User Manual Wireless
User Manual
Wireless-N PCI Adapter
Model:
CWP-906
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 2
2.
3.
4.
1.1
Welcome .......................................................................................................... 4
1.2
Product Feature ............................................................................................. 4
1.3
Contents of Package ....................................................................................... 4
Designing Your PCI Adapter .............................................................................. 5
Installation ............................................................................................................ 6
3.1
Install Your PCI Adapter .............................................................................. 6
3.2
Install Driver and Utility ............................................................................... 7
Utility Config ...................................................................................................... 10
4.1
WZC .............................................................................................................. 11
4.1.1
Ralink Wireless Utility (RaUI) or Windows Zero Configuration (WZC)10
4.1.2
Use WZC to configure wireless NIC .......................................................... 13
4.2
RaUI .............................................................................................................. 17
4.2.1 Start ..................................................................................................................... 17
4.2.1.1 StartRaUI ............................................................................ 17
4.2.2 Profile .................................................................................................................. 23
4.2.2.1 Profile .................................................................................. 23
4.2.2.2 Add/Edit Profile .................................................................. 25
4.2.2.3 Example on Adding Profile in Network ........................... 26
4.2.3 Network ............................................................................................................... 30
4.2.3.1 Network ............................................................................... 30
4.2.3.2 Example on Adding Profile in Network ........................... 37
4.2.4 Advanced............................................................................................................. 41
4.2.4.1 Advanced ............................................................................. 41
4.2.5 Statistics .............................................................................................................. 41
4.2.5.1 Statistics ............................................................................... 41
4.2.6 WMM .................................................................................................................. 43
4.2.6.1 WMM .................................................................................. 44
4.2.6.2 Example to Configure to Enable DLS .............................. 45
(Direct Link Setup) ............................................................................ 45
4.2.6.3 Example to Configure TO Enable Wi-Fi Multi-Media ... 48
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4.2.6.4 Example to Configure TO Enable WMM-Power Save 50
4.2.7 WPS ..................................................................................................................... 51
4.2.7.1
4.2.7.2
4.2.7.3
4.2.7.4
4.2.7.5
WPS ..................................................................................... 51
WPS Information on AP .................................................... 53
Example to Add to Registrar Using PIN Method ............ 55
Example to Add to Registrar Using PBC Method........... 59
Example to Configure a Network/AP using PIN or PBC Method 66
4.2.8 About ................................................................................................................... 67
4.2.8.1 About ................................................................................... 67
4.2.9 Link Status .......................................................................................................... 69
4.2.9.1 Link Status .......................................................................... 69
4.3 Security ...................................................................................................................... 70
4.3.1 Auth / Encry.Setting-WEP/TKIP/AES ............................................................ 70
4.3.2 802.1x Setting ...................................................................................................... 71
4.3.3 Example to Reconnect 802.1x Authenticated Connectiom after 802.1x Authenticated
connection Is Failed in Profile ....................................................................................... 75
4.3.4 Example to Configure with WEP on ................................................................ 78
4.3.5 Example to Configure with WPA-PSK ............................................................ 83
4.3.6 Example to Configure with WPA ........................................................................ 87
5. Trouble Shooting ............................................................................................... 103
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1. Introduction
1.1 Welcome
PCI Adapter connects you with IEEE802.11n networks at receiving rate up to an incredible 150 Mbps! By using the reflection signal, 802.11n technology increases the range and reduces “dead spots” in the wireless coverage area. Unlike ordinary
wireless networking of 802.11b/g standards that are confused by wireless reflections, 802.11n can actually use these reflections to increase four times transmission range of 802.11g products.
Besides, when both ends of the wireless link are 802.11n products, The PCI can utilize twice radio band to increase three
times transmission speed of ordinary 802.11g standard products, and can comply with backwards 802.11b/802.11g standards. Soft AP supported by PCI Adapter can help you establish wireless LAN networking with lowest cost. Besides, WPS
(PBC and PIN) encryption method can free you from remembering the long passwords. Complete WMM function makes
your voice and video more smooth.
1.2 Product Feature
Complies with IEEE 802.11n, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11b standards
Provides 32-bit PCI interface
Provides 150 Mbps receiving rate and 150 Mbps sending rate
Supports 20MHz/40MHz frequency width
Auto-detects and changes the network transmission rate
Provides two work modes: Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc
Supports Soft AP to establish your wireless LAN networking with lowest cost
Supports 64/128-bit WEP, WPA, WPA2 encryption methods and 802.1x security authentication standard
Supports WPS (PBC and PIN) encryption method to free you from remembering long passwords
Supports WMM to make your voice and video more smoothly
Supports Windows® 2000, XP 32/64, Vista 32/64, Win 7 32/64
1.3 Contents of Package
One PCI Adapter
One Installation CD
One dipole antenna
Contact your local authorized reseller or the store where you purchased for any items damaged and/or missing.
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2. Designing Your PCI Adapter
PCI Adapter supports up to 150 Mbps connections. It is fully compliant with the specifications defined in 802.11n standard
The status LED indicators of PCI Card are described in the following.

Link/Act ON (Green): Indicates a valid connection.

Link/Act Flashing: Indicates the Adapter is transmitting or receiving data
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3. Installation
3.1 Install Your PCI Adapter

Open your PC case and locate an available PCI on the motherboard.
Slide PCI Adapter into the PCI slot. Make sure that all of its pins are touching the slot's contacts. You may have to apply a
bit of pressure to slide PCI Adapter all the way in. after it is firmly in to place, secure its fastening tab to your PC's chassis
with a mounting screw. Then close your PC.
Attach the external antennas to PCI Adapter's antenna port.\
Power On the PC.
Note: Select Cancel button, when “Found New Hardware” window appears.
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3.2 Install Driver and Utility
NOTE: Snap-shot screens of the following installation procedure are based on Windows XP.
installation procedures will be similar for other windows operating systems.
1. Insert Installation CD to your CD-ROM drive. And click Driver Installation. The wizard will be run and install all
necessary files to your computer automatically.
2. Click next to accept the Agreement. Or click Cancel to cancel the installation
3.
Click NEXT
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4. Select Ralink Configuration Tool or Microsoft Zero Configuration Tool then click Next.
a. It’s recommended to select Ralink Configuration Tool, which provides fully access to all
functions of PCI Adapter.
b. If you prefer to use the wireless configuration tool provided by Windows XP or Vista, please
select Microsoft Zero Configuration Tool
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5. Click Finish to complete the software installation.
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4. Utility Configuration
4.1.1 Ralink Wireless Utility (RaUI) or Windows Zero Configuration
(WZC)
Windows XP includes a wireless configuration utility named "Windows Zero configuration" (WZC)
which provides basic configuration functions to the Ralink. Wireless NIC. Ralink's utility (RaUI) additionally provides WPA functionality. It’s easier for the user to select the correct utility. RaUI will let
users make a selection when it first runs after windows XP boots. Double-clicking the icon will bring
up the selection window and allow the user make a selection.
Figure 1-1 RaUI.exe
RaUI can co-exist with WZC. When coexisting with WZC, RaUI only provides monitoring functions, such as surveying the
link status, network status, statistic counters, advanced feature status, WMM status and WPS status. It won't interfere with
WZC's configuration or profile functions. It is shown as Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2 Select WZC or RaUI
If "Use RaConfig as Configuration utility" is selected, please jump to Section 2 on running RaUI.
If "Use Zero Configuration as Configuration utility" is selected, please continue.
We will explain the difference between RaUI and WZC. Figure 1-3 shows the RaUI status when WZC is activated as the
main control utility.
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Figure 1-3 RaUI status with WZC active
When activating WZC, there are several difference with the RaUI status, compared to the RaUI status without WZC running.
1.
The profile button will be gray. Profile functionality is removed since the NIC is controlled by WZC.
2.
The connection and add profile function will be gray. Profile functionality is removed since the NIC is controlled by
WZC.
Please read through this document for full details on the other functions provided by RaUI.
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4.1.2 Use WZC to configure wireless NIC
1. If there is no connection or it is lost, the status prompt will pop up, as shown in Figure 1-4.
Figure 1-4 status prompt for no connection
2. Right-click the network connection icon in taskbar
Figure 1-5 Select WZC main status
3. Select "View Available Wireless Networks" and the "Wireless Network Connection" dialog box will pop up, as shown in
Figure 1-6.
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Figure 1-6 Wireless Network Connection
4. Select the intended access point and click "Connect". Then click "Connect Anyway" as shown as Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7 Select intended AP : AP1, then click "Connect"
Figure 1-8 Connect AP: AP1 successfully
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5. If you want to modify information about the AP, click "Change advanced settings" as shown in Figure 1-9. Then select
the "Wireless Networks" tab shown as Figure 1-10.
Figure 1-9 Click "Change advanced settings"
Figure 1-10 Choose the "Wireless Networks" tab
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6. Click "Properties" as shown in Figure 1-11. Then click "OK" button.
Figure 1-11 AP's properties
7. After filling in the appropriate value, click "OK." The pop-up will indicate the status.
as shown in Figure 1-12.
Figure 1-12 Network connection status
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8. Clicking the Ralink icon will bring up the RaUI main window. Users can find the surrounding APs in the list. The currently connected AP will be shown with a blue icon beside it, as shown in Figure 1-13. Users may use the advanced tab to
configure more advanced features provided by Ralink's wireless NIC. For details on configuring the advanced features,
please check the Advance setting section.
Figure 1-13 Show connection status by using WZC to initiate the connection
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B. RaUI
4.2.1 Start
4.2.1.1 Start RaUI
When starting RaUI, the system will connect to the AP with best signal strength without setting a profile or matching a profile setting. When starting RaUI, it will issue a scan command to a wireless NIC. After two seconds, the AP list will be updated with the results of a BSS list scan. The AP list includes most used fields, such as SSID, network type, channel used,
wireless mode, security status and the signal percentage. The arrow icon indicates the connected BSS or IBSS network. The
dialog box is shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1-1 RaUI section introduction
There are three sections to the RaUI dialog box. These sections are briefly described as follow.
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1. Button Section: Include buttons for selecting the Profile page, Network page, Advanced page, Statistics page, WMM
page, WPS page, the About button, Radio On/Off button and Help.
Figure 2-1-2 Button section
Figure 2-1-3 Move to the left
Figure 2-1-4 Move to the right
2. Function Section: Appears to present information and options related to the button.
Figure 2-1-5 Profile page
Figure 2-1-6 Network page
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Figure 2-1-7 Advance page
Figure 2-1-8 Statistics page
Figure 2-1-9 WMM page
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Figure 2-1-10 WPS page
Figure 2-1-11 About page
3. Status Section: This section includes information about the link status, authentication status, AP's information and configuration, and retrying the connection when authentication is failed.
Figure 2-1-12 Link Status
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Figure 2-1-13 Authentication Status
Figure 2-1-14 AP's Information
Figure 2-1-15 Retry the connection
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Figure 2-1-16 Configuration
When starting RaUI, a small Ralink icon appears in the notifications area of the taskbar, as shown in Figure 2-1-15. You
can double click it to maximize the dialog box if you selected to close it earlier. You may also use the mouse's right button
to close RaUI utility.
Figure 2-1-17 Ralink icon in system tray
Additionally, the small icon will change color to reflect current wireless network connection status. The status is shown as
follows:
: Indicates the connected and signal strength is good.
: Indicates the connected and signal strength is normal.
: Indicates that it is not yet connected.
: Indicates that a wireless NIC can not be detected.
: Indicates that the connection and signal strength is weak.
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4.2.2 Profile
4.2.2.1 Profile
The Profile List keeps a record of your favorite wireless settings at home, office, and other public hot-spots. You can save
multiple profiles, and activate the correct one at your preference. Figure 2-2-1 shows the basic profile section
Figure 2-2-1
Profile function.
Definition of each field:
1. Profile Name: Name of profile, preset to PROF* (* indicate 1, 2, 3...).
2. SSID: The access point or Ad-hoc name.
3. Network Type: Indicates the networks type, including infrastructure and Ad- Hoc.
4. Authentication: Indicates the authentication mode used.
5. Encryption: Indicates the encryption Type used.
6. Use 802.1x: Shows if the 802.1x feature is used or not.
7. Cannel: Channel in use for Ad-Hoc mode.
8. Power Save Mode: Choose from CAM (Constantly Awake Mode) or Power Saving Mode.
9. Tx Power: Transmitting power, the amount of power used by a radio transceiver to send the signal out.
10. RTS Threshold: Users can adjust the RTS threshold number by sliding the bar or keying in the value directly.
11. Fragment Threshold: The user can adjust the Fragment threshold number by sliding the bar or key in the value directly.
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Icons and buttons:
: Indicates if a connection made from the currently activated profile.
: Indicates if the connection has failed on a currently activated profile.
: Indicates the network type is infrastructure mode.
: Indicates the network type is in Ad-hoc mode.
: Indicates if the network is security-enabled.
: Click to add a new profile.
: Click to edit an existing profile.
: Deletes an existing profile.
: Activates the selected profile.
: Shows information of the related status section.
: Hides information of the related status section.
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4.2.2.2 Add / Edit Profile
There are three methods to open the Profile Editor dialog box.
1. You can open it by clicking the "Add to Profile" button in the Site Survey tab.
2. You can open it by clicking the "Add" button in the Profile tab.
3. You can open it by clicking the "Edit" button on the Profile tab
Figure 2-2-2 Configuration
1.
Profile Name: The user can chose any name for this profile, or use the default name defined by system.
2.
SSID: The user can key in the intended SSID name or select one of the available APs from the drop-down list.
3.
Power Save Mode: Choose CAM (Constantly Awake Mode) or Power Saving Mode.
4.
Network Type: There are two types, infrastructure and 802.11 Ad-hoc modes. Under Ad-hoc mode, user can also
choose the preamble type. The available preamble type includes auto and long. In addition, the channel field will be available for setup in Ad-hoc mode.
5.
RTS Threshold: User can adjust the RTS threshold number by sliding the bar, or key in the value directly. The default
value is 2347.
6.
Fragment Threshold: User can adjust the Fragment threshold number by sliding the bar or key in the value directly.
The default value is 2346.
7.
Channel: Only available for setting under Ad-hoc mode. Users can choose the channel frequency to start their Ad-hoc
network. Authentication Type: There are 7 type of authentication modes supported by RaUI. They are open, Shared, LEAP,
WPA and WPA-PSK, WPA2 and WPA2-PSK.
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8.
Encryption Type: For open and shared authentication mode, the selection of available encryption type are None and
WEP. For WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK authentication mode, both TKIP and AES encryption is available.
9.
802.1x Setting: This is introduced in the topic of "Section 3-2 : 802.1x Setting".
10. WPA Pre-shared Key: This is the key shared between the AP and STA. For WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK authentication mode, this field must be filled with a key between 8 and 32 characters in length.
11. WEP Key: Only valid when using WEP encryption algorithms. The key must be identical to the AP's key. There are
several formats to enter the keys.
1. Hexadecimal - 40bits : 10 Hex characters.
2. Hexadecimal - 128bits : 26Hex characters.
3. ASCII - 40bits : 5 ASCII characters.
4. ASCII - 128bits : 13 ASCII characters
4.2.2.3 Example on Adding Profile in Network
Click "Add" below the Profile List.
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The "Add Profile" will appear.
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Specify a Profile Name. Select an AP from the SSID drop-down list. The AP list is from the last Network.
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Now the profile which the user set appears in the profile list. Click "Activate".
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4.2.3 Network
4.2.3.1 Network
The system will display the information of local APs from the last scan result as part of the Network section. The Listed
information includes the SSID, BSSID, Signal, Channel, Encryption algorithm, Authentication and Network type as shown
in Figure 2-3-1-1.
Figure 2-3-1-1 Network function
1.
SSID: Name of BSS or IBSS network.
2.
Network Type: Network type in use, Infrastructure for BSS, Ad-Hoc for IBSS network.
3.
Channel: Channel in use.
4.
Wireless Mode: AP support wireless mode. It may support 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g or 802.11n wireless mode.
5.
Security-Enable: Indicates if the AP provides a security-enabled wireless network.
6.
Signal: Receive signal strength of the specified network.
Icons and buttons:
: Indicates that the connection is successful.
: Indicates the network type is in infrastructure mode.
: Indicates the network type is in Ad-hoc mode.
:
Indicate that the wireless network is security - enabled.
: Indicates 802.11a wireless mode.
: Indicates 802.11b wireless mode
: Indicates 802.11g wireless mode.
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: Indicates 802.11n wireless mode.
: Indicates that the AP list is sorted by SSID, Channel or Signal.
: Button to connect to the selected network.
: Issues a rescan command to the wireless NIC to update information on the surrounding wireless network.
: Adds the selected AP to the Profile setting. It will bring up a profile page and save
the user's setting to a new profile.
: Shows the Status Section.
: Hides the Status Section.
Connected network:
1.
When RaUI first runs, it will select the best AP to connect to automatically.
2.
If the user wants to use another AP, they can click "Connect" for the intended AP to make a connection.
3.
If the intended network uses encryption other than "Not Use," RaUI will bring up the security page and let the user in-
put the appropriate information to make the connection. Please refer to the example on how to fill in the security information
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When you double click an AP, you can see detailed information about that AP.
The detailed AP information is divided into three parts. They are General, WPS, CCX information and 802.11n (The
802.11n button only exists for APs supporting N mode.) The introduction is as follows:
A.
General information contains the AP's SSID, MAC address, authentication type, encryption type, channel, network
type, beacon interval, signal strength and supported rates. It is shown in Figure 2-3-1-2.
Figure 2-3-1-2 General information about the Access Point
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b. WPS information contains the authentication type, encryption type, config. methods, device password ID, selected registrar, state, version, AP setup lock status, UUID-E and RF bands, as shown in Figure 2-3-1-3. The information is further
explained as follows :
1.
Authentication Type: There are three types of authentication modes supported by RaConfig. They are open, Shared,
WPA-PSK and WPA system.
2.
Encryption Type: For open and shared authentication mode, the choices of the encryption type are none and WEP. For
WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK authentication mode, the encryption type supports both TKIP and AES.
3.
Config Methods: Correspond to the methods the AP supports as an Enrollee for adding external Registrars, (a bitwise
OR of values.)
Value
Hardware Interface
0x0001
USBA (Flash Drive)
0x0002
Ethernet
0x0004
Label
0x0008
Display
0x0010
External NFC Token
0x0020
Integrated NFC Token
0x0040
NFC Interface
0x0080
Push Button
0x0100
Keypad
4.
Device Password ID: Indicates the method or identifies the specific password that the selected Registrar intends to use.
The AP in PBC mode must indicate 0x0004 within the two-minute Walk Time.
Value
Description
0x0000
Default (PIN)
0x0001
User-specified
0x0002
Rekey
0x0003
Display
0x0004
Push Button (PBC)
0x0005
Registrar-specified
0x0006-0x00F
Reserved
5.
Selected Registrar: Indicates if the user has recently activated a Registrar to add an Enrollee. The values are "TRUE"
and "FALSE".
6.
State: The current configuration state of the AP. The values are "Unconfigured" and "Configured".
7.
Version: The specified WPS version.
8.
AP Setup Locked: Indicates if the AP has entered a locked setup state.
9.
UUID-E: The universally unique identifier (UUID) element generated by the Enrollee. The value is 16 bytes.
10.
RF Bands: Indicates all of the RF bands available to the AP. A dual-band AP must provide it. The values are
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"2.4GHz" and "5GHz".
Figure 2-3-1-3 WPS Detailed information about the AP
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c.
CCX information contains the CCKM, Cmic and Ckip information. It is shown in Figure 2-3-1-4.
Figure 2-3-1-4 CCX information about AP's detail information
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d. 802.11n information contains some related 802.11n information. It is shown in Figure 2-3-1-5.
Figure 2-3-1-5 802.11n information
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4.2.3.2 Example on Adding Profile in Network
1. Select the AP from the list on the Network tab
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2. Click "Add to Profile"
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3. The System section will appear at the bottom of the Add Profile window. You can specify your
own profile name
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4. Next, you will see the new profile in the profile list. Click "Activate"
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4.2.4 Advanced functions
4.2.4.1 Advanced functions
Figure 2-4 shows the Advance functions of RaUI.
Figure 2-4 Advance function
1.
Wireless mode: Select wireless mode. 2.4G, 5G and 2.4+5G are supported.
2.
Wireless Protection: Users can choose from Auto, On, and Off. (This is not supported by 802.11n adapters.)
a. Auto: STA will dynamically change as AP announcement.
b. On: The frames are always sent with protection.
c. Off: The frames are always sent without protection.
3.
TX Rate: Manually select the transfer rate. The default setting is auto. (802.11n wireless cards do not allow the user to
select the TX Rate.)
4.
Enable TX Burst: Ralink's proprietary frame burst mode.
5.
Enable TCP Window Size: Optimise the TCP window size to allow for greater throughput.
6.
Fast Roaming at-: enables fast roaming, which is set by the transmit power.
7.
Select Your Country Region Code: There are eight countries to choose from in the country channel list. (11A ListBox
only shows for 5G adapter.)
8.
Show Authentication Status Dialog: When you connect to an AP with
authentication, choose whether show the "Authentication Status Dialog" or not. The Authentication Status Dialog displays
the processes during 802.1x authentication.
9.
Enable CCX (Cisco Compatible Extensions): Choose whether Cisco Compatible Extensions are supported or not.
LEAP turn on CCKM.
b Enabled Radio Measurement: can measure the channel every 0~2000
milliseconds
a.
10. Apply the above changes
4.2.5 Statistics
4.2.5.1 Statistics
The Statistics page displays detailed counter information based on 802.11 MIB counters. This page translates that MIB
counters into a format easier for the user to understand. Figure 2-5-1 shows the detailed page layout.
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Figure 2-5-1 Statistics function
Transmit Statistics:
1.
Frames Transmitted Successfully: Frames successfully sent.
2.
Frames Fail To Receive ACK After All Retries: Frames failed transmit after hitting retry limit.
3.
RTS Frames Successfully Receive CTS: Successfully receive CTS after sending RTS frame.
4.
RTS Frames Fail To Receive CTS: Failed to receive CTS after sending RTS.
5.
Frames Retransmitted Successfully: Successfully retransmitted frames numbers.
6.
Reset counters to zero.
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Receive Statistics:
1.
Frames Received Successfully: The number of frames successfully received.
2.
Frames Received With CRC Error: The number of frames received with a CRC error.
3.
Frames Dropped Due To Out-of-Resource: The number of frames dropped due to a resource issue.
4.
Duplicate Frames Received: The number of duplicate frames received.
5.
Reset all the counters to zero.
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4.2.6 WMM
4.2.6.1 WMM
Figure 2-6-1 shows WMM function of RaUI. It involves "WMM Enable", "WMM -Power Save Enable" and DLS setup. The introduction indicates as follow :
Figure 2-6-1 WMM function
1.
WMM Enable: Enable Wi-Fi Multi-Media. The setting method follows Section 2-6-2.
2.
WMM - Power Save Enable: Enable WMM Power Save. The setting method follows Section 2-6-3.
3.
Direct Link Setup Enable: Enable DLS (Direct Link Setup). The setting method follows Section 2-6-4.
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4.2.6.2 Example to Configure to Enable DLS
(Direct Link Setup)
1.
Click the "Direct Link Setup Enable" checkbox
2.
Change to "Network" function. Add an AP that supports DLS features to the profile. The result will look like the Pro-
file Page in the figure below.
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The DLS settings are explained as follows:
1. Fill in the blanks of Direct Link with MAC Address of STA. The STA must conform to these two conditions.
a. Connect with an AP that supports DLS features.
b. Ensure that DLS is enabled.
2.
The Timeout Value indicates the time in seconds before it disconnects automatically.
The value is an integer. The integer must be between 0~65535. A zero value specifies that it stays connected. The default
Timeout Value is 60 seconds.
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3. Click "Apply"
Describe "DLS Status" as follow :
a. After configuring the DLS successfully, the MAC address and Timeout Value are displayed in the "DLS Status". In
"DLS Status" on the opposite side, the user’s local MAC address and Timeout Value are displayed.
b. Display the values of "DLS Status" to "Direct Link Setup" as follow:
1. In "DLS Status" select a direct link STA what you want to show it's values in "Direct Link Setup".
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2. Double click. And the result will look like the below figure.
c. Disconnect Direct Link Setup as follow:
1. Select a direct link STA.
2. Click "Tear Down" button. The result will look like the below figure.
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4.2.6.3 Example to Configure TO Enable Wi-Fi Multi-Media
If you want to use "WMM-Power Save" or "Direct Link" you must enable WMM. The setting method
of enabling WMM indicates as follows:
1. Click "WMM Enable".
2. Change to "Network" function. And add an AP that supports WMM features to a Profile. The result will look like the
below figure in Profile page.
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4.2.6.4 Example to Configure TO Enable WMM-Power Save
1. Click "WMM-Power Save Enable".
2. Please select which ACs you want to enable. The setting of enabling WMM Power Save is successfully.
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4.2.7 WPS
4.2.7.1 WPS
Figure 2-7-1 illustrates the RaUI WPS functions.
Figure 2-7-1 WPS function
1.
WPS Configuration: The primary goal of Wi-Fi Protected Setup (Wi-Fi Simple Configuration) is to simplify the secu-
rity setup and management of Wi-Fi networks.
Ralink STA supports the configuration and setup using a PIN configuration method or a PBC configuration method
through an internal or external Registrar.
2.
WPS AP List: Displays the information of the surrounding APs with WPS IE from the last scan result. The detailed
information includes the SSID, BSSID, Channel, ID (Device Password ID), Security-Enabled.
3.
Rescan: Issues a rescan command to the wireless NIC to update information on the surrounding wireless network.
4.
Information: Displays the information about WPS IE on the selected network. The detailed list includes the Authenti-
cation Type, Encryption Type, Config Methods, Device Password ID, Selected Registrar, State, Version, AP Setup Locked,
UUID-E and RF Bands. Further details are available here: WPS Information on AP.
5.
PIN Code: The user is required to enter an 8-digit PIN Code into Registrar. When an STA is the Enrollee, you can
click "Renew" to re-generate a new PIN Code.
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6.
Config Mode: The station serving as an Enrollee or an external Registrar.
7.
Table of Credentials: Displays all credentials obtained by the Registrar. The detailed list includes information about the
SSID, MAC Address, Authentication and Encryption Type. If STA is the Enrollee, the credentials are created immediately
with each WPS success. If STA is the Registrar, RaUI creates a new credential with WPA2-PSK/AES/64Hex-Key and
doesn't change this until switching to STA Registrar.
8.
Control items for credentials.
a. Detail: Command to obtain Information about Security and the Key in the credential.
b. Connect: Command to connect to the selected network inside credentials. The active selected credential is as like as the
active selected Profile.
c.
Rotate: Command to rotate to connect to the next network inside credentials.
d.
Disconnect: Stops the WPS action and disconnects the active link. It then selects the most recent profile on the Profile
Page of RaUI. If there are no profiles, the driver will select any non-security AP.
e. Export Profile: Exports all credentials to a Profile.
f. Delete: Deletes an existing credential. And then selects the next credential. If there is not another credential, the driver
will select any non-security AP.
9.
PIN: Start to add to Registrar using PIN configuration method. If STA Registrar, remember that enter PIN Code read
from your Enrollee before starting PIN.
10. PBC: Start to add to AP using PBC configuration method.
After the user clicks PIN or PBC, please do not rescan within two-minutes of the connection. If you
want to abort this setup within the interval, restart PIN/PBC or click "Disconnect" to stop WPS action.
11. WPS associate IE: Sends the association request with WPS IE during the WPS setup. It is optional for STA.
12. WPS probe IE: Sends the probe request with WPS IE during WPS setup. It is optional for STA.
13. Progress Bar: Displays the rate of progress from Start to Connected.
14.
Status Bar: Displays the current WPS Status.
15.
Automatically select the AP: Starts to add to AP by using to select the AP automatically in PIN method.
**There are examples in section 2-7-3 (PIN Enrollee Setup), section 2-7-4(PBC
Enrollee Setup) and section 2-7-5 (Registrar Configures and AP) **
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4.2.7.2 WPS Information on AP
The WPS information (shown below) includes the authentication type, encryption type, config methods, device password ID, selected registrar, state, version, AP setup locked, UUID-E and RF bands.
1.
Authentication Type: There are three authentication modes supported by RaConfig. They are open, Shared, WPA-PSK
and WPA system.
2.
Encryption Type: For open and shared authentication mode, the selection of encryption type are none and WEP. For
WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSKauthentication mode, the encryption type supports both TKIP and AES.
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3.
Config Methods: Correspond to the methods the AP supports as an Enrollee for adding external Registrars. (A bitwise
OR of values)
Value
0x0001
0x0002
0x0004
0x0008
0x0010
0x0020
0x0040
0x0080
0x0100
4.
Hardware Interface
USBA (Flash Drive)
Ethernet
Label
Display
External NFC Token
Integrated NFC Token
NFC Interface
Push Button
Keypad
Device Password ID: Indicates the method or identifies the specific password that the selected Registrar intends to use.
APs in PBC mode must indicate 0x0004 within two-minute Walk Time.
Value
0x0000
0x0001
0x0002
0x0003
0x0004
0x0005
0x0006-0x000F
5.
Description
Default (PIN)
User-specified
Rekey
Display
Push-button (PBC)
Registrar-specified
Reserved
Selected Registrar: Indicates if the user has recently activated a Registrar to add an Enrollee. The values are "TRUE"
and "FALSE".
6.
State: The current configuration state on AP. The values are "Unconfigured" and "Configured".
7.
Version: WPS specified version. AP Setup Locked: Indicates if the AP has entered a setup locked state.
8.
UUID-E: The universally unique identifier (UUID) element generated by the Enrollee. This is a 16 byte value.
9.
RF Bands: Indicates all the RF bands available on the AP. A dual-band AP must
10. Provide it. The values are "2.4GHz" and "5GHz".
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4.2.7.3 Example to Add to Registrar Using PIN Method
The user obtains a device password (PIN Code) from the STA and enters the password into the Registrar. Both the Enrollee and the Registrar use PIN Config method for the configuration setup. The following image outlines the process.
1. Select "Enrollee" from the Config Mode drop-down list.
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2.
Click "Rescan" to update available WPS APs.
3.
Select an AP (SSID/BSSID) that STA will join to.
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4.
Click "PIN" to enter the PIN
5.
Enter the PIN Code of the STA into the Registrar when prompted by the Registrar.
Allow of an exchange between Step 4 and Step 5.
If you use Microsoft Window Connection Now as an External Registrar, you must start PIN connection at STA first. After that, search out your WPS Device name and MAC address at Microsoft Registrar. Add a new device and enter PIN Code of STA at Microsoft Registrar when prompted.
6.
The result should appear as the image below.
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7.
Configure one or more credentials
8.
Then connect successfully. The result appears as the following image.
9. Click "Detail"
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10.
You will look like the below figure.
If Credential#1 is reliable and present, the system will connect with Credential#1.
If not, the system will automatically rotate to the next existing credential. The user can also click "Rotate" to rotate to the next credential usable credential
Describe "WPS Status Bar" - "PIN - xxx" as follow:
1.
Acceptable PIN Configurations:
Start PIN connection - SSID -> Begin associating to WPS AP
-> Associated to WPS AP -> Sending EAPOL-Start
-> Sending EAP-Rsp (ID) -> Receive EAP-Req (Start) -> Sending M1
-> Received M2 -> (Received M2D -> Sending EAP-Rsp (ACK))
-> Sending M3 -> Received M4 -> Sending M5 -> Received M6
-> Sending M7 -> Received M8 -> Sending EAP-Rsp(Done)
-> Configured -> WPS status is disconnected
-> WPS status is connected successfully-SSID
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2.
WPS configuration doesn't complete after a two-minute connection:
WPS EAP process failed.
3. When errors occur within two minutes of connecting, the WPS status bar might
report "WPS Eap process failed".
Error messages might be:
1. Receive EAP with wrong NONCE.
2. Receive EAP without integrity.
3. Error PIN Code.
4. An inappropriate EAP-FAIL received.
4.2.7.4 Example to Add to Registrar Using PBC Method
The PBC method requires the user to press a PBC button on both the Enrollee and the Registrar within a two-minute interval called the Walk Time. If there is only one Registrar in PBC mode, the PBC mode selected is obtained from ID 0x0004,
and is found after a complete scan. The Enrollee can then immediately begin running the Registration Protocol.
If the Enrollee discovers more than one Registrar in PBC mode, it MUST abort its connection attempt at this scan and continue searching until the two-minute timeout.
*Before you press PBC on STA and candidate AP. Make sure all APs aren't PBC
Mode or APs using PBC mode have left their Walk Time.
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1.
Select "Enrollee" from the Config Mode drop-down list.
2.
Click PBC to start the PBC connection.
3.
Push the PBC on AP.
*Allow time for an exchange between Step 2 and Step 3.
4. The progress bar as shown in the figure below indicates that scanning progress
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5.
When one AP is found, join it.
6.
Check WPS Information on the available WPS APs.
7.
Configure and receive one or more credential(s).
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8.
Then connect successfully. The result will be displayed as it is in the figure below.
Describe "WPS Status Bar" - "PBC - xxx" as follow:
1.
A successful PBC Configuration:
Start PBC connection -> Scanning AP
-> Begin associating to WPS AP ->Associated to WPS AP
-> Sending EAPOL-Start -> Sending EAP-Rsp (ID)
->Receive EAP-Rsp (Start) -> Sending M1 -> Received M2
-> Sending M3 ->Received M4 -> Sending M5 -> Received M6
-> Sending M7 -> Received M8 ->Sending EAP-Rsp (Done)
-> Configured -> WPS status is disconnected
-> WPS status is connected successfully-SSID
2.
No PBC AP available :
Scanning AP -> No PBC AP available -> Scanning AP -> No PBC AP available….
3.
Too Many PBC AP available :
Scanning AP -> Too Many PBC AP available -> Scanning AP -> Too Many PBC AP available ->
4. WPS configuration doesn't complete after two-minute connection
WPS Eap process failed.
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5. When Errors occur within two-minutes of establishing a connection, the WPS status bar might report "WPS Eap
process failed".
Error messages might be:
1. Receive EAP with wrong NONCE.
2. Receive EAP without integrity.
3. An inappropriate EAP-FAIL received.
Describe "Multiple PBC session overlaps" as follow:
a.
Dual bands:
AP1 is a G-Band AP using PBC mode. (ID = 0x0004)
AP2 is a A-Band AP using PBC mode. (ID = 0x0004)
They have the same UUID-E.
STA would regard these two APs as a dual-radio AP and select one band to connect.
b.
Different UUID-E :
AP1 is a G-Band AP using PBC mode. (ID = 0x0004)
AP2 is a G-Band AP using PBC mode. (ID = 0x0004)
They have the different UUID-E.
STA would regard these two APs as two different APs and wait until only one PBC AP is available.
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4.2.7.5 Example to Configure a Network/AP using PIN or PBC Method
1.
Select Registrar from the Config Mode drop-down list.
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2.
Enter the details of the credential and change configurations (SSID, Authentication, Encryption and Key) manually if
needed.
3.
If the PIN configuration is setup, enter the PIN sent from the Enrollee.
Start
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4.
Start PIN or PBC. The following procedures are as similar as section 2-7-3 (PIN Enrollee Setup) or section 2-7-4(PBC
Enrollee Setup),
5.
If your AP Enrollee has been configured before the WPS process, the credential you set in advance will be updated to
the AP itself. Otherwise, after a successful registration, the AP Enrollee will be re-configured with the new parameters, and
the STA Registrar will connect to the AP Enrollee with these new parameters.
Describe "WPS Status Bar" - "PIN - xxx" as follow:
A successful PIN Configuration:
Start PIN connection - SSID -> Begin associating to WPS AP
-> Associated to WPS AP -> Sending EAPOL-Start
-> Sending EAP-Rsp (ID) -> Receive M1 ->Sending M2
-> Receive M3 -> Sending M4 -> Receive M5 -> Sending M6
->Receive M7 -> Sending M8 -> Receive EAP Rsp (Done)
-> Sending EAP Rsp(ACK) -> Configured
-> WPS status is disconnected
-> WPS status is connected successfully-SSID
Describe "WPS Status Bar" - "PBC - xxx" as follow:
A successful PBC Configuration:
Start PBC connection -> Scanning AP ->
Begin associating to WPS AP ->Associated to WPS AP
-> Sending EAPOL-Start -> Sending EAP-Rsp (ID) ->Receive M1
-> Sending M2 -> Receive M3 -> Sending M4 -> Receive M5
->Sending M6 -> Receive M7 -> Sending M8 ->
Receive EAP Rsp (Done) ->Sending EAP Rsp (ACK) -> Configured -> WPS status is disconnected ->
WPS tatus is connected uccessfully-SSID
4.2.8 About
4.2.8.1 About
Click "About" displays the wireless card and driver version information as shown in Figure 2-8.
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Figure 2-8 about function
1.
Connect to Ralink's website: Ralink Technology, Corp.
2.
Display Configuration Utility, Driver, and EEPROM version information.
3.
Display Wireless NIC MAC address.
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4.2.9 Link Status
4.2.9.1 Link Status
The link status page displays detailed information about the current connection as shown in Figure 2-9.
Figure 2-9 Link Status function.
1.
Status: Current connection status. If no connection, it will show Disconnected. Otherwise, the SSID and BSSID will
show here.
2.
Extra Info: Display link status in use.
3.
Channel: Display current channel in use.
4.
Authentication: Authentication mode in use.
5.
Encryption: Encryption type in use.
6.
Network Type: Network type in use.
7.
IP Address: IP address about current connection.
5.
Sub Mask: Sub mask about current connection.
9.
Default Gateway: Default gateway about current connection.
10.
Link Speed: Show current transmit rate and receive rate.
11.
Throughout: Display transmits and receive throughput in unit of Mbps.
12.
Link Quality: Display connection quality based on signal strength and TX/RX packet error rate.
13.
Signal Strength 1~3: Receive signal strength 1~3, user can choose to display as percentage or dBm format.
14.
Noise Strength: Display noise signal strength.
15.
HT: Display current HT status in use, containing BW, GI, MCS, SNR0, and SNR1 value. (Show the information only
for 802.11n wireless card. )
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4.3 Security
4.3.1 Auth / Encry.Setting-WEP/TKIP/AES
Figure 3-1 Auth.\Encry. Settings
1.
Authentication Type: There are 7 authentication modes supported by RaUI. They are open, Shared, LEAP, WPA and
WPA-PSK, WPA2 and WPA2-PSK.
2.
Encryption Type: For open and shared authentication mode, the available encryption types are None and WEP. For
WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK authentication mode, the encryption type supports both TKIP and AES.
3.
8021X: This is introduced in the topic of Section 3-2.
4.
WPA Pre-shared Key: This is the shared key between the AP and STA. If operating in WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK au-
thentication mode, this field must be filled with a key between 8 and 32 characters in length.
5.
WEP Key: Only valid when using WEP encryption algorithm. The key must match the AP's key. There are several
formats to enter the keys.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Hexadecimal - 40bits: 10 Hex characters.
Hexadecimal - 128bits: 32Hex characters.
ASCII - 40bits: 5 ASCII characters.
ASCII - 128bits: 13 ASCII characters
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4.3.2 802.1x Setting
802.1x is used for authentication of the "WPA" and "WPA2" certificate by the server.
Authentication type:
1.
PEAP: Protect Extensible Authentication Protocol. PEAP transport securely authenticates data by using tunneling be-
tween PEAP clients and an authentication server. PEAP can authenticate wireless LAN clients using only server-side certificates, thus simplifying the implementation and administration of a secure wireless LAN.
2.
TLS/Smart Card: Transport Layer Security. Provides for certificate-based and mutual authentication of the client and
the network. It relies on client-side and server side certificates to perform authentication and can be used to dynamically
generate user-based and session-based WEP keys to secure subsequent communications between the WLAN client and the
access point.
3.
TTLS: Tunneled Transport Layer Security. This security method provides for certificate-based, mutual authentication
of the client and network through an encrypted channel. Unlike EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS requires only server-side certificates.
4.
EAP-FAST: Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling. It was developed by Cisco. Instead of using a certificate,
mutual authentication is achieved by means of a PAC (Protected Access Credential) which can be managed dynamically by
the authentication server. The PAC can be supplied (distributed one time) to the client either manually or automatically.
Manually, it is delivered to the client via disk or a secured network distribution method. Automatically, it is supplied as an
in-band, over the air, distribution. For tunnel authentication, only support "Generic Token Card" authentication.
5.
LEAP: Light Extensible Authentication Protocol is an EAP authentication type used primarily by Cisco Aironet
WLANs. It encrypts data transmissions using dynamically generated WEP keys, and supports mutual authentication.
6.
MD5-Challenge: Message Digest Challenge. Challenge is an EAP authentication type that provides base-level EAP
support. It provides for only one-way authentication - there is no mutual authentication of wireless client and the network.
Session Resumption: The user can choose "Disable" and "Enable".
Tunnel Authentication:
a. Protocol: Tunnel protocol, List information include "EAP-MSCHAP v2", "EAPTLS/Smart card",
"Generic Token Card", "CHAP", "MS-CHAP", "MS-CHAP-V2","PAP" and "EAP-MD5".
b. Tunnel Identity: Identity for tunnel.
c. Tunnel Password: Password for tunnel.
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ID \ PASSWORD
1.
Authentication ID/Password: The identity, password and domain name for server.
Only "EAP-FAST" and "LEAP" authentication can key in domain name. Domain names can be keyed in the blank space.
2.
Tunnel ID/Password: Identity and Password for the server
Client Certification
Use Client certificate: Client certificate for server authentication.
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EAP Fast
1.
Allow unauthenticated provision mode: During the PAC can be provisioned (distributed one time) to the client auto-
matically.
It only supported "Allow unauthenticated provision mode" and use "EAP-MSCHAP v2" authentication to authenticate
now.
It causes to continue with the establishment of the inner tunnel even though it is made with an unknown server.
2.
Use protected authentication credential: Using PAC, the certificate can be provided to the client manually via disk or a
secured network distribution method
Server Certification
1.
Certificate issuer: Select the server that issues the certificate.
2.
Allow intermediate certificates: It must be in the server certificate chain between the server certificate and the server
specified in the "certificate issuer must be" field.
3.
Server name: Enter an authentication sever root.
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4.3.3 Example to Reconnect 802.1x Authenticated Connection after 802.1x Authenticated connection is failed in Profile
There are two situations where a user is able to reconnect an 802.1x authenticated connection and authenticate successfully after an 802.1x authenticated connection has failed on the profile page. They
are as follows:
When keying in an identity, password or domain name error:
1. Authentication type chooses "PEAP", key identity into test. Tunnel Protocol is "EAP-MSCHAP-v2, the tunnel identity
and tunnel password are tested. Those settings are the same as our intended AP's setting.
2.
Because of keying identity and password errors, the result will appear as in the image below.
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3.
If you want to disconnect, click "Cancel" on the Authentication Failure dialog box. If you want to reconnect, key the
identity into wpatest2. The tunnel identity is wpatest2 and the tunnel password is test2. Those setting are the same as our
intended AP's setting.
4.
Click "OK". If it worked perfectly and the result will appear as the image below.
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When a "Timeout" occurs;
1.
Choose "PEAP" as the Authentication type and key-in "wpatest2" as the identity .Tunnel Protocol is
"EAP-MSCHAP-v2, and the tunnel identity is "wpatest2". The tunnel password is "test2". These settings are the same as
our intended AP's setting.
2.
When a "Timeout" occurs, The following dialog box will be displayed;
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3.
If it has connected successfully, the dialog box will appear as follows;
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4.3.4 Example to Configure with WEP on
1.
Select an AP with WEP encryption and click "Connect".
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2.
The Auth.\Encry. function will appear as below
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3.
Enter 1234567890 in the Key#1 Hexadecimal field. This value is same as our intended AP's setting.
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4.
Click "OK". The dialog box will appear as below;
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4.3.5 Example to Configure with WPA-PSK
1.
Select the AP with a WPA-PSK authentication mode and click "Connect".
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2.
Auth.\ Encry. function appears.
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3.
Select WPA-PSK as the Authentication Type. Select TKIP or AES encryption. Enter the WPA Pre-Shared Key as
"12345678".
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4.
Click "OK". Be careful, if the WPA Pre-Shared Key entered is not correct, you won’t be able to exchange any data
frames, even though the AP can be connected.
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4.3.6 Example to Configure with WPA
1.
Select an AP with WPA authentication mode and click "Connect".
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2.
The Auth.\ Encry. Function pop up. (If AP setup security to Both (TKIP + AES), system defines is AES that security is
severely.)
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3.
Click "8021X" and the setting page will appear.
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4.
Authentication type and setting method :
PEAP:
1. Select "PEAP" as the Authentication type from the drop-down list. Key-in "wpatest2" for the identity. "Select
"EAP-MSCHAP v2" from the drop-down list for tunnel authentication and key-in the tunnel identity as "wpatest2" and the
tunnel password as "test2". These settings are the same as our intended AP's setting.
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2. Click OK. The dialog box should appear as below.
*If you want to disconnect, please click cancel button in Authentication Status function.
*In Profile function, show "Profile Name" option only in adding AP to Profile function.
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3. If the connection is successful, the dialog will appear as below.
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TLS / Smart Card :
1. "Select TLS / Smart Card" from the Authentication type drop-down list. TLS only requires the identification to be set as
"wpatest2" for server uthentication.
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2. TLS must use client certification. Click "Client Certification" and select a certification for server authentication.
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3. Click "OK". The dialog box should appear as the image belo w.
*If you want to disconnect, please click "Cancel" on the Authentication Status function page.
*In Profile function, show "Profile Name" option only in adding AP to Profile function.
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4. If it connected successfully, the result will appear as in the image below.
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TTLS :
1. Select TTLS from the Authentication type drop-down list. Key-in the identity as "wpatest2". Select CHAP for tunnel
authentication, and key-in the identity as "wpatest2" and tunnel password as "test2". These settings are the same as our intended AP's setting.
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2. Click "OK". The dialog box should appear as the image below.
*If you want to disconnect, please click "Cancel" on the Authentication Status function page.
*In Profile function, show "Profile Name" option only in adding AP to Profile function.
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3. If the connection is successful, the dialog box will appear as the image below.
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EAP-FAST :
1. Select EAP-FAST from the Authentication type drop-down list. Key-in the identity as "wpatest2" and a domain name
into the blank field. Tunnel Protocol only supports "Generic Token Card" now. The tunnel identity is "wpatest2" and password is "test2". These setting are the same as our intended AP's setting.
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2. Click "OK". The dialog box should appear as the image below
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3. If the connection is successful, the dialog box will appear as the image below.
*If you want to disconnect, please click "Cancel" on the Authentication Status function page.
*In Profile function, show "Profile Name" option only in adding AP to Profile function.
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5. Trouble Shooting
This chapter provides solutions to problems that may occur during the installation and operation of PCI Adapter. Read the
descriptions below to solve your problems.
1.
The PCI Adapter does not work properly.
Reinsert PCI Adapter into your PC’s PCI slot. Right click on My Computer and select Properties. Select the device manager and click on the Network Adapter. You will find PCI Adapter if it is installed successfully. If you see the yellow exclamation mark, the resources are conflicting. You will see the status of PCI Adapter. If there is a yellow question mark,
please check the following: Make sure that your PC has a free IRQ (Interrupt ReQuest, a hardware interrupt on a PC.)
Make sure that you have inserted the right adapter and installed the proper driver. If PCI Adapter does not function after
attempting the above steps, remove it and do the following: Uninstall the driver software from your PC. Restart your PC
and repeat the hardware and software installation as specified in this User Guide.
2.
I can’t communicate with the other computers linked via Ethernet in the Infrastructure configuration.
Make sure that the PC to which PCI Adapter is associated is powered on. Make sure that PCI Adapter is configured on the
same channel and with the same security options as with the other computers in the Infrastructure configuration.
3.
What should I do when the computer with PCI Adapter installed is unable to connect to the wireless network
and/or the Internet?
Check that the LED indicators for the broadband modem are indicating normal activity. If not, there may be a problem with
the broadband connection. Check that the LED indicators on the wireless router are functioning properly. If not, check that
the AC power and Ethernet cables are firmly connected. Check that the IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and DNS settings are correctly entered for the network. In Infrastructure mode, make sure the same Service Set Identifier (SSID) is specified on the settings for the wireless clients and access points. In Ad-Hoc mode, both wireless clients will need to have the
same SSID. Please note that it might be necessary to set up one client to establish a BSS (Basic Service Set) and wait
briefly before setting up other clients. This prevents several clients from trying to establish a BSS at the same time, which
can result in multiple singular BSSs being established, rather than a single BSS with multiple clients associated to it. Check
that the Network Connection for the wireless client is configured properly. If Security is enabled, make sure that the correct
encryption keys are entered on both PCI Adapter and the access point.
CNet Technology Inc.
www.CNet.com.tw
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