolling shutter mode will not affect it either.
Exposure time < Sensor frame readout time (Auto Sequence)
In case the required exposure time is shorter than the frame readout
time, the image is composed of two exposure bands moving from the
outside to the center of the sensor.
exposure stop & readout
band of simultaneous exposure
reset & exposure start
For example, the shortest exposure time in RS (5.5) is 500 µs or 100
µs (4.2). The band of simultaneous exposure is in this case (smallest
possible height) at full resolution:
Min.
number of
simult.
rows
Inter
face
MHz
Min.
Exposure
time
pco.edge 4.2/
gold 4.2
USB 3.0
110
100 µs
24.10 µs
4
pco.edge 4.2
Camera
Link
95.3
100 µs
27.60 µs
3
272.3
100 µs
9.65 µs
10
pco.edge 5.5/
gold 5.5
USB 3.0
86
500 µs
30.50 µs
16
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
95.3
500 µs
27.52 µs
18
286
500 µs
9.17 µs
54
Camera
(RS only)
Time per row
Previous comments on image distortion (also known as Rolling
Shutter Effect) apply here as well.
17
6 CAMERA CONTROL
Trigger
(in)
Start
Busy
(out)
Start
Expos
(out)
Start
tframe
tall rows 1st image
tall rows 2nd image
Details for External Exp. Start and External Exp. Ctrl
The detailed timing for external trigger includes system delay times,
an adjustable additional delay time, and the jitter.
Exp trig (in)
Exposure
trsys
NOTE
The jitter tjit can be a
maximum of one row
time.
tdelay
tjit
Internal
system
clock
Camera
(RS only)
Interface
pco.edge 4.2
Camera
Link
72 MHz
pco.edge 4.2 /
gold 4.2
USB 3.0
100 MHz
pco.edge 5.5 /
gold 5.5
USB 3.0
100 MHz
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
72 MHz
tfsys
tsys
tdelay
tjit (jitter)
tjit
tdelay
(delay)
0 ... 27.60 µs
(slow scan)
0 … 1s
0 … 9.65 µs
(fast scan)
0 … 1s
50 ns
0 ... 24.10 µs
0 … 1s
50 ns
0… 30.50 µs
0 … 1s
0 ... 27.52 µs
(slow scan)
0 … 1s
0 … 9.17 µs
(fast scan)
0 … 1s
70 ns
70 ns
For optimized synchronization (minimized jitter time) use the falling
edge of the line signal at the status output (see SDK description).
18
6.2.2 GLOBAL SHUTTER
NOTE
Global Shutter is only
available for pco.edge
5.5 Camera Link and
under development for
pco.edge gold 5.5 and
5.5 USB.
First, all pixels are globally reset and these reset values are shifted
into so-called diffusion nodes. From there, they are non-destructively
read out into memory as reset dark images. The exposure starts after
transfer of the reset dark image to the diffusion nodes, where they are
stored on the chip. The exposure is stopped by global charge transfer
to the diffusion nodes. Then, the exposure image is read out to the
memory, where the former reset dark image is subtracted to perform
an external correlated double sampling, which reduces the noise.
Since two images have to be read out to receive one resulting image,
the sCMOS image sensor’s Global Shutter mode has only half of the
frame rate of the Rolling Shutter mode.
Exposure
Reset
Readout
Timing
The exposure and delay time can be adjusted in steps of 10µs.
Camera (GS only)
pco.edge 5.5
Exposure time
10 µs .. 100 ms
Delay time
0 µs … 1 s
FPS based
The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the selected
frame rate with chosen exposure time as close as possible.
• Only for Auto Sequence trigger mode
• and only available with Camera Link Interface
First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image
is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced to
1 / treadout.
The frame rate can be adjusted in steps of 1 mHz (Global Shutter).
If the selected exposure time would require a lower frame rate, the
exposure time is cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate.
Camera
(GS only)
Interface
Frame rate (FPS Based)
Exposure time
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
10 … 50 Hz @ 286 MHz
10 µs … 100 ms
19
6 CAMERA CONTROL
External Exposure Start
(Auto Sequence respectively)
Trigger (in)
Busy (out)
Exposure (out)
Frame
Number of lines
tjit
tframe
texp
tdelay (system)
tif
1
ROI (y)
programmable
286 MHz
(fast scan)
0 … 9.17 µs
10.00 ms (max)
10 µs … 100 ms
(tframe – texp)
1
9.17 µs
The listed parameters can be output via SDK function “Get Image
Timing” dependend on the selected ROI.
NOTE
if texp < tframe system delay (tdelay) is added before exposure starts.
20
External Exposure Control
Trigger (in)
Busy (out)
Exposure (out)
Frame
Number of lines
1
ROI (y)
counted
tjit
tframe
texp
286 MHz
(fast scan)
0 … 9.17 µs
10.00 ms (max)
In External Exposure Control trigger mode the external signal
controls start of image acquisition and duration of the exposure. First,
all pixels are globally reset and these reset values are shifted into socalled diffusion nodes. From there, they are non-destructively read
out into memory as reset dark images.
In this mode, the exposure starts always after the readout of the dark
image is completed. The length of the exposure has been detected
by the sensor from the trigger input. The exposure is stopped by
global charge transfer to the diffusion nodes after the respective time.
Then, the exposure image is read out to the memory, where the
former reset dark image is subtracted to perform an external
correlated double sampling, which reduces the noise.
Since two images have to be read out to receive one resulting image
and the exposure cannot start during readout time of the dark image,
this specific Global Shutter mode provides less than half of the
frame rate of the Rolling Shutter mode.
21
6 CAMERA CONTROL
6.2.3 GLOBAL RESET
NOTE
Global Reset is only
available for pco.edge
5.5 Camera Link and
under development for
pco.edge USB 3.0
versions.
All pixels are globally reset, and the exposure starts for all rows at the
same time. The exposure stop is carried out row by row; therefore the
duration of the exposure is not the same for all pixels. The rolling
readout improves the image quality, but due to the difference in
exposure time, a flash illumination is recommended. The readout
(exposure stop) is done from the outside to the center.
General Timing Diagram
readout
start
reset /
exposure start
t global
readout
end
t frame
t exposure (first row)
t exposure (last row)
t all rows
The exposure time of all rows starts simultaneously. The exposure
time of the first row stops after the predefined time, the following
rows are read out from the outside to the center row by row. Please
note that this leads to a different duration of exposure time for all
rows.
Timing
The exposure and delay time can be adjusted in steps of 10 µs.
Camera (GR only)
pco.edge 5.5
22
Exposure time
Delay time
10 µs – 2 s
0 µs … 1 s
FPS based
The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the selected
frame rate with chosen exposure time as close as possible.
• Only for Auto Sequence trigger mode
• and only available with Camera Link Interface
First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image
is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced to 1 /
treadout.
The frame rate can be adjusted in steps of 1 mHz (Global Reset).
If the selected exposure time would require a lower frame rate, the
exposure time is cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate.
Camera
(GR only)
Interface
Frame rate (FPS Based)
Exposure
time
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
1 … 33.3 Hz @ 95.3 MHz
1 … 100 Hz @ 286 MHz
10µs … 2s
Details for External Exp. Start and External Exp. Ctrl
The detailed timing for external trigger includes system delay times,
an adjustable additional delay time and the jitter.
Exp trig (in)
Exposure
trsys
tdelay
Camera (GR only)
Interface
Camera
Link
pco.edge 5.5
tjit
tfsys
tsys
70
ns
tdelay
tjit
tjit (jitter)
tdelay (delay)
0 … 27.52 µs
(slow scan)
0 … 1s
0 … 9.17 µs
(fast scan)
0 … 1s
For optimized synchronization (minimized jitter time) use the falling
edge of the line signal at the status output (see SDK description).
23
6 CAMERA CONTROL
6.3 THE SENSOR (SIZE) TAB
Binning 1
Binning combines neighboring pixels (in
either the horizontal or vertical direction)
to form super pixels. It increases the
signal to noise ratio (SNR), reduces the
readout noise.of the resulting pixels and
decreases the spatial resolution of the
total image, which is recorded.
2
1
3
For furtherinformation see A7.
Available Binning Modes:
H1xV1, H1xV2, H1xV4, H2xV1, H2xV2,
H2xV4, H4xV1, H4xV2, H4xV4
Region of Interest 2
NOTE
Software based ROI
(Soft-ROI) is enabled
within CamWare by
default. Due to this
functionality,
the
resolution of pco.edge
cameras with Camera
Link interface can be
adjusted in steps of 1 –
4 pixels. Since the
readout architecture of
these cameras is not
able to address single
pixels, this downsizing
is done by software. If
you work with Device
Adapters (µManager,
Labview etc.) or with
our SDK, the Soft-ROI
is disabled by default.
For further information,
please see the SDK
description.
The ROI (Region of Interest) selects only a part of the sensor to be
read out.
Vertical ROI: In order to speed up the frame rate and to reduce the
amount of image data, the selected ROI needs to be placed
symmetrical to the horizontal center line.
Horizontal ROI: In order to reduce the amount of image data a
horizontal ROI can be set. Please be aware, that changes in
horizontal direction will not increase the frame rate. The decreased
image size you see within CamWare is a combination of reduced
sensor resolution and software downsizing (Soft-ROI).
Examples of achievable frame rates at a specific ROI can be found in
the datasheets of the cameras.
Interface
ROI,
horizontal
increments
ROI,
vertical
increments
Min.
ROI
Vert.
symm.
ROI
pco.edge 4.2
Camera
Link
1
1
40x8
no
pco.edge 4.2 /
gold 4.2
USB 3.0
4
1
64x16
no
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
4
1
160x8
no
pco.edge 5.5 /
gold 5.5
USB 3.0
4
1
64x16
no
Camera
Controlling the Soft-ROI Option (only Camera Link version)
Start regedit and HKey-Current-User/Software/PCO/Camware
create a DWORD value with the name DisableSoftROI. Set this value
to 1 in order to disable Soft-ROI. Remove or set this value to 0 in
order to enable Soft-ROI by default. Keep in mind that unsymmetrical
ROI decreases FPS. Table shows values for Soft-ROI disabled.
pco.edge 4.2
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
Camera
Link
24
20
1
40x8
yes
160
1
160x
16
yes
Sensor Format 3
Camera
pco.edge 4.2
pco.edge 4.2 / gold 4.2
pco.edge 5.5
pco.edge 5.5 / gold 5.5
Interface
Camera Link
Preselected sensor format
2048 x 2048
USB 3.0
2048 x 2048
Camera Link
2560 x 2160
1920 x 1080
USB 3.0
2560 x 2160
CamWare will show the actual frame rate, corresponding to the
selected image size, in the information box.
6.4 THE SENSOR (MISC.) TAB
Pixelclock 1
2
The pixel clock sets the clock
frequency and therefore the image
sensor readout speed.
(See overview table on page 5
(PCO.EDGE FAMILY) for available
readout frequencies.)
1
3
4
5
A/D Converter 2
6
(not available for pco.edge)
Double Image 3
This feature is widely used for particle image velocimetry (PIV)
measurements, but not available for the standard pco.edge cameras.
IR Sensitivity 4
Feature is not applicable for pco.edge.
Offset Control 5
Offset control is done automatically for optimal results. User control
is disabled.
B/W Noise Filter 6
In addition to the integrated static defect pixel list processing a
dynamic noise filter can be activated here in order to remove socalled blinkers and high noise pixels. If you encounter unexpected
aliasing effects, turn this filter off.
25
6 CAMERA CONTROL
Conversion Factor 7
The conversion factor defines how many charge carriers (electrons),
which have been generated by light in the image sensor in each pixel,
are necessary to generate one count (one intensity level) in the digital
image. Therefore, the conversion factor describes the gain that is
applied to the signal before it is converted into a digital value. The
conversion is optimized for the pco.edge @ 0.46 e-/count.
Cooling Setpoint 8
7
8
If a pco.edge gold camera is connected, a
drop-down menu with selectable sensor
temperatures will appear.
Display of sensor temperature: A peltier
cooling unit is used to keep the sensor's
dark current to an acceptable minimum and
in order to allow for a continuous operation
free of any drift phenomena in image
sequences. Either an internal fan or an
external water cooling system assures
proper heat transfer from the peltier element
to regulate the temperature of the cameras.
Camera
Interface
Sensor temperature
pco.edge 4.2/5.5
Camera Link
5 °C
pco.edge 4.2/5.5
USB 3.0
0 °C
pco.edge gold 4.2
pco.edge gold 5.5
USB 3.0
- 15 °C
- 30 °C (water cooling only)
6.5 THE RECORDING TAB
Recorder Mode 1
1
CamWare will use free RAM space on
your computer. The recorded images will
be temporally saved as 16bit multi TIFF.
In Sequence mode the recording stops
when RAM space is full. In Ring Buffer
mode the camera will stop only by a stop
command, hence overwriting previous
images. For longer recording periods an
appropriate RAID system is necessary,
see also the Direct Record to File
option on p. 36.
3
2
26
Acquire Mode 2
The acquire mode gives you the ability to enable or disable the
recording by an external signal. If set to Auto all images are accepted
and all images taken are saved. A signal at the acq enbl input (see
chapter 6.6) is ignored for this function.
If set to External, the camera will only record images, if the external
signal enables recording.
This sensor timing scheme is paused by the signal at the acq enbl
input. The acq enbl input is sampled at the beginning of the image
generation, which can be seen at the rising edge of the busy stat
output. If the acq enbl input is high (low, when inverted) when an
image is acquired, it causes an idle state until the acq enbl input is
low (high, when inverted).
Busy Stat out)
Acq enbl (in)
image
image
image
image
In trigger mode External Exp. Start, the acq enbl input works like a
gate for the trigger signal. A trigger edge (rising, falling when exp trig
is inverted) is accepted only when the acq enbl signal is high (low,
when inverted).
Acq enbl (in)
Exp trig (in)
Busy Stat
(out)
accepted
not acc.
not acc.
accepted
accepted
In trigger mode External Exp. Ctrl, the acq enbl input works very
similar to the mode External Exp. Start. However, the acq enbl input
is ignored for the edge which is closing the exposure time (started
exposure will be finished accordingly).
When using acq enbl in external trigger modes, the following timing
specification should be met:
Exp trig (in)
tsu = 70ns
th = 70ns
Acq enbl (in)
tsu
th
If the acq enbl signal changes within the window of tsu (set up) to th
(hold), the behavior is random. The trigger may be accepted or
ignored.
27
6 CAMERA CONTROL
Sequence Trigger
Once, a falling or rising edge at the acquire enable trigger input (see
chapter 6.6) is recognized, an internal image counter starts to run. It
will count all acquired images and will stop the recording when the
predefined number of images is reached.
Example timing diagram:
Trigger mode = external exposure start;
Aquire mode = sequence trigger; Image counter = 3
Acq enbl (in)
Exp. trig. (in)
Status busy (out)
not acc.
Image 1
Image 2
Image 3
not acc.
Timestamp 3
A time stamp can be placed into the upper left corner of the image. It
can be either displayed as binary value or as binary and ASCII value.
The time resolution is 1 μs. In binary mode the first 16 pixels 1 will be
filled with the time stamp information (binary code). The numbers are
coded in BCD with one byte per pixel, which means that every pixel
can hold 2 digits.
For further information please refer to the SDK. In binary and ASCII
mode text will be placed into the image replacing the content of the
image (271x 8 pixels). Time step shows the end of exposure time.
Three different information is stamped onto the image: number of
the image 2, date 3 and time 4 .
1
2
28
3
4
6.6 THE I/O SIGNALS TAB
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Exposure Trigger 1
If checked, a signal for External Exp. Start or External Exp. Ctrl trigger
mode (see chapter 6.2) is accepted at the exp trig BNC input #1.
Aquire Enable 2
If checked, a signal for Acquire Mode or Sequence Trigger Mode (see
chapter 6.5.) is accepted at the acq enbl BNC input #2.
Status Busy 3
If checked, a signal indicating busy status is given at the status busy
output. Once an acceptable trigger edge is received, busy will go on
status high. As soon as busy goes low again, a new trigger edge is
accepted.
Status Expos 4
If checked, a signal indicating exposure status is given at the status
output. Status Expos indicates the actual exposure window for one
frame.
Status Line 4
If checked, a signal indicating line status is given at the status output.
Use the falling line edge for optimized synchronization (minimized
jitter time; see page 18).
Filter (electrical interference filters)
Polarity
Type
active for high/low signal
or rising/falling edge
Maximum low level: 0.8V
Minimum high level: 2V
Slew Rate >1ms/V
TTL Electrically grounded, no opt
coupler.
3,3Volt LVTTL out , short time
short-circuit-proof.
Continuous overvoltage withstand:
+10V and -5V.
1ms pulse overvoltage withstand:
+33V and -33V
ESD pulse: +- 4kV
29
6 CAMERA CONTROL
Rolling Shutter Signal Type
At the I/O-signal tab Rolling Shutter signal
type options are available (only Status
Exposure and if Shutter is set to Rolling
Shutter, see Setup 7.4.
There are four signal types available:
•1 Shows the exposure time of the first rolling shutter line (tfirstline)
•2 Shows when all sensor lines are integrating (tglobal)
•3 Shows the exposure time of the last rolling shutter line (tlastlinel)
•4 Shows if any sensor line is integrating (talllines)
1
2
4
3
30
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
PCO’s excellent software for camera control, image
acquisition and archiving of images in various file formats.
You will find a Help file under the common Help (?) menu.
There are some features explained in the Help file that are
not applicable for this camera version.
7.1 IF NO CAMERA IS DETECTED (DEMO MODE)
When CamWare is started, it automatically recognizes the
camera type of the connected and running cameras.
CamWare will start in Demo Mode, if your camera is
switched off or no camera is connected
In this mode all image processing features are available, but
all camera settings are deactivated. The user only has to tell
CamWare what type of image he wants to open. For that
purpose, the Demo Mode Setup window opens and asks
for the corresponding input.
Need Help? If this window pops up because you have trouble
running the camera, please see instructions in appendix A9.
Resolution
The drop down list displays the existing image sensor spatial
resolutions of all PCO camera systems. Please select the specific
resolution and bit depth of the images to be opened. If double shutter
images have been recorded and should be opened, Double Shutter
Mode should be checked.
Color
With the radio buttons, the user can specify whether the image type
is monochrome (b/w) or color.
Alignment
These two radio buttons adjust whether MSB (most significant bit)
aligned (upper) or LSB (least significant bit) aligned (lower) images
have been stored (see 7.3 File Settings).
Example settings to view the b16 files of the pco.edge:
Camera
pco.edge 5.5
color
pco.edge 4.2
mono
Resolution
2560x2160
Bit
16
Double Shutter
No
Color
color
Alignment
-
2048x2048
16
No
mono
-
31
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
7.2 OVERVIEW
Menu Bar
See chapter 7.3- 7.8
Local Menu

Mouse right-click is explained in chapter 7.9
Toolbar
Prints the currently displayed image or comment window
Opens a b/w | color display window
Opens the camera control window (see chapter 6)
Opens the convert control (see chapter 7.6)
Auto range peak/crop (see chapter 7.6 Convert Control)
Live preview (see chapter 5.2.)
Soft trigger captures a single image (see 6.2)
Cursor display
Cursor: pixel position and intensity value
Continuous auto range crop scaling
Recorder
Record START / STOP / PLAY
Opens the recorder settings window (see 7.5)
Replay navigation
Image Browser: overview of the recorded images (see 7.6)
Multi Frame Window (see chapter 7.6)
32
7.3 THE FILE MENU
NOTE
Be aware of the different storage abilities of the formats,
for example *.bmp - the bitmap format only allows for
8bit values to be stored and therefore the image content
of a 16 bit image is reduced, if stored as bitmap.
Open RAW File (single image only)
This command should be used to import a single image into
the currently active image window. Only files with the
extension and format of *.b16 (=PCO proprietary binary
image format) and *.tif (TIFF image format) can be imported.
If the recorder is enabled, each imported image will be
transferred to the buffer shown in the picture number. The
image itself will be fitted to the current image size. If the
recorder is disabled, the current image sizes will be set to
the parameters of the imported image.
Open RAW File Set (only for pco.hsfc pro camera)
Open RAW Recorder Sequence (image sequence from
one camera)
This command is used to import a sequence of images. If
more than one camera is connected and an image window is
currently open, the sequence will be loaded to the active window. If
no image window is open, the images will be loaded to camera #1.
This command opens the Open file dialog box. Only files with the
extension and the format of *.b16 and *.tif (TIFF16) can be imported.
Save RAW File (single image only)
This command should be used to save the image, which is displayed
in the active window. The command opens the Save file dialog box.
The image file can be saved in 16bit *.b16 and *.tif format. If more
than one camera is connected, it is possible to save all current
images by selecting Export all images in the Save file dialog box.
With this feature it is possible to save one image of each active
camera within one process step (it is not necessary to repeat the
save process for each camera). The Save command will not be
available, if no image window is open.
Save RAW Set (only for pco.hsfc pro camera)
Save RAW Recorder Sequence (image sequence from one
camera)
The Save Recorder command should be used to save or export
image records. If more than one camera is connected and an image
window is currently open, the record of the active window will be
saved. The command opens the Save file dialog box. The Save
Recorder command will not be available, if no image window is open.
Export File (not reloadable!)
Use this command to export the image of the active image window.
This command will open the Save file dialog box. Files with the
extensions fts, tif, bmp, asc, jpg, and jp2 can be exported. This item
will not be visible, if no image window is open
33
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
Export Recorder Sequence (not reloadable!)
Use this command to export a sequence of images. If more
than one camera is connected and an image window is
currently open, the record of the window which has got the
input focus will be saved. If no image window is open the
images of channel 1 will be saved. This command will open
the Export image dialog box. Files with the extensions fts, tif,
bmp, asc, avi, mpg, jpg, jp2, and wmv can be exported. (see
Appendix A8 )
Print Setup
The Print Setup command opens the Windows Print Setup dialog box
for adjustments and settings of the connected printer(s).
Print Preview This command opens a Print Preview window.
Print Opens the Windows Print dialog box.
This command opens the Options dialog, allowing special settings.
File Settings
Tiff File Settings: Align to MSB
Here you can select the alignment of the pixel
value, if the pixel depth is less than 16 bit (e.g.
MSB: each pixel value is shifted from bit 12-1 to bit
16-5 in case of 12 bit). This removes the dark
image effect inside other image applications.
Tiff File Settings: RAW 16bit RGB
Here you can select whether the 16bit RGB tiff file
is saved with 16bit raw or white balanced data. If
this item is checked, each 16bit RGB pixel value is
saved as raw 16 bit RGB (48 bit) value, without
white balancing. Saving to 16bit RGB can be done
by selecting the color display window, export
recorder, selecting 8bit-tiff and checking Save
16bit RGB.
ASCII file separator
Here you can select an appropriate separator for the ASCII file
format.
JPEG File Settings
Here you can select the quality of the saved jpeg/jp2 files: high
quality saves images with 100% quality (otherwise 85% quality).
Preserve Last Record
If checked, a message box will pop up in case the user may overwrite
or loose data.
34
Use six digits for filename
If you record a sequence of *.b16 files and choose direct record to file
CamWare is always using six digits for filename (e.g. t_123456.b16).
View Settings
Image Browser
Here you can select between showing all image
tiles inside the browser window either b/w or
color. Setting b/w will result in a faster refresh,
(valid only for color sensor).
Convert (Min/Max)
(Continuous Auto Range Crop, see chapter 7.6
Convert Control BW) This option enables the
automatic min/max function during record and
replay. Disable this feature if the application stops
responding during this mode (due to operating
system capacity problems).
Marker
Use this command to display a crosshair in the center. It is possible
to adjust length and color of the crosshair.
Paint Images
This option enables the update of (both double shutter images or)
multiple cameras images during record and replay. Disable this
feature if the application stops responding during this mode
Toolbar
Toolbar
Opens the corresponding toolbars (see 7.2)
Math. Functions
With the math window you have the ability to build
the difference between a reference image and the
actual image. If you activate math every new image
acquired will be subtracted from the reference
image or vice versa.
last acquired image will be copied to reference
buffer
a reference picture will be acquired and copied
to reference buffer
add offset to avoid negative values, which would not be visible
enable / disable math function
Replay Speed Bar
The faster replay speed is useful if large sets of image data need to
be scanned.
35
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
Misc
Infotext
Use this command to show or hide the start-up
information dialog box.
Synchronous Scrolling
If this item is checked all opened image windows
will be scrolled at the same time and in the same
manner.
View Embedded Image Info (not available)
Multi Win Picture Order
With the Multi Window you have the ability to view
the images of all active cameras in one window.
You can select between camera order oriented or image time
oriented order. Image time oriented means that the sequence of
images depends on the individual time stamp of each image.
Camera order oriented means that the first image shown is from
camera 1, then camera 2 and so on.
Logfile
This option enables the logging of errors and system info. Enable this
feature in order to create a support file, which can help to find out
troubles with the camera (see A8 )
Load lookup Table (for monochrome cameras)
With the Pseudo LUT (Lookup-Table) feature you can load any LUT
with one of four different formats and you can view the result in the
color view window.
Direct Record to File
With this command you can pre-set a certain number of images to be
stored directly onto hard disk. If the camera captures images faster
than the computer can save to disk, then you will lose images. The
displaying of the images doesn't interfere with the record process.
(See also 6.5 Recorder Mode and PC recommendations in A5.3
Image Data Flow). Use this command to write data to your RAID
system.
Record with Flowfile
This command should be used to load a flow file. A flow file contains
lines with a delay and an exposure time. Each line corresponds to
one image to be acquired. If the flow file has 15 delay and exposure
times than 15 images will be acquired. Before the image is snapped,
the corresponding time values will be sent to the camera. This affects
the possible image frame rate, as additional time is required for
setting the values between two images. Please see the sample flow
files in the application directory (e.g. flow.txt).
Exit This command exits the program and closes all channel dialog
windows. Window positions, settings and sizes are stored in the
windows registry and will be loaded again at next start-up.
36
7.4 THE CAMERA MENU
Camera Control
Use this command to open the camera control window (see 6.1).
Load Camera Settings
With this command you can reload camera settings which have been
previously saved. You can reload only a file which has been made
with the same camera configuration as it was found by the
application at start-up.
Save Camera Settings
This command saves the actual camera settings of all connected
cameras.
Create Hot Pixel List (for long exposure only – not available)
Hotpixel Correction (for long exposure only)
Sophisticated hot pixel correction is already implemented in the
pco.edge camera.
Auto Exposure
Starts some exposures and tries to find an exposure time that
captures images with grey values between 1400 and 1500. It readjusts the lookup tables in order to display the images with the new
settings best. For low light conditions only.
Close
Disconnects camera and switches CamWare to Demo
Mode. In case of multiple cameras, all cameras must be
closed in order for CamWare to switch to Demo Mode.
1
2
3
4
5
Rescan
Disconnects and reconnects all cameras.
Setup
Switch between Rolling Shutter, Global Shutter and Global
Reset Mode. The camera will automatically restart.
1
2
3
4
Only in Rolling Shutter (6.2.1) five
different readout modes are available.
Standard mode is Dual Outside in. In
Single Top down, the pco.edge provides
only half of the normal frame rate.
5
37
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
7.5 THE ACQUISITION MENU
Live Preview
The Live Preview is useful for fast and easy adjusting and
focusing of the camera. The active window will be updated. To
see another window, simply click on the window. This option is
not available in double shutter mode.
Acquire Picture (not available)
Records single images in case of sensicam cameras.
Acquire Sequence
Starts recording images into the system memory according to
Trigger Mode selection (see 6.2). During the recording, the
camera controls are locked.
Rec. Memory Settings
This sets the number of images recorded in one sequence. The
maximum is defined by approved RAM size.
Recorder Settings
This command opens the Recorder Settings dialog window.
The Play Settings are referred to the camera. If more than one
camera is connected, the camera number is retrieved from the image
window that has received the input focus (is active). If no image
window is opened, the dialog is referred to camera 1. If the Set to all
checkbox is checked the settings apply to all connected cameras.
The Global Settings are valid for all connected cameras.
Averaging
If in the Avg. dropdown list a value not equal to 1 is selected, the
corresponding number of images is averaged in the buffer, reducing
the statistically independent noise.
Another option to reduce the noise is the activation of the
Infinite impulse response IIR lowpass filter. This filter takes 90% of
the previous image and 10% of the new image to create images with
clearly reduced noise. Image (actual) = Image (act - 1) * 0.9 + Image
(new) * 0.1
Replay Speed Slider
The slider can be used to adjust the sequence replay speed, from
slow (turtle) to fast (rabbit).
Seq. Wrap Rec
Sequential Wrap Recording sets Recorder Mode (6.5) to Ring Buffer.
Seq. Wrap Play
The play button starts the display for a sequence as defined by the
first image/last image fields and will loop until the stop button is
pressed.
Reverse Play
If checked, it is possible to play the recorded images in reverse order.
38
7.6 THE VIEW MENU
B/W Window
Use this command to open a b/w display window.
Color Window
Use this command to open a color display window.
Convert Control BW
The user can influence how the 16 bit intensity values (x-axis = grey
value) of the original image are converted into 8 bit values (y-axis =
frequency of the grey value) in different ways.
BW Settings (includes histogram of original
data)
It is possible to hide the histogram of original
data 1 and to switch tab/histogram 2 .
4
1
Green sliders in histogram 3
left slider = Min controller (corresponds to
value 0 of the 8 bit display). Values below that
mark are set to 0, i.e. displayed as black.
right slider = Max controller (corresponds to
value 255). Values above that mark are set to
255, i.e. displayed as white.
2
3
The values in-between are converted into a
value between 0 and 255 according to Contrast and Gamma
settings. See the small graph 4 , which reflects the calculation.
Proc config tab: please see under Convert Control Color
Converted Hist
This tab shows
converted data.
you
the
histogram
of
How the Auto Range applies
Auto Range Peak searches for the minimum and maximum 16 bit
intensity values of the image. Given these number the converter
scales the 8 bit display (256) within these two values.
Auto Range Crop sets the converter to ignore the extreme intensity
values of the image and scales the display in a smaller range. Thus
dark or bright light spots, reflections, etc. are cut off.
Min/Max (Automatic) = Continuous Auto Range Crop
39
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
Convert Control Color (only pco.edge color)
Color Balance (Histogram of original data)
Intensity of single color can be controlled by
Saturation and Vibrance 1 .
1
2
3
7
4
Press the Auto button to set the white
balance 2 .
5
The balancing of RGB can be controlled by
Col.Temp and Tint 3 .
6
It is possible to hide the histogram of original
data 4 and to switch tab/histogram 5 .
The user can influence how the 16 bit intensity values (x-axis = grey
value) of the original image are converted into 8 bit values (y-axis =
frequency of the grey value) in different ways.
White sliders in histogram 6
left slider = Min controller (corresponds to value 0 of the 8 bit
display). Values below that mark are set to 0, i.e. displayed as no
color.
right slider = Max controller (corresponds to value 255). Values
above that mark are set to 255, i.e. displayed as full color.
The values in-between are converted into a value between 0 and 255
according to Contrast and Gamma settings. See the small graph 7 ,
which reflects the calculation.
Converted RGB Hist
This tab shows you
converted data.
the
histogram
of
Proc. Config (Process configuration)
Due to proprietary high-end algorithms used for these image
processing features, no detailed description is given here
1
3
2
4
1 switch on in order to significantly reduce
processing time
2 pixel color correction
3 non local means algorithm
4 adaptive to brightness and patterns
40
GPU Processing
In order to benefit from all of CamWare’s advanced processing
features, we highly recommend a NVIDIA CUDA-enabled graphics
processing unit (GPU). AMD's ATI graphics processing units are not
recommended.
Find a list of CUDA-enabled products here:
• https://developer.nvidia.com/cuda-gpus
Get the CUDA driver here:
• https://developer.nvidia.com/cuda-downloads
Make sure:
• that the CUDA driver is successfully installed.
• that the GPU has at least 512MB memory.
CamWare Image Processing
Pre Processing
•
Noise Reduction
Bayer Processing
•
Bayer Demosaicing
•
Sharpen
•
Refine Process
•
Chroma Blurr
Post Processing
•
Offset, Gain (Min/Max)
•
Color Correction
•
Saturation, Vibrance
•
Color Temperature, Tint, White
Balance
•
Gamma, Contrast
Color
Monochrome













Browser
The Recorder Browser gives an overview of the images in the
Recorder, and helps you in an easy way to select a new current
image. Simply click on the desired image to make it the current
image. It may then be viewed in the Black/White and Color Window.
The Browser window can show up to 40 pictures per page, thus
enabling easy printing of the Browser window. You can switch
between the single pages by double clicking inside the Browser
window or with the local menu (right mouse button).
Skip #images allows for convenient overview at large numbers of
images.
Multi Window
View the images of all active cameras in consecutive order in one
window. Time oriented means that the sequence of images depends
on the individual time stamp of each image. Camera number oriented
means that the first image shown is from camera 1, then camera 2
and so on.
Embedded Image Info (not available)
41
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
7.7 THE WINDOW MENU
Cascade
Show all windows overlapped.
Tile
Tile windows vertically or horizontally.
Arrange Icons
Rearranges all minimized topic icons on the desktop.
Close All
Close all windows.
7.8 THE HELP MENU
Contents
Opens the main page of the program help.
Search for Help on
Opens an index list for help.
About CamWare
This window shows program information and contains
helpful support links. In case of a camera problem,
support files (see 7.3 Options/Misc/Logfile) may be
generated, which can be automatically attached to the
email. The support files contain relevant hardware
information, the log files and the PCO related registry
entries. These files are moved into a zip-archive called
CWSupport.zip, which can be found in the application
folder.
42
7.9 THE LOCAL MENU

The local menu is opened by clicking the right mouse button inside
the client area of an image window.
Image Properties
Opens an information bubble with main image properties and
activates the in-image display. It does not overwrite image data.
All camera link cameras generate the image properties out of
Camware (Camera Description, see SDK manual for further
information) and the PC system time. In case a pco.edge with USB
3.0 interface is connected, the image properties and other metadata
is transferred from the camera directly. One additional line, which
contains all image properties, will be sent from the camera after the
image data is transferred.
Camera Control
Opens the Camera Control window (see chapter 6).
Convert Control BW/Color
Opens the corresponding Convert Control windows (see chapter
7.6).
Zoom
Changes the zoom used to display the image.
Auto Range Peak/Crop
Displays the image in a predefined scaling (see chapter 7.6).
Auto Balance Color (only available for pco.edge color)
The white balance feature, which corresponds to the white balance
button in the Convert Control Color (see chapter 7.6).
Auto Exposure
Auto Exposure feature (see chapter 7.4)
Flip
The image will be flipped before display.
Mirror
The selected image will be mirrored before display.
Rotate
The image will be rotated by 90° counter clockwise (left) or clockwise
(right) before it is shown in the image window.
Copy To Clipboard
Copies the active image to clipboard (only as 8 bit image file).
43
7 CAMWARE FEATURES
Line Tool
Select Line Tool to show a graph, which
shows the intensity of the pixels under the red
line shown in the image window. The selection
of this menu item determines the location of
the first point. After this you can move the
mouse to the second point, which can be
selected by a left click. Now a Line Diagram
opens and the length of the line (unit: pixel) is shown in a bubble and
displayed in the window.
7.10 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
White Balance by Mouse
It is possible to change white balance easily by mouse: You only
have to press the CTRL (Strg) and the shift button at the same time
and select a white or gray area within the image. The pixel values
within the coordinates of the selection rectangle are used for
calculating a new white balance.
For best results we recommend to use the white balance button in
the Convert Control Color (see 7.6) or the Auto Balance Color in the
Local Menu (see 7.9) respectively.
Fold Up Window
1
The Convert Control windows can be
minimized / folded up 1. Just move the pointer
over the bar and the window will unfold
again 2 .
2
Setting Contrast Area by Mouse
You can control the minimum and maximum values used for the
conversion from 16 bit to 8 bit with the mouse. Move the mouse
cursor into a region which should be shown with maximum contrast.
Press the shift and the left mouse button. Hold down the mouse
button while increasing the size of the selection rectangle with mouse
moves. After releasing the mouse button the coordinates of the
selection rectangle act as a border for calculating the minimum and
maximum values.
Setting a new ROI by Mouse
In the same manner you can setup a new region of interest (see ROI
6.2) for the camera. You only have to press the CTRL (Strg) button
and drag an area with the left mouse button instead of the shift
button. The coordinates of the selection rectangle are used for
calculating a new region of interest, which will be adapted to the
camera capabilities automatically. You can reset the ROI to maximum
by pressing the CTRL (Strg) button and the right mouse button.
44
APPENDIX
45
A1 MECHANICAL DIMENSIONS
A1 MECHANICAL DIMENSIONS
Standard Version (pco.edge 4.2 / 5.5: Camera Link or USB 3.0)
Water Cooled Standard Version (pco.edge 4.2 / 5.5 Camera Link)
46
Water Cooled Standard Version (pco.edge 4.2 / 5.5, USB 3.0)
The housing size is similar to the dimensions of
the standard version, except the camera design
with the USB 3.0 interface allows to locate the
water connections on the back of the camera.
pco.edge GOLD series (USB 3.0)
47
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
Instructions on how to change the optical input from F-mount to Cmount:
Step 1: Remove F-mount Adapter
Grasp the F-mount adapter at the blue ring (counter ring) and turn it
counter clockwise.
F-mount adapter
Step 2: Insert C-mount Ring
Carefully screw the ring completely in and tighten the two Allen
screws.
C-mount ring
Adjust Back Focal Length
First of all, attach a lens to your c-mount adapter. Then set the focus
of your lens to infinity. After that, look for a point in infinity and
generate a sharp image by turning the smaller ring of the adapter.
Then fix this position with the two small indented screws.
Allen screws
Limitations of c-mount lenses
Keep in mind that c-mount lenses could
cause shadings at the edges of big sized
sensors. Most c-mount lenses are able
to illuminate a maximum image circle of
11 mm (2/3”), 16 mm (1”) or 22 mm
(4/3”) diameter only. The pco.edge
cameras have a sensor diagonal from
18.8 to 21.8 mm, it follows that you have
to use the ROI function for a shade less image while using the cmount adapter with the two smaller C-mount diameters.
48
A3 USB 2.0/3.0 FOL EXTENDER
The Adnaco-SU1 is a FOL Extender for USB 1.1./2.0/3.0
devices. It contains two components: the Adnaco-UT1
(USB Converter) with power supply and the AdnacoUF1 (active USB 3.0 FOL cable (integrated electrical
optical converter with length of 10, 30, 50 and 100m).
The UT1 transmits signals from USB 1.1/2.0/3.0 to USB
3.0 and has two Type-A USB connectors named Host
and Device and a 5.0V power supply device. The Host
connector has to be linked with the UF1 USB 3.0 FOL
cable and this cable has to be connected directly to the
computer.
The Device connector has to be connected with the
pco.edge usb camera.
If you confuse the connections, the camera will not be
identified by your computer. There shouldn’t be any
damages to your devices if you confuse the
connections.
The UF1 is a pure USB 3.0 cable and is built up
symmetrically and therefore it is not possible to confuse
the connections or to connect the pco.edge (which has
a USB Type-B connector) with this cable.
This system only works at a computer with USB 3.0, your camera will
not be identified if you connect it to a USB 2.0 connector.
The Adnaco-SU1 is an optical insulator and also gives you the
opportunity to physically extend the transmission path between
camera and computer.
Performance
If you use a USB 2.0 device at the Adnacu SU-1 a maximum data
transfer rate of 24.5 Mbytes/s will be reached.
Cable length
USB Configuration
Without SU-1
SU-1 10m cable
SU-1 100m cable
*1: e.g. pco.edge
USB 3.0*1
357 Mbytes/s
USB 2.0*2
40.1 Mbytes/s
352 Mbytes/s
330 Mbytes/s
24.5 Mbytes/s
23.4 Mbytes/s
*2: e.g. pco.pixelfly usb
49
A4 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
A4 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
A4.1 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
This is the re-cooling
system for pco.edge
cameras with watercooling.
1
2
3
5
4
Material No.
Description
1
30108000211
pco.aquamatic II
2
30108000212
Connection Tube 5m PVC 3541-01 PCO
(with Colder NS212 fittings)
3
50402000055
Power supply ETC 70-12 1.2m
4
20307500024
Power cable
5
10307000130
EDGE WAT camera cable 5m FGG-RG58NC3MX
6
10305000190
Innovatec Protect IP 1L
The operation of the pco.aquamatic is simple and uncomplicated.
Normally no maintenance and nearly no attention are needed. Only
the liquid level of the reservoir (water tank) should be controlled from
time to time.
6
Only use Innovatec Protect IP for the pco.aquamatic! Do not use
or add any other cooling liquid or normal water! If you need to add
cooling liquid in order to maintain level in the tank, please contact
PCO for additional supply.
The cooling liquid will turn yellow after some hours of operation. This
is normal and no sign of wear or malfunction. The optimum pH-value
is between 8 and 9 (please check this value if you are concerned
about the cooling liquid quality).
NOTE
The recommended service interval for the change of the cooling
liquid is four years.
50
A4.2 FIRST TIME INSTALLATION
5
3
4
2
Please take care to situate the unit on a flat and firm surface.
Do not cover the air intakes of the unit. Please ensure free
airflow around the pco.aquamatic to ensure maximum cooling
performance. All tubes and power cords need to run kink-free.
Before installation of the unit carefully read the Innovatek
Protect IP safety datasheet (see Innovatek Website).
outlet flow
1
inlet flow
6
Please follow steps 1 – 6.
•1 Connect tubes to cooling unit and camera. The two arrows on the
housing of the cooling unit only indicate flow direction. Either
connection of the camera can be used for in or out.
•2 Attach power connection.
•3 Open tank cover.
•4 Turn power switch to on position (I).
•5 Slowly fill in the cooling application mixture while the unit is
running, you have to constantly refill liquid.
•6 While the cooling liquid flows back to the reservoir make sure that
the whole air escapes from the system – this takes a few minutes
(move hoses if necessary).
The cooling liquid reservoir (tank) is filled when liquid level is
approximately 1-2 cm from the top of the tank. The integrated pump
only works when the pump chamber is completely filled. To ensure
this please move hoses or remove air by evacuating. Reservoir
capacity is approximately 500 ml.
After steps 1 – 6 are completed successfully the system is ready for
operation.
NOTE
The hose connectors are waterproof in not connected state.
Maybe they lose one drop of cooling liquid from time to time. You
don’t have to empty the hoses while storing the camera system.
51
A4 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
A4.3 OPERATION
First connect the power out of the cooling unit with the power
in of the pco.edge camera by using the PCO WAT camera
cable.
The cooling unit provides two operation
modes.
Operation Mode on: the cooling unit is
turned on permanently and provides the
camera with power. Your camera can be
switchted on and off as needed.
Operation mode follow: the cooling unit will turn on when the
camera is switched on and vice versa.
Error Codes
The coolant temperature sensor is located in the water tank.
Temperature
27°C
36°C
55°C
60°C
Action
fan turns off
fan turns on
warning message
error message
If a warning level is passed, the Power LED blinks slowly and the
Error LED displays the error code. If a failure level is passed, the
Power LED blinks fast and the Error LED shows the error code.
Error / Failure
on
1Hz
flash
2Hz
flash
off
one short flash
1Hz
flash
two short
flashes
one short flash
none
Warning when temperature at 55 °C
(also if sensor is defect or missing)
Failure when temperature at 60 °C
Fan speed
(also if a high deviation of the standard value
is reached)
NOTE
The camera has its own protection circuit and will shut down
automatically when the electronics temperature exceeds safety
level.
52
A4.4 DIMENSIONS
All dimensions are given in millimeter.
Weight: 4kg (completely filled cooling liquid tank)
General Information
You are not restricted to purchase the pco.aquamatic system - it is
possible to use an own water cooling solution. A separate power
supply will be provided to every pco.edge camera with water
connectors. The hardware of the pco.edge cameras with USB 3.0
Interface is designed to work with or without a water cooling system,
because a fan that provides adequate cooling is inside the camera
anyway. Please note, that the minimum sensor temperature of the
pco.edge GOLD series is depending on the cooling system.
In case you use an own water cooling system, please make sure that
the liquid you use to cool your camera is at all times NEVER below
the dew point of the ambient temperature! In order to avoid any
appearance of condensation, use a cooling liquid at room
temperature. A liquid flow rate of 1–2 litres per minute is sufficient.
53
A5 CAMERA LINK
A5 CAMERA LINK
A5.1 INSTALLATION OF THE GRABBER CARD
NOTE
Hardware Installation must be performed by a technician, because high
voltages can occur on
the device. Always pull
the main plug before
opening the device.
Instructions for installing and testing the SILICONSOFTWARE
microEnable IV (ME4) Camera Link grabber card
Please install the latest silicon software runtime package before
installing the hardware. (Download: www.pco.de/support)
When working on a 64 bit operating system, please make sure to
install the proper (64 bit) runtime when also a 64 bit application will be
operated. If the application is 32 bit, you need to install the 32 bit
runtime accordingly.
•1 If there is no Gigabit Ethernet board installed (standard), please
deselect Support for…
•2 Let the program also update device drivers.
•3 Shutdown your computer, open the computer case and install the
grabber card
4 The grabber card should be displayed within the device manager.
If the device is not shown this way, please reinstall the
SiliconSoftware device driver.
•5 After the installation, please start the program microDiagnostics.
(see next page)
•
2
1
3
4
5
54
A5.2 MICRODIAGNOSTICS TOOL
How to use microDiagnostics Tool
Please
verify
the
firmware 1 version,
which must be 1.40
(1.28 in hex) or above.
1
To test the board,
select the board in
Hardware 1 and click
Test Board. 2
2
3
4
If the firmware is not
1.40 (1.28 in hex),
please upgrade to the
latest firmware. Select
Flash Board(s) 3, then
select the grabber in
the dialog and open
the appropriate hap
file.
Then click on Yes when you’re asked to proceed. You must power
cycle your computer after the upgrade.
In case the firmware version is ok, please click on Test
Performance. 4
It is mandatory that
PCIe is Highspeed
Capable 5 is shown.
Otherwise the board is
probably not able to
transfer the necessary
data rate.
5
The transfer rates, as
shown, should be
displayed. 6
6
For further information
or assistance with
mainboards
please
contact our support
team.
55
A5 CAMERA LINK
A5.3 IMAGE DATA FLOW
The sCMOS image sensors provide an extremely high frame rate
compared to other scientific image sensors. The high frame rate,
along with the high dynamic, creates a large amount of data that
must be handled and stored. The maximum data rate of the sCMOS
image sensor is given by:
pco.edge 5.5 Camera Link:
[2560 * 2160 (pixel in 1 frame) * 2 Byte (= 16bit dynamic)] * 100
[frames/s] = 1.1 GB/s (pco.edge 5.5, Camera Link)
To handle this considerable amount of data, there are two options
available:
Option 1: Real-time Recording to Computer
The pco.edge sCMOS camera series uses this option. For this
purpose, the interface must be capable of transmitting data at the
required speed. Interfaces such as GigE, USB 3.0 and Camera Link
are not fast enough to transmit this data, which is delivered by the
largest sCMOS image sensor. Nevertheless, there is a sophisticated
solution that uses the Camera Link interface, which is integrated into
the pco.edge camera. It is a fact of nature that light, itself, has its
own noise component called photon or shot noise, which increases
with light signal. In this approach, no compression is made in small
signals, while for large signals a suitable compression is applied.
Since the introduced compression error is always smaller than the
photon noise induced error, it is not seen and a so called visual
lossless compression has been performed.
It can be shown that this is possible without any significant loss of
information. Therefore, the calculation for the pco.edge camera at
full speed and full frame has to be re-written:
[2560 * 2160 (pixel in 1 frame) * 1.5 Byte (= 12bit dynamic)] * 100
[frames/s] = 0.829 GB/s
The Camera Link interface can transmit this in real-time. In the future,
recently introduced machine vision interfaces including CoaXPress
and Camera Link HS are capable of transmitting sCMOS image data
without any compression. A network type interface, 10GigE, is
similar with respect to hardware to Camera Link HS, but incorporates
all of the known GigE advantages and disadvantages. Here, the
usual protocols are not favorable for image data transmission, and
any network traffic can dramatically reduce available transmission
speed. The real-time data transmission into the computer allows
for a variety of applications, since it is free from camera memory
limitations. Image data can be stored directly in the computer’s
random access memory (RAM) up to more than 64 gigabyte. With an
appropriate RAID system, the data can be stored directly to hard
disks and there is no delay involved.
Option 2: Recording in the Camera
For high-speed imaging applications where data transfer rates are in
the range of several GB/s it is accepted that the primary image
memory (camRAM) must be located in the camera. Two examples of
56
such high-speed cameras are the pco.dimax with 36 GB of camRAM
and the pco.dimax HD with 18 GB of camRAM memory. This allows
for fast recording, but just up to the integrated memory limit. Before a
second sequence can be recorded, one must endure the wait time
until data is downloaded to computer storage. Therefore, this option
can only be used for recording short sequences with enough time
between each event to download the image data. This option is not
necessary for the pco.edge as either with USB 3.0 or Camera Link
interface, the image data will be recorded to the computer in realtime.
Memory Structure / Organization
As the memory is software-controlled in both options, it does not
matter how the data is stored. The memory can be organized for ring
buffer or FIFO recording, or for a specified number of images like a
burst mode. The pco.edge camera enables all of these possibilities
with the integrated dynamic link libraries and proprietary CamWare
application software. This allows the customer to select the memory
structure and organization that is optimized for the application at
hand.
Recommendations
In the following you can find two exemplary systems for RAID and
RAM storage options that have been successfully tested by pco for
high performance and which we sell directly to our customers.
They only show a configuration example, for actual system
configurations please call us directly.
RAID 0
SYSTEM
RAM
RECORD
ER
11x 2TB SATA 6 GB/s
16 GB DDR3 RAM
Intel® Core™ i7-3820 processor 3.6 GHz
GeForce GTS 640 2GB (NVIDIA CUDA)
Windows 7 Professional 64 bit
64 GB DDR3 RAM
Intel® Core™ i7-3820 processor 3.6 GHz
GeForce GTS 640 2GB (NVIDIA CUDA)
Windows 7 Professional 64 bit
NOTE
Items are exemplary and subject to change. Please contact PCO
for recommendation of current systems and sell of these systems.
The use of normal consumer PCs is not recommended!
ASUS mainboards seem to fail generally during the HS-mode test
and are not recommended.
Recommended minimum configuration (or better):
• CPU >= i7 2.5 GHz
• RAM >= 1066MHz, 8GB
• Mainboard ≥ Supermicro X9SRA (socket 2011)
57
A6 USB 3.0
A6 USB 3.0
A6.1 HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS
The pco USB 3.0 interface is based on the Cypress EZ-USB FX31
device and it is compatible to pco software such as CamWare and
SDK. To run a pco USB 3.0 camera successfully the user should
consider a number of important issues that are discussed in the
following chapters.
Motherboard and Chipset Configuration
It is recommended to use a Motherboard with a state of the art USB
3.0 host controller for the onboard USB 3.0 ports. The latest
generation of USB 3.0 xHCI host controllers manufactured by Intel,
Renesas (NEC), Fresco, Via Labs, ASMedia and Texas Instruments
Inc. (TI) are tested by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation. (see
Cypress EZ-USB® FX3TM SDK Release Notes, Version 1.2.3,
chapter 1.3). Currently pco recommends only motherboards with the
following onboard xHCI host controllers:
• Renesas/NEC μPD720202 Host Controller
• Intel® USB 3.0 eXtensible Host Controller
If the motherboard does not have an onboard USB 3.0 port or the
onboard USB 3.0 port does not work properly with a pco USB 3.0
camera, please use an independent PCIe USB 3.0 extension card.
In this case, pco recommends the following:
• DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10)
PCIe 1x (μPD720202 host controller)
(This board is sent with your pco.edge USB 3.0 camera system as standard)
• DELOCK 89325 (U3X4-PCIE4XE101)
PCIe 4x (μPD720202 host controller)
USB 3.0 extension card with xHCI4 host controller
The following companies manufacture USB 3.0 xHCI host controller:
• Renesas Electronics America Inc. (earlier NEC),
• Texas Instrument Inc.,
• VIA Labs Inc (Diamond),
• Fresco Logic Inc.,
• Intel Inc.,
• AMD Inc. and
• Etron Technology, Inc.
NOTE
To determine suitable manufacturers of the xHCI controller,
please use the Windows Device Manager. For example, in
Windows 7 drop down the USB Controller entry and find the USB
3.0 host xHCI controller of the USB 3.0 device in the sub-tree.
Then right-click to open the properties dialog, click the details
tab, and choose Vendor in the properties pull-down box.
NOTE
USB 3.0 interface cards with controllers from Etron Technology,
Inc. have not yet been tested.
58
The following table gives an overview about tested
recommended system configurations or hardware components.
Component
Motherboard
USB 3.0
extension card
PCIe Slot
USB 3.0 Cable
USB 3.0 Hub
and
Recommendation
There is no recommendation for a manufacturer. But
if an onboard USB 3.0 port is used, the Renesas´s
xHCI host controller μPD720202 is recommended.
• DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10)
PCIe 1x (μPD720202 host controller),
• DELOCK 89325 (U3X4-PCIE4XE101)
PCIe 4x (μPD720202 host controller)
A PCIe 4x, 8x or 16x slot is recommended.
USB 3.0 cable included in the packaging of your pco
USB 3.0 camera
Not recommended
Operating System
Multiple pco USB
3.0 cameras
connected to a
PC
Windows XP 32 Bit, Win7 32 / 64 Bit, Win8 32 / 64 Bit
FOL adapter
See A3
A separate DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10)
extension card for each camera should be used to
guaranty maximum data throughput of each camera.
Recommended Software Components
The pco USB 3.0 driver supports Windows 7/8 (x86 or x64) and
Windows XP x86 operating systems. Microsoft does not support USB
3.0 natively for Win 7 or older Windows versions. Therefore use the
manufacturers’ supplied xHCI host controller driver. By contrast, in
Windows 8 Microsoft does provide a native generic xHCI Driver but
pco recommends using the driver from the corresponding
manufacturer of the xHCI host controller. Currently there are seven
different vendors producing USB 3.0 host controllers:
•
•
•
Renesas Electronics
America Inc. (earlier NEC)
Texas Instrument Inc.
Intel Inc.
•
•
•
•
VIA Labs Inc (Diamond),
Fresco Logic Inc.
AMD Inc.
Etron Technology, Inc.
Please make sure that the most recent driver from the manufacturer
is installed before a pco USB 3.0 camera is connected to a USB 3.0
port of your computer. The appropriate driver for the USB 3.0 port
could be loaded from the website of the manufacturer of the USB 3.0
host xHCI controller; or from the website of the USB 3.0 extension
card vendor. The current driver of the extension card included in the
packaging of your pco USB 3.0 camera is added to the pco.USB
stick delivered with each pco.edge.
.
NOTE
To determine the driver currently in use for the xHCI controller, use
the Windows Device Manager. For example in Win 7, drop down
the USB-Controller entry and find the USB 3.0 host xHCI controller
of the USB 3.0 device in the sub-tree. Then right-click to open the
Properties dialog, click the driver tab and choose driver details
Before the pco.edge USB 3.0 camera is connected to the computer
the pco USB 3.0 Driver has to be installed. (see 4.1) Please visit the
support section of our website to get the latest USB 3.0 camera
driver.
59
A6 USB 3.0
A6.2 INSTALLATION OF THE USB 3.0 CARD
An external USB 3.0 Host Controller Card is enclosed to each
pco.edge USB 3.0 camera.
Hardware Installation
First shut down your computer and install the USB 3.0 Host
Controller.
Driver Installation Instructions
• Within the provided installation files USB_HBA, open the folder
U3X4-PCIE4XE101, U3X4-PCIE1XE101, U3-PCIE1XG202.
NOTE
Hardware Installation must be performed by a technician, because high
voltages can occur on
the device. Always pull
the main plug before
opening the device.
• Open the subfolder Driver and run RENESAS-USB3-Host-Driver30230-setup.exe.
• If your current OS is Win7/8 and the User Account Control is
enabled, a dialog could occur asking, if you wish to launch the
setup: Accept with Yes.
•1 At first the installation is prepared.
•2 Secondly the software components are copied.
•3 Finally the installation is completed and the Delock USB 3.0
extension card can be used.
2
1
3
60
A7 BINNING IN CMOS SENSORS
Binning describes the summation of single pixels to form larger pixels
and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
Binning in CCD image sensors
The term binning comes from scientific CCD image sensors. The
prominent feature of charge-coupled-devices (CCD) is the lossless
transport or shifting of charge packages until an amplifier circuit
converts them into a voltage at the output, where the main readout
noise contribution occurs. If charge packages from two or more
pixels are added before they are read out (past the output amplifier)
because of very low light signals; this process is called binning.
Since the signal is increased before it is read out, and the image
sensor’s readout characteristics remain unchanged, binning improves
the SNR, and the image sensor’s resolution is reduced. The lossless
transport feature of CCD image sensors makes binning possible.
Binning in CMOS image sensors
In general, binning is not possible in CMOS image sensors because
voltages are processed and no charges are transported. In each
pixel, the light generated charges are converted into voltages with the
readout noise contribution of these amplifiers. Therefore, as opposed
to CCD image sensors, if these voltages were combined, the readout
noise would also be combined, which would not have the same
positive effect on the SNR.
Nevertheless, such a summation or even an averaging would be
beneficial for the SNR, but with a smaller impact compared to CCD
image sensors. Since such CMOS binning cannot be done within the
image sensor, it either has to be done in the camera or in the
computer.
NOTE
The current default
binning
mode is
accumulation. Averaging is not available
within CamWare.
CMOS binning 1 – accumulation: Pixel values can accumulate,
causing an effective dynamic reduction or larger number formats,
because the result might exceed the original format -- two times
maximum 8 bit values will result in a 9 bit value. This will not be a
problem if 12 bit values are accumulated and transported as 16 bit
images. However, in the case of scientific CMOS, if 16 bit values are
transmitted in 16 bit images, only two times 15 bit maximum values
are allowed. The signal of the binned pixels will be accumulated, due
to the properties of readout noise; the increase of the noise itself will
only be as big as the square root of the number of binned pixels. The
SNR will improve and in addition, a reduction of the stored image
data is achieved.
CMOS binning 2 – averaging: Pixel values can be averaged, which
has the same effect on the SNR as accumulation due to the
properties of noise. This would keep the image output format the
same and would reduce the amount of image data that can be
stored. When this type of CMOS binning is processed in the camera
it is called hardware binning. This should not be confused with real
binning in CCD image sensors, because the hardware that
processes this binning is not much different from the hardware in
computer processing. Therefore, the term hardware binning may be
misleading.
61
A8 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
A8 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
There are different file formats available for saving camera images
with CamWare.
b16
The b16 16 bit format is similar to the bmp format. However, 16 bit
pixel values are used instead of 8 bit pixel values.
The file format consists either of a Basic Header (6 Long-parameter)
or of an Extended Header (32 Long-parameter), the latter of which is
optionally for additional information. There might follow a variable
comment field (ASCII code). Finally, there is the actual data set that is
saved linearly (as in the case of BMP files).
With the exception of the first value, all parameters are Long Integers
(4 Byte). The first 6 parameters must always exist. The rest of the
parameters, as well as the comment field, are optional.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Parameter
pcofile size
header length
image width
image height
extended header
color mode
b/w min
b/w max
b/w linlog
Function
the first 4 byte are the characters pcofile size in byte
header size + comment filed in byte
image width in pixel
image height in pixel
-1 (true), extended header follows
0 = black/with camera, 1 = color camera
black/white LUT-setting, minimum value
black/white LUT-setting, maximum value
black/white LUT-setting,
0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic
red LUT-setting, minimum value
red LUT-setting, maximum value
green LUT-setting, minimum value
green LUT-setting, maximum value
blue LUT-setting, minimum value
blue LUT-setting, maximum value
color LUT-setting, 0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic
11
red min
12
red max
13
green min
14
green max
15
blue min
16
blue max
17
color linlog
18

internal use
266
Comment file in ASCII characters with variable length of 0…XX.
The length of the comment filed must be documented in the header length
field.
16 bit pixel data
line 1, pixel 1
value of the first pixel
line 1, pixel 2
value of the second pixel
…
…
We recommend that all images should be saved first in the b16
or TIFF format. The advantage is to have the b16 or tiff images
available all the time. You will always have the maximum 16 bit
information. Please note that not all image analysis programs can
accommodate 16 bit data. The 8 bit format saves only the information
displayed on the monitor screen. The 16 bit information will be lost
and cannot be displayed later.
62
pcoraw
This 16 bit pco file format is based on the new BigTIFF format, thus
allowing for file size > 4GB. A new pco proprietary compression
scheme is added in case it is necessary.
Standard File Formats
TIFF
Tag Image File Format, version 6.0 and lower. There is a 16bit
monochrome and color image format.
BMP
Windows Bitmap Format, b/w or color 8 bit format-images, which
have been saved in BMP format can be loaded later only as 8 bit
images, i.e. part of the original information (16 bit) is lost.
FTS
Flexible Image Transport System, Version 3.1. There is a 16 bit image
format. The NASA/Science Office of Standards and Technology
(NOST) has defined this format. Some programs use the FIT
extension for this format.
ASCII
16 bit format, some mathematical programs prefer ASCII data.
JPG
JPEG (named after the Joint Photographic Experts Group who
created the standard) is a commonly used method of lossy
compression for photographic images. The degree of compression
can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size
and image quality.
JP2
JPEG 2000 is a wavelet-based image compression standard and
coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts
Group committee in the year 2000 with the intention of superseding
their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard
(created 1992).
AVI
Audio Video Interleave is a multimedia container format introduced by
Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows
technology.
MPG
MPEG-1, similar to JPEG, is a standard for lossy compression of
video and audio developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group
(MPEG).
WMV
Windows Media Video (WMV) is a compressed video compression
format for several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft. The
original video format, known as WMV, was originally designed for
Internet streaming applications, as a competitor to RealVideo.
63
A9 SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
A9 SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
Service
The camera is designed to operate with no need of special
adjustments or periodic inspections.
Maintenance
Unplug the camera from any power supply before cleaning it.
Use a soft, dry cloth for cleaning the camera.
Do not use liquid cleaners or sprays.
The lens is best cleaned with pressurized air or with liquid cleaners
such as pure alcohol or with special optical cleaners that are
available at high quality photo stores.
Never use aggressive cleaning liquids such as gasoline, acetone,
spirits or nitro cleanser.
Every time the input window is cleaned, there is the possibility of
surface damage. Do not clean the input window unless it is absolutely
necessary. Be careful and avoid scratches and damage to the input
window surface.
Use a cotton swab dipped in pure alcohol or optical cleaning liquid
and wipe only on the glass surface. Do not get any cleaning liquid on
the metallic parts such as the lens thread, because tiny detached
particles may scratch the surface.
Always store the camera with the protective cap or with a lens
mounted to avoid dust and dirt on the input window!
Camera Disposal
The camera includes electronic devices, which can contain materials
harmful to the environment. If the camera is to be discarded, please
dispose of it in an environmentally responsible manner and use
recycling facilities, where available.
64
A10 CUSTOMER SERVICE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
If you have a question, which is not adequately addressed in this
manual, please contact PCO or your local dealer.
To speed your request, we need the following
information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Short description of the problem
Description of your application
Camera settings
Type and version of camera software being used
Camera serial number
Operating system (PC)
Processor type (PC)
Memory
Graphic card
Graphic card setup
Please use the email options under the Help menu (see 7.8)
How to create a logfile:
• Enable log files: File Menu
Options
MISC (see 7.3.)
• Reboot your pco.edge
• Repeat the workflow which produces the faults.
• Open the About CamWare window (Menu ? -> About) and click
at the support links to send an email directly to PCO-Support
(see 7.8)
• Or visit our website: http://www.pco.de/support/
Repair
Before sending the camera for repair, first contact your local
dealer or PCO respectively.
When shipping the camera for repair, be certain to carefully pack the
camera with proper shipping materials. If possible use the original
packaging. Use the protection cap to protect the camera on the lens
thread.
Firmware, Software and Driver Update
You will find all necessary software and drivers on the accompanying
USB storage device.
For the latest versions please check our website:
http://www.pco.de/support/supportProducts/scmos-cameras/
65
ABOUT PCO
ABOUT PCO
pco.
In 1987, PCO was founded with the objective to develop and to
produce specialized, fast and sensitive video camera systems, mainly
for scientific applications. Meanwhile the product range of PCO
cameras covers digital camera systems with high dynamic range,
high resolution, high-speed and low noise, which are sold in the
scientific and industrial market all over the world.
Currently PCO is one of the leading manufacturers of scientific
cameras. Worldwide representatives, together with our own sales
department and technical support assure that we keep in touch with
our customers and their needs. The actual wide range of specialized
camera systems is the result of technical challenge and product
specific know-how. A design according to advanced techniques, a
high standard of production and strict quality controls guarantee a
reliable operation of the cameras. Our own developments in
conjunction with an excellent contact to leading manufacturers of
image sensors ensure our access to state-of-the-art CCD- and
CMOS-technology for our cameras.
Since 2001, PCO is located in its own facility building in Kelheim at
the shore of the beautiful and international river Danube. Here in the
county Bavaria, which is well known for its excellent support and
conditions for high technology companies, we share the benefits of
the simple access to high performance products and services in the
surrounding area.
Kelheim itself is a historical town, first documented in 866. The small
city is founded at the confluence of the Danube and the Altmühl,
which has been converted into the Rhine-Main-Danube bypass
channel for water transport. Located in Danube-valley, it is the heart
of a beautiful river and forest covered lime plateau landscape. It´s
landmark, the Hall of Liberation, was built by Ludwig I. in 1863 on the
Mount Michael and is visible from all over the city and valley. The
beautiful Danube-Gorge, which is protected as natural monument
since 1840, is located between Kelheim and the famous abbey
Weltenburg.
.
66
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