Maple User Manual Copyright © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. 2012 Maple User Manual Copyright Maplesoft, Maple, MapleSim, Maple Application Center, Maple Student Center, Maplet, Maple T.A., MapleNet and MapleCloud are all trademarks of Waterloo Maple Inc. © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. 1996-2012. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed, in any form or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of the vendor. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement and may be used or copied only in accordance with the agreement. It is against the law to copy the software on any medium except as specificall allowed in the agreement. 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Printed in Canada ISBN 978-1-926902-23-4 Contents Preface ...................................................................................................... xvii 1 Getting Started ............................................................................................. 1 1.1 In This Chapter ...................................................................................... 1 1.2 Introduction to Maple .............................................................................. 2 Working in Maple ................................................................................... 2 Starting the Standard Document Interface .................................................... 3 Entering 2-D Math .................................................................................. 5 Toolbar Options ...................................................................................... 9 Context Menus and Copy & Drag ............................................................. 11 Saving a Maple Document ...................................................................... 18 1.3 Entering Expressions ............................................................................. 18 Execution Groups .................................................................................. 18 Math Mode vs. Text Mode ...................................................................... 19 Palettes ............................................................................................... 21 Symbol Names ..................................................................................... 28 Toolbar Icons ....................................................................................... 30 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction ..................................................................... 32 Assistants ............................................................................................ 32 Tutors ................................................................................................ 37 Math Apps ........................................................................................... 38 Context Menus ..................................................................................... 39 Task Templates ..................................................................................... 40 Exploration Assistant ............................................................................. 43 1.5 Commands .......................................................................................... 45 The Maple Library ................................................................................ 45 Entering Commands .............................................................................. 45 Document Blocks .................................................................................. 50 1.6 The Maple Help System ......................................................................... 53 Accessing the Help System ..................................................................... 53 Using the Help Navigator ....................................................................... 55 Viewing Help Pages as Documents ........................................................... 55 Viewing Examples in 2-D Math ............................................................... 56 Copying Examples ................................................................................ 56 1.7 Available Resources .............................................................................. 56 Resources Available through the Maple Help System ................................... 57 Maple Tour and Quick Resources ............................................................. 58 Web Site Resources ............................................................................... 58 2 Document Mode .......................................................................................... 61 2.1 In This Chapter ..................................................................................... 61 2.2 Introduction ......................................................................................... 61 2.3 Entering Expressions ............................................................................. 62 iii iv • Contents Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative ....................................................... 63 Example 2 - Defin a Mathematical Function ............................................. 64 2.4 Evaluating Expressions .......................................................................... 65 2.5 Editing Expressions and Updating Output .................................................. 66 2.6 Performing Computations ....................................................................... 67 Computing with Palettes ......................................................................... 67 Context Menus ..................................................................................... 68 Assistants and Tutors ............................................................................. 73 3 Worksheet Mode ......................................................................................... 77 3.1 In This Chapter ..................................................................................... 77 3.2 Input Prompt ........................................................................................ 78 Suppressing Output ............................................................................... 79 1-D Math Input ..................................................................................... 79 Input Separators .................................................................................... 80 3.3 Commands .......................................................................................... 80 The Maple Library ................................................................................ 81 Top-Level Commands ............................................................................ 81 Package Commands ............................................................................... 83 3.4 Palettes ............................................................................................... 86 3.5 Context Menus ..................................................................................... 88 Example - Using Context Menus .............................................................. 89 3.6 Assistants and Tutors ............................................................................. 90 Launching an Assistant or Tutor ............................................................... 90 3.7 Task Templates ..................................................................................... 90 3.8 Text Regions ........................................................................................ 92 3.9 Names ................................................................................................ 92 Assigning to Names ............................................................................... 93 Unassigning Names ............................................................................... 94 Valid Names ......................................................................................... 95 3.10 Equation Labels .................................................................................. 95 Displaying Equation Labels .................................................................... 96 Referring to a Previous Result ................................................................. 96 Execution Groups with Multiple Outputs ................................................... 97 Label Numbering Schemes ..................................................................... 98 Features of Equation Labels .................................................................... 99 4 Basic Computations ................................................................................... 101 4.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 101 4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation ....................................................... 102 Exact Computations ............................................................................. 103 Floating-Point Computations ................................................................. 103 Converting Exact Quantities to Floating-Point Values ................................. 104 Sources of Error .................................................................................. 105 4.3 Integer Operations ............................................................................... 106 Contents • v Non-Base 10 Numbers and Other Number Systems .................................... 108 4.4 Solving Equations ............................................................................... 111 Solving Equations and Inequations ......................................................... 111 Other Specialized Solvers ..................................................................... 120 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty ............................................. 127 Units ................................................................................................. 127 Scientifi Constants and Element Properties ............................................. 133 Uncertainty Propagation ....................................................................... 138 4.6 Restricting the Domain ......................................................................... 141 Real Number Domain ........................................................................... 141 Assumptions on Variables .................................................................... 142 5 Mathematical Problem Solving ..................................................................... 147 5.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 147 5.2 Algebra ............................................................................................. 148 Polynomial Algebra ............................................................................. 148 5.3 Linear Algebra .................................................................................... 155 Creating Matrices and Vectors ............................................................... 156 Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors ................................................ 164 Linear Algebra Computations ................................................................ 166 Student LinearAlgebra Package .............................................................. 171 5.4 Calculus ............................................................................................ 172 Limits ............................................................................................... 172 Differentiation .................................................................................... 174 Series ................................................................................................ 178 Integration ......................................................................................... 179 Differential Equations .......................................................................... 182 Calculus Packages ............................................................................... 182 5.5 Optimization ...................................................................................... 184 Point-and-Click Interface ...................................................................... 184 Large Optimization Problems ................................................................ 187 MPS(X) File Support .......................................................................... 188 Optimization Package Commands ........................................................... 189 5.6 Statistics ............................................................................................ 189 Probability Distributions and Random Variables ........................................ 190 Statistical Computations ....................................................................... 191 Plotting ............................................................................................. 192 Additional Information ......................................................................... 194 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple ......................................................... 194 Student Packages and Tutors .................................................................. 196 Calculus Problem Solving Examples ....................................................... 203 5.8 Clickable Math ................................................................................... 209 Smart Popups ..................................................................................... 210 Drag-to-Solve ..................................................................................... 210 vi • Contents Examples ........................................................................................... 210 6 Plots and Animations .................................................................................. 237 6.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 237 6.2 Creating Plots ..................................................................................... 238 Interactive Plot Builder ......................................................................... 238 Context Menu ..................................................................................... 245 Dragging to a Plot Region ..................................................................... 248 The plot and plot3d Commands .............................................................. 249 The plots Package ................................................................................ 257 Multiple Plots in the Same Plot Region .................................................... 261 6.3 Customizing Plots ............................................................................... 263 Interactive Plot Builder Options ............................................................. 263 Context Menu Options ......................................................................... 264 The plot and plot3d Options .................................................................. 267 6.4 Analyzing Plots .................................................................................. 269 Point Probe, Rotate, Pan, and Zoom Tools ................................................ 269 6.5 Representing Data ............................................................................... 270 6.6 Creating Animations ............................................................................ 270 Interactive Plot Builder ......................................................................... 271 The plots[animate] Command ................................................................ 271 The plot3d[viewpoint] Command ........................................................... 274 6.7 Playing Animations ............................................................................. 276 Animation Context Bar ......................................................................... 276 6.8 Customizing Animations ...................................................................... 277 Interactive Plot Builder Animation Options .............................................. 277 Context Menu Options ......................................................................... 277 The animate Command Options ............................................................. 278 6.9 Exporting ........................................................................................... 280 6.10 Code for Color Plates ......................................................................... 280 7 Creating Mathematical Documents ................................................................ 281 7.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 281 7.2 Document Formatting .......................................................................... 282 Copy and Paste ................................................................................... 283 Quick Character Formatting .................................................................. 283 Quick Paragraph Formatting .................................................................. 285 Character and Paragraph Styles .............................................................. 287 Sections ............................................................................................. 294 Headers and Footers ............................................................................. 296 Show or Hide Worksheet Content ........................................................... 297 Indentation and the Tab Key .................................................................. 298 7.3 Commands in Documents ..................................................................... 299 Document Blocks ................................................................................ 299 Typesetting ......................................................................................... 302 Contents • vii Auto-Execute ...................................................................................... 302 7.4 Tables ............................................................................................... 304 Creating a Table .................................................................................. 304 Cell Contents ...................................................................................... 304 Navigating Table Cells ......................................................................... 305 Modifying the Structural Layout of a Table ............................................... 305 Modifying the Physical Dimensions of a Table .......................................... 308 Modifying the Appearance of a Table ...................................................... 308 Printing Options .................................................................................. 312 Execution Order Dependency ................................................................ 313 Tables and the Classic Worksheet ........................................................... 313 Additional Examples ............................................................................ 313 7.5 Canvas .............................................................................................. 316 Insert a Canvas ................................................................................... 317 Drawing ............................................................................................ 317 Canvas Style ....................................................................................... 318 Inserting Images .................................................................................. 319 7.6 Hyperlinks ......................................................................................... 320 Inserting a Hyperlink in a Document ....................................................... 321 Bookmarks ......................................................................................... 324 7.7 Embedded Components ........................................................................ 326 Adding Graphical Interface Components .................................................. 326 Task Template with Embedded Components ............................................. 327 7.8 Spell Checking ................................................................................... 328 How to Use the Spellcheck Utility .......................................................... 329 Selecting a Suggestion .......................................................................... 330 User Dictionary ................................................................................... 330 7.9 Creating Graded Assignments ................................................................ 331 Creating a Question ............................................................................. 331 Viewing Questions in Maple .................................................................. 331 Saving Test Content ............................................................................. 331 7.10 Worksheet Compatibility ..................................................................... 332 8 Maple Expressions ..................................................................................... 333 8.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 333 8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures ........................................................ 333 Expression Sequences .......................................................................... 334 Sets .................................................................................................. 334 Lists .................................................................................................. 335 Arrays ............................................................................................... 336 Tables ............................................................................................... 338 Matrices and Vectors ............................................................................ 338 Functional Operators ............................................................................ 339 Strings ............................................................................................... 342 viii • Contents 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions ........................................................... 343 Low-Level Operations .......................................................................... 343 Manipulating Expressions ..................................................................... 348 Evaluating Expressions ......................................................................... 353 9 Basic Programming .................................................................................... 365 9.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 365 9.2 Flow Control ...................................................................................... 366 Conditional Execution (if Statement) ....................................................... 366 Repetition (for Statement) ..................................................................... 369 9.3 Iterative Commands ............................................................................. 374 Creating a Sequence ............................................................................. 375 Adding and Multiplying Expressions ....................................................... 375 Selecting Expression Operands .............................................................. 376 Mapping a Command over a Set or List ................................................... 377 Mapping a Binary Command over Two Lists or Vectors .............................. 377 Additional Information ......................................................................... 378 9.4 Procedures ......................................................................................... 378 Definin and Running Simple Procedures ................................................ 378 Procedures with Inputs ......................................................................... 379 Procedure Return Values ....................................................................... 379 Displaying Procedure Definition ........................................................... 380 Displaying Maple Library Procedure Definition ....................................... 380 Modules ............................................................................................ 381 Objects .............................................................................................. 381 9.5 Programming in Documents .................................................................. 382 Code Edit Region ................................................................................ 382 Startup Code ....................................................................................... 383 10 Embedded Components and Maplets ............................................................ 385 10.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................. 385 10.2 Using Embedded Components ............................................................. 385 Interacting .......................................................................................... 385 Printing and Exporting a Document with Embedded Components ................. 388 10.3 Creating Embedded Components .......................................................... 388 Inserting Components .......................................................................... 389 Editing Component Properties: General Process ........................................ 389 Removing Graphical Interface Components .............................................. 390 Integrating Components into a Document ................................................. 390 Example 2 - Creating Embedded Components ........................................... 392 10.4 Using Maplets ................................................................................... 396 Maplet File ........................................................................................ 396 Maple Document ................................................................................. 397 10.5 Authoring Maplets ............................................................................. 397 Simple Maplet .................................................................................... 398 Contents • ix Maplet Builder .................................................................................... 398 Maplets Package ................................................................................. 403 Saving ............................................................................................... 405 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products ......................................... 407 11.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................. 407 11.2 Writing to Files ................................................................................. 407 Saving Data to a File ............................................................................ 407 Saving Expressions to a File .................................................................. 408 11.3 Reading from Files ............................................................................. 409 Reading Data from a File ...................................................................... 410 Reading Expressions from a File ............................................................ 411 11.4 Exporting to Other Formats ................................................................. 412 Exporting Documents ........................................................................... 412 MapleNet ........................................................................................... 415 Maple T.A. ......................................................................................... 415 11.5 Connectivity ..................................................................................... 416 Translating Maple Code To Other Programming Languages ......................... 416 Accessing External Products from Maple ................................................. 416 Accessing Maple from External Products ................................................. 417 Sharing and Storing Maple Worksheet Content .......................................... 419 Index ........................................................................................................ 421 x • Contents List of Figures Figure 1.1: The Maple Environment .................................................................... 3 Figure 1.2: Text and Math Buttons on the Toolbar ................................................ 19 Figure 1.3: Handwriting Palette ........................................................................ 28 Figure 1.4: Optimization Assistant .................................................................... 32 Figure 1.5: Accessing the Assistants from the Tools Menu ..................................... 33 Figure 1.6: Accessing Tutors from the Tools Menu ............................................... 37 Figure 1.7: Calculus - Single Variable → Differentiation Methods Tutor ................... 38 Figure 1.8: Right-click the expression to see a menu of applicable operations ............ 40 Figure 1.9: Right-click the plot to see a menu of plot options .................................. 40 Figure 1.10: Browse Tasks Dialog ..................................................................... 41 Figure 1.11: Equation Label ............................................................................. 48 Figure 1.12: Inserting an Equation Label ............................................................ 49 Figure 1.13: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi ............................................. 50 Figure 1.14: Label Reference ........................................................................... 50 Figure 1.15: Document Block Markers ............................................................... 51 Figure 1.16: Expanded Document Block ............................................................. 51 Figure 1.17: Sample Help Page ......................................................................... 54 Figure 2.1: Context Menu ................................................................................ 68 Figure 2.2: Approximating the Value of a Fraction ................................................ 69 Figure 2.3: Finding the Approximate Solution to an Equation ................................. 71 Figure 2.4: FPS Units Palette ............................................................................ 72 Figure 2.5: SI Units Palette .............................................................................. 72 Figure 3.1: Expression Palette .......................................................................... 87 Figure 3.2: Integer Context Menu ...................................................................... 88 Figure 3.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant .................................................................. 90 Figure 3.4: Task Browser ................................................................................. 91 Figure 3.5: Insert Label Dialog ......................................................................... 96 Figure 3.6: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi ............................................... 98 Figure 4.1: Context Menu for an Integer ........................................................... 106 Figure 4.2: Context Menu for an Equation ......................................................... 112 Figure 4.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant ................................................................ 120 Figure 4.4: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Numerically Dialog ............................ 122 Figure 4.5: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Symbolically Dialog ........................... 123 Figure 4.6: Units Calculator Assistant .............................................................. 129 Figure 4.7: Units (FPS) Palette ........................................................................ 130 Figure 4.8: Units (SI) Palette .......................................................................... 130 Figure 5.1: Sorting a Polynomial Using a Context Menu ...................................... 152 Figure 5.2: Matrix Palette .............................................................................. 157 Figure 5.3: Matrix Palette: Choosing the Size .................................................... 158 Figure 5.4: Insert Matrix or Insert Vector .......................................................... 159 Figure 5.5: Matrix Browser ............................................................................ 161 xi xii • List of Figures Figure 5.6: Computing the Infinit Norm of a Matrix .......................................... 169 Figure 5.7: Directional Derivative Tutor ........................................................... 177 Figure 5.8: Optimization Assistant ................................................................... 185 Figure 5.9: Optimization Assistant Plotter Window ............................................. 187 Figure 5.10: Calculus 1 Derivatives Tutor ......................................................... 197 Figure 5.11: Calculus 1 Differentiation Methods Tutor ......................................... 198 Figure 5.12: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor .............................................. 199 Figure 5.13: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor Showing x-y Plane .................... 200 Figure 5.14: Flowchart of solving a problem ...................................................... 204 Figure 5.15: Volume of Revolution Tutor .......................................................... 206 Figure 5.16: Inserted Task Template ................................................................. 207 Figure 5.17: Example Worksheet ..................................................................... 208 Figure 6.1: Interactive Parameter Window ......................................................... 244 Figure 7.1: Select Color Dialog ....................................................................... 284 Figure 7.2: Character Style Dialog ................................................................... 285 Figure 7.3: Paragraph Style Dialog .................................................................. 286 Figure 7.4: Style Management Dialog .............................................................. 288 Figure 7.5: Definin a Character Style .............................................................. 290 Figure 7.6: Definin a Paragraph Style ............................................................. 293 Figure 7.7: Style Set Management Dialog ......................................................... 294 Figure 7.8: Header and Footer Dialog - Custom Header ....................................... 296 Figure 7.9: Show Contents Dialog ................................................................... 297 Figure 7.10: Working with Document Blocks ..................................................... 300 Figure 7.11: Delete Table Contents Verificatio Dialog ........................................ 307 Figure 7.12: Table Paste Mode Selection Dialog ................................................. 307 Figure 7.13: Two Cells .................................................................................. 307 Figure 7.14: Merged Cells .............................................................................. 307 Figure 7.15: Drawing Tools and Canvas ............................................................ 316 Figure 7.16: Drawing Outline Color Icon .......................................................... 317 Figure 7.17: Drawing Properties Canvas Icon - Change the Gridline Color .............. 319 Figure 7.18: Hyperlink Properties Dialog .......................................................... 321 Figure 7.19: Bookmark Indicator ..................................................................... 324 Figure 7.20: Create Bookmark Dialog .............................................................. 325 Figure 7.21: Components Palette ..................................................................... 327 Figure 7.22: Interactive Application Task Template ............................................. 328 Figure 7.23: Spellcheck Dialog ....................................................................... 329 Figure 8.1: Function Definitio Palette Items ..................................................... 339 Figure 8.2: Evaluate at a Point ........................................................................ 354 Figure 9.1: Code Edit Region .......................................................................... 382 Figure 9.2: Collapsed Code Edit Region ........................................................... 382 Figure 9.3: Startup Code Editor ....................................................................... 383 Figure 10.1: Components Palette ..................................................................... 389 Figure 10.2: Label Properties Dialog ................................................................ 391 List of Figures • xiii Figure 10.3: Slider Properties Dialog ................................................................ 391 Figure 10.4: The Inserted Components ............................................................. 393 Figure 10.5: DialComponent Action Dialog ....................................................... 395 Figure 10.6: A Simple Maplet ......................................................................... 398 Figure 10.7: Maplet Builder Interface ............................................................... 399 Figure 10.8: Image of the Maplet ..................................................................... 400 Figure 10.9: Body Elements Used to Defin This Maplet ..................................... 400 Figure 11.1: Import Data Assistant ................................................................... 410 xiv • List of Figures List of Tables Table 1.1: Common Keystrokes for Entering Symbols and Formats ........................... 6 Table 1.2: Maple Toolbar Options ....................................................................... 9 Table 1.3: Tab Icon Description .......................................................................... 9 Table 1.4: Toolbar Icons and their Tools ............................................................. 10 Table 1.5: Toolbar Icon Availability ................................................................... 11 Table 1.6: Math Mode vs. Text Mode ................................................................. 20 Table 1.7: Palette Categories ............................................................................ 22 Table 1.8: Managing Palettes ............................................................................ 24 Table 1.9: Help Page Icons ............................................................................... 55 Table 3.1: Top Commands ............................................................................... 82 Table 3.2: Top Packages .................................................................................. 85 Table 4.1: Select Integer Commands ................................................................ 107 Table 4.2: Modular Arithmetic Operators .......................................................... 109 Table 4.3: Overview of Solution Methods for Important Equation Types ................. 111 Table 4.4: Sample Dimensions ........................................................................ 128 Table 4.5: Scientifi Constants ........................................................................ 134 Table 5.1: Polynomial Arithmetic Operators ...................................................... 149 Table 5.2: Polynomial Coefficien and Degree Commands ................................... 153 Table 5.3: Select Other Polynomial Commands .................................................. 154 Table 5.4: Additional Polynomial Help ............................................................. 155 Table 5.5: Matrix and Vector Arithmetic Operators ............................................. 166 Table 5.6: Select Matrix and Vector Operators .................................................... 168 Table 5.7: Select LinearAlgebra Package Commands .......................................... 170 Table 5.8: Limits .......................................................................................... 173 Table 5.9: Optimization Package Commands ..................................................... 189 Table 5.10: Student and Instructor Resources ..................................................... 195 Table 6.1: Windows of the Interactive Plot Builder .............................................. 239 Table 6.2: The plot and plot3d Commands ......................................................... 249 Table 6.3: Common Plot Options ..................................................................... 267 Table 6.4: Plot Analysis Options ..................................................................... 269 Table 6.5: The animate Command ................................................................... 272 Table 6.6: Animation Options ......................................................................... 276 Table 9.1: Default Clause Values ..................................................................... 369 Table 9.2: Iterative Commands ........................................................................ 374 Table 9.3: The seq Command .......................................................................... 375 Table 9.4: The add and mul Commands ............................................................ 375 Table 9.5: The select, remove, and selectremove Commands ................................. 376 Table 9.6: The map Command ........................................................................ 377 Table 9.7: The zip Command .......................................................................... 378 Table 10.1: Embedded Component Descriptions ................................................. 385 Table 11.1: Summary of Content Translation When Exporting to Different Formats ... 414 xv xvi • List of Tables Preface Maple Software MapleTM software is a powerful system that you can use to solve mathematical problems from simple to complex. You can also create professional quality documents, presentations, and custom interactive computational tools in the Maple environment. You can access the power of the Maple computational engine through a variety of interfaces. Interface Standard (default) Classic Command-line version MapletTM Applications MaplesoftTM Graphing Calculator Description A full-featured graphical user interface that helps you create electronic documents to show all your calculations, assumptions, and any margin of error in your results. You can also hide the computations to allow your reader to focus on the problem setup and fina results. The advanced formatting features lets you create the customized document you need. Because the documents are live, you can edit the parameters and, with the click of a button, compute the new results. The Standard interface has two modes: Document mode and Worksheet mode. An interactive version of this manual is available in the Standard Worksheet interface. From the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and more → Manuals → User Manual. A basic worksheet environment for older computers with limited memory. The Classic interface does not offer all of the graphical user interface features that are available in the Standard interface. The Classic interface has only one mode, Worksheet mode. A command-line interface for solving very large complex problems or batch processing with scripts. No graphical user interface features are available. Graphical user interfaces containing windows, textbox regions, and other visual interfaces, which gives you point-and-click access to the power of Maple. You can perform calculations and plot functions without using the worksheet. A graphical calculator interface to the Maple computational engine. Using it, you can perform simple computations and create customizable, zoomable graphs. This is available on Microsoft® Windows® only. This manual describes how to use the Standard interface. As mentioned, the Standard interface offers two modes: Document mode and Worksheet mode. Using either mode, you can create high quality interactive mathematical documents. Each mode offers the same features and functionality, the only difference is the default input region of each mode. xvii xviii • Preface Shortcut Keys by Platform This manual will frequently refer to context menus and command completion when entering expressions. The keyboard keys used to invoke these features differ based on your operating system. This manual will only refer to the keyboard keys needed for a Windows operating system. The shortcut keys for your operating system can be viewed from the Help menu (Help → Manuals, Resources, and more → Shortcut Keys). Context Menus • Right-click, Windows and UNIX® • Control-click, Macintosh® That is, place the mouse over the input or output region and press the right button on the mouse or press and hold the Control key and click the mouse key for Macintosh. For more information on Context Menus, see Context Menus (page 39). Command Completion • Esc, Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX • Ctrl + Space, Windows • Ctrl + Shift + Space, UNIX Begin entering a command in a Maple document. Press the Esc key. Alternatively, use the platform-specifi keys. For Windows, press and hold the Ctrl key and then press the Space bar. For more information on Command Completion, see Command Completion (page 47). In This Manual This manual provides an introduction to the following Maple features: • Ease-of-use when entering and solving problems • Point-and-click interaction with various interfaces to help you solve problems quickly • Maple commands and standard math notation • Clickable Calculus • The help system • Online resources Preface • xix • Performing computations • Creating plots and animations • The Maple programming language • Using and creating custom Maplet applications • File input and output, and using Maple with third party products • Data structures For a complete list of manuals, study guides, toolboxes, and other resources, visit the Maplesoft web site at http://www.maplesoft.com Audience The information in this manual is intended for first-tim Maple users and users looking for a little more information. Conventions This manual uses the following typographical conventions. • bold font - Maple command, package name, option name, dialog, menu, or text fiel • italics - new or important concept • Note - additional information relevant to the section • Important - information that must be read and followed Customer Feedback Maplesoft welcomes your feedback. For suggestions and comments related to this and other manuals, contact [email protected] xx • Preface 1 Getting Started Don't worry about your difficultie in Mathematics. I can assure you mine are still greater. ~Albert Einstein Mathematics touches us every day—from the simple chore of calculating the total cost of our purchases to the complex calculations used to construct the bridges we travel. To harness the power of mathematics, Maplesoft provides a tool in an accessible and complete form. That tool is Maple. 1.1 In This Chapter Section Introduction to Maple (page 2) - The main features of Maple's Standard Interface Topics • Starting the Standard Document Interface • Entering commands and mathematical expressions • Toolbars • Context menus • Copy and drag keys • Saving Maple documents Entering Expressions (page 18) - Methods of entering expressions in 1-D and 2-D Math • Execution groups • Math Mode and Text Mode • Palettes • Symbol names • Toolbar icons Point-and-Click Interaction (page 32) - An intro- • Assistants duction to the point-and-click features in Maple • Tutors • Context menus • Task templates • Exploration Assistant Commands (page 45) - An introduction to the commands of the Maple language • Using commands from the Maple library • Entering commands • Document blocks 1 2 • 1 Getting Started Section The Maple Help System (page 53) - Accessing help on commands, packages, point-and-click features, and more Topics • How to access help for Maple features • Interacting with help pages • Viewing and interacting with examples Available Resources (page 56) - Both online and • New user resources, including the Maple Tour and the Maple Portal from within Maple • Examples • Online help • Maple web site resources 1.2 Introduction to Maple Working in Maple With Maple, you can create powerful interactive documents. The Maple environment lets you start solving problems right away by entering expressions in 2-D Math and solving these expressions using point-and-click interfaces. You can combine text and math in the same line, add tables to organize the content of your work, or insert images, sketch regions, and spreadsheets. You can visualize and animate problems in two and three dimensions, format text for academic papers or books, and insert hyperlinks to other Maple files web sites, or email addresses. You can embed and program graphical user interface components, as well as devise custom solutions using the Maple programming language. 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 3 Figure 1.1: The Maple Environment Starting the Standard Document Interface To start Maple on: Windows From the Start menu, select All Programs → Maple 16 → Maple 16. Alternatively: Double-click the Maple 16 desktop icon. 4 • 1 Getting Started Macintosh 1. From the Finder, select Applications and Maple 16. 2. Double-click Maple 16. UNIX Enter the full path, for example, /usr/local/maple/bin/xmaple Alternatively: 1. Add the Maple directory (for example, /usr/local/maple/bin) to your command search path. 2. Enter xmaple. The firs Maple session opens with a Startup dialog explaining the difference between Document Mode and Worksheet Mode. Using either mode, you can create high quality interactive mathematical documents. Each mode offers the same features and functionality; the only difference is the default input region of each mode. Document Mode Document mode uses Document Blocks as the default input region to hide Maple syntax. A Document Block region is indicated by two triangles located in the vertical Markers column along the left pane of the Maple Document, . If the Markers column is not visible, open the View menu and select Markers. This allows you to focus on the problem instead of the commands used to solve the problem. For example, when using context menus on Maple input in Document mode (invoked by right-clicking or Control-clicking for Macintosh), input and output are connected using an arrow or equal sign with self-documenting text indicating the calculation that had taken place. The command used to solve this expression is hidden. When starting Standard Maple, the default mode is Document mode. Worksheet Mode Worksheet mode uses a Maple prompt as the default input region. The Maple input prompt is a red angle bracket, . When using context menus on input in Worksheet mode, all commands are displayed. To work in Worksheet mode, select File → New → Worksheet Mode. 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 5 Document and Worksheet Modes Regardless of which mode you are working in, you have the opportunity to show or hide your calculations. You can hide commands in Worksheet Mode by adding a document block from the Format menu, Format → Create Document Block (see Document Blocks (page 50)), or you can show commands in Document mode by adding a Maple prompt from the Insert menu, Insert → Execution Group → Before / After Cursor (see Input Prompt (page 78)). This chapter discusses features common to both modes. Specifi aspects of Document mode are explained in Document Mode (page 61), and aspects of Worksheet mode are explained in Worksheet Mode (page 77). The Startup dialog also contains links to items, such as various document options, help resources including updates and other introductory help pages, and application resources on the Maplesoft web site. Subsequent sessions display Tip of the Day information. To start a Maple session: 1. In the Startup dialog, select Blank Document or Blank Worksheet. A blank document displays. or 1. Close the Startup dialog. 2. From the File menu, select New, and then either Document Mode or Worksheet Mode. A blank document displays. Every time you open a document, Maple displays a Quick Help pop-up list of important shortcut keys. To invoke Quick Help at any time, press the F1 key. Entering 2-D Math In Maple, the default format for entering mathematical expressions is 2-D Math. This results in mathematical expressions that are equivalent to the quality of math found in textbooks. Entering 2-D Math in Maple is done using common key strokes or palette items. For more information on palettes, see Palettes (page 21). An example of entering an expression using common key strokes is presented in the following section. An example of entering an expression using palette items is presented in Example 3 - Enter an Expression Using Palettes (page 26). Common Operations Entering mathematical expressions, such as Math. , , and is natural in 2-D 6 • 1 Getting Started To enter a fraction: 1. Enter the numerator. 2. Press the forward slash (/) key. 3. Enter the denominator. 4. To leave the denominator, press the right arrow key. To enter a power: 1. Enter the base. 2. Press the caret (^) key. 3. Enter the exponent, which displays in math as a superscript. 4. To leave the exponent, press the right arrow key. To enter a product: 1. Enter the firs factor. 2. Press the asterisk (*) key, which displays in 2-D Math as a dot, . 3. Enter the second factor. Implied Multiplication: In most cases, you do not need to include the multiplication operator, . Insert a space character between two quantities to multiply them. Note: In some cases, you do not need to enter the multiplication operator or a space character. For example, Maple interprets a number followed by a variable as multiplication. Important: Maple interprets a sequence of letters, for example, xy, as a single variable. To specify the product of two variables, you must insert a space character (or multiplication . For more information, refer to the 2DMathDetails help operator), for example, x y or page. Shortcuts for Entering Mathematical Expressions Table 1.1: Common Keystrokes for Entering Symbols and Formats Symbol/Formats implicit multiplication explicit multiplication Key Space key * (asterisk) Example 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 7 Symbol/Formats fraction exponent (superscript) subscript navigating expressions Key / (forward slash) Example ^ (Shift + 6 or caret key) _ (Shift + underscore ) Arrow keys command / symbol com- • Esc, Macintosh,Windows, and UNIX pletion • Ctrl + Space, Windows • Ctrl + Shift + Space, UNIX square root exponential function enter / exit 2-D Math sqrt and then command completion exp and then command completion • F5 key • Math and Text icons in the toolbar versus 1/4 required for products of numbers use the right arrow key to leave a denominator, superscript, or subscript region for more information, see Command Completion (page 47). For a complete list of shortcut keys, refer to the 2-D Math Shortcut Keys and Hints help page. To access this help page in the Maple software, in Math mode enter MathShortcuts and then press Enter. For information on the Maple Help System, see The Maple Help System (page 53). Example 1 - Enter and Evaluate an Expression Using Keystrokes Review the following example: In this example, you will enter and evaluate the expression. 8 • 1 Getting Started Action To enter the expression: Result in Document 1. Enter x. 2. Press Shift + 6 (the ^ or caret key). The cursor moves to the superscript position. 3. Enter 2. 4. Press the right arrow key. The cursor moves right and out of the superscript position. 5. Enter the + symbol. 6. Enter y. 7. Press Shift + 6 to move to the superscript position. 8. Enter 2 and press the right arrow key. 9. With the mouse, select the expression that will be the numerator of the fraction. 10. Enter the / symbol. The cursor moves to the denominator, with the entire expression in the numerator. 11. Enter 2. 12. Press the right arrow key to move right and out of the denominator position. To evaluate the expression and display the result inline: 13. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, Macintosh). = To execute 2-D Math, you can use any of the following methods. • Pressing Ctrl + = (Command + =, for Macintosh). That is, press and hold the Ctrl (or Command) key, and then press the equal sign (=) key. This evaluates and displays results inline. • Pressing the Enter key. This evaluates and displays results on the next line and centered. • Right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the input to invoke a context menu item. From the context menu, select Evaluate and Display Inline. See Context Menus (page 39) for more details. 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 9 • Using the Edit menu items Evaluate and Evaluate and Display Inline. Toolbar Options The Maple toolbar offers several buttons to assist you when interacting with Maple. See Table 1.2. Table 1.2: Maple Toolbar Options Basic Usage Inserts plain text after the current execution group. Inserts Maple Input after the current execution group. For details, refer to Execution Groups (page 18). Encloses the selection in a subsection. For details, refer to Sections (page 294). Removes any section enclosing the selection. Executes all commands in the worksheet or document Executes a selected area. Clears Maple's internal memory. For details, refer to the restart help page. Add and edit Maple code that is executed each time the worksheet is opened. For details, refer to the startupcode help page. Adjusts the display size of document content. Note: plots, spreadsheets, images, and sketches remain unchanged. Opens the Maple help system. For details, refer to The Maple Help System (page 53). Icon Equivalent Menu Option or Command From the Insert menu, select Text. From the Insert menu, select Execution Group and then After Cursor. From the Format menu, select Indent. From the Format menu, select Outdent. From the Edit menu, select Execute and then Worksheet. From the Edit menu, select Execute and then Selection. Enter restart. From the Edit menu, select Startup Code. From the View menu, select Zoom Factor and then a zoom size. From the Help menu, select Maple Help. For 1-D Math and text regions, the Tab icon in the toolbar allows you to set the Tab key to move between placeholders (or cells in a table) or to indent text. Table 1.3: Tab Icon Description Tab Icon Description Tab icon off. Allows you to move between placeholders using the Tab key. 10 • 1 Getting Started Tab Icon Description Tab icon on. Allows you to indent in the worksheet using the Tab key. The Tab icon is disabled when using 2-D Math (Math mode), and as such, the Tab key allows you to move between placeholders. Toolbar icons are controlled by the location of the cursor in the document. For example, place the cursor at an input region and the Text and Math icons are accessible while the others are dimmed. See Table 1.4 for a list of the tools available in each icon. Table 1.4: Toolbar Icons and their Tools Toolbar Icon Options Text tools Math tools Drawing tools 2-D Plot tools 3-D Plot tools Animation tools 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 11 Table 1.5: Toolbar Icon Availability Region Input region Plot region Animation region Canvas and Image regions Available Tools Text and Math icons Drawing and Plot icons Drawing, Plot, and Animation icons Drawing icon The Text and Math icons allow you to enter text and math in the same line by choosing the appropriate input style at each stage when entering the sentence. The derivative of is . For an example, see Example 6 - Enter Text and 2-D Math in the Same Line Using Toolbar Icons (page 30). Using the tools available in these icons, you can customize the input style of the text and 2-D Math. For the Text and Math icons, the icon that is selected remains in that state until prompted otherwise; therefore, if the Text icon is selected and you press the Enter key, the new input region remains a Text region. The Text and Math icons differ while at a Maple input prompt. The Math icon displays input as 2-D Math, whereas the Text icon displays Maple input. For details, refer to Math Mode vs. Text Mode (page 19). > > x^2/2; To access the tools available in the Plot and Drawing icons, click a plot region. These tools allow you to manipulate the plot or draw shapes and enter text on the plot region. By clicking an animation region, you have the same features available for a plot region, in addition to tools for playing the animation in the Animation icon. For details on plots and animations, refer to Plots and Animations (page 237). For the remaining icons, hover the mouse over the icon to display the icon description. Context Menus and Copy & Drag Context Menus Maple dynamically generates a context menu of applicable options when you right-click an object, expression, or region. The options available in the context menu depend on the selected input region. For example, you can manipulate and graph expressions, enhance plots, format text, manage palettes, structure tables, and more. When using context menus 12 • 1 Getting Started to perform an action on an expression, the input and output are connected with a self-documenting arrow or equal sign indicating the action that had taken place. For more information, see Context Menus (page 39). Copy & Drag With Maple, you can drag input, output, or curves in a plot region into a new input region. This is done by highlighting the input or selecting the curve and dragging it with your mouse into a new input region. Dragging the highlighted region will cut or delete the original input. To prevent this, use the copy and drag feature. • Ctrl + drag, Windows and UNIX • Command + drag, Macintosh That is, highlight the region you want to copy. Press and hold the Ctrl key while you drag the input to the new region using the mouse. The steps are the same for Macintosh with the exception of pressing the Command key. Example 2 - Solve and Plot an Equation Using Context Menus and Copy & Drag Review the following example: In this example, we will enter the equation and then solve and plot the equation using context menus and Maple's copy & drag feature. This example will only refer to the keystrokes needed on a Windows operating system to invoke the context menus and the copy & drag feature. For your operating system, refer to section Shortcut Keys by Platform (page xviii) for the equivalent keystrokes. 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 13 To solve the equation: 1. Enter the equation. 2. Right-click the equation and select Move to Left. Input: Result: A brief description, "move to left" is displayed above the arrow that connects the input and output. 14 • 1 Getting Started 3. Right-click the output from the previous action, for → x. Input: Result: , and select Solve → Isolate Expression 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 15 Now that we have solved the equation, we can plot it. To do this, we will copy the equation to a new document block and use context menus again. 4. From the Format menu, select Create Document Block. , highlight only this expression from the previous result. Press 5. To copy the expression and hold the Ctrl key and drag the expression to the new document block region. Result: 16 • 1 Getting Started To plot the expression: 6. Right-click the equation, and select Left-hand Side. Input: Result: 7. Right-click the expression and select Plots → 2-D Plot. 1.2 Introduction to Maple • 17 Input: 18 • 1 Getting Started Result: Saving a Maple Document To save these examples you created, from the File menu, select Save. Maple documents are saved as .mw files 1.3 Entering Expressions Execution Groups An execution group is a grouping of Maple input with its corresponding Maple output. It is distinguished by a large square bracket, called a group boundary, at the left. An execution group may also contain any or all of the following: a plot, a spreadsheet, text, embedded components, and a drawing canvas. Execution groups are the fundamental computation and documentation elements in the document. If you place the cursor in an input command and press the Enter or Return key, Maple executes all of the input commands in the current execution group. 1.3 Entering Expressions • 19 Math Mode vs. Text Mode The default mode of entry in Document or Worksheet mode is Math Mode, which displays input in 2-D Math. In earlier releases of Maple, commands and expressions were entered using Maple Input or 1-D Math. Important: With Maple input, you must terminate commands with a semicolon or colon. > cos(alpha)^2+sin(alpha)^2; > a*int(exp(sqrt(2)*x),x); > limit(f(x),x=infinity); > sum(a[k]*x^k, k=0..m)=product(b[j]*x^j, j=0..n); In Document Mode, to enter input using Maple Input mode, insert a Maple prompt by in the toolbar, and then click the Text button in the toolbar. In Worksheet clicking Mode, simply click the Text button. See Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2: Text and Math Buttons on the Toolbar 20 • 1 Getting Started Table 1.6: Math Mode vs. Text Mode Math Mode Text Mode Maple's default setting. Executable standard Executable Maple notation. This is also remath notation. This is also referred to as 2-D ferred to as 1-D Math Input or Maple Input. Math Input. > int(x^2+2*x+1, x); > Access from the Insert → 2-D Math menu. When using 2-D Math, the Math mode icon is . highlighted in the toolbar, Access from the Insert → Maple Input menu. When entering Maple Input or text in a text region, the Text mode icon is highlighted in the toolbar, . In Document Mode (or a document block), input In Document Mode (or a document block), input is entered in a document block with a slanted is entered with a vertical cursor, as plain text, . cursor, . In Worksheet Mode, input is made at an input In Worksheet Mode, input is made at an input prompt with a slanted cursor, prompt with a vertical cursor, . . To convert a 2-D Math expression to 1-D Math, right-click the expression (Command-click, Macintosh) and select 2-D Math → Convert To → 1-D Math Input. No termination symbol is required. To convert a 1-D Math expression to 2-D Math, right-click the expression (Command-click, Macintosh) and select Convert To → 2-D Math Input. All input must end with a semi-colon ( ; ) or a colon ( : ). Palettes make entering expressions in familiar Using palettes while in 1-D Math teaches you the notation easier than entering foreign syntax and related Maple command syntax. reduces the possibility of introducing typing errors. If you prefer 1-D Math input, you can change the default math input notation. To change math input notation for a session or globally across all documents: 1. From the Tools menu, select Options. The Options Dialog opens. 2. Click the Display tab. 3. In the Input Display drop-down list, select Maple Notation. 1.3 Entering Expressions • 21 4. Click the Apply to Session or Apply Globally button. Important: The new input display becomes the default setting after pressing the Enter key. Palettes Palettes are collections of related items that you can insert into a document by clicking or drag-and-dropping. The Maple environment provides access to over 20 palettes containing items such as symbols , layouts mathematical operations and much more. By default, palettes are displayed in the left pane of the Maple environment when you launch Maple. If the palettes are not displayed, 1. From the View menu, select Palettes. 2. Select Expand Docks. 3. Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) the palette dock. From the context menu, select Show All Palettes. Alternatively, from the main menu, select View → Palettes → Arrange Palettes to display specifi palettes. You can create a Favorites palette of the expressions and entities you use often by rightclicking (Control-click, Macintosh) the palette template you want to add and selecting Add To Favorites Palette from the context menu. 22 • 1 Getting Started Table 1.7: Palette Categories Palette Category Expression Palettes Palette Description MapleCloud - view worksheets shared by other users and share your worksheets. Variables - manage all of your assigned variables in your current Maple session. Expression - construct expressions such as integrals . Matrix - enter the number of rows and columns required, designate type, such as zero-filled and designate shape, such as diagonal. Layout - add math content that has specifi layout, such as expressions with one or more superscripts and subscripts . Components - embed graphical interface components such as a button into your document or worksheet. Components can be programmed to perform an action when selected such as executing a command when a button is clicked . Handwriting - an easy way to fin a desired symbol. Units (SI) - insert a unit from the International System of Units (SI), or any general unit . Units (FPS) - insert a unit from the Foot-Pound-Second System (FPS), or any general unit . Accents - insert decorated names, such as an to denote a vector with an arrow over it . Favorites - add templates that you use most often from other palettes. Live Data Plots - templates for visual representation of your data. eBook Metadata - markup tags 1.3 Entering Expressions • 23 Palette Category Mathematical Palettes Palette Description Palettes for constructing expressions Common Symbols, Relational , Relational Round Operators , , Large Operators Negated , , Fenced , Arrows , Constants and Symbols . Punctuation - insert punctuation symbols, such as inserting the registered trademark and copyright symbols into text regions Miscellaneous - insert miscellaneous math and other symbols outside the above categories Alphabetical Palettes . Greek, Script , Fraktur , Open Face Cyrillic , , Diacritical Marks , Roman Extended Upper Case , Roman Extended Lower Case . Viewing and Arranging Palettes By default, palettes display in palette docks at the right and left sides of the Maple window. To view and manage palettes and palette docks, see Table 1.8. 24 • 1 Getting Started Table 1.8: Managing Palettes To view palette docks: • From the View menu, select Palettes, and then Expand Docks. There are docks on the far right and left of the window. 1.3 Entering Expressions • 25 To add a palette: 1. Right-click the palette dock. Maple displays a context menu near the palette. 2. From the context menu, select Show Palette and then select the palette. 26 • 1 Getting Started To expand or collapse a palette in the palette dock: • Click the triangle at the left of the palette title. To move a palette in the palette dock: • Move the palette by clicking the title and dragging the palette to the new location. To expand or collapse the palette docks: • Select the appropriate triangle at the top right or top left side of the palette region. Example 3 - Enter an Expression Using Palettes Review the following example: = 1.3 Entering Expressions • 27 In this example, we will enter and evaluate the expression. Action Result in Document 1. Place the cursor in a new document block. In the Expression palette, click the summation template . Maple inserts the summation symbol with the range variable placeholder highlighted. 2. Enter i and then press Tab. The left endpoint placeholder is selected. Notice that the color of the range placeholder has changed to black. Each placeholder must have an assigned value before you execute the expression. The Tab key advances you through the placeholders of an inserted palette item. 3. Enter 1 and then press Tab. The right endpoint placeholder is selected. 4. Enter 10 and then press Tab. The expression placeholder is selected. 5. Enter For instructions on entering this type of expression, see Example 1 - Enter and Evaluate an Expression Using Keystrokes (page 7). 6. Press Ctrl + = (Command + = for Macintosh) to evaluate the summation. = Handwriting Palette The Handwriting palette provides another way to fin and insert desired symbols easily. 1. Draw the symbol with your mouse in the space provided. 2. Click the recognize button, available in the system. See Figure 1.3. . Maple matches your input against symbols 28 • 1 Getting Started 3. To view more symbols (where indicated with a box around the result), click the displayed symbol and choose one of the selections from the drop-down menu. 4. To insert a symbol, click the displayed symbol. Figure 1.3: Handwriting Palette For more information, refer to the handwritingpalette help page. Snippets Palettes You can create your own custom Snippets palettes for tasks that you fin most useful. Details on how to create and customize Snippets palettes can be found on the createpalette help page. Symbol Names Each symbol has a name and some have aliases. By entering its name (or an alias) in Math mode, you can insert the symbol in your document. All common mathematical symbols, including all Greek characters, , and the square root symbol ( Maple. ), are recognized by Note: If you hover the mouse pointer over a palette item, a tooltip displays the symbol's name. To insert a symbol, enter the firs few characters of a symbol name using a keyword that is familiar to you and then press the completion shortcut key, Esc (see Shortcut Keys by Platform (page xviii)). Symbol completion works in the same way as command completion (see Command Completion (page 47)). 1.3 Entering Expressions • 29 • If a unique symbol name matches the characters entered, Maple inserts the corresponding symbol. • If multiple symbol names match the characters entered, Maple displays the completion list, which lists all matches, including commands. To select an item, click its name or symbol. Example 4 - Square Root To fin the square root of : Action 1. In a new document block, enter sqrt. Result in Document 2. Press the symbol completion shortcut key, Esc. Maple displays a pop-up list of exact matches. 3. In the completion list, select . Maple inserts the symbol with the placeholder selected. 4. Enter 5. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, Macintosh). = Example 5 - Complex Numbers When you simply type the letter i in Math mode, it is in italics. This letter is just a variable, and is not the same as the imaginary unit Multiply two complex numbers, Action 1. In a new document block, enter 2. Press the symbol completion shortcut key, Esc. Maple displays a pop-up list of partial and exact matches, including symbols and commands. denoted by I or i in Maple. and Result in Document : 30 • 1 Getting Started Action 3. Select the imaginary unit, . Result in Document 4. Close the parentheses, enter a space (for implicit multiplication), and type the second expression in parentheses, using symbol completion for the second imaginary number. 5. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, Macintosh) to evaluate the product. = For more information on entering complex numbers, refer to the HowDoI help page. Toolbar Icons In the introduction section, you learned about the toolbar icons and context toolbars available in Maple (see Toolbar Options (page 9)). The toolbar can be used to format your document, alter plots and animations, draw in a canvas, write in both Math and Text modes in one line and much more. The last of these is demonstrated in the next example. Example 6 - Enter Text and 2-D Math in the Same Line Using Toolbar Icons Enter the following sentence: Evaluate and write in simplest terms. Action To enter this sentence: 1. Select the Text icon and enter Evaluate. 2. Select the Math icon. 3. From the Expression palette, select the . The definit integration template, expression is displayed with the firs placeholder highlighted. Result in Document 1.3 Entering Expressions • 31 Action 4. With the firs placeholder highlighted, enter 1, then press Tab. 5. Enter 5 and press Tab to highlight the integrand region. 6. Enter (3x^2 and press the right arrow to leave the superscript position. 7. Enter + 2. 8. Press the Space bar for implicit multiplication. Enter sqrt and press Esc to show the command completion options. Maple displays a pop-up list of exact matches. . Maple Select the square root symbol, inserts the symbol with the x placeholder selected. Alternatively, select the square root symbol from the Expression palette. 9. Enter x, then press the right arrow to leave the square root region. 10. Enter + 3, and then press the Space bar. 11. Select the n-th root symbol from the Expression palette, . 12. Enter 3, then press Tab. 13. Enter x), then press Tab. 14. Enter x for the integration variable. 15. Click the Text icon in the toolbar, then enter the rest of the sentence: "and write in simplest terms." Result in Document 32 • 1 Getting Started 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction Maple contains many built-in features that allow you to solve problems quickly without having to know any commands. Assistants Maple offers a set of assistants in the form of graphical user interfaces to perform many tasks without the need to use any syntax. An example of an assistant is shown in Figure 1.4. Figure 1.4: Optimization Assistant Using the Tools → Assistants menu, you can access tools to help you accomplish various tasks. See Figure 1.5. In some cases, you can launch an assistant by entering an expression and selecting the assistant from the context menu that displays. 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 33 Figure 1.5: Accessing the Assistants from the Tools Menu 34 • 1 Getting Started Example 7 - Curve Fitting Assistant Enter a data sample and use the Curve Fitting Assistant to fin the best approximation of a function to fi the data. Action Result in Document 1. From the Tools menu, select Assistants → Curve Fitting. The firs dialog in the Curve Fitting Assistant appears. 2. Enter data as Independent Values and Dependent Values. Alternatively, you could import a fil containing data. If you have more data than the space provided, click the Next Page button for more space. For this example, enter the data as shown. 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 35 Action Result in Document 3. Once you have entered the data, click the Fit button. The second dialog of the Curve Fitting Assistant appears. 4. In this dialog, you can plot the data and several types of interpolations, including Polynomial, Spline, and Least Squares. For example, click the Plot button in the Polynomial Interpolation section. The polynomial is plotted with the data, and the interpolating function is displayed below. 5. You can choose to return either the interpolating function or the plot to your document. When finished click Done. Descriptions of Assistants The remaining assistants are described below. Some of the assistants are interfaces to package commands. For more information on package commands, see Package Commands (page 47). • Back-Solver - an interface that allows you to take a mathematical formula, involving multiple parameters, enter values for all but one of the parameters and solve for the remaining value. You can also plot the behavior of the formula as one of the parameters change. • Curve Fitting - an interface to commands in the CurveFitting package. Data points can be entered as independent and dependent values, and interpolated with polynomials, rational functions, or splines. • Data Analysis - an interface to the data analysis commands in the Statistics package. 36 • 1 Getting Started • Equation Manipulator - an interface for interactively performing a sequence of operations on an equation. You can group terms, apply an operation to both sides of the equation, complete the square, and so on. • Import Data - an interface to read data from an external fil into Maple. • eBook Publisher- an interface to the eBook Publisher tools. • Installer Builder - an interface to the InstallerBuilder package in which you can create installers for your Maple toolboxes. For information on toolboxes, go to http://www.maplesoft.com/developers/index.aspx. • Library Browser - an interface to manipulate the libraries in a specifie directory. • Maplet Builder - an interface to the Maplets package. The Maplets package contains commands for creating and displaying Maplet applications (point-and-click interfaces). Using the Maplet Builder, you can defin the layout of a Maplet, drag-and-drop elements (visual and functional components of Maplets), set actions associated with elements, and directly run a Maplet application. The Maplet Builder is available in the Standard interface only. • ODE Analyzer - an interface to obtain numeric or symbolic solutions to a single ordinary differential equation (ODE) or a system of ODEs and plot a solution of the result. • Optimization - an interface to the solver commands in the Optimization package. The Optimization package is a collection of commands for numerically solving optimization problems, which involves findin the minimum or maximum of an objective function possibly subject to constraints. • Plot Builder - an interface for creating two and three-dimensional plots, animations, and interactive plots. • Scientifi Constants - an interface to over 20 000 values of physical constants and properties of chemical elements. All of these constants come with the corresponding unit and, if applicable, with the uncertainty or error, that is, how precisely the value of this constant is known. • Special Functions - an interface to the properties of over 200 special functions, including the Hypergeometric, Bessel, Mathieu, Heun and Legendre families of functions. • Units Calculator - an interface to convert between 500 units of measurement. • Worksheet Migration - an interface to convert worksheets from Classic Maple (.mws files to Standard Maple (.mw files • CAD Link - an interface to explore the properties of models from supported CAD applications (available on Microsoft Windows only) 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 37 Tutors Maple provides over 40 interactive tutors to aid in the learning of • Precalculus • Calculus • Multivariate Calculus • Vector Calculus • Differential Equations • Linear Algebra • Complex Variables These tutors are easily accessible in the Tools menu by selecting Tutors. See Figure 1.6. Figure 1.6: Accessing Tutors from the Tools Menu Some of the tutors can also be accessed through the Student package. The Differential Equations tutor, DE Plots, is accessible through the DEtools package. For a definitio of the term package, see Package Commands (page 47). The Student package is a collection of subpackages designed to assist with the teaching and learning of standard undergraduate mathematics. The subpackages contain many commands for displaying functions, computations, and theorems in various ways, and include support for stepping through important computations. 38 • 1 Getting Started The interactive commands help you explore concepts and solve problems using a pointand-click interface. These commands launch tutors that provide a graphical interface to some of the visualization and computation commands described above. See for an example of one of the tutors. Figure 1.7: Calculus - Single Variable → Differentiation Methods Tutor Math Apps Maple provides Math Apps that offer interactive, entertaining ways to explore precalculus concepts. The demonstrations are accessible in the Tools menu by selecting Math Apps. For more information on the tutors, demonstrations, and related resources for mathematics education, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194). 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 39 Context Menus A context menu is a dynamically generated menu of actions that are applicable for the region upon which it is invoked. Context menus allow you to perform calculations and manipulations on expressions without using Maple syntax. To display a context menu, right-click an object, expression, or region. Context menus are available for many input regions, including: • expressions to perform calculations, manipulations, or plotting • plot regions to apply plot options and manipulate the plot • tables to modify the table properties • palette regions to add or remove palettes and palette regions • text regions to add annotations and format text • spreadsheets to manipulate the spreadsheet When performing calculations or manipulations on an expression, a self-documenting arrow or equal sign connects the input and output, indicating the action that took place. See Figures 1.8 and 1.9 for two examples of context menus. 40 • 1 Getting Started Figure 1.8: Right-click the expression to see a Figure 1.9: Right-click the plot to see a menu menu of applicable operations of plot options Task Templates Task templates help you perform specifi tasks in Maple, such as: • performing a mathematical computation such as solving an equation symbolically or numerically, or determining the Taylor approximation of a function of one variable • constructing a Maple object such as a function • creating a document such as an application Each task contains a description along with a collection of content that you can insert directly into your document. Content consists of 2-D mathematics, commands, embedded components (for example, buttons), and plots. You specify the parameters of your problem and then execute the commands in the document. See Figure 1.10 for an example of a Task Template. 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 41 Figure 1.10: Browse Tasks Dialog Previewing Tasks To preview Maple tasks, • From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse. The Browse Tasks dialog opens and displays the list of tasks. The tasks are sorted by subject to help you quickly fin the desired task. In the Browse Tasks dialog, you can view tasks without inserting them into your document. 42 • 1 Getting Started Inserting a Task into the Document To insert a task into your document, 1. Select the Insert into New Worksheet check box to insert the task into a new document. 2. Click one of the insert buttons. • Click the Insert Default Content button. Maple inserts the default content. The default content level is set using the Options dialog. For instructions, see the usingtasks help page. • Click the Insert Minimal Content button. Maple inserts only the commands and embedded components, for example, a button to launch the related assistant or tutor. • Click the Copy Task to Clipboard button. Place the cursor where you want to insert the task, and then paste the task. Maple inserts the default content. Use this method to quickly insert a task multiple times. Note: You can view the history of previously inserted tasks. From the Tools menu, select Tasks. Previously selected task names are displayed below the Browse menu item. Before inserting a task, Maple checks whether the task variables have assigned values in your document. If any task variable is assigned, the Task Variables dialog opens to allow you to modify the names. Maple uses the edited variable names for all variable instances in the inserted task. By default, the Task Variables dialog is displayed only if there is a naming conflict You can set it to display every time you insert a task. To specify that the Task Variables dialog be displayed every time you insert a task: 1. From the Tools menu, select Options. 2. Click the Display tab. 3. In the Show task variables on insert drop-down list, select Always. 4. Click Apply to Session or Apply Globally, as necessary. Updating Parameters and Executing the Commands In inserted Task Templates, parameters are marked as placeholders (in purple text) or specifie using sliders or other embedded components. 1. Specify values for the parameters in placeholders or using graphical interface components. You can move to the next placeholder by pressing Tab. 2. Execute all commands in the task by: • Placing the cursor in the firs task command, and then pressing Enter repeatedly to execute each command. 1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 43 • Selecting all the template commands, and then clicking the execute toolbar icon . 3. If the template contains a button that computes the result, click it. For more information on task templates, refer to the tasks help page. Exploration Assistant The Exploration Assistant allows you to interactively make parameter changes to expressions and view the result. The assistant can be used with almost any Maple expression or command that has at least one variable or parameter. To launch the Exploration Assistant: 1. Enter an expression or command. 2. Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) the expression or command. From the context menu, select Explore. 3. The Explore parameter selection dialog appears, where you can select the parameters to explore and the range for each parameter. If you enter integer ranges, only integer values are allowed for parameters. To allow floating point values, enter floating-poin ranges. Select skip for any of the parameters to leave that parameter as a variable. 4. Click Explore to continue to the Exploration Assistant. The assistant opens in a new document. You can use the slider or sliders to vary the parameters and see your changes as the expression output is updated. 5. Once you are finishe interacting with the assistant, you can copy and paste the results into your document, or save the interactive document for later use. 44 • 1 Getting Started Example 8 - Use the Exploration Assistant to Explore a Plot In this example, we will explore how the plot of the parameters and . Action Result in Document 1. Enter the plot command shown. 2. Right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the expression and select Explore. 3. In the Explore parameter selection dialog, set the ranges a = 0..10.0 and b = -5.0..5.0. Select floating-poin computation. changes as we vary 1.5 Commands • 45 Action Result in Document 4. Click Explore. The Exploration Assistant opens in a new document. Move the sliders to see the plot as the parameters change. 1.5 Commands Even though Maple comes with many features to solve problems and manipulate results without entering any commands, you may fin that you prefer greater control and flexibilit by using the set of commands and programming language that Maple offers. The Maple Library Commands are contained in the Maple library, which is divided into two groups: the main library and packages. The main library contains the most frequently used Maple commands. Packages contain related commands for performing tasks from disciplines such as Student Calculus, Statistics, or Differential Geometry. For example, the Optimization package contains commands for numerically solving optimization problems. For details on top-level and package commands, see Commands (page 80). Entering Commands If you want to interact with Maple using commands, simply enter the command using 2-D math. Notice that commands and variable names display in italics. Maple commands are constructed in a format similar to command(arguments), based on the command you are using. 46 • 1 Getting Started For example, to factor an expression, enter: To differentiate an expression, enter: To integrate an expression on the interval , enter: To plot an expression, enter: For a list of the top commands in Maple, see Top Commands (page 82). 1.5 Commands • 47 Package Commands There are two ways to access commands within a package, using the long form of the package command or the short form. Long Form of Accessing Package Commands: The long form specifie both the package and command names using the syntax package[command](arguments). Short Form of Accessing Package Commands: The short form makes all of the commands in the package available using the with command, with(package). If you are using a number of commands in a package, loading the entire package is recommended. When you execute the with command, a list of all commands in the package displays. To suppress the display of all command names, end the with(package) command with a colon. Alternatively, you can load packages through the Tools menu, by selecting Load Package, and then the package name. After loading a package, you can use the short-form names, that is, the command names, without the package name. For a list of the top packages in Maple, see Top Packages (page 85). Command Completion To help with syntax and reduce the amount of typing when entering Maple commands, you can use command completion. Command completion displays a list of all Maple packages, commands, and functions that match the entered text. If there are multiple ways to call a command, then the command completion list contains each one, with appropriate placeholders. 48 • 1 Getting Started To use command completion: 1. Begin entering a command or package name. 2. Select Tools → Complete Command or use the shortcut key Esc (see Shortcut Keys by Platform (page xviii)). If there is a unique completion, it is inserted. Otherwise, a list of possible matches is displayed. 3. Select the correct completion from the list. 4. Some inserted commands have placeholders, denoted by purple text. The firs placeholder is highlighted after you insert it into the document. Replace it with your parameter, then move to the next placeholder by pressing the Tab key. Equation Labels Equation labels help to save time entering expressions by referencing Maple output. See Figure 1.11. By default, equation labels are displayed. If equation labels are not displayed, 1. From the Tools menu, select Options, and click the Display tab. Ensure that the Show equation labels check box is selected. 2. From the Format menu, select Equation Labels. Ensure that both Execution Group and Worksheet are selected. Figure 1.11: Equation Label 1.5 Commands • 49 To apply equation labels: 1. Enter an expression and press Enter. Note that the equation label is displayed to the right of the answer in the document. 2. In a new execution group, enter another expression that will reference the output of the previous execution group. 3. From the Insert menu, select Label. Alternatively, press Ctrl+L (Command+L, for Macintosh) to open the Insert Label dialog. Enter the label number in the Insert Label dialog and click OK. The item is now a label. See Figure 1.12. Figure 1.12: Inserting an Equation Label 4. Press Enter to obtain the result. To change the format of equation labels: • Select Format → Equation Labels → Label Display. In the Format Labels dialog, select one of the numbering schemes. • Optionally, enter an appropriate numbering prefix 50 • 1 Getting Started Figure 1.13: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi The Label Reference menu item allows you to switch between the label name and its reference content. Place the cursor on the referenced equation label and select Format → Equation Labels → Label Reference. Figure 1.14: Label Reference The label is associated with the last output within an execution group. You cannot apply equation labels to the following: • Error, warning, and information messages • Tables, images, plots, sketches, or spreadsheets Document Blocks In Document mode, content is created as a series of document blocks. Document blocks allow you to hide the syntax used to perform calculations, which in turn lets you focus on the concept presented instead of the command used to manipulate or solve the problem. You can also create document blocks in Worksheet mode to perform the same function. 1.5 Commands • 51 Document blocks are typically collapsed to hide the Maple code, but these regions can also be expanded to reveal this code. To create a document block: From the Format menu, select Create Document Block. If text or math in one or more execution groups is selected, then a document block is created that contains those execution groups. If not, a new document block is created after the current execution group. For more information, see the next example. Document block regions are identifie using markers that are located in a vertical bar along the left pane of the document. See Figure 1.15. In addition to document block boundaries, these markers (icons) indicate the presence of hidden attributes in the document such as annotations, bookmarks, and numeric formatting. To activate markers: From the View menu, select Markers. See Figure 1.15. Figure 1.15: Document Block Markers To view code in a document block: 1. Place the cursor in a document block to be expanded. 2. From the View menu, select Expand Document Block. Figure 1.16: Expanded Document Block With the Document Block expanded, you can see the Maple command that was used to perform this calculation. In Figure 1.16, the solve command was used. 52 • 1 Getting Started Also notice a red prompt (>) before the original expression and the solve command. Entering commands outside of a document block region is done at this input region. To insert an input region, click the button in the toolbar menu. In Figure 1.16, an equation label was used to refer to the expression. For more information, see Equation Labels (page 48). To collapse a Document Block: • With your cursor inside the document block, select View → Collapse Document Block. You can use this process of expanding document blocks to view and edit Maple commands within a document block. Changing the Display: You can specify which parts of the input and output are displayed when the document block is collapsed. For each execution group in the block, you can choose to display either the input or the output. • Place the cursor in the execution group. • From the View menu, select Toggle Input/Output Display. Also, you can choose to display output either inline or centered on a new line. • From the View menu, select Inline Document Output. Example 9 - Creating a Document Block in Worksheet Mode In Worksheet mode, you can create the content using commands, and then use a document block to choose how much information to display. Enter the following sentence using text and 2-D Math input and output: The answer to is . 1. At an input prompt, click the text icon, , to enter plain text. Enter "The answer to ". Note: these instructions are for Worksheet mode. 2. Click the input prompt icon, commands. Enter to execute the command. , to enter Maple , and then press Enter 1.6 The Maple Help System • 53 3. Again, click the text icon to insert the rest of the text, "is", and then enter another input prompt icon. Make sure to put spaces around all of the text, so the sentence displays properly. 4. To display the same output again, use the value command and an equation label. This allows you to insert text between the input and output of a single command: there are really two commands. Enter and execute the command, as shown. 5. To finis the sentence, click the text icon in the last execution group and enter a period. 6. Select the entire sentence, then from the Format menu, select, Create Document Block. By default, only the text and output remains visible, and output is centered on a new line. 7. To display the text and output on one line, place the cursor in the document block. From the View menu, select Inline Document Output. 8. To display input instead of output for the firs exThe answer to pression, place the cursor in the firs expression. From the View menu, select Toggle Input/Output Display. Only the firs region displays input. is . 1.6 The Maple Help System The Maple program provides a custom help system consisting of almost 5000 reference pages. The help system is a convenient resource for determining the syntax of Maple commands and for learning about Maple features. Accessing the Help System There are several ways to access the Maple help system: • From the Help menu, select Maple Help • Click in the toolbar 54 • 1 Getting Started To get help on a specifi word: • In a document, place the insertion point in a word for which you want to obtain help. From the Help menu, select Help on .... Alternatively, press F2 (Control + ?, for Macintosh) to access context-sensitive help. • In a document, execute the command ?topic, for example, enter ?LinearAlgebra and press Enter The Maple help system opens in a separate window with two panes. The left pane contains the Help Navigator where you initiate searches and browse the table of contents, and the right pane displays the fina search result, such as a specifi help page. Figure 1.17: Sample Help Page Every help page in Maple lists the command's calling sequence, parameters, and a description, with examples of the command at the end of the page. Some help pages also contain hyperlinks to related help pages and hyperlinks to dictionary definitions Hyperlinks to help pages display in green, while hyperlinks to dictionary definition display in dark red. 1.6 The Maple Help System • 55 Using the Help Navigator The Help Navigator contains a fiel for topic or text-based searches. The Table of Contents tab provides a structured list of all topics in the help system. To search the help system: 1. In the left pane, enter a string in the search field 2. By default, a topic search is performed. To perform a text search, select the Text radio button. 3. Enter the term and click Search. • Topic searches reveal a list of matching topics sorted by the precision of the match. • Text searches reveal a list of topics based on keyword frequency. • You can search all of the help system or specifi Resources such as Help Pages, Tasks, Tutorials, and Manuals by selecting the Resources drop-down menu. Search results are displayed as a list in the Search Results tab of the left pane. Click the Table of Contents tab to view a structured list of all topics in the help system. To display potential matches in the right pane, click a topic preceded by an icon. Table 1.9 describes the different icons. Table 1.9: Help Page Icons Icon Description A folder icon in the Table of Contents tab indicates that a topic can be expanded into subtopics. Question mark icon indicates a help page and displays the associated help page in the right pane when selected. WS icon indicates an example worksheet. Example worksheets open in a new tab in the Maple document. D icon indicates a definitio and displays the associated dictionary definitio in the right pane when selected. T icon indicates a Task template and displays the associated Task Template in the right pane when selected. M icon indicates a manual. Manuals open in a new tab in the Maple document. Viewing Help Pages as Documents In the help system, examples are not executable. The Maple help system allows you to open help pages as documents that you can execute. 56 • 1 Getting Started To open a help page as a document or worksheet: • With the help page displayed in the right pane of the help system, from the View menu, select Open Page as Worksheet. A new worksheet tab opens and displays the help page as an executable document. Alternatively, in the help system toolbar, click the open current help page in a worksheet window icon. Viewing Examples in 2-D Math You can choose to view the examples in most help pages in either 1-D Math (Maple input) or 2-D Math mode. The default is 1-D Math. To change the math mode: In the Maple help system: • From the View menu, select or clear the Display Examples with 2D math check box. • Click the 2-D Math icon, . Note: Some input in help pages displays as 1-D Math, no matter which option you have chosen. This is for Maple procedures and other code that is best input in 1-D Math. For more information, see the helpnavigator help page. Copying Examples Instead of opening the entire page as a document, you can copy the Examples section only. To copy examples: 1. With the help page displayed in the right pane of the help system, from the Edit menu, select Copy Examples. 2. Close or minimize the Help Navigator and return to your document. 3. In your document, place the cursor at the location where you want to paste the examples. 4. From the Edit menu, select Paste. The Examples section of the help page is inserted as executable content in your document. 1.7 Available Resources Your work with Maple is supported by numerous resources. 1.7 Available Resources • 57 Resources Available through the Maple Help System Help Pages Use the help system to fin information about a specifi topic, command, package, or feature. For more information, see The Maple Help System (page 53). Dictionary More than 5000 mathematical and engineering terms with over 300 figure and plots. 1. From the Help menu, select Maple Help. 2. Enter a search term. Dictionary entries that match your query are displayed in the left pane with a icon. Tutorials and the Maple Portal The Maple Portal includes material designed for all Maple users, from new users to users who want more advanced tutorials. The Maple Portal also includes specifi sections for students, math educators, and engineers. The Maple Portal includes: • How Do I... topics that give quick answers to essential questions • Tutorials that provide an overview of topics from getting started to plotting, data manipulation, and interactive application development • Navigation to portals with specialized information for students, math educators, and engineers Access the portal from the Help menu (Help → Manuals, Resources, and More → Maple Portal). Applications and Example Worksheets Applications Sample applications demonstrate how Maple can be used to fin and document a solution to a specifi problem. Some applications allow for input or contain animations that you can run; however, their primary use is for demonstrations. Topics include DC Motor Control Design, Digital Filter Design, Frequency Domain System Identification Harmonic Oscillator, Image Processing, and Radiator Design with CAD Systems. Examples Example worksheets are executable documents covering topics that demonstrate syntax or invoke a user interface to make complex problems easy to solve and visualize. You can copy and modify the examples as needed. Topics include Algebra, Calculus, Connectivity, Discrete Mathematics, General Numerics and Symbolics, and Integral Transforms. 58 • 1 Getting Started • From the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and more, and then Applications and Examples. Manuals You can access all of Maple's manuals from within Maple, including the Maple Programming Guide and this manual. You can execute examples, copy content into other documents, and search the contents using the Maple Help System. • From the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and more and then Manuals. Task Templates Set of commands with placeholders that you can use to quickly perform a task. For details, see Task Templates (page 40). • From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse. Maple Tour and Quick Resources Maple Tour The Maple Tour consists of interactive sessions on several of the following topics: Ten Minute Tour, Numeric and Symbolic Computations, Matrix Computations, Differential Equations, Statistics, Programming and Code Generation, Units and Tolerances, and Education Assessment with Maple T.A. • From the Help menu, select Take a Tour of Maple. Quick Help and Quick References The Quick Help dialog is a list of key commands and concepts. • From the Help menu, select Quick Help. Alternatively, press F1. For additional information, click an item in the Quick Help. The Quick Reference is a table of commands and information for new users that opens in a new window. It contains hyperlinks to help pages for more information. • From the Help menu, select Quick Reference. Alternatively, press Ctrl + F2 (Command + F2, for Macintosh). Web Site Resources Welcome Center A Maple web site offering all of Maplesoft's key user resources in one central location. In the Welcome Center, you can view sample applications, participate in user forums, access 1.7 Available Resources • 59 exclusive premium content, and listen to podcasts. You can also access our support services, view training videos, download user manuals, and more. http://www.maplesoft.com/welcome Student Help Center The Student Help Center offers a Maple student forum, online math Oracles, training videos, and a math homework resource guide. http://www.maplesoft.com/studentcenter Teacher Resource Center The Teacher Resource Center is designed to ensure you get the most out of your Maple teaching experience. It provides sample applications, course material, training videos, white papers, e-books, podcasts, and tips. http://www.maplesoft.com/teachercenter Application Center Maple web site resource for free applications related to mathematics, education, science, engineering, computer science, statistics and data analysis, finance communications, and graphics. Many applications are available in translations (French, Spanish, and German). You can also search for Education and Research PowerTools, which provide free course curricula and are available as add-on Maple packages and courses. PowerTools are developed by experts in their field to help users configur Maple for research in specifi application areas. http://www.maplesoft.com/applications Training Maplesoft offers a comprehensive set of complementary training materials. From complete training videos to recorded training seminars to downloadable documentation, you have many options to get familiar with Maplesoft products. In addition, whether you are an expert or someone who is considering a new license purchase, a custom training session that is right for you and/or your organization can be created. http://www.maplesoft.com/support/training MaplePrimes A web community dedicated to sharing experiences, techniques, and opinions about Maple and related products, as well as general interest topics in math and computing. 60 • 1 Getting Started http://www.mapleprimes.com Online Help All of Maple's help pages are available online. http://www.maplesoft.com/support/help Technical Support A Maple web site containing FAQs, downloads and service packs, links to discussion groups, and a form for requesting technical support. http://www.maplesoft.com/support For a complete list of resources, refer to the MapleResources help page. 2 Document Mode Using the Maple software, you can create powerful interactive documents. You can visualize and animate problems in two and three dimensions. You can solve complex problems with simple point-and-click interfaces or easy-to-modify interactive documents. You can also devise custom solutions using the Maple programming language. While you work, you can document your process, providing text descriptions. 2.1 In This Chapter Section Introduction (page 61) Topics • Comparison of Document and Worksheet Modes Entering Expressions (page 62) - Overview of • Palettes tools for creating complex mathematical expres- • Symbol Names sions • Mathematical Functions Evaluating Expressions (page 65) - How to eval- • Displaying the Value Inline uate expressions • Displaying the Value on the Following Line Editing Expressions and Updating Output (page 66) - How to update expressions and regenerate results • Updating a Single Computation • Updating a Group of Computations • Updating All Computations in a Document Performing Computations (page 67)- Overview • Computing with Palettes of tools for performing computations and solving • Context Menus problems • Assistants and Tutors 2.2 Introduction Maple has two modes: Document mode and Worksheet mode. Document mode is designed for quickly performing calculations. You can enter a mathematical expression, and then evaluate, manipulate, solve, or plot it with a few keystrokes or mouse clicks. This chapter provides an overview of Document mode. Document mode sample: Find the value of the derivative of at 61 . 62 • 2 Document Mode Integrate over the interval . = Worksheet mode is designed for interactive use through commands and programming using the Maple language. The Worksheet mode supports the features available in Document mode described in this chapter. For information on using Worksheet mode, see Chapter 3, Worksheet Mode (page 77). Note: To enter a Maple input prompt while in Document mode, click in the Maple toolbar. Important: In any Maple document, you can use Document mode and Worksheet mode. Interactive document features include: • Embedded graphical interface components, like buttons, sliders, and check boxes • Automatic execution of marked regions when a fil is opened • Tables • Character and paragraph formatting styles • Hyperlinks These features are described in Chapter 7, Creating Mathematical Documents (page 281). Note: This chapter and Chapter 1 were created using Document mode. All of the other chapters were created using Worksheet mode. 2.3 Entering Expressions Chapter 1 provided an introduction to entering simple expressions in 2-D Math (see Entering Expressions (page 18)). It is also easy to enter mathematical expressions, such as: • Piecewise-continuous functions: • Limits: 2.3 Entering Expressions • 63 • Continued fractions: and more complex expressions. Mathematical expressions can contain the following objects. • Numbers: integers, rational numbers, complex numbers, floating-poin values, finit fiel elements, , , ... • Operators: • Constants: /, ... ... • Mathematical functions: • Names (variables): ... ... • Data structures: sets, lists, Arrays, Vectors, Matrices, ... Maple contains over a thousand symbols. For some numbers, operators, and names, you can press the corresponding key, for example, 9, =, >, or x. Most symbols are not available on the keyboard, but you can insert them easily using two methods, palettes and symbol names. Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative To insert a symbol, you can use palettes or symbol names. Enter the partial derivative using palettes. Action Result in Document 1. In the Expression palette, click the partial differentiation item . Maple inserts the partial derivative. The variable placeholder is selected. 2. Enter t, and then press Tab. The expression placeholder is selected. 64 • 2 Document Mode Action Result in Document 3. Enter . Note: To enter the exponential e, use the expression palette or command completion. To evaluate the integral and display the result inline, press Ctrl+= (Command+=, for Macintosh) or Enter. For more information, see Computing with Palettes (page 67). You can enter any expression using symbol names and the symbol completion list. Action Result in Document 1. Begin typing the name of the symbol, diff, and press the symbol completion key (see Shortcut Keys by Platform (page xviii)). 2. Select the partial differentiation item, 3. Replace the placeholder with t. Use the right arrow to move out of the denominator. Enter ample. as in the previous ex- Example 2 - Define a Mathematical Function Defin the function which doubles its input. Action 1. In the Expression palette, click the single variable function definitio item, . 2. Replace the placeholder f with the function name, Press Tab to move to the next placeholder. 3. Replace the parameter placeholder, a, with the independent variable Press Tab. Result in Document 2.4 Evaluating Expressions • 65 Action 4. Replace the output placeholder, y, with the desired output, Result in Document = = Note: To insert the right arrow symbol , you can also enter the characters -> in Math mode. In this case, symbol completion is automatic. Important: The expression is different from the function . For more information on functions, see Functional Operators (page 339). 2.4 Evaluating Expressions To evaluate a mathematical expression, place the cursor in the expression and press Ctrl + = (Command + =, for Macintosh). That is, press and hold the Ctrl (or Command) key, and then press the equal sign (=) key. To the right of the expression, Maple inserts an equal sign and then the value of the expression. = You can replace the inserted equal sign with text or mathematical content. To replace the equal sign: 1. Select the equal sign. Press Delete. 2. Enter the replacement text or mathematical content. For example, you can replace the equal sign with the text "is equal to". is equal to In mathematical content, pressing Enter evaluates the expression and displays it centered on the following line. The cursor moves to a new line below the output. 66 • 2 Document Mode (2.1) By default, Maple labels output that is generated by pressing Enter. For information on equation labels, see Equation Labels (page 95). In this manual, labels are generally not displayed. In text, pressing Enter inserts a line break. You can use the basic algebraic operators, such as and , with most expressions, including polynomials—see Polynomial Algebra (page 148)—and matrices and vectors—see Matrix Arithmetic (page 166). = = 2.5 Editing Expressions and Updating Output One important feature of Maple is that your documents are live. That is, you can edit expressions and quickly recalculate results. To update one computation: 1. Edit the expression. 2. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, for Macintosh) or Enter. The result is updated. To update a group of computations: 1. Edit the expressions. 2. Select all edited expressions and the results to recalculate. 3. Click the Execute toolbar icon . All selected results are updated. To update all output in a Maple document: • Click the Execute All toolbar icon . 2.6 Performing Computations • 67 All results in the document are updated. 2.6 Performing Computations Using the Document mode, you can access the power of the advanced Maple mathematical engine without learning Maple syntax. In addition to solving problems, you can also easily plot expressions. The primary tools for syntax-free computation are: • Palettes • Context menus • Assistants and tutors Note: The Document mode is designed for quick calculations, but it also supports Maple commands. For information on commands, see Commands (page 80) in Chapter 3, Worksheet Mode (page 77). Important: In Document mode, you can execute a statement only if you enter it in Math mode. To use a Maple command, you must enter it in Math mode. Computing with Palettes As discussed in Entering Expressions (page 62), some palettes contain mathematical operations. To perform a computation using a palette mathematical operation: 1. In a palette that contains operators, such as the Expression palette, click an operator item. 2. In the inserted item, specify values in the placeholders. 3. To execute the operation and display the result, press Ctrl+= (Command+=, for Macintosh) or Enter. For example, to evaluate inline: 1. Using the Expression palette, enter the partial derivative. See Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative (page 63). 2. Press Ctrl+= (Command+=, for Macintosh). = 68 • 2 Document Mode Context Menus A context menu is a pop-up menu that lists the operations and actions you can perform on a particular expression. See Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1: Context Menu To display the context menu for an expression: • Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression. The context menu is displayed beside the mouse pointer. You can evaluate expressions using context menus. The Evaluate and Display Inline operation (see Figure 2.1) is equivalent to pressing Ctrl+= (Command+=, for Macintosh). That is, it inserts an equal sign (=) and then the value of the expression. Alternatively, press Enter to evaluate the expression and display the result centered on the following line. For more information on evaluation, see Evaluating Expressions (page 65). From the context menu, you can also select operations different from evaluation. To the right of the expression, Maple inserts a right arrow symbol (→) and then the result. 2.6 Performing Computations • 69 For example, use the Approximate operation to approximate a fraction: You can perform a sequence of operations by repeatedly using context menus. For example, to compute the derivative of use the Differentiate operation on the expression, and then to evaluate the result at a point, use the Evaluate at a Point operation on the output and enter 10: The following subsections provide detailed instructions on performing a few of the numerous operations available using context menus. Figures in the subsections show related context menus or palettes. Approximating the Value of an Expression To approximate a fraction numerically: 1. Enter a fraction. 2. Display the context menu. See Figure 2.2. 3. From the context menu, select Approximate, and then the number of significan digits to use: 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100. Figure 2.2: Approximating the Value of a Fraction 70 • 2 Document Mode You can replace the inserted right arrow with text or mathematical content. To replace the right arrow ( ): 1. Select the arrow and text. Press Delete. 2. Enter the replacement text or mathematical content. Note: To replace the right arrow with text, you must firs press F5 to switch to Text mode. For example, you can replace the arrow with the text "is approximately equal to" or the symbol ≈. Solving an Equation You can fin an exact (symbolic) solution or an approximate (numeric) solution of an equation. For more information on symbolic and numeric computations, see Symbolic and Numeric Computation (page 102). To solve an equation: 1. Enter an equation. 2. Display the context menu. See Figure 2.3. 3. From the context menu, select Solve or Numerically Solve in the Solve menu item. 2.6 Performing Computations • 71 Figure 2.3: Finding the Approximate Solution to an Equation For more information on solving equations, including solving inequations, differential equations, and other types of equations, see Solving Equations (page 111). 72 • 2 Document Mode Using Units You can create expressions with units. To specify a unit for an expression, use the Units palettes. The Units (FPS) palette (Figure 2.4) contains important units from the foot-poundsecond (FPS) system of units used in the United States. The Units (SI) palette (Figure 2.5) contains important units from the international system (SI) of units. Figure 2.4: FPS Units Palette Figure 2.5: SI Units Palette To insert an expression with a unit: 1. Enter the expression. 2. In a unit palette, click a unit symbol. Note: To include a reciprocal unit, divide by the unit. 2.6 Performing Computations • 73 To evaluate an expression that contains units: 1. Enter the expression using the units palettes to insert units. 2. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression. 3. From the context menu, select Units and then Simplify. For example, compute the electric current passing through a wire that conducts 590 coulombs in 2.9 seconds. For more information on using units, see Units (page 127). Assistants and Tutors Assistants and tutors provide point-and-click interfaces with buttons, text input regions, and sliders. For details on assistants and tutors, see Point-and-Click Interaction (page 32). Assistants and tutors can be launched from the Tools menu or the context menu for an expression. For example, you can use the Linear System Solving tutor to solve a linear system, specifie by a matrix or a set of equations. 74 • 2 Document Mode Example 3 - Using a Context Menu to Open the Linear System Solving Tutor Use the Linear System Solving tutor to solve the following system of linear equations, written in matrix form: Action Result in Document 1. In a new document block, create the matrix or set of linear equations to be solved. 2. Load the Student[LinearAlgebra] Loading Student:-LinearAlgebra package. From the Tools menu, select Load Package → Student Linear Algebra. This makes the tutors in that package available. For details, see Package Commands (page 47). 3. Right-click the matrix and select Tutors → Linear Algebra → Linear System Solving.... The Linear System Solving dialog appears, where you can choose the solving method. Gaussian Elimination reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, then performs back-substitution to solve the system. Gauss Jordan Elimination reduces the matrix to reduced row-echelon form, where the equations are already solved. For this example, choose Gaussian Elimination. 2.6 Performing Computations • 75 Action Result in Document 4. The Gaussian Elimination dialog opens. You can specify the Gaussian elimination step-by-step, or you can use the Next Step or All Steps buttons to have Maple perform the steps for you. 5. Once the matrix is in row-echelon (upper-triangular) form, click the Solve System button to move to the next step. 6. The Solve the system of equations in Row-Echelon Form dialog appears. Click the buttons on the right to calculate the solution: firs fin the Equations, then solve for each variable. Click the Solution button to display the solution in the tutor. 7. Click the Close button to return the solution to your document. For more information on linear systems and matrices, see Linear Algebra (page 155). 76 • 2 Document Mode 3 Worksheet Mode The Worksheet mode of the Standard Worksheet interface is designed for: • Interactive use through Maple commands, which offers advanced functionality and customized control not available using context menus or other syntax-free methods • Programming using the powerful Maple language Using Worksheet mode, you have access to all of the Maple features described in Chapter 1, and most of those described in Chapter 2, including: • Math and Text modes • Palettes • Context menus • Assistants and tutors For information on these features, see Chapter 1, Getting Started (page 1) and Chapter 2, Document Mode (page 61). Note: Using a document block, you can use all Document mode features in Worksheet mode. For information on document blocks, see Document Blocks (page 50). Note: This chapter and the following chapters except Chapter 7 were created using Worksheet mode. 3.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Input Prompt (page 78) - Where you enter input • The Input Prompt (>) • Suppressing Output • 2-D and 1-D Math Input • Input Separators Commands (page 80) - Thousands of routines for • The Maple Library performing computations and other operations • Top-Level Commands • Package Commands • Lists of Common Commands and Packages Palettes (page 86) - Items that you can insert by • Using Palettes clicking or dragging • Using Context Menus Context Menus (page 88)- Pop-up menus of common operations 77 78 • 3 Worksheet Mode Section Assistants and Tutors (page 90)- Graphical interfaces with buttons and sliders Task Templates (page 90) - Sets of commands with placeholders that you can insert and use to perform a task Topics • Launching Assistants and Tutors • Viewing Task Templates • Inserting a Task Template • Performing the Task Text Regions (page 92) - Areas in the document • Inserting a Text Region in which you can enter text • Formatting Text Names (page 92) - References to the expressions • Assigning to Names you assign to them • Unassigning Names • Valid Names Equation Labels (page 95) - Automatically gener- • Displaying Equation Labels ated labels that you can use to refer to expressions • Referring to a Previous Result • Execution Groups with Multiple Outputs • Label Numbering Schemes • Features of Equation Labels 3.2 Input Prompt In Worksheet mode, you enter input at the Maple input prompt ( input is Math mode (2-D Math). To evaluate input: • Press Enter. Maple displays the result (output) below the input. ). The default mode for 3.2 Input Prompt • 79 For example, to fin the value of , enter the expression, and then press Enter. > (3.1) For example, compute the sum of two fractions. > (3.2) Suppressing Output To suppress the output, enter a colon (:) at the end of the input. > A set of Maple input and its output are referred to as an execution group. 1-D Math Input You can also insert input using Text mode (1-D Math). The input is entered as a one-dimensional sequence of characters. 1-D Math input is red. To enter input using 1-D Math: • At the input prompt, press F5 or click the Text button in the toolbar, switch from 2-D Math to 1-D Math. , to > 123^2 - 29857/120; Important: 1-D Math input must end with a semicolon or colon. If you use a semicolon, Maple displays the output; if you use a colon, Maple suppresses the output. > 123^2 - 29857/120: 80 • 3 Worksheet Mode To set the default input mode to 1-D Math: 1. From the Tools menu, select Options. The Options dialog is displayed. 2. On the Display tab, in the Input display drop-down list, select Maple Notation. 3. Click Apply to Session (to set for only the current session) or Apply Globally (to set for all Maple sessions). To convert 2-D Math input to 1-D Math input: 1. Select the 2-D Math input. 2. From the Format menu, select Convert To, and then 1-D Math Input. Important: In Document mode, you can execute a statement only if you enter it in Math mode. Input Separators In 1-D and 2-D Math input, you can use a semicolon or colon to separate multiple inputs in the same input line. > If you do not specify a semicolon or colon, Maple interprets it as a single input. This can either give unexpected results, as below, or an error. > 3.3 Commands Maple contains a large set of commands and a powerful programming language. Most Maple commands are written using the Maple programming language. You can enter commands using 1-D or 2-D Math. You must use 1-D Math input when programming in Maple. Basic Programming (page 365) provides an introduction to Maple programming. To learn how to use Maple commands, see the appropriate help page, or use task templates. For more information, see The Maple Help System (page 53) and Task Templates (page 90). 3.3 Commands • 81 The Maple Library Maple's commands are contained in the Maple library. There are two types of commands: top-level commands and package commands. • The top-level commands are the most frequently used Maple commands. • Packages contain related specialized commands in areas such as calculus, linear algebra, vector calculus, and code generation. For a complete list of packages and commands, refer to the index help pages. To access the index overview help page, enter ?index, and then press Enter. For information on the Maple Help System, see The Maple Help System (page 53). Top-Level Commands To use a top-level command, enter its name followed by parentheses (( )) containing any parameters. This is referred to as a calling sequence for the command. command(arguments) Note: In 1-D Math input, include a semicolon or colon at the end of the calling sequence. For example, to differentiate an expression, use the diff command. The required parameters are the expression to differentiate, which must be specifie first and the independent variable. > For a complete list of functions (commands that implement mathematical functions), such as BesselI and AiryAi, available in the library, refer to the initialfunctions help page. > For detailed information on the properties of a function, use the FunctionAdvisor command. 82 • 3 Worksheet Mode > For detailed information on how to use a function in Maple, refer to its help page. For example: > Note: In 1-D and 2-D Math input, when accessing a help page using ?, you do not need to include a trailing semicolon or colon. Top Commands Here are a few of the most frequently used Maple commands. A complete list of top-level commands is available at Help → Manuals, Resources, and more → List of Commands. Table 3.1: Top Commands Command Name plot and plot3d solve fsolve eval evalf dsolve int diff limit sum assume/is assuming simplify factor Description Create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional plot of functions. Solve one or more equations or inequalities for their unknowns. Solve one or more equations using floating-poin arithmetic. Evaluate an expression at a given point. Numerically evaluate expressions. Solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Compute an indefinit or definit integral. Compute an ordinary or partial derivative, as the context dictates. Calculate the limiting value of a function. For symbolic summation. It is used to compute a closed form for an indefinit or definit sum. Set variable properties and relationships between variables. Similar functionality is provided by the assuming command. Compute the value of an expression under assumptions. Apply simplificatio rules to an expression. Factor a polynomial. 3.3 Commands • 83 Command Name expand normal convert type series map Description Distribute products over sums. Normalize a rational expression. Convert an expression to a different type or form. Type-checking command. In many contexts, it is not necessary to know the exact value of an expression; it suffice to know that an expression belongs to a broad class, or group, of expressions that share some common properties. These classes or groups are known as types. Generalized series expansion. Apply a procedure to each operand of an expression. Package Commands To use a package command, the calling sequence must include the package name, and the command name enclosed in square brackets ([ ]). package[command](arguments) If you are frequently using the commands in a package, load the package. To load a package: • Use the with command, specifying the package as an argument. The with command displays a list of the package commands loaded (unless you suppress the output by entering a colon at the end of the calling sequence). After loading a package, you can use the short form names of its commands. That is, you can enter the commands without specifying the package name. 84 • 3 Worksheet Mode For example, use the NLPSolve command from the Optimization package to fin a local minimum of an expression and the value of the independent variable at which the minimum occurs. > > > For more information on optimization, see Optimization (page 184). To unload a package: • Use the unwith command, specifying the package as an argument. > Alternatively, use the restart command. The restart command clears Maple's internal memory. The effects include unassigning all names and unloading all packages. For more information, refer to the restart help page. Note: To execute the examples in this manual, you may be required to use the unassign or restart command between examples. Some packages contain commands that have the same name as a top-level command. For example, the plots package contains a changecoords command. Maple also contains a toplevel changecoords command. > After the plots package is loaded, the name changecoords refers to the plots[changecoords] command. To use the top-level changecoords command, unload the package or use the restart command. (For alternative methods of accessing the top-level command, see the rebound help page.) 3.3 Commands • 85 Top Packages Here are a few of the most frequently used Maple packages. A complete list of packages is available in the Maple help system at Help → Manuals, Resources, and more → List of Packages. Table 3.2: Top Packages Package Name CodeGeneration Description The Code Generation package is a collection of commands and subpackages that enable the translation of Maple code to other programming languages, such as C, C#, Fortran, MATLAB®, Visual Basic®, and JavaTM. The Linear Algebra package contains commands to construct and manipLinearAlgebra ulate Matrices and Vectors, and solve linear algebra problems. LinearAlgebra routines operate on three principal data structures: Matrices, Vectors, and scalars. Optimization The Optimization package is a collection of commands for numerically solving optimization problems, which involve findin the minimum or maximum of an objective function possibly subject to constraints. Physics The Physics package implements computational representations and related operations for most of the objects used in mathematical physics computations. RealDomain The Real Domain package provides an environment in which Maple assumes that the basic underlying number system is the fiel of real numbers instead of the complex number field The Scientifi Constants package provides access to the values of various ScientificConstant physical constants, for example, the velocity of light and the atomic weight of sodium. This package provides the units for each of the constant values, allowing for greater understanding of an equation. The package also provides units-matching for error checking of the solution. ScientificEr orAnalysis The Scientifi Error Analysis package provides representation and construction of numerical quantities that have a central value and an associated uncertainty (or error), which is a measure of the degree of precision to which the quantity's value is known. Various first-orde calculations of error analysis can be performed with these quantities. Statistics The Statistics package is a collection of tools for mathematical statistics and data analysis. The package supports a wide range of common statistical tasks such as quantitative and graphical data analysis, simulation, and curve fitting 86 • 3 Worksheet Mode Package Name Student Description The Student package is a collection of subpackages designed to assist with teaching and learning standard undergraduate mathematics. The many commands display functions, computations, and theorems in various ways, including stepping through important computations. The Student package contains the following subpackages: • Calculus1 - single-variable calculus • LinearAlgebra - linear algebra • MultivariateCalculus - multivariate calculus • NumericalAnalysis - numerical analysis • Precalculus - precalculus • VectorCalculus - multivariate vector calculus Units VectorCalculus The Units package contains commands for unit conversion and provides environments for performing calculations with units. It accepts approximately 300 distinct unit names (for example, meters and grams) and over 550 units with various contexts (for example, standard miles and U.S. survey miles). Maple also contains two Units palettes that allow you to enter the unit for an expression quickly. The Vector Calculus package is a collection of commands that perform multivariate and vector calculus operations. A large set of predefine orthogonal coordinate systems is available. All computations in the package can be performed in any of these coordinate systems. It contains a facility for adding a custom but orthogonal coordinate system and using that new coordinate system for your computations. 3.4 Palettes Palettes are collections of related items that you can insert by clicking or dragging. For example, see Figure 3.1. 3.4 Palettes • 87 Figure 3.1: Expression Palette You can use palettes to enter input. For example, evaluate a definit integral using the definit integration item Expression palette. in the In 2-D Math, clicking the definit integration item inserts: > 1. Enter values in the placeholders. To move to the next placeholder, press Tab. Note: If pressing the Tab key inserts a tab, click the Tab icon in the toolbar. 2. evaluate the integral, press Enter. > In 1-D Math, clicking the definit integration item inserts the corresponding command calling sequence. 88 • 3 Worksheet Mode > int(f,x=a..b); Specify the problem values (using the Tab to move to the next placeholder), and then press Enter. > int(tanh(x), x = 0..1); Note: Some palette items cannot be inserted into 1-D Math because they are not define in the Maple language. When the cursor is in 1-D Math input, unavailable palette items are dimmed. For more information on viewing and using palettes, see Palettes (page 21) in Chapter 1. 3.5 Context Menus A context menu is a pop-up menu that lists the operations and actions you can perform on a particular expression. See Figure 3.2. Figure 3.2: Integer Context Menu In Worksheet mode, you can use context menus to perform operations on 2-D Math and output. 3.5 Context Menus • 89 To use a context menu: 1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression. The context menu is displayed. 2. From the context menu, select an operation. Maple inserts a new execution group containing: • The calling sequence that performs the operation • The result of the operation Example - Using Context Menus Determine the rational expression (fraction) that approximates the floating-poin number . Action 1. Enter and execute the expression. Result in Document > (3.3) 2. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the output floating-poin number. 3. From the context menu, select Conversions > → Rational. The inserted calling sequence includes an equation label reference to the number you are converting. Notice that an equation label reference has been used. For information on equation labels and equation label references, see Equation Labels (page 95). For more information on context menus, see Context Menus (page 68) in Chapter 2. 90 • 3 Worksheet Mode 3.6 Assistants and Tutors Assistants and tutors provide point-and-click interfaces with buttons, text input regions, and sliders. See Figure 3.3. Figure 3.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant Launching an Assistant or Tutor To launch an assistant or tutor: 1. Open the Tools menu. 2. Select Assistants or Tutors. 3. Navigate to and select one of the assistants or tutors. For more information on assistants and tutors, see Assistants (page 32) in Chapter 1. 3.7 Task Templates Maple can solve a diverse set of problems. The task template facility helps you quickly fin and use the commands required to perform common tasks. After inserting a task template, specify the parameters of your problem in the placeholders, and then execute the commands, or click a button. The Task Browser (Figure 3.4) organizes task templates by subject. To launch the Task Browser: • From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse. 3.7 Task Templates • 91 You can also browse the task templates in the Table of Contents of the Maple Help System. Figure 3.4: Task Browser For details on inserting and using task templates, see Task Templates (page 40). You can also create your own task templates for performing common tasks. For details, refer to the creatingtasks help page. 92 • 3 Worksheet Mode 3.8 Text Regions To add descriptive text in Worksheet mode, use a text region. To insert a text region: • In the toolbar, click the Text region icon . The default mode in a text region is Text mode. In a text region, you can: • Enter text with inline mathematical content by switching between Text and Math modes. To toggle between Text mode and Math mode, press F5 or click the Math and Text . toolbar icons, Note: The mathematical content in a text region is not evaluated. To enter mathematical content that is evaluated, enter it at an Input Prompt (page 78). • Insert any palette item. Palette items are inserted in Math mode (2-D Math). Note: After you insert a palette item, you must press F5 or click the toolbar icon to return to Text mode. You can format text in a text region. Features include: • Character styles • Paragraph styles • Sections and subsections • Tables For more information on formatting documents, see Creating Mathematical Documents (page 281). 3.9 Names Instead of re-entering an expression every time you need it, you can assign it to a name or add an equation label to it. Then you can quickly refer to the expression using the name or an equation label reference. For information on labels, see the following section, Equation Labels (page 95). Note: Through the Variable Manager you can manage the top-level assigned variables currently active in your Maple Session. For more information about the Variable Manager, see the Variable Manager help page. 3.9 Names • 93 Assigning to Names You can assign any Maple expression to a name: numeric values, data structures, procedures (a type of Maple program), and other Maple objects. Initially, the value of a name is itself. > The assignment operator (:=) associates an expression with a name. > Recall that you can enter using the following two methods. • Use the Common Symbols palette • In 2-D Math enter pi, and then press the symbol completion shortcut key. See Shortcuts for Entering Mathematical Expressions (page 6). When Maple evaluates an expression that contains a name, it replaces the name with its value. For example: > For information on Maple evaluation rules, see Evaluating Expressions (page 353). Mathematical Functions To defin a function, assign it to a name. For example, defin a function that computes the cube of its argument. > For information on creating functions, see Example 2 - Defin a Mathematical Function (page 64). 94 • 3 Worksheet Mode > Note: To insert the right arrow, enter the characters ->. In 2-D Math, Maple replaces -> with the right arrow symbol In 1-D Math, the characters are not replaced. For example, defin a function that squares its argument. > square := x -> x^2: > square(32); For more information on functions, see Functional Operators (page 339). Protected Names Protected names are valid names that are predefine or reserved. If you attempt to assign to a protected name, Maple returns an error. > Error, attempting to assign to `sin` which is protected For more information, refer to the type/protected and protect help pages. Unassigning Names The unassign command resets the value of a name to itself. Note: You must enclose the name in right single quotes (' '). > > Right single quotes (unevaluation quotes) prevent Maple from evaluating the name. For more information on unevaluation quotes, see Delaying Evaluation (page 361) or refer to the uneval help page. See also Unassigning a Name Using Unevaluation Quotes (page 362). 3.10 Equation Labels • 95 Unassigning all names: The restart command clears Maple's internal memory. The effects include unassigning all names. For more information, refer to the restart help page. Note: To execute the examples in this manual, you may be required to use the unassign or restart command between examples. Valid Names A Maple name must be one of the following. • A sequence of alphanumeric and underscore (_) characters that begins with an alphabetical character. Note: To enter an underscore character in 2-D Math, enter a backslash character followed by an underscore character, that is, \_. • A sequence of characters enclosed in left single quotes (` `). Important: Do not begin a name with an underscore character. Maple reserves names that begin with an underscore for use by the Maple library. Examples of valid names: • a • a1 • polynomial • polynomial1_divided_by_polynomial2 • `2a` • `x y` 3.10 Equation Labels Maple marks the output of each execution group with a unique equation label. Note: The equation label is displayed to the right of the output. > (3.4) Using equation labels, you can refer to the result in other computations. 96 • 3 Worksheet Mode > (3.5) Displaying Equation Labels Important: By default, equation labels are displayed. If equation label display is turned off, complete both of the following operations. • From the Format menu, select Equation Labels, and then ensure that Worksheet is selected. • In the Options dialog (Tools→Options), on the Display tab, ensure that Show equation labels is selected. Referring to a Previous Result Instead of re-entering previous results in computations, you can use equation label references. Each time you need to refer to a previous result, insert an equation label reference. To insert an equation label reference: 1. From the Insert menu, select Label. (Alternatively, press Ctrl+L; Command+L, Macintosh.) 2. In the Insert Label dialog (see Figure 3.5), enter the label value, and then click OK. Figure 3.5: Insert Label Dialog Maple inserts the reference. 3.10 Equation Labels • 97 For example: To integrate the product of (3.4) and (3.5): Action Result in Document 1. In the Expression palette, click the indefinit in. The item is inserted and the tegration item integrand placeholder is highlighted. 2. Press Ctrl+L (Command+L, for Macintosh). 3. In the Insert Label dialog, enter 3.4. Click OK. 4. Press *. 5. Press Ctrl+L (Command+L, for Macintosh). 6. In the Insert Label dialog, enter 3.4. Click OK. 7. To move to the variable of integration placeholder, > press Tab. 8. Enter x. 9. To evaluate the integral, press Enter. Execution Groups with Multiple Outputs An equation label is associated with the last output within an execution group. (3.6) 98 • 3 Worksheet Mode > (3.7) > (3.8) Label Numbering Schemes You can number equation labels in two ways: • Flat - Each label is a single number, for example, 1, 2, or 3. • Sections - Each label is numbered according to the section in which it occurs. For example, 2.1 is the firs equation in the second section, and 1.3.2 is the second equation in the third subsection of the firs section. To change the equation label numbering scheme: • From the Format menu, select Equation Labels → Label Display. In the Format Labels dialog (Figure 3.6), select one of the formats. • Optionally, enter a prefix Figure 3.6: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi 3.10 Equation Labels • 99 Features of Equation Labels Although equation labels are not descriptive names, labels offer other important features. • Each label is unique, whereas a name may be inadvertently assigned more than once for different purposes. • Maple labels the output values sequentially. If you remove or insert an output, Maple automatically re-numbers all equation labels and updates the label references. • If you change the equation label format (see Label Numbering Schemes (page 98)), Maple automatically updates all equation labels and label references. For information on assigning to, using, and unassigning names, see Names (page 92). For more information on equation labels, refer to the equationlabel help page. The following chapters describe how to use Maple to perform tasks such as solving equations, producing plots and animations, and creating mathematical documents. The chapters were created using Worksheet mode. Except where noted, all features are available in both Worksheet mode and Document mode. 100 • 3 Worksheet Mode 4 Basic Computations This chapter discusses key concepts related to performing basic computations with Maple. It discusses important features that are relevant to all Maple users. After learning about these concepts, you will learn how to use Maple to solve problems in specifi mathematical disciplines in the following chapter. 4.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Symbolic and Numeric Computation (page 102)- • Exact Computations An overview of exact and floating-poin computa- • Floating-Point Computations tion • Converting Exact Quantities to Floating-Point Values • Sources of Error Integer Operations (page 106) - How to perform • Important Integer Commands integer computations • Non-Base 10 Numbers • Finite Rings and Fields • Gaussian Integers Solving Equations (page 111) - How to solve standard mathematical equations • Equations and Inequations • Ordinary Differential Equations • Partial Differential Equations • Integer Equations • Integer Equations in a Finite Field • Linear Systems • Recurrence Relations 101 102 • 4 Basic Computations Section Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty (page 127) - How to construct and compute with expressions that have units, scientific constants, or uncertainty Topics Units • Conversions • Applying Units to an Expression • Performing Computations with Units • Changing the Current System of Units • Extensibility Scientifi Constants • Scientifi Constants • Element and Isotope Properties • Value, Units, and Uncertainty • Performing Computations • Modificatio and Extensibility Uncertainty Propagation • Quantities with Uncertainty • Performing Computations with Quantities with Uncertainty Restricting the Domain (page 141) - How to restrict • Real Number Domain the domain for computations • Assumptions on Variables 4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation Symbolic computation is the mathematical manipulation of expressions involving symbolic or abstract quantities, such as variables, functions, and operators; and exact numbers, such The goal of such manipulations may be to transform an as integers, rationals, π, and expression to a simpler form or to relate the expression to other, better understood formulas. Numeric computation is the manipulation of expressions in the context of finite-precisio arithmetic. Expressions involving exact numbers, for example, are replaced by close approximations using floating-poin numbers, for example 1.41421. These computations generally involve some error. Understanding and controlling this error is often of as much importance as the computed result. 4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation • 103 In Maple, numeric computation is normally performed if you use floating-poin numbers (numbers containing a decimal point) or the evalf command. The plot command (see Plots and Animations (page 237)) uses numeric computation, while commands such as int, limit, and gcd (see Integer Operations (page 106) and Mathematical Problem Solving (page 147)) generally use only symbolic computation to achieve their results. Exact Computations In Maple, integers, rational numbers, mathematical constants such as π and ∞, and mathematical structures such as matrices with these as entries are treated as exact quantities. Names, such as and mathematical functions, such as and are symbolic objects. Names can be assigned exact quantities as their values, and functions can be evaluated at symbolic or exact arguments. > Important: Unless requested to do otherwise (see the following section), Maple evaluates expressions containing exact quantities to exact results, as you would do if you were performing the calculation by hand, and not to numeric approximations, as you normally obtain from a standard hand-held calculator. > > > Floating-Point Computations In some situations, a numeric approximation of an exact quantity is required. For example, the plot command requires the expression it is plotting to evaluate to numeric values that can be rendered on the screen: π cannot be so rendered, but can be. Maple distin- 104 • 4 Basic Computations guishes approximate from exact quantities by the presence or absence of a decimal point: is approximate, while is exact. Note: An alternative representation of floating-poin numbers, called e-notation, may not , 3e-2 . include an explicit decimal point: 1e5 In the presence of a floating-poin (approximate) quantity in an expression, Maple generally computes using numeric approximations. Arithmetic involving mixed exact and floating point quantities results in a floating-poin result. > If a mathematical function is passed a floating-poin argument, it normally attempts to produce a floating-poin approximation of the result. > Converting Exact Quantities to Floating-Point Values To convert an exact quantity to a numeric approximation of that quantity, use the evalf command or the Approximate context menu operation (see Approximating the Value of an Expression (page 69)). > By default, Maple computes such approximations using 10 digit arithmetic. You can modify this in one of two ways: • Locally, you can pass the precision as an index to the evalf call. > • Globally, you can set the value of the Digits environment variable. 4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation • 105 > > For more information, see the evalf and Digits help pages. Note: When appropriate, Maple performs floating-poin computations directly using your computer's underlying hardware. Sources of Error By its nature, floating-poin computation normally involves some error. Controlling the effect of this error is the subject of active research in Numerical Analysis. Some sources of error are: • An exact quantity may not be exactly representable in decimal form: and are ex- amples. • Small errors can accumulate after many arithmetic operations. • Subtraction of nearly equal quantities can result in essentially no useful information. For for example, consider the computation > No correct digits remain. If, however, you use Maple to analyze this expression, and replace this form with a representation that is more accurate for small values of a fully accurate 10-digit result can be obtained. > > 106 • 4 Basic Computations For information on evaluating an expression at a point, see Substituting a Value for a Subexpression (page 353). For information on creating a series approximation, see Series (page 178). For more information on floating-poin numbers, refer to the floa and type/floa help pages. 4.3 Integer Operations In addition to the basic arithmetic operators, Maple has many specialized commands for performing more complicated integer computations, such as factoring an integer, testing whether an integer is a prime number, and determining the greatest common divisor (GCD) of a pair of integers. Note: Many integer operations are available as task templates (Tools→Tasks→Browse, under Integer Operations). You can quickly perform many integer operations using context menus. Selecting an integer, and then right-clicking (for Macintosh, Control-clicking) displays a context menu with integer commands. For example, the context menu item Integer Factors applies the ifactor command to compute the prime factorization of the given integer. See Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1: Context Menu for an Integer 4.3 Integer Operations • 107 The result of applying Integer Factors is shown: > (4.1) > (4.2) Maple inserts the command ifactor, using an equation label reference to the integer 946929. For more information on equation labels, see Equation Labels (page 95). For more information on using context menus in Worksheet mode, see Context Menus (page 88). For information on using context menus in Document mode, see Context Menus (page 68). Maple has many other integer commands, including those listed in Table 4.1. Table 4.1: Select Integer Commands Command abs Description factorial factorial (displays in 2-D math as ) prime factorization greatest common divisor quotient of integer division remainder of integer division integer approximation of nth root test primality integer approximation of square root maximum and minimum of a set modular arithmetic (See Finite Rings and Fields (page 109).) set of positive divisors ifactor igcd iquo irem iroot isprime isqrt max, min mod numtheory[divisors] absolute value (displays in 2-D math as ) 108 • 4 Basic Computations > > > > For information on findin integer solutions to equations, see Integer Equations (page 125). Non-Base 10 Numbers and Other Number Systems Maple supports: • Non-base 10 numbers • Finite ring and fiel arithmetic • Gaussian integers Non-Base 10 Numbers To represent an expression in another base, use the convert command. > > For information on enclosing keywords in right single quotes ('), see Delaying Evaluation (page 361). You can also use the convert/base command. > 4.3 Integer Operations • 109 Note: The convert/base command returns a list of digit values in order of increasing significanc . Finite Rings and Fields Maple supports computations over the integers modulo m. The mod operator evaluates an expression over the integers modulo m. > By default, the mod operator uses positive representation (modp command). Symmetric representation is available using the mods command. > > For information on setting symmetric representation as the default, refer to the mod help page. The modular arithmetic operators are listed in Table 4.2. Table 4.2: Modular Arithmetic Operators Operation Addition Operator + Subtraction - > * > Multiplication (displays in 2-D Math as ) Multiplicative inverse (displays in 2-D Math as a superscript) ^(-1) Example > > 110 • 4 Basic Computations Operation Division (displays in 2-D Math as ) Operator / &^ Exponentiation1 Example > > 1 To enter a caret (^) in 2-D Math, enter a backslash character followed by a caret, that is, \^. For information on solving an equation modulo an integer, see Integer Equations in a Finite Field (page 125). The mod operator also supports polynomial and matrix arithmetic over finit rings and fields For more information, refer to the mod help page. Gaussian Integers Gaussian integers are complex numbers in which the real and imaginary parts are integers. The GaussInt package contains commands that perform Gaussian integer operations. The GIfactor command returns the Gaussian integer factorization. > In Maple, complex numbers are represented as a+b*I, where the uppercase I represents the imaginary unit . You can also enter the imaginary unit using the following two methods. • In the Common Symbols palette, click the , or item. See Palettes (page 21). • Enter i or j, and then press the symbol completion key. See Symbol Names (page 28). Note that the output will still be displayed with I, no matter what symbol was used for input. You can customize Maple's settings to use a different symbol for . For more information on entering complex numbers, including how to customize this setting, refer to the HowDoI help page. The GIsqrt command approximates the square root in the Gaussian integers. 4.4 Solving Equations • 111 > For more information on Gaussian integers including a list of GaussInt package commands, refer to the GaussInt help page. 4.4 Solving Equations You can solve a variety of equation types, including those described in Table 4.3. Table 4.3: Overview of Solution Methods for Important Equation Types Equation Type Equations and inequations Ordinary differential equations Partial differential equations Integer equations Integer equations in a finit fiel Linear integral equations Linear systems Recurrence relations Solution Method solve and fsolve commands ODE Analyzer Assistant (and dsolve command) pdsolve command isolve command msolve command intsolve command LinearAlgebra[LinearSolve] command rsolve command Note: Many solve operations are available in context menus and as task templates (Tools→Tasks→Browse). Most of this section focuses on other methods. Solving Equations and Inequations Using Maple, you can symbolically solve equations and inequations. You can also solve equations numerically. To solve an equation or set of equations using context menus: 1. Right-click (for Macintosh, Control-click) the equations. 2. From the context menu, select Solve (or Solve Numerically). See Figure 4.2. 112 • 4 Basic Computations Figure 4.2: Context Menu for an Equation In Worksheet mode, Maple inserts a calling sequence that solves the equation followed by the solutions. If you select Solve, Maple computes exact solutions. 4.4 Solving Equations • 113 > (4.3) > (4.4) If you select Solve Numerically, Maple computes floating-poin solutions. > (4.5) > (4.6) For information on solving equations and inequations symbolically using the solve command, see the following section. For information on solving equations numerically using the fsolve command, see Numerically Solving Equations (page 116). Symbolically Solving Equations and Inequations The solve command is a general solver that determines exact symbolic solutions to equations or inequations. The solutions to a single equation or inequation are returned as an expression sequence. For details, see Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333). If Maple does not fin any solutions, the solve command returns the empty expression sequence. > In general, solve computes solutions in the fiel of complex numbers. To restrict the problem to only real solutions, see Restricting the Domain (page 141). It is recommended that you verify the solutions returned by the solve command. For details, see Working with Solutions (page 118). To return the solutions as a list, enclose the calling sequence in brackets ([ ]). 114 • 4 Basic Computations > Expressions: You can specify expressions instead of equations. The solve command automatically equates them to zero. > Multiple Equations: To solve multiple equations or inequations, specify them as a Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333). > > Solving for Specifi Unknowns: By default, the solve command returns solutions for all unknowns. You can specify the unknowns for which to solve. > To solve for multiple unknowns, specify them as a list. 4.4 Solving Equations • 115 > Transcendental Equations: In general, the solve command returns one solution to transcendental equations. > > To produce all solutions, use the allsolutions option. > Maple uses variables of the form _ZN~, where N is a positive integer, to represent arbitrary integers. The tilde (~) indicates that it is a quantity with an assumption. For information about names with assumptions, see Assumptions on Variables (page 142). RootOf Structure: The solve command may return solutions, for example, to higher order polynomial equations, in an implicit form using RootOf structures. > (4.7) These RootOf structures are placeholders for the roots of the equation The index parameter numbers and orders the four solutions. Like any symbolic expression, you can convert RootOf structures to a floating-poin value using the evalf command. 116 • 4 Basic Computations > Some equations are difficul to solve symbolically. For example, polynomial equations of order fiv and greater do not in general have a solution in terms of radicals. If the solve command does not fin any solutions, it is recommended that you use the Maple numerical solver, fsolve. For information, see the following section, Numerically Solving Equations. For more information on the solve command, including how to solve equations define as procedures and how to fin parametric solutions, refer to the solve/details help page. For information on verifying and using solutions returned by the solve command, see Working with Solutions (page 118). Numerically Solving Equations The fsolve command solves equations numerically. The behavior of the fsolve command is similar to that of the solve command. > > (4.8) Note: You can also numerically solve equations using the context menus. See Solving Equations and Inequations (page 111). It is recommended that you verify the solutions returned by the fsolve command. For details, see Working with Solutions (page 118). Multiple Equations: To solve multiple equations, specify them as a set. For more information, see Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333). The fsolve command solves for all unknowns. > Univariate Polynomial Equations: In general, the fsolve command find one real solution. However, for a univariate polynomial equation, the fsolve command returns all real roots. > 4.4 Solving Equations • 117 > Controlling the Number of Solutions: To limit the number of roots returned, specify the maxsols option. > To fin additional solutions to a general equation, use the avoid option to ignore known solutions. > Complex Solutions: To search for a complex solution or fin all complex and real roots for a univariate polynomial, specify the complex option for the fsolve command. > If the fsolve command does not fin any solutions, it is recommended that you specify a range in which to search for solutions, or specify an initial value. Range: To search for a solution in a range, specify the range in the calling sequence. The range can be real or complex. > The syntax for specifying a region in the complex plane is lower-left point..upper-right point. > Initial Values: You can specify a value for each unknown. The fsolve command uses these as initial values for the unknowns in the numerical method. 118 • 4 Basic Computations > (4.9) For more information and examples, refer to the fsolve/details help page. For information on verifying and using solutions returned by the fsolve command, see the following section, Working with Solutions. Working with Solutions Verifying: It is recommended that you always verify solutions (that the solve and fsolve commands return) using the eval command. > > (4.10) > (4.11) > > (4.12) > (4.13) For more information, see Substituting a Value for a Subexpression (page 353). Assigning the Value of a Solution to a Variable: To assign the value of a solution to the corresponding variable as an expression, use theassign command. For example, consider the numeric solution in (4.9), starting value > . , found using the 4.4 Solving Equations • 119 > Creating a Function from a Solution: The assign command assigns a value as an expression to a name. It does not defin a function. To convert a solution to a function, use the unapply command. Consider one of the solutions for q to the equation . > > Here, solutions[1] selects the firs element of the list of solutions. For more information on selecting elements, see Accessing Elements (page 334). You can evaluate this function at symbolic or numeric values. > > > For more information on definin and using functions, see Functional Operators (page 339). 120 • 4 Basic Computations Other Specialized Solvers In addition to equations and inequations, Maple can solve other equations including: • Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) • Partial differential equations (PDEs) • Integer equations • Integer equations in a finit fiel • Linear systems • Recurrence relations Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) Maple can solve ODEs and ODE systems, including initial value and boundary value problems, symbolically and numerically. ODE Analyzer Assistant The ODE Analyzer Assistant is a point-and-click interface to the Maple ODE solving routines. To open the ODE Analyzer: • From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then ODE Analyzer. Maple inserts the dsolve[interactive]() calling sequence in the document. The ODE Analyzer Assistant (Figure 4.3) is displayed. Figure 4.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant 4.4 Solving Equations • 121 In the main ODE Analyzer Assistant window, you can defin ODEs, initial or boundary value conditions, and parameters. To defin derivatives, use the diff command. For example, diff(x(t), t) corresponds to and diff(x(t), t, t) corresponds to For more information on the diff command, see The diff Command (page 175). After definin an ODE, you can solve it numerically or symbolically. To solve a system numerically using the ODE Analyzer Assistant: 1. Ensure that the conditions guarantee uniqueness of the solution. 2. Ensure that all parameters have fixe values. 3. Click the Solve Numerically button. 4. In the Solve Numerically window (Figure 4.4), you can specify the numeric method and relevant parameters and error tolerances to use for solving the problem. 5. To compute solution values at a point, click the Solve button. 122 • 4 Basic Computations Figure 4.4: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Numerically Dialog To solve a system symbolically using the ODE Analyzer Assistant: 1. Click the Solve Symbolically button. 2. In the Solve Symbolically window (Figure 4.5), you can specify the method and relevant method-specifi options to use for solving the problem. 3. To compute the solution, click the Solve button. 4.4 Solving Equations • 123 Figure 4.5: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Symbolically Dialog When solving numerically or symbolically, you can view a plot of the solution by clicking the Plot button. • To plot the solution to a symbolic problem, all conditions and parameters must be set. • To customize the plot, click the Plot Options button to open the Plot Options window. To view the corresponding Maple commands as you solve the problem or plot the solution, select the Show Maple commands check box. You can control the return value of the ODE Analyzer using the On Quit, Return dropdown list. You can select to return nothing, the displayed plot, the computed numeric procedure (for numeric solutions), the solution (for symbolic solutions), or the Maple commands needed to produce the solution values and the displayed plot. 124 • 4 Basic Computations For more information, refer to the ODEAnalyzer help page. The dsolve Command The ODE Analyzer provides a point-and-click interface to the Maple dsolve command. For ODEs or systems of ODEs, the dsolve command can find • Closed form solutions • Numerical solutions • Series solutions In addition, the dsolve command can find • Formal power series solutions to linear ODEs with polynomial coefficient • Formal solutions to linear ODEs with polynomial coefficient To access all available functionality, use the dsolve command directly. For more information, refer to the dsolve help page. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) To solve a PDE or PDE system symbolically or numerically, use the pdsolve command. PDE systems can contain ODEs, algebraic equations, and inequations. For example, solve the following PDE symbolically. For help entering a partial derivative, see Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative (page 63). > (4.14) > The solution is an arbitrary univariate function applied to . Maple generally prints only the return value, errors, and warnings during a computation. To print information about the techniques Maple uses, increase the infolevel setting for the command. To return all information, set infolevel to 5. 4.4 Solving Equations • 125 > > Checking arguments ... First set of solution methods (general or quase general solution) Second set of solution methods (complete solutions) Trying methods for first order PDEs Second set of solution methods successful For more information on solving PDEs, including numeric solutions and solving PDE systems, refer to the pdsolve help page. Integer Equations To fin only integer solutions to an equation, use the isolve For more information, refer to the isolve help page. > Integer Equations in a Finite Field To solve an equation modulo an integer, use the msolve For more information, refer to the msolve help page. > Solving Linear Systems To solve a linear system, use the LinearAlgebra[LinearSolve] For more information, refer to the LinearAlgebra[LinearSolve] help page. 126 • 4 Basic Computations For example, construct an augmented matrix using the Matrix palette (see Creating Matrices and Vectors (page 156)) in which the firs four columns contain the entries of A and the fina column contains the entries of B. > > For more information on using Maple to solve linear algebra problems, see Linear Algebra (page 155). Solving Recurrence Relations To solve a recurrence relation, use the rsolve For more information, refer to the rsolve help page. > 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 127 4.5 Units, Scientific Constants, and Uncertainty In addition to manipulating exact symbolic and numeric quantities, Maple can perform computations with units and uncertainties. Maple supports hundreds of units, for example, miles, coulombs, and bars, and provides facilities for adding custom units. Maple has a library of hundreds of scientifi constants with units, including element and isotope properties. To support computations with uncertainties, Maple propagates errors through computations. Units The Units package in Maple provides a library of units, and facilities for using units in computations. It is fully extensible so that you can add units and unit systems as required. Note: Some unit operations are available as task templates (see Tools→Tasks→Browse) and through context menus. Overview of Units A dimension is a measurable quantity, for example, length or force. The set of dimensions that are fundamental and independent are known as base dimensions. In Maple, the base dimensions include length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, luminous intensity, information, and currency. For a complete list, enter and execute Units[GetDimensions](). Complex dimensions (or composite dimensions) measure other quantities in terms of a combination of base dimensions. For example, the complex dimension force is a measurement of Each dimension, base or complex, has associated units. (Base units measure a base dimension. Complex units measure a complex dimension.) Maple supports over 40 units of length, including feet, miles, meters, angstroms, microns, and astronomical units. A length must be measured in terms of a unit, for example, a length of 2 parsecs. Table 4.4 lists some dimensions, their corresponding base dimensions, and example units. 128 • 4 Basic Computations Table 4.4: Sample Dimensions Dimension Time Base Dimensions time Energy Electric potential Example Units second, minute, hour, day, week, month, year, millennium, blink, lune joule, electron volt, erg, watt hour, calorie, Calorie, British thermal unit volt, abvolt, statvolt For the complete list of units (and their contexts and symbols) available for a dimension, refer to the corresponding help page, for example, the Units/length help page for the units of length. Each unit has a context. The context differentiates between different definition of the unit. For example, the standard and US survey miles are different units of length, and the second is a unit of time and of angle. You can specify the context for a unit by appending the context as an index to the unit, for example, mile[US_survey]. If you do not specify a context, Maple uses the default context. Units are collected into systems, for example, the foot-pound-second (FPS) system and international system, or système international, (SI). Each system has a default set of units used for measurements. In the FPS system, the foot, pound, and second are used to measure the dimensions of length, mass, and time. The unit of speed is the foot/second. In SI, the meter, kilogram, and second are used to measure the dimensions of length, mass, and time. The units of speed, magnetic flux and power are the meter/second, weber, and watt, respectively. Unit Conversions To convert a value measured in a unit to the corresponding value in a different unit, use the Units Calculator. • From the Tools→Assistants menu, select Units Calculator. The Units Calculator application (Figure 4.6) opens. 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 129 Figure 4.6: Units Calculator Assistant To perform a conversion: 1. In the Convert text field enter the numeric value to convert. 2. In the Dimension drop-down list, select the dimensions of the unit. 3. In the From and To drop-down lists, select the original unit and the unit to which to convert. 4. Click Perform Unit Conversion. The same conversion can be done with the convert/units command. > Using the Units Calculator, you can convert temperatures and temperature changes. • To perform a temperature conversion, in the Dimension drop-down list, select temperature(absolute). • To perform a temperature change conversion, in the Dimension drop-down list, select temperature(relative). To convert temperature changes, the Units Calculator uses the convert/units command. For example, an increase of 32 degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to an increase of almost 18 degrees Celsius. 130 • 4 Basic Computations > To convert absolute temperatures, the Unit Converter uses the convert/temperature command. For example, 32 degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to 0 degrees Celsius. > Applying Units to an Expression To insert a unit, use the Units palettes. The Units (FPS) palette (Figure 4.7) contains important units from the foot-pound-second system of units. The Units (SI) palette (Figure 4.8) contains important units from the international system of units. Figure 4.7: Units (FPS) Palette Figure 4.8: Units (SI) Palette To insert a unit: • In a Units palette, click a unit symbol. 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 131 > To insert a unit that is unavailable in the palettes: 1. In a Units palette, click the unit symbol placeholder selected. . Maple inserts a Unit object with the 2. In the placeholder, enter the unit name (or symbol). standard (the default context) miles, you can specify the unit For example, to enter name, mile, or symbol, mi. > The context of a unit is displayed only if it is not the default context. Important: In 1-D Math input, the quantity and unit (entered using the top-level Unit command) are a product, not a single entity. The following calling sequences defin different expressions. > 1*Unit(m)/(2*Unit(s)); > 1*Unit(m)/2*Unit(s); Some units support prefixe For more information, refer to the Units/prefixe help page. > Performing Computations with Units In the default Maple environment, you cannot perform computations with quantities that have units. You can perform only unit conversions. For more information about the default environment, refer to the Units/default help page. To compute with expressions that have units, you must load a Units environment, Natural or Standard. It is recommended that you use the Standard environment. > In the Standard Units environment, commands that support expressions with units return results with the correct units. 132 • 4 Basic Computations > > (4.15) > (4.16) > For information on differentiation and integration, see Calculus (page 172). Changing the Current System of Units If a computation includes multiple units, all units are expressed using units from the current system of units. > (4.17) By default, Maple uses the SI system of units, in which length is measured in meters and time is measured in seconds. > To view the name of the default system of units, use the Units[UsingSystem] command. > 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 133 > To change the system of units, use the Units[UseSystem] command. > > Extensibility You can extend the set of: • Base dimensions and units • Complex dimensions • Complex units • Systems of units For more information, refer to the Units[AddBaseUnit], Units[AddDimension], Units[AddUnit], and Units[AddSystem] help pages. For more information about units, refer to the Units help page. Scientific Constants and Element Properties Computations often require not only units (see Units (page 127)), but also the values of scientifi constants, including properties of elements and their isotopes. Maple supports computations with scientifi constants. You can use the built-in constants and add custom constants. Overview of Scientific Constants and Element Properties The ScientificConstant package provides the values of constant physical quantities, for example, the velocity of light and the atomic weight of sodium. The ScientificConstant package also provides the units for the constant values, allowing for greater understanding of the equation as well as unit-matching for error checking of the solution. The quantities available in the ScientificConstant package are divided into two distinct categories. • Physical constants • Chemical element (and isotope) properties 134 • 4 Basic Computations Scientific Constants List of Scientific Constants You have access to scientifi constants important in engineering, physics, chemistry, and other fields Table 4.5 lists some of the supported constants. For a complete list of scientifi constants, refer to the ScientificConstants/PhysicalConstant help page. Table 4.5: Scientifi Constants Name Newtonian_constant_of_gravitation Planck_constant elementary_charge Bohr_radius deuteron_magnetic_moment Avogadro_constant Faraday_constant Symbol G h e a[0] mu[d] N[A] F You can specify a constant using either its name or symbol. Accessing Constant Definition The GetConstant command in the ScientificConstan s package returns the complete definitio of a constant. To view the definitio of the Newtonian gravitational constant, specify the symbol G (or its name) in a call to the GetConstant command. > > For information on accessing a constant's value, units, or uncertainty, see Value, Units, and Uncertainty (page 136). Element Properties Maple also contains element properties and isotope properties. 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 135 Elements Maple supports all 117 elements of the periodic table. Each element has a unique name, atomic number, and chemical symbol. You can specify an element using any of these labels. For a complete list of supported elements, refer to the ScientificConstants/element help page. Maple supports key element properties, including atomic weight (atomicweight), electron affinit (electronaffinit ), and density. For a complete list of element properties, refer to the ScientificConstants/p operties help page. Isotopes Isotopes, variant forms of an element that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, exist for many elements. To see the list of supported isotopes for an element, use the GetIsotopes command. > Maple supports isotopes and has a distinct set of properties for isotopes, including abundance, binding energy (bindingenergy), and mass excess (massexcess). For a complete list of isotope properties, refer to the ScientificConstants/p operties help page. Accessing an Element or Isotope Property Definition The GetElement command in the ScientificConstan s package returns the complete definitio of an element or isotope. 136 • 4 Basic Computations > > Value, Units, and Uncertainty To use constants or element properties, you must firs construct a ScientificConstant object. To construct a scientifi constant, use the Constant command. > To construct an element (or isotope) property, use the Element command. > Value To obtain the value of a ScientificConstant object, use the evalf command. 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 137 > > Note: The value returned depends on the current system of units. Units To obtain the units for a ScientificConstant object, use the GetUnit command. > > For information on changing the default system of units, for example, from SI to foot-poundsecond, see Changing the Current System of Units (page 132). Value and Units If you are performing computations with units, you can access the value and units for a ScientificConstant object by specifying the units option when constructing the object, and then evaluating the object. > > 138 • 4 Basic Computations Uncertainty The value of a constant is often determined by direct measurement or derived from measured values. Hence, it has an associated uncertainty. To obtain the uncertainty in the value of a ScientificConstant object, use the GetError command. > > Performing Computations You can use constant values in any computation. To use constant values with units, use a Units environment as described in Performing Computations with Units (page 131). For information on computing with quantities that have an uncertainty, see the following section. Modification and Extensibility You can change the definitio of a scientifi constant or element (or isotope) property. For more information, refer to the ScientificConstants[ModifyConstant and Scientific Constants[ModifyElement] help pages. You can extend the set of: • Constants • Elements (and isotopes) • Element (or isotope) properties For more information, refer to the ScientificConstants[AddConstant , ScientificCon stants[AddElement], and ScientificConstants[AddP operty] help pages. For more information about constants, refer to the ScientificConstant help page. Uncertainty Propagation Some computations involve uncertainties (or errors). Using the ScientificEr orAnalysis package, you can propagate the uncertainty in these values through the computation to indicate the possible error in the fina result. The ScientificEr orAnalysis package does not perform interval arithmetic. That is, the error of an object does not represent an interval in which possible values must be contained. 4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 139 (To perform interval arithmetic, use the Tolerances) The quantities represent unknown values with a central tendency. For more information on central tendency, refer to any text on error analysis for the physical sciences or engineering. For more information, refer to the Tolerances help page. Quantities with Uncertainty Creating: To construct quantities with uncertainty, use the Quantity command. You must specify the value and uncertainty. The uncertainty can be define absolutely, relatively, or in units of the last digit. For more information on uncertainty specification refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis[Quantity] help page. The output displays the value and uncertainty of the quantity. > > > (4.18) To specify the error in units of the last digit, the value must be of floating-poin type. > To access the value and uncertainty of a quantity with uncertainty, use the evalf and ScientificEr orAnalysis[GetError] commands. > > Rounding: To round the error of a quantity with uncertainty, use the ApplyRule command. For a description of the predefine rounding rules, refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis/rules help page. 140 • 4 Basic Computations > Units: Quantities with errors can have units. For example, the scientifi constants and element (and isotope) properties in the ScientificConstant packages are quantities with errors and units. To construct a new quantity with units and an uncertainty, include units in the Quantity calling sequence. For an absolute error, you must specify the units in both the value and error. > > For a relative error, you can specify the units in only the value. > For information on the correlation between, variance of, and covariance between quantities with uncertainty, refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis help page. Performing Computations with Quantities with Uncertainty Many Maple commands support quantities with uncertainty. > > Compute the value of the derivative of > > at 4.6 Restricting the Domain • 141 To convert the solution to a single quantity with uncertainty, use the combine/errors command. > The value of the result is: > The uncertainty of the result is: > Additional Information For information on topics including: • Creating new rounding rules, • Setting the default rounding rule, and • Creating a new interface to quantities with uncertainty, refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis help page. 4.6 Restricting the Domain By default, Maple computes in the complex number system. Most computations are performed without any restrictions or assumptions on the variables. Maple often returns results that are extraneous or unsimplifie when computing in the fiel of complex numbers. Using restrictions, you can more easily and efficientl perform computations in a smaller domain. Maple has facilities for performing computations in the real number system and for applying assumptions to variables. Real Number Domain To force Maple to perform computations in the fiel of real numbers, use the RealDomain package. The RealDomain package contains a small subset of Maple commands related to basic precalculus and calculus mathematics, for example, arccos, limit, and log, and the symbolic manipulation of expressions and formulae, for example, expand, eval, and solve. For a complete list of commands, refer to the RealDomain help page. 142 • 4 Basic Computations After you load the RealDomain package, Maple assumes that all variables are real. Commands return simplifie results appropriate to the fiel of real numbers. > > > Some commands that generally return NULL instead return a numeric result when you use the RealDomain package. > Complex return values are excluded or replaced by undefine . > > Assumptions on Variables To simplify problem solving, it is recommended that you always apply any known assumptions to variables. You can impose assumptions using the assume command. To apply assumptions for a single computation, use the assuming command. Note: The assume and assuming commands are not supported by the RealDomain package. The assume Command You can use the assume command to set variable properties, for example, x::real, and relationships between variables, for example, x < 0 or x < y. For information on valid properties, refer to the assume help page. For information on the double colon (::) operator, refer to the type help page. The assume command allows improved simplificatio of symbolic expressions, especially multiple-valued functions, for example, computing the square root. 4.6 Restricting the Domain • 143 To assume that x is a positive real number, use the following calling sequence. Then compute the square root of . > The trailing tilde (~) on the name x indicates that it carries assumptions. When you use the assume command to place another assumption on x, all previous assumptions are removed. > Displaying Assumptions: To view the assumptions on an expression, use the about command. > Originally x, renamed x~: is assumed to be: RealRange(-infinity,Open(0)) Imposing Multiple Assumptions: To simultaneously impose multiple conditions on an expression, specify multiple arguments in the assume calling sequence. > To specify additional assumptions without replacing previous assumptions, use the additionally command. The syntax of the additionally calling sequence is the same as that of the assume command. > Originally x, renamed x~: is assumed to be: 1 The only integer in the open interval (0, 2) is 1. Testing Properties: To test whether an expression always satisfie a condition, use the is command. 144 • 4 Basic Computations > The following test returns false because there are values of x and y (x = 0, y = 10) that satisfy the assumptions, but do not satisfy the relation in the is calling sequence. > To test whether an expression can satisfy a condition, use the coulditbe command. > Removing Assumptions: To remove all assumptions on a variable, unassign its name. > For more information, see Unassigning Names (page 94). For more information on the assume command, refer to the assume help page. The assuming Command To perform a single evaluation under assumptions on the names in an expression, use the assuming command. The syntax of the assuming command is <expression> assuming <property or relation>. Properties and relations are introduced in The assume Command (page 142). The frac command returns the fractional part of an expression. > Using the assuming command is equivalent to imposing assumptions with the assume command, evaluating the expression, and then removing the assumptions. > x: nothing known about this object If you do not specify the names to which to apply a property, it is applied to all names. 4.6 Restricting the Domain • 145 > Assumptions placed on names using the assume command are ignored by the assuming command, unless you include the additionally option. > > > The assuming command does not affect variables inside procedures. (For information on procedures, see Procedures (page 378).) You must use the assume command. > f := proc(x) sqrt(a^2) + x end proc; > > For more information on the assuming command, refer to the assuming help page. 146 • 4 Basic Computations 5 Mathematical Problem Solving This chapter focuses on solving problems in specifi mathematical disciplines. The areas described below are not all that Maple provides, but represent the most commonly used packages. Examples are provided to teach you how to use the different methods of calculation available in Maple, including tutors, assistants, commands, task templates, plotting, and context menus. The examples in this chapter assume knowledge of entering commands and mathematical symbols. For information, see Entering Expressions (page 18). For information on basic computations, including integer operations and solving equations, see Basic Computations (page 101). 5.1 In This Chapter Section Algebra (page 148) - Performing algebra computations Linear Algebra (page 155) - Performing linear algebra computations Topics • Polynomial Algebra • Creating Matrices and Vectors • Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors • Linear Algebra Computations • Student LinearAlgebra Package Calculus (page 172) - Performing calculus compu- • Limits tations • Differentiation • Series • Integration • Differential Equations • Calculus Packages Optimization (page 184) - Performing optimization • Point-and-Click Interface computations using the Optimization package • Efficien Computation • MPS(X) File Support Statistics (page 189) - Performing statistics compu- • Probability Distributions and Random Variables tations using the Statistics package • Statistical Computations • Plotting Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194) - • Table of Student and Instructor Resources Student and Instructor resources for using Maple • Student Packages and Tutors in an academic setting 147 148 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Section Topics Clickable Math (page 209) - Solve math problems • Step-by-Step examples using some of the interactive methods available in Maple 5.2 Algebra Maple contains a variety of commands that perform integer operations, such as factoring and modular arithmetic, as described in Integer Operations (page 106). In addition, it supports polynomial algebra. For information on matrix and vector algebra, see Linear Algebra (page 155). Polynomial Algebra A Maple polynomial is an expression in powers of an unknown. Univariate polynomials are polynomials in one unknown, for example, Multivariate polynomials are polynomials in multiple unknowns, such as The coefficient can be integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, floating-poin numbers, complex numbers, variables, or a combination of these types. > Arithmetic The polynomial arithmetic operators are the standard Maple arithmetic operators excluding the division operator (/). (The division operator accepts polynomial arguments, but does not perform polynomial division.) Polynomial division is an important operation. The quo and rem commands fin the quotient and remainder of a polynomial division. See Table 5.1. (The iquo and irem commands fin the quotient and remainder of an integer division. For more information, see Integer Operations (page 106).) 5.2 Algebra • 149 Table 5.1: Polynomial Arithmetic Operators Operation Addition Operator Example > Subtraction Multiplication1 Division: Quotient and Remainder > * > quo > rem > Exponentiation2 ^ > 1 You can specify multiplication explicitly by entering *, which displays in 2-D Math as . In 2-D Math, you can also implicitly multiply by placing a space character between two expressions. In some cases, the space character is optional. For example, Maple interprets a number followed by a name as an implicit multiplication. 2 In 2-D Math, exponents display as superscripts. To expand a polynomial, use the expand command. > If you need to determine whether one polynomial divides another, but do not need the quotient, use the divide command. The divide command tests for exact polynomial division. 150 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving > Important: You must insert a space character or a multiplication operator ( ) between adjacent variables names. Otherwise, they are interpreted as a single variable. For example, does not divide the single variable > But, divides the product of and > For information on polynomial arithmetic over finit rings and fields refer to the mod help page. Sorting Terms To sort the terms of a polynomial, use the sort command. > > Note: The sort command returns the sorted polynomial, and updates the order of the terms in the polynomial. The terms of p1 are sorted. > To specify the unknowns of the polynomial and their ordering, include a list of names. 5.2 Algebra • 151 > > By default, the sort command sorts a polynomial by decreasing total degree of the terms. > > The firs term has total degree 4. The other two terms have total degree 3. The order of the fina two terms is determined by the order of their names in the list. To sort the terms by pure lexicographic order, that is, firs by decreasing order of the firs unknown in the list option, and then by decreasing order of the next unknown in the list option, specify the 'plex' option. > For information on enclosing keywords in right single quotes ('), see Delaying Evaluation (page 361). The firs term contains the power 0. to the power 3; the second, to the power 2; and the third, to Using context menus, you can perform operations, such as sorting, for polynomials and many other Maple objects. To sort a polynomial: 1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the polynomial. 2. The context menu displays. From the Sorts menu, select: • Single-variable, and then the unknown • Two-variable (or Three-variable), Pure Lexical or Total Degree, and then the sort priority of the unknowns. 152 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving See Figure 5.1. Figure 5.1: Sorting a Polynomial Using a Context Menu 5.2 Algebra • 153 Maple sorts the polynomial. In Worksheet mode, Maple inserts the calling sequence that performs the sort followed by the sorted polynomial. > > You can use context menus to perform operations on 2-D Math content including output. For more information, see Context Menus (page 68) (for Document mode) or Context Menus (page 88) (for Worksheet mode). Collecting Terms To collect the terms of polynomial, use the collect command. > Coefficients and Degrees Maple has several commands that return coefficien and degree values for a polynomial. See Table 5.2. Table 5.2: Polynomial Coefficien and Degree Commands Command coeff Description Coefficien of specifie degree term lcoeff Leading coefficien Example > > 154 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Command tcoeff Description Trailing coefficien Example coeffs Sequence of all coefficients in one-to-one correspondence with the terms > > Note: It does not return zero coefficient degree (Highest) degree ldegree Lowest degree term with a non-zero coeffi > cient > Factorization To express a polynomial in fully factored form, use the factor command. > The factor command factors the polynomial over the ring implied by the coefficients for example, integers. You can specify an algebraic number fiel over which to factor the polynomial. For more information, refer to the factor help page. (The ifactor command factors an integer. For more information, see Integer Operations (page 106).) To solve for the roots of a polynomial, use the solve command. For information on the solve command, see Solving Equations and Inequations (page 111). (The isolve command solves an equation for integer solutions. For more information, see Integer Equations (page 125).) Other Commands Table 5.3 lists other commands available for polynomial operations. Table 5.3: Select Other Polynomial Commands Command content Description Content (multivariate polynomial) 5.3 Linear Algebra • 155 Command compoly discrim gcd gcdex CurveFitting[PolynomialInterpolation] Description Decomposition Discriminant Greatest common divisor (of two polynomials) Extended Euclidean algorithm (for two polynomials) Interpolating polynomial (for list of points) See also the CurveFitting Assistant (Tools → Assistants → Curve Fitting) lcm norm EPROM primpart randpoly PolynomialTools[IsSelfReciprocal] resultant roots sqrfree Least common multiple (of two polynomials) Norm Pseudo-remainder (of two multivariate polynomials) Primitive part (multivariate polynomial) Random polynomial Determine whether self-reciprocal Resultant (of two polynomials) Exact roots (over algebraic number field Square-free factorization (multivariate polynomial) Additional Information Table 5.4: Additional Polynomial Help Topic General polynomial information PolynomialTools package Algebraic manipulation of numeric polynomials Efficien arithmetic for sparse polynomials Polynomial information and commands Resource ?polynom help page ?PolynomialTools package overview help page ?SNAP (Symbolic-Numeric Algorithms for Polynomials) package overview help page ?SDMPolynom (Sparse Distributed Multivariate Polynomial data structure) help page Maple Help System Table of Contents: Mathematics→Algebra→Polynomials section 5.3 Linear Algebra Linear algebra operations act on Matrix and Vector data structures. You can perform many linear algebra operations using task templates. In the Task Browser (Tools → Tasks → Browse), expand the Linear Algebra folder. 156 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Creating Matrices and Vectors Creating Matrices You can create a Matrix using • The Matrix command • The angle bracket shortcut notation • The Matrix palette (see Figure 5.2). When creating a Matrix using the Matrix command, there are several input formats available. For example, enter a list of lists. The dimensions of the matrix are inferred from the number of entries given. > Alternatively, use the angle bracket shortcut, <>. Separate items in a column with commas, and separate columns with vertical bars, |. > For information on the Matrix command options, see Creating Matrices and Vectors with Specifi Properties (page 162). 5.3 Linear Algebra • 157 Use the Matrix palette to interactively create a matrix without commands: Figure 5.2: Matrix Palette In the Matrix palette, you can specify the matrix size (see Figure 5.3) and properties. To insert a matrix, click the Insert Matrix button. 158 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Figure 5.3: Matrix Palette: Choosing the Size After inserting the matrix: 1. Enter the values of the entries. To move to the next entry placeholder, press Tab. 2. After specifying all entries, press Enter. > 5.3 Linear Algebra • 159 Creating Vectors You can create a Vector using angle brackets (< >). To create a column vector, specify a comma-delimited sequence, <a, b, c>. The number of elements is inferred from the number of expressions. > To create a row vector, specify a vertical-bar-delimited (|) sequence, <a | b | c>. The number of elements is inferred from the number of expressions. > For information on the Vector command options, refer to the Vector help page. You can also create vectors using the Matrix palette. If either the number of rows or number of columns specifie is 1, then you have the option of inserting a matrix, or inserting a vector of the appropriate type. See Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4: Insert Matrix or Insert Vector 160 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Viewing Large Matrices and Vectors and smaller, and vectors with 10 or fewer elements, display in the docuMatrices ment. Larger objects are displayed as a placeholder. For example, insert a matrix. In the Matrix palette: 1. Specify the dimensions: 15 rows and 15 columns. 2. In the Type drop-down list, select a matrix type, for example, Random. 3. Click Insert Matrix. Maple inserts a placeholder. > To edit or view a large matrix or vector, double-click the placeholder. This launches the Matrix Browser. See Figure 5.5. 5.3 Linear Algebra • 161 Figure 5.5: Matrix Browser To modify the entries using the Matrix Browser: 1. Select the Table tab. 2. Double-click an entry, and then edit its value. Press Enter. 3. Repeat for each entry to edit. 4. When you have finishe updating entries, click Done. You can view the matrix or vector as a table or as an image, which can be inserted into the document. For more information, refer to the MatrixBrowser help page. 162 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving To set the maximum dimension of matrices and vectors displayed inline: • Use the interface command with the rtablesize option. For example, interface(rtablesize = 15). For more information, refer to the interface help page. Creating Matrices and Vectors with Specific Properties By default, matrices and vectors can store any values. To increase the efficienc of linear algebra computations, create matrices and vectors with properties. You must specify the properties, for example, the matrix shape or data type, when definin the object. The Matrix palette (Figure 5.2) supports several properties. To specify the matrix type: • Use the Shape and Type drop-down lists. To specify the data type: • Use the Data type drop-down list. For example, defin a diagonal matrix with small integer coefficients In the Matrix palette: 1. Specify the size of the matrix, for example, . 2. In the Shapes drop-down list, select Diagonal. 3. In the Data type drop-down list, select integer[1]. 4. Click the Insert Matrix button. 5. Enter the values in the diagonal entries. > You cannot specify properties when definin vectors using the angle-bracket notation. You must use the Vector constructor. To defin a column vector using the Vector constructor, specify: • The number of elements. If you explicitly specify all element values, this argument is not required. • A list of expressions that defin the element values. 5.3 Linear Algebra • 163 • Parameters such as shape, datatype, and fil that set properties of the vector. The following two calling sequences are equivalent. > > To create a row vector using the Vector constructor, include row as an index. > > The Matrix palette does not support some properties. To set all properties, use the Matrix constructor. To defin a matrix using the Matrix constructor, specify: • The number of rows and columns. If you explicitly specify all element values, these arguments are not required. • A list of lists that defin the element values row-wise. • Parameters such as shape, datatype, and fil that set properties of the matrix. 164 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving For example: > The Matrix palette cannot fil the matrix with an arbitrary value. Use the fil parameter. > For more information on the constructors, including other calling sequence syntaxes and parameters, refer to the storage, Matrix, and Vector help pages. See also Numeric Computations (page 171). Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors Matrices To select an entry in a Matrix, enter the matrix name with a sequence of two non-zero integer indices, row first > > To select an entire row, enter a single index; to select an entire column, enter firs the entire range of rows, then the column index. 5.3 Linear Algebra • 165 > > Similarly, you can access submatrices. Enter the indices as a list or range. > Vectors To select an entry in a vector, enter the vector name with a non-zero integer index. > > Negative integers select entries from the end of the vector. > To create a Vector consisting of multiple entries, specify a list or range For more information, refer to the set and range help pages. 166 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving > > Linear Algebra Computations Maple has extensive support for linear algebra. You can perform many matrix and vector computations using context menus. Matrix operations such as multiplication and inverses can be done with the basic matrix arithmetic operators. The LinearAlgebra package provides the full range of Maple commands for linear algebra and vector space computations, queries, and linear system solving. Matrix Arithmetic The matrix and vector arithmetic operators are the standard Maple arithmetic operators up to the following two differences. • The scalar multiplication operator is the asterisk (*), which displays in 2-D Math as The noncommutative matrix and vector multiplication operator is the period (.). • There is no division operator (/) for matrix algebra. (You can construct the inverse of a matrix using the exponent .) Table 5.5 lists the basic matrix operators. > Table 5.5: Matrix and Vector Arithmetic Operators Operation Addition Operator Example > . 5.3 Linear Algebra • 167 Operation Subtraction Operator Example > Multiplication . > Scalar Multiplication1 * > > Exponentiation2 ^ > > 1 You can specify scalar multiplication explicitly by entering *, which displays in 2-D Math as . In 2-D Math, you can also implicitly multiply a scalar and a matrix or vector by placing a space character between them. In some cases, the space character is optional. For example, Maple interprets a number followed by a name as an implicit multiplication. 2 In 2-D Math, exponents display as superscripts. A few additional matrix and vector operators are listed in Table 5.6. Defin two column vectors. 168 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving > Table 5.6: Select Matrix and Vector Operators Operation Transpose Hermitian Transpose Cross Product Operator 1 ^%T ^%H1 &x2 (3-D vectors only) Example > > > > 1 Exponential operators display in 2-D Math as superscripts. 2 After loading the LinearAlgebra package, the cross product operator is available as the infi operator &x . Otherwise, it is available as the LinearAlgebra[CrossProduct] command. For information on matrix arithmetic over finit rings and fields refer to the mod help page. Point-and-Click Interaction Using context menus, you can perform many matrix and vector operations. Matrix operations available in the context menu include the following. • Perform standard operations: determinant, inverse, norm (1, Euclidean, infinit , or Frobenius), transpose, and trace • Compute eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and singular values • Compute the dimension or rank • Convert to the Jordan form, or other forms • Perform Cholesky decomposition and other decompositions 5.3 Linear Algebra • 169 For example, compute the infinit norm of a matrix. See Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: Computing the Infinit Norm of a Matrix In Document mode, Maple inserts a right arrow and the name of the computation performed, followed by the norm. Vector operations available in the context menu include the following. • Compute the dimension • Compute the norm (1, Euclidean, and infinity 170 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving • Compute the transpose • Select an element For more information on context menus, see Context Menus (page 68) (for Document mode) or Context Menus (page 88) (for Worksheet mode). LinearAlgebra Package Commands The LinearAlgebra package contains commands that construct and manipulate matrices and vectors, compute standard operations, perform queries, and solve linear algebra problems. Table 5.7 lists some LinearAlgebra package commands. For a complete list, refer to the LinearAlgebra/Details help page. Table 5.7: Select LinearAlgebra Package Commands Command Basis CrossProduct DeleteRow Dimension Eigenvalues Eigenvectors FrobeniusForm GaussianElimination HessenbergForm HilbertMatrix IsOrthogonal LeastSquares LinearSolve MatrixInverse QRDecomposition RandomMatrix SylvesterMatrix Description Return a basis for a vector space Compute the cross product of two vectors Delete a row or rows of a matrix Determine the dimension of a matrix or a vector Compute the eigenvalues of a matrix Compute the eigenvectors of a matrix Reduce a matrix to Frobenius form Perform Gaussian elimination on a matrix Reduce a square matrix to Hessenberg form Construct a generalized Hilbert matrix Test if a matrix is orthogonal Compute the least-squares approximation to A . x = b Solve the linear system A . x = b Compute the inverse of a square matrix or pseudo-inverse of a non-square matrix Compute the QR factorization of a matrix Construct a random matrix Construct the Sylvester matrix of two polynomials For information on arithmetic operations, see Matrix Arithmetic (page 166). For information on selecting entries, subvectors, and submatrices, see Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors (page 164). Example: Determine a basis for the space spanned by the set of vectors {(2, 13, -15), (7, 2, 13), (5, -4, 9)}. Express the vector (25, -4, 9) with respect to this basis. 5.3 Linear Algebra • 171 > > Find a basis for the vector space spanned by these vectors, and then construct a matrix from the basis vectors. > To express (25, -4, 9) in this basis, use the LinearSolve command. > Numeric Computations You can very efficientl perform computations on large matrices and vectors that contain floating-poin data using the built-in library of numeric linear algebra routines. Some of these routines are provided by the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG®). Maple also contains portions of the CLAPACK and optimized ATLAS libraries. For information on performing efficien numeric computations using the LinearAlgebra package, refer to the EfficientLinearAlgebr help page. See also Creating Matrices and Vectors with Specifi Properties (page 162) and Reading from Files (page 409). Student LinearAlgebra Package The Student package contains subpackages that help instructors teach concepts and allow students to visualize and explore ideas. These subpackages also contain computational commands. 172 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving In the Student[LinearAlgebra] subpackage, the environment differs from that of the LinearAlgebra package in that floating-poin computations are generally performed using software precision, instead of hardware precision, and symbols are generally assumed to represent real, rather than complex, quantities. These defaults, and others, can be controlled using the SetDefault For more information, refer to the Student[LinearAlgebra][SetDefault] help page. For information on using Maple as a teaching and learning tool, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194). 5.4 Calculus The Task Browser (Tools→Tasks→Browse) contains numerous calculus task templates. For a list of tasks, navigate to one of the related folders, such as Calculus, Differential Equations, Multivariate Calculus, or Vector Calculus. This section describes the key Maple calculus commands, many of which are used in task templates or available in the context menus. For a complete list of calculus commands, refer to the Mathematics (including Calculus, Differential Equations, Power Series, and Vector Calculus subfolders) and Student Package sections of the Maple Help System Table of Contents. Limits To compute the limit of an expression as the independent variable approaches a value: 1. In the Expression palette, click the limit item . 2. Specify the independent variable, limit point, and expression, and then evaluate it. Press Tab to move to the next placeholder. For example: > The limit Command By default, Maple searches for the real bidirectional limit (unless the limit point is ∞ or -∞). To specify a direction, include one of the options left, right, real, or complex in a call to the limit command. See Table 5.8. 5.4 Calculus • 173 Table 5.8: Limits Limit Command Syntax > Output undefine > > Using the limit command, you can also compute multidimensional limits. > For more information on multidimensional limits, refer to the limit/multi help page. Numerically Computing a Limit To numerically compute a limit: • Use the evalf(Limit(arguments)) calling sequence. Important: Use the inert Limit command, not the limit For more information, refer to the limit help page. The Limit command accepts the same arguments as the limit command. For example: > For information on the evalf command, see Numerical Approximation (page 356). The Limit command does not compute the limit. It returns an unevaluated limit. > 174 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving For more information on the Limit command, refer to the Limit help page. Differentiation Maple can perform symbolic and numeric differentiation. To differentiate an expression: 1. In the Expression palette, click the differentiation item item or the partial differentiation . 2. Specify the expression and independent variable, and then evaluate it. For example, to differentiate with respect to : > You can also differentiate using context menus. For more information, see Context Menus (page 39). To calculate a higher order or partial derivative, edit the derivative symbol inserted. For with respect to : example, to calculate the second derivative of > To calculate the mixed partial derivative of : > Note: To enter another symbol, you can copy and paste the existing symbol, or enter d and use symbol completion. 5.4 Calculus • 175 The diff Command Maple computes derivatives using the diff command. To directly use the diff command, specify the expression to differentiate and the variable. > (5.1) > (5.2) For information on equation labels such as (5.1), see Equation Labels (page 95). You can calculate a higher order derivative by specifying a sequence of differentiation variables. Maple recursively calls the diff command. > (5.3) To calculate a partial derivative, use the same syntax. Maple assumes that the derivatives commute. > To enter higher order derivatives, it is convenient to use the syntax diff(f, x$n). This syntax can also be used to compute the symbolic nth order derivative. For example: > Differentiating an Operator You can also specify a mathematical function as a functional operator (a mapping). For a comparison of operators and other expressions, see Distinction between Functional Operators and Other Expressions (page 340). 176 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving To fin the derivative of a functional operator: • Use the D operator. The D operator returns a functional operator. For example, fin the derivative of an operator that represents the mathematical function First, defin the operator F. 1. In the Expression palette, click the single-variable function definitio item . 2. Enter placeholder values. • To move to the next placeholder, press the Tab key. Note: If pressing the Tab key inserts in the toolbar. a tab, click the Tab icon > Now, defin the operator, G, that maps to the derivative of > F and G evaluated at return the expected values. > For more information on the D operator, refer to the D help page. For a comparison of the diff command and D operator, refer to the diffVersusD help page. Directional Derivative To compute and plot a directional derivative, use the Directional Derivative Tutor. The tutor computes a floating-poin value for the directional derivative. 5.4 Calculus • 177 To launch the tutor: • From the Tools menu, select Tutors, Calculus - Multivariate, and then Directional Derivatives. Maple launches the Directional Derivative Tutor. See Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Directional Derivative Tutor To compute a symbolic value for the directional derivative, use the Student[MultivariateCalculus][DirectionalDerivative] command. The firs list of numbers specifie the point at which to compute the derivative. The second list of numbers specifie the direction in which to compute the derivative. 178 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving For example, at the point the gradient of points in the direction which is the direction of greatest increase. The directional derivative in the orthogonal direction is zero. > > > Series To generate the Taylor series expansion of a function about a point, use the taylor command. > Note: If a Taylor series does not exist, use the series command to fin a general series expansion. For example, the cosine integral function For more information, refer to the Ci help page. > Error, does not have a taylor expansion, try series() To generate a truncated series expansion of a function about a point, use the series command. > By default, Maple performs series calculations up to order 6. To use a different order, specify a non-negative integer third argument. 5.4 Calculus • 179 > To set the order for all computations, use the Order environment variable. For information about the Order variable and the term, refer to the Order help page. The expansion is of type series. Some commands, for example, plot, do not accept arguments of type series. To use the expansion, you must convert it to a polynomial using the convert/polynom command. > For information on Maple types and type conversions, see Maple Expressions (page 333). For information on plotting, see Plots and Animations (page 237). Integration Maple can perform symbolic and numeric integration. 180 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving To compute the indefinit integral of an expression: 1. In the Expression palette, click the indefinit integration item . 2. Specify the integrand and variable of integration, and then evaluate it. For example, to integrate with respect to x: > Recall that you can also enter symbols, including and using symbol completion. • Enter the symbol name (or part of the name), for example, int or d, and then press the completion shortcut key. For more information, see Symbol Names (page 28). You can also compute an indefinit integral using context menus. For more information, see Context Menus (page 39). To compute the definit integral of an expression: 1. In the Expression palette, click the definit integration item . 2. Specify the endpoints of the interval of integration, integrand expression, and variable of integration, and then evaluate it. For example, to integrate over the interval (0, ): > Maple treats the parameter a as a complex number. As described in Assumptions on Variables (page 142), you can compute under the assumption that a is a positive, real number using the assuming command. 5.4 Calculus • 181 > To compute iterated integrals, line integrals, and surface integrals, use the task templates (Tools → Tasks → Browse) in the Multivariate and Vector Calculus folders. The int Command and use the int command. To use the int command directly, specify the follow- ing arguments. • Expression to integrate • Variable of integration > (5.4) > (5.5) For a definit integration, set the variable of integration equal to the interval of integration. > (5.6) Numeric Integration To perform numeric integration: • Use the evalf(Int(arguments)) calling sequence. Important: Use the inert Int command, not the int For more information, refer to the int help page. 182 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving In addition to the arguments accepted by the int command, you can include optional arguments such as method, which specifie the numeric integration method. > Note: To enter an underscore character (_) in 2-D Math, enter \_. For information on the evalf command, see Numerical Approximation (page 356). For information on numeric integration, including iterated integration and controlling the algorithm, refer to the evalf/Int help page. Differential Equations Maple has a powerful set of solvers for ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs), and systems of ODEs and PDEs. For information on solving ODEs and PDEs, see Other Specialized Solvers (page 120). Calculus Packages In addition to top-level calculus commands, Maple contains calculus packages. VectorCalculus Package The VectorCalculus package contains commands that perform multivariate and vector calculus operations on VectorCalculus vectors (vectors with an additional coordinate system attribute) and vector field (vectors with additional coordinate system and vectorfiel attributes), for example, Curl, Flux, and Torsion. > > > 5.4 Calculus • 183 > Note: For information on changing the display format in the VectorCalculus package, see the VectorCalculus[BasisFormat] help page. Find the curl of VectorField1. > Find the flu of VectorField1 through a sphere of radius r at the origin. > Compute the torsion of a space curve. The curve must be a vector with parametric function components. > For information on the assuming command, see The assuming Command (page 144). For more information on the VectorCalculus package, including a complete list of commands, refer to the VectorCalculus help page. To fin other calculus packages, such as VariationalCalculus, refer to the index/package help page. Student Calculus Packages The Student package contains subpackages that help instructors teach concepts and allow students to visualize and explore ideas. These subpackages also contain computational 184 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving commands. The Student calculus subpackages include Calculus1, MultivariateCalculus, and VectorCalculus. The Student[VectorCalculus] package provides a simple interface to a limited subset of the functionality available in the VectorCalculus package. For information on using Maple as a teaching and learning tool, and some computational examples, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194). 5.5 Optimization Using the Optimization package, you can numerically solve optimization problems. The package uses fast Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) algorithms to minimize or maximize an objective function. The Optimization package solves constrained and unconstrained problems. • Linear programs • Quadratic programs • Nonlinear programs • Linear and nonlinear least-squares problems The Optimization package contains local solvers. In addition, for univariate finitely-bounde nonlinear programs with no other constraints, you can compute global solutions using the NLPSolve command. To fin global solutions generally, purchase the Global Optimization Toolbox. For more information, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/products/toolboxes. Point-and-Click Interface The primary method for solving optimization problems is the Optimization Assistant. To launch the Optimization Assistant: • From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Optimization. Maple launches the Optimization Assistant. See Figure 5.8. 5.5 Optimization • 185 Figure 5.8: Optimization Assistant To solve a problem: 1. Enter the objective function, constraints, and bounds. 2. Select the Minimize or Maximize radio button. 3. Click the Solve button. The solution is displayed in the Solution text box. You can also enter the problem (objective function, constraints, and bounds) in the calling sequence of the Optimization[Interactive] command. 186 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving For example, fin the maximum value of . subject to the constraints > • When the Optimization Assistant opens, select Maximize, then Solve. After findin a solution, you can plot it. To plot a solution: • In the Optimization Assistant window, click the Plot button. The Optimization Plotter window is displayed. See Figure 5.9. Note: When you close the Optimization Assistant, you can choose to return the solution, problem, command used, plot, or nothing, using the drop-down in the bottom right corner of the assistant window. 5.5 Optimization • 187 Figure 5.9: Optimization Assistant Plotter Window For information on the algorithms used to solve optimization problems, refer to the Optimization/Methods help page. Large Optimization Problems The Optimization Assistant accepts input in an algebraic form. You can specify input in other forms, described in the Optimization/InputForms help page, in command calling sequences. 188 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving The Matrix form, described in the Optimization/MatrixForm help page, is more complex but offers greater flexibilit and efficienc . For example, solve the linear program: Maximize subject to , where is the vector of problem variables. 1. Defin the column vector, c, of the linear objective function. > > 2. Defin the matrix A, the coefficien matrix for the linear inequality constraints. > 3. Defin the column vector b, the linear inequality constraints. > 4. The QPSolve command solves quadratic programs. > This example uses a random data set to demonstrate the problem. You could also read data from an external fil as Matrices, and use that data. For details and an example, see Reading from Files (page 409). Note: For information on creating matrices and vectors (including how to use the Matrix palette to easily create matrices), see Linear Algebra (page 155). For additional information on performing efficien computations, refer to the Optimization/Computation help page. MPS(X) File Support To import linear programs from a standard MPS(X) data file use the ImportMPS command. 5.6 Statistics • 189 Optimization Package Commands Each Optimization package command solves the problem using a different optimization method. These are described in Table 5.9, along with the general input form for each command. Table 5.9: Optimization Package Commands Command LPSolve LSSolve Description Solve a linear program (LP), which involves computing the minimum (or maximum) of a linear objective function subject to linear constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form Solve a least-squares (LS) problem, which involves computing the minimum of a real-valued objective function having the form where Maximize Minimize NLPSolve QPSolve is a vector of problem vari- ables, possibly subject to constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form Compute a local maximum of an objective function, possibly subject to constraints Compute a local minimum of an objective function, possibly subject to constraints Solve a non-linear program (NLP), which involves computing the minimum (or maximum) of a real-valued objective function, possibly subject to constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form Solve a quadratic program (QP), which involves computing the minimum (or maximum) or a quadratic objective function, possibly subject to linear constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form For a complete list of commands and other Optimization package information, refer to the Optimization help page. 5.6 Statistics The Statistics package provides tools for mathematical statistics and data analysis. The package supports a wide range of common statistical tasks including quantitative and graphical data analysis, simulation, and curve fitting In addition to standard data analysis tools, the Statistics package provides a wide range of symbolic and numeric tools for computing with random variables. The package supports over 35 major probability distributions and can be extended to include new distributions. 190 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Probability Distributions and Random Variables The Statistics package supports: • Continuous distributions, which are define along the real line by probability density functions. Maple supports many continuous distributions, including the normal, Studentt, Laplace, and logistic distributions. • Discrete distributions, which have nonzero probability only at discrete points. A discrete distribution is define by a probability function. Maple supports many discrete distributions, including the Bernoulli, geometric, and Poisson distributions. For a complete list of distributions, refer to the Statistics/Distributions help page. You can defin random variables by specifying a distribution in a call to the RandomVariable command. > > Find the probability distribution function for X. (For information on statistics computations, see Statistical Computations (page 191).) > Adding Custom Distributions To add a new distribution, specify a probability distribution in a call to the Distribution command. > To construct a piecewise-continuous function in 1-D Math, use the piecewise command, for example, t -> piecewise(t < 0, 0, t < 3, 1/3, 0). Defin a new random variable with this distribution. 5.6 Statistics • 191 > Calculate the mean value of the random variable. > Statistical Computations In addition to basic functions, like mean, median, standard deviation, and percentile, the Statistics package contains commands that compute, for example, the interquartile range and hazard rate. Example 1 - Interquartile Range Compute the average absolute range from the interquartile of the Rayleigh distribution with scale parameter 3. > To compute the result numerically: • Specify the 'numeric' option. > Example 2 - Hazard Rate Compute the hazard rate of the Cauchy distribution with location and scale parameters a and b at an arbitrary point t. 192 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving > You can specify a value for the point t. > You can also specify that Maple compute the result numerically. > For more information, refer to the Statistics/DescriptiveStatistics help page. Plotting You can generate statistical plots using the visualization commands in the Statistics package. Available plots include: • Bar chart • Frequency plot • Histogram • Pie chart • Scatter plot For example, create a scatter plot for a distribution of points that vary from a small value determined by a normally distributed sample. > by 5.6 Statistics • 193 > > > > To fi a curve to the data points, include the optional fi equation parameter. Using the plots[display] command, create a plot that contains: • a scatter plot of the data points • a quartic polynomial fitte to the data points: • the function > 194 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving > > For more information on statistical plots, refer to the Statistics/Visualization help page. For an overview of plotting, see Plots and Animations (page 237). Additional Information For more information on the Statistics package, including regression analysis, estimation, data manipulation, and data smoothing, refer to the Statistics help page. The Data Analysis Assistant For more information, refer to the Statistics[InteractiveDataAnalysis] help page. 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple Table 5.10 lists the available resources for instructors and students. For additional resources, see Available Resources (page 56). 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 195 Table 5.10: Student and Instructor Resources Resource Student Packages, Tutors, and Demonstrations Description The Student package contains computational and visualization (plotting and animation) functionality, and point-and-click interfaces for explaining and exploring concepts (Tools→Tutors). For more information, refer to the Student help page. Maple's Demonstrations provide interactive visual illustrations of Precalculus concepts (Tools→Demonstrations). Use the provided Demos, or learn how these are created and using Maple's embedded components to create your own. For more information on how the Demonstrations were created, refer to the Demonstrations/Details help page. Teacher Resource Center The Demonstrations are connected to more complete teaching material provided in the Teacher Resource Center. The Maple Teacher Resource Center contains resources and tips for teachers using Maplesoft products to help in the classroom. Available resources include: • Classroom content for subjects including Precalculus, Calculus, and Engineering • Training videos • E-books Maple Portal (http://www.maplesoft.com/teachercenter) The Maple Portal includes material designed for all Maple users as well as specifi portals for students and educators. The Maple Portal includes: • How Do I... topics that give quick answers to essential questions • Tutorials that provide an overview of topics from getting started to plotting and working with matrices • Navigation to portals with specialized information for students, math educators, and engineers Access the portal from the Help menu (Help → Manuals, Resources, and More → Maple Portal). Mathematics and Engineering Dic- The Maple Help System has an integrated dictionary of over tionary 5000 mathematics and engineering terms. You can search the dictionary by entering a term in the Help System search field 196 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Resource Maple Application Center Student Help Center Description The Maple Application Center contains tutorials and applications that help instructors begin using Maple and use Maple in the classroom. Browse the many resources in the Education and Education PowerTools categories. (http://www.maplesoft.com/applications) The Maple Student Help Center contains tutorials and applications that help students learn how to use Maple, explore mathematical concepts, and solve problems. Available resources include: • Study guides - Complete lessons with examples for academic courses, including precalculus and calculus. For example, the Interactive Precalculus Study Guide contains worked problems, each solved as in a standard textbook, using Maple commands and custom Maplet graphical interfaces. • Free course lessons for many subjects including precalculus to vector calculus; high school, abstract, and linear algebra; engineering; physics; differential equations; cryptography; and classical mechanics. • Applications for students, written by students, providing examples in many subject areas. • Student FAQs with answers from experts. (http://www.maplesoft.com/academic/students) Student Packages and Tutors The Student package is a collection of subpackages for teaching and learning mathematics and related subjects. The Student package contains packages for a variety of subjects, including precalculus, calculus, and linear algebra. Instructors can: • Teach concepts without being distracted by the mechanics of the computations. • Create examples and quickly update them during a lesson to demonstrate different cases or show the effect of the variation of a parameter. • Create plots and animations to visually explain concepts, for example, the geometric relationship between a mathematical function and its derivatives (Tools→Tutors→Calculus - Single Variable→Derivatives). See Figure 5.10. 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 197 Figure 5.10: Calculus 1 Derivatives Tutor Students can: • Perform step-by-step computations, for example, compute a derivative by applying differentiation rules using commands or a tutor (Tools→Tutors→Calculus - Single Variable→Differentiation Methods). See Figure 5.11. • Perform computations. • Visually explore concepts. 198 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Figure 5.11: Calculus 1 Differentiation Methods Tutor Tutors provide point-and-click interfaces to the Student package functionality. To launch a tutor: 1. From the Tools menu, select Tutors. 2. Select a subject, for example, Calculus - Multivariate. 3. Select a tutor, for example, Gradients. Maple inserts the Student[MultivariateCalculus][GradientTutor]() calling sequence (in Worksheet mode), and launches the Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor. 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 199 By rotating the three-dimensional plot, you can show that the gradient points in the direction of greatest increase of the surface (see Figure 5.12) and show the direction of the gradient vector in the x-y plane by rotating the plot (see Figure 5.13). Figure 5.12: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor 200 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Figure 5.13: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor Showing x-y Plane When you close the tutor, Maple inserts the 3-D plot. 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 201 > Many Student package commands can return a value, mathematical expression, plot, or animation. This allows you to compute the fina answer, see the general formula applied to a specifi problem, or visualize the underlying concepts. For example, the Student[VectorCalculus][LineInt] (line integral) command can return the following. • Plot that visually indicates the vector field path of integration, and tangent vectors to the path • Unevaluated line integral • Numeric value of the line integral > 202 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving > > (5.7) To evaluate the integral returned by the output = integral calling sequence, use the value command. > (5.8) By default, the LineInt command returns the value of the integral. > For more information on the Student package, refer to the Student help page. 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 203 Calculus Problem Solving Examples Maple is a powerful application with many resources to guide you. The following examples provide you with scenarios to learn about using Maple resources and the Maple program. When using Maple to solve a problem, consider the following process. 1. Formulate your problem. 2. Obtain Maple resources that allow you to solve it. Problem Scenario A: Your company is designing a bottle for its new spring water product. The bottle must contain 18 ounces of water and the height is fixed The design includes an undulating curved surface. You know the amplitude and equation of the curve, but you must fin the radius. You require the Volume of Revolution. Scenario B: You want to teach your students the concept of a Volume of Revolution. Specificall , you want to plot and compute the , about volume of a solid generated by rotating an axis or a line parallel to an axis. 204 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Figure 5.14: Flowchart of solving a problem Check for Existing Tools: Tutor Begin by examining the Tools menu for a Tutor to a Volume of Revolution problem. To access a Tutor for the Volume of Revolution: 1. From the Tools menu, select Tutors, and then Calculus-Single Variable. Notice that a Volume of Revolution tutor exists. 2. Click the Volume of Revolution menu item. The following Maple command is entered in your document. 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 205 > The Volume of Revolution Tutor is displayed. See Figure 5.15. Use this tutor to enter a function and an interval, view and manipulate the corresponding plot, and view the full Maple command associated with your entries and selections. 206 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Figure 5.15: Volume of Revolution Tutor After you Close the tutor, the plot is inserted into your worksheet. Check for Existing Tools: Task Template 1. From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse. The Browse Tasks dialog opens, displaying a list of tasks in the left pane. The tasks are sorted by subject to help you quickly fin the desired task. 2. Expand the Calculus - Integral→ Applications → Solids of Revolution folder. 3. From the displayed list, select Volume. The Volume of Revolution task is displayed in the right pane of the Browse Tasks dialog. 4. Select the Insert into New Worksheet check box. 5. Click Insert Default Content. Before inserting a task, Maple checks whether the task variables have assigned values in your worksheet. If any task variable is assigned, the Task Variables dialog opens allowing you to modify the names. Maple uses the edited 5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 207 variable names for all variable instances in the inserted task. The content is inserted into your document. See Figure 5.16. Figure 5.16: Inserted Task Template 6. When a Task Template is inserted, parameters are marked as placeholders, denoted by purple font. To navigate between placeholders, press the Tab key. After updating any parameters, execute the command by pressing Enter. Check for Instructions: Help Page and Example Worksheet The help system provides command syntax information. To access a help page: 1. From the Help menu, select Maple Help. 2. In the search field enter volume of revolution and click Search. The search results include the command help page, the dictionary definition and the associated tutor help page. 3. Review the calling sequence, parameters, and description in the Student[Calculus1][VolumeOfRevolution] help page. 4. Copy the examples into your worksheet: from the help system Edit menu, select Copy Examples. 5. Close the Help Navigator. 208 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving 6. In your document, from the Edit menu, select Paste. The examples are pasted into your document. 7. Execute the examples and examine the results. To access an example worksheet: 1. In the worksheet, enter index/examples. The Example Worksheet Index opens. 2. Expand the Calculus topic. 3. Click the examples/Calculus1IntApps link. The Calculus1: Applications of Integration worksheet opens. See Figure 5.17. 4. Expand the Volume of Revolution topic. 5. Examine and execute the examples. Figure 5.17: Example Worksheet Check for Other Ready-To-Use Resources: Application Center The Maple Application Center contains free user-contributed applications related to mathematics, education, science, engineering, computer science, statistics and data analysis, finance communications, graphics, and more. To access a free application for volume of revolution: 1. Go to the Maplesoft web site, http://www.maplesoft.com. 2. In the menu of the main web page, click Community, and then Application Center. 5.8 Clickable Math • 209 3. In the Application Search section, enter Calculus 2 in the Keyword or phrase field 4. Click Search. 5. From the search results page, under Displaying applications, click the Click here link. 6. From the list of archived applications, select Calculus II: Complete Set of Lessons. 7. Click on the Download Maple Document link. 8. Download the .zip file 9. Extract the L2-volumeRevolution.mws file 10. Execute the worksheet and examine the results. 5.8 Clickable Math For years, Maple has led the way in making math software easy to use. With its collection of Clickable Math tools, including palettes, interactive assistants, context-sensitive menus, tutors, and more, Maple has set the standard for making it easy to learn, teach, and do mathematics. Two key features of the Clickable Math tool collection are Drag-to-Solve and Smart Popups. 210 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Smart Popups Smart Popups are menus that are invoked when you select an output equation, expression or a subexpression. With Smart Popups you can: • select operations to apply to just one part of your equation or mathematical expression, leaving the rest unchanged. • Preview the result of the operation before going ahead. • Explore your expression to deepen your understanding of the problem. • Easily determine if your subexpression can be factored, what its plot looks like, what mathematical identities could be applied, and more. Drag-to-Solve The Drag-to-Solve feature enables you to solve your equations step-by-step by dragging terms to where you want them to be. With Drag-to-Solve you can: • Easily take complete control over each individual step of your calculation. • Let Maple apply the appropriate addition, subtraction, division, or multiplication operation to both sides of your equation, to avoid mechanical errors. • Keep the full record of steps produced by Maple to document your work. For more information on Smart Popups and Drag-to-Solve, as well as examples, see the worksheet,expressions,clickablemath help page. Examples This chapter is designed to show several ways to solve the same problem in Maple. Throughout these examples, you will need to insert new document block regions. This is done through the Format menu, by selecting Create Document Block. Also, these examples only use the keyboard keys needed for a Windows operating system. Refer to Shortcut Keys by Platform (page xviii) for the keys needed for your operating system. Example 1 - Graph a Function and its Derivatives On the interval , graph , , and for We solve this problem using the following methods: • Solution by Context Menus (page 211) • Solution by Tutor (page 213) . 5.8 Clickable Math • 211 • Access the Tutor from a Task Template (page 215) Solution by Context Menus Action 1. Enter the expression Make a copy of the expression and calculate the derivative: 2. Insert a new document block region by selecting from the Format menu Create Document Block. 3. Highlight the original expression. Ctrl + drag the expression to the new document block. 4. Right-click the expression and select Differentiate → With Respect To → x. Make a copy of the derivative and calculate the second derivative: 5. Insert a new document block, and Ctrl + drag the derivative to the document block. 6. Right-click the derivative and select Differentiate → With Respect To → x. Plot the original expression: 7. Insert a new document block, and Ctrl + drag the original expression to the new block. 8. Right-click the expression and select Plots → Plot Builder. 9. In the Interactive Plot Builder: Select Plot Type dialog, change the x Axis range to -Pi to Pi, and then click Plot. Result in Document 212 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Add the firs and second derivatives to the plot: 10. Select and then Ctrl + drag the derivative of the expression onto the plot region. Do the same for the second derivative. Enhance the plot by adding a legend using context menus: 11. Right-click in the plot region and select Legend → Show Legend. 12. In the legend, double-click Curve 1. Notice that the Text icon is selected in the toolbar, . Delete the text and select the Math . This allows icon in the toolbar, you to enter 2-D Math in a text region. Enter the original expression, 13. Repeat for Curve 2 and Curve 3. Result in Document 5.8 Clickable Math • 213 Action Add a title: Result in Document 14. Right-click in the plot region and select Title → Add Title. 15. In the legend, replace the text New title with the text "Plot the expression ". 16. Click the Math icon, and enter the expression Click the Text icon once again and enter " and its derivatives". Solution by Tutor The Student Calculus 1 package contains a tutor called Derivatives, which displays a plot of the expression along with its derivatives. In this example, we solve the same problem as previously, using this tutor Action Result in Document 1. Load the Student Calculus 1 package. Loading Student:-Calculus1 From the Tools menu, select Load Package → Student Calculus 1. 2. Ctrl + drag the expression blank document block region. to a 214 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Result in Document 3. Right-click the expression and select Tutors → Calculus - Single Variable → Derivatives. Note: The Tutors menu is now available in the context menu because we loaded the Student Calculus 1 package in step 1. In the Derivative Tutor, the color swatch shown beside the original expression is the color used for the curve in the plot region. Similarly for and 4. Change the lower endpoint to -Pi. Select the check box to display in the plot. Click Display to make these changes take effect. 5. You can change the expression and modify plot options from within this tutor. For each change made, click Display to view the altered plot. When complete, click Close to display the resulting plot in the document. 5.8 Clickable Math • 215 Access the Tutor from a Task Template Maple also comes with a Task Template to solve this problem without using any commands. Action Result in Document 1. Launch the Task Template Browser by selecting Tools → Tasks → Browse. 2. In the table of contents of the Task Browser dialog, select Calculus -Differential→ Derivatives → Graph and its Derivatives. 3. Click Insert Minimal Content at the top of the dialog to insert the task template into the current document. 4. Enter the new expression region. in the f(x) 5. Enter the interval To insert the symbol for pi, you can use command completion or select from the Common Symbols palette. 216 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Result in Document 6. Click Launch Differentiation Tutor to launch the same tutor as in the previous solution. 7. When complete, click Close. A plot of the expression and its derivatives displays in the plot region of the inserted task template. Example 2 - Solve for x in a Quadratic Equation Solve for in the equation We solve this problem using the following methods: • Solution through Equation Manipulator (page 216) • Instant Solution (page 218) • Step-by-step Interactive Solution (page 218) • Graphical Solution (page 219) Solution through Equation Manipulator Maple provides a dialog that allows you to single-step through the process of manipulating an expression. This manipulator is available from the context menu. 5.8 Clickable Math • 217 Action 1. Enter the equation in a new document block region. 2. Right-click this equation and select Manipulate Equation. The Manipulate Equation dialog displays. Group all of the terms to the left: 3. In the Addition region, the Group terms row allows you to group terms on a specifie side. With the left side already selected, click Do. Expand the left side of the equation: 4. In the Miscellaneous Operations region, we can manipulate the equation by applying a command from the drop-down menus. Since we want to expand the left side of the equation only, click the firs drop-down menu in the second row and select expand. Click Do. Result in Document 218 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Factor the equation: Result in Document 5. From the same drop-down menu, select factor and click Do. 6. Click Return Steps to close the dialog and return all of the steps to the Maple document. 7. Ctrl + drag the factored form of the original equation to a new document block region. 8. Right-click and select Solve → Obtain Solutions for → x. Instant Solution To apply an instant solution to this problem, use context menus. Action 1. Ctrl + drag the equation Result in Document to a new document block region. 2. Right-click the expression and select Solve → Obtain Solutions for → x. Step-by-step Interactive Solution This equation can also be solved interactively in the document, by applying context-menu operations or commands one step at a time. Action 1. Ctrl + drag the equation to a blank document block region. Result in Document 5.8 Clickable Math • 219 Action Group all terms on the right: Result in Document 2. Right-click this equation and from the context menu select Move to Right. Expand the expression on the right-hand side: 3.Right-click on the result and from the context menu select Expand. Use Maple's factor command on the resulting right-hand side: 4. Right-click on the result and select Right-hand Side. 5. Right-click on the result and select Factor. Solve for x: 6. Right-click on the result and select Solve → Obtain Solutions for → x. Graphical Solution Now that we have seen several methods to solve this problem, we can check the answer by plotting the expression. Action 1. Ctrl + drag the equation to a new document block region and press Enter. First, manipulate the equation to become an expression: 2. Right-click the output and select Move to Left. Note the difference in the alignment when using context menus on output rather than input. The result is centered in the document with the selfdocumenting arrow positioned at the left. Result in Document 220 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action 3. Right-click the output and select Left-hand Side. 4. Right-click the output and select Expand. Now that the equation is in its simplest form, plot the result: 5. Ctrl + drag the output to a new document block. 6. Right-click the expression and select Plots → 2-D Plot. Result in Document 5.8 Clickable Math • 221 Action Change the menus: Result in Document and axis ranges using context 7. By default, plots generated using the context menus have an -axis range of -10 to 10. To change the range, right-click the plot and select Axes → Properties. In the Horizontal tab of the Axes Properties dialog, de-select Use data extents and change the Range min and `Range max to 0 and 5, respectively. Click the Vertical tab and de-select Use data extents. Change the Range min and Range max to -5 and 10, respectively. 8. Click OK to apply the changes and return to the plot. The interception points of this graph with the -axis are 1 and 3, the same solutions that we found previously. Example 3 - Solve a Quadratic Trig Equation in the interval Find all of the solutions to the equation We solve this problem using the following methods: • Graphical Solution (page 221) • Solution by Task Template (page 223) • Analytic Solution (page 223) Graphical Solution Action 1. Ctrl + drag the equation to a blank document block and press Enter. 2. Right-click the output and select Left-hand Side. Result in Document 222 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Result in Document 3. Right-click the output and select Plots → Plot Builder. 4. Modify the plot range to to 5. Click Plot to display the plot in the document. 6. From the graph, we can see all of the solutions within the interval To approximate the values, click the plot, select the type of coordinates that you want to view from the selection menu ( ) in the toolbar, and then use the point probe tool to view the coordinates of the mouse pointer. 5.8 Clickable Math • 223 Solution by Task Template Action Result in Document 1. From the Format menu, select Tasks → Browse. Expand the Algebra folder and select Solve Analytically in a Specifie Interval. 2. Click Insert Minimal Content. 3. Replace the current equation with the one from this example, and then execute the commands. Notice that equation labels are used to reference the results. Analytic Solution Action 1. Ctrl + drag the equation ment block region. Result in Document to a blank docu- 2. Right-click the expression and select Left-hand Side. 224 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action 3. Right-click the output and select Factor. Result in Document 4. Ctrl + drag the firs factor to a blank document block region. 5. Right-click and select Solve → Solve. 6. Ctrl + drag the second factor to a blank document block region. 7. Right-click and select Solve → Solve. Notice that you have not found all of the solutions, as with the above methods. These are all of the solutions in the interval Example 4 - Find the Inverse Function If fin and graph the rule for We solve this problem using the following methods: • Implement the Definitio Graphically (page 225) • Solution by Tutor (page 228) its functional inverse. 5.8 Clickable Math • 225 Implement the Definition Graphically The graph of the inverse function is the set of ordered pairs formed by interchanging the ordinates and abscissas. Action 1. In a blank document block, enter and press Enter. 2. Right-click the output and select Plots → Plot Builder. Result in Document 226 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Result in Document 3. In the Plot Builder : Select Plot Type dialog, ensure that 2-D parametric plot is selected in the Select Plot region. 4. Adjust the domain for to the interval 5. Click Plot to return the plot to the document. 5.8 Clickable Math • 227 Action 6. Ctrl + drag the expression graph. Result in Document onto this Notice that the axis ranges alter. 7. Ctrl + drag the expression onto this graph. The resulting graph shows the line and 228 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Adjust the Result in Document and axis ranges: 8. Right-click the plot and select Axes → Properties. 9. In the Axis Properties dialog, de-select Use data extents and change the range to 0 to 2. 10. Click the Vertical tab and repeat step 9. Click OK to apply these settings and close the dialog. Solution by Tutor Action Result in Document 1. Load the Student Calculus 1 package. Loading Student:-Calculus1 From the Tools menu, select Load Package → Student Calculus 1. 2. Enter the expression document block. in a blank 3. Right-click and select Tutors → Calculus - Single Variable → Function Inverse. The Function Inverse Tutor displays. 4. Adjust the domain to 5.8 Clickable Math • 229 Action Result in Document 5. When you are finished click Close. The plot of the function, its inverse, and the line is returned to the document. Example 5 - Methods of Integration - Trig Substitution Evaluate the integral by making the substitution We solve this problem using the following methods: • Immediate Evaluation of the Integral (page 229) • Solution by Integration Methods Tutor (page 230) • Solution by First Principles (page 231) Immediate Evaluation of the Integral Action 1. Enter the integral Result in Document in a blank document block region. 2. Right-click the expression and select Evaluate and Display Inline. = 230 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Solution by Integration Methods Tutor Action Result in Document 1. Load the Student Calculus 1 package. From Loading Student:-Calculus1 the Tools menu, select Load Package → Student Calculus 1. 2. Ctrl + drag the integrand to a blank document block region. 3. Right-click the expression and select Tutors → Calculus Single Variable → Integration Methods. The Integration Methods Tutor displays. 4. Perform a change of variables by selecting Change and entering x = 2*sin(u). 5.8 Clickable Math • 231 Action Result in Document 5. Apply the constant rule by clicking Constant. 6. To revert back to the original variable, click Revert. 7. Now that the integral has been evaluated, click Close to close the tutor and return the evaluated integral to the document. Solution by First Principles Action 1. Ctrl + drag the integrand Result in Document to a blank document block region and press Enter. Perform trig substitution: 2. Right-click the output and select Evaluate at a point. In the dialog that displays, enter 2*sin(u). 3. Right-click the output and select Simplify → Symbolic. (5.9) 232 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Calculate Result in Document : 4. In a blank document block, enter the substitution equation: and press Enter. 5. Right-click the output and select Differentiate → Implicitly. In the dialog that displays, change the Independent Variable to u. (5.10) Calculate the integral in terms of : 6. Referencing the results by their equation labels, multiply the original simplifie expression by this derivative. (5.11) 7. Integrate the resulting expression. (5.12) Revert the substitution: 8. Place the equation in a blank document block. Delete and insert the equation label for the previous result, the value of the integral in terms of Press Enter. 9. Right-click the output and select Solve → Solve for Variable → u. The solution is Example 6 - Initial Value Problem Solve and plot the solution of the initial value problem 5.8 Clickable Math • 233 Solution by ODE Analyzer Assistant The ODE Analyzer Assistant lets you solve ODEs numerically or symbolically and displays a plot of the solution. Action 1. Enter the ODE in a blank document block region. 2. Right-click the equation and select Solve DE Interactively. The ODE Analyzer Assistant displays with the ODE automatically inserted. To insert the initial conditions: 3. In the Conditions region, click Edit. The Edit Conditions dialog opens. 4. In the Add Condition region, with y selected in the drop-down menu, enter 0 in the firs text fiel to the right and 2 in the second text field Click Add. Your entry should match the one shown to the right. Result in Document 234 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving Action Result in Document 5. To enter the initial condition for select y' from the drop-down menu. In the text fields enter 0 and -1. Click Add. Click Done to close this dialog and return to the main dialog. Notice that the initial conditions are in the Conditions section. 6. Click Solve Numerically. A new dialog appears. 7. Click Solve to solve the initial value problem. 8. Click Plot to plot the solution of the DE. 5.8 Clickable Math • 235 Action Result in Document 9. Click the Plot Options button to modify the default graph, if desired. 10. Click Quit to close the ODE Analyzer and return a plot of the solution to the document. 236 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving 6 Plots and Animations Maple can generate many forms of plots, allowing you to visualize a problem and further understand concepts. • Maple accepts explicit, implicit, and parametric forms to display 2-D and 3-D plots and animations. • Maple recognizes many coordinate systems. • All plot regions in Maple are active; therefore, you can drag expressions to and from a plot region. • Maple offers numerous plot options, such as axis styles, title, colors, shading options, surface styles, and axis ranges, which give you complete control to customize your plots. For a reference to the types of plots available in Maple, see the Plotting Guide. 6.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Creating Plots (page 238) - Interactive and command- • Interactive Plot Builder driven methods to display 2-D and 3-D plots • Context Menu • Dragging to a Plot Region • The plot and plot3d Commands • The plots Package • Multiple Plots in the Same Plot Region Customizing Plots (page 263) - Methods for applying • Interactive Plot Builder Options plot options before and after a plot displays • Context Menu Options • The plot and plot3d Command Options Analyzing Plots (page 269) - Plot analyzing tools • Point Probe • Rotate • Pan • Zoom Representing Data (page 270) - Templates for visual • The Live Data Plots Palette representation of your data • Interactive Plot Builder Creating Animations (page 270) - Interactive and command-driven methods to display animations • The plots[animate] Command • The plot3d[viewpoint] Command 237 238 • 6 Plots and Animations Section Topics Playing Animations (page 276) - Tools to run anima- • Animation Context Bar tions Customizing Animations (page 277) - Methods for • Interactive Plot Builder Animation Opapplying plot options before and after an animation tions displays • Context Menu Options • The animate Command Options Exporting (page 280) - Methods for exporting plots • Saving Plots to File Formats Code for Color Plates (page 280) - Information on color plates • Accessing Code for the Color Plates 6.2 Creating Plots Maple offers several methods to easily plot an expression. These methods include: • The Interactive Plot Builder • Context menus • Dragging to a plot region • Commands Each method offers a unique set of advantages. The method you use depends on the type of plot to display, as well as your personal preferences. Interactive Plot Builder The Interactive Plot Builder is a point-and-click interface to the Maple plotting functionality. The interface displays plot types based on the expression you specify. The available plot types include plots, interactive plots, animations, or interactive animations. Depending on the plot type you select, you can create a: • 2-D / 3-D plot • 2-D polar plot • 2-D / 3-D conformal plot of a complex-valued function • 2-D / 3-D complex plot • 2-D density plot • 2-D gradient vector-fiel plot • 2-D implicit plot 6.2 Creating Plots • 239 Using the Interactive Plot Builder, you can: 1. Specify the plotting domain before you display the graph 2. Specify the endpoints of the graph as symbolic, such as Pi or sqrt(2) 3. Select different kinds of graphs, such as animations or interactive plots with slider control of a parameter; that is, customize and display a plot by selecting from the numerous plot types and applying plot options without any knowledge of plotting command syntax 4. Apply the discont=true option for a discontinuous graph The output from the Interactive Plot Builder is a plot of the expression or the command used to generate the plot in the document. To launch the Interactive Plot Builder: • From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Plot Builder. Note: The Tools menu also offers tutors to easily generate plots in several academic subjects. For more information, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194). Table 6.1: Windows of the Interactive Plot Builder 1. Specify Expressions window 2. Select Plot Type window 1. Specify Expressions window - Add, edit, or remove expressions and variables. Once finished you can advance to the Select Plot Type window. 2. Select Plot Type window - Select the plot type and corresponding plot, and edit the ranges. Once finished you can display the plot or advance to the Plot Options window. 240 • 6 Plots and Animations 3. Plot Options window 3. Plot Options window - Apply plot options. Once finished you can display the plot or return the command that generates the plot to the document. Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression Maple can display two-dimensional graphs and offers numerous plot options such as color, title, and axis styles to customize the plot. 6.2 Creating Plots • 241 Launch the Interactive Plot Builder: 1. Make sure that the cursor is in a Maple input region. 2. From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Plot Builder. Notes: 1. In worksheet mode, Maple inserts plots[interactive](); in the Maple document. Entering this command at the Maple prompt also opens the Plot Builder. 2. Interaction with the document is disabled while the Plot Builder is running. Enter an expression: 3. In the Specify Expressions window: a. Add the expression, sin(x)/x. b. Click OK to proceed to the Select Plot Type window. Plot the expression: 4. In the Select Plot Type window, notice the default setting of a 2-D plot type and an x axis range, . Notice also the various plot types available for this expression. 5. Click Plot. To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249) Example 2 - Display a plot of multiple expressions in 1 variable Maple can display multiple expressions in the same plot region to compare and contrast. The Interactive Plot Builder accepts multiple expressions. Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter the expressions: 1. Launch the Interactive Plot Builder. The Plot Builder accepts expressions in 1-D Math and performs basic calculations on expressions. For example, entering diff(sin(x^2), x) in the Specify Expression window performs the calculation and displays the expression as 2*cos(x^2)*x in the Expression group box. 2. In the Specify Expressions window: • In three separate steps, add the expressions sin(x^2), diff(sin(x^2),x), and int(sin(x^2), x). Change the x-axis range: 3. In the Select Plot Type window: a. Change the x Axis range to -Pi .. Pi. b. Click Options to proceed to the Plot Options window. 242 • 6 Plots and Animations Launch the Plot Options window and return the plot command syntax to the document: 4. Click Command. Display the actual plot: 5. Execute the inserted command to display the plot by using the context menu item Evaluate. > By default, Maple displays each plot in a plot region using a different color. You can also apply a line style such as solid, dashed, or dotted for each expression in the graph. For more information, refer to the plot/options help page. To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249) Example 3 - Display a plot of a multi-variate expression Maple can display three-dimensional plots and offers numerous plot options such as light models, surface styles, and shadings to allow you to customize the plot. Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression: 1. Add the expression (1+sin(x*y))/(x^2+y^2). In the Select Plot Type window: 2. Notice the available plot types for an expression with 2 variables, as well as the plot objects for each type. 3. Click Options. In the Plot Options window: 4. From the Variables column at the top of the dialog, change the Range from fiel to 0 .. 0.05. 5. From the Label column, enter z. 6. From the Style group box, select surface. 7. From the Color group box, in the Light Model drop-down menu, select green-red. 8. From the Color group box, in the Shading, drop-down menu, select z (grayscale). 9. From the Miscellaneous group box, in the Grid Size drop-down menu, select 40, 40. Plot the expression: 10. Click Plot. To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249) 6.2 Creating Plots • 243 Example 4 - Display a conformal plot Maple can display a conformal plot of a complex expression mapped onto a two-dimensional grid or plotted on the Riemann sphere in 3-D. Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression: 1. Add the expression z^3. In the Select Plot Type window: 2. From the Select Plot group box, select 2-D conformal plot of a complex-valued function. 3. Change the range of the z parameter to 0 .. 2+2*I. In the Plot Options window: 4. From the Axes group box, select normal. 5. From the Miscellaneous group box, select the Grid Size drop-down menu option 30, 30. Plot the expression: 6. Click Plot. Example 5 - Display a plot in polar coordinates Cartesian (ordinary) coordinates is the Maple default. Maple also supports numerous other coordinate systems, including hyperbolic, inverse elliptic, logarithmic, parabolic, polar, and rose in two-dimensions, and bipolar cylindrical, bispherical, cylindrical, inverse elliptical cylindrical, logarithmic cosh cylindrical, Maxwell cylindrical, tangent sphere, and toroidal in three-dimensional plots. For a complete list of supported coordinate systems, refer to the coords help page. Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression: 1. Add the expression 1+4*cos(4*theta). Change the x-axis range: 2. In the Select Plot Type window: a. With 2-D polar plot selected, change the Angle of theta to 0 .. 8*Pi. In the Plot Options window: 3. From the Color group box, select Magenta. Plot the expression: 4. Click Plot. To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249) 244 • 6 Plots and Animations Example 6 - Interactive Plotting Using the Interactive Plot Builder, you can plot an expression with several of its variables set to numeric values. The Interactive Parameter window allows you to interactively adjust these numeric values within specifie ranges to observe their effect. To access this window, enter an expression with two or more variables and select Interactive Plot with x parameter from the Select Plot Type and Functions drop-down menu. Figure 6.1: Interactive Parameter Window Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression: 1. Add the expression x+3*sin(x*t). 6.2 Creating Plots • 245 In the Select Plot Type window: 2. From the Select Plot group box, select Interactive Plot with 1 parameter. 3. Change the range of the x-axis to 0 .. 2*Pi. 4. Change the t range to 0 .. 10. 5. Click Plot to open the Interactive Parameter window. Note: To apply plot options before interactively adjusting the plot, click Options to open the Plot Options window. After setting the plot options, click Plot to display the Interactive Parameter window. 6. To adjust the numeric values, use the slider. 7. Click Done to place the plot in the Maple document. To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249) For information on customizing plots using the Interactive Plot Builder, refer to Customizing Plots: Interactive Plot Builder Options (page 263). Context Menu A context menu in Maple displays a list of commands to manipulate, display, or calculate using a Maple expression. The commands in the menu depend on the type of the expression. To display the context menu for a Maple expression, right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the expression. For expressions, the context menu lists: • 2-D or 3-D plot • 2-D or 3-D implicit plot • Interactive Plot Builder based on the expression selected. When you invoke the Interactive Plot Builder through the context menu, the expression automatically passes to the builder, and Maple does not display the Specify Expression window. 246 • 6 Plots and Animations One advantage of using the context menu is the simplicity of creating an expression using menus. By using this method, you do not need any knowledge of plot command syntax. 1. Enter and evaluate an expression, for example, 2. Right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the expression. 3. From the context menu, select Plots → 3-D Plot → x,y. 6.2 Creating Plots • 247 > (6.1) 248 • 6 Plots and Animations For information on customizing plots using the context menu, see Context Menu Options (page 264). Dragging to a Plot Region To use the drag-and-drop method, use the plot region created by one of the other methods or insert an empty plot region into the document. Empty plot regions can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Advantages of the drag-and-drop method include the ease of adding and removing plots and the independence from plotting command syntax. Example: 1. From the Insert menu, select Plot → 2-D. 2. Enter the expression in an input region. 3. When dragging an expression to a plot region, you can either make a copy of the expression from the input region or you can cut the expression, thereby removing it from the input region. To make a copy of the expression, select the full expression in the input region and press Ctrl (Command, Macintosh) while you drag the expression to the plot region. To cut the expression and paste it in the plot region, highlight the expression and drag it to the plot region. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 using the following expressions: and 5. To remove an expression from the plot region, drag-and-drop the expression plot from the plot region to a Maple input region. 6.2 Creating Plots • 249 The plot and plot3d Commands The fina method for creating plots is entering plotting commands. The main advantages of using plotting commands are the availability of all Maple plot structures and the greater control over the plot output. Plot options are discussed in Customizing Plots (page 263). Table 6.2: The plot and plot3d Commands plot(plotexpression, x=a..b, ...) plot3d(plotexpression, x=a..b, y=a..b, ...) • plotexpression - expression to be plotted • x=a..b - name and horizontal range • y=a..b - name and vertical range Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder The following examples show the plotting commands returned by the examples in Interactive Plot Builder (page 238). 250 • 6 Plots and Animations Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression > Example 2 - Display a plot of multiple expressions in 1 variable To display multiple expressions in a plot, include the expressions in a list. To enter and Palettes (page 21). use the Expression palette. For more information, see 6.2 Creating Plots • 251 > 252 • 6 Plots and Animations Example 3 - Display a plot of a multi-variable expression > Example 4 - Display a conformal plot A collection of specialized plotting routines is available in the plots package. For access to a single command in a package, use the long form of the command. 6.2 Creating Plots • 253 > 254 • 6 Plots and Animations Example 5 - Display a plot in polar coordinates > 6.2 Creating Plots • 255 Example 6 - Interactive Plotting > For more information on the plot options used in this section, refer to the plot/options and plot3d/options help pages. Display a Parametric Plot Some graphs cannot be specifie explicitly. In other words, you cannot write the dependent variable as a function of the independent variable, One solution is to make both the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate depend upon a parameter. 256 • 6 Plots and Animations > Display a 3-D Plot Maple can plot an expression of two variables as a surface in three-dimensional space. To customize the plot, include plot3d options in the calling sequence. For a list of plot options, see The plot and plot3d Options (page 267). 6.2 Creating Plots • 257 > The plots Package The plots package contains numerous plot commands for specialized plotting. This package includes: animate, contourplot, densityplot, fieldplo , odeplot, matrixplot, spacecurve, textplot, tubeplot, and more. For details about this package, refer to the plots help page. > The pointplot Command To plot numeric data, use the pointplot command in the plots package with the data organized in a list of lists structure of the form By default, Maple does not connect the points. To draw a line through the points, use the style = line option. For further analysis of data points, use the Curve Fitting Assistant (Tools→Assistants→CurveFitting), which fit and plots a curve through the points. For more information, refer to the CurveFitting[Interactive] help page. 258 • 6 Plots and Animations > The matrixplot Command The matrixplot command plots the values of a plot object of type Matrix. The matrixplot command accepts options such as heights and gap to control the appearance of the plot. For more information on Matrices, see Linear Algebra (page 155). > 6.2 Creating Plots • 259 > > > 260 • 6 Plots and Animations The contourplot Command The contourplot command generates a topographical map for an expression or function. To create a smoother and more precise plot, increase the number of points using the numpoints option. 6.2 Creating Plots • 261 > Multiple Plots in the Same Plot Region List of Expressions To display multiple expressions in the same plot region, enter the expressions in a list data structure. To distinguish the surfaces, apply different shading options, styles, or colors to each surface. 262 • 6 Plots and Animations > The display Command To display different types of plots in the same plot region, use the display command in the plots package. This example plots a curve over a hill with the shadow of the curve projected onto the hill. > > > > Maple can draw curves in three-dimensional space. 6.3 Customizing Plots • 263 > > > > 6.3 Customizing Plots Maple provides many plot options to display the most aesthetically pleasing, illustrative results. Plot options include line styles, colors, shadings, axis styles, and titles where applicable. Plot options are applied using the Interactive Plot Builder, the context menus, or as options in the command syntax. Interactive Plot Builder Options The Interactive Plot Builder offers most of the plot options available in Maple in an easyto-use interface. 264 • 6 Plots and Animations Example: Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter the expression: 1. Add the expression 2*x^5-10*x^3+6*x-1. For information on interacting with the Interactive Plot Builder, see Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression (page 240). Set the x-axis range: 2. In the Select Plot Type window, change the x-axis range to -2 .. 2. In the Plot Options window: 3. From the Line group box, select dot from the left drop-down menu. 4. From the Color group box, select Blue. 5. From the Axes group box, select frame. 6. From the Title group box, enter My Plot in the text field Plot the expression: 7. Click Plot. Context Menu Options Using the context menu, you can alter a plot by right-clicking (Control-click for Macintosh) the plot output. You can also access a large subset of plot options using the Plot toolbar and Plot menu options. These menus display when a plot region is selected. Regardless of the method used to insert a plot into Maple, you can use the context menu to apply different plot options. For a list of options available when plotting in two and three dimensions, see The plot and plot3d Options (page 267). 2-D Plot Options Some plots do not display as you would expect using default option values. A expression with a singularity is one such example. 6.3 Customizing Plots • 265 > In the previous plot, all interesting details of the plot are lost because there is a singularity at x = 1. The solution is to view a narrower range, for example, from y = 0 to 7. Alter the y-axis range: 1. Right-click the plot region. Select Axes, and then Properties. 2. In the Axes Properties dialog, click the Vertical tab. 3. Clear the Use data extents check box and enter 0 and 7 in the Range min and Range max text regions, respectively. 4. Click Apply to view the changes, or OK to return to the document. Change the color: 5. Place the mouse pointer on the curve and right-click (Control-click, Macintosh). Note: The curve is selected when it becomes highlighted. 6. Select Color, and then Green. Change the line style: 7. Select Style, and then Point. 266 • 6 Plots and Animations 3-D Plot Options By default, Maple displays the graph as a shaded surface with a wireframe and scales the plot to fi the window. To change these options, use the context menu. > Maple has many preselected light source configurations Change the style: 1. Right-click the plot region. Select Style → Surface. Apply a light scheme: 2. Select Lighting → Light 1. Change the color: 3. Select Color → Z (Grayscale). Change the axes style: 4. Select Axes → Boxed. 6.3 Customizing Plots • 267 Alter the glossiness: 5. Select Glossiness and then select Set.... Using the slider, adjust the level of glossiness. The plot and plot3d Options If you are using commands to insert a plot, you can specify plot options as arguments at the end of the calling sequence. You can specify the options in any order. Applying plot options in the command syntax offers a few more options and greater control than what is available in the Interactive Plot Builder and context menus. Table 6.3: Common Plot Options Option axes caption color font glossiness (3-D) gridlines (2-D) lightmodel (3-D) linestyle legend (2-D) numpoints scaling shading (3-D) style symbol title thickness transparency (3-D) view Description Define the type of axes, one of: boxed, frame, none, or normal Define the caption for the plot Define a color for the curves to be plotted Define the font for text objects in the plot Controls the amount of light reflecte from the surface Define gridlines in the plot Controls the light model to illuminate the plot, one of: none, light1, light2, light3, or light4 Define the dash pattern used to render lines in the plot, one of: dot, dash, dashdot, longdash, solid, spacedash, and spacedot Define a legend for the plot Controls the minimum total number of points generated Controls the scaling of the graph, one of: constrained or unconstrained Define how the surface is colored, one of: xyz, xy, z, zgrayscale, zhue, or none Define how the surface is to be drawn, one of: line, point, polygon, or polygonoutline for 2-D plots; contour, point, surface, surfacecontour, surfacewireframe, wireframe, or wireframeopaque for 3-D plots Define the symbol for points in the plot, one of: asterisk, box, circle, cross, diagonalcross, diamond, point, solidbox, solidcircle, or soliddiamond for 2-D plots; asterisk, box, circle, cross, diagonalcross, diamond, point, solidsphere, or sphere for 3-D plots Define a title for the plot Define the thickness of lines in the plot Controls the transparency of the plot surface Define the minimum and maximum coordinate values of the axes displayed on the screen For a complete list of plot options, refer to the plot/options and plot3d/options help pages. 268 • 6 Plots and Animations > To create a smoother or more precise plot, calculate more points using the numpoints option. 6.4 Analyzing Plots • 269 > 6.4 Analyzing Plots Point Probe, Rotate, Pan, and Zoom Tools To gain further insight into a plot, Maple offers various tools to analyze plot regions. These tools are available in the Plot menu menu, Context Bar, and in the context menu under Transform when the plot region is selected. Table 6.4: Plot Analysis Options Name Point probe (2-D) Rotate (3-D) Icon Description Display the coordinates corresponding to the cursor position on a two-dimensional plot in the context bar (upper left-hand corner). Rotate a three-dimensional plot to see it from a different point of view. 270 • 6 Plots and Animations Name Pan Zoom Selection Tool Icon Description Pan the plot by changing the view ranges for 2-D plots; smartplots resample to reflec the new view. Change the position of the plot in the plot region for 3-D plots. Zoom into or out of the plot by changing the view ranges for 2-D plots; smartplots re-sample to reflec the new view. Make the plot larger or smaller in the plot window for 3-D plots. Use the Selection Tool to select the information displayed in the point probe tool tooltip. You can choose to display coordinates derived from converted pixel coordinates or data points derived from the original data points. 6.5 Representing Data The Live Data Plots palette has templates that allow you to represent your data in many different ways including: • Area chart • Bar chart • Box plot • Bubble plot • Histogram • Line chart • Pie chart • Scatter plot Once you select a type of plot, an interactive environment allows you to change a number of options to refin the look of your plot. As you refin your plot, Maple automatically updates the plot command with your options. If the Live Data Plots palette is not displayed in the palette dock, from the main menu select View → Palettes → Arrange Palettes, and then select Live Data Plots from the Arrange Palettes dialog. 6.6 Creating Animations Animations allow you to emphasize certain graphical behavior, such as the deformation of a bouncing ball, more clearly than in a static plot. A Maple animation is a number of plot frames displayed in sequence, similar to the action of movie frames. To create an animation, use the Interactive Plot Builder or commands. 6.6 Creating Animations • 271 Interactive Plot Builder Creating Animations Using the Interactive Plot Builder: Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter the expression: 1. Add the expression sin(i*sqrt(x^2+y^2)/10). For information on interacting with the Interactive Plot Builder, see Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression (page 240). In the Select Plot Type window: 2. From the Select Plot Type drop-down menu, select Animation. 3. The default x Axis range is -2*Pi .. 2*Pi. Change the x Axis range to -6 .. 6. 4. The default yAxis range is -2*Pi .. 2*Pi. Change the y Axis range to -6 .. 6. 5. Change the Animation Parameter (i) range to 1 .. 30. In the Plot Options window: 6. From the Style group box, select surface. 7. From the Color group box, in the Light Model drop-down menu, select red-turquoise. 8. From the Color group box, in the Shading drop-down menu, select z (grayscale). 9. In the View group box, select the Constrained Scaling check box. Plot the expression: 10. Click Plot. > For information on playing the animation, see Playing Animations (page 276). To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple Syntax for Creating Animations: Interactive Plot Builder Example (page 272). The plots[animate] Command You can also use the animate command, in the plots package, to generate animations. 272 • 6 Plots and Animations Table 6.5: The animate Command animate(plotcommand, plotarguments, t=a..b, ...) animate(plotcommand, plotarguments, t=L, ...) • plotcommand - Maple procedure that generates a 2-D or 3-D plot • plotarguments - arguments to the plot command • t=a..b - name and range of the animation parameter • t=L - name and list of real or complex constants To access the command, use the short form name after invoking the with(plots) command. > Maple Syntax for Creating Animations: Interactive Plot Builder Example The following example shows the plotting command returned by the example in Interactive Plot Builder (page 271). 6.6 Creating Animations • 273 > 274 • 6 Plots and Animations Animate a 2-D plot > For more information on the animate command, refer to the plots[animate] help page. The plot3d[viewpoint] Command You can use the viewpoint command to create an animation in which the position from which you view a 3-D plot moves in all directions and in various angles around the plot surface based on coordinates and parameters you specify. This type of animation creates the effect of flyin through, around, beside, towards, and away from a plot surface in threedimensional space. The moveable position from which you view the surface is called the camera. You can specify the orientation of the camera to view different sides of a surface, the path along which the camera moves throughout and around a surface, and the location of the camera in 3-D space in each animation frame. For example, you can specify coordinates to move the camera to specifi points beside a surface; a pre-define camera path to move the camera in a circle around the surface; and the range of view to move the camera close to or away from the surface. Refer to the viewpoint help page for information on the available options. 6.6 Creating Animations • 275 To animate the following examples, click the plot object and then click the play button ( in the Animation context bar. ) Example 1: Moving the Camera Around a 3-D Plot In the following example, a pre-define path circleleft moves the camera in a counterclockwise circle around the plot surface. > Example 2: Specifying a Path to Move the Camera Towards and Around a 3-D Plot In the following example, a camera path is specifie to zoom into and view different sides of the plot surface. 276 • 6 Plots and Animations > 6.7 Playing Animations Animation Context Bar To run the animation, click the plot to display the Animate context bar. Table 6.6: Animation Options Name Previous Frame Stop Icon Description View the previous frame in the animation. Stop the animation. Play Play the selected animation. Next Frame View the next frame in the animation. Current Frame Slider control for viewing individual frames of an animated plot. 6.8 Customizing Animations • 277 Name Forward Icon Oscillate Backward Single Continuous Frames per second Point probe Zoom Pan Rotate (3-D) Description Forward - Play the animation forward. Oscillate - Play the animation forward and backward. Backward - Play the animation backward. Single - Run the animation in single cycle mode. The animation is displayed only once. Continuous - Run the animation in continuous mode. The animation repeats until you stop it. Set the animation to play at a faster or slower speed. Determine the coordinates of a 2-D plot at the position of the cursor. Zoom into or out of the plot by changing the view ranges. Pan the plot by changing the view ranges. Rotate a three-dimensional plot to see it from a different point of view. You can also run the animation using the context menu or the Plot menu. 6.8 Customizing Animations The display options that are available for static plots are also available for Maple animations. Interactive Plot Builder Animation Options Using the Interactive Plot Builder, you can apply various plot options within the Plot Options window. See Interactive Plot Builder (page 271). Context Menu Options As with static plots, you can apply plot options to the animation by right-clicking (Control-click for Macintosh) the animation output. (6.2) 278 • 6 Plots and Animations Customize the animation using the context menu: 1. To change the line style, right-click the plot region. Select Style → Point. 2. To remove the axes, select Axes → None. The animate Command Options The animate command offers a few options that are not available for static plots. Refer to the animate help page for information on these additional options. By default, a two-dimensional animation consists of sixteen plots (frames) and a three-dimensional animation consists of eight plots (frames). To create a smoother animation, increase the number of frames using the frames option. Note: Computing more frames increases time and memory requirements. > > 6.8 Customizing Animations • 279 > 280 • 6 Plots and Animations 6.9 Exporting You can export a generated plot or animation to an image in various fil formats, including DXF and X3D (for 3-D plots), EPS, GIF, JPEG/JPG, POV, Windows BMP, and WMF. Exporting an animation to GIF produces an animated image file The exported images can be included in presentations, web pages, Microsoft Word, or other software. To export an image: 1. Right-click the plot region (Control-click for Macintosh). 2. Select Export and the fil format. Alternatively: 1. Click the plot. 2. From the Plot menu, select Export, and then the fil format. Maple has various plot drivers. By setting the plotdevice, a fil can be automatically created without returning the image to the document. For more information, refer to the plot,device help page. 6.10 Code for Color Plates Generating impressive graphics in Maple can require only a few lines of code, as shown by the examples in this chapter. However, other graphics require many lines of code. Code for the color plates is available at the Maple Application Center. From the Help menu, select On the Web, User Resources, and then Application Center. To access the color plate code: 1. Go to the Maple Application Center. 2. In the Keyword or phrase region, enter Color Plate. 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Maple allows you to create powerful documents as business and education tools, technical reports, presentations, assignments, and handouts. You can: • Copy, cut, and paste information • Format text for reports or course material • Add headers and footers • Insert images, tables, and symbols • Generate two- and three-dimensional plots and animations • Sketch in the document or on a plot • Insert hyperlinks to other Maple files web sites, or email addresses • Place instructions and equations side by side • Bookmark specifi areas • Easily update, revise, and distribute your documents In this chapter, we will create a document that demonstrates many of Maple's documentation features. For further examples, note that this guide was written using Maple. 7.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Document Formatting (page 282) - Add • Copy and Paste (page 283) various text formatting elements • Quick Character Formatting (page 283) • Quick Paragraph Formatting (page 285) • Character and Paragraph Styles (page 287) • Sections (page 294) • Headers and Footers (page 296) • Show or Hide Worksheet Content (page 297) • Indentation and the Tab Key (page 298) Commands in Documents (page 299) - • Document Blocks (page 299) Format and display or hide commands • Typesetting (page 302) in a document • Auto-Execute (page 302) 281 282 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Section Tables (page 304) - Create tables and modify their attributes Topics • Creating a table • Cell contents • Navigating table cells • Modifying Structural Layout • Modifying Physical Dimensions • Modifying Appearance • Printing Options • Execution Order • Tables in the Classic Worksheet Canvas (page 316) - Sketch an idea in • Insert a Canvas the document by inserting a canvas • Drawing • Canvas Style • Inserting Images Hyperlinks (page 320) and Bookmarks - • Inserting a Hyperlink in the Document Add hyperlinks to various sources • Linking to an Email Address, Dictionary Topic, Help Page, Maplet Application, Web Page, or Document • Bookmarks Embedded Components (page 326) - In- • Overview of available components sert buttons, sliders, and more in your • Example using a task template document Spell Checking (page 328) - Verify text • How to Use the Spellcheck Utility with the Maple spell checking utility • Selecting a Suggestion • User Dictionary Creating Graded Assignments (page 331) • Creating a Question - Create documents for automated testing • Viewing Questions in Maple and assessment • Saving Test Content Worksheet Compatibility (page 332) Compatibility Issues • Classic Worksheet interface does not support all Standard Worksheet interface features 7.2 Document Formatting To begin, create a new Maple document. From the File menu, select New → Document Mode. For this example, you can copy and paste text from any file The example text below is from a Maple help page, plot, but the formatting has been removed for demonstration purposes. 7.2 Document Formatting • 283 Copy and Paste You can cut, copy, and paste content within Maple documents, and from other sources. To copy an expression, or part of an expression, to another location on the document: 1. Select the expression, or part of the expression, to copy. 2. From the Edit menu, select Copy. 3. Place the cursor at the insertion point. 4. From the Edit menu, select Paste. Result: If you paste into a math input region, Maple interprets all the pasted content as input. If you paste into a text region, Maple interprets all the pasted content as text. However, note that 2-D Math retains its format in both input and text regions. When you copy and paste to another application, in general, Maple retains the original structure. Quick Character Formatting The Format→Character menu provides access to the following quick formatting features: Bold, Italic, Underline, Superscript, Subscript, Font Color, and Highlight Color. To modify text: 1. In the document, select the text to modify. 2. From the Format menu, select Character, and then the appropriate feature. 284 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents For example, in the pasted text, select "Calling Sequences" and apply Bold character formatting. Alternatively, use the context bar icons. For example, to apply a color to the parameters "f, x=x0..x1": • Font Color Context Bar Icon • Highlight Color Context Icon For font and highlight colors, you can select from Swatches, a color wheel, RGB values, or choose a color using the eye dropper tool. See Figure 7.1. Figure 7.1: Select Color Dialog In this example, choose a dark purple color, as in the help pages. To format this text as bold, click the Bold toolbar icon, Sequence" and format as bold. Result: . Also, select the text "Calling 7.2 Document Formatting • 285 Attributes Submenu: Setting Fonts, Character Size, and Attributes You can also change various character attributes such as font, character size, style, and color in one dialog. To modify text: 1. In the document, select text to modify. 2. From the Format menu, select Character, and then Attributes. The Character Style dialog opens. See Figure 7.2. Figure 7.2: Character Style Dialog Quick Paragraph Formatting The Format→Paragraph menu provides access to the following quick alignment features: Align Left, Center, Align Right, and Justify. 286 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents To modify a paragraph: 1. In the document, select the paragraph to modify. 2. From the Format menu, select Paragraph, and then the appropriate feature. Attributes Submenu: Spacing, Indent, Alignment, Bullets, Line Break, and Page Break You can change various paragraph attributes in one dialog. • From the Format menu, select Paragraph, and then Attributes. The Paragraph Style dialog opens. See Figure 7.3. • When changing spacing, you must indicate units (inches, centimeters, or points) in the Units drop-down list. Figure 7.3: Paragraph Style Dialog For example, in the pasted text, select all of the items under "Parameters", then open the Paragraph Style dialog. Notice that the spacing has already been set. In the Indent section, change the Left Margin indent to 10.0 pt. 7.2 Document Formatting • 287 In the Bullets and Numbering section, click the Style drop-down and select Dash. Click OK to close the dialog and apply the styles. Result: For more information, refer to the paragraphmenu help page. Character and Paragraph Styles Maple has predefine styles for characters and paragraphs. A style is a set of formatting characteristics that you can apply to text in your document to change the appearance of that text. When you apply a style, you apply a group of formats in one action. • A character style controls text font, size, color, and attributes such as bold and italic. To override the character style within a paragraph style, you must apply a character style or character formatting. • A paragraph style controls all aspects of a paragraph's appearance, such as text alignment, line spacing, and indentation. In Maple, each paragraph style includes a character style. 288 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Figure 7.4: Style Management Dialog Applying Character Styles By using the drop-down list in the document context bar, you can apply: • Existing Maple character styles. • New styles that you have created through the Style Management (Figure 7.4) and Character Style (Figure 7.5) dialogs. To apply a character style to text in your document: 1. Select the text to modify. 2. In the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your document, select an appropriate character style. All character styles are preceded by the letter C. The selected text now reflect the attributes of the character style you have chosen. 3. (Optional) If necessary, you can remove this style. From the Edit menu, select Undo. 7.2 Document Formatting • 289 Creating and Modifying Character Styles You can create custom character styles to apply to text, or change existing character styles. New styles are automatically added to the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your document. 1. From the Format menu, select Styles. The Style Management dialog opens. See Figure 7.4. To create a character style: • Click Create Character Style. The Character Style dialog opens. See Figure 7.5. • In the firs row of the dialog, enter a style name in the blank text region. To modify a character style: • From the style list, select the character style to modify. Recall that all character styles are preceded by the letter C, while paragraph styles are preceded by the letter P. • Click Modify. The Character Style dialog opens with the current attributes displayed. See Figure 7.5. For either action, continue: 2. Select the properties for the new character style, such as font, size, attributes, and color. In the font attributes, the Superscript and Subscript check boxes are mutually exclusive. When you select one of the two check boxes, the other is disabled. You must clear one before selecting the other. Note: A preview of the style is displayed in the last row of the Character Style dialog. 3. To save the style, click OK or to abandon, click Cancel. If you have modifie a style, all text in your document that uses the altered style is updated to reflec the changes. 290 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Figure 7.5: Definin a Character Style For example, in the pasted text, suppose we want to create a character style for the bold, purple parameter. • From the Format menu, select Styles, then click Create Character Style. • Enter the style name, "Placeholder", and then select the character attributes. In this case, click the Bold check box. Then click the Color button and choose a dark purple. Click OK to create the character style. Now you can apply the style to any text. Under Calling Sequences, select each list of parameters inside the command. To apply the style, from the Styles drop-down menu in the toolbar, select Parameter. Result: 7.2 Document Formatting • 291 Applying Paragraph Styles By using the drop-down list in the document context bar, you can apply: • Existing Maple paragraph styles. • New styles that you have created through the Style Management (Figure 7.4) and Definin a Paragraph Style (Figure 7.6) dialogs. To apply a Maple paragraph style to text in your document: 1. Select the text to modify. 2. In the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your document, select an appropriate paragraph style. All Maple paragraph styles are preceded by the letter P. The selected text now reflect the attributes of the paragraph style you have chosen. For example, to format the title of the pasted text as a title, firs select the line: "plot - create a two-dimensional plot". In the Styles drop-down, select Title. Result: 292 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents 3. (Optional) If necessary, you can remove this style. From the Edit menu, select Undo. Creating and Modifying Paragraph Styles You can create custom paragraph styles to apply to text, or change existing paragraph styles. New styles are automatically added to the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your document. 1. From the Format menu, select Styles. The Style Management dialog opens. See Figure 7.4. To create a paragraph style: • Click Create Paragraph Style. The Paragraph Style dialog opens. See Figure 7.6. • In the firs row of the dialog, enter a style name in the blank text field To modify a paragraph style: • Select a paragraph style to modify. Recall that all paragraph styles are preceded by the letter P. • Click Modify. The Paragraph Style dialog opens with the current attributes displayed. For either action, continue: 4. In the Units drop-down menu, select the units used to determine spacing and indentation. Select from inches (in), centimeters (cm), or points (pt). 5. Select the properties to use for this paragraph style, such as Spacing, Indent, Alignment, Bullets and Numbering, Page Break Before, and Linebreak. 6. To add or modify a font style, click Font. The Character Style dialog opens. For detailed instructions, see Creating and Modifying Character Styles (page 289). 7.2 Document Formatting • 293 7. To save the style, click OK, or to abandon, click Cancel. If you are modifying an existing style, all text in your document that uses the altered style is updated to reflec the changes. Figure 7.6: Definin a Paragraph Style Style Set Management: Saving Styles for Future Use You can use the style set of a particular document as the default style for all documents. 294 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Figure 7.7: Style Set Management Dialog For information on creating and managing style sets, see the worksheet/documenting/styles help page. Sections You can organize your document into sections, either before or after the text has been entered. Using the Insert Menu to Add Sections 1. Place the cursor in the paragraph or execution group above the location at which you want to insert a new section. • If the cursor is inside a section, Maple inserts the new section after the current section. 7.2 Document Formatting • 295 • If the cursor is in an execution group, Maple inserts the new section after the execution group. 2. From the Insert menu, select Section. An arrow marks the start of the section. 3. Enter the section heading. 4. Press the Enter key. 5. Enter the body of the section. Tips for Adding Subsections The insert location of subsections is the same as for sections, with a few exceptions. • Subsections are inserted at the current cursor location when in a subsection. • To insert a subsection immediately after the current subsection, collapse the subsection and place the cursor in the subsection title. Using the Indent and Outdent Toolbar Icons You can shift sections to create or remove subsections. Enclose the selection in a section or subsection Outdent the selection to the next section level, if possible. For example, to create two sections containing the two categories of information in the pasted text: 1. Select "Parameters" and all of the items under it. 2. Click the Indent toolbar item. 3. Cut and paste "Parameters" from inside the section to its title. 4. Similarly, create a section with the title "Calling Sequence", containing the items under that heading. 296 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Result: Note: the section titles are automatically formatted as section titles, but you can change the formatting through the Paragraph Style dialog. Headers and Footers You can add headers and footers to your document that will appear at the top and bottom of each page when you print the document. To add or edit headers and footers: From the View menu, select Header Footer. The Header Footer dialog appears. See Figure 7.8. Figure 7.8: Header and Footer Dialog - Custom Header The available elements include the current date, page number, number of pages, an image, the filename or any plain text. These elements can be placed in the left or right corner or the center of the page. 7.2 Document Formatting • 297 You can choose one of the predefine header or footer styles in the Predefine Header and Footer tab, or create your own by clicking the Custom Header or Custom Footer tab. For more information on header and footer options, refer to the headerfooter help page. Show or Hide Worksheet Content You can hide document elements of a specifi type so that they are not visible. This does not delete them, but hides them from view. Hidden elements are not printed or exported, but they can be copied and pasted. In a document, use the Show Contents dialog to hide all spreadsheets, input, output, or graphics, plus markers for section boundaries, execution group boundaries, hidden table borders on mouse pointer roll over, and annotations. The dialog is accessed from the View→Show/Hide Contents menu. Using the Show Contents Dialog A check mark beside the item indicates that all document elements of that type are displayed for the current document. See Figure 7.9. Figure 7.9: Show Contents Dialog 298 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents 1. From the View menu, select Show/Hide Contents. The Show Contents dialog opens with all items selected for display. 2. Clear the check box associated with the document components or markers to hide them. Note: By clearing the Input check box, only Maple Input and 2-D Math input, that is, 2-D Math content that has been evaluated, are hidden. Clearing the Graphics check box ensures that a plot, an image, or the Canvas inserted in the document by using the Insert menu option is also hidden. Command Output Versus Inserted Content Output is considered an element that results from executing a command. Inserted components are not considered output. Consider the following examples. The plot resulting from executing the plot(sin) command is considered output. • To show a plot from the plot(sin) command, select both the Output and Graphics check boxes in the Show Contents dialog. If you insert a plot by using the Insert menu option, that plot is not considered output. Therefore, if you clear the Output check box in the Show Contents dialog, that plot will be visible in the document. • To hide an inserted plot, clear the Graphics check box in the Show Contents dialog. Inserted images and the Canvas are not considered output. As such, they are not hidden if you clear the Output check box. • To hide an inserted image or canvas, clear the Graphics check box in the Show Contents dialog. Indentation and the Tab Key The Tab icon allows you to set the Tab key either to move between placeholders or to indent. For example, with the Tab icon off, click the exponent button in the Expression palette. The expression is inserted with the firs placeholder highlighted. To move to the next placeholder, use the Tab key. Tab icon off. Allows you to move between placeholders using the Tab key. The Tab icon is disabled when using 2-D Math (Math mode), and as such, the Tab key allows you to move between placeholders. Tab icon on. Allows you to indent in the document using the Tab key. 7.3 Commands in Documents • 299 7.3 Commands in Documents Document Blocks With document blocks, you can create documents that present text and math in formats similar to those found in business and education documents. In a document block, an input prompt or execution group is not displayed. By hiding Maple input such that only text and results are visible, you create a document with better presentation flo . Before using document blocks, it is recommended that you display Markers. A vertical bar is displayed along the left pane of the document. Icons representing document blocks are displayed in this vertical bar next to associated content. To activate Markers: • From the View menu, select Markers. For further details on document blocks, see Document Blocks (page 50) in Chapter 1. Working with Document Blocks In document mode, each time you press Enter, a new document block appears. Documents consist of a series of document blocks. 1. Create a new document block after the last section of the pasted example, either by pressing Enter, or by selecting, from the Format menu, Create Document Block. 2. Enter text and an expression to evaluate. For example, enter "Plot the expression and its derivative, ". For detailed instructions on entering this phrase, see Example 6 - Enter Text and 2-D Math in the Same Line Using Toolbar Icons (page 30) in Chapter 1. 3. Select the expression Control-click, for Macintosh) to display the context menu. 4. Click the Evaluate and Display Inline menu item. The expression is evaluated. 5. Check that the input mode is Text, then enter the rest of the sentence: ", in the same plot." See Figure 7.10. 300 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Before After Figure 7.10: Working with Document Blocks Result: Inline Document Output Document blocks can display content inline, that is, text, input, and output in one line as presented in business and education documents. In document mode, content is displayed inline by default. 7.3 Commands in Documents • 301 To display content inline: 1. Place the cursor in the document block. 2. From the View menu, select Inline Document Output. View Document Code To view the contents, that is, all code and expanded execution groups within a document block, you must expand the document block. 1. Place the cursor in the document block region. 2. From the View menu, select Expand Document Block. 3. To hide code again, select View and then Collapse Document Block. Expand an Execution Group within a Document Block An execution group is a grouping of Maple input with its corresponding Maple output. It is distinguished by a large square bracket at the left called a group boundary. As document blocks can contain many execution groups, you can select to expand an execution group within a document block. 1. Place the cursor near the end of the document block region. 2. From the View menu, select Expand Execution Group. 3. To hide the group, select View and then Collapse Execution Group. Switch between Input and Output 1. Place the cursor in the document block region. 2. From the View menu, select Toggle Input-Output Display. 302 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Input from any executable math or commands is displayed in one instance, or only output is displayed. Typesetting You can control typesetting and 2-D Math equation parsing options in the Standard Worksheet interface. Extended typesetting uses a customizable set of rules for displaying expressions. The rule-based typesetting functionality is available when the Typesetting level is set to Extended (Tools→Options→Display tab). This parsing functionality applies to 2-D Math editing (Math mode) only. For example, you can change the display of derivatives to suit the content and audience of your document. > > Tools→Options→Display tab: Typesetting level = Maple Standard. Tools→Options→Display tab: Typesetting level = Extended. To specify rules, use the Typesetting Rule Assistant. • From the View menu, select Typesetting Rules. The Typesetting Rule Assistant dialog opens. For more information, see the Typesetting, TypesettingRuleAssist, and OptionsDialogDisplay help pages. Auto-Execute The Autoexecute feature allows you to designate regions of a document for automatic execution. These regions are executed when the document opens or when the restart command is executed. This is useful when sharing documents. Important commands can be executed as soon as the user opens your document. The user is not required to execute all commands. For more information, refer to the restart help page. Setting the Auto-Execute Feature 1. Select the region to be automatically executed when the document opens. 2. From the Format menu, select Autoexecute, and then Set. 7.3 Commands in Documents • 303 Regions set to Autoexecute are denoted by exclamation mark symbols in the Markers region (View → Markers), . For example, to display a plot in your document without saving the plot, making your document use less memory, you can set a plot command to autoexecute. 1. After the plot instruction, enter a Maple prompt (Insert → Execution Group → After Cursor). 2. Enter the plot command: and press Enter to execute. 3. Select the plot, then select Edit → Remove Output → From Selection. 4. Place the cursor in the plot command, then select Format → Autoexecute → Set. 5. Save and close the document; on reopening, the command is re-executed. Result: Removing the Auto-Execute Setting To remove the setting in a region: 1. Select the region. 2. From the Format menu, select Autoexecute, and then Clear. To remove all autoexecuted regions from a document: • From the Format menu, select Autoexecute, and then Clear All. 304 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Repeating Auto-Execution To execute all marked groups: • From the Edit menu, select Execute, and then Repeat Autoexecution. Security Levels By default, Maple prompts the user before automatically executing the document. To set security levels for the autoexecute feature, use the Security tab in the Options dialog. For details, refer to the OptionsDialogSecurity help page. 7.4 Tables Tables allow you to organize content in a document. Creating a Table To create a table: 1. From the Insert menu, select Table. 2. Specify the number of rows and columns in the table creation dialog. 3. Click OK. The default properties for the table include visible borders and auto-adjustment to 100% of the document width. These options, as well as the table dimensions, can be modifie after table creation. Create a table with 4 rows and 2 columns at the end of your document. In document mode, the input mode is set to Math by default; in worksheet mode, the default is Text mode. Cell Contents Any content that can be placed into a document can also be placed into a table cell, including other sections and tables. Table cells can contain a mix of: • Input commands • 2-D Math • Embedded components: buttons, sliders, check boxes, and more • Plots 7.4 Tables • 305 • Images Enter a heading in both columns of the firs row, in 2-D Math. You can use any text formatting features within each cell; for example, bold and center the headings. Navigating Table Cells Use the Tab key to move to the next cell. Ensure that the Tab toolbar icon is off. Tab icon off. Allows you to move between cells using the Tab key. Tab icon on. Allows you to indent in the table using the Tab key. Tab between the cells of the table and enter the following expressions in the firs column. For each function, from the context menu, select Differentiate → With respect to → x. Cut and paste the resulting expression into the second column. Modifying the Structural Layout of a Table The number of rows and columns in a table are modifie using the Insert and Delete submenus in the Table menu or by using the Cut and Copy/Paste tools. Inserting Rows and Columns Row and column insertion is relative to the table cell that currently contains the cursor. If the document has an active selection, insertion is relative to the selection boundaries. • Column insertion can be to the left or right of the document position marker or selection. 306 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents • Row insertion can be above or below the marker or selection. In your table, add a third column on the right to display the plots of these expressions. Add the heading, and insert a blank plot region in each cell below it, by selecting Insert → Plot → 2-D (or 3-D for the second expression). Then Ctrl-drag (Control-drag for Macintosh) each expression in the row into its plot region to display it. For details on this procedure, see Plots and Animations (page 237). Resize the plots and table as desired. Plot of and Deleting Rows and Columns With deleting operations using the Delete key, the Delete Table Contents dialog opens allowing you to specify the desired behavior. For example, you can delete the selected rows, or delete the contents of the selected cells. See Figure 7.11. 7.4 Tables • 307 Figure 7.11: Delete Table Contents Verificatio Dialog Pasting Pasting a table subselection into a table may result in the creation of additional rows or columns, overwriting existing cell content, or the insertion of a subtable within the active table cell. When there is a choice, the Table Paste Mode dialog opens, allowing you to choose. See Figure 7.12. Figure 7.12: Table Paste Mode Selection Dialog Merging Cells To merge adjacent cells in a table, select the cells you would like to merge. From the Table menu, select Merge Cells. You can merge cells across row or column borders. See Figure 7.13. The resulting cell must be rectangular. The contents of the individual cells in the merge operation are concatenated in execution order. See Figure 7.14. For details on cell execution order, see Execution Order Dependency (page 313). > > Figure 7.13: Two Cells > > Figure 7.14: Merged Cells 308 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Modifying the Physical Dimensions of a Table The overall width of the table can be controlled in several ways. The most direct way is to press the left mouse button (press mouse button, for Macintosh) while hovering over the left or right table boundary and dragging the mouse left or right. Upon release of the mouse button, the table boundary is updated. This approach can also be used to resize the relative width of table columns. Alternatively, the size of the table can be controlled from the Table Properties dialog. Select the Table menu and then Properties. Two sizing modes are supported. 1. Fixed percentage of page width. Using this option, the table width adjusts whenever the width of the document changes. This option is useful for ensuring that the entire content of the table fit in the screen or printed page. 2. Scale with zoom factor. This option is used to preserve the size and layout of the table regardless of the size of the document window or the zoom factor. If the table exceeds the width of the document window, the horizontal scroll bar can be used to view the rightmost columns. Note: Using this option, tables may be incomplete when printed. Modifying the Appearance of a Table Table Borders The style of exterior and interior borders is set using the Table Properties dialog. From the Table menu, select Properties. • You can set all, none, or only some of the borders to be visible in a table. Exterior borders are controlled separately. • You can control the visibility of interior borders by using the Group submenu of the Table menu; grouping rows or columns suppresses interior borders, provided that the interior border style is set by row and column group. 7.4 Tables • 309 For example, group the columns together, and group rows 2 to 4 together. Then in the Table Properties dialog, select Exterior Borders: Top and bottom, and Interior Borders: By row and column group. • Hidden borders are visible when the mouse hovers over a table. Note: You can hide the visibility of lines on mouse pointer roll over by using the View→Show/Hide Contents dialog, and clearing the Hidden Table Borders check box. Alignment Options The table alignment tools control the horizontal alignment of columns and vertical alignment of rows. 310 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents For column alignment, the current selection is expanded to encompass all rows in the selected columns. The alignment choice applies to all cells within the expanded selection. If the document does not contain a selection, the cursor position is used to identify the column. Similarly, the selection is expanded to include all columns in the selected rows for vertical alignment options. The following table illustrates the vertical alignment options. The baseline option is useful for aligning equations across multiple cells within a row of a table. 7.4 Tables • 311 For example, set the Row alignment to Baseline for all rows, and set the Column alignment to Center for all columns. Cell Color You can set the background color of any cell or collection of cells to be any color. This coloring is independent of any highlighting or text color that may also be applied. To change the color of a cell, place the cursor in the cell, then from the Table menu, select Cell Color.... In the Select A Color dialog, choose a color from the swatches, the color wheel, or RGB. See the DrawingTools help page for details on color selection. 312 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents For example, select the firs row of the table and apply a light blue color. This sets the header off from the content below. Controlling the Visibility of Cell Content The Table Properties dialog includes two options to control the visibility of cell content. These options allow control over the visibility of Maple input and execution group boundaries. Thus, these elements can be hidden in a table even if they are set to visible for the document in the View→Show/Hide Contents dialog. Printing Options The Table Properties dialog contains options to control the placement of page breaks when printing. You can fi a table on a single page, allow page breaks between rows, or allow page breaks within a row. 7.4 Tables • 313 Execution Order Dependency The order in which cells are executed is set in the Table Properties dialog. The following tables illustrate the effect of execution order. Row-wise execution order > x:=1; > x:=x+1; (7.1) > x:=x+1; (7.2) > x:=x+1; (7.3) (7.4) Column-wise execution order > x:=1; > x:=x+1; (7.5) > x:=x+1; (7.6) > x:=x+1; (7.7) (7.8) Tables and the Classic Worksheet Tables are flattene on export to the Classic Worksheet interface. For example, the following table in the Standard Worksheet appears as one column in the Classic Worksheet interface. Table in Standard Worksheet Table in Classic Worksheet aaa bbb ccc aaa bbb ccc ddd eee fff ddd eee fff Additional Examples For more practice creating and manipulating tables, try creating the following tables at the end of your document. 314 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Table of Values This example illustrates how to set the visibility options for cell contents to display a table of values. > Create a table with 2 rows and 7 columns. Enter the values as below, and then select all table cells. In the Table → Alignment menu, select Columns, and then Center. 0 > 1 > 2 > 3 4 > > 5 > 6 > Table settings: In the Properties dialog (Table → Properties menu): 1. Set Table Size Mode to Scale with zoom factor. 2. Hide Maple input and execution group boundaries: Clear the Show input and Show execution group boundaries check boxes. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Formatting Table Headers The following table uses cell merging for formatting row and column headers, and row and column grouping to control the visibility of cell boundaries. By default, invisible cell boundaries are visible on mouse pointer roll over. You can hide the visibility of lines on mouse pointer roll over by using the View→Show/Hide Contents dialog, and clearing the Hidden Table Borders check box. Parameter 2 Parameter 1 Low High Low 13 18 High 24 29 7.4 Tables • 315 Table settings: 1. Insert a table with 4 rows and 4 columns and enter the information shown above. Using the Table menu: 2. Merge the following sets of (Row,Column) cells: (R1,C1) to (R2,C2), (R1,C3) to (R1,C4), and (R3,C1) to (R4,C1). 3. Group columns 1 and 2, and columns 3 and 4. 4. Group rows 1 and 2, and rows 3 and 4. In the Properties dialog (Table→Properties menu): 5. Set Exterior Borders to None. 6. (Optional) Change Table Size Mode size option to Scale with zoom factor. Using the Table menu: 7. Set Alignment of columns 3 and 4 to Center. 2-D Math and Plots The following example illustrates the use of tables to display 2-D Math and plots side by side. Approximating exp(-x) as a rational polynomial using a order Padé approximation. Insert a table with 1 row and 2 columns. Enter the information in text and executable 2-D Math to create the calculation and plot, as shown. 316 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Table Settings: In the Properties dialog (Table→Properties menu): 1. Set Exterior and Interior Borders to None. 2. Hide Maple input and execution group boundaries: Clear the Show input and Show execution group boundaries check boxes. Using the Table menu: 3. Change row Alignment to Center. 7.5 Canvas Using the drawing tools, you can sketch an idea in a canvas, draw on plots, and draw on images. See Figure 7.15. For details about the drawing feature, refer to the DrawingTools help page. Figure 7.15: Drawing Tools and Canvas 7.5 Canvas • 317 Insert a Canvas To insert a canvas: 1. Place the cursor where the canvas is to be inserted. 2. From the Insert menu, select Canvas. A canvas with grid lines appears in the document at the insertion point. The Drawing icon is available and associated context bar icons are displayed. The tools include the following: selection tool, pencil (free style drawing), eraser, text insert, straight line, rectangle, rounded rectangle, oval, diamond, alignment, drawing outline, drawing fill drawing linestyle, and drawing canvas properties. Drawing To draw with the pencil tool in the canvas: 1. From the Drawing icons, select the pencil icon. 2. Click and drag your mouse in the canvas to draw lines. Release the mouse to complete the drawing. To adjust the color of drawing tools: 1. From the Drawing icons, select the Drawing Outline icon. See Figure 7.16. 2. Select one of the color swatches available or select the color wheel, RGB ranges, or eye dropper icon at the bottom of the dialog and customize the color to your preference. 3. After selecting a new color, draw on the canvas using the pencil icon and notice the new color. Figure 7.16: Drawing Outline Color Icon In your document, there are three plots, two of which are 2-D plots that can be drawn on. All of the information in the table you made in the previous section could be drawn onto the plot, putting the information in a more concise layout. 318 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Consider one of the plots from the table: Click on the plot, and notice that the Plot toolbar is open. However, the Drawing toolbar is also available. Click on Drawing to see the toolbar. Select the Text icon, , and click on the plot. Enter the expression in one text area, and its derivative in another, as shown. You can move the text areas around on the plot so that they indicate the correct lines. For details on the rest of the drawing features, refer to the DrawingTools help page. Canvas Style You can alter the Canvas in the following ways: • Add a grid of horizontal and/or vertical lines. By default, the canvas opens with a grid of horizontal and vertical lines. • Change the grid line color. • Change the spacing between grid lines. • Change the background color. These options can be changed in the Drawing Properties Canvas Icon. See Figure 7.17. 7.5 Canvas • 319 Figure 7.17: Drawing Properties Canvas Icon - Change the Gridline Color Inserting Images You can insert images in these fil formats into your document. • Graphics Interchange Format - gif • Joint Photographic Experts Group - jpe, jpeg, jpg • Portable Network Graphics - png • Bitmap Graphics - bmp • Tagged Image File Format - tif, tiff, jfx • Portable aNyMap - pnm • Kodak FlashPix - fpx To insert an image into the document at the cursor location: 1. From the Insert menu, select Image. The Load Image dialog opens. 2. Specify a path or folder name. 3. Select a filename 4. Click Open. The image is displayed in the document. If the source fil is altered, the embedded image does not change because the original object is pasted into the document. 320 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents To resize an inserted image: 1. Click the image. Resizing anchors appear at the sides and corners of the image. 2. Move the mouse over the resize anchor. Resizing arrows appear. 3. Click and drag the image to the desired size. Note: To constrain the proportions of the image as it is resized, press and hold the Shift key as you drag. You can also draw on images in the same way as the drawing canvas. For more information, refer to the worksheet/documenting/drawingtools help page. ImageTools Package You can manipulate image data using the ImageTools package. This package is a collection of utilities for reading and writing common image fil formats, and for performing basic image processing operations within Maple. Within Maple, images are represented as dense, rectangular Arrays of 64-bit hardware floating-poin numbers. Grayscale images are 2-D, whereas color images are 3-D (the third dimension representing the color channels). In addition to the commands in the ImageTools package, many ordinary Array and Matrix operations are useful for image processing. For details about this feature, refer to the ImageTools help page. 7.6 Hyperlinks Use a hyperlink in your document to access any of the following. • Web Page (URL) • Email • Worksheet • Help Topic • Task • Dictionary Topic • Maplet 7.6 Hyperlinks • 321 Figure 7.18: Hyperlink Properties Dialog Inserting a Hyperlink in a Document To create a hyperlink from existing text in the document: 1. Highlight the text that you want to make a hyperlink. 2. From the Format menu, select Convert To and then Hyperlink. 3. In the Hyperlink Properties dialog box, the Link Text fiel is grayed out since the text region you highlighted is used as the link text. This is demonstrated in Figure 7.18. The highlighted text region, Diff is grayed out. 4. Specify the hyperlink Type and Target as described in the appropriate following section. To insert a text or image hyperlink into the document: 1. From the Insert menu, select Hyperlink. 2. In the Hyperlink Properties dialog box, enter the Link Text. Optionally, use an image as the link. Select the Image check box and click Choose Image for the file In .mw files the image appears as the link. You can resize the image as necessary. Click and drag from the corners of the image to resize. 3. Specify the hyperlink Type and Target as described in the appropriate following section. 322 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Linking to a Web Page To link to a Web page: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select URL. 2. In the Target field enter the full URL, for example, http://www.maplesoft.com. 3. Click OK. Linking to an Email Address To link to an email address: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select Email. 2. In the Target field enter the email address. 3. Click OK. Note: For information about email hyperlinks in the Classic Worksheet interface, see Worksheet Compatibility (page 332). Linking to a Worksheet To link to a Maple worksheet or document: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select Worksheet. 2. In the Target field enter the path and filenam of the document or click Browse to locate the file (Optional) In the Bookmark drop-down list, enter or select a bookmark. Note: To link within a single Maple document, leave the Target fiel blank and choose the bookmark from the Bookmark drop-down list. Note: When linking to a custom document, the path is absolute. When sharing documents that contain hyperlinks, ensure that target documents are in the same directory. 3. Click OK. Linking to a Help Page To link to a help page: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select Help Topic. 2. In the Target field enter the topic of the help page. (Optional) In the Bookmark dropdown list, enter or select a bookmark. 3. Click OK. 7.6 Hyperlinks • 323 Linking to a Task To link to a task: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select Task. 2. In the Target field enter the topic name of the task template (see the status bar at the bottom of the Task Browser window). 3. Click OK. Linking to a Dictionary Topic To link to a Dictionary topic: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select Dictionary Topic. 2. In the Target field enter a topic name. Dictionary topics begin with the prefi Definition , for example, Definition/dimensio . 3. Click OK. Linking to a Maplet Application To link to a Maplet application: 1. In the Type drop-down list, select Maplet. 2. In the Target field enter the local path to a fil with the .maplet extension. Optionally, click Browse to locate the file If the Maplet application exists, clicking the link launches the Maplet application. If the Maplet application contains syntax errors, then error messages are displayed in a pop-up window. When linking to a custom Maplet application, the path is absolute. When sharing documents that contain links to Maplet applications, ensure that target Maplet applications are in the same directory. 3. Click OK. Note: To link to a Maplet application available on a MapleNet Web page, use the URL hyperlink type to link to the Web page. For information on MapleNet, see Embedded Components and Maplets (page 385). Example For this example, link the text "horizontal range" to the dictionary page for domain. As indicated in the section for Linking to a Dictionary Topic, select Dictionary Topic in the Type drop-down list, and then enter Definition/domai in the Target field 324 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Links to dictionary topics appear underlined and in red. Result: Bookmarks Use a bookmark to designate a location in an active document. This bookmark can then be accessed from other regions in your document or by using hyperlinks in other documents. To display bookmark formatting icons, activate the Marker feature. • From the View menu, select Markers. Figure 7.19: Bookmark Indicator Note: You can display bookmark properties by holding the pointer over a bookmark indicator. See Figure 7.19. Inserting, Renaming, and Deleting a Bookmark To insert a bookmark: 1. Place the cursor at the location at which to place the bookmark. For example, place the cursor in the Parameters section title. 2. From the Format menu, select Bookmarks. The Bookmark dialog opens, listing existing bookmarks in the document. 7.6 Hyperlinks • 325 3. Click New. The Create Bookmark dialog opens. See Figure 7.20. Enter a bookmark name, "parameters", and click Create. Figure 7.20: Create Bookmark Dialog 4. The new bookmark appears in the Bookmark dialog list. Click OK. Note: You can also rename and delete bookmarks using the Bookmark dialog. Result: 326 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Go to a Bookmark You can automatically move the cursor to the location of the bookmark in the active document. 1. From the Edit menu, select Go To Bookmark. The Go To Bookmark dialog opens with the current bookmarks listed. 2. Select the bookmark "parameters" and click OK. The cursor moves to the bookmark, at the beginning of the Parameters section. For more information, refer to the bookmarks help page. 7.7 Embedded Components You can embed simple graphical interface components, such as a button, in your document. These components can then be associated with actions that are to be executed. For example, the value of a slider component can be assigned to a document variable, or a text fiel can be used to input an equation. Adding Graphical Interface Components The graphical interface components can be inserted by using the Components palette (Figure 7.21) or by cutting/copying and pasting existing components to another area of the document. Although copied components have most of the same characteristics, they are distinct. By default, palettes are displayed when you launch Maple. If palettes are not visible, use the following procedure. 1. From the View menu, select Palettes. 2. Select Expand Docks. 3. If the Components palette is not displayed, right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the palette dock. From the context menu, select Show Palette, and then Components. For more information, see Palettes (page 21). You can embed the following items. • Button, Toggle Button • Combo Box, Check Box, List Box, Radio Button • Text Area, Label • Slider, Plot, Mathematical Expression • Dial, Meter, Rotary Gauge, Volume Gauge • Data Table 7.7 Embedded Components • 327 Figure 7.21: Components Palette Task Template with Embedded Components In your document, you can add components that have already been configure to work together, by using a task template. Here, we use the Interactive Application template. For details on how to create and modify components, see Creating Embedded Components (page 388). To insert the task template, from the Tools menu, select Tasks → Browse. In the table of contents, expand Document Templates, and select Interactive Application. Click Insert Minimal Content. The following is inserted into your document. 328 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Figure 7.22: Interactive Application Task Template This configuratio of components plots a linear function with slope and y-intercept given and , and displays the function respectively by the two dials on a gauge. For details on how these components work together, see Embedded Components and Maplets (page 385). 7.8 Spell Checking The Spellcheck utility examines all designated text regions of your document for potential spelling mistakes, including regions that are in collapsed sections. It does not check input, output, text in execution groups, or math in text regions. See Figure 7.23. Note: The Spellcheck utility uses American spelling. 7.8 Spell Checking • 329 Figure 7.23: Spellcheck Dialog How to Use the Spellcheck Utility 1. From the Tools menu, select Spellcheck. Alternatively, press F7. The Spellcheck dialog appears. It automatically begins checking the document for potential spelling mistakes. 2. If the Spellcheck utility find a word that it does not recognize, that word is displayed in the Not Found text box. You have six choices: • To ignore the word, click Ignore. • To ignore all instances of the word, click Ignore All. • To change the word, that is, accept the suggested spelling that is in the Change To text box, click Change. • To change all instances of the word, that is, accept the suggested spelling to replace all instances of the word, click Change All. • To add the word to your dictionary, click Add. For details, see the following User Dictionary section. • To close the Spellcheck dialog and stop the spelling check, click Cancel. 3. When the Spellcheck is complete, a dialog containing the message "The spelling check is complete" appears. Click OK to close this dialog. 330 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents Note: when using the Spellcheck utility, you can fi spelling errors in the dialog, but you cannot change the text in document. The Spellcheck utility does not check grammar. Selecting a Suggestion To select one of the suggestions as the correct spelling, click the appropriate word from the list in the Suggestions text box. If none of the suggestions are correct, highlight the word in the Change To text box and enter the correct spelling. Click Change to accept this new spelling. User Dictionary You can create and maintain a custom dictionary that works with the Maple Spellcheck utility. Properties of the Custom Dictionary File • It must be a text file that is, have the fil extension .txt. For example, mydictionary.txt. • It is a list of words, one word per line. • It is case sensitive. This means that integer and Integer require individual entries in the dictionary file • It does not require manual maintenance. You build your dictionary fil by using the Add functionality of the Spellcheck. However, you can manually edit the file To specify a custom dictionary to be used with the Maple Spellcheck utility: 1. Create a .txt fil in a directory/folder of your choice. 2. In Maple, open the Options dialog, Tools → Options, and select the General tab. 3. In the User Dictionary field enter the path and name of the .txt fil you created, or click Browse to select the location and filename 4. To ignore Maple words that are command and function names, clear the Use Maple words in spellchecker check box. 5. Click Apply to Session or Apply Globally to save the settings, or Cancel to discard. Adding a Word to Your Dictionary When running the spellcheck, if the word in the Not Found text box is correct, you can add the word to your dictionary. 1. Click the Add button. If this is the firs time you are adding a word, the Select User Dictionary dialog opens. 2. Enter or select the custom dictionary (.txt file you created. See User Dictionary (page 330). 7.9 Creating Graded Assignments • 331 3. Click Select. The word is automatically added to your custom dictionary file Note: Specification in the Options dialog determine whether this word is recognized in your next Maple session. If you set your custom dictionary and clicked Apply to Session, then this word will not be recognized in a new Maple session. If you set your custom dictionary and clicked Apply Globally, then this new word will be recognized. 7.9 Creating Graded Assignments You can use Maple to create graded assignments. Question types include multiple choice, essay, true-or-false, fill-in-the-blanks and Maple-graded. Note: This feature can be used to create questions for Maple T.A.—an online automated testing and assessment system. For details about Maple T.A., see Maple T.A. (page 415). Creating a Question To create a question: 1. Open the Task browser (Tools→Tasks→Browser). 2. From the Maple T.A. folder, select the appropriate question type. 3. Insert the question template into a document. 4. Enter the question content as described in the template. 5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for each question to add to the document. Viewing Questions in Maple To view and test your questions in Maple: • From the View menu, select Assignment. This view displays all of the questions in your assignment with access to hints, plotting, and grading. After answering your questions, you can test the grading function by clicking the Grade button. A Maplet dialog is displayed indicating if the question was answered correctly. If hints were provided in the question, these are also displayed. Saving Test Content When you save a document with test content, the authoring and assignment modes determine what the user sees when opening your document. • If you save the document in authoring mode (task template contents visible), the user sees this content when opening the document. • If you save the document in assignment mode, the user sees only the assignment layout. 332 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents In both cases the View→Assignment menu is accessible. As such, users (students) can switch between the original document contents and the displayed assignment. 7.10 Worksheet Compatibility Maple provides users with two worksheet interfaces: the Standard Worksheet and the Classic Worksheet. Both have access to the full mathematical engine of Maple and take advantage of the new functionality in Maple. The Classic Worksheet has the traditional Maple worksheet look and uses less memory. If you create a document in the Standard Worksheet interface of Maple and then open it in the Classic Worksheet interface, you should note possible changes to your file For example, a bulleted list in the Standard Worksheet will not be displayed with bullets in the Classic Worksheet. Many of the graphical features in this manual, especially those in this chapter, are not available in the Classic Worksheet interface. If you are creating documents for distribution, refer to the Compatibility help page. 8 Maple Expressions This chapter provides basic information on using Maple expressions, including an overview of the basic data structures. Many of the commands described in this chapter are useful for programming. For information on additional Maple programming concepts, such as looping, conditional execution, and procedures, see Basic Programming (page 365). 8.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333) - • Expression Sequences How to defin and use basic data structures • Sets • Lists • Tables • Arrays • Matrices and Vectors • Functional Operators • Strings Working with Maple Expressions (page 343)- Tools • Low-Level Operations for manipulating and controlling the evaluation • Manipulating Expressions of expressions • Evaluating Expressions 8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures Constants, data structures, mathematical expressions, and other objects are Maple expressions. For more information on expressions, refer to the Maple Help System. This section describes the key data structures: • Expression sequences • Sets • Lists • Tables • Arrays • Matrices and Vectors • Functional operators • Strings 333 334 • 8 Maple Expressions Expression Sequences The fundamental Maple data structure is the expression sequence. It is a group of expressions separated by commas. > Accessing Elements To access one of the expressions: • Enter the sequence name followed by the position of the expression enclosed in brackets([ ]). For example: > Using negative integers, you can select an expression from the end of a sequence. > You can select multiple expressions by specifying a range using the range operator (..). > Note: This syntax is valid for most data structures. Sets A set is an expression sequence enclosed in curly braces ({ }). > A Maple set has the basic properties of a mathematical set. • Each element is unique. Repeated elements are stored only once. • The order of elements is not stored. 8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 335 For example: > Using Sets To perform mathematical set operations, use the set data structure. > Note: The union operator is available in 1-D Math input as union For more information, refer to the union help page. For more information on sets, refer to the set help page. Lists A list is an expression sequence enclosed in brackets ([ ]). > Note: Lists preserve both the order and repetition of elements. Accessing Entries To refer to an element in a list: • Use square brackets. For example: > For more information, see Accessing Elements (page 334). Using Lists Some commands accept a list (or set) of expressions. 336 • 8 Maple Expressions For example, you can solve a list (or set) of equations using a context menu or the solve command. > For more information, see Solving Equations and Inequations (page 111). For more information on sets and lists, refer to the set help page. Arrays Conceptually, the Array data structure is a generalized list. Each element has an index that you can use to access it. The two important differences are: • The indices can be any integers. • The dimension can be greater than one. Creating and Using Arrays To defin an Array, use the Array constructor. Standard Array constructor arguments are: • Expression sequences of ranges - Specify the indices for each dimension • Nested lists - Specify the contents For example: > > To access entries in an Array, use either square bracket or round bracket notation. 8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 337 Square bracket notation respects the actual index of an Array, even when the index does not start at 1. > > > > Error, Array index out of range Round bracket indexing normalizes the dimensions to begin at 1. Since this method is relative, you can access the end of the array by entering > > The Array constructor supports other syntaxes. It also supports many options. For more information on the Array constructor and the Array data structure, refer to the Array help page. For more information on indexing methods, refer to the rtable_indexing help page. Large Arrays Only one- and two-dimensional Arrays (with at most 10 indices in each dimension) display in the document. Larger Arrays display as a placeholder. > 338 • 8 Maple Expressions To view large Arrays: • Double-click the placeholder. The Matrix Browser displays the Array. For more information, see Viewing Large Matrices and Vectors (page 160). Tables Tables are conceptually an extension of the Array data structure, but the table data structure is implemented using hash tables. Tables can be indexed by any values, not only integers. Defining Tables and Accessing Entries > > You can also assign anything, for example, a list, to each element. > > For more information on tables, refer to the table help page. Matrices and Vectors Matrices and Vectors are specialized data structures used in linear algebra and vector calculus computations. > For information on definin Matrices and Vectors, see Creating Matrices and Vectors (page 156). 8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 339 > > > For more information on these data structures, including how to access entries and perform linear algebra computations, see Linear Algebra (page 155). Functional Operators A functional operator is a mapping The value of is the result of evaluating Using functional operators, you can defin mathematical functions. Defining a Function To defin a function of one or two variables: 1. In the Expression palette, click one of the function definitio items. See Figure 8.1. Maple inserts the function definition 2. Replace the placeholders, using Tab to move to the next placeholder. Note: If pressing the Tab key indents the text, click the Tab icon in the toolbar. This allows you to move between placeholders. 3. Press Enter. Figure 8.1: Function Definitio Palette Items 340 • 8 Maple Expressions For example, defin a function that adds 1 to its input. > Note: To insert the right arrow, you can enter the characters ->. In 2-D Math, Maple replaces -> with the right arrow symbol . In 1-D Math, the characters are not replaced. You can evaluate the function add1 with symbolic or numeric arguments. > Distinction between Functional Operators and Other Expressions The expression is different from the functional operator Assign the functional operator to f. > Assign the expression to g. > To evaluate the functional operator f at a value of x: • Specify the value as an argument to f. > To evaluate the expression g at a value of x: • You must use the eval command. > > 8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 341 For more information on the eval command, and on using palettes and context menus to evaluate an expression at a point, see Substituting a Value for a Subexpression (page 353). Multivariate and Vector Functions To defin a multivariate or vector function: • Enclose coordinates or coordinate functions in parentheses (( )). For example, a multivariate function: > > A vector function: > > Using Operators To perform an operation on a functional operator, specify arguments to the operator. For example, for the operator f, specify f(x), which Maple evaluates as an expression. See the following examples. Plotting: Plot a three-dimensional operator as an expression using the plot3d command. > 342 • 8 Maple Expressions > For information on plotting, see Plots and Animations (page 237). Integration: Integrate a function using the int command. > > For information on integration and other calculus operations, see Calculus (page 172). Strings A string is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes (" "). > 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 343 Accessing Characters You can access characters in a string using brackets. > Using Strings The StringTools package is an advanced set of tools for manipulating and using strings. > > > > 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions This section describes how to manipulate expressions using commands. Topics covered include testing the expression type, accessing operands of an expression, and evaluating an expression. Low-Level Operations Expression Types A Maple type is a broad class of expressions that share common properties. Maple contains over 200 types, including: • `+` • boolean • constant • integer • Matrix • trig 344 • 8 Maple Expressions • truefalse For more information and a complete list of Maple types, refer to the type help page. The type commands return true if the expression satisfie the type check. Otherwise, they return false. Testing the Type of an Expression To test whether an expression is of a specifie type: • Use the type command. > > For information on enclosing keywords in right single quotes ('), see Delaying Evaluation (page 361). Maple types are not mutually exclusive. An expression can be of more than one type. > > For information on converting an expression to a different type, see Converting (page 351). Testing the Type of Subexpressions To test whether an expression has a subexpression of a specifie type: • Use the hastype command. > 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 345 Testing for a Subexpression To test whether an expression contains an instance of a specifie subexpression: • Use the has command. > > > The has command searches the structure of the expression for an exactly matching subexpression. For example, the following calling sequence returns false. > To return all subexpressions of a particular type, use the indets command. For more information, see Indeterminates (page 347). Accessing Expression Components Left and Right-Hand Side To extract the left-hand side of an equation, inequality, or range: • Use the lhs command. To extract the right-hand side of an equation, inequality, or range: • Use the rhs command. 346 • 8 Maple Expressions For example: > (8.1) > (8.2) > (8.3) For the following equation, the left endpoint of the range is the left-hand side of the righthand side of the equation. > (8.4) > (8.5) Numerator and Denominator To extract the numerator of an expression: • Use the numer command. To extract the denominator of an expression: • Use the denom command. > If the expression is not in normal form, Maple normalizes the expression before selecting the numerator or denominator. (For more information on normal form, refer to the normal help page.) 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 347 > > > The expression can be any algebraic expression. For information on the behavior for nonrational expressions, refer to the numer help page. Components of an Expression The components of an expression are called its operands. To count the number of operands in an expression: • Use the nops command. For example, construct a list of solutions to an equation. > Using the nops command, count the number of solutions. > For more information on the nops command and operands, refer to the nops help page. Indeterminates To fin the indeterminates of an expression: • Use the indets command. The indets command returns the indeterminates as a set. Because the expression is expected to be rational, functions such as sin(x), f(x), and sqrt(x) are considered to be indeterminate. 348 • 8 Maple Expressions > To return all subexpressions of a particular type, specify the type as the second argument. For information on types, see Testing the Type of an Expression (page 344). > To test whether an expressions has subexpressions of a specifi type (without returning them), use the has command. For more information, see Testing for a Subexpression (page 345). Manipulating Expressions This section introduces the most commonly used manipulation commands. For additional manipulation commands, see Iterative Commands (page 374). Simplifying To simplify an expression: • Use the simplify command. The simplify command applies simplificatio rules to an expression. Maple has simplificatio rules for various types of expressions and forms, including trigonometric functions, radicals, logarithmic functions, exponential functions, powers, and various special functions. You can also specify custom simplificatio rules using a set of side relations. > > To limit the simplification specify the type of simplificatio to be performed. 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 349 > > You can also use the simplify command with side relations. See Substituting a Value for a Subexpression (page 353). Factoring To factor a polynomial: • Use the factor command. > > Maple can factor polynomials over the domain specifie by the coefficients You can also factor polynomials over algebraic extensions. For details, refer to the factor help page. For more information on polynomials, see Polynomial Algebra (page 148). To factor an integer: • Use the ifactor command. > For more information on integers, see Integer Operations (page 106). Expanding To expand an expression: • Use the expand command. The expand command distributes products over sums and expands expressions within functions. 350 • 8 Maple Expressions > > Combining To combine subexpressions in an expression: • Use the combine command. The combine command applies transformations that combine terms in sums, products, and powers into a single term. > Recall that was previously assigned to represent a two-dimensional array (see Creating and Using Arrays (page 336)). > The combine command applies only transformations that are valid for all possible values of names in the expression. > To perform the operation under assumptions on the names, use the assuming command. For more information about assumptions, see Assumptions on Variables (page 142). 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 351 > Converting To convert an expression: • Use the convert command. The convert command converts expressions to a new form, type (see Expression Types (page 343)), or in terms of a function. For a complete list of conversions, refer to the convert help page. Convert a measurement in radians to degrees: > To convert measurements that use units, use the Unit Converter or the convert/units command. > For information on the Unit Converter and using units, see Units (page 127). Convert a list to a set: > Maple has extensive support for converting mathematical expressions to a new function or function class. 352 • 8 Maple Expressions > Find an expression equivalent to the inverse hyperbolic cotangent function in terms of Legendre functions. > For more information on converting to a class of functions, refer to the convert/to_special_function help page. Normalizing To normalize an expression: • Use the normal command. The normal command converts expressions into factored normal form. > You can also use the normal command for zero recognition. > To expand the numerator and denominator, use the expanded option. 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 353 > > Sorting To sort the elements of an expression: • Use the sort command. The sort command orders a list of values or terms of a polynomial. > > > For information on sorting polynomials, see Sorting Terms (page 150). For more information on sorting, refer to the sort help page. Evaluating Expressions Substituting a Value for a Subexpression To evaluate an expression at a point, you must substitute a value for a variable. 354 • 8 Maple Expressions To substitute a value for a variable using context menus: 1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression. Maple displays a context menu. 2. From the context menu, select Evaluate at a Point. The Evaluate at a Point dialog is displayed. See Figure 8.2. Figure 8.2: Evaluate at a Point 3. In the drop-down list, select the variable to substitute. 4. In the text field enter the value to substitute for the variable. Click OK. In Worksheet mode, Maple inserts the eval command calling sequence that performs the substitution. This is the most common use of the eval command. For example, substitute in the following polynomial. > > To substitute a value for a variable using palettes: 1. In the Expression palette, click the evaluation at a point item 2. Specify the expression, variable, and value to be substituted. . 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 355 For example: > Substitutions performed by the eval function are syntactical, not the more powerful algebraic form of substitution. If the left-hand side of the substitution is a name, Maple performs the substitution. > If the left-hand side of the substitution is not a name, Maple performs the substitution only if the left-hand side of the substitution is an operand of the expression. > > Maple did not perform the evaluation because is not an operand of formation on operands, refer to the op help page. For in- For algebraic substitution, use the algsubs command, or the simplify command with side relations. 356 • 8 Maple Expressions > > Numerical Approximation To compute an approximate numerical value of an expression: • Use the evalf command. The evalf command returns a floating-poin (or complex floating-point number or expression. > > > By default, Maple calculates the result to ten digits of accuracy, but you can specify any number of digits as an index, that is, in brackets ([ ]). > For more information, refer to the evalf help page. See also Numerically Computing a Limit (page 173) and Numeric Integration (page 181). 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 357 Evaluating Complex Expressions To evaluate a complex expression: • Use the evalc command. If possible, the evalc command returns the output in the canonical form expr1 + i expr2. In 2-D Math input, you can enter the imaginary unit using the following two methods. • In the Common Symbols palette, click the i or j item. See Palettes (page 21). • Enter i or j, and then press the symbol completion key. See Symbol Names (page 28). > > In 1-D Math input, enter the imaginary unit as an uppercase i (I). > evalc(2^(1 + I)); Evaluating Boolean Expressions To evaluate an expression involving relational operators ( ): , , , , , and • Use the evalb command. Note: In 1-D Math input, enter , , and using the <>, <=, and >= operators. The evalb command uses a three-valued logic system. The return values are true, false, and FAIL. If evaluation is not possible, an unevaluated expression is returned. 358 • 8 Maple Expressions > > > Important: The evalb command does not perform arithmetic for inequalities involving , , , or , and does not simplify expressions. Ensure that you perform these operations before using the evalb command. > > Applying an Operation or Function to All Elements in a List, Set, Table, Array, Matrix, or Vector You can use the tilde character (~) to apply an operation or function to all of the elements in a list, set, table, Array, Matrix, or Vector. In the following example, each element in the Matrix M is multiplied by 2 by adding a tilde character after the multiplication operator( . 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 359 > (8.6) > (8.7) In the following example, the function sin is applied to each element in the Matrix M. > (8.8) The tilde character can also be used to apply a function to multiple data sets, for example, > (8.9) You can use values in one data structure type to compute values in another data structure type, as long as both data structures are dimensional and contain the same number of elements. In the following example, the values in an Array are compared to the values in a Matrix that contains the same number of elements. > (8.10) For more information, refer to the elementwise help page. 360 • 8 Maple Expressions Levels of Evaluation In a symbolic mathematics program such as Maple, you encounter the issue of levels of evaluation. If you assign y to x, z to y, and then 5 to z, what is the value of x? At the top-level, Maple fully evaluates names. That is, Maple checks if the name or symbol has an assigned value. If it has a value, Maple substitutes the value for the name. If this value has an assigned value, Maple performs a substitution, recursively, until no more substitutions are possible. For example: > > > Maple fully evaluates the name x, and returns the value 5. > To control the level of evaluation of an expression: • Use the eval command with an integer second argument. If passed a single argument, the eval command fully evaluates that expression. If you specify an integer second argument, Maple evaluates the expression to that level. > > > > 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 361 For more details on levels of evaluation, refer to the lastnameevaluation, assigned, and evaln help pages. Delaying Evaluation To prevent Maple from immediately evaluating an expression: • Enclose the expression in right single quotes (' '). Because right single quotes delay evaluation, they are referred to as unevaluation quotes. > > > Using an Assigned Name as a Variable or Keyword If you use an assigned name as a variable, Maple evaluates the name to its value, and passes the value to the command. In this example, that causes Maple to return an error message. > Error, (in sum) summation variable previously assigned, second argument evaluates to 4 = 1 .. n Note: In general, it is recommended that you unassign a name to use it as a variable. See Unassigning a Name Using Unevaluation Quotes (page 362). To use an assigned name as a variable: • Enclose the name in unevaluation quotes. Maple passes the name to the command. > Important: It is recommended that you enclose keywords in unevaluation quotes. 362 • 8 Maple Expressions For example, if you enclose the keyword left in unevaluation quotes, Maple uses the name, not its assigned value. > > Full Evaluation of an Expression in Quotes Full evaluation of a quoted expression removes one set of right single quotes. > > (8.11) > (8.12) > (8.13) For information on equation labels and equation label references, see Equation Labels (page 95). Enclosing an expression in unevaluation quotes delays evaluation, but does not prevent automatic simplification > (8.14) Unassigning a Name Using Unevaluation Quotes To unassign a name: • Assign the name enclosed in unevaluation quotes to itself. > 8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 363 > You can also unassign a name using the unassign command. For more information, see Unassigning Names (page 94). 364 • 8 Maple Expressions 9 Basic Programming You have used Maple interactively in the previous chapters, sequentially performing operations such as executing a single command. Because Maple has a complete programming language, you can also use sophisticated programming constructs. In Maple, you can write programs called procedures, and save them in modules. These modules can be used and distributed in the same way as Maple packages. Important: It is strongly recommended that you use the Worksheet mode and 1-D Math input when programming or using programming commands. Hence, all input in this chapter is entered as 1-D Math. 9.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Flow Control (page 366) - Basic programming • Conditional Execution (if Statement) constructs • Repetition (for Statement) Iterative Commands (page 374) - Specialized, • Creating a sequence efficien iterative commands • Adding and Multiplying Expressions • Selecting Expression Operands • Mapping a Command over a Set or List • Mapping a Binary Command over Two Lists or Vectors Procedures (page 378) - Maple programs • Definin and Running Simple Procedures • Procedures with Inputs • Procedure Return Values • Displaying Procedure Definition • Displaying Maple Library Procedure Definition • Modules Programming in Documents (page 382) - Dis- • Code Edit Region play methods for Maple code • Startup Code • Document Blocks 365 366 • 9 Basic Programming 9.2 Flow Control Two basic programming constructs in Maple are the if statement, which controls the conditional execution of statement sequences, and the for statement, which controls the repeated execution of a statement sequence. Conditional Execution (if Statement) You can specify that Maple perform an action only if a condition holds. You can also perform an action, from a set of many, depending on which conditions hold. Using theif statement, you can execute one statement from a series of statements based on a boolean (true, false, or FAIL) condition. Maple tests each condition in order. When a condition is satisfied Maple executes the corresponding statement, and then exits the if statement. Syntax The if statement has the following syntax. The conditional expressions (conditional_expression1, conditional_expression2, ...) can be any boolean expression. You can construct boolean expressions using: • Relational operators - <, <=, =, >=, >, <> • Logical operators - and, or, xor, implies, not • Logical names - true, false, FAIL The statement sequences (statement_sequence1, statement_sequence2, ..., statement_sequenceN) can be any sequence of Maple statements, including if statements. The elif clauses are optional. You can specify any number of elif clauses. The else clause is optional. 9.2 Flow Control • 367 Simple if Statements The simplest if statement has only one conditional expression. If the conditional expression evaluates to true, the sequence of statements is executed. Otherwise, Maple immediately exits the if statement. For example: > x := 1173: > if not isprime(x) then ifactor(x); end if; else Clause In a simple if statement with an else clause, if the evaluation of the conditional expressions returns false or FAIL, Maple executes the statement sequence in the else clause. For example: > if false then "if statement"; else "else statement"; end if; elif Clauses In an if statement with elif clauses, Maple evaluates the conditional expressions in order until one returns true. Maple executes the corresponding statement sequence, and then exits the if statement. If no evaluation returns true, Maple exits the if statement. > x := 11: > if not type(x, integer) then printf("%a is not an integer.", x); elif x >= 10 then printf("%a is an integer with more than one digit.", x); elif x >= 0 then 368 • 9 Basic Programming printf("%a is an integer with one digit.", x); end if; 11 is an integer with more than one digit. Order of elif Clauses: An elif clause's statement sequence is executed only if the evaluation of all previous conditional expressions returns false or FAIL, and the evaluation of its conditional expression returns true. This means that changing the order of elif clauses may change the behavior of the if statement. In the following if statement, the elif clauses are in the wrong order. > if not(type(x, integer)) then printf("%a is not an integer.", x); elif x >= 0 then printf("%a is an integer with one digit.", x); elif x >= 10 then printf("%a is an integer with more than one digit.", x); end if; 11 is an integer with one digit. elif and else Clauses In an if statement with elif and else clauses, Maple evaluates the conditional expressions in order until one returns true. Maple executes the corresponding statement sequence, and then exits the if statement. If no evaluation returns true, Maple executes the statement sequence in the else clause. > x := -12: > if not type(x, integer) then printf("%a is not an integer.", x); elif x >= 10 then printf("%a is an integer with more than one digit.", x); elif x >= 0 then printf("%a is an integer with one digit.", x); else printf("%a is a negative integer.", x); end if; -12 is a negative integer. For more information on the if statement, refer to the if help page. 9.2 Flow Control • 369 Repetition (for Statement) Using repetition statements, you can repeatedly execute a statement sequence. You can repeat the statements in three ways. • Until a counter variable value exceeds a limit (for/from loop) • For each operand of an expression (for/in loop) • Until a boolean condition does not hold (while loop) for/from Loop The for/from loop statement repeats a statement sequence until a counter variable value exceeds a limit. Syntax The for/from loop has the following syntax. The behavior of the for/from loop is: 1. Assign the initial value to the name counter. 2. Compare the value of counter to the value of fina . If the counter value exceeds the fina value, exit the loop. (This is the loop bound test.) 3. Execute the statement_sequence. 4. Increment the counter value by the value of increment. 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4, until Maple exits the loop. The from, by, and to clauses are optional and can be in any order between the for clause and the do keyword. Table 9.1 lists the default clause values. Table 9.1: Default Clause Values Clause from initial by increment to fina Default Value 1 1 infinit (∞) Examples The following loop returns the square root of the integers 1 to 5 (inclusive). 370 • 9 Basic Programming > for n to 5 do evalf(sqrt(n)); end do; When the value of the counter variable n is strictly greater than 5, Maple exits the loop. > n; The previous loop is equivalent to the following for/from statement. > for n from 1 by 1 to 5 do evalf(sqrt(n)); end do; The by value can be negative. The loop repeats until the value of the counter variable is strictly less than the fina value. > for n from 10 by -1 to 3 do if isprime(n) then print(n); end if; end do; 9.2 Flow Control • 371 > n; for/in Loop The for/in loop statement repeats a statement sequence for each component (operand) of an expression, for example, the elements of a list. Syntax The for/in loop has the following syntax. The for clause must appear first The behavior of the for/in loop is: 1. Assign the firs operand of expression to the name variable. 2. Execute the statement_sequence. 3. Assign the next operand of expression to variable. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each operand in expression. If there are no more operands, exit the loop. (This is the loop bound test.) Example The following loop returns a floating-poin approximation to the sin function at the angles (measured in degree) in the list L. > L := [23.4, 87.2, 43.0, 99.7]: 372 • 9 Basic Programming > for i in L do evalf(sin(i*Pi/180)); end do; while Loop The while loop repeats a statement sequence until a boolean expression does not hold. Syntax The while loop has the following syntax. A while loops repeats until its boolean expression conditional_expression evaluates to false or FAIL. For more information on boolean expressions, see Conditional Execution (if Statement) (page 366). Example The following loop computes the digits of 872,349 in base 7 (in order of increasing significance) > x := 872349: > while x > 0 do irem(x, 7); x := iquo(x, 7); end do; 9.2 Flow Control • 373 To perform such conversions efficientl , use theconvert/base command. > convert(872349, base, 7); For information on non-base 10 numbers, see Non-Base 10 Numbers (page 108). General Loop Statements You can include a while statement in a for/from or for/in loop. The general for/from loop has the following syntax. 374 • 9 Basic Programming The general for/in loop has the following syntax. After testing the loop bound condition at the beginning of each iteration of the for loop, Maple evaluates conditional_expression. • If conditional_expression evaluates to false or FAIL, Maple exits the loop. • If conditional_expression evaluates to true, Maple executes statement_sequence. Infinite Loops You can construct a loop for which there is no exit condition, for example, a while loop in which the conditional_expression always evaluates to true. This is called an infinit loop. Maple indefinitel executes an infinit loop unless it executes a break, quit, or return statement or you interrupt the computation using the interrupt icon For more information, refer to the break, quit, return, and interrupt help pages. Additional Information For more information on the for statement and looping, refer to the do help page. 9.3 Iterative Commands Maple has commands that perform common selection and repetition operations. These commands are more efficien than similar algorithms implemented using library commands. Table 9.2 lists the iterative commands. Table 9.2: Iterative Commands Command seq add mul select remove Description Create sequence Compute numeric sum Compute numeric product Return operands that satisfy a condition Return operands that do not satisfy a condition 9.3 Iterative Commands • 375 Command selectremove map zip Description Return operands that satisfy a condition and separately return operands that do not satisfy a condition Apply command to the operands of an expression Apply binary command to the operands of two lists or vectors Creating a Sequence The seq command creates a sequence of values by evaluating a specifie expression over a range of index values or the operands of an expression. See Table 9.3. Table 9.3: The seq Command Calling Sequence Syntax seq(expression, name = initial .. fina ); Examples seq(expression, name in expression); > seq(u, u in [Pi/4, Pi^2/2, > seq(exp(x), x=-2..0); 1/Pi]); Adding and Multiplying Expressions The add and mul commands add and multiply sequences of expressions over a range of index values or the operands of an expression. See Table 9.4. Table 9.4: The add and mul Commands Calling Sequence Syntax add(expression, name = initial .. fina ); mul(expression, name = initial .. fina ); Examples > add(exp(x), x = 2..4); > mul(2*x, x = 1 .. 10); 376 • 9 Basic Programming Calling Sequence Syntax add(expression, name in expression); Examples > add(u, u in [Pi/4, Pi/2, Pi]); mul(expression, name in expression); > mul(u, u in [Pi/4, Pi/2, Pi]); The endpoints of the index range (initial and fina ) in the add and mul calling sequence must evaluate to numeric constants. For information on symbolic sums and products, refer to the sum and product help pages. Selecting Expression Operands The select, remove, and selectremove commands apply a boolean-valued procedure or command to the operands of an expression. For information on operands, refer to the op help page. • The select command returns the operands for which the procedure or command returns true. • The remove command returns the operands for which the procedure or command returns false or FAIL. • The selectremove command returns two expressions of the same type as the input expression. - The firs consists of the operands for which the procedure or command returns true. - The second consists of the operands for which the procedure or command returns false or FAIL. The structure of the output is the same as the structure of the input. See Table 9.5. For information on Maple procedures, see Procedures (page 378). Table 9.5: The select, remove, and selectremove Commands Calling Sequence Syntax select(proc_cmd, expression); Examples > select(issqr, {198331, 889249, 11751184, 9857934}); 9.3 Iterative Commands • 377 Calling Sequence Syntax remove(proc_cmd, expression); Examples selectremove(proc_cmd, expression); > selectremove(x -> evalb(x > round(x)), > remove(var -> degree(var) > 3, 2*x^3*y - y^3*x + z ); [sin(0.), sin(1.), sin(3.)]); For information on optional arguments to the selection commands, refer to the select help page. Mapping a Command over a Set or List The map command applies a name, procedure, or command to each element in a set or list. See Table 9.6. Table 9.6: The map Command Calling Sequence Syntax map(name_proc_cmd, expression); Examples > map(f, {a, b, c}); > map(u -> int(cos(x), x = 0 .. u), [Pi/4, Pi/7, Pi/3.0]); For information on mapping over the operands of other expressions, optional arguments to the map command, and other mapping commands, refer to the map help page. Mapping a Binary Command over Two Lists or Vectors The zip command applies a name or binary procedure or command component-wise to two lists or vectors. By default, the length of the returned object is that of the shorter list or vector. If you specify a value as the (optional) fourth argument, it is used as the value of the missing elements of the shorter list or vector. In this case, the length of the return value is that of the longer list or vector. See Table 9.7. 378 • 9 Basic Programming Table 9.7: The zip Command Calling Sequence Syntax zip(proc_cmd, a, b); Examples > zip(f, [i, j], [k, l]); zip(proc_cmd, a, b, fil ); > zip(AiryAi, [1, 2], [0], 1); For more information on the zip command, refer to the zip help page. Additional Information For more information on looping commands, refer to the corresponding command help page. 9.4 Procedures A Maple procedure is a program consisting of Maple statements. Using procedures, you can quickly execute the contained sequence of statements. Defining and Running Simple Procedures To defin a procedure, enclose a sequence of statements between proc(...) and end proc statements. In general, you assign a procedure definitio to a name. The following procedure returns the square root of 2. > p := proc() sqrt(2); end proc; Note: Maple returns the procedure definition To improve readability of procedures, it is recommended that you defin a procedure using multiple lines, and indent the lines using space characters. To begin a new line (without evaluating the incomplete procedure definition) press Shift+Enter. When you have finishe entering the procedure, press Enter to create the procedure. 9.4 Procedures • 379 For example: > p := proc() sqrt(2); end proc: To run the procedure p, enter its name followed by parentheses (( )). > p(); Procedures with Inputs You can defin a procedure that accepts user input. In the parentheses of the proc statement, specify the parameter names. For multiple parameters, separate the names with commas. > geometric_mean := proc(x, y) sqrt(x*y); end proc: When the user runs the procedure, the parameter names are replaced by the argument values. > geometric_mean(13, 17); > geometric_mean(13.5, 17.1); For more information on writing procedures, including options and local and global variables, refer to the procedure help page. Procedure Return Values When you run a procedure, Maple returns only the last statement result value computed. Maple does not return the output for each statement in the procedure. It is irrelevant whether you use semicolons or colons as statement separators. > p := proc(a, b) a + b; a - b: end proc: > p(1, 2); 380 • 9 Basic Programming Displaying Procedure Definitions Unlike simple Maple objects, you cannot display the value of a procedure by entering its name. > geometric_mean; You must evaluate the name of the procedure using the print (or eval) command. > print(geometric_mean); Displaying Maple Library Procedure Definitions Maple procedure definition are a valuable learning tool. To learn how to program in Maple, it is recommended that you examine the procedures available in the Maple library. By default, the print command returns only the proc and end proc statements and (if present) the description field of a Maple procedure. > print(lcm); To display a Maple library procedure definition firs set the value of the interface verboseproc option to 2. Then re-execute the print calling sequence. > interface('verboseproc' = 2): 9.4 Procedures • 381 > print(lcm); Modules Maple procedures associate a sequence of commands with a single command. The module, a more complex programming structure, allows you to associate related procedures and data. A key feature of modules is that they export variables. This means that the variables are available outside the module in which they are created. Most Maple packages are implemented as modules. The package commands are exports of the module. For more information on modules, refer to the module help page. Objects Objects take the idea of associating data and procedures beyond what modules provide. With objects, multiple instances of a class of objects can be created. Each individual object can have its own data, yet share other values and procedures with the entire class objects. A well implemented class of objects can be used in Maple as naturally as a built-in Maple type. For more information on objects, refer to the object help page. 382 • 9 Basic Programming 9.5 Programming in Documents To write Maple code, you could simply open a Maple worksheet and start typing. However, if you want to create a readable document with the code interspersed or hidden, there are several options available. Code Edit Region The code edit region allows you to program in one contained region, in a natural way. Features include the ability to press Enter for line breaking and indentation preservation. Figure 9.1 shows the expanded code edit region. To insert a new code edit region into your worksheet: • From the Insert menu, select Code Edit Region. Figure 9.1: Code Edit Region To execute the code within this region, right-click in the region and select Execute Code. You can hide the code in a code edit region by minimizing the region. To minimize, rightclick in the region and select Collapse Code Edit Region. When the region is minimized, an icon appears with the firs line of the code written next to it. It is recommended that you make the firs line a comment describing the program or programs contained in the region. See Figure 9.2. Figure 9.2: Collapsed Code Edit Region To re-execute the code in the region while it is collapsed, click this icon. For more information, refer to the CodeEditRegion help page. 9.5 Programming in Documents • 383 Startup Code Startup code allows you to defin commands and procedures that are executed each time the document is opened and after restart is called. This code is completely hidden to others reading the document. For example, use this region to defin procedures that will be used throughout the document code but that would take up space and distract readers from the message of the document. To enter startup code for a document: 1. From the Edit menu, select Startup Code. Alternatively, click the startup code icon in the toolbar, . 2. Enter commands to be run each time the worksheet is opened or restart is called. 3. Click Syntax to check the syntax of the entered code before closing. 4. Click Save to save the contents and close the dialog. Figure 9.3: Startup Code Editor For more information, refer to the startupcode help page. 384 • 9 Basic Programming 10 Embedded Components and Maplets These graphical components help you to create documents to use and share with colleagues or students, that interact with Maple code within the document without needing the reader to understand that Maple code. Other methods of interaction with Maple are described throughout this guide. 10.1 In This Chapter Section Using Embedded Components (page 385) - Basic interacting with Maple documents containing embedded components Creating Embedded Components (page 388) - Methods for creating embedded components that work together and with your document Topics • Interacting with Components • Printing and Exporting • Inserting Components • Editing Components • Removing Components • Integrating into a Document Using Maplets (page 396) - Methods for launching a Maplet • Maplet File Authoring Maplets (page 397) - Methods for authoring and saving a Maplet • Maplet Builder • Maple Document • Maplets Package • Saving 10.2 Using Embedded Components Interacting Embedded components allow readers to interact with Maple code through graphical components, rather than commands. They can be used alone, as with a button that you click to execute code, or together, such as a drop-down menu where you select an item, and a change takes place in a plot component. Component Descriptions Table 10.1: Embedded Component Descriptions Component Name and Description Inserted Image Button - Click to perform an action; that is, execute code. Check Box - Select or de-select. Change the caption, and enter code to execute when the value changes. 385 386 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets Component Name and Description Combo Box - Select one of the listed options from the drop-down menu. Change the items listed, and enter code to execute when the value changes. Data Table - Link this embedded component to a Matrix, Vector, or Array in your worksheet. Dial - Select or display an integer or floating-poin value. Change the display, and enter code to execute when the value changes. Label - Display a label. The value can be updated based on code in the document or another embedded component. List Box - Display a list of items. Change the items listed, and enter code to execute when an item is selected. Math Expression - Enter or display a mathematical expression. The value can be updated based on code in the document or another embedded component. Meter - Select or display an integer or floating-poin value. Change the display, and enter code to execute when the value changes. Plot - Display a 2-D or 3-D plot or animation. This plot or animation can be interacted with in the same way as other plots (see Plots and Animations (page 237)). The value can be updated based on code in the document or another embedded component. You can also enter code to be executed when the execute code pointer is used to click or drag in the plot region. Radio Button - Use with other radio buttons to select one in a group. Enter code to execute when the value changes. Inserted Image 10.2 Using Embedded Components • 387 Component Name and Description Inserted Image Rotary Gauge - Select or display an integer or floating point value. Change the display, and enter code to execute when the value changes. Slider - Select or display an integer or floating-poin value. Change the display, and enter code to execute when the value changes. Text Area - Enter or display plain text. The value can be updated based on code in the document or another embedded component, and you can enter code to execute when the value changes. Toggle Button - Select or display one of two options. Change the images displayed, and enter to code to execute when the value changes. Volume Gauge - Select or display an integer or floating point value. Change the display, and enter code to execute when the value changes. Example 1 - Using Embedded Components This example demonstrates several components working together to perform a task. The user inputs an expression, which is plotted when the button is clicked. Plot options are controlled by text areas, a combo box, a math expression, and radio buttons. For an interactive version of this example, see the .mw version of this manual. In Maple, from the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and More... → Manuals → User Manual. 388 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets Printing and Exporting a Document with Embedded Components Printing: When printing a document, embedded components are rendered as they appear on screen. Exporting: Exporting a document with embedded components to other formats produces the following results. • HTML format - components are exported as .gif files • RTF format - components are rendered as bitmap images in the .rtf document. • LaTeX - components are exported as .eps files • PDF - components are rendered as static images. 10.3 Creating Embedded Components Embedded Components are graphical components that you can add to your document. They provide interactive access to Maple code without requiring the user to know Maple commands, and include buttons, sliders, math and text input areas, and plot display. 10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 389 Inserting Components The graphical interface components can be inserted by using the Components palette (Figure 10.1) or by cutting/copying and pasting existing components to another area of the document. Although copied components have most of the same characteristics, they are distinct. If the Components palette is not visible, see Palettes (page 21) for instructions on viewing palettes. Figure 10.1: Components Palette Editing Component Properties: General Process To edit properties of components embedded in the document: 1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the component to display the context menu. 2. If available, select Component Properties...; otherwise, select Components → Component Properties.... The related dialog opens. 3. Enter values and contents in the field as necessary. 4. For actions, such as Action When Value Changes in the Slider component dialog, click Edit. A blank dialog opens allowing you to enter Maple code that is executed when the event occurs. For details, refer to the DocumentTools help page. 390 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets Removing Graphical Interface Components You can remove an embedded component by: • Using the Delete key • Using the Backspace key • Placing the cursor at the component and selecting from the document menu, Edit→Delete Element Integrating Components into a Document Use embedded components to display information from calculations, obtain input from a reader, or perform calculations at the click of a button, all without your readers having an understanding of Maple commands. They can be entered in any part of a Maple document, including a document block or table. For details on each component, see its help page. This simple example inserts a slider with a label that indicates the current value of the slider. 1. Place the cursor in the location where the embedded component is to be inserted. 2. In the Components palette, click the Slider item. A slider is inserted into the document. 3. In the Components palette, click the Label item. A label is inserted next to the slider. 4. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the label component. Select Component Properties. The Label Properties dialog opens. See Figure 10.2. 10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 391 Figure 10.2: Label Properties Dialog Figure 10.3: Slider Properties Dialog 5. Name the component SliderLabel and click Ok. 6. Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) the slider component. Select Component Properties. The Slider Properties dialog opens. See Figure 10.3. 7. Name the component Slider1. 8. Enter the value at the lowest position as 0 and the highest as 100. 9. Enter major tick marks at 20 and minor tick marks at 10. 10. To defin an action, click the Edit button for the Action When Value Changes. The dialog that opens allows you to program the action of displaying the slider value in the label component. The dialog includes instructions on how to program embedded components. The use...in/end use; statement allows you to specify routines using the short form of accessing a package command without invoking the package. For details on this command, refer to the use help page. 11. Before the end use; statement at the bottom of the dialog, enter the following command. Do(%SliderLabel(caption)=%Slider1(value)); 12. Click OK. 13. Make sure that the Update Continuously while Dragging check box is selected. 392 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets The value from the slider as you move the arrow indicator populates the Label caption field For details on this command, refer to the DocumentTools[Do] help page. Example 2 - Creating Embedded Components In chapter 7 (see Embedded Components (page 326)), you created a document that included embedded components, imported from a task template. Here, we re-create that configuratio of components. This example takes two parameters, and as inputs, then plots the function and calculates . 1. Create the components. The table layout is best done after the components are finished in case the configuratio of the components changes as you are working. Create two DialComponents to set the parameters, display the result, and , one GaugeComponent to , one PlotComponent to display the plot, and one MathContainer- Component to display the function. Note that you do not need to use the dial and gauge components here, there are others, such as the slider, that could also be used. 10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 393 Figure 10.4: The Inserted Components 2. Edit the display of the components. Open the Component Properties dialog for the firs DialComponent, and notice that it already has a name. This name is used to reference the component from other components, and is unique. Change the display of each of the components as follows: • Dial0: no changes. • Dial1: change the Value at Highest Position to 10, the Spacing of Major Tick Marks to 1, and the Spacing of Minor Tick Marks to 1. • RotaryGauge0: change the Value at Highest Position to 40, the Spacing of Major Tick Marks to 5, and the Spacing of Minor Tick Marks to 1. • Plot0: no changes. 394 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets • MathContainer0: change the Width in Pixels to 200, and the Height in Pixels to 45. Note the names of all of the components, and close each dialog before moving on. 3. Create actions for the components. Components can perform actions when their values are changed, so the code to execute needs to be in the dials. That way, whenever one of them is changed, the other components are updated to reflec that change. The following Maple commands retrieve the values of the parameters and display them in the other three components: > parameter1:=Do(%Dial0): > parameter2:=Do(%Dial1): > Do(%RotaryGauge0=parameter1/parameter2); > Do(%Plot0=plot((parameter2*x+parameter1), x=-50..50, y=-50..50)); > Do(%MathContainer0=(y=parameter2*x+parameter1)); 4. Test the actions. To test these commands, firs load the DocumentTools package with the following command. > Execute the commands in the document, and verify that the components you inserted are updated: the gauge should change to the computed value, a plot should appear in the plot component, and the function should display in the math container. 5. Troubleshooting. The firs Do command gives an error, because the second parameter is 0. One way to avoid this problem is to change the range of the second dial. In the Component Properties dialog for the second DialComponent, change the Value at Lowest Position from 0 to 1. Alternatively, you could change the code to compensate, with an if statement. 6. Copy the actions to the components. Once the commands work as expected, you can copy them into the components. • Open the Component Properties dialog for the firs DialComponent and click the Edit button for Action When Value Changes. Copy and paste the commands into the space between the use statements. 10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 395 Figure 10.5: DialComponent Action Dialog • Do the same for the second DialComponent. 7. Create the layout for the components. Create a table, and then cut and paste the components into it, along with explanatory text. Important: you must cut, not copy, the components, or their names will be changed to avoid duplication. For information on creating and modifying tables, refer to Tables (page 304). 396 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets 10.4 Using Maplets A Maplet is a pop-up graphical user interface that provides interactive access to the Maple engine through buttons, text regions, slider bars, and other visual interfaces. You can create your own Maplets, and you can take advantage of the built-in Maplets that cover numerous academic and specialized topics. Built-in Maplets include some assistants and tutors, such as the ODE Analyzer. For more information on this assistant, see Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) (page 120). Maplet applications are launched by executing Maplet code. Maplet code can be saved in a Maplet (.maplet) fil or Maple document (.mw). Maplet File To launch a Maplet application saved as a Maplet file • In Windows, double-click the fil from a Windows fil browser. 10.5 Authoring Maplets • 397 • In UNIX and on Macintosh, use the command-line interface. At the command-line, enter maple -q <maplet_filenam >. To view and edit the Maplet code contained within the .maplet file 1. Start Maple. 2. From the File menu, select Open. Maple displays the Open dialog. 3. In the Files of Type drop-down list, select .maplet. 4. Navigate to the location of the .maplet fil and select the file 5. Click Open. Maple Document To launch a Maplet application for which the Maple code is contained in a Maple document, you need to execute the Maplet code. To display the Maplet application, you must use the Maplets[Display] command. Note: The Maplet code may be quite large if the Maplet application is complex. In this case, execute the document to ensure user-define procedures that are referenced in the Maplet application are also defined Typical procedure: 1. If present, evaluate user-define procedures. Myproc:=proc.. 2. Load the Maplets[Elements] package. with( Maplets[Elements] ); 3. Evaluate the Maplet definition Maplet_name:=Maplet( Maplet_definition ); 4. Display the Maplet application. Maplets[Display]( Maplet_name ); Important: When a Maplet application is running, you cannot interact with the Maple document. 10.5 Authoring Maplets To author Maplets, you can use the Maplet Builder (GUI-based) or the Maplets package (syntax-based). The Maplet Builder allows you to drag and drop buttons, sliders, text regions, and other elements to defin the Maplet application and set the element properties to perform an action upon selection or update of the element. The Maplet Builder is designed 398 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets to create simple Maplets. The Maplets package offers more capabilities, control, and options when designing complicated Maplet applications. Designing a Maplet application is similar to constructing a house. When building a house, you firs construct the skeletal structure (that is, foundation, floors and walls) and then proceed to add the windows and doors. Constructing a Maplet is no different. First defin the rows and columns of the Maplet application and then proceed to add the body elements (such as buttons, text fields and plot regions). Simple Maplet A Maplet application can be define using the commands in the Maplets[Elements] package and then launched using the Maplets[Display] command. The following commands defin and run a very simple Maplet application that contains the text string "Hello World". > with(Maplets[Elements]): > MySimpleMaplet:= Maplet([["Hello World"]]): > Maplets[Display](MySimpleMaplet): Figure 10.6: A Simple Maplet Maplet Builder To start the Maplet Builder: • From the Tools menu, select Assistants → Maplet Builder. 10.5 Authoring Maplets • 399 Figure 10.7: Maplet Builder Interface The Maplet Builder is divided into four different panes. • The Palette pane displays palettes, which contain Maplet elements, organized by category. For a description of the elements, see the MapletBuilder/Palette help page. The Body palette contains the most popular elements. • The Layout pane displays the visual elements of the Maplet. • The Command pane displays the commands and corresponding actions define in the Maplet. • The Properties pane displays the properties of an instance of a define element in the Maplet. Example 3 - Design a Maplet Using the Maplet Builder In this example, shown in Figure 10.8, the Maplet user enters a function and plots the result. 400 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets Figure 10.8: Image of the Maplet Button element Label element Plot element TextField element Figure 10.9: Body Elements Used to Defin This Maplet Action Defin the number of rows in the Maplet: 1. In the Properties pane: a. In the drop-down list, select BoxColumn1. b. Change the numrows fiel to 2. Result in MapletBuilder 10.5 Authoring Maplets • 401 Action Add a plot region to row 1: 2. From the Body palette, drag the Plotter element to the firs row in the Layout pane. Add columns to row 2: 3. In the Properties pane: a. In the drop-down list, select BoxRow2. b. Change the numcolumns fiel to 3. Add a label to row 2: 4. From the Body palette, drag the Label element to the left column in the Layout pane. 5. In the Properties pane: a. In the drop-down list, select Label1. b. Change the caption fiel to Enter a function of x. Result in MapletBuilder 402 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets Action Add a text region to row 2: 6. From the Body palette, drag the TextField element to the middle column. The TextField element allows the Maplet user to enter input that can be retrieved in an action. 7. If necessary, resize the Maplet Builder to display the entire Layout pane. Add a button to row 2: 8. From the Body palette, drag the Button element to the right column in the Layout pane. 9. In the Properties pane: a. In the drop-down list, select Button1. b. Change the caption fiel to Plot. c. In the onclick property dropdown list, select <Evaluate>. Result in MapletBuilder 10.5 Authoring Maplets • 403 Action Result in MapletBuilder 10. In the Evaluate Expression dialog that displays, the Target drop-down list contains the define elements to which you can send information, in this case, Plotter1 and TextField1. The List group box, located below the Expression group box, displays the define elements to which you can retrieve information, in this case, TextField1. a. In the Target drop-down list, select Plotter1. b. In the Command Form tab, enter plot(TextField1, x=10..10) in the Expression group box. (Note: Do not include a semicolon (;) at the end of the plot command.) You can also double-click TextField1 in the List group box to insert this element in the command syntax. c. Click Ok. Run the Maplet: 11. From the File menu, select Run. You are prompted to save the Maplet. Maplets created with the Maplet Builder are saved as .maplet files 12. Click Yes and navigate to a location to save this Maplet. For further information on the Maplet Builder, see the MapletBuilder help page. For more examples of designing Maplets using the Maplet Builder, see examples/MapletBuilder. Maplets Package When designing a complicated Maplet, the Maplets package offers greater control. The Maplets[Elements] subpackage contains the elements available when designing a Maplet application. After you defin the Maplet, use the Maplets[Display] command to launch the Maplet. For more information on the Maplets package, refer to the MapletsPackage help page. For more examples of designing Maplets using the Maplets package, see the Maplets/Roadmap help page. 404 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets Example 4 - Design a Maplet Using the Maplets Package To introduce the structure of designing Maplets using the Maplets package, this example illustrates the equivalent syntax for the Example 3 - Design a Maplet Using the Maplet Builder (page 399). Load the Maplets[Elements] package. > with(Maplets[Elements]): Defin the Maplet application. To suppress the display of the data structure associated with the Maplet application, end the definitio with a colon. > PlottingMaplet:=Maplet( BoxLayout( BoxColumn( # First Box Row BoxRow( # Define a Plot region Plotter('reference' = Plotter1) # End of first Box Row ), # Second Box Row BoxRow( # Define a Label Label("Enter a function of x "), # Define a Text Field TextField('reference' = TextField1), # Define a Button Button(caption="Plot", Evaluate(value = 'plot(TextField1, x = -10..10)', 'target' = Plotter1)) # End of second Box Row ) # End of BoxColumn ) # End of BoxLayout ) # End of Maplet ): Launch the Maplet. > Maplets[Display](PlottingMaplet); 10.5 Authoring Maplets • 405 For further examples using both the MapletBuilder and Maplets package commands, see the Maplets example worksheets. For a listing, refer to the examples/index help page. Saving When saving a Maplet, you can save the document as an .mw fil or you can export the document as a .maplet file Maple Document To save the Maplet code as an .mw file 1. From the File menu, select Save. 2. Navigate to the save location. 3. Enter a filename 4. Click Save. If the document contains only Maplet code, it is recommended that you export the document as a .maplet file Maplet File To export the Maplet code as a .maplet file 1. From the File menu, select Export As. 2. In the Files of Type drop-down list, select Maplet. 3. Navigate to the export location. 4. Enter the filename 5. Click Save. 406 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products 11.1 In This Chapter Section Topics Writing to Files (page 407) - Saving to Maple • Saving Data to a File fil formats • Saving Expressions to a File Reading from Files (page 409) -Opening Maple • Reading Data from a File file • Reading Expressions from a File Exporting to Other Formats (page 412) - Export- • Exporting Documents ing documents in fil formats supported by • MapleNet other software • Maple T.A. Connectivity (page 416) - Using Maple with other programming languages and software • Translating Maple Code to Other Programming Languages • Accessing External Products from Maple • Accessing Maple from External Products • Sharing and Storing Maple Worksheet Content with the MapleCloudTM 11.2 Writing to Files Maple supports fil formats in addition to the standard .mw fil format. After using Maple to perform a computation, you can save the results to a fil for later processing with Maple or another program. Saving Data to a File If the result of a Maple calculation is a long list or a large array of numbers, you can convert it to Matrix form and write the numbers to a fil using the ExportMatrix command. This command writes columns of numerical data to a file allowing you to import the numbers into another program. To convert a list or a list of lists to a Matrix, use the Matrix constructor. For more information, refer to the Matrix help page. 407 408 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products > > If the data is a Vector or any object that can be converted to type Vector, use the ExportVector command. To convert lists to Vectors, use the Vector constructor. For more information, refer to the Vector help page. > (11.1) > (11.2) > You can extend these routines to write more complicated data, such as complex numbers or symbolic expressions. For more information, refer to the ExportMatrix and ExportVector help pages. For more information on matrices and vectors, see Linear Algebra (page 155). Saving Expressions to a File If you construct a complicated expression or procedure, you can save them for future use in Maple. If you save the expression or procedure in the Maple internal format, Maple can retrieve it more efficientl than from a document. Use the save command to write the expression to a .m file For more information on Maple internal fil formats, refer to the fil help page. 11.3 Reading from Files • 409 > In this example, small expressions are used. In practice, Maple supports expressions with thousands of terms. > (11.3) > (11.4) You can save these expressions to the fil qbinom.m. > Clear the memory using the restart command and retrieve the expressions using the read command. > > > (11.5) For more information on writing to files refer to the save help page. 11.3 Reading from Files The most common reason for reading file is to load data, for example, data generated in an experiment. You can store data in a text file and then read it into Maple. 410 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products Reading Data from a File Import Data Assistant If you generate data outside Maple, you can read it into Maple for further manipulation. This data can be an image, a sound file or columns of numbers in a text file You can easily import this external data into Maple using the Import Data Assistant, where the supported fil formats include file of type Excel®, MATLAB, Image, Audio, Matrix Market, and Delimited. To launch the Import Data Assistant: 1. From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Import Data. 2. A dialog window appears where you can navigate to your data file Select the fil that you want to import data from, and then select the fil type before clicking Next. 3. From the main window, you can preview the selected fil and choose from the applicable options based on the format of the fil read in before importing the data into Maple. See Figure 11.1Figure 11.1 for an example. Figure 11.1: Import Data Assistant ImportMatrix Command The Import Data Assistant provides a graphical interface to the ImportMatrix command. For more information, including options not available in the assistant, refer to the ImportMatrix help page. 11.3 Reading from Files • 411 Reading Expressions from a File You can write Maple programs in a text fil using a text editor, and then import the fil into Maple. You can paste the commands from the text fil into your document or you can use the read command. When you read a fil with the read command, Maple treats each line in the fil as a command. Maple executes the commands and displays the results in your document but it does not, by default, insert the commands from the fil in your document. For example, the fil ks.txt contains the following Maple commands. S:= n -> sum( binomial( n, beta ) * ( ( 2*beta )! / 2^beta - beta!*beta ), beta=1..n ); S(19); Note that the fil should not contain prompts (>) at the start of lines. When you read the file Maple displays the results but not the commands. (11.6) > > (11.7) If you set the interface echo option to 2, Maple inserts the commands from the fil into your document. 412 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products > > S:= n -> sum( binomial( n, beta ) * ( ( 2*beta )! / 2^beta beta!*beta ), beta=1..n ); > S(19); (11.8) For more information, refer to the read and interface help pages. 11.4 Exporting to Other Formats Exporting Documents You can save your documents by selecting Save or Save As from the File menu. By selecting Export As from the File menu, you can also export a document in the following formats: HTML, LaTeX, Maple input, Maplet application, Maple text, plain text, PDF, and Rich Text Format. This allows you to access your work outside Maple. HTML The .html fil that Maple generates can be loaded into any HTML browser. Exported mathematical content can be displayed in one of the following formats: GIF, MathML 2.0 Presentation, MathML 2.0 Content, or Maple Viewer, and is saved in a separate folder. MathML is the Internet standard, sanctioned by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), for the communication of structured mathematical formulae between applications. For more information about MathML, refer to the MathML help page. Maple documents that are exported to HTML translate into multiple documents when using frames. If the frames feature is not selected, Maple creates only one page that contains the document contents. LaTeX The .tex fil generated by Maple is ready for processing by LaTeX. All distributions of Maple include the necessary style files By default, the LaTeX style file are set for printing the .tex fil using the dvips printer driver. You can change this behavior by specifying an option to the \usepackage LaTeX command in the preamble of your .tex file For more information, refer to the exporttoLaTeX help page. 11.4 Exporting to Other Formats • 413 Maple Input You can export a Maple document as Maple input so that it can be loaded using the Maple Command-line version. Important: When exporting a document as Maple input for use in Command-line Maple, your document must contain explicit semicolons in 1-D Math input. If not, the exported .mpl fil does not contain semicolons, and Command-line Maple generates errors. Maplet Application The Export as Maplet facility saves a Maple document as a .maplet file so that you can run it using the command-line interface or the MapletViewer. The MapletViewer is an executable program that can launch saved Maplet applications. It displays and runs Maplet applications independently of the Maple Worksheet interface. Important: When exporting a document as a Maplet Application for use in Command-line Maple or the MapletViewer, your document must contain explicit semicolons. If not, the exported .maplet fil does not contain semicolons, and Command-line Maple and the MapletViewer generates errors. Maple Text Maple text is marked text that retains the distinction between text, Maple input, and Maple output. Thus, you can export a document as Maple text, send the text fil by email, and the recipient can import the Maple text into a Maple session and regenerate the computations in the original document. PDF Export a Maple document to a Portable Document Format (PDF) fil so that you can open the fil in a reader such as Adobe® Acrobat®. The PDF document is formatted as it would appear when the Maple worksheet is printed using the active printer settings. Note: Images, plots, and embedded components may be resized in the PDF file Plain Text Export a Maple document as plain text so that you can open the text fil in a word processor. Rich Text Format (RTF) Export a Maple document to a rich text format fil so that you can open and edit the fil in a word processor. Note: The generated .rtf format is compatible with Microsoft Word and Microsoft WordPad only. 414 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products Summary of Translation Table 11.1: Summary of Content Translation When Exporting to Different Formats Content Text 1-D Math HTML LaTeX Maple Input Maplet Application Maintained Maintained PrePreceded ceded by by # # Maintained Maintained MainMaintained tained GIF or 1-D Math 1-D 1-D MathML or LaTeX Math (if Math (if 2e possible) possible) Maple Text Preceded Mainby # tained Postscript fil Animation Animated Not exporGIF ted Hidden Not expor- Not exporcontent ted ted Manually Not suppor- Not supporinserted ted ted page break Not exported Not exported Not exported Not supported Not exported Not exported Not exported Not supported Preceded by > 1-D Math or character-based typesetting Not exported Not exported Not exported Not supported Hyperlink Links to help pages become plain text. Links to documents are renamed and converted to HTML links Embedded GIF image or sketch output SpreadHTML table sheet Plain text Plain text Plain text 2-D Math Plot GIF Plain text Plain Text Preceded by > 1-D Math or character-based typesetting Not exported Not exported Not exported Not supported Plain text Rich Text Format Maintained PDF Format Maintained Static image Static image Static image Either text or shapes depending on option selected Static image Not exported Not exported RTF page break object Plain text Static image Static image Not exported Maintained Plain text Not expor- Not ex- Not ex- Not exted ported ported ported Not exported Static im- Static image age LaTeX tables Not exported RTF table Not ex- Not ex- Not exported ported ported Static image 11.4 Exporting to Other Formats • 415 Content HTML LaTeX Maple Input Maplet Application Document Approxim- LaTeX en- Not ex- Not exstyle ated by vironments ported ported HTML style and secattributes tions, LaTeX 2e macro calls Maple Text Plain Text Not exported Not exported Rich Text Format RTF style PDF Format Maintained MapleNet Overview of MapleNet Using MapleNet, you can deploy Maple content on the web. Powered by the Maple computation engine, MapleNet allows you to embed dynamic formulas, models, and diagrams as live content in web pages. The MapleNet software is not included with the Maple software. For more information on MapleNet, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/maplenet. MapleNet Documents and Maplets After you upload your Maple document to the MapleNet server, it can be accessed by anyone in the world using a Web browser. Even if viewers do not have a copy of Maple installed, they can view documents and Maplets, manipulate 3-D plots, and execute code at the click of a button. TM Custom Java Applets and JavaServer Pages Technology MapleNet provides a programming interface to the Maple math engine so commands can be executed from a Java applet or using JavaServer PagesTM technology. Embed MapleNet into your web application, and let Maple handle the math and visualization. Maple T.A. Overview of Maple T.A. Maple T.A. is a web-based automated testing system, based on the Maple engine. Instructors can use pre-written questions or create custom question banks and then choose from these questions to form quizzes and assignments. Maple T.A. automatically grades responses as students complete assignments and tests. For more information, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/mapleta. 416 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products Exporting Assignments to Maple T.A. You can use Maple to create graded questions for use in Maple T.A. For information on creating and testing questions, see Creating Graded Assignments (page 331). Using the Maple T.A. export feature, you can create and test Maple T.A. content. To export the document: 1. From the File menu, select Export As. 2. In the Export As dialog, specify a filenam and the Maple T.A. (.zip) fil type. The .zip fil containing your questions and assignment can be uploaded to Maple T.A. as a course module. Any document content outside Maple T.A. sections (indicated by green section markers) is ignored by the export process. For more details, refer to the exporttoMapleTA help page. 11.5 Connectivity Translating Maple Code To Other Programming Languages Code Generation The CodeGeneration package is a collection of commands and subpackages that enable the translation of Maple code to other programming languages. Languages currently supported include C, C#, Fortran 77, Java, MATLAB, and Visual Basic. For details on Code Generation, refer to the CodeGeneration help page. Accessing External Products from Maple External Calling External calling allows you to use compiled C, C#, Fortran 77, or Java code in Maple. Functions written in these languages can be linked and used as if they were Maple procedures. With external calling you can use pre-written optimized algorithms without the need to translate them into Maple commands. Access to the NAG library routines and other numerical algorithms is built into Maple using the external calling mechanism. External calling can also be applied to functions other than numerical algorithms. Routines exist that accomplish a variety of non-mathematical tasks. You can use these routines in Maple to extend its functionality. For example, you can link to controlled hardware via a serial port or interface with another program. The Database package uses external calling to allow you to query, create, and update databases in Maple. For more information, refer to the Database help page. 11.5 Connectivity • 417 For more information on using external calling, refer to the ExternalCalling help page. Mathematica Translator The MmaTranslator package provides translation tools for converting Mathematica® expressions, command operations, and notebooks to Maple. The package can translate Mathematica input to Maple input and Mathematica notebooks to Maple documents. The Mma subpackage contains commands that provide translation for Mathematica commands when no equivalent Maple command exists. In most cases, the command achieves the translation through minor manipulations of the input and output of similar Maple commands. Note: The MmaTranslator package does not convert Mathematica programs. There is a Maplet interface to the MmaTranslator package. For more information, refer to the MmaToMaple help page. Matlab Package The Matlab package enables you to translate MATLAB code to Maple, as well as call selected MATLAB functions from a Maple session, provided you have MATLAB installed on your system. For more information, refer to the Matlab help page. Accessing Maple from External Products Microsoft Excel Add-In Maple is available as an add-in to Microsoft Excel. This add-in is supported for Excel 2010 and Excel 2007 for Windows, and provides the following features. • Access to Maple commands from Excel • Ability to copy and paste between Maple and Excel • Access to a subset of the Maple help pages • Maple Function Wizard to step you through the creation of a Maple function call To enable the Maple Excel Add-in in Excel 2010: 1. Click the File menu and select Options. 2. Click Add-ins. 3. In the Manage box select Excel Add-ins, and then Go. 418 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products 4. Navigate to the Excel subdirectory of your Maple installation and select the appropriate file - For 32-bit Windows, select WMIMPLEX.xla (that is, select $MAPLE/Excel/WMIMPLEX.xla), and click OK. - For 64-bit Windows, select WMIMPLEX64.xla (that is, select $MAPLE/Excel/WMIMPLEX64.xla), and click OK. 5. Select the Maple Excel Add-in check box. 6. Click OK. For details on enabling the Maple Excel Add-in for Excel 2007, refer to the Excel help page. For information on using this add-in, refer to the Using Maple in Excel help fil within Excel. To view this help file 1. Enable the add-in. 2. From the View menu, select Toolbars, and then Maple. 3. On the Maple toolbar, click the Maple help icon . OpenMaple OpenMaple is a suite of functions that allows you to access Maple algorithms and data structures in your compiled C, C#, Java, or Visual Basic programs. (This is the reverse of external calling, which allows access to compiled C, C#, Fortran 77, and Java code from Maple.) To run your application, Maple must be installed. You can distribute your application to any licensed Maple user. For additional terms and conditions on the use of OpenMaple, refer to the extern/OpenMapleLicensing.txt fil in your Maple installation. For more details on using OpenMaple functions, refer to the OpenMaple help page. MapleSim MapleSimTM is a complete environment for modeling and simulating multidomain engineering systems. During a simulation, MapleSim uses the symbolic Maple computation engine to generate the mathematical models that represent the system behavior. Because both products are tightly integrated, you can use Maple commands and technical document features to edit, manipulate, and analyze a MapleSim model. For example, you can use Maple commands and tools to manipulate your model equations, develop custom components based on a mathematical model, and visualize simulation results. 11.5 Connectivity • 419 MapleSim software is not included with the Maple software. For more information on MapleSim, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/maplesim. MaplePlayer for iPad The Maple Player is a free application for the iPad that uses the Maple computation engine to enable you to view and interact with documents created in desktop Maple. For more information on the Maple Player for iPad, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/products/MaplePlayer. Sharing and Storing Maple Worksheet Content The MapleCloud You can use the MapleCloud to share worksheet content with other users, view content shared by other users, and store entire standard Maple worksheets or selected content from standard Maple worksheets. Through the MapleCloud palette, you can upload standard Maple worksheet content and allow other users to download a copy of that content. You can also upload and store content in a user-specifi area that only you can access. A list of shared worksheets that you have permissions to view are displayed in the MapleCloud palette. To share content with specifi users, you can either create a user group or select an existing group and allow only those group members to access your content. For more information about groups, refer to the worksheet,cloud,groups help page. Users need an internet connection to use the MapleCloud. To share worksheet content, create, manage and join user groups; and view group-specifi content, you must log in to the MapleCloud using a Maplesoft.com, Gmail™, or Google Mail™ account name and password. A Maplesoft.com membership account gives you access to thousands of free Maple resources and MaplePrimes, which is an active web community for sharing techniques and experiences with Maple and related products. To sign up for a free Maplesoft.com membership account, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/members/sign_up_form.aspx. The MapleCloud is integrated with several of these online features, so it is strongly recommended that you use a Maplesoft.com membership account. 420 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products Index Symbols ! toolbar icon, 66 !!! toolbar icon, 66 "", 342 $, 175 %H, 168 %T, 168 >, 78 <>, 156, 159 &x, 168 ', 94, 361 (), 379 ->, 94 ., 167 1-D Math, 79 switching to 2-D, 79 2-D Math, 78 converting to 1-D, 80 entering, 5 shortcuts, 7 switching to 1-D, 79 :, 79, 80 ::, 142 :=, 93 ;, 79, 80 ? help topic, 54 [], 165, 334, 335 ^, 6, 110 entering, 110 _, 95 entering, 95 _ZN~, 115 `, 95 {}, 334 |, 159 ~, 115, 143 element-wise operations, 358 A about command, 143 abs command, 107 absolute value, 107 add word to your dictionary, 330 add command, 375 additionally command, 143 algebra, 153 linear, 171 polynomial, 148 algsubs command, 355 alignment format, 286 American spelling spellcheck, 328 and operator, 366 angle brackets, 156, 159, 203 angles, 351 animations creating, 275 customizing, 279 Application Center, 59 applications sample documents, 57 apply character styles, 288 paragraph styles, 291 approximation, 103 least-squares, 170 numeric, 356 arguments, 379 arithmetic, 66 finite-precision 102 interval, 138 matrix and vector, 166 modular, 107, 109 polynomial, 148 Arrays, 336 indexing, 336 large, 337 arrow operator, 94 assign command, 118 assigned command, 361 421 422 • Index assignment operator (:=), 93 Assistants Back-Solver, 35 CAD Link, 36 Curve Fitting, 34, 155 Data Analysis, 35, 194 eBook Publisher, 36 Equation Manipulator, 36 Import Data, 36, 410 Installer Builder, 36 Library Browser, 36 Maplet Builder, 36 ODE Analyzer, 36, 120 Optimization, 36, 184 overview, 32 Plot Builder, 36, 238 Scientifi Constants , 36 Special Functions, 36 Tools menu, 32 Unit Converter, 351 Units Calculator, 36, 128 Worksheet Migration, 36 assume command, 142 adding assumptions, 143 and procedure variables, 145 imposing multiple assumptions, 143 removing assumptions, 144 setting relationships between variables, 142 setting variable properties, 142 testing property, 143 using with assuming command, 145 viewing assumptions, 143 assuming command, 142, 144, 180, 350 additionally option, 145 and procedure variables, 145 applying to all names, 144 using with assume command, 145 Attributes submenu character, 285 paragraph, 286 auto-execute, 302 repeating, 304 security levels, 304 Avogadro constant, 113, 134 B Back-Solver Assistant, 35 bar chart, 192 basis vector space, 170 binary numbers, 108 Bohr radius, 134 bold format, 283 bookmarks using, 324 boolean expressions, 357, 366, 372 brackets angle, 156, 159 break statement, 374 browser Matrix, 160, 338 Task, 90 bullets format, 286 button embedding, 326 Button component, 385 by clause, 369 excluding, 369 negative, 370 C CAD Link Assistant, 36 calculus, 183 clickable problem solving, 235 multivariate, 182 Student package, 183 of variations, 183 packages, 182 study guides, 196 teaching, 183, 196 vector, 182 Student package, 183 calling sequence, 81 Index • 423 canvas inserting, 317 canvas style sketch pad, 318 caret entering, 110 central tendency, 138 character styles creating, 289 description, 287 Check Box component, 385 Cholesky decomposition, 168 Classic Worksheet tables, 313 Classic Worksheet Interface, xvii clickable math, 235 Code Edit Region, 382 CodeGeneration package description, 85 coeff command, 153 coefficient polynomials, 153 coeffs command, 154 collect command, 153 colon, 79, 80 color of plots, 267 combine command, 350 errors option, 141 Combo Box component, 386 command completion, 7, 47 Command-line Interface, xvii commands, 85 and task templates, 91 displaying procedures, 380 entering, 45 help, 53 hiding, 382, 383 iterative, 377 mapping over set or list, 377 package, 83 top, 83 top-level, 81 compatibility worksheet, 332 complex expressions, 357 complex numbers, 29 compoly command, 155 components adding GUI elements, 326 palette, 326 computations assistants, 90 commands, 85 context menus, 89 errors, 105 avoiding, 105 integers, 109 interrupting, 374 linear algebra, 166 mathematics, 147 numeric, 105 palettes, 87 performing, 101, 147 Real number system, 141 symbolic, 105 syntax-free, 75 task templates, 91 tutors, 90 under assumptions, 142 single evaluation, 144 updating, 66 with uncertainty, 140 with units, 131 conditional execution, 366 constants, 63 content command, 154 context of unit, 128 context menus, 68, 89, 168 customizing animations, 277 equation, 111 integer, 88, 106 overview, 39 tutors, 74 using, 39 424 • Index convert command, 351 base option, 108, 373 degrees option, 351 mathematical functions, 351 polynom option, 179 set option, 351 temperature option, 130 units option, 129, 351 copy, 283 examples, 56 copy expressions, 12 correlation, 140 coulditbe command, 144 covariance, 140 cross product, 168 Curl command, 183 Curve Fitting package PolynomialInterpolation command, 155 Curve Fitting Assistant, 34, 155 cut and paste in tables, 306 D D operator, 176 Data Analysis Assistant, 35, 194 data structures, 63, 333 creating, 341 Data Table component, 386 Database Integration, 416 datatype option, 163 degree command, 154 polynomials, 153 demonstrations, 195 denom command, 346 derivatives, 174 directional, 176 partial, 63, 174 prime notation, 302 Tutor, 196 Dial component, 386 dictionary, 57, 195 dictionary topic adding hyperlink to, 323 diff command, 121, 175 differential equations ordinary, 120 partial, 124 differentiation, 174 with uncertainty, 140 with units, 132 Differentiation Methods Tutor, 197 Digits environment variable, 104 dimension, 127, 168 base, 127 Directional Derivative Tutor, 176 discrim command, 155 display bookmark, 324 distribution probability, 190 divide command, 149 divisors, 107 document blocks, 50, 299 Document mode, 61 documents running, 9 DocumentTools, 394 double colon operator, 142 dsolve command, 124 E e-notation, 104 eBook Publisher Assistant, 36 Edit menu in help system, 56 eigenvalues, 168 eigenvectors, 168 element-wise operators, 358 elementary charge, 134 elements, 133 definition 135 isotopes, 135 definition 135 Index • 425 properties, 135 list, 135 properties list, 135 uncertainty, 138 units, 137 using, 134 value, 136 value and units, 137 elif clauses, 367 order, 368 else clause, 367 email adding hyperlink to, 322 embedded components, 326, 385 inserting, 388 properties, 389 end do keywords, 369, 371, 372 end if keywords, 366 end proc keywords, 378 engineers portal for, 57 environment variables Digits, 104 Order, 179 equation solving step-by-step, 216 equation labels, 99 displaying, 96 features, 99 formatting, 50 inserting, 49 numbering schemes, 98 overview, 48 references to, 96 versus names, 99 with multiple outputs, 97 Equation Manipulator, 36, 216 equations solving, 111 for real solutions, 141 numerically, 116 symbolically, 113 transcendental, 115 errors quantities with, 138 Euclidean algorithm, 155 eval command, 354, 380 evalb command, 357 evalc command, 357 evalf command, 104, 115, 136, 139, 356 with Int command, 181 with Limit command, 173 evaln command, 361 evaluation boolean expressions, 357 complex expressions, 357 delaying, 361 levels of, 360 Maple expressions, 353 of expression at a point, 353 output below, 65 output inline, 65, 68 updated computations, 66 exact computation, 103 numbers, 102 quantities converting to floating-point 104 example worksheets copy, 56 execution group, 79 execution groups, 18 expand command, 349 document block, 301 execution group, 301 series, 178 Exploration Assistant, 43 exponents entering, 6 export, 381 to HTML, 412 to LaTeX, 412 to Maple input, 413 to Maple T.A., 416 426 • Index to Maple text, 413 to Maplet application, 413 to other formats, 415 to PDF, 413 to plain text, 413 to Rich Text Format, 413 worksheets, 412 exporting embedded components, 388 expression sequences, 113, 334 creating, 375 expressions, 63, 333 adding, 375 evaluating, 353 manipulating, 348 multiplying, 375 right-click, 40 versus functional operators, 340 F factor integers, 106 polynomials, 154 QR factorization, 170 factor command, 154, 349 factored normal form, 352 factorial command, 107 FAIL, 366, 372 false, 366, 372 Faraday constant, 134 Favorites palette, 21 file image formats, 319 reading from, 411 writing to, 407 fil option, 163 finit fields 109 solving equations, 125 finit rings, 109 floating-poin computation, 103 accuracy, 105 hardware, 105 significan digits, 104 numbers, 102 rational approximation, 89 Flux command, 183 font color, 283 foot-pound-second (FPS) system, 72, 128 footers, 296 for/from loops, 369 for/in loops, 371 formal power series solutions, 124 format labels, 49 Format menu bookmarks, 324 quick formatting, 283 frac command, 144 fractions approximating, 69 entering, 6 frequency plot, 192 Frobenius form matrix, 170 from clause, 369 excluding, 369 fsolve command, 116 full evaluation, 360, 362 FunctionAdvisor command, 81 functional operators, 339 differentiating, 175 plotting, 341 versus expressions, 340 functions converting between, 351 definin as functional operators, 339 G Gaussian elimination, 170 Gaussian integers, 110 GaussInt package, 110 gcd command, 155 gcdex command, 155 Global Optimization Toolbox, 184 global variables, 379 glossiness Index • 427 of 3-D plots, 267 go to bookmark, 326 gradient, 199 Gradient Tutor, 198 Graphing Calculator, xvii greatest common divisor, 107, 155 H Handwriting palette, 27 has command, 345 hastype command, 344 HazardRate command, 191 headers, 296 Help Navigator Using, 55 help page adding hyperlink to, 322 help system accessing, 53 description, 57 Edit menu, 56 Help Navigator, 54 manuals, 55 search, 55 table of contents, 55 tasks, 55 topic search, 55 tutorials, 55 View menu, 56 Hermitian transpose matrix and vector, 168 Hessenberg form, 170 hexadecimal numbers, 108 hide worksheet content, 297 highlight color, 283 Hilbert Matrix, 170 histogram, 192 How Do I ... topics, 57 hyperlinks in worksheet, 320 I i entering, 29, 110 icons open as example worksheet, 56 if statement, 366 ifactor command, 106, 107, 349 igcd command, 107 images adding hyperlink to, 321 fil format, 319 inserting, 319 imaginary unit entering, 29, 110 implied multiplication, 6 implies operator, 366 Import Data Assistant, 36, 410 indent format, 286 indeterminates, 347 indets command, 347 indices, 81, 165 inequations solving, 111 for real solutions, 141 symbolically, 113 infinit loops, 374 infolevel command, 124 input 1-D Math, 79 2-D Math, 78 prompt, 78 separating, 80 setting default mode, 80 insert bookmark, 324 hyperlink, 321 images, 319 section, 295 sketch pad, 317 table, 304 Installer Builder Assistant, 36 instructor resources, 207 428 • Index int command, 181 Int command, 181 integers commands, 107 computations, 109 context menu, 88 factoring, 106 Gaussian, 110 modulo m, 109 solving equations, 125 solving modular equations, 125 integration, 67, 87, 179 definite 180 functional operators, 342 indefinite 180 iterated, 181 line, 181, 201 numeric, 181 surface, 181 with units, 132 interactive commands Student, 38 Interactive Linear System Solving tutor, 73 Interactive Plot Builder Assistant creating animations, 271 creating plots, 238 customizing animations, 277 customizing plots, 263 interface command rtablesize option, 162 verboseproc option, 380 international system (SI), 128 InterquartileRange command, 191 interval arithmetic, 138 iquo command, 107 iroot command, 107 is command, 143 isprime command, 107 isqrt command, 107 italic format, 283 J j entering, 110 Jordan form, 168 K keyboard keys Command Completion, xviii Context Menu, xviii keystrokes, 6 L Label component, 386 labels, 99 last name evaluation, 361 lcm command, 155 lcoeff command, 153 ldegree command, 154 least-squares, 170 left single quotes, 95 left-hand side, 345 levels of evaluation, 360 lexicographic order, 151 lhs command, 345 Library Browser description, 36 limit command, 172 Limit command, 173 limits, 172 multidimensional, 173 line break, 286 line integrals, 201 linear algebra, 171 computations, 166 efficienc , 162, 171 LinearAlgebra package, 170 teaching, 171, 196 Linear System Solving tutor, 74 linear systems solving, 125, 170 interactive, 73 LinearAlgebra package description, 85 LinearAlgebra package, 168 Index • 429 commands, 170 numeric computations, 171 LinearSolve command, 125 List Box component, 386 lists, 165, 335 returning solutions as, 113 local variables, 379 logical operators, 366 loops, 369 general, 373 infinite 374 M Macintosh command complete, 7 context menus, 39 manipulate equation, 216 map command, 377 Maple Application Center, 196 Maple library, 45 Maple Portal, 57, 195 Maple Student Help Center, 196 MapleCloud, 419 MaplePrimes, 59 Maplet Builder description, 36 launching, 398 Maplet authoring, 398 Maplets adding hyperlink to, 323 authoring, 405 Maplet Builder, 398 Maplets package, 403 launching Maple worksheet, 397 Maplet fil type, 396 Maplets package Display command, 403 Elements subpackage, 403 Maplet authoring, 403 saving Maple worksheet, 405 maplet file 405 using, 396 markers bookmarks, 324 displaying, 51 for document blocks, 299 math dictionary description, 57 math educators portal for, 195 Math Expression component, 386 Math mode, 19 shortcuts, 7 mathematical functions list, 81 mathematics computations, 147 teaching and learning, 207 matrices, 338 arithmetic, 166 context menus, 168 data type, 162, 163 defining 156 efficienc , 162 filling 163 Hermitian transpose, 168 image, 161 large, 160 multiplication, 167 operations, 168 random, 160 scalar multiplication, 167 selecting submatrices, 165 shape, 162, 163 transpose, 168 type, 162 Matrix Browser, 160, 338 constructor, 163 data structure, 155 palette, 126, 156, 162 Matrix command, 156 max command, 107 430 • Index maximize, 184 maximum, 107 Mean command, 191 Meter component, 386 min command, 107 minimize, 184 minimum, 107 mod command, 107 mod operator, 109 modes Document, 61 Worksheet, 61 modify table, 305 modp command, 109 mods command, 109 modular arithmetic, 107, 109 modules, 381 MPS(X) files 188 msolve command, 125 mul command, 375 multiplication implied, 6 N names, 63, 93 adding assumptions, 142 and symbols, 28 assigned, 361 assigning values to, 93 logical, 366 previously assigned, 361 protected, 94 removing assumptions, 144 reserved, 94 unassigning, 94, 144, 362 valid, 95 versus equation labels, 99 with assumptions, 143 nops command, 347 norm command, 155, 169 normal command, 352 normal form, 352 not operator, 366 numbers, 63 exact, 102 floating-point 102 non-base 10, 108 numer command, 346 numeric approximation, 356 computation, 102 numtheory[divisors] command, 107 O objects, 381 ODE Analyzer Assistant, 36, 120 online help, 60 operands, 347 selecting, 376 operators, 63 functional, 339 logical, 366 relational, 366 Optimization package description, 85 optimization, 187 efficienc , 187 plotting, 186 point-and-click interface, 184 Optimization Assistant, 32, 36, 184 Plotter, 186 Options dialog, 20 or operator, 366 Order environment variable, 179 ordinary differential equations plotting solution, 123 solving, 120 orthogonal matrix, 170 output suppressing, 79 P packages, 81 accessing commands, 47 Index • 431 definition 45 help, 53 loading, 83 top, 86 unloading, 84 page break, 286 page headers and footers, 296 palette custom, 28 Snippets, 28 palettes, 63, 67, 87, 354 categories, 23 Components, 389 favorites, 21 managing, 24 Matrix, 156, 162 overview, 21 symbol recognition, 27 Units, 72, 130 paragraph styles creating, 292 description, 287 parameters, 379 parametric solutions, 116 partial derivative entering, 63 partial differential equations solving, 124 paste, 283 examples, 56 PDEs, 124 pdsolve command, 124 pencil sketch pad, 317 Physics package description, 85 pie chart, 192 piecewise command, 190 Planck constant, 134 Plot Builder description, 36 plot command, 179 Plot component, 386 plot3d command, 341 plots analyzing, 269 pan, 269 point probe, 269 rotate, 269 scale, 269 code for color plates, 280 creating, 261 context menu, 245 displaying multiple plots, 261 insert plot, 248 Interactive Plot Builder, 238 plot command, 249 plot3d command, 249 plots package, 257 creating animations animate command, 271 Interactive Plot Builder, 271 plot3d[viewpoint] command, 274 customizing, 267 context menu, 264 Interactive Plot Builder, 263 plot options, 267 plot3d options, 267 customizing animations, 279 command-line options, 278 context menu, 277 Interactive Plot Builder, 277 data, 270 exporting, 280 functional operators, 341 gradient, 200 line integral, 201 Live Data Plots palette, 270 ODEs numeric solution, 122 symbolic solution, 123 optimization problem, 186 playing animations, 276 plots package animate command, 271 contourplot command, 260 432 • Index display command, 262 matrixplot command, 258 pointplot command, 257 series, 179 statistics, 192 viewing animations animate context bar, 276 point-and-click, 32 polynomial equations solving, 115 numerically, 116 polynomials algebra, 148 arithmetic, 148 coefficients 153 collecting terms, 153 degree, 153 division, 148, 149 efficien arithmetic, 155 expanding, 149 factoring, 154 implied multiplication, 150 numeric algebraic manipulation, 155 operations, 154 sorting, 150 pure lexicographic, 151 total degree, 151 PolynomialTools package, 155 IsSelfReciprocal command, 155 powers entering, 6 precalculus demos, 195 teaching, 196 precision, 104 prem command, 155 previously assigned, 361 primality testing, 107 primpart command, 155 print command, 380 table, 312 printing embedded components, 388 probability distribution, 190 proc key word, 378 procedures, 381 and assumptions, 145 calling, 378 defining 378 displaying, 380 inputs, 379 multiple lines, 378 output, 379 using, 378 product command, 376 products entering, 6 implied, 6 programming, 365 access to Maple's programming guides, 58 programs, 365 modules, 381 objects, 381 procedures, 381 prompt input, 78 properties testing, 143 protected names, 94 Q QPSolve command, 188 QR factorization, 170 quadratic programs, 188 quantities with uncertainty, 139 accessing error, 139 accessing value, 139 computing with, 140 constructing, 139 element properties, 140 rounding the error, 139 scientifi constants, 140 with units, 140 Index • 433 quick character formatting, 283 paragraph formatting, 285 quit statement, 374 quo command, 148 quotes double, 342 left single, 95 right single, 94, 361 unevaluation, 361 quotient integer, 107 R Radio Button component, 386 random matrices, 160 variables, 190 randpoly command, 155 range in plots, 265 operator, 165 rank, 168 rational expressions entering, 6 read from files 411 RealDomain package description, 85 recurrence relation solving, 126 reference equation labels, 99 names, 93 relational operators, 366 rem command, 148 remainder integer, 107 remove command, 376 repetition statements, 369 reserved names, 94 resources in help system, 55 restart command, 84, 95 resultant command, 155 return statement, 374 values, 379 rhs command, 345 right single quotes, 94, 361 right-click expressions, 40 right-hand side, 345 RootOf structure, 115 roots command, 155 of equations, 115 Rotary Gauge component, 387 row vector creating, 163 rsolve command, 126 running documents, 9 worksheets, 9 S saving a Maple Document, 18 scatter plot, 192 scientifi constants, 133 list, 134 name, 134 symbol, 134 uncertainty, 138 units, 137 using, 134 value, 136 value and units, 137 Scientifi Constants Assistant, 36 ScientificConstant package description, 85 ScientificConstant package, 133 extensibility, 138 objects, 136 ScientificErrorAnalysi package description, 85 ScientificErrorAnalysi package, 138 434 • Index extensibility, 141 objects, 139 search help system, 55 sections in worksheet, 294 security levels auto-execute, 304 security tab options dialog, 304 select command, 376 selection execute, 9 selectremove command, 376 semicolon, 79, 80 seq command, 375 series, 178 command, 178 plotting, 179 Taylor, 178 type, 179 sets, 334 shape option, 163 show worksheet content, 297 show contents dialog using, 297 significan digits, 104 simplify command, 348, 355 sketch pad canvas style, 298 slider embedding, 326 Slider component, 387 Snippets palette, 28 solutions assigning as expression, 118 assigning as function, 119 details, 124 formal, 124 formal power series, 124 integers, 125 real, 141 series, 124 verifying, 118 solve equations, 111 for real solutions, 141 numerically, 116 symbolically, 113 inequations, 111 for real solutions, 141 symbolically, 113 integer equations, 125 linear system, 125, 170 modular integer equations, 125 ODEs, 120 PDEs, 124 recurrence relation, 126 transcendental equations, 115 solve command, 113, 336 findin all solutions, 115 findin parametric solutions, 116 real solutions, 141 solving procedures, 116 sort lists, 353 polynomials, 150, 353 sort command, 150, 353 plex option, 151 spacing format, 286 Special Functions Assistant, 36 spellcheck, 328 American spelling, 328 dictionary, 330 sqrfree command, 155 Standard Document Interface, xvii starting, 3 Standard Units environment, 131 Standard Worksheet Interface, xvii startup code, 9 Startup Code, 383 statements multiple lines, 378 Statistics package, 193 continuous distributions, 190 Index • 435 description, 85 discrete distributions, 190 plots, 192 strings, 342 StringTools package, 343 Student package description, 86 Student Help Center, 59 Student package, 177, 195, 196 calculus subpackages, 183 LinearAlgebra subpackage, 171 Maplets, 195 Tutors, 195 student resources, 207 students portal for, 195 study guides, 196 style set management, 293 subscripts entering, 7 format, 283 substitute, 353 sum command, 376 superscript format, 283 Sylvester matrix, 170 symbol completion, 7 symbolic computation, 102 objects, 103 symbols entering, 28 names, 28 system of units, 128 controlling, 132 systeme international (SI), 72, 128 T Tab icon, 87 inserting, 87 key, 87 Tab icon, 9 table of contents help system, 55 tables, 338 alignment, 309 and Classic worksheet, 313 appearance, 308 borders, 308 contents, 304 execution order, 313 physical dimensions, 308 printing, 312 using, 304 visibility of cell content, 312 Task Browser, 90 task template, 40 task templates, 91, 106, 127, 155, 172 taylor command, 178 Taylor series, 178 tcoeff command, 154 Teacher Resource Center, 59 teachers portal for, 195 teaching with Maple, 207 Technical Support access, 60 temperature conversion, 129 Text Area component, 387 text fiel embedding, 326 Text mode, 19 text regions, 92 tilde, 115, 143, 358 to clause, 369 excluding, 369 Toggle Button component, 387 Tolerances package, 138 toolboxes Global Optimization, 184 Tools menu assistants, 32 Assistants and Tutors, 90 Tasks, 90 topic search, 55 Torsion command, 183 436 • Index total degree, 151 transparency of 3-D plots, 267 transpose matrices and vectors, 168 true, 366 tutorials help system, 55 Tutorials, 57 Tutors, 195, 196 Derivatives, 196 Differentiation Methods, 197 Directional Derivative, 176 Gradient, 198 Linear System Solving, 74 using, 37 tutors accessing, 37 type command, 344 types, 142, 343 converting, 351 series, 179 testing, 344 subexpressions, 344 typesetting rule assistant, 298 U unapply command, 119 unassign command, 94 unassigning names, 94, 362 uncertainty, 138 quantities with, 138 underline format, 283 unevaluation quotes, 94, 361 union of sets, 335 Unit Converter Assistant, 351 units, 72, 127, 351 adding to expressions, 72 applying to expression, 130 computing with, 131 context, 128 converting between, 128 environment, 131 evaluating with, 73 in 1-D Math, 131 inserting, 130 overview, 127 prefixes 131 system of controlling, 132 systems of, 128 Units package description, 86 Units Calculator, 128 Units Calculator Assistant, 36 Units package, 127 environments, 131 extensibility, 133 UseSystem command, 133 UsingSystem command, 132 Units palettes, 72, 130 universal gravitational constant, 134 UNIX command complete, 7 context menus, 39 unwith command, 84 URL adding hyperlink to, 322 V variables, 63 variance, 140 VariationalCalculus package, 183 Vector constructor vectorfiel attribute, 182 data structure, 155 vector fields 182 vector spaces basis, 170 VectorCalculus package description, 86 VectorCalculus package, 182 Student version, 183 vectors, 338 Index • 437 arithmetic, 166 column, 159 context menus, 168 cross product, 168 data type, 163 defining 159 efficienc , 162 filling 163 large, 160 multiplication, 167 row, 159, 163 scalar multiplication, 167 selecting entries, 164 shape, 163 transpose, 168 View menu in help system, 56 markers, 51 Volume Gauge component, 387 W Web page adding hyperlink to, 322 Web site access to Maple help pages, 60 Application Center, 59, 196 MaplePrimes, 59 Student Center, 196 Student Help Center, 59 Teacher Resource Center, 59 Technical Support, 60 Training, 59 Welcome Center, 58 Welcome Center, 58 while loops, 372 Windows command complete, 7 context menus, 39 with command, 83 worksheet adding hyperlink to, 322 Worksheet Environment, 3 Worksheet Migration Assistant, 36 Worksheet mode, 61, 77 worksheets running, 9 write to files 407 X xor operator, 366 Z zero recognition, 352 zip command, 377 438 • Index

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