Maple`s manuals
Maple User Manual
Copyright © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
2012
Maple User Manual
Copyright
Maplesoft, Maple, MapleSim, Maple Application Center, Maple Student Center, Maplet, Maple T.A., MapleNet
and MapleCloud are all trademarks of Waterloo Maple Inc.
© Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. 1996-2012. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed, in any form or by any means
— electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. Information in this document is subject to change
without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of the vendor. The software described in this
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All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
This document was produced using Maple and DocBook.
Printed in Canada
ISBN 978-1-926902-23-4
Contents
Preface ...................................................................................................... xvii
1 Getting Started ............................................................................................. 1
1.1 In This Chapter ...................................................................................... 1
1.2 Introduction to Maple .............................................................................. 2
Working in Maple ................................................................................... 2
Starting the Standard Document Interface .................................................... 3
Entering 2-D Math .................................................................................. 5
Toolbar Options ...................................................................................... 9
Context Menus and Copy & Drag ............................................................. 11
Saving a Maple Document ...................................................................... 18
1.3 Entering Expressions ............................................................................. 18
Execution Groups .................................................................................. 18
Math Mode vs. Text Mode ...................................................................... 19
Palettes ............................................................................................... 21
Symbol Names ..................................................................................... 28
Toolbar Icons ....................................................................................... 30
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction ..................................................................... 32
Assistants ............................................................................................ 32
Tutors ................................................................................................ 37
Math Apps ........................................................................................... 38
Context Menus ..................................................................................... 39
Task Templates ..................................................................................... 40
Exploration Assistant ............................................................................. 43
1.5 Commands .......................................................................................... 45
The Maple Library ................................................................................ 45
Entering Commands .............................................................................. 45
Document Blocks .................................................................................. 50
1.6 The Maple Help System ......................................................................... 53
Accessing the Help System ..................................................................... 53
Using the Help Navigator ....................................................................... 55
Viewing Help Pages as Documents ........................................................... 55
Viewing Examples in 2-D Math ............................................................... 56
Copying Examples ................................................................................ 56
1.7 Available Resources .............................................................................. 56
Resources Available through the Maple Help System ................................... 57
Maple Tour and Quick Resources ............................................................. 58
Web Site Resources ............................................................................... 58
2 Document Mode .......................................................................................... 61
2.1 In This Chapter ..................................................................................... 61
2.2 Introduction ......................................................................................... 61
2.3 Entering Expressions ............................................................................. 62
iii
iv • Contents
Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative ....................................................... 63
Example 2 - Defin a Mathematical Function ............................................. 64
2.4 Evaluating Expressions .......................................................................... 65
2.5 Editing Expressions and Updating Output .................................................. 66
2.6 Performing Computations ....................................................................... 67
Computing with Palettes ......................................................................... 67
Context Menus ..................................................................................... 68
Assistants and Tutors ............................................................................. 73
3 Worksheet Mode ......................................................................................... 77
3.1 In This Chapter ..................................................................................... 77
3.2 Input Prompt ........................................................................................ 78
Suppressing Output ............................................................................... 79
1-D Math Input ..................................................................................... 79
Input Separators .................................................................................... 80
3.3 Commands .......................................................................................... 80
The Maple Library ................................................................................ 81
Top-Level Commands ............................................................................ 81
Package Commands ............................................................................... 83
3.4 Palettes ............................................................................................... 86
3.5 Context Menus ..................................................................................... 88
Example - Using Context Menus .............................................................. 89
3.6 Assistants and Tutors ............................................................................. 90
Launching an Assistant or Tutor ............................................................... 90
3.7 Task Templates ..................................................................................... 90
3.8 Text Regions ........................................................................................ 92
3.9 Names ................................................................................................ 92
Assigning to Names ............................................................................... 93
Unassigning Names ............................................................................... 94
Valid Names ......................................................................................... 95
3.10 Equation Labels .................................................................................. 95
Displaying Equation Labels .................................................................... 96
Referring to a Previous Result ................................................................. 96
Execution Groups with Multiple Outputs ................................................... 97
Label Numbering Schemes ..................................................................... 98
Features of Equation Labels .................................................................... 99
4 Basic Computations ................................................................................... 101
4.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 101
4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation ....................................................... 102
Exact Computations ............................................................................. 103
Floating-Point Computations ................................................................. 103
Converting Exact Quantities to Floating-Point Values ................................. 104
Sources of Error .................................................................................. 105
4.3 Integer Operations ............................................................................... 106
Contents • v
Non-Base 10 Numbers and Other Number Systems .................................... 108
4.4 Solving Equations ............................................................................... 111
Solving Equations and Inequations ......................................................... 111
Other Specialized Solvers ..................................................................... 120
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty ............................................. 127
Units ................................................................................................. 127
Scientifi Constants and Element Properties ............................................. 133
Uncertainty Propagation ....................................................................... 138
4.6 Restricting the Domain ......................................................................... 141
Real Number Domain ........................................................................... 141
Assumptions on Variables .................................................................... 142
5 Mathematical Problem Solving ..................................................................... 147
5.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 147
5.2 Algebra ............................................................................................. 148
Polynomial Algebra ............................................................................. 148
5.3 Linear Algebra .................................................................................... 155
Creating Matrices and Vectors ............................................................... 156
Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors ................................................ 164
Linear Algebra Computations ................................................................ 166
Student LinearAlgebra Package .............................................................. 171
5.4 Calculus ............................................................................................ 172
Limits ............................................................................................... 172
Differentiation .................................................................................... 174
Series ................................................................................................ 178
Integration ......................................................................................... 179
Differential Equations .......................................................................... 182
Calculus Packages ............................................................................... 182
5.5 Optimization ...................................................................................... 184
Point-and-Click Interface ...................................................................... 184
Large Optimization Problems ................................................................ 187
MPS(X) File Support .......................................................................... 188
Optimization Package Commands ........................................................... 189
5.6 Statistics ............................................................................................ 189
Probability Distributions and Random Variables ........................................ 190
Statistical Computations ....................................................................... 191
Plotting ............................................................................................. 192
Additional Information ......................................................................... 194
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple ......................................................... 194
Student Packages and Tutors .................................................................. 196
Calculus Problem Solving Examples ....................................................... 203
5.8 Clickable Math ................................................................................... 209
Smart Popups ..................................................................................... 210
Drag-to-Solve ..................................................................................... 210
vi • Contents
Examples ........................................................................................... 210
6 Plots and Animations .................................................................................. 237
6.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 237
6.2 Creating Plots ..................................................................................... 238
Interactive Plot Builder ......................................................................... 238
Context Menu ..................................................................................... 245
Dragging to a Plot Region ..................................................................... 248
The plot and plot3d Commands .............................................................. 249
The plots Package ................................................................................ 257
Multiple Plots in the Same Plot Region .................................................... 261
6.3 Customizing Plots ............................................................................... 263
Interactive Plot Builder Options ............................................................. 263
Context Menu Options ......................................................................... 264
The plot and plot3d Options .................................................................. 267
6.4 Analyzing Plots .................................................................................. 269
Point Probe, Rotate, Pan, and Zoom Tools ................................................ 269
6.5 Representing Data ............................................................................... 270
6.6 Creating Animations ............................................................................ 270
Interactive Plot Builder ......................................................................... 271
The plots[animate] Command ................................................................ 271
The plot3d[viewpoint] Command ........................................................... 274
6.7 Playing Animations ............................................................................. 276
Animation Context Bar ......................................................................... 276
6.8 Customizing Animations ...................................................................... 277
Interactive Plot Builder Animation Options .............................................. 277
Context Menu Options ......................................................................... 277
The animate Command Options ............................................................. 278
6.9 Exporting ........................................................................................... 280
6.10 Code for Color Plates ......................................................................... 280
7 Creating Mathematical Documents ................................................................ 281
7.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 281
7.2 Document Formatting .......................................................................... 282
Copy and Paste ................................................................................... 283
Quick Character Formatting .................................................................. 283
Quick Paragraph Formatting .................................................................. 285
Character and Paragraph Styles .............................................................. 287
Sections ............................................................................................. 294
Headers and Footers ............................................................................. 296
Show or Hide Worksheet Content ........................................................... 297
Indentation and the Tab Key .................................................................. 298
7.3 Commands in Documents ..................................................................... 299
Document Blocks ................................................................................ 299
Typesetting ......................................................................................... 302
Contents • vii
Auto-Execute ...................................................................................... 302
7.4 Tables ............................................................................................... 304
Creating a Table .................................................................................. 304
Cell Contents ...................................................................................... 304
Navigating Table Cells ......................................................................... 305
Modifying the Structural Layout of a Table ............................................... 305
Modifying the Physical Dimensions of a Table .......................................... 308
Modifying the Appearance of a Table ...................................................... 308
Printing Options .................................................................................. 312
Execution Order Dependency ................................................................ 313
Tables and the Classic Worksheet ........................................................... 313
Additional Examples ............................................................................ 313
7.5 Canvas .............................................................................................. 316
Insert a Canvas ................................................................................... 317
Drawing ............................................................................................ 317
Canvas Style ....................................................................................... 318
Inserting Images .................................................................................. 319
7.6 Hyperlinks ......................................................................................... 320
Inserting a Hyperlink in a Document ....................................................... 321
Bookmarks ......................................................................................... 324
7.7 Embedded Components ........................................................................ 326
Adding Graphical Interface Components .................................................. 326
Task Template with Embedded Components ............................................. 327
7.8 Spell Checking ................................................................................... 328
How to Use the Spellcheck Utility .......................................................... 329
Selecting a Suggestion .......................................................................... 330
User Dictionary ................................................................................... 330
7.9 Creating Graded Assignments ................................................................ 331
Creating a Question ............................................................................. 331
Viewing Questions in Maple .................................................................. 331
Saving Test Content ............................................................................. 331
7.10 Worksheet Compatibility ..................................................................... 332
8 Maple Expressions ..................................................................................... 333
8.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 333
8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures ........................................................ 333
Expression Sequences .......................................................................... 334
Sets .................................................................................................. 334
Lists .................................................................................................. 335
Arrays ............................................................................................... 336
Tables ............................................................................................... 338
Matrices and Vectors ............................................................................ 338
Functional Operators ............................................................................ 339
Strings ............................................................................................... 342
viii • Contents
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions ........................................................... 343
Low-Level Operations .......................................................................... 343
Manipulating Expressions ..................................................................... 348
Evaluating Expressions ......................................................................... 353
9 Basic Programming .................................................................................... 365
9.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................... 365
9.2 Flow Control ...................................................................................... 366
Conditional Execution (if Statement) ....................................................... 366
Repetition (for Statement) ..................................................................... 369
9.3 Iterative Commands ............................................................................. 374
Creating a Sequence ............................................................................. 375
Adding and Multiplying Expressions ....................................................... 375
Selecting Expression Operands .............................................................. 376
Mapping a Command over a Set or List ................................................... 377
Mapping a Binary Command over Two Lists or Vectors .............................. 377
Additional Information ......................................................................... 378
9.4 Procedures ......................................................................................... 378
Definin and Running Simple Procedures ................................................ 378
Procedures with Inputs ......................................................................... 379
Procedure Return Values ....................................................................... 379
Displaying Procedure Definition ........................................................... 380
Displaying Maple Library Procedure Definition ....................................... 380
Modules ............................................................................................ 381
Objects .............................................................................................. 381
9.5 Programming in Documents .................................................................. 382
Code Edit Region ................................................................................ 382
Startup Code ....................................................................................... 383
10 Embedded Components and Maplets ............................................................ 385
10.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................. 385
10.2 Using Embedded Components ............................................................. 385
Interacting .......................................................................................... 385
Printing and Exporting a Document with Embedded Components ................. 388
10.3 Creating Embedded Components .......................................................... 388
Inserting Components .......................................................................... 389
Editing Component Properties: General Process ........................................ 389
Removing Graphical Interface Components .............................................. 390
Integrating Components into a Document ................................................. 390
Example 2 - Creating Embedded Components ........................................... 392
10.4 Using Maplets ................................................................................... 396
Maplet File ........................................................................................ 396
Maple Document ................................................................................. 397
10.5 Authoring Maplets ............................................................................. 397
Simple Maplet .................................................................................... 398
Contents • ix
Maplet Builder .................................................................................... 398
Maplets Package ................................................................................. 403
Saving ............................................................................................... 405
11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products ......................................... 407
11.1 In This Chapter ................................................................................. 407
11.2 Writing to Files ................................................................................. 407
Saving Data to a File ............................................................................ 407
Saving Expressions to a File .................................................................. 408
11.3 Reading from Files ............................................................................. 409
Reading Data from a File ...................................................................... 410
Reading Expressions from a File ............................................................ 411
11.4 Exporting to Other Formats ................................................................. 412
Exporting Documents ........................................................................... 412
MapleNet ........................................................................................... 415
Maple T.A. ......................................................................................... 415
11.5 Connectivity ..................................................................................... 416
Translating Maple Code To Other Programming Languages ......................... 416
Accessing External Products from Maple ................................................. 416
Accessing Maple from External Products ................................................. 417
Sharing and Storing Maple Worksheet Content .......................................... 419
Index ........................................................................................................ 421
x • Contents
List of Figures
Figure 1.1: The Maple Environment .................................................................... 3
Figure 1.2: Text and Math Buttons on the Toolbar ................................................ 19
Figure 1.3: Handwriting Palette ........................................................................ 28
Figure 1.4: Optimization Assistant .................................................................... 32
Figure 1.5: Accessing the Assistants from the Tools Menu ..................................... 33
Figure 1.6: Accessing Tutors from the Tools Menu ............................................... 37
Figure 1.7: Calculus - Single Variable → Differentiation Methods Tutor ................... 38
Figure 1.8: Right-click the expression to see a menu of applicable operations ............ 40
Figure 1.9: Right-click the plot to see a menu of plot options .................................. 40
Figure 1.10: Browse Tasks Dialog ..................................................................... 41
Figure 1.11: Equation Label ............................................................................. 48
Figure 1.12: Inserting an Equation Label ............................................................ 49
Figure 1.13: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi ............................................. 50
Figure 1.14: Label Reference ........................................................................... 50
Figure 1.15: Document Block Markers ............................................................... 51
Figure 1.16: Expanded Document Block ............................................................. 51
Figure 1.17: Sample Help Page ......................................................................... 54
Figure 2.1: Context Menu ................................................................................ 68
Figure 2.2: Approximating the Value of a Fraction ................................................ 69
Figure 2.3: Finding the Approximate Solution to an Equation ................................. 71
Figure 2.4: FPS Units Palette ............................................................................ 72
Figure 2.5: SI Units Palette .............................................................................. 72
Figure 3.1: Expression Palette .......................................................................... 87
Figure 3.2: Integer Context Menu ...................................................................... 88
Figure 3.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant .................................................................. 90
Figure 3.4: Task Browser ................................................................................. 91
Figure 3.5: Insert Label Dialog ......................................................................... 96
Figure 3.6: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi ............................................... 98
Figure 4.1: Context Menu for an Integer ........................................................... 106
Figure 4.2: Context Menu for an Equation ......................................................... 112
Figure 4.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant ................................................................ 120
Figure 4.4: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Numerically Dialog ............................ 122
Figure 4.5: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Symbolically Dialog ........................... 123
Figure 4.6: Units Calculator Assistant .............................................................. 129
Figure 4.7: Units (FPS) Palette ........................................................................ 130
Figure 4.8: Units (SI) Palette .......................................................................... 130
Figure 5.1: Sorting a Polynomial Using a Context Menu ...................................... 152
Figure 5.2: Matrix Palette .............................................................................. 157
Figure 5.3: Matrix Palette: Choosing the Size .................................................... 158
Figure 5.4: Insert Matrix or Insert Vector .......................................................... 159
Figure 5.5: Matrix Browser ............................................................................ 161
xi
xii • List of Figures
Figure 5.6: Computing the Infinit Norm of a Matrix .......................................... 169
Figure 5.7: Directional Derivative Tutor ........................................................... 177
Figure 5.8: Optimization Assistant ................................................................... 185
Figure 5.9: Optimization Assistant Plotter Window ............................................. 187
Figure 5.10: Calculus 1 Derivatives Tutor ......................................................... 197
Figure 5.11: Calculus 1 Differentiation Methods Tutor ......................................... 198
Figure 5.12: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor .............................................. 199
Figure 5.13: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor Showing x-y Plane .................... 200
Figure 5.14: Flowchart of solving a problem ...................................................... 204
Figure 5.15: Volume of Revolution Tutor .......................................................... 206
Figure 5.16: Inserted Task Template ................................................................. 207
Figure 5.17: Example Worksheet ..................................................................... 208
Figure 6.1: Interactive Parameter Window ......................................................... 244
Figure 7.1: Select Color Dialog ....................................................................... 284
Figure 7.2: Character Style Dialog ................................................................... 285
Figure 7.3: Paragraph Style Dialog .................................................................. 286
Figure 7.4: Style Management Dialog .............................................................. 288
Figure 7.5: Definin a Character Style .............................................................. 290
Figure 7.6: Definin a Paragraph Style ............................................................. 293
Figure 7.7: Style Set Management Dialog ......................................................... 294
Figure 7.8: Header and Footer Dialog - Custom Header ....................................... 296
Figure 7.9: Show Contents Dialog ................................................................... 297
Figure 7.10: Working with Document Blocks ..................................................... 300
Figure 7.11: Delete Table Contents Verificatio Dialog ........................................ 307
Figure 7.12: Table Paste Mode Selection Dialog ................................................. 307
Figure 7.13: Two Cells .................................................................................. 307
Figure 7.14: Merged Cells .............................................................................. 307
Figure 7.15: Drawing Tools and Canvas ............................................................ 316
Figure 7.16: Drawing Outline Color Icon .......................................................... 317
Figure 7.17: Drawing Properties Canvas Icon - Change the Gridline Color .............. 319
Figure 7.18: Hyperlink Properties Dialog .......................................................... 321
Figure 7.19: Bookmark Indicator ..................................................................... 324
Figure 7.20: Create Bookmark Dialog .............................................................. 325
Figure 7.21: Components Palette ..................................................................... 327
Figure 7.22: Interactive Application Task Template ............................................. 328
Figure 7.23: Spellcheck Dialog ....................................................................... 329
Figure 8.1: Function Definitio Palette Items ..................................................... 339
Figure 8.2: Evaluate at a Point ........................................................................ 354
Figure 9.1: Code Edit Region .......................................................................... 382
Figure 9.2: Collapsed Code Edit Region ........................................................... 382
Figure 9.3: Startup Code Editor ....................................................................... 383
Figure 10.1: Components Palette ..................................................................... 389
Figure 10.2: Label Properties Dialog ................................................................ 391
List of Figures • xiii
Figure 10.3: Slider Properties Dialog ................................................................ 391
Figure 10.4: The Inserted Components ............................................................. 393
Figure 10.5: DialComponent Action Dialog ....................................................... 395
Figure 10.6: A Simple Maplet ......................................................................... 398
Figure 10.7: Maplet Builder Interface ............................................................... 399
Figure 10.8: Image of the Maplet ..................................................................... 400
Figure 10.9: Body Elements Used to Defin This Maplet ..................................... 400
Figure 11.1: Import Data Assistant ................................................................... 410
xiv • List of Figures
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Common Keystrokes for Entering Symbols and Formats ........................... 6
Table 1.2: Maple Toolbar Options ....................................................................... 9
Table 1.3: Tab Icon Description .......................................................................... 9
Table 1.4: Toolbar Icons and their Tools ............................................................. 10
Table 1.5: Toolbar Icon Availability ................................................................... 11
Table 1.6: Math Mode vs. Text Mode ................................................................. 20
Table 1.7: Palette Categories ............................................................................ 22
Table 1.8: Managing Palettes ............................................................................ 24
Table 1.9: Help Page Icons ............................................................................... 55
Table 3.1: Top Commands ............................................................................... 82
Table 3.2: Top Packages .................................................................................. 85
Table 4.1: Select Integer Commands ................................................................ 107
Table 4.2: Modular Arithmetic Operators .......................................................... 109
Table 4.3: Overview of Solution Methods for Important Equation Types ................. 111
Table 4.4: Sample Dimensions ........................................................................ 128
Table 4.5: Scientifi Constants ........................................................................ 134
Table 5.1: Polynomial Arithmetic Operators ...................................................... 149
Table 5.2: Polynomial Coefficien and Degree Commands ................................... 153
Table 5.3: Select Other Polynomial Commands .................................................. 154
Table 5.4: Additional Polynomial Help ............................................................. 155
Table 5.5: Matrix and Vector Arithmetic Operators ............................................. 166
Table 5.6: Select Matrix and Vector Operators .................................................... 168
Table 5.7: Select LinearAlgebra Package Commands .......................................... 170
Table 5.8: Limits .......................................................................................... 173
Table 5.9: Optimization Package Commands ..................................................... 189
Table 5.10: Student and Instructor Resources ..................................................... 195
Table 6.1: Windows of the Interactive Plot Builder .............................................. 239
Table 6.2: The plot and plot3d Commands ......................................................... 249
Table 6.3: Common Plot Options ..................................................................... 267
Table 6.4: Plot Analysis Options ..................................................................... 269
Table 6.5: The animate Command ................................................................... 272
Table 6.6: Animation Options ......................................................................... 276
Table 9.1: Default Clause Values ..................................................................... 369
Table 9.2: Iterative Commands ........................................................................ 374
Table 9.3: The seq Command .......................................................................... 375
Table 9.4: The add and mul Commands ............................................................ 375
Table 9.5: The select, remove, and selectremove Commands ................................. 376
Table 9.6: The map Command ........................................................................ 377
Table 9.7: The zip Command .......................................................................... 378
Table 10.1: Embedded Component Descriptions ................................................. 385
Table 11.1: Summary of Content Translation When Exporting to Different Formats ... 414
xv
xvi • List of Tables
Preface
Maple Software
MapleTM software is a powerful system that you can use to solve mathematical problems
from simple to complex. You can also create professional quality documents, presentations,
and custom interactive computational tools in the Maple environment.
You can access the power of the Maple computational engine through a variety of interfaces.
Interface
Standard (default)
Classic
Command-line version
MapletTM Applications
MaplesoftTM Graphing
Calculator
Description
A full-featured graphical user interface that helps you create electronic
documents to show all your calculations, assumptions, and any margin
of error in your results. You can also hide the computations to allow your
reader to focus on the problem setup and fina results. The advanced
formatting features lets you create the customized document you need.
Because the documents are live, you can edit the parameters and, with
the click of a button, compute the new results. The Standard interface has
two modes: Document mode and Worksheet mode.
An interactive version of this manual is available in the Standard Worksheet interface. From the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and
more → Manuals → User Manual.
A basic worksheet environment for older computers with limited memory.
The Classic interface does not offer all of the graphical user interface
features that are available in the Standard interface. The Classic interface
has only one mode, Worksheet mode.
A command-line interface for solving very large complex problems or
batch processing with scripts. No graphical user interface features are
available.
Graphical user interfaces containing windows, textbox regions, and other
visual interfaces, which gives you point-and-click access to the power of
Maple. You can perform calculations and plot functions without using
the worksheet.
A graphical calculator interface to the Maple computational engine. Using
it, you can perform simple computations and create customizable,
zoomable graphs. This is available on Microsoft® Windows® only.
This manual describes how to use the Standard interface. As mentioned, the Standard interface offers two modes: Document mode and Worksheet mode. Using either mode, you can
create high quality interactive mathematical documents. Each mode offers the same features
and functionality, the only difference is the default input region of each mode.
xvii
xviii • Preface
Shortcut Keys by Platform
This manual will frequently refer to context menus and command completion when entering
expressions. The keyboard keys used to invoke these features differ based on your operating
system.
This manual will only refer to the keyboard keys needed for a Windows operating system.
The shortcut keys for your operating system can be viewed from the Help menu (Help →
Manuals, Resources, and more → Shortcut Keys).
Context Menus
• Right-click, Windows and UNIX®
• Control-click, Macintosh®
That is, place the mouse over the input or output region and press the right button on the
mouse or press and hold the Control key and click the mouse key for Macintosh.
For more information on Context Menus, see Context Menus (page 39).
Command Completion
• Esc, Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX
• Ctrl + Space, Windows
• Ctrl + Shift + Space, UNIX
Begin entering a command in a Maple document. Press the Esc key. Alternatively, use the
platform-specifi keys. For Windows, press and hold the Ctrl key and then press the Space
bar.
For more information on Command Completion, see Command Completion (page 47).
In This Manual
This manual provides an introduction to the following Maple features:
• Ease-of-use when entering and solving problems
• Point-and-click interaction with various interfaces to help you solve problems quickly
• Maple commands and standard math notation
• Clickable Calculus
• The help system
• Online resources
Preface • xix
• Performing computations
• Creating plots and animations
• The Maple programming language
• Using and creating custom Maplet applications
• File input and output, and using Maple with third party products
• Data structures
For a complete list of manuals, study guides, toolboxes, and other resources, visit the
Maplesoft web site at http://www.maplesoft.com
Audience
The information in this manual is intended for first-tim Maple users and users looking for
a little more information.
Conventions
This manual uses the following typographical conventions.
• bold font - Maple command, package name, option name, dialog, menu, or text fiel
• italics - new or important concept
• Note - additional information relevant to the section
• Important - information that must be read and followed
Customer Feedback
Maplesoft welcomes your feedback. For suggestions and comments related to this and other
manuals, contact [email protected]
xx • Preface
1 Getting Started
Don't worry about your difficultie in Mathematics. I can assure you mine are still
greater.
~Albert Einstein
Mathematics touches us every day—from the simple chore of calculating the total cost of
our purchases to the complex calculations used to construct the bridges we travel.
To harness the power of mathematics, Maplesoft provides a tool in an accessible and complete form. That tool is Maple.
1.1 In This Chapter
Section
Introduction to Maple (page 2) - The main
features of Maple's Standard Interface
Topics
• Starting the Standard Document Interface
• Entering commands and mathematical expressions
• Toolbars
• Context menus
• Copy and drag keys
• Saving Maple documents
Entering Expressions (page 18) - Methods of
entering expressions in 1-D and 2-D Math
• Execution groups
• Math Mode and Text Mode
• Palettes
• Symbol names
• Toolbar icons
Point-and-Click Interaction (page 32) - An intro- • Assistants
duction to the point-and-click features in Maple • Tutors
• Context menus
• Task templates
• Exploration Assistant
Commands (page 45) - An introduction to the
commands of the Maple language
• Using commands from the Maple library
• Entering commands
• Document blocks
1
2 • 1 Getting Started
Section
The Maple Help System (page 53) - Accessing
help on commands, packages, point-and-click
features, and more
Topics
• How to access help for Maple features
• Interacting with help pages
• Viewing and interacting with examples
Available Resources (page 56) - Both online and • New user resources, including the Maple Tour
and the Maple Portal
from within Maple
• Examples
• Online help
• Maple web site resources
1.2 Introduction to Maple
Working in Maple
With Maple, you can create powerful interactive documents. The Maple environment lets
you start solving problems right away by entering expressions in 2-D Math and solving
these expressions using point-and-click interfaces. You can combine text and math in the
same line, add tables to organize the content of your work, or insert images, sketch regions,
and spreadsheets. You can visualize and animate problems in two and three dimensions,
format text for academic papers or books, and insert hyperlinks to other Maple files web
sites, or email addresses. You can embed and program graphical user interface components,
as well as devise custom solutions using the Maple programming language.
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 3
Figure 1.1: The Maple Environment
Starting the Standard Document Interface
To start Maple on:
Windows
From the Start menu, select All Programs → Maple 16 → Maple 16.
Alternatively:
Double-click the Maple 16 desktop icon.
4 • 1 Getting Started
Macintosh
1. From the Finder, select Applications and Maple 16.
2. Double-click Maple 16.
UNIX
Enter the full path, for example, /usr/local/maple/bin/xmaple
Alternatively:
1. Add the Maple directory (for example, /usr/local/maple/bin) to your command
search path.
2. Enter xmaple.
The firs Maple session opens with a Startup dialog explaining the difference between
Document Mode and Worksheet Mode. Using either mode, you can create high quality interactive mathematical documents. Each mode offers the same features and functionality;
the only difference is the default input region of each mode.
Document Mode
Document mode uses Document Blocks as the default input region to hide Maple syntax.
A Document Block region is indicated by two triangles located in the vertical Markers
column along the left pane of the Maple Document,
. If the Markers column is not
visible, open the View menu and select Markers. This allows you to focus on the problem
instead of the commands used to solve the problem. For example, when using context menus
on Maple input in Document mode (invoked by right-clicking or Control-clicking for
Macintosh), input and output are connected using an arrow or equal sign with self-documenting text indicating the calculation that had taken place. The command used to solve this
expression is hidden.
When starting Standard Maple, the default mode is Document mode.
Worksheet Mode
Worksheet mode uses a Maple prompt as the default input region. The Maple input prompt
is a red angle bracket,
. When using context menus on input in Worksheet mode, all
commands are displayed.
To work in Worksheet mode, select File → New → Worksheet Mode.
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 5
Document and Worksheet Modes
Regardless of which mode you are working in, you have the opportunity to show or hide
your calculations. You can hide commands in Worksheet Mode by adding a document block
from the Format menu, Format → Create Document Block (see Document
Blocks (page 50)), or you can show commands in Document mode by adding a Maple
prompt from the Insert menu, Insert → Execution Group → Before / After Cursor (see
Input Prompt (page 78)).
This chapter discusses features common to both modes. Specifi aspects of Document mode
are explained in Document Mode (page 61), and aspects of Worksheet mode are explained
in Worksheet Mode (page 77).
The Startup dialog also contains links to items, such as various document options, help resources including updates and other introductory help pages, and application resources on
the Maplesoft web site. Subsequent sessions display Tip of the Day information.
To start a Maple session:
1. In the Startup dialog, select Blank Document or Blank Worksheet. A blank document
displays.
or
1. Close the Startup dialog.
2. From the File menu, select New, and then either Document Mode or Worksheet Mode.
A blank document displays.
Every time you open a document, Maple displays a Quick Help pop-up list of important
shortcut keys. To invoke Quick Help at any time, press the F1 key.
Entering 2-D Math
In Maple, the default format for entering mathematical expressions is 2-D Math. This results
in mathematical expressions that are equivalent to the quality of math found in textbooks.
Entering 2-D Math in Maple is done using common key strokes or palette items. For more
information on palettes, see Palettes (page 21). An example of entering an expression using
common key strokes is presented in the following section. An example of entering an expression using palette items is presented in Example 3 - Enter an Expression Using
Palettes (page 26).
Common Operations
Entering mathematical expressions, such as
Math.
,
, and
is natural in 2-D
6 • 1 Getting Started
To enter a fraction:
1. Enter the numerator.
2. Press the forward slash (/) key.
3. Enter the denominator.
4. To leave the denominator, press the right arrow key.
To enter a power:
1. Enter the base.
2. Press the caret (^) key.
3. Enter the exponent, which displays in math as a superscript.
4. To leave the exponent, press the right arrow key.
To enter a product:
1. Enter the firs factor.
2. Press the asterisk (*) key, which displays in 2-D Math as a dot, .
3. Enter the second factor.
Implied Multiplication:
In most cases, you do not need to include the multiplication operator, . Insert a space
character between two quantities to multiply them.
Note: In some cases, you do not need to enter the multiplication operator or a space character.
For example, Maple interprets a number followed by a variable as multiplication.
Important: Maple interprets a sequence of letters, for example, xy, as a single variable. To
specify the product of two variables, you must insert a space character (or multiplication
. For more information, refer to the 2DMathDetails help
operator), for example, x y or
page.
Shortcuts for Entering Mathematical Expressions
Table 1.1: Common Keystrokes for Entering Symbols and Formats
Symbol/Formats
implicit multiplication
explicit multiplication
Key
Space key
* (asterisk)
Example
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 7
Symbol/Formats
fraction
exponent (superscript)
subscript
navigating expressions
Key
/ (forward slash)
Example
^ (Shift + 6 or caret key)
_ (Shift + underscore )
Arrow keys
command / symbol com- • Esc, Macintosh,Windows, and
UNIX
pletion
• Ctrl + Space, Windows
• Ctrl + Shift + Space, UNIX
square root
exponential function
enter / exit 2-D Math
sqrt and then command completion
exp and then command completion
• F5 key
• Math and Text icons in the
toolbar
versus 1/4
required for products of numbers
use the right arrow key to leave a denominator, superscript, or subscript region
for more information, see Command Completion (page 47).
For a complete list of shortcut keys, refer to the 2-D Math Shortcut Keys and Hints help
page. To access this help page in the Maple software, in Math mode enter MathShortcuts
and then press Enter. For information on the Maple Help System, see The Maple Help
System (page 53).
Example 1 - Enter and Evaluate an Expression Using Keystrokes
Review the following example:
In this example, you will enter
and evaluate the expression.
8 • 1 Getting Started
Action
To enter the expression:
Result in Document
1. Enter x.
2. Press Shift + 6 (the ^ or caret key). The cursor moves to the superscript position.
3. Enter 2.
4. Press the right arrow key. The cursor moves right and out of the
superscript position.
5. Enter the + symbol.
6. Enter y.
7. Press Shift + 6 to move to the superscript position.
8. Enter 2 and press the right arrow key.
9. With the mouse, select the expression that will be the numerator of
the fraction.
10. Enter the / symbol. The cursor moves to the denominator, with the
entire expression in the numerator.
11. Enter 2.
12. Press the right arrow key to move right and out of the denominator
position.
To evaluate the expression and display the result inline:
13. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, Macintosh).
=
To execute 2-D Math, you can use any of the following methods.
• Pressing Ctrl + = (Command + =, for Macintosh). That is, press and hold the Ctrl (or
Command) key, and then press the equal sign (=) key. This evaluates and displays results
inline.
• Pressing the Enter key. This evaluates and displays results on the next line and centered.
• Right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the input to invoke a context menu item. From
the context menu, select Evaluate and Display Inline. See Context Menus (page 39)
for more details.
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 9
• Using the Edit menu items Evaluate and Evaluate and Display Inline.
Toolbar Options
The Maple toolbar offers several buttons to assist you when interacting with Maple. See
Table 1.2.
Table 1.2: Maple Toolbar Options
Basic Usage
Inserts plain text after the current execution group.
Inserts Maple Input after the current execution group. For details, refer to
Execution Groups (page 18).
Encloses the selection in a subsection.
For details, refer to Sections (page 294).
Removes any section enclosing the selection.
Executes all commands in the worksheet
or document
Executes a selected area.
Clears Maple's internal memory. For details, refer to the restart help page.
Add and edit Maple code that is executed
each time the worksheet is opened. For
details, refer to the startupcode help
page.
Adjusts the display size of document
content. Note: plots, spreadsheets, images, and sketches remain unchanged.
Opens the Maple help system. For details,
refer to The Maple Help
System (page 53).
Icon
Equivalent Menu Option or Command
From the Insert menu, select Text.
From the Insert menu, select Execution
Group and then After Cursor.
From the Format menu, select Indent.
From the Format menu, select Outdent.
From the Edit menu, select Execute and then
Worksheet.
From the Edit menu, select Execute and then
Selection.
Enter restart.
From the Edit menu, select Startup Code.
From the View menu, select Zoom Factor
and then a zoom size.
From the Help menu, select Maple Help.
For 1-D Math and text regions, the Tab icon in the toolbar allows you to set the Tab key
to move between placeholders (or cells in a table) or to indent text.
Table 1.3: Tab Icon Description
Tab Icon
Description
Tab icon off. Allows you to move between placeholders using the Tab key.
10 • 1 Getting Started
Tab Icon
Description
Tab icon on. Allows you to indent in the worksheet using the Tab key.
The Tab icon is disabled when using 2-D Math (Math mode), and as such, the
Tab key allows you to move between placeholders.
Toolbar icons are controlled by the location of the cursor in the document. For example,
place the cursor at an input region and the Text and Math icons are accessible while the
others are dimmed. See Table 1.4 for a list of the tools available in each icon.
Table 1.4: Toolbar Icons and their Tools
Toolbar Icon Options
Text tools
Math tools
Drawing tools
2-D Plot tools
3-D Plot tools
Animation tools
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 11
Table 1.5: Toolbar Icon Availability
Region
Input region
Plot region
Animation region
Canvas and Image regions
Available Tools
Text and Math icons
Drawing and Plot icons
Drawing, Plot, and Animation icons
Drawing icon
The Text and Math icons allow you to enter text and math in the same line by choosing
the appropriate input style at each stage when entering the sentence.
The derivative of
is
.
For an example, see Example 6 - Enter Text and 2-D Math in the Same Line Using Toolbar
Icons (page 30).
Using the tools available in these icons, you can customize the input style of the text and
2-D Math. For the Text and Math icons, the icon that is selected remains in that state until
prompted otherwise; therefore, if the Text icon is selected and you press the Enter key, the
new input region remains a Text region.
The Text and Math icons differ while at a Maple input prompt. The Math icon displays
input as 2-D Math, whereas the Text icon displays Maple input. For details, refer to Math
Mode vs. Text Mode (page 19).
>
> x^2/2;
To access the tools available in the Plot and Drawing icons, click a plot region. These tools
allow you to manipulate the plot or draw shapes and enter text on the plot region. By
clicking an animation region, you have the same features available for a plot region, in addition to tools for playing the animation in the Animation icon. For details on plots and
animations, refer to Plots and Animations (page 237).
For the remaining icons, hover the mouse over the icon to display the icon description.
Context Menus and Copy & Drag
Context Menus
Maple dynamically generates a context menu of applicable options when you right-click
an object, expression, or region. The options available in the context menu depend on the
selected input region. For example, you can manipulate and graph expressions, enhance
plots, format text, manage palettes, structure tables, and more. When using context menus
12 • 1 Getting Started
to perform an action on an expression, the input and output are connected with a self-documenting arrow or equal sign indicating the action that had taken place. For more information,
see Context Menus (page 39).
Copy & Drag
With Maple, you can drag input, output, or curves in a plot region into a new input region.
This is done by highlighting the input or selecting the curve and dragging it with your mouse
into a new input region. Dragging the highlighted region will cut or delete the original input.
To prevent this, use the copy and drag feature.
• Ctrl + drag, Windows and UNIX
• Command + drag, Macintosh
That is, highlight the region you want to copy. Press and hold the Ctrl key while you drag
the input to the new region using the mouse. The steps are the same for Macintosh with the
exception of pressing the Command key.
Example 2 - Solve and Plot an Equation Using Context Menus and Copy &
Drag
Review the following example:
In this example, we will enter the equation and then solve and plot the equation using context
menus and Maple's copy & drag feature. This example will only refer to the keystrokes
needed on a Windows operating system to invoke the context menus and the copy & drag
feature. For your operating system, refer to section Shortcut Keys by Platform (page xviii)
for the equivalent keystrokes.
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 13
To solve the equation:
1. Enter the equation.
2. Right-click the equation and select Move to Left.
Input:
Result:
A brief description, "move to left" is displayed above the arrow that connects the input and output.
14 • 1 Getting Started
3. Right-click the output from the previous action,
for → x.
Input:
Result:
, and select Solve → Isolate Expression
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 15
Now that we have solved the equation, we can plot it. To do this, we will copy the equation
to a new document block and use context menus again.
4. From the Format menu, select Create Document Block.
, highlight only this expression from the previous result. Press
5. To copy the expression
and hold the Ctrl key and drag the expression to the new document block region.
Result:
16 • 1 Getting Started
To plot the expression:
6. Right-click the equation, and select Left-hand Side.
Input:
Result:
7. Right-click the expression and select Plots → 2-D Plot.
1.2 Introduction to Maple • 17
Input:
18 • 1 Getting Started
Result:
Saving a Maple Document
To save these examples you created, from the File menu, select Save. Maple documents
are saved as .mw files
1.3 Entering Expressions
Execution Groups
An execution group is a grouping of Maple input with its corresponding Maple output. It
is distinguished by a large square bracket, called a group boundary, at the left. An execution
group may also contain any or all of the following: a plot, a spreadsheet, text, embedded
components, and a drawing canvas.
Execution groups are the fundamental computation and documentation elements in the
document. If you place the cursor in an input command and press the Enter or Return key,
Maple executes all of the input commands in the current execution group.
1.3 Entering Expressions • 19
Math Mode vs. Text Mode
The default mode of entry in Document or Worksheet mode is Math Mode, which displays
input in 2-D Math. In earlier releases of Maple, commands and expressions were entered
using Maple Input or 1-D Math.
Important: With Maple input, you must terminate commands with a semicolon or colon.
> cos(alpha)^2+sin(alpha)^2;
> a*int(exp(sqrt(2)*x),x);
> limit(f(x),x=infinity);
> sum(a[k]*x^k, k=0..m)=product(b[j]*x^j, j=0..n);
In Document Mode, to enter input using Maple Input mode, insert a Maple prompt by
in the toolbar, and then click the Text button in the toolbar. In Worksheet
clicking
Mode, simply click the Text button. See Figure 1.2.
Figure 1.2: Text and Math Buttons on the Toolbar
20 • 1 Getting Started
Table 1.6: Math Mode vs. Text Mode
Math Mode
Text Mode
Maple's default setting. Executable standard Executable Maple notation. This is also remath notation. This is also referred to as 2-D ferred to as 1-D Math Input or Maple Input.
Math Input.
> int(x^2+2*x+1, x);
>
Access from the Insert → 2-D Math menu.
When using 2-D Math, the Math mode icon is
.
highlighted in the toolbar,
Access from the Insert → Maple Input menu.
When entering Maple Input or text in a text region,
the Text mode icon is highlighted in the toolbar,
.
In Document Mode (or a document block), input In Document Mode (or a document block), input
is entered in a document block with a slanted
is entered with a vertical cursor, as plain text,
.
cursor,
.
In Worksheet Mode, input is made at an input
In Worksheet Mode, input is made at an input
prompt with a slanted cursor,
prompt with a vertical cursor,
.
.
To convert a 2-D Math expression to 1-D Math,
right-click the expression (Command-click,
Macintosh) and select 2-D Math → Convert To
→ 1-D Math Input.
No termination symbol is required.
To convert a 1-D Math expression to 2-D Math,
right-click the expression (Command-click,
Macintosh) and select Convert To → 2-D Math
Input.
All input must end with a semi-colon ( ; ) or a
colon ( : ).
Palettes make entering expressions in familiar
Using palettes while in 1-D Math teaches you the
notation easier than entering foreign syntax and related Maple command syntax.
reduces the possibility of introducing typing errors.
If you prefer 1-D Math input, you can change the default math input notation.
To change math input notation for a session or globally across all documents:
1. From the Tools menu, select Options. The Options Dialog opens.
2. Click the Display tab.
3. In the Input Display drop-down list, select Maple Notation.
1.3 Entering Expressions • 21
4. Click the Apply to Session or Apply Globally button.
Important: The new input display becomes the default setting after pressing the Enter
key.
Palettes
Palettes are collections of related items that you can insert into a document by clicking or
drag-and-dropping. The Maple environment provides access to over 20 palettes containing
items such as symbols
, layouts
mathematical operations
and much
more.
By default, palettes are displayed in the left pane of the Maple environment when you launch
Maple. If the palettes are not displayed,
1. From the View menu, select Palettes.
2. Select Expand Docks.
3. Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) the palette dock. From the context menu, select
Show All Palettes.
Alternatively, from the main menu, select View → Palettes → Arrange Palettes to display
specifi palettes.
You can create a Favorites palette of the expressions and entities you use often by rightclicking (Control-click, Macintosh) the palette template you want to add and selecting Add
To Favorites Palette from the context menu.
22 • 1 Getting Started
Table 1.7: Palette Categories
Palette Category
Expression Palettes
Palette Description
MapleCloud - view worksheets shared by other users and share your
worksheets.
Variables - manage all of your assigned variables in your current Maple
session.
Expression - construct expressions such as integrals
.
Matrix - enter the number of rows and columns required, designate
type, such as zero-filled and designate shape, such as diagonal.
Layout - add math content that has specifi layout, such as expressions
with one or more superscripts and subscripts
.
Components - embed graphical interface components such as a button
into your document or worksheet. Components can be programmed to
perform an action when selected such as executing a command when
a button is clicked
.
Handwriting - an easy way to fin a desired symbol.
Units (SI) - insert a unit from the International System of Units (SI),
or any general unit
.
Units (FPS) - insert a unit from the Foot-Pound-Second System (FPS),
or any general unit
.
Accents - insert decorated names, such as an
to denote a vector
with an arrow over it
.
Favorites - add templates that you use most often from other palettes.
Live Data Plots - templates for visual representation of your data.
eBook Metadata - markup tags
1.3 Entering Expressions • 23
Palette Category
Mathematical Palettes
Palette Description
Palettes for constructing expressions
Common Symbols,
Relational
,
Relational Round
Operators
,
,
Large Operators
Negated
,
,
Fenced
,
Arrows
,
Constants and Symbols
.
Punctuation - insert punctuation symbols, such as inserting the registered trademark and copyright symbols
into text regions
Miscellaneous - insert miscellaneous math and other symbols outside
the above categories
Alphabetical Palettes
.
Greek,
Script
,
Fraktur
,
Open Face
Cyrillic
,
,
Diacritical Marks
,
Roman Extended Upper Case
,
Roman Extended Lower Case
.
Viewing and Arranging Palettes
By default, palettes display in palette docks at the right and left sides of the Maple window.
To view and manage palettes and palette docks, see Table 1.8.
24 • 1 Getting Started
Table 1.8: Managing Palettes
To view palette docks:
• From the View menu, select Palettes, and
then Expand Docks. There are docks on
the far right and left of the window.
1.3 Entering Expressions • 25
To add a palette:
1. Right-click the palette dock. Maple displays a context menu near the palette.
2. From the context menu, select Show
Palette and then select the palette.
26 • 1 Getting Started
To expand or collapse a palette in the
palette dock:
• Click the triangle at the left of the palette
title.
To move a palette in the palette dock:
• Move the palette by clicking the title and
dragging the palette to the new location.
To expand or collapse the palette docks:
• Select the appropriate triangle at the top
right or top left side of the palette region.
Example 3 - Enter an Expression Using Palettes
Review the following example:
=
1.3 Entering Expressions • 27
In this example, we will enter
and evaluate the expression.
Action
Result in Document
1. Place the cursor in a new document block. In the Expression palette, click the summation template
.
Maple inserts the summation symbol with the range
variable placeholder highlighted.
2. Enter i and then press Tab. The left endpoint placeholder is selected. Notice that the color of the range
placeholder has changed to black. Each placeholder
must have an assigned value before you execute the
expression. The Tab key advances you through the
placeholders of an inserted palette item.
3. Enter 1 and then press Tab. The right endpoint
placeholder is selected.
4. Enter 10 and then press Tab. The expression placeholder is selected.
5. Enter
For instructions on entering this
type of expression, see Example 1 - Enter and
Evaluate an Expression Using Keystrokes (page 7).
6. Press Ctrl + = (Command + = for Macintosh) to
evaluate the summation.
=
Handwriting Palette
The Handwriting palette provides another way to fin and insert desired symbols easily.
1. Draw the symbol with your mouse in the space provided.
2. Click the recognize button,
available in the system. See Figure 1.3.
. Maple matches your input against symbols
28 • 1 Getting Started
3. To view more symbols (where indicated with a box around the result), click the displayed
symbol and choose one of the selections from the drop-down menu.
4. To insert a symbol, click the displayed symbol.
Figure 1.3: Handwriting Palette
For more information, refer to the handwritingpalette help page.
Snippets Palettes
You can create your own custom Snippets palettes for tasks that you fin most useful. Details
on how to create and customize Snippets palettes can be found on the createpalette help
page.
Symbol Names
Each symbol has a name and some have aliases. By entering its name (or an alias) in Math
mode, you can insert the symbol in your document. All common mathematical symbols,
including all Greek characters, , and the square root symbol (
Maple.
), are recognized by
Note: If you hover the mouse pointer over a palette item, a tooltip displays the symbol's
name.
To insert a symbol, enter the firs few characters of a symbol name using a keyword that is
familiar to you and then press the completion shortcut key, Esc (see Shortcut Keys by
Platform (page xviii)). Symbol completion works in the same way as command completion
(see Command Completion (page 47)).
1.3 Entering Expressions • 29
• If a unique symbol name matches the characters entered, Maple inserts the corresponding
symbol.
• If multiple symbol names match the characters entered, Maple displays the completion
list, which lists all matches, including commands. To select an item, click its name or
symbol.
Example 4 - Square Root
To fin the square root of
:
Action
1. In a new document block, enter sqrt.
Result in Document
2. Press the symbol completion shortcut key,
Esc. Maple displays a pop-up list of exact
matches.
3. In the completion list, select
. Maple inserts the
symbol with the
placeholder selected.
4. Enter
5. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, Macintosh).
=
Example 5 - Complex Numbers
When you simply type the letter i in Math mode, it is in italics. This letter is just a variable,
and is not the same as the imaginary unit
Multiply two complex numbers,
Action
1. In a new document block, enter
2. Press the symbol completion shortcut
key, Esc. Maple displays a pop-up list
of partial and exact matches, including symbols and commands.
denoted by I or i in Maple.
and
Result in Document
:
30 • 1 Getting Started
Action
3. Select the imaginary unit,
.
Result in Document
4. Close the parentheses, enter a space
(for implicit multiplication), and type
the second expression in parentheses,
using symbol completion for the
second imaginary number.
5. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =,
Macintosh) to evaluate the product.
=
For more information on entering complex numbers, refer to the HowDoI help page.
Toolbar Icons
In the introduction section, you learned about the toolbar icons and context toolbars available
in Maple (see Toolbar Options (page 9)). The toolbar can be used to format your document,
alter plots and animations, draw in a canvas, write in both Math and Text modes in one line
and much more. The last of these is demonstrated in the next example.
Example 6 - Enter Text and 2-D Math in the Same Line Using Toolbar Icons
Enter the following sentence:
Evaluate
and write in simplest terms.
Action
To enter this sentence:
1. Select the Text icon and enter Evaluate.
2. Select the Math icon.
3. From the Expression palette, select the
. The
definit integration template,
expression is displayed with the firs
placeholder highlighted.
Result in Document
1.3 Entering Expressions • 31
Action
4. With the firs placeholder highlighted,
enter 1, then press Tab.
5. Enter 5 and press Tab to highlight the integrand region.
6. Enter (3x^2 and press the right arrow to
leave the superscript position.
7. Enter + 2.
8. Press the Space bar for implicit multiplication. Enter sqrt and press Esc to show
the command completion options. Maple
displays a pop-up list of exact matches.
. Maple
Select the square root symbol,
inserts the symbol with the x placeholder
selected. Alternatively, select the square
root symbol from the Expression palette.
9. Enter x, then press the right arrow to leave
the square root region.
10. Enter + 3, and then press the Space bar.
11. Select the n-th root symbol from the Expression palette,
.
12. Enter 3, then press Tab.
13. Enter x), then press Tab.
14. Enter x for the integration variable.
15. Click the Text icon in the toolbar, then
enter the rest of the sentence: "and write
in simplest terms."
Result in Document
32 • 1 Getting Started
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction
Maple contains many built-in features that allow you to solve problems quickly without
having to know any commands.
Assistants
Maple offers a set of assistants in the form of graphical user interfaces to perform many
tasks without the need to use any syntax. An example of an assistant is shown in Figure 1.4.
Figure 1.4: Optimization Assistant
Using the Tools → Assistants menu, you can access tools to help you accomplish various
tasks. See Figure 1.5. In some cases, you can launch an assistant by entering an expression
and selecting the assistant from the context menu that displays.
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 33
Figure 1.5: Accessing the Assistants from the Tools Menu
34 • 1 Getting Started
Example 7 - Curve Fitting Assistant
Enter a data sample and use the Curve Fitting Assistant to fin the best approximation of
a function to fi the data.
Action
Result in Document
1. From the Tools menu, select Assistants →
Curve Fitting. The firs dialog in the Curve
Fitting Assistant appears.
2. Enter data as Independent Values and Dependent Values. Alternatively, you could
import a fil containing data. If you have
more data than the space provided, click the
Next Page button for more space. For this
example, enter the data as shown.
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 35
Action
Result in Document
3. Once you have entered the data, click the Fit
button. The second dialog of the Curve Fitting Assistant appears.
4. In this dialog, you can plot the data and several types of interpolations, including Polynomial, Spline, and Least Squares. For example, click the Plot button in the Polynomial Interpolation section. The polynomial is
plotted with the data, and the interpolating
function is displayed below.
5. You can choose to return either the interpolating function or the plot to your document.
When finished click Done.
Descriptions of Assistants
The remaining assistants are described below. Some of the assistants are interfaces to
package commands. For more information on package commands, see Package
Commands (page 47).
• Back-Solver - an interface that allows you to take a mathematical formula, involving
multiple parameters, enter values for all but one of the parameters and solve for the remaining value. You can also plot the behavior of the formula as one of the parameters
change.
• Curve Fitting - an interface to commands in the CurveFitting package. Data points can
be entered as independent and dependent values, and interpolated with polynomials, rational functions, or splines.
• Data Analysis - an interface to the data analysis commands in the Statistics package.
36 • 1 Getting Started
• Equation Manipulator - an interface for interactively performing a sequence of operations
on an equation. You can group terms, apply an operation to both sides of the equation,
complete the square, and so on.
• Import Data - an interface to read data from an external fil into Maple.
• eBook Publisher- an interface to the eBook Publisher tools.
• Installer Builder - an interface to the InstallerBuilder package in which you can create
installers for your Maple toolboxes.
For information on toolboxes, go to http://www.maplesoft.com/developers/index.aspx.
• Library Browser - an interface to manipulate the libraries in a specifie directory.
• Maplet Builder - an interface to the Maplets package. The Maplets package contains
commands for creating and displaying Maplet applications (point-and-click interfaces).
Using the Maplet Builder, you can defin the layout of a Maplet, drag-and-drop elements
(visual and functional components of Maplets), set actions associated with elements, and
directly run a Maplet application. The Maplet Builder is available in the Standard interface
only.
• ODE Analyzer - an interface to obtain numeric or symbolic solutions to a single ordinary
differential equation (ODE) or a system of ODEs and plot a solution of the result.
• Optimization - an interface to the solver commands in the Optimization package. The
Optimization package is a collection of commands for numerically solving optimization
problems, which involves findin the minimum or maximum of an objective function
possibly subject to constraints.
• Plot Builder - an interface for creating two and three-dimensional plots, animations, and
interactive plots.
• Scientifi Constants - an interface to over 20 000 values of physical constants and
properties of chemical elements. All of these constants come with the corresponding unit
and, if applicable, with the uncertainty or error, that is, how precisely the value of this
constant is known.
• Special Functions - an interface to the properties of over 200 special functions, including
the Hypergeometric, Bessel, Mathieu, Heun and Legendre families of functions.
• Units Calculator - an interface to convert between 500 units of measurement.
• Worksheet Migration - an interface to convert worksheets from Classic Maple (.mws
files to Standard Maple (.mw files
• CAD Link - an interface to explore the properties of models from supported CAD applications (available on Microsoft Windows only)
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 37
Tutors
Maple provides over 40 interactive tutors to aid in the learning of
• Precalculus
• Calculus
• Multivariate Calculus
• Vector Calculus
• Differential Equations
• Linear Algebra
• Complex Variables
These tutors are easily accessible in the Tools menu by selecting Tutors. See Figure 1.6.
Figure 1.6: Accessing Tutors from the Tools Menu
Some of the tutors can also be accessed through the Student package. The Differential
Equations tutor, DE Plots, is accessible through the DEtools package. For a definitio of
the term package, see Package Commands (page 47).
The Student package is a collection of subpackages designed to assist with the teaching
and learning of standard undergraduate mathematics. The subpackages contain many commands for displaying functions, computations, and theorems in various ways, and include
support for stepping through important computations.
38 • 1 Getting Started
The interactive commands help you explore concepts and solve problems using a pointand-click interface. These commands launch tutors that provide a graphical interface to
some of the visualization and computation commands described above. See for an example
of one of the tutors.
Figure 1.7: Calculus - Single Variable → Differentiation Methods Tutor
Math Apps
Maple provides Math Apps that offer interactive, entertaining ways to explore precalculus
concepts. The demonstrations are accessible in the Tools menu by selecting Math Apps.
For more information on the tutors, demonstrations, and related resources for mathematics
education, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194).
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 39
Context Menus
A context menu is a dynamically generated menu of actions that are applicable for the region
upon which it is invoked. Context menus allow you to perform calculations and manipulations
on expressions without using Maple syntax. To display a context menu, right-click an object,
expression, or region. Context menus are available for many input regions, including:
• expressions to perform calculations, manipulations, or plotting
• plot regions to apply plot options and manipulate the plot
• tables to modify the table properties
• palette regions to add or remove palettes and palette regions
• text regions to add annotations and format text
• spreadsheets to manipulate the spreadsheet
When performing calculations or manipulations on an expression, a self-documenting arrow
or equal sign connects the input and output, indicating the action that took place. See Figures
1.8 and 1.9 for two examples of context menus.
40 • 1 Getting Started
Figure 1.8: Right-click the expression to see a Figure 1.9: Right-click the plot to see a menu
menu of applicable operations
of plot options
Task Templates
Task templates help you perform specifi tasks in Maple, such as:
• performing a mathematical computation such as solving an equation symbolically or
numerically, or determining the Taylor approximation of a function of one variable
• constructing a Maple object such as a function
• creating a document such as an application
Each task contains a description along with a collection of content that you can insert directly
into your document. Content consists of 2-D mathematics, commands, embedded components
(for example, buttons), and plots. You specify the parameters of your problem and then
execute the commands in the document. See Figure 1.10 for an example of a Task Template.
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 41
Figure 1.10: Browse Tasks Dialog
Previewing Tasks
To preview Maple tasks,
• From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse. The Browse Tasks dialog opens
and displays the list of tasks.
The tasks are sorted by subject to help you quickly fin the desired task. In the Browse
Tasks dialog, you can view tasks without inserting them into your document.
42 • 1 Getting Started
Inserting a Task into the Document
To insert a task into your document,
1. Select the Insert into New Worksheet check box to insert the task into a new document.
2. Click one of the insert buttons.
• Click the Insert Default Content button. Maple inserts the default content. The default
content level is set using the Options dialog. For instructions, see the usingtasks help
page.
• Click the Insert Minimal Content button. Maple inserts only the commands and embedded components, for example, a button to launch the related assistant or tutor.
• Click the Copy Task to Clipboard button. Place the cursor where you want to insert the
task, and then paste the task. Maple inserts the default content. Use this method to quickly
insert a task multiple times.
Note: You can view the history of previously inserted tasks. From the Tools menu, select
Tasks. Previously selected task names are displayed below the Browse menu item.
Before inserting a task, Maple checks whether the task variables have assigned values in
your document. If any task variable is assigned, the Task Variables dialog opens to allow
you to modify the names. Maple uses the edited variable names for all variable instances
in the inserted task.
By default, the Task Variables dialog is displayed only if there is a naming conflict You
can set it to display every time you insert a task.
To specify that the Task Variables dialog be displayed every time you insert a task:
1. From the Tools menu, select Options.
2. Click the Display tab.
3. In the Show task variables on insert drop-down list, select Always.
4. Click Apply to Session or Apply Globally, as necessary.
Updating Parameters and Executing the Commands
In inserted Task Templates, parameters are marked as placeholders (in purple text) or specifie using sliders or other embedded components.
1. Specify values for the parameters in placeholders or using graphical interface components.
You can move to the next placeholder by pressing Tab.
2. Execute all commands in the task by:
• Placing the cursor in the firs task command, and then pressing Enter repeatedly to execute
each command.
1.4 Point-and-Click Interaction • 43
• Selecting all the template commands, and then clicking the execute toolbar icon
.
3. If the template contains a button that computes the result, click it.
For more information on task templates, refer to the tasks help page.
Exploration Assistant
The Exploration Assistant allows you to interactively make parameter changes to expressions
and view the result. The assistant can be used with almost any Maple expression or command
that has at least one variable or parameter.
To launch the Exploration Assistant:
1. Enter an expression or command.
2. Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) the expression or command. From the context
menu, select Explore.
3. The Explore parameter selection dialog appears, where you can select the parameters
to explore and the range for each parameter.
If you enter integer ranges, only integer values are allowed for parameters. To allow floating
point values, enter floating-poin ranges.
Select skip for any of the parameters to leave that parameter as a variable.
4. Click Explore to continue to the Exploration Assistant. The assistant opens in a new
document. You can use the slider or sliders to vary the parameters and see your changes
as the expression output is updated.
5. Once you are finishe interacting with the assistant, you can copy and paste the results
into your document, or save the interactive document for later use.
44 • 1 Getting Started
Example 8 - Use the Exploration Assistant to Explore a Plot
In this example, we will explore how the plot of
the parameters
and .
Action
Result in Document
1. Enter the plot command shown.
2. Right-click (Control-click for
Macintosh) the expression and
select Explore.
3. In the Explore parameter selection dialog, set the ranges a =
0..10.0 and b = -5.0..5.0. Select
floating-poin computation.
changes as we vary
1.5 Commands • 45
Action
Result in Document
4. Click Explore. The Exploration Assistant opens in a new
document. Move the sliders to
see the plot as the parameters
change.
1.5 Commands
Even though Maple comes with many features to solve problems and manipulate results
without entering any commands, you may fin that you prefer greater control and flexibilit
by using the set of commands and programming language that Maple offers.
The Maple Library
Commands are contained in the Maple library, which is divided into two groups: the main
library and packages.
The main library contains the most frequently used Maple commands.
Packages contain related commands for performing tasks from disciplines such as Student
Calculus, Statistics, or Differential Geometry. For example, the Optimization package
contains commands for numerically solving optimization problems.
For details on top-level and package commands, see Commands (page 80).
Entering Commands
If you want to interact with Maple using commands, simply enter the command using 2-D
math. Notice that commands and variable names display in italics. Maple commands are
constructed in a format similar to command(arguments), based on the command you are
using.
46 • 1 Getting Started
For example, to factor an expression, enter:
To differentiate an expression, enter:
To integrate an expression on the interval
, enter:
To plot an expression, enter:
For a list of the top commands in Maple, see Top Commands (page 82).
1.5 Commands • 47
Package Commands
There are two ways to access commands within a package, using the long form of the
package command or the short form.
Long Form of Accessing Package Commands:
The long form specifie both the package and command names using the syntax package[command](arguments).
Short Form of Accessing Package Commands:
The short form makes all of the commands in the package available using the with command,
with(package). If you are using a number of commands in a package, loading the entire
package is recommended. When you execute the with command, a list of all commands in
the package displays. To suppress the display of all command names, end the with(package)
command with a colon. Alternatively, you can load packages through the Tools menu, by
selecting Load Package, and then the package name.
After loading a package, you can use the short-form names, that is, the command names,
without the package name.
For a list of the top packages in Maple, see Top Packages (page 85).
Command Completion
To help with syntax and reduce the amount of typing when entering Maple commands, you
can use command completion. Command completion displays a list of all Maple packages,
commands, and functions that match the entered text. If there are multiple ways to call a
command, then the command completion list contains each one, with appropriate placeholders.
48 • 1 Getting Started
To use command completion:
1. Begin entering a command or package name.
2. Select Tools → Complete Command or use the shortcut key Esc (see Shortcut Keys
by Platform (page xviii)). If there is a unique completion, it is inserted. Otherwise, a list
of possible matches is displayed.
3. Select the correct completion from the list.
4. Some inserted commands have placeholders, denoted by purple text. The firs placeholder
is highlighted after you insert it into the document. Replace it with your parameter, then
move to the next placeholder by pressing the Tab key.
Equation Labels
Equation labels help to save time entering expressions by referencing Maple output. See
Figure 1.11.
By default, equation labels are displayed. If equation labels are not displayed,
1. From the Tools menu, select Options, and click the Display tab. Ensure that the Show
equation labels check box is selected.
2. From the Format menu, select Equation Labels. Ensure that both Execution Group
and Worksheet are selected.
Figure 1.11: Equation Label
1.5 Commands • 49
To apply equation labels:
1. Enter an expression and press Enter. Note that the equation label is displayed to the right
of the answer in the document.
2. In a new execution group, enter another expression that will reference the output of the
previous execution group.
3. From the Insert menu, select Label. Alternatively, press Ctrl+L (Command+L, for
Macintosh) to open the Insert Label dialog. Enter the label number in the Insert Label
dialog and click OK. The item is now a label. See Figure 1.12.
Figure 1.12: Inserting an Equation Label
4. Press Enter to obtain the result.
To change the format of equation labels:
• Select Format → Equation Labels → Label Display. In the Format Labels dialog,
select one of the numbering schemes.
• Optionally, enter an appropriate numbering prefix
50 • 1 Getting Started
Figure 1.13: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi
The Label Reference menu item allows you to switch between the label name and its reference content. Place the cursor on the referenced equation label and select Format →
Equation Labels → Label Reference.
Figure 1.14: Label Reference
The label is associated with the last output within an execution group.
You cannot apply equation labels to the following:
• Error, warning, and information messages
• Tables, images, plots, sketches, or spreadsheets
Document Blocks
In Document mode, content is created as a series of document blocks. Document blocks
allow you to hide the syntax used to perform calculations, which in turn lets you focus on
the concept presented instead of the command used to manipulate or solve the problem.
You can also create document blocks in Worksheet mode to perform the same function.
1.5 Commands • 51
Document blocks are typically collapsed to hide the Maple code, but these regions can also
be expanded to reveal this code.
To create a document block:
From the Format menu, select Create Document Block. If text or math in one or more
execution groups is selected, then a document block is created that contains those execution
groups. If not, a new document block is created after the current execution group. For more
information, see the next example.
Document block regions are identifie using markers that are located in a vertical bar along
the left pane of the document. See Figure 1.15. In addition to document block boundaries,
these markers (icons) indicate the presence of hidden attributes in the document such as
annotations, bookmarks, and numeric formatting.
To activate markers:
From the View menu, select Markers. See Figure 1.15.
Figure 1.15: Document Block Markers
To view code in a document block:
1. Place the cursor in a document block to be expanded.
2. From the View menu, select Expand Document Block.
Figure 1.16: Expanded Document Block
With the Document Block expanded, you can see the Maple command that was used to
perform this calculation. In Figure 1.16, the solve command was used.
52 • 1 Getting Started
Also notice a red prompt (>) before the original expression and the solve command. Entering
commands outside of a document block region is done at this input region. To insert an
input region, click the button in the toolbar menu.
In Figure 1.16, an equation label was used to refer to the expression. For more information,
see Equation Labels (page 48).
To collapse a Document Block:
• With your cursor inside the document block, select View → Collapse Document Block.
You can use this process of expanding document blocks to view and edit Maple commands
within a document block.
Changing the Display:
You can specify which parts of the input and output are displayed when the document block
is collapsed. For each execution group in the block, you can choose to display either the
input or the output.
• Place the cursor in the execution group.
• From the View menu, select Toggle Input/Output Display.
Also, you can choose to display output either inline or centered on a new line.
• From the View menu, select Inline Document Output.
Example 9 - Creating a Document Block in Worksheet Mode
In Worksheet mode, you can create the content using commands, and then use a document
block to choose how much information to display.
Enter the following sentence using text and 2-D Math input and output:
The answer to
is
.
1. At an input prompt, click the text icon,
, to
enter plain text. Enter "The answer to ". Note:
these instructions are for Worksheet mode.
2. Click the input prompt icon,
commands. Enter
to execute the command.
, to enter Maple
, and then press Enter
1.6 The Maple Help System • 53
3. Again, click the text icon to insert the rest of the
text, "is", and then enter another input prompt
icon. Make sure to put spaces around all of the
text, so the sentence displays properly.
4. To display the same output again, use the value
command and an equation label. This allows you
to insert text between the input and output of a
single command: there are really two commands.
Enter and execute the command, as shown.
5. To finis the sentence, click the text icon in the
last execution group and enter a period.
6. Select the entire sentence, then from the Format
menu, select, Create Document Block. By default, only the text and output remains visible, and
output is centered on a new line.
7. To display the text and output on one line, place
the cursor in the document block. From the View
menu, select Inline Document Output.
8. To display input instead of output for the firs exThe answer to
pression, place the cursor in the firs expression.
From the View menu, select Toggle Input/Output
Display. Only the firs region displays input.
is
.
1.6 The Maple Help System
The Maple program provides a custom help system consisting of almost 5000 reference
pages. The help system is a convenient resource for determining the syntax of Maple commands and for learning about Maple features.
Accessing the Help System
There are several ways to access the Maple help system:
• From the Help menu, select Maple Help
• Click
in the toolbar
54 • 1 Getting Started
To get help on a specifi word:
• In a document, place the insertion point in a word for which you want to obtain help.
From the Help menu, select Help on .... Alternatively, press F2 (Control + ?, for
Macintosh) to access context-sensitive help.
• In a document, execute the command ?topic, for example, enter ?LinearAlgebra and
press Enter
The Maple help system opens in a separate window with two panes. The left pane contains
the Help Navigator where you initiate searches and browse the table of contents, and the
right pane displays the fina search result, such as a specifi help page.
Figure 1.17: Sample Help Page
Every help page in Maple lists the command's calling sequence, parameters, and a description,
with examples of the command at the end of the page. Some help pages also contain hyperlinks to related help pages and hyperlinks to dictionary definitions Hyperlinks to help pages
display in green, while hyperlinks to dictionary definition display in dark red.
1.6 The Maple Help System • 55
Using the Help Navigator
The Help Navigator contains a fiel for topic or text-based searches. The Table of Contents
tab provides a structured list of all topics in the help system.
To search the help system:
1. In the left pane, enter a string in the search field
2. By default, a topic search is performed. To perform a text search, select the Text radio
button.
3. Enter the term and click Search.
• Topic searches reveal a list of matching topics sorted by the precision of the match.
• Text searches reveal a list of topics based on keyword frequency.
• You can search all of the help system or specifi Resources such as Help Pages, Tasks,
Tutorials, and Manuals by selecting the Resources drop-down menu.
Search results are displayed as a list in the Search Results tab of the left pane. Click the
Table of Contents tab to view a structured list of all topics in the help system.
To display potential matches in the right pane, click a topic preceded by an icon. Table 1.9
describes the different icons.
Table 1.9: Help Page Icons
Icon
Description
A folder icon in the Table of Contents tab indicates that a topic can be expanded into
subtopics.
Question mark icon indicates a help page and displays the associated help page in the
right pane when selected.
WS icon indicates an example worksheet. Example worksheets open in a new tab in
the Maple document.
D icon indicates a definitio and displays the associated dictionary definitio in the
right pane when selected.
T icon indicates a Task template and displays the associated Task Template in the right
pane when selected.
M icon indicates a manual. Manuals open in a new tab in the Maple document.
Viewing Help Pages as Documents
In the help system, examples are not executable.
The Maple help system allows you to open help pages as documents that you can execute.
56 • 1 Getting Started
To open a help page as a document or worksheet:
• With the help page displayed in the right pane of the help system, from the View menu,
select Open Page as Worksheet. A new worksheet tab opens and displays the help page
as an executable document.
Alternatively, in the help system toolbar, click the open current help page in a worksheet
window icon.
Viewing Examples in 2-D Math
You can choose to view the examples in most help pages in either 1-D Math (Maple input)
or 2-D Math mode. The default is 1-D Math.
To change the math mode:
In the Maple help system:
• From the View menu, select or clear the Display Examples with 2D math check box.
• Click the 2-D Math icon,
.
Note: Some input in help pages displays as 1-D Math, no matter which option you have
chosen. This is for Maple procedures and other code that is best input in 1-D Math. For
more information, see the helpnavigator help page.
Copying Examples
Instead of opening the entire page as a document, you can copy the Examples section only.
To copy examples:
1. With the help page displayed in the right pane of the help system, from the Edit menu,
select Copy Examples.
2. Close or minimize the Help Navigator and return to your document.
3. In your document, place the cursor at the location where you want to paste the examples.
4. From the Edit menu, select Paste. The Examples section of the help page is inserted as
executable content in your document.
1.7 Available Resources
Your work with Maple is supported by numerous resources.
1.7 Available Resources • 57
Resources Available through the Maple Help System
Help Pages
Use the help system to fin information about a specifi topic, command, package, or feature.
For more information, see The Maple Help System (page 53).
Dictionary
More than 5000 mathematical and engineering terms with over 300 figure and plots.
1. From the Help menu, select Maple Help.
2. Enter a search term. Dictionary entries that match your query are displayed in the left
pane with a icon.
Tutorials and the Maple Portal
The Maple Portal includes material designed for all Maple users, from new users to users
who want more advanced tutorials. The Maple Portal also includes specifi sections for
students, math educators, and engineers. The Maple Portal includes:
• How Do I... topics that give quick answers to essential questions
• Tutorials that provide an overview of topics from getting started to plotting, data manipulation, and interactive application development
• Navigation to portals with specialized information for students, math educators, and engineers
Access the portal from the Help menu (Help → Manuals, Resources, and More → Maple
Portal).
Applications and Example Worksheets
Applications
Sample applications demonstrate how Maple can be used to fin and document a solution
to a specifi problem. Some applications allow for input or contain animations that you can
run; however, their primary use is for demonstrations. Topics include DC Motor Control
Design, Digital Filter Design, Frequency Domain System Identification Harmonic Oscillator,
Image Processing, and Radiator Design with CAD Systems.
Examples
Example worksheets are executable documents covering topics that demonstrate syntax or
invoke a user interface to make complex problems easy to solve and visualize. You can
copy and modify the examples as needed. Topics include Algebra, Calculus, Connectivity,
Discrete Mathematics, General Numerics and Symbolics, and Integral Transforms.
58 • 1 Getting Started
• From the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and more, and then Applications
and Examples.
Manuals
You can access all of Maple's manuals from within Maple, including the Maple Programming
Guide and this manual. You can execute examples, copy content into other documents, and
search the contents using the Maple Help System.
• From the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and more and then Manuals.
Task Templates
Set of commands with placeholders that you can use to quickly perform a task. For details,
see Task Templates (page 40).
• From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse.
Maple Tour and Quick Resources
Maple Tour
The Maple Tour consists of interactive sessions on several of the following topics: Ten
Minute Tour, Numeric and Symbolic Computations, Matrix Computations, Differential
Equations, Statistics, Programming and Code Generation, Units and Tolerances, and Education Assessment with Maple T.A.
• From the Help menu, select Take a Tour of Maple.
Quick Help and Quick References
The Quick Help dialog is a list of key commands and concepts.
• From the Help menu, select Quick Help. Alternatively, press F1. For additional information, click an item in the Quick Help.
The Quick Reference is a table of commands and information for new users that opens in
a new window. It contains hyperlinks to help pages for more information.
• From the Help menu, select Quick Reference. Alternatively, press Ctrl + F2 (Command
+ F2, for Macintosh).
Web Site Resources
Welcome Center
A Maple web site offering all of Maplesoft's key user resources in one central location. In
the Welcome Center, you can view sample applications, participate in user forums, access
1.7 Available Resources • 59
exclusive premium content, and listen to podcasts. You can also access our support services,
view training videos, download user manuals, and more.
http://www.maplesoft.com/welcome
Student Help Center
The Student Help Center offers a Maple student forum, online math Oracles, training videos,
and a math homework resource guide.
http://www.maplesoft.com/studentcenter
Teacher Resource Center
The Teacher Resource Center is designed to ensure you get the most out of your Maple
teaching experience. It provides sample applications, course material, training videos, white
papers, e-books, podcasts, and tips.
http://www.maplesoft.com/teachercenter
Application Center
Maple web site resource for free applications related to mathematics, education, science,
engineering, computer science, statistics and data analysis, finance communications, and
graphics. Many applications are available in translations (French, Spanish, and German).
You can also search for Education and Research PowerTools, which provide free course
curricula and are available as add-on Maple packages and courses. PowerTools are developed
by experts in their field to help users configur Maple for research in specifi application
areas.
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications
Training
Maplesoft offers a comprehensive set of complementary training materials. From complete
training videos to recorded training seminars to downloadable documentation, you have
many options to get familiar with Maplesoft products. In addition, whether you are an expert
or someone who is considering a new license purchase, a custom training session that is
right for you and/or your organization can be created.
http://www.maplesoft.com/support/training
MaplePrimes
A web community dedicated to sharing experiences, techniques, and opinions about Maple
and related products, as well as general interest topics in math and computing.
60 • 1 Getting Started
http://www.mapleprimes.com
Online Help
All of Maple's help pages are available online.
http://www.maplesoft.com/support/help
Technical Support
A Maple web site containing FAQs, downloads and service packs, links to discussion groups,
and a form for requesting technical support.
http://www.maplesoft.com/support
For a complete list of resources, refer to the MapleResources help page.
2 Document Mode
Using the Maple software, you can create powerful interactive documents. You can visualize
and animate problems in two and three dimensions. You can solve complex problems with
simple point-and-click interfaces or easy-to-modify interactive documents. You can also
devise custom solutions using the Maple programming language. While you work, you can
document your process, providing text descriptions.
2.1 In This Chapter
Section
Introduction (page 61)
Topics
• Comparison of Document and Worksheet
Modes
Entering Expressions (page 62) - Overview of • Palettes
tools for creating complex mathematical expres- • Symbol Names
sions
• Mathematical Functions
Evaluating Expressions (page 65) - How to eval- • Displaying the Value Inline
uate expressions
• Displaying the Value on the Following Line
Editing Expressions and Updating
Output (page 66) - How to update expressions
and regenerate results
• Updating a Single Computation
• Updating a Group of Computations
• Updating All Computations in a Document
Performing Computations (page 67)- Overview • Computing with Palettes
of tools for performing computations and solving • Context Menus
problems
• Assistants and Tutors
2.2 Introduction
Maple has two modes: Document mode and Worksheet mode.
Document mode is designed for quickly performing calculations. You can enter a mathematical expression, and then evaluate, manipulate, solve, or plot it with a few keystrokes or
mouse clicks. This chapter provides an overview of Document mode.
Document mode sample:
Find the value of the derivative of
at
61
.
62 • 2 Document Mode
Integrate
over the interval
.
=
Worksheet mode is designed for interactive use through commands and programming using
the Maple language. The Worksheet mode supports the features available in Document
mode described in this chapter. For information on using Worksheet mode, see Chapter 3,
Worksheet Mode (page 77). Note: To enter a Maple input prompt while in Document mode,
click
in the Maple toolbar.
Important: In any Maple document, you can use Document mode and Worksheet mode.
Interactive document features include:
• Embedded graphical interface components, like buttons, sliders, and check boxes
• Automatic execution of marked regions when a fil is opened
• Tables
• Character and paragraph formatting styles
• Hyperlinks
These features are described in Chapter 7, Creating Mathematical Documents (page 281).
Note: This chapter and Chapter 1 were created using Document mode. All of the other
chapters were created using Worksheet mode.
2.3 Entering Expressions
Chapter 1 provided an introduction to entering simple expressions in 2-D Math (see Entering
Expressions (page 18)). It is also easy to enter mathematical expressions, such as:
• Piecewise-continuous functions:
• Limits:
2.3 Entering Expressions • 63
• Continued fractions:
and more complex expressions.
Mathematical expressions can contain the following objects.
• Numbers: integers, rational numbers, complex numbers, floating-poin values, finit fiel
elements, , , ...
• Operators:
• Constants:
/,
...
...
• Mathematical functions:
• Names (variables):
...
...
• Data structures: sets, lists, Arrays, Vectors, Matrices, ...
Maple contains over a thousand symbols. For some numbers, operators, and names, you
can press the corresponding key, for example, 9, =, >, or x. Most symbols are not available
on the keyboard, but you can insert them easily using two methods, palettes and symbol
names.
Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative
To insert a symbol, you can use palettes or symbol names.
Enter the partial derivative
using palettes.
Action
Result in Document
1. In the Expression palette, click the partial differentiation item
. Maple inserts the partial derivative. The variable placeholder is selected.
2. Enter t, and then press Tab. The expression placeholder is selected.
64 • 2 Document Mode
Action
Result in Document
3. Enter
. Note: To enter the exponential e, use the
expression palette or command completion.
To evaluate the integral and display the result inline, press Ctrl+= (Command+=, for
Macintosh) or Enter. For more information, see Computing with Palettes (page 67).
You can enter any expression using symbol names and the symbol completion list.
Action
Result in Document
1. Begin typing the name of the symbol,
diff, and press the symbol completion
key (see Shortcut Keys by
Platform (page xviii)).
2. Select the partial differentiation item,
3. Replace the placeholder with t. Use the
right arrow to move out of the denominator. Enter
ample.
as in the previous ex-
Example 2 - Define a Mathematical Function
Defin the function
which doubles its input.
Action
1. In the Expression palette, click the single variable
function definitio item,
.
2. Replace the placeholder f with the function name,
Press Tab to move to the next placeholder.
3. Replace the parameter placeholder, a, with the independent variable Press Tab.
Result in Document
2.4 Evaluating Expressions • 65
Action
4. Replace the output placeholder, y, with the desired
output,
Result in Document
=
=
Note: To insert the right arrow symbol
, you can also enter the characters -> in Math
mode. In this case, symbol completion is automatic.
Important: The expression
is different from the function
.
For more information on functions, see Functional Operators (page 339).
2.4 Evaluating Expressions
To evaluate a mathematical expression, place the cursor in the expression and press Ctrl +
= (Command + =, for Macintosh). That is, press and hold the Ctrl (or Command) key,
and then press the equal sign (=) key.
To the right of the expression, Maple inserts an equal sign and then the value of the expression.
=
You can replace the inserted equal sign with text or mathematical content.
To replace the equal sign:
1. Select the equal sign. Press Delete.
2. Enter the replacement text or mathematical content.
For example, you can replace the equal sign with the text "is equal to".
is equal to
In mathematical content, pressing Enter evaluates the expression and displays it centered
on the following line. The cursor moves to a new line below the output.
66 • 2 Document Mode
(2.1)
By default, Maple labels output that is generated by pressing Enter. For information on
equation labels, see Equation Labels (page 95). In this manual, labels are generally not
displayed.
In text, pressing Enter inserts a line break.
You can use the basic algebraic operators, such as
and , with most expressions, including polynomials—see Polynomial Algebra (page 148)—and matrices and vectors—see
Matrix Arithmetic (page 166).
=
=
2.5 Editing Expressions and Updating Output
One important feature of Maple is that your documents are live. That is, you can edit expressions and quickly recalculate results.
To update one computation:
1. Edit the expression.
2. Press Ctrl + = (Command + =, for Macintosh) or Enter.
The result is updated.
To update a group of computations:
1. Edit the expressions.
2. Select all edited expressions and the results to recalculate.
3. Click the Execute toolbar icon
.
All selected results are updated.
To update all output in a Maple document:
• Click the Execute All toolbar icon
.
2.6 Performing Computations • 67
All results in the document are updated.
2.6 Performing Computations
Using the Document mode, you can access the power of the advanced Maple mathematical
engine without learning Maple syntax. In addition to solving problems, you can also easily
plot expressions.
The primary tools for syntax-free computation are:
• Palettes
• Context menus
• Assistants and tutors
Note: The Document mode is designed for quick calculations, but it also supports Maple
commands. For information on commands, see Commands (page 80) in Chapter 3, Worksheet
Mode (page 77).
Important: In Document mode, you can execute a statement only if you enter it in Math
mode. To use a Maple command, you must enter it in Math mode.
Computing with Palettes
As discussed in Entering Expressions (page 62), some palettes contain mathematical operations.
To perform a computation using a palette mathematical operation:
1. In a palette that contains operators, such as the Expression palette, click an operator
item.
2. In the inserted item, specify values in the placeholders.
3. To execute the operation and display the result, press Ctrl+= (Command+=, for
Macintosh) or Enter.
For example, to evaluate
inline:
1. Using the Expression palette, enter the partial derivative. See Example 1 - Enter a Partial
Derivative (page 63).
2. Press Ctrl+= (Command+=, for Macintosh).
=
68 • 2 Document Mode
Context Menus
A context menu is a pop-up menu that lists the operations and actions you can perform on
a particular expression. See Figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1: Context Menu
To display the context menu for an expression:
• Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression.
The context menu is displayed beside the mouse pointer.
You can evaluate expressions using context menus. The Evaluate and Display Inline operation (see Figure 2.1) is equivalent to pressing Ctrl+= (Command+=, for Macintosh).
That is, it inserts an equal sign (=) and then the value of the expression.
Alternatively, press Enter to evaluate the expression and display the result centered on the
following line.
For more information on evaluation, see Evaluating Expressions (page 65).
From the context menu, you can also select operations different from evaluation. To the
right of the expression, Maple inserts a right arrow symbol (→) and then the result.
2.6 Performing Computations • 69
For example, use the Approximate operation to approximate a fraction:
You can perform a sequence of operations by repeatedly using context menus. For example,
to compute the derivative of
use the Differentiate operation on the expression,
and then to evaluate the result at a point, use the Evaluate at a Point operation on the output
and enter 10:
The following subsections provide detailed instructions on performing a few of the numerous
operations available using context menus. Figures in the subsections show related context
menus or palettes.
Approximating the Value of an Expression
To approximate a fraction numerically:
1. Enter a fraction.
2. Display the context menu. See Figure 2.2.
3. From the context menu, select Approximate, and then the number of significan digits
to use: 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100.
Figure 2.2: Approximating the Value of a Fraction
70 • 2 Document Mode
You can replace the inserted right arrow with text or mathematical content.
To replace the right arrow (
):
1. Select the arrow and text. Press Delete.
2. Enter the replacement text or mathematical content.
Note: To replace the right arrow with text, you must firs press F5 to switch to Text mode.
For example, you can replace the arrow with the text "is approximately equal to" or the
symbol ≈.
Solving an Equation
You can fin an exact (symbolic) solution or an approximate (numeric) solution of an
equation. For more information on symbolic and numeric computations, see Symbolic and
Numeric Computation (page 102).
To solve an equation:
1. Enter an equation.
2. Display the context menu. See Figure 2.3.
3. From the context menu, select Solve or Numerically Solve in the Solve menu item.
2.6 Performing Computations • 71
Figure 2.3: Finding the Approximate Solution to an Equation
For more information on solving equations, including solving inequations, differential
equations, and other types of equations, see Solving Equations (page 111).
72 • 2 Document Mode
Using Units
You can create expressions with units. To specify a unit for an expression, use the Units
palettes. The Units (FPS) palette (Figure 2.4) contains important units from the foot-poundsecond (FPS) system of units used in the United States. The Units (SI) palette (Figure 2.5)
contains important units from the international system (SI) of units.
Figure 2.4: FPS Units Palette
Figure 2.5: SI Units Palette
To insert an expression with a unit:
1. Enter the expression.
2. In a unit palette, click a unit symbol.
Note: To include a reciprocal unit, divide by the unit.
2.6 Performing Computations • 73
To evaluate an expression that contains units:
1. Enter the expression using the units palettes to insert units.
2. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression.
3. From the context menu, select Units and then Simplify.
For example, compute the electric current passing through a wire that conducts 590 coulombs
in 2.9 seconds.
For more information on using units, see Units (page 127).
Assistants and Tutors
Assistants and tutors provide point-and-click interfaces with buttons, text input regions, and
sliders. For details on assistants and tutors, see Point-and-Click Interaction (page 32).
Assistants and tutors can be launched from the Tools menu or the context menu for an expression. For example, you can use the Linear System Solving tutor to solve a linear system,
specifie by a matrix or a set of equations.
74 • 2 Document Mode
Example 3 - Using a Context Menu to Open the Linear System Solving Tutor
Use the Linear System Solving tutor to solve the following system of linear equations,
written in matrix form:
Action
Result in Document
1. In a new document block, create the
matrix or set of linear equations to be
solved.
2. Load the Student[LinearAlgebra] Loading Student:-LinearAlgebra
package. From the Tools menu, select
Load Package → Student Linear
Algebra. This makes the tutors in that
package available. For details, see
Package Commands (page 47).
3. Right-click the matrix and select Tutors → Linear Algebra → Linear
System Solving.... The Linear System Solving dialog appears, where
you can choose the solving method.
Gaussian Elimination reduces the
matrix to row-echelon form, then
performs back-substitution to solve
the system. Gauss Jordan Elimination reduces the matrix to reduced
row-echelon form, where the equations are already solved. For this example, choose Gaussian Elimination.
2.6 Performing Computations • 75
Action
Result in Document
4. The Gaussian Elimination dialog
opens. You can specify the Gaussian
elimination step-by-step, or you can
use the Next Step or All Steps buttons to have Maple perform the steps
for you.
5. Once the matrix is in row-echelon
(upper-triangular) form, click the
Solve System button to move to the
next step.
6. The Solve the system of equations
in Row-Echelon Form dialog appears. Click the buttons on the right
to calculate the solution: firs fin the
Equations, then solve for each variable. Click the Solution button to
display the solution in the tutor.
7. Click the Close button to return the
solution to your document.
For more information on linear systems and matrices, see Linear Algebra (page 155).
76 • 2 Document Mode
3 Worksheet Mode
The Worksheet mode of the Standard Worksheet interface is designed for:
• Interactive use through Maple commands, which offers advanced functionality and customized control not available using context menus or other syntax-free methods
• Programming using the powerful Maple language
Using Worksheet mode, you have access to all of the Maple features described in Chapter
1, and most of those described in Chapter 2, including:
• Math and Text modes
• Palettes
• Context menus
• Assistants and tutors
For information on these features, see Chapter 1, Getting Started (page 1) and Chapter 2,
Document Mode (page 61).
Note: Using a document block, you can use all Document mode features in Worksheet
mode. For information on document blocks, see Document Blocks (page 50).
Note: This chapter and the following chapters except Chapter 7 were created using Worksheet
mode.
3.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Input Prompt (page 78) - Where you enter input • The Input Prompt (>)
• Suppressing Output
• 2-D and 1-D Math Input
• Input Separators
Commands (page 80) - Thousands of routines for • The Maple Library
performing computations and other operations • Top-Level Commands
• Package Commands
• Lists of Common Commands and Packages
Palettes (page 86) - Items that you can insert by • Using Palettes
clicking or dragging
• Using Context Menus
Context Menus (page 88)- Pop-up menus of
common operations
77
78 • 3 Worksheet Mode
Section
Assistants and Tutors (page 90)- Graphical interfaces with buttons and sliders
Task Templates (page 90) - Sets of commands
with placeholders that you can insert and use to
perform a task
Topics
• Launching Assistants and Tutors
• Viewing Task Templates
• Inserting a Task Template
• Performing the Task
Text Regions (page 92) - Areas in the document • Inserting a Text Region
in which you can enter text
• Formatting Text
Names (page 92) - References to the expressions • Assigning to Names
you assign to them
• Unassigning Names
• Valid Names
Equation Labels (page 95) - Automatically gener- • Displaying Equation Labels
ated labels that you can use to refer to expressions • Referring to a Previous Result
• Execution Groups with Multiple Outputs
• Label Numbering Schemes
• Features of Equation Labels
3.2 Input Prompt
In Worksheet mode, you enter input at the Maple input prompt (
input is Math mode (2-D Math).
To evaluate input:
• Press Enter.
Maple displays the result (output) below the input.
). The default mode for
3.2 Input Prompt • 79
For example, to fin the value of
, enter the expression, and then press Enter.
>
(3.1)
For example, compute the sum of two fractions.
>
(3.2)
Suppressing Output
To suppress the output, enter a colon (:) at the end of the input.
>
A set of Maple input and its output are referred to as an execution group.
1-D Math Input
You can also insert input using Text mode (1-D Math). The input is entered as a one-dimensional sequence of characters. 1-D Math input is red.
To enter input using 1-D Math:
• At the input prompt, press F5 or click the Text button in the toolbar,
switch from 2-D Math to 1-D Math.
, to
> 123^2 - 29857/120;
Important: 1-D Math input must end with a semicolon or colon. If you use a semicolon,
Maple displays the output; if you use a colon, Maple suppresses the output.
> 123^2 - 29857/120:
80 • 3 Worksheet Mode
To set the default input mode to 1-D Math:
1. From the Tools menu, select Options. The Options dialog is displayed.
2. On the Display tab, in the Input display drop-down list, select Maple Notation.
3. Click Apply to Session (to set for only the current session) or Apply Globally (to set
for all Maple sessions).
To convert 2-D Math input to 1-D Math input:
1. Select the 2-D Math input.
2. From the Format menu, select Convert To, and then 1-D Math Input.
Important: In Document mode, you can execute a statement only if you enter it in Math
mode.
Input Separators
In 1-D and 2-D Math input, you can use a semicolon or colon to separate multiple inputs
in the same input line.
>
If you do not specify a semicolon or colon, Maple interprets it as a single input. This can
either give unexpected results, as below, or an error.
>
3.3 Commands
Maple contains a large set of commands and a powerful programming language. Most Maple
commands are written using the Maple programming language.
You can enter commands using 1-D or 2-D Math. You must use 1-D Math input when
programming in Maple. Basic Programming (page 365) provides an introduction to Maple
programming.
To learn how to use Maple commands, see the appropriate help page, or use task templates.
For more information, see The Maple Help System (page 53) and Task Templates (page 90).
3.3 Commands • 81
The Maple Library
Maple's commands are contained in the Maple library. There are two types of commands:
top-level commands and package commands.
• The top-level commands are the most frequently used Maple commands.
• Packages contain related specialized commands in areas such as calculus, linear algebra,
vector calculus, and code generation.
For a complete list of packages and commands, refer to the index help pages. To access the
index overview help page, enter ?index, and then press Enter. For information on the Maple
Help System, see The Maple Help System (page 53).
Top-Level Commands
To use a top-level command, enter its name followed by parentheses (( )) containing any
parameters. This is referred to as a calling sequence for the command.
command(arguments)
Note: In 1-D Math input, include a semicolon or colon at the end of the calling sequence.
For example, to differentiate an expression, use the diff command. The required parameters
are the expression to differentiate, which must be specifie first and the independent variable.
>
For a complete list of functions (commands that implement mathematical functions), such
as BesselI and AiryAi, available in the library, refer to the initialfunctions help page.
>
For detailed information on the properties of a function, use the FunctionAdvisor command.
82 • 3 Worksheet Mode
>
For detailed information on how to use a function in Maple, refer to its help page.
For example:
>
Note: In 1-D and 2-D Math input, when accessing a help page using ?, you do not need to
include a trailing semicolon or colon.
Top Commands
Here are a few of the most frequently used Maple commands. A complete list of top-level
commands is available at Help → Manuals, Resources, and more → List of Commands.
Table 3.1: Top Commands
Command Name
plot and plot3d
solve
fsolve
eval
evalf
dsolve
int
diff
limit
sum
assume/is
assuming
simplify
factor
Description
Create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional plot of functions.
Solve one or more equations or inequalities for their unknowns.
Solve one or more equations using floating-poin arithmetic.
Evaluate an expression at a given point.
Numerically evaluate expressions.
Solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
Compute an indefinit or definit integral.
Compute an ordinary or partial derivative, as the context dictates.
Calculate the limiting value of a function.
For symbolic summation. It is used to compute a closed form for an indefinit
or definit sum.
Set variable properties and relationships between variables. Similar functionality is provided by the assuming command.
Compute the value of an expression under assumptions.
Apply simplificatio rules to an expression.
Factor a polynomial.
3.3 Commands • 83
Command Name
expand
normal
convert
type
series
map
Description
Distribute products over sums.
Normalize a rational expression.
Convert an expression to a different type or form.
Type-checking command. In many contexts, it is not necessary to know the
exact value of an expression; it suffice to know that an expression belongs
to a broad class, or group, of expressions that share some common properties.
These classes or groups are known as types.
Generalized series expansion.
Apply a procedure to each operand of an expression.
Package Commands
To use a package command, the calling sequence must include the package name, and the
command name enclosed in square brackets ([ ]).
package[command](arguments)
If you are frequently using the commands in a package, load the package.
To load a package:
• Use the with command, specifying the package as an argument.
The with command displays a list of the package commands loaded (unless you suppress
the output by entering a colon at the end of the calling sequence).
After loading a package, you can use the short form names of its commands. That is, you
can enter the commands without specifying the package name.
84 • 3 Worksheet Mode
For example, use the NLPSolve command from the Optimization package to fin a local
minimum of an expression and the value of the independent variable at which the minimum
occurs.
>
>
>
For more information on optimization, see Optimization (page 184).
To unload a package:
• Use the unwith command, specifying the package as an argument.
>
Alternatively, use the restart command. The restart command clears Maple's internal
memory. The effects include unassigning all names and unloading all packages. For more
information, refer to the restart help page.
Note: To execute the examples in this manual, you may be required to use the unassign or
restart command between examples.
Some packages contain commands that have the same name as a top-level command. For
example, the plots package contains a changecoords command. Maple also contains a toplevel changecoords command.
>
After the plots package is loaded, the name changecoords refers to the plots[changecoords]
command. To use the top-level changecoords command, unload the package or use the
restart command. (For alternative methods of accessing the top-level command, see the
rebound help page.)
3.3 Commands • 85
Top Packages
Here are a few of the most frequently used Maple packages. A complete list of packages
is available in the Maple help system at Help → Manuals, Resources, and more → List
of Packages.
Table 3.2: Top Packages
Package Name
CodeGeneration
Description
The Code Generation package is a collection of commands and subpackages that enable the translation of Maple code to other programming languages, such as C, C#, Fortran, MATLAB®, Visual Basic®, and JavaTM.
The Linear Algebra package contains commands to construct and manipLinearAlgebra
ulate Matrices and Vectors, and solve linear algebra problems. LinearAlgebra routines operate on three principal data structures: Matrices, Vectors,
and scalars.
Optimization
The Optimization package is a collection of commands for numerically
solving optimization problems, which involve findin the minimum or
maximum of an objective function possibly subject to constraints.
Physics
The Physics package implements computational representations and related
operations for most of the objects used in mathematical physics computations.
RealDomain
The Real Domain package provides an environment in which Maple assumes that the basic underlying number system is the fiel of real numbers
instead of the complex number field
The Scientifi Constants package provides access to the values of various
ScientificConstant
physical constants, for example, the velocity of light and the atomic weight
of sodium. This package provides the units for each of the constant values,
allowing for greater understanding of an equation. The package also
provides units-matching for error checking of the solution.
ScientificEr orAnalysis The Scientifi Error Analysis package provides representation and construction of numerical quantities that have a central value and an associated
uncertainty (or error), which is a measure of the degree of precision to
which the quantity's value is known. Various first-orde calculations of
error analysis can be performed with these quantities.
Statistics
The Statistics package is a collection of tools for mathematical statistics
and data analysis. The package supports a wide range of common statistical tasks such as quantitative and graphical data analysis, simulation, and
curve fitting
86 • 3 Worksheet Mode
Package Name
Student
Description
The Student package is a collection of subpackages designed to assist
with teaching and learning standard undergraduate mathematics. The many
commands display functions, computations, and theorems in various ways,
including stepping through important computations.
The Student package contains the following subpackages:
• Calculus1 - single-variable calculus
• LinearAlgebra - linear algebra
• MultivariateCalculus - multivariate calculus
• NumericalAnalysis - numerical analysis
• Precalculus - precalculus
• VectorCalculus - multivariate vector calculus
Units
VectorCalculus
The Units package contains commands for unit conversion and provides
environments for performing calculations with units. It accepts approximately 300 distinct unit names (for example, meters and grams) and over
550 units with various contexts (for example, standard miles and U.S.
survey miles). Maple also contains two Units palettes that allow you to
enter the unit for an expression quickly.
The Vector Calculus package is a collection of commands that perform
multivariate and vector calculus operations. A large set of predefine orthogonal coordinate systems is available. All computations in the package
can be performed in any of these coordinate systems. It contains a facility
for adding a custom but orthogonal coordinate system and using that new
coordinate system for your computations.
3.4 Palettes
Palettes are collections of related items that you can insert by clicking or dragging. For example, see Figure 3.1.
3.4 Palettes • 87
Figure 3.1: Expression Palette
You can use palettes to enter input.
For example, evaluate a definit integral using the definit integration item
Expression palette.
in the
In 2-D Math, clicking the definit integration item inserts:
>
1. Enter values in the placeholders. To move to the next placeholder, press Tab. Note: If
pressing the Tab key inserts a tab, click the Tab icon
in the toolbar.
2. evaluate the integral, press Enter.
>
In 1-D Math, clicking the definit integration item inserts the corresponding command
calling sequence.
88 • 3 Worksheet Mode
> int(f,x=a..b);
Specify the problem values (using the Tab to move to the next placeholder), and then press
Enter.
> int(tanh(x), x = 0..1);
Note: Some palette items cannot be inserted into 1-D Math because they are not define in
the Maple language. When the cursor is in 1-D Math input, unavailable palette items are
dimmed.
For more information on viewing and using palettes, see Palettes (page 21) in Chapter 1.
3.5 Context Menus
A context menu is a pop-up menu that lists the operations and actions you can perform on
a particular expression. See Figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2: Integer Context Menu
In Worksheet mode, you can use context menus to perform operations on 2-D Math and
output.
3.5 Context Menus • 89
To use a context menu:
1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression. The context menu is displayed.
2. From the context menu, select an operation.
Maple inserts a new execution group containing:
• The calling sequence that performs the operation
• The result of the operation
Example - Using Context Menus
Determine the rational expression (fraction) that approximates the floating-poin number
.
Action
1. Enter and execute the expression.
Result in Document
>
(3.3)
2. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the
output floating-poin number.
3. From the context menu, select Conversions >
→ Rational. The inserted calling sequence includes an equation label reference to the number you are converting.
Notice that an equation label reference has been used. For information on equation labels
and equation label references, see Equation Labels (page 95).
For more information on context menus, see Context Menus (page 68) in Chapter 2.
90 • 3 Worksheet Mode
3.6 Assistants and Tutors
Assistants and tutors provide point-and-click interfaces with buttons, text input regions, and
sliders. See Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant
Launching an Assistant or Tutor
To launch an assistant or tutor:
1. Open the Tools menu.
2. Select Assistants or Tutors.
3. Navigate to and select one of the assistants or tutors.
For more information on assistants and tutors, see Assistants (page 32) in Chapter 1.
3.7 Task Templates
Maple can solve a diverse set of problems. The task template facility helps you quickly fin
and use the commands required to perform common tasks.
After inserting a task template, specify the parameters of your problem in the placeholders,
and then execute the commands, or click a button.
The Task Browser (Figure 3.4) organizes task templates by subject.
To launch the Task Browser:
• From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse.
3.7 Task Templates • 91
You can also browse the task templates in the Table of Contents of the Maple Help System.
Figure 3.4: Task Browser
For details on inserting and using task templates, see Task Templates (page 40). You can
also create your own task templates for performing common tasks. For details, refer to the
creatingtasks help page.
92 • 3 Worksheet Mode
3.8 Text Regions
To add descriptive text in Worksheet mode, use a text region.
To insert a text region:
• In the toolbar, click the Text region icon
.
The default mode in a text region is Text mode.
In a text region, you can:
• Enter text with inline mathematical content by switching between Text and Math modes.
To toggle between Text mode and Math mode, press F5 or click the Math and Text
.
toolbar icons,
Note: The mathematical content in a text region is not evaluated. To enter mathematical
content that is evaluated, enter it at an Input Prompt (page 78).
• Insert any palette item. Palette items are inserted in Math mode (2-D Math). Note: After
you insert a palette item, you must press F5 or click the toolbar icon to return to Text
mode.
You can format text in a text region. Features include:
• Character styles
• Paragraph styles
• Sections and subsections
• Tables
For more information on formatting documents, see Creating Mathematical
Documents (page 281).
3.9 Names
Instead of re-entering an expression every time you need it, you can assign it to a name or
add an equation label to it. Then you can quickly refer to the expression using the name or
an equation label reference. For information on labels, see the following section, Equation
Labels (page 95).
Note: Through the Variable Manager you can manage the top-level assigned variables
currently active in your Maple Session. For more information about the Variable Manager,
see the Variable Manager help page.
3.9 Names • 93
Assigning to Names
You can assign any Maple expression to a name: numeric values, data structures, procedures
(a type of Maple program), and other Maple objects.
Initially, the value of a name is itself.
>
The assignment operator (:=) associates an expression with a name.
>
Recall that you can enter
using the following two methods.
• Use the Common Symbols palette
• In 2-D Math enter pi, and then press the symbol completion shortcut key. See Shortcuts
for Entering Mathematical Expressions (page 6).
When Maple evaluates an expression that contains a name, it replaces the name with its
value. For example:
>
For information on Maple evaluation rules, see Evaluating Expressions (page 353).
Mathematical Functions
To defin a function, assign it to a name.
For example, defin a function that computes the cube of its argument.
>
For information on creating functions, see Example 2 - Defin a Mathematical
Function (page 64).
94 • 3 Worksheet Mode
>
Note: To insert the right arrow, enter the characters ->. In 2-D Math, Maple replaces ->
with the right arrow symbol
In 1-D Math, the characters are not replaced.
For example, defin a function that squares its argument.
> square := x -> x^2:
> square(32);
For more information on functions, see Functional Operators (page 339).
Protected Names
Protected names are valid names that are predefine or reserved.
If you attempt to assign to a protected name, Maple returns an error.
>
Error, attempting to assign to `sin` which is protected
For more information, refer to the type/protected and protect help pages.
Unassigning Names
The unassign command resets the value of a name to itself. Note: You must enclose the
name in right single quotes (' ').
>
>
Right single quotes (unevaluation quotes) prevent Maple from evaluating the name. For
more information on unevaluation quotes, see Delaying Evaluation (page 361) or refer to
the uneval help page.
See also Unassigning a Name Using Unevaluation Quotes (page 362).
3.10 Equation Labels • 95
Unassigning all names:
The restart command clears Maple's internal memory. The effects include unassigning all
names. For more information, refer to the restart help page.
Note: To execute the examples in this manual, you may be required to use the unassign or
restart command between examples.
Valid Names
A Maple name must be one of the following.
• A sequence of alphanumeric and underscore (_) characters that begins with an alphabetical character. Note: To enter an underscore character in 2-D Math, enter a backslash
character followed by an underscore character, that is, \_.
• A sequence of characters enclosed in left single quotes (` `).
Important: Do not begin a name with an underscore character. Maple reserves names that
begin with an underscore for use by the Maple library.
Examples of valid names:
• a
• a1
• polynomial
• polynomial1_divided_by_polynomial2
• `2a`
• `x y`
3.10 Equation Labels
Maple marks the output of each execution group with a unique equation label.
Note: The equation label is displayed to the right of the output.
>
(3.4)
Using equation labels, you can refer to the result in other computations.
96 • 3 Worksheet Mode
>
(3.5)
Displaying Equation Labels
Important: By default, equation labels are displayed. If equation label display is turned
off, complete both of the following operations.
• From the Format menu, select Equation Labels, and then ensure that Worksheet is
selected.
• In the Options dialog (Tools→Options), on the Display tab, ensure that Show equation
labels is selected.
Referring to a Previous Result
Instead of re-entering previous results in computations, you can use equation label references.
Each time you need to refer to a previous result, insert an equation label reference.
To insert an equation label reference:
1. From the Insert menu, select Label. (Alternatively, press Ctrl+L; Command+L,
Macintosh.)
2. In the Insert Label dialog (see Figure 3.5), enter the label value, and then click OK.
Figure 3.5: Insert Label Dialog
Maple inserts the reference.
3.10 Equation Labels • 97
For example:
To integrate the product of (3.4) and (3.5):
Action
Result in Document
1. In the Expression palette, click the indefinit in. The item is inserted and the
tegration item
integrand placeholder is highlighted.
2. Press Ctrl+L (Command+L, for Macintosh).
3. In the Insert Label dialog, enter 3.4. Click OK.
4. Press *.
5. Press Ctrl+L (Command+L, for Macintosh).
6. In the Insert Label dialog, enter 3.4. Click OK.
7. To move to the variable of integration placeholder,
>
press Tab.
8. Enter x.
9. To evaluate the integral, press Enter.
Execution Groups with Multiple Outputs
An equation label is associated with the last output within an execution group.
(3.6)
98 • 3 Worksheet Mode
>
(3.7)
>
(3.8)
Label Numbering Schemes
You can number equation labels in two ways:
• Flat - Each label is a single number, for example, 1, 2, or 3.
• Sections - Each label is numbered according to the section in which it occurs. For example,
2.1 is the firs equation in the second section, and 1.3.2 is the second equation in the third
subsection of the firs section.
To change the equation label numbering scheme:
• From the Format menu, select Equation Labels → Label Display. In the Format Labels
dialog (Figure 3.6), select one of the formats.
• Optionally, enter a prefix
Figure 3.6: Format Labels Dialog: Adding a Prefi
3.10 Equation Labels • 99
Features of Equation Labels
Although equation labels are not descriptive names, labels offer other important features.
• Each label is unique, whereas a name may be inadvertently assigned more than once for
different purposes.
• Maple labels the output values sequentially. If you remove or insert an output, Maple
automatically re-numbers all equation labels and updates the label references.
• If you change the equation label format (see Label Numbering Schemes (page 98)), Maple
automatically updates all equation labels and label references.
For information on assigning to, using, and unassigning names, see Names (page 92).
For more information on equation labels, refer to the equationlabel help page.
The following chapters describe how to use Maple to perform tasks such as solving equations,
producing plots and animations, and creating mathematical documents. The chapters were
created using Worksheet mode. Except where noted, all features are available in both
Worksheet mode and Document mode.
100 • 3 Worksheet Mode
4 Basic Computations
This chapter discusses key concepts related to performing basic computations with Maple.
It discusses important features that are relevant to all Maple users. After learning about
these concepts, you will learn how to use Maple to solve problems in specifi mathematical
disciplines in the following chapter.
4.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Symbolic and Numeric Computation (page 102)- • Exact Computations
An overview of exact and floating-poin computa- • Floating-Point Computations
tion
• Converting Exact Quantities to Floating-Point
Values
• Sources of Error
Integer Operations (page 106) - How to perform • Important Integer Commands
integer computations
• Non-Base 10 Numbers
• Finite Rings and Fields
• Gaussian Integers
Solving Equations (page 111) - How to solve
standard mathematical equations
• Equations and Inequations
• Ordinary Differential Equations
• Partial Differential Equations
• Integer Equations
• Integer Equations in a Finite Field
• Linear Systems
• Recurrence Relations
101
102 • 4 Basic Computations
Section
Units, Scientifi Constants, and
Uncertainty (page 127) - How to construct and
compute with expressions that have units, scientific constants, or uncertainty
Topics
Units
• Conversions
• Applying Units to an Expression
• Performing Computations with Units
• Changing the Current System of Units
• Extensibility
Scientifi Constants
• Scientifi Constants
• Element and Isotope Properties
• Value, Units, and Uncertainty
• Performing Computations
• Modificatio and Extensibility
Uncertainty Propagation
• Quantities with Uncertainty
• Performing Computations with Quantities with
Uncertainty
Restricting the Domain (page 141) - How to restrict • Real Number Domain
the domain for computations
• Assumptions on Variables
4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation
Symbolic computation is the mathematical manipulation of expressions involving symbolic
or abstract quantities, such as variables, functions, and operators; and exact numbers, such
The goal of such manipulations may be to transform an
as integers, rationals, π, and
expression to a simpler form or to relate the expression to other, better understood formulas.
Numeric computation is the manipulation of expressions in the context of finite-precisio
arithmetic. Expressions involving exact numbers, for example,
are replaced by close
approximations using floating-poin numbers, for example 1.41421. These computations
generally involve some error. Understanding and controlling this error is often of as much
importance as the computed result.
4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation • 103
In Maple, numeric computation is normally performed if you use floating-poin numbers
(numbers containing a decimal point) or the evalf command. The plot command (see Plots
and Animations (page 237)) uses numeric computation, while commands such as int, limit,
and gcd (see Integer Operations (page 106) and Mathematical Problem Solving (page 147))
generally use only symbolic computation to achieve their results.
Exact Computations
In Maple, integers, rational numbers, mathematical constants such as π and ∞, and mathematical structures such as matrices with these as entries are treated as exact quantities. Names,
such as
and mathematical functions, such as
and
are symbolic objects. Names can be assigned exact quantities as their
values, and functions can be evaluated at symbolic or exact arguments.
>
Important: Unless requested to do otherwise (see the following section), Maple evaluates
expressions containing exact quantities to exact results, as you would do if you were performing the calculation by hand, and not to numeric approximations, as you normally obtain
from a standard hand-held calculator.
>
>
>
Floating-Point Computations
In some situations, a numeric approximation of an exact quantity is required. For example,
the plot command requires the expression it is plotting to evaluate to numeric values that
can be rendered on the screen: π cannot be so rendered, but
can be. Maple distin-
104 • 4 Basic Computations
guishes approximate from exact quantities by the presence or absence of a decimal point:
is approximate, while
is exact.
Note: An alternative representation of floating-poin numbers, called e-notation, may not
, 3e-2
.
include an explicit decimal point: 1e5
In the presence of a floating-poin (approximate) quantity in an expression, Maple generally
computes using numeric approximations. Arithmetic involving mixed exact and floating
point quantities results in a floating-poin result.
>
If a mathematical function is passed a floating-poin argument, it normally attempts to
produce a floating-poin approximation of the result.
>
Converting Exact Quantities to Floating-Point Values
To convert an exact quantity to a numeric approximation of that quantity, use the evalf
command or the Approximate context menu operation (see Approximating the Value of
an Expression (page 69)).
>
By default, Maple computes such approximations using 10 digit arithmetic. You can
modify this in one of two ways:
• Locally, you can pass the precision as an index to the evalf call.
>
• Globally, you can set the value of the Digits environment variable.
4.2 Symbolic and Numeric Computation • 105
>
>
For more information, see the evalf and Digits help pages.
Note: When appropriate, Maple performs floating-poin computations directly using your
computer's underlying hardware.
Sources of Error
By its nature, floating-poin computation normally involves some error. Controlling the effect
of this error is the subject of active research in Numerical Analysis. Some sources of error
are:
• An exact quantity may not be exactly representable in decimal form:
and
are ex-
amples.
• Small errors can accumulate after many arithmetic operations.
• Subtraction of nearly equal quantities can result in essentially no useful information. For
for
example, consider the computation
>
No correct digits remain. If, however, you use Maple to analyze this expression, and replace
this form with a representation that is more accurate for small values of a fully accurate
10-digit result can be obtained.
>
>
106 • 4 Basic Computations
For information on evaluating an expression at a point, see Substituting a Value for a
Subexpression (page 353). For information on creating a series approximation, see
Series (page 178). For more information on floating-poin numbers, refer to the floa and
type/floa help pages.
4.3 Integer Operations
In addition to the basic arithmetic operators, Maple has many specialized commands for
performing more complicated integer computations, such as factoring an integer, testing
whether an integer is a prime number, and determining the greatest common divisor (GCD)
of a pair of integers.
Note: Many integer operations are available as task templates (Tools→Tasks→Browse,
under Integer Operations).
You can quickly perform many integer operations using context menus. Selecting an integer,
and then right-clicking (for Macintosh, Control-clicking) displays a context menu with integer commands. For example, the context menu item Integer Factors applies the ifactor
command to compute the prime factorization of the given integer. See Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1: Context Menu for an Integer
4.3 Integer Operations • 107
The result of applying Integer Factors is shown:
>
(4.1)
>
(4.2)
Maple inserts the command ifactor, using an equation label reference to the integer 946929.
For more information on equation labels, see Equation Labels (page 95).
For more information on using context menus in Worksheet mode, see Context
Menus (page 88). For information on using context menus in Document mode, see Context
Menus (page 68).
Maple has many other integer commands, including those listed in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Select Integer Commands
Command
abs
Description
factorial
factorial (displays in 2-D math as )
prime factorization
greatest common divisor
quotient of integer division
remainder of integer division
integer approximation of nth root
test primality
integer approximation of square root
maximum and minimum of a set
modular arithmetic (See Finite Rings and Fields (page 109).)
set of positive divisors
ifactor
igcd
iquo
irem
iroot
isprime
isqrt
max, min
mod
numtheory[divisors]
absolute value (displays in 2-D math as
)
108 • 4 Basic Computations
>
>
>
>
For information on findin integer solutions to equations, see Integer Equations (page 125).
Non-Base 10 Numbers and Other Number Systems
Maple supports:
• Non-base 10 numbers
• Finite ring and fiel arithmetic
• Gaussian integers
Non-Base 10 Numbers
To represent an expression in another base, use the convert command.
>
>
For information on enclosing keywords in right single quotes ('), see Delaying Evaluation
(page 361).
You can also use the convert/base command.
>
4.3 Integer Operations • 109
Note: The convert/base command returns a list of digit values in order of increasing significanc .
Finite Rings and Fields
Maple supports computations over the integers modulo m.
The mod operator evaluates an expression over the integers modulo m.
>
By default, the mod operator uses positive representation (modp command). Symmetric
representation is available using the mods command.
>
>
For information on setting symmetric representation as the default, refer to the mod help
page.
The modular arithmetic operators are listed in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2: Modular Arithmetic Operators
Operation
Addition
Operator
+
Subtraction
-
>
*
>
Multiplication (displays in 2-D Math as
)
Multiplicative inverse (displays in 2-D Math as a superscript)
^(-1)
Example
>
>
110 • 4 Basic Computations
Operation
Division (displays in 2-D Math as
)
Operator
/
&^
Exponentiation1
Example
>
>
1
To enter a caret (^) in 2-D Math, enter a backslash character followed by a caret, that is, \^.
For information on solving an equation modulo an integer, see Integer Equations in a Finite
Field (page 125).
The mod operator also supports polynomial and matrix arithmetic over finit rings and
fields For more information, refer to the mod help page.
Gaussian Integers
Gaussian integers are complex numbers in which the real and imaginary parts are integers.
The GaussInt package contains commands that perform Gaussian integer operations.
The GIfactor command returns the Gaussian integer factorization.
>
In Maple, complex numbers are represented as a+b*I, where the uppercase I represents the
imaginary unit
.
You can also enter the imaginary unit using the following two methods.
• In the Common Symbols palette, click the , or item. See Palettes (page 21).
• Enter i or j, and then press the symbol completion key. See Symbol Names (page 28).
Note that the output will still be displayed with I, no matter what symbol was used for input.
You can customize Maple's settings to use a different symbol for
. For more information
on entering complex numbers, including how to customize this setting, refer to the HowDoI
help page.
The GIsqrt command approximates the square root in the Gaussian integers.
4.4 Solving Equations • 111
>
For more information on Gaussian integers including a list of GaussInt package commands,
refer to the GaussInt help page.
4.4 Solving Equations
You can solve a variety of equation types, including those described in Table 4.3.
Table 4.3: Overview of Solution Methods for Important Equation Types
Equation Type
Equations and inequations
Ordinary differential equations
Partial differential equations
Integer equations
Integer equations in a finit fiel
Linear integral equations
Linear systems
Recurrence relations
Solution Method
solve and fsolve commands
ODE Analyzer Assistant (and dsolve command)
pdsolve command
isolve command
msolve command
intsolve command
LinearAlgebra[LinearSolve] command
rsolve command
Note: Many solve operations are available in context menus and as task templates
(Tools→Tasks→Browse). Most of this section focuses on other methods.
Solving Equations and Inequations
Using Maple, you can symbolically solve equations and inequations. You can also solve
equations numerically.
To solve an equation or set of equations using context menus:
1. Right-click (for Macintosh, Control-click) the equations.
2. From the context menu, select Solve (or Solve Numerically). See Figure 4.2.
112 • 4 Basic Computations
Figure 4.2: Context Menu for an Equation
In Worksheet mode, Maple inserts a calling sequence that solves the equation followed by
the solutions.
If you select Solve, Maple computes exact solutions.
4.4 Solving Equations • 113
>
(4.3)
>
(4.4)
If you select Solve Numerically, Maple computes floating-poin solutions.
>
(4.5)
>
(4.6)
For information on solving equations and inequations symbolically using the solve command,
see the following section. For information on solving equations numerically using the fsolve
command, see Numerically Solving Equations (page 116).
Symbolically Solving Equations and Inequations
The solve command is a general solver that determines exact symbolic solutions to equations
or inequations. The solutions to a single equation or inequation are returned as an expression
sequence. For details, see Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333). If Maple does
not fin any solutions, the solve command returns the empty expression sequence.
>
In general, solve computes solutions in the fiel of complex numbers. To restrict the problem
to only real solutions, see Restricting the Domain (page 141).
It is recommended that you verify the solutions returned by the solve command. For details,
see Working with Solutions (page 118).
To return the solutions as a list, enclose the calling sequence in brackets ([ ]).
114 • 4 Basic Computations
>
Expressions: You can specify expressions instead of equations. The solve command automatically equates them to zero.
>
Multiple Equations: To solve multiple equations or inequations, specify them as a Creating
and Using Data Structures (page 333).
>
>
Solving for Specifi Unknowns: By default, the solve command returns solutions for all
unknowns. You can specify the unknowns for which to solve.
>
To solve for multiple unknowns, specify them as a list.
4.4 Solving Equations • 115
>
Transcendental Equations: In general, the solve command returns one solution to transcendental equations.
>
>
To produce all solutions, use the allsolutions option.
>
Maple uses variables of the form _ZN~, where N is a positive integer, to represent arbitrary
integers. The tilde (~) indicates that it is a quantity with an assumption. For information
about names with assumptions, see Assumptions on Variables (page 142).
RootOf Structure: The solve command may return solutions, for example, to higher order
polynomial equations, in an implicit form using RootOf structures.
>
(4.7)
These RootOf structures are placeholders for the roots of the equation
The index parameter numbers and orders the four solutions.
Like any symbolic expression, you can convert RootOf structures to a floating-poin value
using the evalf command.
116 • 4 Basic Computations
>
Some equations are difficul to solve symbolically. For example, polynomial equations of
order fiv and greater do not in general have a solution in terms of radicals. If the solve
command does not fin any solutions, it is recommended that you use the Maple numerical
solver, fsolve. For information, see the following section, Numerically Solving Equations.
For more information on the solve command, including how to solve equations define as
procedures and how to fin parametric solutions, refer to the solve/details help page.
For information on verifying and using solutions returned by the solve command, see
Working with Solutions (page 118).
Numerically Solving Equations
The fsolve command solves equations numerically. The behavior of the fsolve command
is similar to that of the solve command.
>
>
(4.8)
Note: You can also numerically solve equations using the context menus. See Solving
Equations and Inequations (page 111).
It is recommended that you verify the solutions returned by the fsolve command. For details,
see Working with Solutions (page 118).
Multiple Equations: To solve multiple equations, specify them as a set. For more information, see Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333). The fsolve command solves for
all unknowns.
>
Univariate Polynomial Equations: In general, the fsolve command find one real solution.
However, for a univariate polynomial equation, the fsolve command returns all real roots.
>
4.4 Solving Equations • 117
>
Controlling the Number of Solutions: To limit the number of roots returned, specify the
maxsols option.
>
To fin additional solutions to a general equation, use the avoid option to ignore known
solutions.
>
Complex Solutions: To search for a complex solution or fin all complex and real roots
for a univariate polynomial, specify the complex option for the fsolve command.
>
If the fsolve command does not fin any solutions, it is recommended that you specify a
range in which to search for solutions, or specify an initial value.
Range: To search for a solution in a range, specify the range in the calling sequence. The
range can be real or complex.
>
The syntax for specifying a region in the complex plane is lower-left point..upper-right
point.
>
Initial Values: You can specify a value for each unknown. The fsolve command uses these
as initial values for the unknowns in the numerical method.
118 • 4 Basic Computations
>
(4.9)
For more information and examples, refer to the fsolve/details help page.
For information on verifying and using solutions returned by the fsolve command, see the
following section, Working with Solutions.
Working with Solutions
Verifying: It is recommended that you always verify solutions (that the solve and fsolve
commands return) using the eval command.
>
>
(4.10)
>
(4.11)
>
>
(4.12)
>
(4.13)
For more information, see Substituting a Value for a Subexpression (page 353).
Assigning the Value of a Solution to a Variable: To assign the value of a solution to the
corresponding variable as an expression, use theassign command.
For example, consider the numeric solution in (4.9),
starting value
>
.
, found using the
4.4 Solving Equations • 119
>
Creating a Function from a Solution: The assign command assigns a value as an expression
to a name. It does not defin a function. To convert a solution to a function, use the unapply
command.
Consider one of the solutions for q to the equation
.
>
>
Here, solutions[1] selects the firs element of the list of solutions. For more information on
selecting elements, see Accessing Elements (page 334).
You can evaluate this function at symbolic or numeric values.
>
>
>
For more information on definin and using functions, see Functional Operators (page 339).
120 • 4 Basic Computations
Other Specialized Solvers
In addition to equations and inequations, Maple can solve other equations including:
• Ordinary differential equations (ODEs)
• Partial differential equations (PDEs)
• Integer equations
• Integer equations in a finit fiel
• Linear systems
• Recurrence relations
Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)
Maple can solve ODEs and ODE systems, including initial value and boundary value
problems, symbolically and numerically.
ODE Analyzer Assistant The ODE Analyzer Assistant is a point-and-click interface to
the Maple ODE solving routines.
To open the ODE Analyzer:
• From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then ODE Analyzer.
Maple inserts the dsolve[interactive]() calling sequence in the document. The ODE Analyzer
Assistant (Figure 4.3) is displayed.
Figure 4.3: ODE Analyzer Assistant
4.4 Solving Equations • 121
In the main ODE Analyzer Assistant window, you can defin ODEs, initial or boundary
value conditions, and parameters. To defin derivatives, use the diff command. For example,
diff(x(t), t) corresponds to
and diff(x(t), t, t) corresponds to
For more information on the diff command, see The diff Command (page 175).
After definin an ODE, you can solve it numerically or symbolically.
To solve a system numerically using the ODE Analyzer Assistant:
1. Ensure that the conditions guarantee uniqueness of the solution.
2. Ensure that all parameters have fixe values.
3. Click the Solve Numerically button.
4. In the Solve Numerically window (Figure 4.4), you can specify the numeric method
and relevant parameters and error tolerances to use for solving the problem.
5. To compute solution values at a point, click the Solve button.
122 • 4 Basic Computations
Figure 4.4: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Numerically Dialog
To solve a system symbolically using the ODE Analyzer Assistant:
1. Click the Solve Symbolically button.
2. In the Solve Symbolically window (Figure 4.5), you can specify the method and relevant
method-specifi options to use for solving the problem.
3. To compute the solution, click the Solve button.
4.4 Solving Equations • 123
Figure 4.5: ODE Analyzer Assistant: Solve Symbolically Dialog
When solving numerically or symbolically, you can view a plot of the solution by clicking
the Plot button.
• To plot the solution to a symbolic problem, all conditions and parameters must be set.
• To customize the plot, click the Plot Options button to open the Plot Options window.
To view the corresponding Maple commands as you solve the problem or plot the solution,
select the Show Maple commands check box.
You can control the return value of the ODE Analyzer using the On Quit, Return dropdown list. You can select to return nothing, the displayed plot, the computed numeric procedure (for numeric solutions), the solution (for symbolic solutions), or the Maple commands
needed to produce the solution values and the displayed plot.
124 • 4 Basic Computations
For more information, refer to the ODEAnalyzer help page.
The dsolve Command
The ODE Analyzer provides a point-and-click interface to the Maple dsolve command.
For ODEs or systems of ODEs, the dsolve command can find
• Closed form solutions
• Numerical solutions
• Series solutions
In addition, the dsolve command can find
• Formal power series solutions to linear ODEs with polynomial coefficient
• Formal solutions to linear ODEs with polynomial coefficient
To access all available functionality, use the dsolve command directly. For more information,
refer to the dsolve help page.
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs)
To solve a PDE or PDE system symbolically or numerically, use the pdsolve command.
PDE systems can contain ODEs, algebraic equations, and inequations.
For example, solve the following PDE symbolically. For help entering a partial derivative,
see Example 1 - Enter a Partial Derivative (page 63).
>
(4.14)
>
The solution is an arbitrary univariate function applied to
.
Maple generally prints only the return value, errors, and warnings during a computation.
To print information about the techniques Maple uses, increase the infolevel setting for the
command.
To return all information, set infolevel to 5.
4.4 Solving Equations • 125
>
>
Checking arguments ...
First set of solution methods (general or quase general solution)
Second set of solution methods (complete solutions)
Trying methods for first order PDEs
Second set of solution methods successful
For more information on solving PDEs, including numeric solutions and solving PDE systems, refer to the pdsolve help page.
Integer Equations
To fin only integer solutions to an equation, use the isolve For more information, refer to
the isolve help page.
>
Integer Equations in a Finite Field
To solve an equation modulo an integer, use the msolve For more information, refer to the
msolve help page.
>
Solving Linear Systems
To solve a linear system, use the LinearAlgebra[LinearSolve] For more information, refer
to the LinearAlgebra[LinearSolve] help page.
126 • 4 Basic Computations
For example, construct an augmented matrix using the Matrix palette (see Creating Matrices
and Vectors (page 156)) in which the firs four columns contain the entries of A and the fina
column contains the entries of B.
>
>
For more information on using Maple to solve linear algebra problems, see Linear
Algebra (page 155).
Solving Recurrence Relations
To solve a recurrence relation, use the rsolve For more information, refer to the rsolve help
page.
>
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 127
4.5 Units, Scientific Constants, and Uncertainty
In addition to manipulating exact symbolic and numeric quantities, Maple can perform
computations with units and uncertainties.
Maple supports hundreds of units, for example, miles, coulombs, and bars, and provides
facilities for adding custom units.
Maple has a library of hundreds of scientifi constants with units, including element and
isotope properties.
To support computations with uncertainties, Maple propagates errors through computations.
Units
The Units package in Maple provides a library of units, and facilities for using units in
computations. It is fully extensible so that you can add units and unit systems as required.
Note: Some unit operations are available as task templates (see Tools→Tasks→Browse)
and through context menus.
Overview of Units
A dimension is a measurable quantity, for example, length or force. The set of dimensions
that are fundamental and independent are known as base dimensions.
In Maple, the base dimensions include length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic
temperature, amount of substance, luminous intensity, information, and currency. For a
complete list, enter and execute Units[GetDimensions]().
Complex dimensions (or composite dimensions) measure other quantities in terms of a
combination of base dimensions. For example, the complex dimension force is a measurement
of
Each dimension, base or complex, has associated units. (Base units measure a base dimension.
Complex units measure a complex dimension.) Maple supports over 40 units of length, including feet, miles, meters, angstroms, microns, and astronomical units. A length must be
measured in terms of a unit, for example, a length of 2 parsecs.
Table 4.4 lists some dimensions, their corresponding base dimensions, and example units.
128 • 4 Basic Computations
Table 4.4: Sample Dimensions
Dimension
Time
Base Dimensions
time
Energy
Electric potential
Example Units
second, minute, hour, day, week,
month, year, millennium, blink, lune
joule, electron volt, erg, watt hour,
calorie, Calorie, British thermal unit
volt, abvolt, statvolt
For the complete list of units (and their contexts and symbols) available for a dimension,
refer to the corresponding help page, for example, the Units/length help page for the units
of length.
Each unit has a context. The context differentiates between different definition of the unit.
For example, the standard and US survey miles are different units of length, and the second
is a unit of time and of angle. You can specify the context for a unit by appending the context
as an index to the unit, for example, mile[US_survey]. If you do not specify a context,
Maple uses the default context.
Units are collected into systems, for example, the foot-pound-second (FPS) system and international system, or système international, (SI). Each system has a default set of units
used for measurements. In the FPS system, the foot, pound, and second are used to measure
the dimensions of length, mass, and time. The unit of speed is the foot/second. In SI, the
meter, kilogram, and second are used to measure the dimensions of length, mass, and time.
The units of speed, magnetic flux and power are the meter/second, weber, and watt, respectively.
Unit Conversions
To convert a value measured in a unit to the corresponding value in a different unit, use the
Units Calculator.
• From the Tools→Assistants menu, select Units Calculator.
The Units Calculator application (Figure 4.6) opens.
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 129
Figure 4.6: Units Calculator Assistant
To perform a conversion:
1. In the Convert text field enter the numeric value to convert.
2. In the Dimension drop-down list, select the dimensions of the unit.
3. In the From and To drop-down lists, select the original unit and the unit to which to
convert.
4. Click Perform Unit Conversion.
The same conversion can be done with the convert/units command.
>
Using the Units Calculator, you can convert temperatures and temperature changes.
• To perform a temperature conversion, in the Dimension drop-down list, select temperature(absolute).
• To perform a temperature change conversion, in the Dimension drop-down list, select
temperature(relative).
To convert temperature changes, the Units Calculator uses the convert/units command.
For example, an increase of 32 degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to an increase of almost 18
degrees Celsius.
130 • 4 Basic Computations
>
To convert absolute temperatures, the Unit Converter uses the convert/temperature
command. For example, 32 degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to 0 degrees Celsius.
>
Applying Units to an Expression
To insert a unit, use the Units palettes. The Units (FPS) palette (Figure 4.7) contains important units from the foot-pound-second system of units. The Units (SI) palette (Figure 4.8)
contains important units from the international system of units.
Figure 4.7: Units (FPS) Palette
Figure 4.8: Units (SI) Palette
To insert a unit:
• In a Units palette, click a unit symbol.
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 131
>
To insert a unit that is unavailable in the palettes:
1. In a Units palette, click the unit symbol
placeholder selected.
. Maple inserts a Unit object with the
2. In the placeholder, enter the unit name (or symbol).
standard (the default context) miles, you can specify the unit
For example, to enter
name, mile, or symbol, mi.
>
The context of a unit is displayed only if it is not the default context.
Important: In 1-D Math input, the quantity and unit (entered using the top-level Unit
command) are a product, not a single entity. The following calling sequences defin different
expressions.
> 1*Unit(m)/(2*Unit(s));
> 1*Unit(m)/2*Unit(s);
Some units support prefixe For more information, refer to the Units/prefixe help page.
>
Performing Computations with Units
In the default Maple environment, you cannot perform computations with quantities that
have units. You can perform only unit conversions. For more information about the default
environment, refer to the Units/default help page.
To compute with expressions that have units, you must load a Units environment, Natural
or Standard. It is recommended that you use the Standard environment.
>
In the Standard Units environment, commands that support expressions with units return
results with the correct units.
132 • 4 Basic Computations
>
>
(4.15)
>
(4.16)
>
For information on differentiation and integration, see Calculus (page 172).
Changing the Current System of Units
If a computation includes multiple units, all units are expressed using units from the current
system of units.
>
(4.17)
By default, Maple uses the SI system of units, in which length is measured in meters and
time is measured in seconds.
>
To view the name of the default system of units, use the Units[UsingSystem] command.
>
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 133
>
To change the system of units, use the Units[UseSystem] command.
>
>
Extensibility
You can extend the set of:
• Base dimensions and units
• Complex dimensions
• Complex units
• Systems of units
For more information, refer to the Units[AddBaseUnit], Units[AddDimension],
Units[AddUnit], and Units[AddSystem] help pages.
For more information about units, refer to the Units help page.
Scientific Constants and Element Properties
Computations often require not only units (see Units (page 127)), but also the values of scientifi constants, including properties of elements and their isotopes. Maple supports computations with scientifi constants. You can use the built-in constants and add custom constants.
Overview of Scientific Constants and Element Properties
The ScientificConstant package provides the values of constant physical quantities, for
example, the velocity of light and the atomic weight of sodium. The ScientificConstant
package also provides the units for the constant values, allowing for greater understanding
of the equation as well as unit-matching for error checking of the solution.
The quantities available in the ScientificConstant package are divided into two distinct
categories.
• Physical constants
• Chemical element (and isotope) properties
134 • 4 Basic Computations
Scientific Constants
List of Scientific Constants
You have access to scientifi constants important in engineering, physics, chemistry, and
other fields Table 4.5 lists some of the supported constants. For a complete list of scientifi
constants, refer to the ScientificConstants/PhysicalConstant help page.
Table 4.5: Scientifi Constants
Name
Newtonian_constant_of_gravitation
Planck_constant
elementary_charge
Bohr_radius
deuteron_magnetic_moment
Avogadro_constant
Faraday_constant
Symbol
G
h
e
a[0]
mu[d]
N[A]
F
You can specify a constant using either its name or symbol.
Accessing Constant Definition
The GetConstant command in the ScientificConstan s package returns the complete
definitio of a constant.
To view the definitio of the Newtonian gravitational constant, specify the symbol G (or
its name) in a call to the GetConstant command.
>
>
For information on accessing a constant's value, units, or uncertainty, see Value, Units, and
Uncertainty (page 136).
Element Properties
Maple also contains element properties and isotope properties.
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 135
Elements
Maple supports all 117 elements of the periodic table. Each element has a unique name,
atomic number, and chemical symbol. You can specify an element using any of these labels.
For a complete list of supported elements, refer to the ScientificConstants/element help
page.
Maple supports key element properties, including atomic weight (atomicweight), electron
affinit (electronaffinit ), and density. For a complete list of element properties, refer to
the ScientificConstants/p operties help page.
Isotopes
Isotopes, variant forms of an element that contain the same number of protons but a different
number of neutrons, exist for many elements.
To see the list of supported isotopes for an element, use the GetIsotopes command.
>
Maple supports isotopes and has a distinct set of properties for isotopes, including abundance,
binding energy (bindingenergy), and mass excess (massexcess). For a complete list of
isotope properties, refer to the ScientificConstants/p operties help page.
Accessing an Element or Isotope Property Definition
The GetElement command in the ScientificConstan s package returns the complete
definitio of an element or isotope.
136 • 4 Basic Computations
>
>
Value, Units, and Uncertainty
To use constants or element properties, you must firs construct a ScientificConstant object.
To construct a scientifi constant, use the Constant command.
>
To construct an element (or isotope) property, use the Element command.
>
Value
To obtain the value of a ScientificConstant object, use the evalf command.
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 137
>
>
Note: The value returned depends on the current system of units.
Units
To obtain the units for a ScientificConstant object, use the GetUnit command.
>
>
For information on changing the default system of units, for example, from SI to foot-poundsecond, see Changing the Current System of Units (page 132).
Value and Units
If you are performing computations with units, you can access the value and units for a
ScientificConstant object by specifying the units option when constructing the object,
and then evaluating the object.
>
>
138 • 4 Basic Computations
Uncertainty
The value of a constant is often determined by direct measurement or derived from measured
values. Hence, it has an associated uncertainty. To obtain the uncertainty in the value of a
ScientificConstant object, use the GetError command.
>
>
Performing Computations
You can use constant values in any computation. To use constant values with units, use a
Units environment as described in Performing Computations with Units (page 131). For
information on computing with quantities that have an uncertainty, see the following section.
Modification and Extensibility
You can change the definitio of a scientifi constant or element (or isotope) property.
For more information, refer to the ScientificConstants[ModifyConstant and Scientific
Constants[ModifyElement] help pages.
You can extend the set of:
• Constants
• Elements (and isotopes)
• Element (or isotope) properties
For more information, refer to the ScientificConstants[AddConstant , ScientificCon
stants[AddElement], and ScientificConstants[AddP operty] help pages.
For more information about constants, refer to the ScientificConstant help page.
Uncertainty Propagation
Some computations involve uncertainties (or errors). Using the ScientificEr orAnalysis
package, you can propagate the uncertainty in these values through the computation to indicate the possible error in the fina result.
The ScientificEr orAnalysis package does not perform interval arithmetic. That is, the
error of an object does not represent an interval in which possible values must be contained.
4.5 Units, Scientifi Constants, and Uncertainty • 139
(To perform interval arithmetic, use the Tolerances) The quantities represent unknown
values with a central tendency. For more information on central tendency, refer to any text
on error analysis for the physical sciences or engineering. For more information, refer to
the Tolerances help page.
Quantities with Uncertainty
Creating: To construct quantities with uncertainty, use the Quantity command. You must
specify the value and uncertainty. The uncertainty can be define absolutely, relatively, or
in units of the last digit. For more information on uncertainty specification refer to the
ScientificEr orAnalysis[Quantity] help page.
The output displays the value and uncertainty of the quantity.
>
>
>
(4.18)
To specify the error in units of the last digit, the value must be of floating-poin type.
>
To access the value and uncertainty of a quantity with uncertainty, use the evalf and ScientificEr orAnalysis[GetError] commands.
>
>
Rounding: To round the error of a quantity with uncertainty, use the ApplyRule command.
For a description of the predefine rounding rules, refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis/rules
help page.
140 • 4 Basic Computations
>
Units: Quantities with errors can have units. For example, the scientifi constants and element
(and isotope) properties in the ScientificConstant packages are quantities with errors and
units.
To construct a new quantity with units and an uncertainty, include units in the Quantity
calling sequence.
For an absolute error, you must specify the units in both the value and error.
>
>
For a relative error, you can specify the units in only the value.
>
For information on the correlation between, variance of, and covariance between quantities
with uncertainty, refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis help page.
Performing Computations with Quantities with Uncertainty
Many Maple commands support quantities with uncertainty.
>
>
Compute the value of the derivative of
>
>
at
4.6 Restricting the Domain • 141
To convert the solution to a single quantity with uncertainty, use the combine/errors
command.
>
The value of the result is:
>
The uncertainty of the result is:
>
Additional Information
For information on topics including:
• Creating new rounding rules,
• Setting the default rounding rule, and
• Creating a new interface to quantities with uncertainty,
refer to the ScientificEr orAnalysis help page.
4.6 Restricting the Domain
By default, Maple computes in the complex number system. Most computations are performed without any restrictions or assumptions on the variables. Maple often returns results
that are extraneous or unsimplifie when computing in the fiel of complex numbers. Using
restrictions, you can more easily and efficientl perform computations in a smaller domain.
Maple has facilities for performing computations in the real number system and for applying
assumptions to variables.
Real Number Domain
To force Maple to perform computations in the fiel of real numbers, use the RealDomain
package.
The RealDomain package contains a small subset of Maple commands related to basic
precalculus and calculus mathematics, for example, arccos, limit, and log, and the symbolic
manipulation of expressions and formulae, for example, expand, eval, and solve. For a
complete list of commands, refer to the RealDomain help page.
142 • 4 Basic Computations
After you load the RealDomain package, Maple assumes that all variables are real. Commands return simplifie results appropriate to the fiel of real numbers.
>
>
>
Some commands that generally return NULL instead return a numeric result when you use
the RealDomain package.
>
Complex return values are excluded or replaced by undefine .
>
>
Assumptions on Variables
To simplify problem solving, it is recommended that you always apply any known assumptions to variables. You can impose assumptions using the assume command. To apply assumptions for a single computation, use the assuming command.
Note: The assume and assuming commands are not supported by the RealDomain package.
The assume Command
You can use the assume command to set variable properties, for example, x::real, and relationships between variables, for example, x < 0 or x < y. For information on valid properties, refer to the assume help page. For information on the double colon (::) operator, refer
to the type help page.
The assume command allows improved simplificatio of symbolic expressions, especially
multiple-valued functions, for example, computing the square root.
4.6 Restricting the Domain • 143
To assume that x is a positive real number, use the following calling sequence. Then compute
the square root of
.
>
The trailing tilde (~) on the name x indicates that it carries assumptions.
When you use the assume command to place another assumption on x, all previous assumptions are removed.
>
Displaying Assumptions: To view the assumptions on an expression, use the about command.
>
Originally x, renamed x~:
is assumed to be: RealRange(-infinity,Open(0))
Imposing Multiple Assumptions: To simultaneously impose multiple conditions on an
expression, specify multiple arguments in the assume calling sequence.
>
To specify additional assumptions without replacing previous assumptions, use the additionally command. The syntax of the additionally calling sequence is the same as that of
the assume command.
>
Originally x, renamed x~:
is assumed to be: 1
The only integer in the open interval (0, 2) is 1.
Testing Properties: To test whether an expression always satisfie a condition, use the is
command.
144 • 4 Basic Computations
>
The following test returns false because there are values of x and y (x = 0, y = 10) that satisfy the assumptions, but do not satisfy the relation in the is calling sequence.
>
To test whether an expression can satisfy a condition, use the coulditbe command.
>
Removing Assumptions: To remove all assumptions on a variable, unassign its name.
>
For more information, see Unassigning Names (page 94).
For more information on the assume command, refer to the assume help page.
The assuming Command
To perform a single evaluation under assumptions on the names in an expression, use the
assuming command.
The syntax of the assuming command is <expression> assuming <property or relation>.
Properties and relations are introduced in The assume Command (page 142).
The frac command returns the fractional part of an expression.
>
Using the assuming command is equivalent to imposing assumptions with the assume
command, evaluating the expression, and then removing the assumptions.
>
x:
nothing known about this object
If you do not specify the names to which to apply a property, it is applied to all names.
4.6 Restricting the Domain • 145
>
Assumptions placed on names using the assume command are ignored by the assuming
command, unless you include the additionally option.
>
>
>
The assuming command does not affect variables inside procedures. (For information on
procedures, see Procedures (page 378).) You must use the assume command.
> f := proc(x) sqrt(a^2) + x end proc;
>
>
For more information on the assuming command, refer to the assuming help page.
146 • 4 Basic Computations
5 Mathematical Problem Solving
This chapter focuses on solving problems in specifi mathematical disciplines. The areas
described below are not all that Maple provides, but represent the most commonly used
packages. Examples are provided to teach you how to use the different methods of calculation
available in Maple, including tutors, assistants, commands, task templates, plotting, and
context menus.
The examples in this chapter assume knowledge of entering commands and mathematical
symbols. For information, see Entering Expressions (page 18). For information on basic
computations, including integer operations and solving equations, see Basic
Computations (page 101).
5.1 In This Chapter
Section
Algebra (page 148) - Performing algebra computations
Linear Algebra (page 155) - Performing linear algebra computations
Topics
• Polynomial Algebra
• Creating Matrices and Vectors
• Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors
• Linear Algebra Computations
• Student LinearAlgebra Package
Calculus (page 172) - Performing calculus compu- • Limits
tations
• Differentiation
• Series
• Integration
• Differential Equations
• Calculus Packages
Optimization (page 184) - Performing optimization • Point-and-Click Interface
computations using the Optimization package • Efficien Computation
• MPS(X) File Support
Statistics (page 189) - Performing statistics compu- • Probability Distributions and Random Variables
tations using the Statistics package
• Statistical Computations
• Plotting
Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194) - • Table of Student and Instructor Resources
Student and Instructor resources for using Maple • Student Packages and Tutors
in an academic setting
147
148 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Section
Topics
Clickable Math (page 209) - Solve math problems • Step-by-Step examples
using some of the interactive methods available
in Maple
5.2 Algebra
Maple contains a variety of commands that perform integer operations, such as factoring
and modular arithmetic, as described in Integer Operations (page 106). In addition, it supports
polynomial algebra.
For information on matrix and vector algebra, see Linear Algebra (page 155).
Polynomial Algebra
A Maple polynomial is an expression in powers of an unknown. Univariate polynomials
are polynomials in one unknown, for example,
Multivariate polynomials
are polynomials in multiple unknowns, such as
The coefficient can be integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, floating-poin numbers,
complex numbers, variables, or a combination of these types.
>
Arithmetic
The polynomial arithmetic operators are the standard Maple arithmetic operators excluding
the division operator (/). (The division operator accepts polynomial arguments, but does
not perform polynomial division.)
Polynomial division is an important operation. The quo and rem commands fin the quotient
and remainder of a polynomial division. See Table 5.1. (The iquo and irem commands
fin the quotient and remainder of an integer division. For more information, see Integer
Operations (page 106).)
5.2 Algebra • 149
Table 5.1: Polynomial Arithmetic Operators
Operation
Addition
Operator Example
>
Subtraction
Multiplication1
Division: Quotient and
Remainder
>
*
>
quo
>
rem
>
Exponentiation2
^
>
1
You can specify multiplication explicitly by entering *, which displays in 2-D Math as . In 2-D
Math, you can also implicitly multiply by placing a space character between two expressions. In
some cases, the space character is optional. For example, Maple interprets a number followed by a
name as an implicit multiplication.
2
In 2-D Math, exponents display as superscripts.
To expand a polynomial, use the expand command.
>
If you need to determine whether one polynomial divides another, but do not need the
quotient, use the divide command. The divide command tests for exact polynomial division.
150 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
>
Important: You must insert a space character or a multiplication operator ( ) between
adjacent variables names. Otherwise, they are interpreted as a single variable.
For example,
does not divide the single variable
>
But,
divides the product of
and
>
For information on polynomial arithmetic over finit rings and fields refer to the mod help
page.
Sorting Terms
To sort the terms of a polynomial, use the sort command.
>
>
Note: The sort command returns the sorted polynomial, and updates the order of the terms
in the polynomial.
The terms of p1 are sorted.
>
To specify the unknowns of the polynomial and their ordering, include a list of names.
5.2 Algebra • 151
>
>
By default, the sort command sorts a polynomial by decreasing total degree of the terms.
>
>
The firs term has total degree 4. The other two terms have total degree 3. The order of the
fina two terms is determined by the order of their names in the list.
To sort the terms by pure lexicographic order, that is, firs by decreasing order of the firs
unknown in the list option, and then by decreasing order of the next unknown in the list
option, specify the 'plex' option.
>
For information on enclosing keywords in right single quotes ('), see Delaying Evaluation
(page 361).
The firs term contains
the power 0.
to the power 3; the second,
to the power 2; and the third,
to
Using context menus, you can perform operations, such as sorting, for polynomials and
many other Maple objects.
To sort a polynomial:
1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the polynomial.
2. The context menu displays. From the Sorts menu, select:
• Single-variable, and then the unknown
• Two-variable (or Three-variable), Pure Lexical or Total Degree, and then the sort
priority of the unknowns.
152 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
See Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Sorting a Polynomial Using a Context Menu
5.2 Algebra • 153
Maple sorts the polynomial.
In Worksheet mode, Maple inserts the calling sequence that performs the sort followed by
the sorted polynomial.
>
>
You can use context menus to perform operations on 2-D Math content including output.
For more information, see Context Menus (page 68) (for Document mode) or Context
Menus (page 88) (for Worksheet mode).
Collecting Terms
To collect the terms of polynomial, use the collect command.
>
Coefficients and Degrees
Maple has several commands that return coefficien and degree values for a polynomial.
See Table 5.2.
Table 5.2: Polynomial Coefficien and Degree Commands
Command
coeff
Description
Coefficien of specifie degree term
lcoeff
Leading coefficien
Example
>
>
154 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Command
tcoeff
Description
Trailing coefficien
Example
coeffs
Sequence of all coefficients in one-to-one
correspondence with the terms
>
>
Note: It does not return zero coefficient
degree
(Highest) degree
ldegree
Lowest degree term with a non-zero coeffi
>
cient
>
Factorization
To express a polynomial in fully factored form, use the factor command.
>
The factor command factors the polynomial over the ring implied by the coefficients for
example, integers. You can specify an algebraic number fiel over which to factor the
polynomial. For more information, refer to the factor help page. (The ifactor command
factors an integer. For more information, see Integer Operations (page 106).)
To solve for the roots of a polynomial, use the solve command. For information on the solve
command, see Solving Equations and Inequations (page 111). (The isolve command solves
an equation for integer solutions. For more information, see Integer Equations (page 125).)
Other Commands
Table 5.3 lists other commands available for polynomial operations.
Table 5.3: Select Other Polynomial Commands
Command
content
Description
Content (multivariate polynomial)
5.3 Linear Algebra • 155
Command
compoly
discrim
gcd
gcdex
CurveFitting[PolynomialInterpolation]
Description
Decomposition
Discriminant
Greatest common divisor (of two polynomials)
Extended Euclidean algorithm (for two polynomials)
Interpolating polynomial (for list of points)
See also the CurveFitting Assistant (Tools
→ Assistants → Curve Fitting)
lcm
norm
EPROM
primpart
randpoly
PolynomialTools[IsSelfReciprocal]
resultant
roots
sqrfree
Least common multiple (of two polynomials)
Norm
Pseudo-remainder (of two multivariate polynomials)
Primitive part (multivariate polynomial)
Random polynomial
Determine whether self-reciprocal
Resultant (of two polynomials)
Exact roots (over algebraic number field
Square-free factorization (multivariate polynomial)
Additional Information
Table 5.4: Additional Polynomial Help
Topic
General polynomial information
PolynomialTools package
Algebraic manipulation of numeric polynomials
Efficien arithmetic for sparse polynomials
Polynomial information and commands
Resource
?polynom help page
?PolynomialTools package overview help page
?SNAP (Symbolic-Numeric Algorithms for Polynomials) package overview help page
?SDMPolynom (Sparse Distributed Multivariate
Polynomial data structure) help page
Maple Help System Table of Contents: Mathematics→Algebra→Polynomials section
5.3 Linear Algebra
Linear algebra operations act on Matrix and Vector data structures.
You can perform many linear algebra operations using task templates. In the Task Browser
(Tools → Tasks → Browse), expand the Linear Algebra folder.
156 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Creating Matrices and Vectors
Creating Matrices
You can create a Matrix using
• The Matrix command
• The angle bracket shortcut notation
• The Matrix palette (see Figure 5.2).
When creating a Matrix using the Matrix command, there are several input formats available.
For example, enter a list of lists. The dimensions of the matrix are inferred from the number
of entries given.
>
Alternatively, use the angle bracket shortcut, <>. Separate items in a column with commas,
and separate columns with vertical bars, |.
>
For information on the Matrix command options, see Creating Matrices and Vectors with
Specifi Properties (page 162).
5.3 Linear Algebra • 157
Use the Matrix palette to interactively create a matrix without commands:
Figure 5.2: Matrix Palette
In the Matrix palette, you can specify the matrix size (see Figure 5.3) and properties. To
insert a matrix, click the Insert Matrix button.
158 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Figure 5.3: Matrix Palette: Choosing the Size
After inserting the matrix:
1. Enter the values of the entries. To move to the next entry placeholder, press Tab.
2. After specifying all entries, press Enter.
>
5.3 Linear Algebra • 159
Creating Vectors
You can create a Vector using angle brackets (< >).
To create a column vector, specify a comma-delimited sequence, <a, b, c>. The number of
elements is inferred from the number of expressions.
>
To create a row vector, specify a vertical-bar-delimited (|) sequence, <a | b | c>. The number
of elements is inferred from the number of expressions.
>
For information on the Vector command options, refer to the Vector help page.
You can also create vectors using the Matrix palette. If either the number of rows or number
of columns specifie is 1, then you have the option of inserting a matrix, or inserting a
vector of the appropriate type. See Figure 5.4.
Figure 5.4: Insert Matrix or Insert Vector
160 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Viewing Large Matrices and Vectors
and smaller, and vectors with 10 or fewer elements, display in the docuMatrices
ment. Larger objects are displayed as a placeholder.
For example, insert a
matrix.
In the Matrix palette:
1. Specify the dimensions: 15 rows and 15 columns.
2. In the Type drop-down list, select a matrix type, for example, Random.
3. Click Insert Matrix. Maple inserts a placeholder.
>
To edit or view a large matrix or vector, double-click the placeholder. This launches the
Matrix Browser. See Figure 5.5.
5.3 Linear Algebra • 161
Figure 5.5: Matrix Browser
To modify the entries using the Matrix Browser:
1. Select the Table tab.
2. Double-click an entry, and then edit its value. Press Enter.
3. Repeat for each entry to edit.
4. When you have finishe updating entries, click Done.
You can view the matrix or vector as a table or as an image, which can be inserted into the
document. For more information, refer to the MatrixBrowser help page.
162 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
To set the maximum dimension of matrices and vectors displayed inline:
• Use the interface command with the rtablesize option.
For example, interface(rtablesize = 15).
For more information, refer to the interface help page.
Creating Matrices and Vectors with Specific Properties
By default, matrices and vectors can store any values. To increase the efficienc of linear
algebra computations, create matrices and vectors with properties. You must specify the
properties, for example, the matrix shape or data type, when definin the object.
The Matrix palette (Figure 5.2) supports several properties.
To specify the matrix type:
• Use the Shape and Type drop-down lists.
To specify the data type:
• Use the Data type drop-down list.
For example, defin a diagonal matrix with small integer coefficients
In the Matrix palette:
1. Specify the size of the matrix, for example,
.
2. In the Shapes drop-down list, select Diagonal.
3. In the Data type drop-down list, select integer[1].
4. Click the Insert Matrix button.
5. Enter the values in the diagonal entries.
>
You cannot specify properties when definin vectors using the angle-bracket notation. You
must use the Vector constructor.
To defin a column vector using the Vector constructor, specify:
• The number of elements. If you explicitly specify all element values, this argument is
not required.
• A list of expressions that defin the element values.
5.3 Linear Algebra • 163
• Parameters such as shape, datatype, and fil that set properties of the vector.
The following two calling sequences are equivalent.
>
>
To create a row vector using the Vector constructor, include row as an index.
>
>
The Matrix palette does not support some properties. To set all properties, use the Matrix
constructor.
To defin a matrix using the Matrix constructor, specify:
• The number of rows and columns. If you explicitly specify all element values, these arguments are not required.
• A list of lists that defin the element values row-wise.
• Parameters such as shape, datatype, and fil that set properties of the matrix.
164 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
For example:
>
The Matrix palette cannot fil the matrix with an arbitrary value. Use the fil parameter.
>
For more information on the constructors, including other calling sequence syntaxes and
parameters, refer to the storage, Matrix, and Vector help pages.
See also Numeric Computations (page 171).
Accessing Entries in Matrices and Vectors
Matrices
To select an entry in a Matrix, enter the matrix name with a sequence of two non-zero integer
indices, row first
>
>
To select an entire row, enter a single index; to select an entire column, enter firs the entire
range of rows,
then the column index.
5.3 Linear Algebra • 165
>
>
Similarly, you can access submatrices. Enter the indices as a list or range.
>
Vectors
To select an entry in a vector, enter the vector name with a non-zero integer index.
>
>
Negative integers select entries from the end of the vector.
>
To create a Vector consisting of multiple entries, specify a list or range For more information, refer to the set and range help pages.
166 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
>
>
Linear Algebra Computations
Maple has extensive support for linear algebra. You can perform many matrix and vector
computations using context menus. Matrix operations such as multiplication and inverses
can be done with the basic matrix arithmetic operators. The LinearAlgebra package provides
the full range of Maple commands for linear algebra and vector space computations, queries,
and linear system solving.
Matrix Arithmetic
The matrix and vector arithmetic operators are the standard Maple arithmetic operators up
to the following two differences.
• The scalar multiplication operator is the asterisk (*), which displays in 2-D Math as
The noncommutative matrix and vector multiplication operator is the period (.).
• There is no division operator (/) for matrix algebra. (You can construct the inverse of a
matrix using the exponent
.)
Table 5.5 lists the basic matrix operators.
>
Table 5.5: Matrix and Vector Arithmetic Operators
Operation
Addition
Operator
Example
>
.
5.3 Linear Algebra • 167
Operation
Subtraction
Operator
Example
>
Multiplication
.
>
Scalar Multiplication1
*
>
>
Exponentiation2
^
>
>
1
You can specify scalar multiplication explicitly by entering *, which displays in 2-D Math as .
In 2-D Math, you can also implicitly multiply a scalar and a matrix or vector by placing a space
character between them. In some cases, the space character is optional. For example, Maple interprets
a number followed by a name as an implicit multiplication.
2
In 2-D Math, exponents display as superscripts.
A few additional matrix and vector operators are listed in Table 5.6.
Defin two column vectors.
168 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
>
Table 5.6: Select Matrix and Vector Operators
Operation
Transpose
Hermitian Transpose
Cross Product
Operator
1
^%T
^%H1
&x2
(3-D vectors only)
Example
>
>
>
>
1
Exponential operators display in 2-D Math as superscripts.
2
After loading the LinearAlgebra package, the cross product operator is available as the infi operator &x . Otherwise, it is available as the LinearAlgebra[CrossProduct] command.
For information on matrix arithmetic over finit rings and fields refer to the mod help page.
Point-and-Click Interaction
Using context menus, you can perform many matrix and vector operations.
Matrix operations available in the context menu include the following.
• Perform standard operations: determinant, inverse, norm (1, Euclidean, infinit , or
Frobenius), transpose, and trace
• Compute eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and singular values
• Compute the dimension or rank
• Convert to the Jordan form, or other forms
• Perform Cholesky decomposition and other decompositions
5.3 Linear Algebra • 169
For example, compute the infinit norm of a matrix. See Figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6: Computing the Infinit Norm of a Matrix
In Document mode, Maple inserts a right arrow and the name of the computation performed,
followed by the norm.
Vector operations available in the context menu include the following.
• Compute the dimension
• Compute the norm (1, Euclidean, and infinity
170 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
• Compute the transpose
• Select an element
For more information on context menus, see Context Menus (page 68) (for Document
mode) or Context Menus (page 88) (for Worksheet mode).
LinearAlgebra Package Commands
The LinearAlgebra package contains commands that construct and manipulate matrices
and vectors, compute standard operations, perform queries, and solve linear algebra problems.
Table 5.7 lists some LinearAlgebra package commands. For a complete list, refer to the
LinearAlgebra/Details help page.
Table 5.7: Select LinearAlgebra Package Commands
Command
Basis
CrossProduct
DeleteRow
Dimension
Eigenvalues
Eigenvectors
FrobeniusForm
GaussianElimination
HessenbergForm
HilbertMatrix
IsOrthogonal
LeastSquares
LinearSolve
MatrixInverse
QRDecomposition
RandomMatrix
SylvesterMatrix
Description
Return a basis for a vector space
Compute the cross product of two vectors
Delete a row or rows of a matrix
Determine the dimension of a matrix or a vector
Compute the eigenvalues of a matrix
Compute the eigenvectors of a matrix
Reduce a matrix to Frobenius form
Perform Gaussian elimination on a matrix
Reduce a square matrix to Hessenberg form
Construct a generalized Hilbert matrix
Test if a matrix is orthogonal
Compute the least-squares approximation to A . x = b
Solve the linear system A . x = b
Compute the inverse of a square matrix or pseudo-inverse of a non-square
matrix
Compute the QR factorization of a matrix
Construct a random matrix
Construct the Sylvester matrix of two polynomials
For information on arithmetic operations, see Matrix Arithmetic (page 166).
For information on selecting entries, subvectors, and submatrices, see Accessing Entries in
Matrices and Vectors (page 164).
Example: Determine a basis for the space spanned by the set of vectors {(2, 13, -15), (7, 2, 13), (5, -4, 9)}. Express the vector (25, -4, 9) with respect to this basis.
5.3 Linear Algebra • 171
>
>
Find a basis for the vector space spanned by these vectors, and then construct a matrix from
the basis vectors.
>
To express (25, -4, 9) in this basis, use the LinearSolve command.
>
Numeric Computations
You can very efficientl perform computations on large matrices and vectors that contain
floating-poin data using the built-in library of numeric linear algebra routines. Some of
these routines are provided by the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG®). Maple also
contains portions of the CLAPACK and optimized ATLAS libraries.
For information on performing efficien numeric computations using the LinearAlgebra
package, refer to the EfficientLinearAlgebr help page.
See also Creating Matrices and Vectors with Specifi Properties (page 162) and Reading
from Files (page 409).
Student LinearAlgebra Package
The Student package contains subpackages that help instructors teach concepts and allow
students to visualize and explore ideas. These subpackages also contain computational
commands.
172 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
In the Student[LinearAlgebra] subpackage, the environment differs from that of the LinearAlgebra package in that floating-poin computations are generally performed using
software precision, instead of hardware precision, and symbols are generally assumed to
represent real, rather than complex, quantities. These defaults, and others, can be controlled
using the SetDefault For more information, refer to the Student[LinearAlgebra][SetDefault] help page.
For information on using Maple as a teaching and learning tool, see Teaching and Learning
with Maple (page 194).
5.4 Calculus
The Task Browser (Tools→Tasks→Browse) contains numerous calculus task templates.
For a list of tasks, navigate to one of the related folders, such as Calculus, Differential
Equations, Multivariate Calculus, or Vector Calculus.
This section describes the key Maple calculus commands, many of which are used in task
templates or available in the context menus.
For a complete list of calculus commands, refer to the Mathematics (including Calculus,
Differential Equations, Power Series, and Vector Calculus subfolders) and Student
Package sections of the Maple Help System Table of Contents.
Limits
To compute the limit of an expression as the independent variable approaches a value:
1. In the Expression palette, click the limit item
.
2. Specify the independent variable, limit point, and expression, and then evaluate it. Press
Tab to move to the next placeholder.
For example:
>
The limit Command
By default, Maple searches for the real bidirectional limit (unless the limit point is ∞ or -∞).
To specify a direction, include one of the options left, right, real, or complex in a call to
the limit command. See Table 5.8.
5.4 Calculus • 173
Table 5.8: Limits
Limit
Command Syntax
>
Output
undefine
>
>
Using the limit command, you can also compute multidimensional limits.
>
For more information on multidimensional limits, refer to the limit/multi help page.
Numerically Computing a Limit
To numerically compute a limit:
• Use the evalf(Limit(arguments)) calling sequence.
Important: Use the inert Limit command, not the limit For more information, refer to the
limit help page.
The Limit command accepts the same arguments as the limit command.
For example:
>
For information on the evalf command, see Numerical Approximation (page 356).
The Limit command does not compute the limit. It returns an unevaluated limit.
>
174 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
For more information on the Limit command, refer to the Limit help page.
Differentiation
Maple can perform symbolic and numeric differentiation.
To differentiate an expression:
1. In the Expression palette, click the differentiation item
item
or the partial differentiation
.
2. Specify the expression and independent variable, and then evaluate it.
For example, to differentiate
with respect to :
>
You can also differentiate using context menus. For more information, see Context
Menus (page 39).
To calculate a higher order or partial derivative, edit the derivative symbol inserted. For
with respect to :
example, to calculate the second derivative of
>
To calculate the mixed partial derivative of
:
>
Note: To enter another symbol, you can copy and paste the existing symbol, or enter d
and use symbol completion.
5.4 Calculus • 175
The diff Command
Maple computes derivatives using the diff command. To directly use the diff command,
specify the expression to differentiate and the variable.
>
(5.1)
>
(5.2)
For information on equation labels such as (5.1), see Equation Labels (page 95).
You can calculate a higher order derivative by specifying a sequence of differentiation
variables. Maple recursively calls the diff command.
>
(5.3)
To calculate a partial derivative, use the same syntax. Maple assumes that the derivatives
commute.
>
To enter higher order derivatives, it is convenient to use the syntax diff(f, x$n). This syntax
can also be used to compute the symbolic nth order derivative.
For example:
>
Differentiating an Operator
You can also specify a mathematical function as a functional operator (a mapping). For a
comparison of operators and other expressions, see Distinction between Functional Operators
and Other Expressions (page 340).
176 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
To fin the derivative of a functional operator:
• Use the D operator.
The D operator returns a functional operator.
For example, fin the derivative of an operator that represents the mathematical function
First, defin the operator F.
1. In the Expression palette, click the single-variable function definitio item
.
2. Enter placeholder values.
• To move to the next placeholder, press the Tab key. Note: If pressing the Tab key inserts
in the toolbar.
a tab, click the Tab icon
>
Now, defin the operator, G, that maps
to the derivative of
>
F and G evaluated at
return the expected values.
>
For more information on the D operator, refer to the D help page. For a comparison of the
diff command and D operator, refer to the diffVersusD help page.
Directional Derivative
To compute and plot a directional derivative, use the Directional Derivative Tutor. The
tutor computes a floating-poin value for the directional derivative.
5.4 Calculus • 177
To launch the tutor:
• From the Tools menu, select Tutors, Calculus - Multivariate, and then Directional
Derivatives. Maple launches the Directional Derivative Tutor. See Figure 5.7.
Figure 5.7: Directional Derivative Tutor
To compute a symbolic value for the directional derivative, use the Student[MultivariateCalculus][DirectionalDerivative] command. The firs list of numbers specifie the point
at which to compute the derivative. The second list of numbers specifie the direction in
which to compute the derivative.
178 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
For example, at the point
the gradient of
points in the direction
which
is the direction of greatest increase. The directional derivative in the orthogonal direction
is zero.
>
>
>
Series
To generate the Taylor series expansion of a function about a point, use the taylor command.
>
Note: If a Taylor series does not exist, use the series command to fin a general series expansion.
For example, the cosine integral function For more information, refer to the Ci help page.
>
Error, does not have a taylor expansion, try series()
To generate a truncated series expansion of a function about a point, use the series command.
>
By default, Maple performs series calculations up to order 6. To use a different order, specify
a non-negative integer third argument.
5.4 Calculus • 179
>
To set the order for all computations, use the Order environment variable. For information
about the Order variable and the
term, refer to the Order help page.
The expansion is of type series. Some commands, for example, plot, do not accept arguments
of type series. To use the expansion, you must convert it to a polynomial using the convert/polynom command.
>
For information on Maple types and type conversions, see Maple Expressions (page 333).
For information on plotting, see Plots and Animations (page 237).
Integration
Maple can perform symbolic and numeric integration.
180 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
To compute the indefinit integral of an expression:
1. In the Expression palette, click the indefinit integration item
.
2. Specify the integrand and variable of integration, and then evaluate it.
For example, to integrate
with respect to x:
>
Recall that you can also enter symbols, including
and
using symbol completion.
• Enter the symbol name (or part of the name), for example, int or d, and then press the
completion shortcut key.
For more information, see Symbol Names (page 28).
You can also compute an indefinit integral using context menus. For more information,
see Context Menus (page 39).
To compute the definit integral of an expression:
1. In the Expression palette, click the definit integration item
.
2. Specify the endpoints of the interval of integration, integrand expression, and variable
of integration, and then evaluate it.
For example, to integrate
over the interval (0,
):
>
Maple treats the parameter a as a complex number. As described in Assumptions on Variables
(page 142), you can compute under the assumption that a is a positive, real number using
the assuming command.
5.4 Calculus • 181
>
To compute iterated integrals, line integrals, and surface integrals, use the task templates
(Tools → Tasks → Browse) in the Multivariate and Vector Calculus folders.
The int Command
and
use the int command. To use the int command directly, specify the follow-
ing arguments.
• Expression to integrate
• Variable of integration
>
(5.4)
>
(5.5)
For a definit integration, set the variable of integration equal to the interval of integration.
>
(5.6)
Numeric Integration
To perform numeric integration:
• Use the evalf(Int(arguments)) calling sequence.
Important: Use the inert Int command, not the int For more information, refer to the int
help page.
182 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
In addition to the arguments accepted by the int command, you can include optional arguments such as method, which specifie the numeric integration method.
>
Note: To enter an underscore character (_) in 2-D Math, enter \_.
For information on the evalf command, see Numerical Approximation (page 356).
For information on numeric integration, including iterated integration and controlling the
algorithm, refer to the evalf/Int help page.
Differential Equations
Maple has a powerful set of solvers for ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial
differential equations (PDEs), and systems of ODEs and PDEs.
For information on solving ODEs and PDEs, see Other Specialized Solvers (page 120).
Calculus Packages
In addition to top-level calculus commands, Maple contains calculus packages.
VectorCalculus Package
The VectorCalculus package contains commands that perform multivariate and vector
calculus operations on VectorCalculus vectors (vectors with an additional coordinate
system attribute) and vector field (vectors with additional coordinate system and vectorfiel
attributes), for example, Curl, Flux, and Torsion.
>
>
>
5.4 Calculus • 183
>
Note: For information on changing the display format in the VectorCalculus package, see
the VectorCalculus[BasisFormat] help page.
Find the curl of VectorField1.
>
Find the flu of VectorField1 through a sphere of radius r at the origin.
>
Compute the torsion of a space curve. The curve must be a vector with parametric function
components.
>
For information on the assuming command, see The assuming Command (page 144).
For more information on the VectorCalculus package, including a complete list of commands, refer to the VectorCalculus help page.
To fin other calculus packages, such as VariationalCalculus, refer to the index/package
help page.
Student Calculus Packages
The Student package contains subpackages that help instructors teach concepts and allow
students to visualize and explore ideas. These subpackages also contain computational
184 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
commands. The Student calculus subpackages include Calculus1, MultivariateCalculus,
and VectorCalculus. The Student[VectorCalculus] package provides a simple interface
to a limited subset of the functionality available in the VectorCalculus package.
For information on using Maple as a teaching and learning tool, and some computational
examples, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194).
5.5 Optimization
Using the Optimization package, you can numerically solve optimization problems. The
package uses fast Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) algorithms to minimize or maximize
an objective function.
The Optimization package solves constrained and unconstrained problems.
• Linear programs
• Quadratic programs
• Nonlinear programs
• Linear and nonlinear least-squares problems
The Optimization package contains local solvers. In addition, for univariate finitely-bounde
nonlinear programs with no other constraints, you can compute global solutions using the
NLPSolve command. To fin global solutions generally, purchase the Global Optimization
Toolbox. For more information, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/products/toolboxes.
Point-and-Click Interface
The primary method for solving optimization problems is the Optimization Assistant.
To launch the Optimization Assistant:
• From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Optimization.
Maple launches the Optimization Assistant. See Figure 5.8.
5.5 Optimization • 185
Figure 5.8: Optimization Assistant
To solve a problem:
1. Enter the objective function, constraints, and bounds.
2. Select the Minimize or Maximize radio button.
3. Click the Solve button. The solution is displayed in the Solution text box.
You can also enter the problem (objective function, constraints, and bounds) in the calling
sequence of the Optimization[Interactive] command.
186 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
For example, fin the maximum value of
.
subject to the constraints
>
• When the Optimization Assistant opens, select Maximize, then Solve.
After findin a solution, you can plot it. To plot a solution:
• In the Optimization Assistant window, click the Plot button. The Optimization Plotter
window is displayed. See Figure 5.9.
Note: When you close the Optimization Assistant, you can choose to return the solution,
problem, command used, plot, or nothing, using the drop-down in the bottom right corner
of the assistant window.
5.5 Optimization • 187
Figure 5.9: Optimization Assistant Plotter Window
For information on the algorithms used to solve optimization problems, refer to the Optimization/Methods help page.
Large Optimization Problems
The Optimization Assistant accepts input in an algebraic form. You can specify input in
other forms, described in the Optimization/InputForms help page, in command calling
sequences.
188 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
The Matrix form, described in the Optimization/MatrixForm help page, is more complex
but offers greater flexibilit and efficienc .
For example, solve the linear program:
Maximize
subject to
, where
is the vector of problem variables.
1. Defin the column vector, c, of the linear objective function.
>
>
2. Defin the matrix A, the coefficien matrix for the linear inequality constraints.
>
3. Defin the column vector b, the linear inequality constraints.
>
4. The QPSolve command solves quadratic programs.
>
This example uses a random data set to demonstrate the problem. You could also read data
from an external fil as Matrices, and use that data. For details and an example, see Reading
from Files (page 409).
Note: For information on creating matrices and vectors (including how to use the Matrix
palette to easily create matrices), see Linear Algebra (page 155).
For additional information on performing efficien computations, refer to the Optimization/Computation help page.
MPS(X) File Support
To import linear programs from a standard MPS(X) data file use the ImportMPS command.
5.6 Statistics • 189
Optimization Package Commands
Each Optimization package command solves the problem using a different optimization
method. These are described in Table 5.9, along with the general input form for each
command.
Table 5.9: Optimization Package Commands
Command
LPSolve
LSSolve
Description
Solve a linear program (LP), which involves computing the minimum (or
maximum) of a linear objective function subject to linear constraints; input
is in equation or Matrix form
Solve a least-squares (LS) problem, which involves computing the minimum of a real-valued objective function having the form
where
Maximize
Minimize
NLPSolve
QPSolve
is a vector of problem vari-
ables, possibly subject to constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form
Compute a local maximum of an objective function, possibly subject to
constraints
Compute a local minimum of an objective function, possibly subject to
constraints
Solve a non-linear program (NLP), which involves computing the minimum (or maximum) of a real-valued objective function, possibly subject to
constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form
Solve a quadratic program (QP), which involves computing the minimum
(or maximum) or a quadratic objective function, possibly subject to linear
constraints; input is in equation or Matrix form
For a complete list of commands and other Optimization package information, refer to the
Optimization help page.
5.6 Statistics
The Statistics package provides tools for mathematical statistics and data analysis. The
package supports a wide range of common statistical tasks including quantitative and
graphical data analysis, simulation, and curve fitting
In addition to standard data analysis tools, the Statistics package provides a wide range of
symbolic and numeric tools for computing with random variables. The package supports
over 35 major probability distributions and can be extended to include new distributions.
190 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Probability Distributions and Random Variables
The Statistics package supports:
• Continuous distributions, which are define along the real line by probability density
functions. Maple supports many continuous distributions, including the normal, Studentt, Laplace, and logistic distributions.
• Discrete distributions, which have nonzero probability only at discrete points. A discrete
distribution is define by a probability function. Maple supports many discrete distributions, including the Bernoulli, geometric, and Poisson distributions.
For a complete list of distributions, refer to the Statistics/Distributions help page.
You can defin random variables by specifying a distribution in a call to the RandomVariable command.
>
>
Find the probability distribution function for X. (For information on statistics computations,
see Statistical Computations (page 191).)
>
Adding Custom Distributions
To add a new distribution, specify a probability distribution in a call to the Distribution
command.
>
To construct a piecewise-continuous function in 1-D Math, use the piecewise command,
for example, t -> piecewise(t < 0, 0, t < 3, 1/3, 0).
Defin a new random variable with this distribution.
5.6 Statistics • 191
>
Calculate the mean value of the random variable.
>
Statistical Computations
In addition to basic functions, like mean, median, standard deviation, and percentile, the
Statistics package contains commands that compute, for example, the interquartile range
and hazard rate.
Example 1 - Interquartile Range
Compute the average absolute range from the interquartile of the Rayleigh distribution
with scale parameter 3.
>
To compute the result numerically:
• Specify the 'numeric' option.
>
Example 2 - Hazard Rate
Compute the hazard rate of the Cauchy distribution with location and scale parameters a
and b at an arbitrary point t.
192 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
>
You can specify a value for the point t.
>
You can also specify that Maple compute the result numerically.
>
For more information, refer to the Statistics/DescriptiveStatistics help page.
Plotting
You can generate statistical plots using the visualization commands in the Statistics package.
Available plots include:
• Bar chart
• Frequency plot
• Histogram
• Pie chart
• Scatter plot
For example, create a scatter plot for a distribution of points that vary from
a small value determined by a normally distributed sample.
>
by
5.6 Statistics • 193
>
>
>
>
To fi a curve to the data points, include the optional fi equation parameter.
Using the plots[display] command, create a plot that contains:
• a scatter plot of the data points
• a quartic polynomial fitte to the data points:
• the function
>
194 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
>
>
For more information on statistical plots, refer to the Statistics/Visualization help page.
For an overview of plotting, see Plots and Animations (page 237).
Additional Information
For more information on the Statistics package, including regression analysis, estimation,
data manipulation, and data smoothing, refer to the Statistics help page.
The Data Analysis Assistant For more information, refer to the Statistics[InteractiveDataAnalysis] help page.
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple
Table 5.10 lists the available resources for instructors and students. For additional resources,
see Available Resources (page 56).
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 195
Table 5.10: Student and Instructor Resources
Resource
Student Packages, Tutors, and
Demonstrations
Description
The Student package contains computational and visualization
(plotting and animation) functionality, and point-and-click interfaces for explaining and exploring concepts (Tools→Tutors).
For more information, refer to the Student help page.
Maple's Demonstrations provide interactive visual illustrations
of Precalculus concepts (Tools→Demonstrations). Use the
provided Demos, or learn how these are created and using
Maple's embedded components to create your own. For more
information on how the Demonstrations were created, refer to
the Demonstrations/Details help page.
Teacher Resource Center
The Demonstrations are connected to more complete teaching
material provided in the Teacher Resource Center.
The Maple Teacher Resource Center contains resources and
tips for teachers using Maplesoft products to help in the
classroom. Available resources include:
• Classroom content for subjects including Precalculus, Calculus, and Engineering
• Training videos
• E-books
Maple Portal
(http://www.maplesoft.com/teachercenter)
The Maple Portal includes material designed for all Maple users
as well as specifi portals for students and educators. The Maple
Portal includes:
• How Do I... topics that give quick answers to essential questions
• Tutorials that provide an overview of topics from getting
started to plotting and working with matrices
• Navigation to portals with specialized information for students, math educators, and engineers
Access the portal from the Help menu (Help → Manuals, Resources, and More → Maple Portal).
Mathematics and Engineering Dic- The Maple Help System has an integrated dictionary of over
tionary
5000 mathematics and engineering terms. You can search the
dictionary by entering a term in the Help System search field
196 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Resource
Maple Application Center
Student Help Center
Description
The Maple Application Center contains tutorials and applications
that help instructors begin using Maple and use Maple in the
classroom. Browse the many resources in the Education and
Education PowerTools categories.
(http://www.maplesoft.com/applications)
The Maple Student Help Center contains tutorials and applications that help students learn how to use Maple, explore mathematical concepts, and solve problems. Available resources include:
• Study guides - Complete lessons with examples for academic
courses, including precalculus and calculus. For example, the
Interactive Precalculus Study Guide contains worked problems, each solved as in a standard textbook, using Maple
commands and custom Maplet graphical interfaces.
• Free course lessons for many subjects including precalculus
to vector calculus; high school, abstract, and linear algebra;
engineering; physics; differential equations; cryptography;
and classical mechanics.
• Applications for students, written by students, providing examples in many subject areas.
• Student FAQs with answers from experts.
(http://www.maplesoft.com/academic/students)
Student Packages and Tutors
The Student package is a collection of subpackages for teaching and learning mathematics
and related subjects. The Student package contains packages for a variety of subjects, including precalculus, calculus, and linear algebra.
Instructors can:
• Teach concepts without being distracted by the mechanics of the computations.
• Create examples and quickly update them during a lesson to demonstrate different cases
or show the effect of the variation of a parameter.
• Create plots and animations to visually explain concepts, for example, the geometric relationship between a mathematical function and its derivatives (Tools→Tutors→Calculus
- Single Variable→Derivatives). See Figure 5.10.
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 197
Figure 5.10: Calculus 1 Derivatives Tutor
Students can:
• Perform step-by-step computations, for example, compute a derivative by applying differentiation rules using commands or a tutor (Tools→Tutors→Calculus - Single Variable→Differentiation Methods). See Figure 5.11.
• Perform computations.
• Visually explore concepts.
198 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Figure 5.11: Calculus 1 Differentiation Methods Tutor
Tutors provide point-and-click interfaces to the Student package functionality.
To launch a tutor:
1. From the Tools menu, select Tutors.
2. Select a subject, for example, Calculus - Multivariate.
3. Select a tutor, for example, Gradients.
Maple inserts the Student[MultivariateCalculus][GradientTutor]() calling sequence (in
Worksheet mode), and launches the Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor.
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 199
By rotating the three-dimensional plot, you can show that the gradient points in the direction
of greatest increase of the surface (see Figure 5.12) and show the direction of the gradient
vector in the x-y plane by rotating the plot (see Figure 5.13).
Figure 5.12: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor
200 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Figure 5.13: Multivariate Calculus Gradient Tutor Showing x-y Plane
When you close the tutor, Maple inserts the 3-D plot.
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 201
>
Many Student package commands can return a value, mathematical expression, plot, or
animation. This allows you to compute the fina answer, see the general formula applied to
a specifi problem, or visualize the underlying concepts.
For example, the Student[VectorCalculus][LineInt] (line integral) command can return
the following.
• Plot that visually indicates the vector field path of integration, and tangent vectors to the
path
• Unevaluated line integral
• Numeric value of the line integral
>
202 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
>
>
(5.7)
To evaluate the integral returned by the output = integral calling sequence, use the value
command.
>
(5.8)
By default, the LineInt command returns the value of the integral.
>
For more information on the Student package, refer to the Student help page.
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 203
Calculus Problem Solving Examples
Maple is a powerful application with many resources to guide you. The following examples
provide you with scenarios to learn about using Maple resources and the Maple program.
When using Maple to solve a problem, consider the following process.
1. Formulate your problem.
2. Obtain Maple resources that allow you to solve it.
Problem
Scenario A:
Your company is designing a bottle for its new spring water
product. The bottle must contain 18 ounces of water and the
height is fixed The design includes an undulating curved
surface. You know the amplitude and equation of the curve,
but you must fin the radius. You require the Volume of Revolution.
Scenario B:
You want to teach your students the concept of a Volume of
Revolution. Specificall , you want to plot and compute the
, about
volume of a solid generated by rotating
an axis or a line parallel to an axis.
204 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Figure 5.14: Flowchart of solving a problem
Check for Existing Tools: Tutor
Begin by examining the Tools menu for a Tutor to a Volume of Revolution problem.
To access a Tutor for the Volume of Revolution:
1. From the Tools menu, select Tutors, and then Calculus-Single Variable. Notice that a
Volume of Revolution tutor exists.
2. Click the Volume of Revolution menu item. The following Maple command is entered
in your document.
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 205
>
The Volume of Revolution Tutor is displayed. See Figure 5.15. Use this tutor to enter a
function and an interval, view and manipulate the corresponding plot, and view the full
Maple command associated with your entries and selections.
206 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Figure 5.15: Volume of Revolution Tutor
After you Close the tutor, the plot is inserted into your worksheet.
Check for Existing Tools: Task Template
1. From the Tools menu, select Tasks, and then Browse. The Browse Tasks dialog opens,
displaying a list of tasks in the left pane. The tasks are sorted by subject to help you
quickly fin the desired task.
2. Expand the Calculus - Integral→ Applications → Solids of Revolution folder.
3. From the displayed list, select Volume. The Volume of Revolution task is displayed in
the right pane of the Browse Tasks dialog.
4. Select the Insert into New Worksheet check box.
5. Click Insert Default Content. Before inserting a task, Maple checks whether the task
variables have assigned values in your worksheet. If any task variable is assigned, the
Task Variables dialog opens allowing you to modify the names. Maple uses the edited
5.7 Teaching and Learning with Maple • 207
variable names for all variable instances in the inserted task. The content is inserted into
your document. See Figure 5.16.
Figure 5.16: Inserted Task Template
6. When a Task Template is inserted, parameters are marked as placeholders, denoted by
purple font. To navigate between placeholders, press the Tab key. After updating any
parameters, execute the command by pressing Enter.
Check for Instructions: Help Page and Example Worksheet
The help system provides command syntax information.
To access a help page:
1. From the Help menu, select Maple Help.
2. In the search field enter volume of revolution and click Search. The search results include the command help page, the dictionary definition and the associated tutor help
page.
3. Review the calling sequence, parameters, and description in the Student[Calculus1][VolumeOfRevolution] help page.
4. Copy the examples into your worksheet: from the help system Edit menu, select Copy
Examples.
5. Close the Help Navigator.
208 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
6. In your document, from the Edit menu, select Paste. The examples are pasted into your
document.
7. Execute the examples and examine the results.
To access an example worksheet:
1. In the worksheet, enter index/examples. The Example Worksheet Index opens.
2. Expand the Calculus topic.
3. Click the examples/Calculus1IntApps link. The Calculus1: Applications of Integration
worksheet opens. See Figure 5.17.
4. Expand the Volume of Revolution topic.
5. Examine and execute the examples.
Figure 5.17: Example Worksheet
Check for Other Ready-To-Use Resources: Application Center
The Maple Application Center contains free user-contributed applications related to mathematics, education, science, engineering, computer science, statistics and data analysis,
finance communications, graphics, and more.
To access a free application for volume of revolution:
1. Go to the Maplesoft web site, http://www.maplesoft.com.
2. In the menu of the main web page, click Community, and then Application Center.
5.8 Clickable Math • 209
3. In the Application Search section, enter Calculus 2 in the Keyword or phrase field
4. Click Search.
5. From the search results page, under Displaying applications, click the Click here link.
6. From the list of archived applications, select Calculus II: Complete Set of Lessons.
7. Click on the Download Maple Document link.
8. Download the .zip file
9. Extract the L2-volumeRevolution.mws file
10. Execute the worksheet and examine the results.
5.8 Clickable Math
For years, Maple has led the way in making math software easy to use. With its collection
of Clickable Math tools, including palettes, interactive assistants, context-sensitive menus,
tutors, and more, Maple has set the standard for making it easy to learn, teach, and do
mathematics.
Two key features of the Clickable Math tool collection are Drag-to-Solve and Smart Popups.
210 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Smart Popups
Smart Popups are menus that are invoked when you select an output equation, expression
or a subexpression.
With Smart Popups you can:
• select operations to apply to just one part of your equation or mathematical expression,
leaving the rest unchanged.
• Preview the result of the operation before going ahead.
• Explore your expression to deepen your understanding of the problem.
• Easily determine if your subexpression can be factored, what its plot looks like, what
mathematical identities could be applied, and more.
Drag-to-Solve
The Drag-to-Solve feature enables you to solve your equations step-by-step by dragging
terms to where you want them to be.
With Drag-to-Solve you can:
• Easily take complete control over each individual step of your calculation.
• Let Maple apply the appropriate addition, subtraction, division, or multiplication operation
to both sides of your equation, to avoid mechanical errors.
• Keep the full record of steps produced by Maple to document your work.
For more information on Smart Popups and Drag-to-Solve, as well as examples, see the
worksheet,expressions,clickablemath help page.
Examples
This chapter is designed to show several ways to solve the same problem in Maple.
Throughout these examples, you will need to insert new document block regions. This is
done through the Format menu, by selecting Create Document Block. Also, these examples
only use the keyboard keys needed for a Windows operating system. Refer to Shortcut Keys
by Platform (page xviii) for the keys needed for your operating system.
Example 1 - Graph a Function and its Derivatives
On the interval
, graph ,
, and
for
We solve this problem using the following methods:
• Solution by Context Menus (page 211)
• Solution by Tutor (page 213)
.
5.8 Clickable Math • 211
• Access the Tutor from a Task Template (page 215)
Solution by Context Menus
Action
1. Enter the expression
Make a copy of the expression and calculate
the derivative:
2. Insert a new document block region by selecting from the Format menu Create Document Block.
3. Highlight the original expression. Ctrl + drag
the expression to the new document block.
4. Right-click the expression and select Differentiate → With Respect To → x.
Make a copy of the derivative and calculate
the second derivative:
5. Insert a new document block, and Ctrl + drag
the derivative to the document block.
6. Right-click the derivative and select Differentiate → With Respect To → x.
Plot the original expression:
7. Insert a new document block, and Ctrl + drag
the original expression to the new block.
8. Right-click the expression and select Plots
→ Plot Builder.
9. In the Interactive Plot Builder: Select Plot
Type dialog, change the x Axis range to -Pi
to Pi, and then click Plot.
Result in Document
212 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Add the firs and second derivatives to the
plot:
10. Select and then Ctrl + drag the derivative of
the expression onto the plot region. Do the
same for the second derivative.
Enhance the plot by adding a legend using
context menus:
11. Right-click in the plot region and select Legend → Show Legend.
12. In the legend, double-click Curve 1. Notice
that the Text icon is selected in the toolbar,
. Delete the text and select the Math
. This allows
icon in the toolbar,
you to enter 2-D Math in a text region. Enter
the original expression,
13. Repeat for Curve 2 and Curve 3.
Result in Document
5.8 Clickable Math • 213
Action
Add a title:
Result in Document
14. Right-click in the plot region and select Title
→ Add Title.
15. In the legend, replace the text New title with
the text "Plot the expression ".
16. Click the Math icon, and enter the expression
Click the Text icon once again and
enter " and its derivatives".
Solution by Tutor
The Student Calculus 1 package contains a tutor called Derivatives, which displays a plot
of the expression along with its derivatives. In this example, we solve the same problem as
previously, using this tutor
Action
Result in Document
1. Load the Student Calculus 1 package. Loading Student:-Calculus1
From the Tools menu, select Load
Package → Student Calculus 1.
2. Ctrl + drag the expression
blank document block region.
to a
214 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Result in Document
3. Right-click the expression and select
Tutors → Calculus - Single Variable
→ Derivatives. Note: The Tutors menu
is now available in the context menu
because we loaded the Student Calculus
1 package in step 1.
In the Derivative Tutor, the color swatch
shown beside the original expression is the
color used for the curve in the plot region.
Similarly for
and
4. Change the lower endpoint to -Pi. Select
the check box to display
in the
plot. Click Display to make these
changes take effect.
5. You can change the expression and
modify plot options from within this tutor. For each change made, click Display
to view the altered plot. When complete,
click Close to display the resulting plot
in the document.
5.8 Clickable Math • 215
Access the Tutor from a Task Template
Maple also comes with a Task Template to solve this problem without using any commands.
Action
Result in Document
1. Launch the Task Template Browser by selecting Tools → Tasks → Browse.
2. In the table of contents of the Task Browser
dialog, select Calculus -Differential→ Derivatives → Graph
and its Derivatives.
3. Click Insert Minimal Content at the top of
the dialog to insert the task template into the
current document.
4. Enter the new expression
region.
in the f(x)
5. Enter the interval
To insert the symbol
for pi, you can use command completion or
select
from the Common Symbols palette.
216 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Result in Document
6. Click Launch Differentiation Tutor to launch
the same tutor as in the previous solution.
7. When complete, click Close. A plot of the expression and its derivatives displays in the plot
region of the inserted task template.
Example 2 - Solve for x in a Quadratic Equation
Solve for
in the equation
We solve this problem using the following methods:
• Solution through Equation Manipulator (page 216)
• Instant Solution (page 218)
• Step-by-step Interactive Solution (page 218)
• Graphical Solution (page 219)
Solution through Equation Manipulator
Maple provides a dialog that allows you to single-step through the process of manipulating
an expression. This manipulator is available from the context menu.
5.8 Clickable Math • 217
Action
1. Enter the equation
in a new document block region.
2. Right-click this equation and select Manipulate Equation. The Manipulate Equation
dialog displays.
Group all of the terms to the left:
3. In the Addition region, the Group terms row
allows you to group terms on a specifie side.
With the left side already selected, click Do.
Expand the left side of the equation:
4. In the Miscellaneous Operations region, we
can manipulate the equation by applying a
command from the drop-down menus. Since
we want to expand the left side of the equation
only, click the firs drop-down menu in the
second row and select expand. Click Do.
Result in Document
218 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Factor the equation:
Result in Document
5. From the same drop-down menu, select factor
and click Do.
6. Click Return Steps to close the dialog and return all of the steps to the Maple document.
7. Ctrl + drag the factored form of the original
equation to a new document block region.
8. Right-click and select Solve → Obtain Solutions for → x.
Instant Solution
To apply an instant solution to this problem, use context menus.
Action
1. Ctrl + drag the equation
Result in Document
to a new document block region.
2. Right-click the expression and select Solve →
Obtain Solutions for → x.
Step-by-step Interactive Solution
This equation can also be solved interactively in the document, by applying context-menu
operations or commands one step at a time.
Action
1. Ctrl + drag the equation
to a blank document block region.
Result in Document
5.8 Clickable Math • 219
Action
Group all terms on the right:
Result in Document
2. Right-click this equation and from the context
menu select Move to Right.
Expand the expression on the right-hand side:
3.Right-click on the result and from the context
menu select Expand.
Use Maple's factor command on the resulting
right-hand side:
4. Right-click on the result and select Right-hand
Side.
5. Right-click on the result and select Factor.
Solve for x:
6. Right-click on the result and select Solve →
Obtain Solutions for → x.
Graphical Solution
Now that we have seen several methods to solve this problem, we can check the answer by
plotting the expression.
Action
1. Ctrl + drag the equation
to a new document block region and press Enter.
First, manipulate the equation to become an
expression:
2. Right-click the output and select Move to Left.
Note the difference in the alignment when using
context menus on output rather than input. The
result is centered in the document with the selfdocumenting arrow positioned at the left.
Result in Document
220 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
3. Right-click the output and select Left-hand
Side.
4. Right-click the output and select Expand.
Now that the equation is in its simplest form,
plot the result:
5. Ctrl + drag the output to a new document
block.
6. Right-click the expression and select Plots →
2-D Plot.
Result in Document
5.8 Clickable Math • 221
Action
Change the
menus:
Result in Document
and
axis ranges using context
7. By default, plots generated using the context
menus have an -axis range of -10 to 10. To
change the range, right-click the plot and select
Axes → Properties. In the Horizontal tab of
the Axes Properties dialog, de-select Use data
extents and change the Range min and `Range
max to 0 and 5, respectively.
Click the Vertical tab and de-select Use data extents. Change the Range min and Range max to
-5 and 10, respectively.
8. Click OK to apply the changes and return to
the plot.
The interception points of this graph with the
-axis are 1 and 3, the same solutions that we
found previously.
Example 3 - Solve a Quadratic Trig Equation
in the interval
Find all of the solutions to the equation
We solve this problem using the following methods:
• Graphical Solution (page 221)
• Solution by Task Template (page 223)
• Analytic Solution (page 223)
Graphical Solution
Action
1. Ctrl + drag the equation
to a blank document block and press Enter.
2. Right-click the output and select Left-hand
Side.
Result in Document
222 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Result in Document
3. Right-click the output and select Plots → Plot
Builder.
4. Modify the plot range to
to
5. Click Plot to display the plot in the document.
6. From the graph, we can see all of the solutions
within the interval
To approximate
the values, click the plot, select the type of coordinates that you want to view from the selection menu (
) in the toolbar, and then use
the point probe tool to view the coordinates of
the mouse pointer.
5.8 Clickable Math • 223
Solution by Task Template
Action
Result in Document
1. From the Format menu, select Tasks →
Browse. Expand the Algebra folder and
select Solve Analytically in a Specifie
Interval.
2. Click Insert Minimal Content.
3. Replace the current equation with the one
from this example,
and then
execute the commands. Notice that
equation labels are used to reference the
results.
Analytic Solution
Action
1. Ctrl + drag the equation
ment block region.
Result in Document
to a blank docu-
2. Right-click the expression and select Left-hand
Side.
224 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
3. Right-click the output and select Factor.
Result in Document
4. Ctrl + drag the firs factor to a blank document
block region.
5. Right-click and select Solve → Solve.
6. Ctrl + drag the second factor to a blank document block region.
7. Right-click and select Solve → Solve.
Notice that you have not found all of the solutions,
as with the above methods. These are all of the
solutions in the interval
Example 4 - Find the Inverse Function
If
fin and graph the rule for
We solve this problem using the following methods:
• Implement the Definitio Graphically (page 225)
• Solution by Tutor (page 228)
its functional inverse.
5.8 Clickable Math • 225
Implement the Definition Graphically
The graph of the inverse function is the set of ordered pairs formed by interchanging the
ordinates and abscissas.
Action
1. In a blank document block, enter
and press Enter.
2. Right-click the output and select Plots →
Plot Builder.
Result in Document
226 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Result in Document
3. In the Plot Builder : Select Plot Type dialog, ensure that 2-D parametric plot is selected in the Select Plot region.
4. Adjust the domain for
to the interval
5. Click Plot to return the plot to the document.
5.8 Clickable Math • 227
Action
6. Ctrl + drag the expression
graph.
Result in Document
onto this
Notice that the axis ranges alter.
7. Ctrl + drag the expression onto this graph.
The resulting graph shows
the line
and
228 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Adjust the
Result in Document
and
axis ranges:
8. Right-click the plot and select Axes →
Properties.
9. In the Axis Properties dialog, de-select
Use data extents and change the range to
0 to 2.
10. Click the Vertical tab and repeat step 9.
Click OK to apply these settings and close
the dialog.
Solution by Tutor
Action
Result in Document
1. Load the Student Calculus 1 package.
Loading Student:-Calculus1
From the Tools menu, select Load Package → Student Calculus 1.
2. Enter the expression
document block.
in a blank
3. Right-click and select Tutors → Calculus
- Single Variable → Function Inverse.
The Function Inverse Tutor displays.
4. Adjust the domain to
5.8 Clickable Math • 229
Action
Result in Document
5. When you are finished click Close. The
plot of the function, its inverse, and the line
is returned to the document.
Example 5 - Methods of Integration - Trig Substitution
Evaluate the integral
by making the substitution
We solve this problem using the following methods:
• Immediate Evaluation of the Integral (page 229)
• Solution by Integration Methods Tutor (page 230)
• Solution by First Principles (page 231)
Immediate Evaluation of the Integral
Action
1. Enter the integral
Result in Document
in a blank
document block region.
2. Right-click the expression and select Evaluate
and Display Inline.
=
230 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Solution by Integration Methods Tutor
Action
Result in Document
1. Load the Student Calculus 1 package. From Loading Student:-Calculus1
the Tools menu, select Load Package →
Student Calculus 1.
2. Ctrl + drag the integrand
to a
blank document block region.
3. Right-click the expression and select Tutors
→ Calculus Single Variable → Integration
Methods. The Integration Methods Tutor
displays.
4. Perform a change of variables by selecting
Change and entering x = 2*sin(u).
5.8 Clickable Math • 231
Action
Result in Document
5. Apply the constant rule by clicking Constant.
6. To revert back to the original variable, click
Revert.
7. Now that the integral has been evaluated, click
Close to close the tutor and return the evaluated integral to the document.
Solution by First Principles
Action
1. Ctrl + drag the integrand
Result in Document
to a blank
document block region and press Enter.
Perform trig substitution:
2. Right-click the output and select Evaluate at
a point. In the dialog that displays, enter
2*sin(u).
3. Right-click the output and select Simplify →
Symbolic.
(5.9)
232 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Calculate
Result in Document
:
4. In a blank document block, enter the substitution equation:
and press Enter.
5. Right-click the output and select Differentiate
→ Implicitly. In the dialog that displays,
change the Independent Variable to u.
(5.10)
Calculate the integral in terms of :
6. Referencing the results by their equation labels,
multiply the original simplifie expression by
this derivative.
(5.11)
7. Integrate the resulting expression.
(5.12)
Revert the substitution:
8. Place the equation
in a blank document block. Delete and insert the equation
label for the previous result, the value of the
integral in terms of Press Enter.
9. Right-click the output and select Solve →
Solve for Variable → u.
The solution is
Example 6 - Initial Value Problem
Solve and plot the solution of the initial value problem
5.8 Clickable Math • 233
Solution by ODE Analyzer Assistant
The ODE Analyzer Assistant lets you solve ODEs numerically or symbolically and displays
a plot of the solution.
Action
1. Enter the ODE in a blank document
block region.
2. Right-click the equation and select
Solve DE Interactively. The ODE
Analyzer Assistant displays with the
ODE automatically inserted.
To insert the initial conditions:
3. In the Conditions region, click Edit.
The Edit Conditions dialog opens.
4. In the Add Condition region, with y
selected in the drop-down menu, enter
0 in the firs text fiel to the right and
2 in the second text field Click Add.
Your entry should match the one
shown to the right.
Result in Document
234 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
Action
Result in Document
5. To enter the initial condition for
select y' from the drop-down
menu. In the text fields enter 0 and -1.
Click Add.
Click Done to close this dialog and return
to the main dialog. Notice that the initial
conditions are in the Conditions section.
6. Click Solve Numerically. A new dialog appears.
7. Click Solve to solve the initial value
problem.
8. Click Plot to plot the solution of the
DE.
5.8 Clickable Math • 235
Action
Result in Document
9. Click the Plot Options button to
modify the default graph, if desired.
10. Click Quit to close the ODE Analyzer
and return a plot of the solution to the
document.
236 • 5 Mathematical Problem Solving
6 Plots and Animations
Maple can generate many forms of plots, allowing you to visualize a problem and further
understand concepts.
• Maple accepts explicit, implicit, and parametric forms to display 2-D and 3-D plots and
animations.
• Maple recognizes many coordinate systems.
• All plot regions in Maple are active; therefore, you can drag expressions to and from a
plot region.
• Maple offers numerous plot options, such as axis styles, title, colors, shading options,
surface styles, and axis ranges, which give you complete control to customize your plots.
For a reference to the types of plots available in Maple, see the Plotting Guide.
6.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Creating Plots (page 238) - Interactive and command- • Interactive Plot Builder
driven methods to display 2-D and 3-D plots
• Context Menu
• Dragging to a Plot Region
• The plot and plot3d Commands
• The plots Package
• Multiple Plots in the Same Plot Region
Customizing Plots (page 263) - Methods for applying • Interactive Plot Builder Options
plot options before and after a plot displays
• Context Menu Options
• The plot and plot3d Command Options
Analyzing Plots (page 269) - Plot analyzing tools
• Point Probe
• Rotate
• Pan
• Zoom
Representing Data (page 270) - Templates for visual • The Live Data Plots Palette
representation of your data
• Interactive Plot Builder
Creating Animations (page 270) - Interactive and
command-driven methods to display animations
• The plots[animate] Command
• The plot3d[viewpoint] Command
237
238 • 6 Plots and Animations
Section
Topics
Playing Animations (page 276) - Tools to run anima- • Animation Context Bar
tions
Customizing Animations (page 277) - Methods for • Interactive Plot Builder Animation Opapplying plot options before and after an animation
tions
displays
• Context Menu Options
• The animate Command Options
Exporting (page 280) - Methods for exporting plots • Saving Plots to File Formats
Code for Color Plates (page 280) - Information on
color plates
• Accessing Code for the Color Plates
6.2 Creating Plots
Maple offers several methods to easily plot an expression. These methods include:
• The Interactive Plot Builder
• Context menus
• Dragging to a plot region
• Commands
Each method offers a unique set of advantages. The method you use depends on the type
of plot to display, as well as your personal preferences.
Interactive Plot Builder
The Interactive Plot Builder is a point-and-click interface to the Maple plotting functionality. The interface displays plot types based on the expression you specify. The available
plot types include plots, interactive plots, animations, or interactive animations. Depending
on the plot type you select, you can create a:
• 2-D / 3-D plot
• 2-D polar plot
• 2-D / 3-D conformal plot of a complex-valued function
• 2-D / 3-D complex plot
• 2-D density plot
• 2-D gradient vector-fiel plot
• 2-D implicit plot
6.2 Creating Plots • 239
Using the Interactive Plot Builder, you can:
1. Specify the plotting domain before you display the graph
2. Specify the endpoints of the graph as symbolic, such as Pi or sqrt(2)
3. Select different kinds of graphs, such as animations or interactive plots with slider control
of a parameter; that is, customize and display a plot by selecting from the numerous plot
types and applying plot options without any knowledge of plotting command syntax
4. Apply the discont=true option for a discontinuous graph
The output from the Interactive Plot Builder is a plot of the expression or the command
used to generate the plot in the document.
To launch the Interactive Plot Builder:
• From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Plot Builder. Note: The Tools menu
also offers tutors to easily generate plots in several academic subjects. For more information, see Teaching and Learning with Maple (page 194).
Table 6.1: Windows of the Interactive Plot Builder
1. Specify Expressions window
2. Select Plot Type window
1. Specify Expressions window - Add, edit, or remove expressions and variables. Once
finished you can advance to the Select Plot Type window.
2. Select Plot Type window - Select the plot type and corresponding plot, and edit the
ranges. Once finished you can display the plot or advance to the Plot Options window.
240 • 6 Plots and Animations
3. Plot Options window
3. Plot Options window - Apply plot options. Once finished you can display the plot or
return the command that generates the plot to the document.
Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression
Maple can display two-dimensional graphs and offers numerous plot options such as color,
title, and axis styles to customize the plot.
6.2 Creating Plots • 241
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder:
1. Make sure that the cursor is in a Maple input region.
2. From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Plot Builder.
Notes: 1. In worksheet mode, Maple inserts plots[interactive](); in the Maple document.
Entering this command at the Maple prompt also opens the Plot Builder.
2. Interaction with the document is disabled while the Plot Builder is running.
Enter an expression:
3. In the Specify Expressions window:
a. Add the expression, sin(x)/x.
b. Click OK to proceed to the Select Plot Type window.
Plot the expression:
4. In the Select Plot Type window, notice the default setting of a 2-D plot type and an x
axis range,
. Notice also the various plot types available for this expression.
5. Click Plot.
To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating
Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249)
Example 2 - Display a plot of multiple expressions in 1 variable
Maple can display multiple expressions in the same plot region to compare and contrast.
The Interactive Plot Builder accepts multiple expressions.
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter the expressions:
1. Launch the Interactive Plot Builder. The Plot Builder accepts expressions in 1-D
Math and performs basic calculations on expressions. For example, entering
diff(sin(x^2), x) in the Specify Expression window performs the calculation and
displays the expression as 2*cos(x^2)*x in the Expression group box.
2. In the Specify Expressions window:
• In three separate steps, add the expressions sin(x^2), diff(sin(x^2),x), and int(sin(x^2), x).
Change the x-axis range:
3. In the Select Plot Type window:
a. Change the x Axis range to -Pi .. Pi.
b. Click Options to proceed to the Plot Options window.
242 • 6 Plots and Animations
Launch the Plot Options window and return the plot command syntax to the document:
4. Click Command.
Display the actual plot:
5. Execute the inserted command to display the plot by using the context menu item Evaluate.
>
By default, Maple displays each plot in a plot region using a different color. You can also
apply a line style such as solid, dashed, or dotted for each expression in the graph. For more
information, refer to the plot/options help page. To see the Maple syntax used to generate
this plot, see Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249)
Example 3 - Display a plot of a multi-variate expression
Maple can display three-dimensional plots and offers numerous plot options such as light
models, surface styles, and shadings to allow you to customize the plot.
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression:
1. Add the expression (1+sin(x*y))/(x^2+y^2).
In the Select Plot Type window:
2. Notice the available plot types for an expression with 2 variables, as well as the plot
objects for each type.
3. Click Options.
In the Plot Options window:
4. From the Variables column at the top of the dialog, change the Range from fiel to
0 .. 0.05.
5. From the Label column, enter z.
6. From the Style group box, select surface.
7. From the Color group box, in the Light Model drop-down menu, select green-red.
8. From the Color group box, in the Shading, drop-down menu, select z (grayscale).
9. From the Miscellaneous group box, in the Grid Size drop-down menu, select 40, 40.
Plot the expression:
10. Click Plot.
To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating
Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249)
6.2 Creating Plots • 243
Example 4 - Display a conformal plot
Maple can display a conformal plot of a complex expression mapped onto a two-dimensional
grid or plotted on the Riemann sphere in 3-D.
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression:
1. Add the expression z^3.
In the Select Plot Type window:
2. From the Select Plot group box, select 2-D conformal plot of a complex-valued function.
3. Change the range of the z parameter to 0 .. 2+2*I.
In the Plot Options window:
4. From the Axes group box, select normal.
5. From the Miscellaneous group box, select the Grid Size drop-down menu option 30, 30.
Plot the expression:
6. Click Plot.
Example 5 - Display a plot in polar coordinates
Cartesian (ordinary) coordinates is the Maple default. Maple also supports numerous other
coordinate systems, including hyperbolic, inverse elliptic, logarithmic, parabolic, polar, and
rose in two-dimensions, and bipolar cylindrical, bispherical, cylindrical, inverse elliptical
cylindrical, logarithmic cosh cylindrical, Maxwell cylindrical, tangent sphere, and toroidal
in three-dimensional plots. For a complete list of supported coordinate systems, refer to the
coords help page.
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression:
1. Add the expression 1+4*cos(4*theta).
Change the x-axis range:
2. In the Select Plot Type window:
a. With 2-D polar plot selected, change the Angle of theta to 0 .. 8*Pi.
In the Plot Options window:
3. From the Color group box, select Magenta.
Plot the expression:
4. Click Plot.
To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating
Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249)
244 • 6 Plots and Animations
Example 6 - Interactive Plotting
Using the Interactive Plot Builder, you can plot an expression with several of its variables
set to numeric values. The Interactive Parameter window allows you to interactively adjust
these numeric values within specifie ranges to observe their effect. To access this window,
enter an expression with two or more variables and select Interactive Plot with x parameter
from the Select Plot Type and Functions drop-down menu.
Figure 6.1: Interactive Parameter Window
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter an expression:
1. Add the expression x+3*sin(x*t).
6.2 Creating Plots • 245
In the Select Plot Type window:
2. From the Select Plot group box, select Interactive Plot with 1 parameter.
3. Change the range of the x-axis to 0 .. 2*Pi.
4. Change the t range to 0 .. 10.
5. Click Plot to open the Interactive Parameter window.
Note: To apply plot options before interactively adjusting the plot, click Options to open
the Plot Options window. After setting the plot options, click Plot to display the
Interactive Parameter window.
6. To adjust the numeric values, use the slider.
7. Click Done to place the plot in the Maple document.
To see the Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple commands from Creating
Plots: Interactive Plot Builder (page 249)
For information on customizing plots using the Interactive Plot Builder, refer to Customizing Plots: Interactive Plot Builder Options (page 263).
Context Menu
A context menu in Maple displays a list of commands to manipulate, display, or calculate
using a Maple expression. The commands in the menu depend on the type of the expression.
To display the context menu for a Maple expression, right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the expression.
For expressions, the context menu lists:
• 2-D or 3-D plot
• 2-D or 3-D implicit plot
• Interactive Plot Builder
based on the expression selected.
When you invoke the Interactive Plot Builder through the context menu, the expression
automatically passes to the builder, and Maple does not display the Specify Expression
window.
246 • 6 Plots and Animations
One advantage of using the context menu is the simplicity of creating an expression using
menus. By using this method, you do not need any knowledge of plot command syntax.
1. Enter and evaluate an expression, for example,
2. Right-click (Control-click for Macintosh) the expression.
3. From the context menu, select Plots → 3-D Plot → x,y.
6.2 Creating Plots • 247
>
(6.1)
248 • 6 Plots and Animations
For information on customizing plots using the context menu, see Context Menu
Options (page 264).
Dragging to a Plot Region
To use the drag-and-drop method, use the plot region created by one of the other methods
or insert an empty plot region into the document. Empty plot regions can be two-dimensional
or three-dimensional.
Advantages of the drag-and-drop method include the ease of adding and removing plots
and the independence from plotting command syntax.
Example:
1. From the Insert menu, select Plot → 2-D.
2. Enter the expression
in an input region.
3. When dragging an expression to a plot region, you can either make a copy of the expression from
the input region or you can cut the expression, thereby removing it from the input region. To make
a copy of the expression, select the full expression in the input region and press Ctrl (Command,
Macintosh) while you drag the expression to the plot region. To cut the expression and paste it
in the plot region, highlight the expression and drag it to the plot region.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 using the following expressions:
and
5. To remove an expression from the plot region, drag-and-drop the expression plot from the plot
region to a Maple input region.
6.2 Creating Plots • 249
The plot and plot3d Commands
The fina method for creating plots is entering plotting commands.
The main advantages of using plotting commands are the availability of all Maple plot
structures and the greater control over the plot output. Plot options are discussed in
Customizing Plots (page 263).
Table 6.2: The plot and plot3d Commands
plot(plotexpression, x=a..b, ...)
plot3d(plotexpression, x=a..b, y=a..b, ...)
• plotexpression - expression to be plotted
• x=a..b - name and horizontal range
• y=a..b - name and vertical range
Maple commands from Creating Plots: Interactive Plot Builder
The following examples show the plotting commands returned by the examples in Interactive
Plot Builder (page 238).
250 • 6 Plots and Animations
Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression
>
Example 2 - Display a plot of multiple expressions in 1 variable
To display multiple expressions in a plot, include the expressions in a list. To enter
and
Palettes (page 21).
use the Expression palette. For more information, see
6.2 Creating Plots • 251
>
252 • 6 Plots and Animations
Example 3 - Display a plot of a multi-variable expression
>
Example 4 - Display a conformal plot
A collection of specialized plotting routines is available in the plots package. For access to
a single command in a package, use the long form of the command.
6.2 Creating Plots • 253
>
254 • 6 Plots and Animations
Example 5 - Display a plot in polar coordinates
>
6.2 Creating Plots • 255
Example 6 - Interactive Plotting
>
For more information on the plot options used in this section, refer to the plot/options and
plot3d/options help pages.
Display a Parametric Plot
Some graphs cannot be specifie explicitly. In other words, you cannot write the dependent
variable as a function of the independent variable,
One solution is to make both
the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate depend upon a parameter.
256 • 6 Plots and Animations
>
Display a 3-D Plot
Maple can plot an expression of two variables as a surface in three-dimensional space. To
customize the plot, include plot3d options in the calling sequence. For a list of plot options,
see The plot and plot3d Options (page 267).
6.2 Creating Plots • 257
>
The plots Package
The plots package contains numerous plot commands for specialized plotting. This package
includes: animate, contourplot, densityplot, fieldplo , odeplot, matrixplot, spacecurve,
textplot, tubeplot, and more. For details about this package, refer to the plots help page.
>
The pointplot Command
To plot numeric data, use the pointplot command in the plots package with the data organized in a list of lists structure of the form
By default, Maple
does not connect the points. To draw a line through the points, use the style = line option.
For further analysis of data points, use the Curve Fitting Assistant (Tools→Assistants→CurveFitting), which fit and plots a curve through the points. For more information,
refer to the CurveFitting[Interactive] help page.
258 • 6 Plots and Animations
>
The matrixplot Command
The matrixplot command plots the values of a plot object of type Matrix. The matrixplot
command accepts options such as heights and gap to control the appearance of the plot.
For more information on Matrices, see Linear Algebra (page 155).
>
6.2 Creating Plots • 259
>
>
>
260 • 6 Plots and Animations
The contourplot Command
The contourplot command generates a topographical map for an expression or function.
To create a smoother and more precise plot, increase the number of points using the numpoints option.
6.2 Creating Plots • 261
>
Multiple Plots in the Same Plot Region
List of Expressions
To display multiple expressions in the same plot region, enter the expressions in a list data
structure. To distinguish the surfaces, apply different shading options, styles, or colors to
each surface.
262 • 6 Plots and Animations
>
The display Command
To display different types of plots in the same plot region, use the display command in the
plots package.
This example plots a curve over a hill with the shadow of the curve projected onto the hill.
>
>
>
>
Maple can draw curves in three-dimensional space.
6.3 Customizing Plots • 263
>
>
>
>
6.3 Customizing Plots
Maple provides many plot options to display the most aesthetically pleasing, illustrative
results. Plot options include line styles, colors, shadings, axis styles, and titles where applicable. Plot options are applied using the Interactive Plot Builder, the context menus, or as
options in the command syntax.
Interactive Plot Builder Options
The Interactive Plot Builder offers most of the plot options available in Maple in an easyto-use interface.
264 • 6 Plots and Animations
Example:
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter the expression:
1. Add the expression 2*x^5-10*x^3+6*x-1. For information on interacting with the Interactive
Plot Builder, see Example 1 - Display a plot of a single variable expression (page 240).
Set the x-axis range:
2. In the Select Plot Type window, change the x-axis range to -2 .. 2.
In the Plot Options window:
3. From the Line group box, select dot from the left drop-down menu.
4. From the Color group box, select Blue.
5. From the Axes group box, select frame.
6. From the Title group box, enter My Plot in the text field
Plot the expression:
7. Click Plot.
Context Menu Options
Using the context menu, you can alter a plot by right-clicking (Control-click for Macintosh)
the plot output. You can also access a large subset of plot options using the Plot toolbar
and Plot menu options. These menus display when a plot region is selected. Regardless of
the method used to insert a plot into Maple, you can use the context menu to apply different
plot options. For a list of options available when plotting in two and three dimensions, see
The plot and plot3d Options (page 267).
2-D Plot Options
Some plots do not display as you would expect using default option values. A expression
with a singularity is one such example.
6.3 Customizing Plots • 265
>
In the previous plot, all interesting details of the plot are lost because there is a singularity
at x = 1. The solution is to view a narrower range, for example, from y = 0 to 7.
Alter the y-axis range:
1. Right-click the plot region. Select Axes, and then Properties.
2. In the Axes Properties dialog, click the Vertical tab.
3. Clear the Use data extents check box and enter 0 and 7 in the Range min and Range max text
regions, respectively.
4. Click Apply to view the changes, or OK to return to the document.
Change the color:
5. Place the mouse pointer on the curve and right-click (Control-click, Macintosh). Note: The curve
is selected when it becomes highlighted.
6. Select Color, and then Green.
Change the line style:
7. Select Style, and then Point.
266 • 6 Plots and Animations
3-D Plot Options
By default, Maple displays the graph as a shaded surface with a wireframe and scales the
plot to fi the window. To change these options, use the context menu.
>
Maple has many preselected light source configurations
Change the style:
1. Right-click the plot region. Select Style → Surface.
Apply a light scheme:
2. Select Lighting → Light 1.
Change the color:
3. Select Color → Z (Grayscale).
Change the axes style:
4. Select Axes → Boxed.
6.3 Customizing Plots • 267
Alter the glossiness:
5. Select Glossiness and then select Set.... Using the slider, adjust the level of glossiness.
The plot and plot3d Options
If you are using commands to insert a plot, you can specify plot options as arguments at the
end of the calling sequence. You can specify the options in any order. Applying plot options
in the command syntax offers a few more options and greater control than what is available
in the Interactive Plot Builder and context menus.
Table 6.3: Common Plot Options
Option
axes
caption
color
font
glossiness (3-D)
gridlines (2-D)
lightmodel (3-D)
linestyle
legend (2-D)
numpoints
scaling
shading (3-D)
style
symbol
title
thickness
transparency (3-D)
view
Description
Define the type of axes, one of: boxed, frame, none, or normal
Define the caption for the plot
Define a color for the curves to be plotted
Define the font for text objects in the plot
Controls the amount of light reflecte from the surface
Define gridlines in the plot
Controls the light model to illuminate the plot, one of: none, light1, light2,
light3, or light4
Define the dash pattern used to render lines in the plot, one of: dot, dash,
dashdot, longdash, solid, spacedash, and spacedot
Define a legend for the plot
Controls the minimum total number of points generated
Controls the scaling of the graph, one of: constrained or unconstrained
Define how the surface is colored, one of: xyz, xy, z, zgrayscale, zhue, or
none
Define how the surface is to be drawn, one of: line, point, polygon, or
polygonoutline for 2-D plots; contour, point, surface, surfacecontour,
surfacewireframe, wireframe, or wireframeopaque for 3-D plots
Define the symbol for points in the plot, one of: asterisk, box, circle, cross,
diagonalcross, diamond, point, solidbox, solidcircle, or soliddiamond for
2-D plots; asterisk, box, circle, cross, diagonalcross, diamond, point,
solidsphere, or sphere for 3-D plots
Define a title for the plot
Define the thickness of lines in the plot
Controls the transparency of the plot surface
Define the minimum and maximum coordinate values of the axes displayed
on the screen
For a complete list of plot options, refer to the plot/options and plot3d/options help pages.
268 • 6 Plots and Animations
>
To create a smoother or more precise plot, calculate more points using the numpoints option.
6.4 Analyzing Plots • 269
>
6.4 Analyzing Plots
Point Probe, Rotate, Pan, and Zoom Tools
To gain further insight into a plot, Maple offers various tools to analyze plot regions. These
tools are available in the Plot menu menu, Context Bar, and in the context menu under
Transform when the plot region is selected.
Table 6.4: Plot Analysis Options
Name
Point probe
(2-D)
Rotate
(3-D)
Icon
Description
Display the coordinates corresponding to the cursor position on a two-dimensional plot in the context bar (upper left-hand corner).
Rotate a three-dimensional plot to see it from a different point of view.
270 • 6 Plots and Animations
Name
Pan
Zoom
Selection Tool
Icon
Description
Pan the plot by changing the view ranges for 2-D plots; smartplots resample to reflec the new view. Change the position of the plot in the plot
region for 3-D plots.
Zoom into or out of the plot by changing the view ranges for 2-D plots;
smartplots re-sample to reflec the new view. Make the plot larger or
smaller in the plot window for 3-D plots.
Use the Selection Tool to select the information displayed in the point
probe tool tooltip. You can choose to display coordinates derived from
converted pixel coordinates or data points derived from the original data
points.
6.5 Representing Data
The Live Data Plots palette has templates that allow you to represent your data in many
different ways including:
• Area chart
• Bar chart
• Box plot
• Bubble plot
• Histogram
• Line chart
• Pie chart
• Scatter plot
Once you select a type of plot, an interactive environment allows you to change a number
of options to refin the look of your plot. As you refin your plot, Maple automatically updates the plot command with your options.
If the Live Data Plots palette is not displayed in the palette dock, from the main menu select
View → Palettes → Arrange Palettes, and then select Live Data Plots from the Arrange
Palettes dialog.
6.6 Creating Animations
Animations allow you to emphasize certain graphical behavior, such as the deformation of
a bouncing ball, more clearly than in a static plot. A Maple animation is a number of plot
frames displayed in sequence, similar to the action of movie frames. To create an animation,
use the Interactive Plot Builder or commands.
6.6 Creating Animations • 271
Interactive Plot Builder
Creating Animations Using the Interactive Plot Builder:
Launch the Interactive Plot Builder and enter the expression:
1. Add the expression sin(i*sqrt(x^2+y^2)/10).
For information on interacting with the Interactive Plot Builder, see Example 1 - Display a plot of
a single variable expression (page 240).
In the Select Plot Type window:
2. From the Select Plot Type drop-down menu, select Animation.
3. The default x Axis range is -2*Pi .. 2*Pi. Change the x Axis range to -6 .. 6.
4. The default yAxis range is -2*Pi .. 2*Pi. Change the y Axis range to -6 .. 6.
5. Change the Animation Parameter (i) range to 1 .. 30.
In the Plot Options window:
6. From the Style group box, select surface.
7. From the Color group box, in the Light Model drop-down menu, select red-turquoise.
8. From the Color group box, in the Shading drop-down menu, select z (grayscale).
9. In the View group box, select the Constrained Scaling check box.
Plot the expression:
10. Click Plot.
>
For information on playing the animation, see Playing Animations (page 276). To see the
Maple syntax used to generate this plot, see Maple Syntax for Creating Animations:
Interactive Plot Builder Example (page 272).
The plots[animate] Command
You can also use the animate command, in the plots package, to generate animations.
272 • 6 Plots and Animations
Table 6.5: The animate Command
animate(plotcommand, plotarguments, t=a..b, ...)
animate(plotcommand, plotarguments, t=L, ...)
• plotcommand - Maple procedure that generates a 2-D or 3-D plot
• plotarguments - arguments to the plot command
• t=a..b - name and range of the animation parameter
• t=L - name and list of real or complex constants
To access the command, use the short form name after invoking the with(plots) command.
>
Maple Syntax for Creating Animations: Interactive Plot Builder Example
The following example shows the plotting command returned by the example in Interactive
Plot Builder (page 271).
6.6 Creating Animations • 273
>
274 • 6 Plots and Animations
Animate a 2-D plot
>
For more information on the animate command, refer to the plots[animate] help page.
The plot3d[viewpoint] Command
You can use the viewpoint command to create an animation in which the position from
which you view a 3-D plot moves in all directions and in various angles around the plot
surface based on coordinates and parameters you specify. This type of animation creates
the effect of flyin through, around, beside, towards, and away from a plot surface in threedimensional space.
The moveable position from which you view the surface is called the camera. You can
specify the orientation of the camera to view different sides of a surface, the path along
which the camera moves throughout and around a surface, and the location of the camera
in 3-D space in each animation frame. For example, you can specify coordinates to move
the camera to specifi points beside a surface; a pre-define camera path to move the camera
in a circle around the surface; and the range of view to move the camera close to or away
from the surface. Refer to the viewpoint help page for information on the available options.
6.6 Creating Animations • 275
To animate the following examples, click the plot object and then click the play button (
in the Animation context bar.
)
Example 1: Moving the Camera Around a 3-D Plot
In the following example, a pre-define path circleleft moves the camera in a counterclockwise circle around the plot surface.
>
Example 2: Specifying a Path to Move the Camera Towards and Around a 3-D Plot
In the following example, a camera path is specifie to zoom into and view different sides
of the plot surface.
276 • 6 Plots and Animations
>
6.7 Playing Animations
Animation Context Bar
To run the animation, click the plot to display the Animate context bar.
Table 6.6: Animation Options
Name
Previous
Frame
Stop
Icon
Description
View the previous frame in the animation.
Stop the animation.
Play
Play the selected animation.
Next Frame
View the next frame in the animation.
Current
Frame
Slider control for viewing individual
frames of an animated plot.
6.8 Customizing Animations • 277
Name
Forward
Icon
Oscillate
Backward
Single
Continuous
Frames per
second
Point probe
Zoom
Pan
Rotate (3-D)
Description
Forward - Play the animation forward.
Oscillate - Play the animation forward
and backward.
Backward - Play the animation backward.
Single - Run the animation in single
cycle mode. The animation is displayed only once.
Continuous - Run the animation in
continuous mode. The animation repeats until you stop it.
Set the animation to play at a faster or
slower speed.
Determine the coordinates of a 2-D
plot at the position of the cursor.
Zoom into or out of the plot by changing the view ranges.
Pan the plot by changing the view
ranges.
Rotate a three-dimensional plot to see
it from a different point of view.
You can also run the animation using the context menu or the Plot menu.
6.8 Customizing Animations
The display options that are available for static plots are also available for Maple animations.
Interactive Plot Builder Animation Options
Using the Interactive Plot Builder, you can apply various plot options within the Plot
Options window. See Interactive Plot Builder (page 271).
Context Menu Options
As with static plots, you can apply plot options to the animation by right-clicking (Control-click for Macintosh) the animation output.
(6.2)
278 • 6 Plots and Animations
Customize the animation using the context menu:
1. To change the line style, right-click the plot region. Select Style → Point.
2. To remove the axes, select Axes → None.
The animate Command Options
The animate command offers a few options that are not available for static plots. Refer to
the animate help page for information on these additional options. By default, a two-dimensional animation consists of sixteen plots (frames) and a three-dimensional animation consists
of eight plots (frames). To create a smoother animation, increase the number of frames using
the frames option.
Note: Computing more frames increases time and memory requirements.
>
>
6.8 Customizing Animations • 279
>
280 • 6 Plots and Animations
6.9 Exporting
You can export a generated plot or animation to an image in various fil formats, including
DXF and X3D (for 3-D plots), EPS, GIF, JPEG/JPG, POV, Windows BMP, and WMF.
Exporting an animation to GIF produces an animated image file The exported images can
be included in presentations, web pages, Microsoft Word, or other software.
To export an image:
1. Right-click the plot region (Control-click for Macintosh).
2. Select Export and the fil format.
Alternatively:
1. Click the plot.
2. From the Plot menu, select Export, and then the fil format.
Maple has various plot drivers. By setting the plotdevice, a fil can be automatically created
without returning the image to the document. For more information, refer to the plot,device
help page.
6.10 Code for Color Plates
Generating impressive graphics in Maple can require only a few lines of code, as shown by
the examples in this chapter. However, other graphics require many lines of code. Code for
the color plates is available at the Maple Application Center.
From the Help menu, select On the Web, User Resources, and then Application Center.
To access the color plate code:
1. Go to the Maple Application Center.
2. In the Keyword or phrase region, enter Color Plate.
7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Maple allows you to create powerful documents as business and education tools, technical
reports, presentations, assignments, and handouts.
You can:
• Copy, cut, and paste information
• Format text for reports or course material
• Add headers and footers
• Insert images, tables, and symbols
• Generate two- and three-dimensional plots and animations
• Sketch in the document or on a plot
• Insert hyperlinks to other Maple files web sites, or email addresses
• Place instructions and equations side by side
• Bookmark specifi areas
• Easily update, revise, and distribute your documents
In this chapter, we will create a document that demonstrates many of Maple's documentation
features. For further examples, note that this guide was written using Maple.
7.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Document Formatting (page 282) - Add • Copy and Paste (page 283)
various text formatting elements
• Quick Character Formatting (page 283)
• Quick Paragraph Formatting (page 285)
• Character and Paragraph Styles (page 287)
• Sections (page 294)
• Headers and Footers (page 296)
• Show or Hide Worksheet Content (page 297)
• Indentation and the Tab Key (page 298)
Commands in Documents (page 299) - • Document Blocks (page 299)
Format and display or hide commands
• Typesetting (page 302)
in a document
• Auto-Execute (page 302)
281
282 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Section
Tables (page 304) - Create tables and
modify their attributes
Topics
• Creating a table
• Cell contents
• Navigating table cells
• Modifying Structural Layout
• Modifying Physical Dimensions
• Modifying Appearance
• Printing Options
• Execution Order
• Tables in the Classic Worksheet
Canvas (page 316) - Sketch an idea in • Insert a Canvas
the document by inserting a canvas
• Drawing
• Canvas Style
• Inserting Images
Hyperlinks (page 320) and Bookmarks - • Inserting a Hyperlink in the Document
Add hyperlinks to various sources
• Linking to an Email Address, Dictionary Topic, Help
Page, Maplet Application, Web Page, or Document
• Bookmarks
Embedded Components (page 326) - In- • Overview of available components
sert buttons, sliders, and more in your • Example using a task template
document
Spell Checking (page 328) - Verify text • How to Use the Spellcheck Utility
with the Maple spell checking utility
• Selecting a Suggestion
• User Dictionary
Creating Graded Assignments (page 331) • Creating a Question
- Create documents for automated testing • Viewing Questions in Maple
and assessment
• Saving Test Content
Worksheet Compatibility (page 332) Compatibility Issues
• Classic Worksheet interface does not support all Standard
Worksheet interface features
7.2 Document Formatting
To begin, create a new Maple document. From the File menu, select New → Document
Mode. For this example, you can copy and paste text from any file The example text below
is from a Maple help page, plot, but the formatting has been removed for demonstration
purposes.
7.2 Document Formatting • 283
Copy and Paste
You can cut, copy, and paste content within Maple documents, and from other sources.
To copy an expression, or part of an expression, to another location on the document:
1. Select the expression, or part of the expression, to copy.
2. From the Edit menu, select Copy.
3. Place the cursor at the insertion point.
4. From the Edit menu, select Paste.
Result:
If you paste into a math input region, Maple interprets all the pasted content as input. If you
paste into a text region, Maple interprets all the pasted content as text. However, note that
2-D Math retains its format in both input and text regions.
When you copy and paste to another application, in general, Maple retains the original
structure.
Quick Character Formatting
The Format→Character menu provides access to the following quick formatting features:
Bold, Italic, Underline, Superscript, Subscript, Font Color, and Highlight Color.
To modify text:
1. In the document, select the text to modify.
2. From the Format menu, select Character, and then the appropriate feature.
284 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
For example, in the pasted text, select "Calling Sequences" and apply Bold character
formatting.
Alternatively, use the context bar icons. For example, to apply a color to the parameters "f,
x=x0..x1":
• Font Color Context Bar Icon
• Highlight Color Context Icon
For font and highlight colors, you can select from Swatches, a color wheel, RGB values,
or choose a color using the eye dropper tool. See Figure 7.1.
Figure 7.1: Select Color Dialog
In this example, choose a dark purple color, as in the help pages.
To format this text as bold, click the Bold toolbar icon,
Sequence" and format as bold.
Result:
. Also, select the text "Calling
7.2 Document Formatting • 285
Attributes Submenu: Setting Fonts, Character Size, and Attributes
You can also change various character attributes such as font, character size, style, and
color in one dialog.
To modify text:
1. In the document, select text to modify.
2. From the Format menu, select Character, and then Attributes. The Character Style
dialog opens. See Figure 7.2.
Figure 7.2: Character Style Dialog
Quick Paragraph Formatting
The Format→Paragraph menu provides access to the following quick alignment features:
Align Left, Center, Align Right, and Justify.
286 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
To modify a paragraph:
1. In the document, select the paragraph to modify.
2. From the Format menu, select Paragraph, and then the appropriate feature.
Attributes Submenu: Spacing, Indent, Alignment, Bullets, Line Break, and
Page Break
You can change various paragraph attributes in one dialog.
• From the Format menu, select Paragraph, and then Attributes. The Paragraph Style
dialog opens. See Figure 7.3.
• When changing spacing, you must indicate units (inches, centimeters, or points) in the
Units drop-down list.
Figure 7.3: Paragraph Style Dialog
For example, in the pasted text, select all of the items under "Parameters", then open the
Paragraph Style dialog. Notice that the spacing has already been set.
In the Indent section, change the Left Margin indent to 10.0 pt.
7.2 Document Formatting • 287
In the Bullets and Numbering section, click the Style drop-down and select Dash. Click
OK to close the dialog and apply the styles.
Result:
For more information, refer to the paragraphmenu help page.
Character and Paragraph Styles
Maple has predefine styles for characters and paragraphs. A style is a set of formatting
characteristics that you can apply to text in your document to change the appearance of that
text. When you apply a style, you apply a group of formats in one action.
• A character style controls text font, size, color, and attributes such as bold and italic.
To override the character style within a paragraph style, you must apply a character style
or character formatting.
• A paragraph style controls all aspects of a paragraph's appearance, such as text alignment,
line spacing, and indentation. In Maple, each paragraph style includes a character style.
288 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Figure 7.4: Style Management Dialog
Applying Character Styles
By using the drop-down list in the document context bar, you can apply:
• Existing Maple character styles.
• New styles that you have created through the Style Management (Figure 7.4) and
Character Style (Figure 7.5) dialogs.
To apply a character style to text in your document:
1. Select the text to modify.
2. In the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your document, select an appropriate
character style. All character styles are preceded by the letter C. The selected text now
reflect the attributes of the character style you have chosen.
3. (Optional) If necessary, you can remove this style. From the Edit menu, select Undo.
7.2 Document Formatting • 289
Creating and Modifying Character Styles
You can create custom character styles to apply to text, or change existing character styles.
New styles are automatically added to the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your
document.
1. From the Format menu, select Styles. The Style Management dialog opens. See
Figure 7.4.
To create a character style:
• Click Create Character Style. The Character Style dialog opens. See Figure 7.5.
• In the firs row of the dialog, enter a style name in the blank text region.
To modify a character style:
• From the style list, select the character style to modify. Recall that all character styles
are preceded by the letter C, while paragraph styles are preceded by the letter P.
• Click Modify. The Character Style dialog opens with the current attributes displayed.
See Figure 7.5.
For either action, continue:
2. Select the properties for the new character style, such as font, size, attributes, and color.
In the font attributes, the Superscript and Subscript check boxes are mutually exclusive.
When you select one of the two check boxes, the other is disabled. You must clear one
before selecting the other.
Note: A preview of the style is displayed in the last row of the Character Style dialog.
3. To save the style, click OK or to abandon, click Cancel. If you have modifie a style,
all text in your document that uses the altered style is updated to reflec the changes.
290 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Figure 7.5: Definin a Character Style
For example, in the pasted text, suppose we want to create a character style for the bold,
purple parameter.
• From the Format menu, select Styles, then click Create Character Style.
• Enter the style name, "Placeholder", and then select the character attributes. In this case,
click the Bold check box. Then click the Color button and choose a dark purple. Click
OK to create the character style.
Now you can apply the style to any text. Under Calling Sequences, select each list of
parameters inside the command. To apply the style, from the Styles drop-down menu in
the toolbar, select Parameter.
Result:
7.2 Document Formatting • 291
Applying Paragraph Styles
By using the drop-down list in the document context bar, you can apply:
• Existing Maple paragraph styles.
• New styles that you have created through the Style Management (Figure 7.4) and Definin a Paragraph Style (Figure 7.6) dialogs.
To apply a Maple paragraph style to text in your document:
1. Select the text to modify.
2. In the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your document, select an appropriate
paragraph style. All Maple paragraph styles are preceded by the letter P. The selected
text now reflect the attributes of the paragraph style you have chosen.
For example, to format the title of the pasted text as a title, firs select the line: "plot - create
a two-dimensional plot". In the Styles drop-down, select Title.
Result:
292 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
3. (Optional) If necessary, you can remove this style. From the Edit menu, select Undo.
Creating and Modifying Paragraph Styles
You can create custom paragraph styles to apply to text, or change existing paragraph styles.
New styles are automatically added to the styles drop-down list in the context bar of your
document.
1. From the Format menu, select Styles. The Style Management dialog opens. See
Figure 7.4.
To create a paragraph style:
• Click Create Paragraph Style. The Paragraph Style dialog opens. See Figure 7.6.
• In the firs row of the dialog, enter a style name in the blank text field
To modify a paragraph style:
• Select a paragraph style to modify. Recall that all paragraph styles are preceded by the
letter P.
• Click Modify. The Paragraph Style dialog opens with the current attributes displayed.
For either action, continue:
4. In the Units drop-down menu, select the units used to determine spacing and indentation.
Select from inches (in), centimeters (cm), or points (pt).
5. Select the properties to use for this paragraph style, such as Spacing, Indent, Alignment,
Bullets and Numbering, Page Break Before, and Linebreak.
6. To add or modify a font style, click Font. The Character Style dialog opens. For detailed
instructions, see Creating and Modifying Character Styles (page 289).
7.2 Document Formatting • 293
7. To save the style, click OK, or to abandon, click Cancel. If you are modifying an existing
style, all text in your document that uses the altered style is updated to reflec the changes.
Figure 7.6: Definin a Paragraph Style
Style Set Management: Saving Styles for Future Use
You can use the style set of a particular document as the default style for all documents.
294 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Figure 7.7: Style Set Management Dialog
For information on creating and managing style sets, see the worksheet/documenting/styles
help page.
Sections
You can organize your document into sections, either before or after the text has been
entered.
Using the Insert Menu to Add Sections
1. Place the cursor in the paragraph or execution group above the location at which you
want to insert a new section.
• If the cursor is inside a section, Maple inserts the new section after the current section.
7.2 Document Formatting • 295
• If the cursor is in an execution group, Maple inserts the new section after the execution
group.
2. From the Insert menu, select Section. An arrow marks the start of the section.
3. Enter the section heading.
4. Press the Enter key.
5. Enter the body of the section.
Tips for Adding Subsections
The insert location of subsections is the same as for sections, with a few exceptions.
• Subsections are inserted at the current cursor location when in a subsection.
• To insert a subsection immediately after the current subsection, collapse the subsection
and place the cursor in the subsection title.
Using the Indent and Outdent Toolbar Icons
You can shift sections to create or remove subsections.
Enclose the selection in a section or subsection
Outdent the selection to the next section level, if possible.
For example, to create two sections containing the two categories of information in the
pasted text:
1. Select "Parameters" and all of the items under it.
2. Click the Indent toolbar item.
3. Cut and paste "Parameters" from inside the section to its title.
4. Similarly, create a section with the title "Calling Sequence", containing the items under
that heading.
296 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Result:
Note: the section titles are automatically formatted as section titles, but you can change the
formatting through the Paragraph Style dialog.
Headers and Footers
You can add headers and footers to your document that will appear at the top and bottom
of each page when you print the document.
To add or edit headers and footers:
From the View menu, select Header Footer. The Header Footer dialog appears. See
Figure 7.8.
Figure 7.8: Header and Footer Dialog - Custom Header
The available elements include the current date, page number, number of pages, an image,
the filename or any plain text. These elements can be placed in the left or right corner or
the center of the page.
7.2 Document Formatting • 297
You can choose one of the predefine header or footer styles in the Predefine Header
and Footer tab, or create your own by clicking the Custom Header or Custom Footer
tab.
For more information on header and footer options, refer to the headerfooter help page.
Show or Hide Worksheet Content
You can hide document elements of a specifi type so that they are not visible. This does
not delete them, but hides them from view. Hidden elements are not printed or exported,
but they can be copied and pasted.
In a document, use the Show Contents dialog to hide all spreadsheets, input, output, or
graphics, plus markers for section boundaries, execution group boundaries, hidden table
borders on mouse pointer roll over, and annotations. The dialog is accessed from the
View→Show/Hide Contents menu.
Using the Show Contents Dialog
A check mark beside the item indicates that all document elements of that type are displayed
for the current document. See Figure 7.9.
Figure 7.9: Show Contents Dialog
298 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
1. From the View menu, select Show/Hide Contents. The Show Contents dialog opens
with all items selected for display.
2. Clear the check box associated with the document components or markers to hide them.
Note: By clearing the Input check box, only Maple Input and 2-D Math input, that is, 2-D
Math content that has been evaluated, are hidden. Clearing the Graphics check box ensures
that a plot, an image, or the Canvas inserted in the document by using the Insert menu
option is also hidden.
Command Output Versus Inserted Content
Output is considered an element that results from executing a command. Inserted components
are not considered output.
Consider the following examples.
The plot resulting from executing the plot(sin) command is considered output.
• To show a plot from the plot(sin) command, select both the Output and Graphics check
boxes in the Show Contents dialog.
If you insert a plot by using the Insert menu option, that plot is not considered output.
Therefore, if you clear the Output check box in the Show Contents dialog, that plot will
be visible in the document.
• To hide an inserted plot, clear the Graphics check box in the Show Contents dialog.
Inserted images and the Canvas are not considered output. As such, they are not hidden if
you clear the Output check box.
• To hide an inserted image or canvas, clear the Graphics check box in the Show Contents
dialog.
Indentation and the Tab Key
The Tab icon allows you to set the Tab key either to move between placeholders or to indent.
For example, with the Tab icon off, click the exponent button in the Expression palette.
The expression is inserted with the firs placeholder highlighted. To move to the next
placeholder, use the Tab key.
Tab icon off. Allows you to move between placeholders using the Tab key.
The Tab icon is disabled when using 2-D Math (Math mode), and as such, the Tab
key allows you to move between placeholders.
Tab icon on. Allows you to indent in the document using the Tab key.
7.3 Commands in Documents • 299
7.3 Commands in Documents
Document Blocks
With document blocks, you can create documents that present text and math in formats
similar to those found in business and education documents.
In a document block, an input prompt or execution group is not displayed.
By hiding Maple input such that only text and results are visible, you create a document
with better presentation flo . Before using document blocks, it is recommended that you
display Markers. A vertical bar is displayed along the left pane of the document. Icons
representing document blocks are displayed in this vertical bar next to associated content.
To activate Markers:
• From the View menu, select Markers.
For further details on document blocks, see Document Blocks (page 50) in Chapter 1.
Working with Document Blocks
In document mode, each time you press Enter, a new document block appears. Documents
consist of a series of document blocks.
1. Create a new document block after the last section of the pasted example, either by
pressing Enter, or by selecting, from the Format menu, Create Document Block.
2. Enter text and an expression to evaluate. For example, enter "Plot the expression
and its derivative,
". For detailed instructions on entering this phrase, see
Example 6 - Enter Text and 2-D Math in the Same Line Using Toolbar Icons (page 30)
in Chapter 1.
3. Select the expression Control-click, for Macintosh) to display the context menu.
4. Click the Evaluate and Display Inline menu item. The expression is evaluated.
5. Check that the input mode is Text, then enter the rest of the sentence: ", in the same
plot." See Figure 7.10.
300 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Before
After
Figure 7.10: Working with Document Blocks
Result:
Inline Document Output
Document blocks can display content inline, that is, text, input, and output in one line as
presented in business and education documents. In document mode, content is displayed
inline by default.
7.3 Commands in Documents • 301
To display content inline:
1. Place the cursor in the document block.
2. From the View menu, select Inline Document Output.
View Document Code
To view the contents, that is, all code and expanded execution groups within a document
block, you must expand the document block.
1. Place the cursor in the document block region.
2. From the View menu, select Expand Document Block.
3. To hide code again, select View and then Collapse Document Block.
Expand an Execution Group within a Document Block
An execution group is a grouping of Maple input with its corresponding Maple output. It
is distinguished by a large square bracket at the left called a group boundary.
As document blocks can contain many execution groups, you can select to expand an execution group within a document block.
1. Place the cursor near the end of the document block region.
2. From the View menu, select Expand Execution Group.
3. To hide the group, select View and then Collapse Execution Group.
Switch between Input and Output
1. Place the cursor in the document block region.
2. From the View menu, select Toggle Input-Output Display.
302 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Input from any executable math or commands is displayed in one instance, or only output
is displayed.
Typesetting
You can control typesetting and 2-D Math equation parsing options in the Standard Worksheet interface. Extended typesetting uses a customizable set of rules for displaying expressions.
The rule-based typesetting functionality is available when the Typesetting level is set to
Extended (Tools→Options→Display tab). This parsing functionality applies to 2-D Math
editing (Math mode) only.
For example, you can change the display of derivatives to suit the content and audience of
your document.
>
>
Tools→Options→Display tab: Typesetting level =
Maple Standard.
Tools→Options→Display tab: Typesetting level = Extended.
To specify rules, use the Typesetting Rule Assistant.
• From the View menu, select Typesetting Rules. The Typesetting Rule Assistant dialog
opens.
For more information, see the Typesetting, TypesettingRuleAssist, and OptionsDialogDisplay help pages.
Auto-Execute
The Autoexecute feature allows you to designate regions of a document for automatic execution. These regions are executed when the document opens or when the restart command
is executed. This is useful when sharing documents. Important commands can be executed
as soon as the user opens your document. The user is not required to execute all commands.
For more information, refer to the restart help page.
Setting the Auto-Execute Feature
1. Select the region to be automatically executed when the document opens.
2. From the Format menu, select Autoexecute, and then Set.
7.3 Commands in Documents • 303
Regions set to Autoexecute are denoted by exclamation mark symbols in the Markers region
(View → Markers),
.
For example, to display a plot in your document without saving the plot, making your document use less memory, you can set a plot command to autoexecute.
1. After the plot instruction, enter a Maple prompt (Insert → Execution Group → After
Cursor).
2. Enter the plot command:
and press Enter to execute.
3. Select the plot, then select Edit → Remove Output → From Selection.
4. Place the cursor in the plot command, then select Format → Autoexecute → Set.
5. Save and close the document; on reopening, the command is re-executed.
Result:
Removing the Auto-Execute Setting
To remove the setting in a region:
1. Select the region.
2. From the Format menu, select Autoexecute, and then Clear.
To remove all autoexecuted regions from a document:
• From the Format menu, select Autoexecute, and then Clear All.
304 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Repeating Auto-Execution
To execute all marked groups:
• From the Edit menu, select Execute, and then Repeat Autoexecution.
Security Levels
By default, Maple prompts the user before automatically executing the document.
To set security levels for the autoexecute feature, use the Security tab in the Options dialog.
For details, refer to the OptionsDialogSecurity help page.
7.4 Tables
Tables allow you to organize content in a document.
Creating a Table
To create a table:
1. From the Insert menu, select Table.
2. Specify the number of rows and columns in the table creation dialog.
3. Click OK.
The default properties for the table include visible borders and auto-adjustment to 100% of
the document width. These options, as well as the table dimensions, can be modifie after
table creation.
Create a table with 4 rows and 2 columns at the end of your document. In document mode,
the input mode is set to Math by default; in worksheet mode, the default is Text mode.
Cell Contents
Any content that can be placed into a document can also be placed into a table cell, including
other sections and tables. Table cells can contain a mix of:
• Input commands
• 2-D Math
• Embedded components: buttons, sliders, check boxes, and more
• Plots
7.4 Tables • 305
• Images
Enter a heading in both columns of the firs row, in 2-D Math. You can use any text
formatting features within each cell; for example, bold and center the headings.
Navigating Table Cells
Use the Tab key to move to the next cell. Ensure that the Tab toolbar icon is off.
Tab icon off. Allows you to move between cells using the Tab key.
Tab icon on. Allows you to indent in the table using the Tab key.
Tab between the cells of the table and enter the following expressions in the firs column.
For each function, from the context menu, select Differentiate → With respect to → x.
Cut and paste the resulting expression into the second column.
Modifying the Structural Layout of a Table
The number of rows and columns in a table are modifie using the Insert and Delete submenus in the Table menu or by using the Cut and Copy/Paste tools.
Inserting Rows and Columns
Row and column insertion is relative to the table cell that currently contains the cursor. If
the document has an active selection, insertion is relative to the selection boundaries.
• Column insertion can be to the left or right of the document position marker or selection.
306 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
• Row insertion can be above or below the marker or selection.
In your table, add a third column on the right to display the plots of these expressions. Add
the heading, and insert a blank plot region in each cell below it, by selecting Insert → Plot
→ 2-D (or 3-D for the second expression). Then Ctrl-drag (Control-drag for Macintosh)
each expression in the row into its plot region to display it. For details on this procedure,
see Plots and Animations (page 237).
Resize the plots and table as desired.
Plot of
and
Deleting Rows and Columns
With deleting operations using the Delete key, the Delete Table Contents dialog opens
allowing you to specify the desired behavior. For example, you can delete the selected rows,
or delete the contents of the selected cells. See Figure 7.11.
7.4 Tables • 307
Figure 7.11: Delete Table Contents Verificatio Dialog
Pasting
Pasting a table subselection into a table may result in the creation of additional rows or
columns, overwriting existing cell content, or the insertion of a subtable within the active
table cell. When there is a choice, the Table Paste Mode dialog opens, allowing you to
choose. See Figure 7.12.
Figure 7.12: Table Paste Mode Selection Dialog
Merging Cells
To merge adjacent cells in a table, select the cells you would like to merge. From the Table
menu, select Merge Cells. You can merge cells across row or column borders. See
Figure 7.13. The resulting cell must be rectangular. The contents of the individual cells in
the merge operation are concatenated in execution order. See Figure 7.14. For details on
cell execution order, see Execution Order Dependency (page 313).
>
>
Figure 7.13: Two Cells
>
>
Figure 7.14: Merged Cells
308 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Modifying the Physical Dimensions of a Table
The overall width of the table can be controlled in several ways.
The most direct way is to press the left mouse button (press mouse button, for Macintosh)
while hovering over the left or right table boundary and dragging the mouse left or right.
Upon release of the mouse button, the table boundary is updated. This approach can also
be used to resize the relative width of table columns.
Alternatively, the size of the table can be controlled from the Table Properties dialog. Select
the Table menu and then Properties. Two sizing modes are supported.
1. Fixed percentage of page width. Using this option, the table width adjusts whenever
the width of the document changes. This option is useful for ensuring that the entire
content of the table fit in the screen or printed page.
2. Scale with zoom factor. This option is used to preserve the size and layout of the table
regardless of the size of the document window or the zoom factor. If the table exceeds
the width of the document window, the horizontal scroll bar can be used to view the
rightmost columns. Note: Using this option, tables may be incomplete when printed.
Modifying the Appearance of a Table
Table Borders
The style of exterior and interior borders is set using the Table Properties dialog. From
the Table menu, select Properties.
• You can set all, none, or only some of the borders to be visible in a table. Exterior borders
are controlled separately.
• You can control the visibility of interior borders by using the Group submenu of the Table
menu; grouping rows or columns suppresses interior borders, provided that the interior
border style is set by row and column group.
7.4 Tables • 309
For example, group the columns together, and group rows 2 to 4 together. Then in the Table
Properties dialog, select Exterior Borders: Top and bottom, and Interior Borders: By
row and column group.
• Hidden borders are visible when the mouse hovers over a table. Note: You can hide the
visibility of lines on mouse pointer roll over by using the View→Show/Hide Contents
dialog, and clearing the Hidden Table Borders check box.
Alignment Options
The table alignment tools control the horizontal alignment of columns and vertical alignment
of rows.
310 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
For column alignment, the current selection is expanded to encompass all rows in the selected
columns. The alignment choice applies to all cells within the expanded selection. If the
document does not contain a selection, the cursor position is used to identify the column.
Similarly, the selection is expanded to include all columns in the selected rows for vertical
alignment options. The following table illustrates the vertical alignment options. The baseline
option is useful for aligning equations across multiple cells within a row of a table.
7.4 Tables • 311
For example, set the Row alignment to Baseline for all rows, and set the Column alignment
to Center for all columns.
Cell Color
You can set the background color of any cell or collection of cells to be any color. This
coloring is independent of any highlighting or text color that may also be applied.
To change the color of a cell, place the cursor in the cell, then from the Table menu, select
Cell Color.... In the Select A Color dialog, choose a color from the swatches, the color
wheel, or RGB. See the DrawingTools help page for details on color selection.
312 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
For example, select the firs row of the table and apply a light blue color. This sets the
header off from the content below.
Controlling the Visibility of Cell Content
The Table Properties dialog includes two options to control the visibility of cell content.
These options allow control over the visibility of Maple input and execution group boundaries. Thus, these elements can be hidden in a table even if they are set to visible for the
document in the View→Show/Hide Contents dialog.
Printing Options
The Table Properties dialog contains options to control the placement of page breaks when
printing. You can fi a table on a single page, allow page breaks between rows, or allow
page breaks within a row.
7.4 Tables • 313
Execution Order Dependency
The order in which cells are executed is set in the Table Properties dialog. The following
tables illustrate the effect of execution order.
Row-wise execution order
> x:=1;
> x:=x+1;
(7.1)
> x:=x+1;
(7.2)
> x:=x+1;
(7.3)
(7.4)
Column-wise execution order
> x:=1;
> x:=x+1;
(7.5)
> x:=x+1;
(7.6)
> x:=x+1;
(7.7)
(7.8)
Tables and the Classic Worksheet
Tables are flattene on export to the Classic Worksheet interface. For example, the following
table in the Standard Worksheet appears as one column in the Classic Worksheet interface.
Table in Standard Worksheet
Table in Classic Worksheet
aaa
bbb
ccc
aaa
bbb
ccc
ddd
eee
fff
ddd
eee
fff
Additional Examples
For more practice creating and manipulating tables, try creating the following tables at the
end of your document.
314 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Table of Values
This example illustrates how to set the visibility options for cell contents to display a table
of values.
>
Create a table with 2 rows and 7 columns. Enter the values as below, and then select all
table cells. In the Table → Alignment menu, select Columns, and then Center.
0
>
1
>
2
>
3
4
>
>
5
>
6
>
Table settings:
In the Properties dialog (Table → Properties menu):
1. Set Table Size Mode to Scale with zoom factor.
2. Hide Maple input and execution group boundaries: Clear the Show input and Show
execution group boundaries check boxes.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Formatting Table Headers
The following table uses cell merging for formatting row and column headers, and row and
column grouping to control the visibility of cell boundaries.
By default, invisible cell boundaries are visible on mouse pointer roll over. You can hide
the visibility of lines on mouse pointer roll over by using the View→Show/Hide Contents
dialog, and clearing the Hidden Table Borders check box.
Parameter 2
Parameter 1
Low
High
Low
13
18
High
24
29
7.4 Tables • 315
Table settings:
1. Insert a table with 4 rows and 4 columns and enter the information shown above.
Using the Table menu:
2. Merge the following sets of (Row,Column) cells: (R1,C1) to (R2,C2), (R1,C3) to (R1,C4),
and (R3,C1) to (R4,C1).
3. Group columns 1 and 2, and columns 3 and 4.
4. Group rows 1 and 2, and rows 3 and 4.
In the Properties dialog (Table→Properties menu):
5. Set Exterior Borders to None.
6. (Optional) Change Table Size Mode size option to Scale with zoom factor.
Using the Table menu:
7. Set Alignment of columns 3 and 4 to Center.
2-D Math and Plots
The following example illustrates the use of tables to display 2-D Math and plots side by
side.
Approximating exp(-x) as a rational polynomial
using a
order Padé approximation.
Insert a table with 1 row and 2 columns. Enter the information in text and executable 2-D
Math to create the calculation and plot, as shown.
316 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Table Settings:
In the Properties dialog (Table→Properties menu):
1. Set Exterior and Interior Borders to None.
2. Hide Maple input and execution group boundaries: Clear the Show input and Show
execution group boundaries check boxes.
Using the Table menu:
3. Change row Alignment to Center.
7.5 Canvas
Using the drawing tools, you can sketch an idea in a canvas, draw on plots, and draw on
images. See Figure 7.15. For details about the drawing feature, refer to the DrawingTools
help page.
Figure 7.15: Drawing Tools and Canvas
7.5 Canvas • 317
Insert a Canvas
To insert a canvas:
1. Place the cursor where the canvas is to be inserted.
2. From the Insert menu, select Canvas. A canvas with grid lines appears in the document
at the insertion point. The Drawing icon is available and associated context bar icons
are displayed.
The tools include the following: selection tool, pencil (free style drawing), eraser, text insert,
straight line, rectangle, rounded rectangle, oval, diamond, alignment, drawing outline,
drawing fill drawing linestyle, and drawing canvas properties.
Drawing
To draw with the pencil tool in the canvas:
1. From the Drawing icons, select the pencil icon.
2. Click and drag your mouse in the canvas to draw lines. Release the mouse to complete
the drawing.
To adjust the color of drawing tools:
1. From the Drawing icons, select the Drawing Outline icon. See Figure 7.16.
2. Select one of the color swatches available or select the color wheel, RGB ranges, or eye
dropper icon at the bottom of the dialog and customize the color to your preference.
3. After selecting a new color, draw on the canvas using the pencil icon and notice the new
color.
Figure 7.16: Drawing Outline Color Icon
In your document, there are three plots, two of which are 2-D plots that can be drawn on.
All of the information in the table you made in the previous section could be drawn onto
the plot, putting the information in a more concise layout.
318 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Consider one of the plots from the table:
Click on the plot, and notice that the Plot toolbar is open. However, the Drawing toolbar
is also available. Click on Drawing to see the toolbar.
Select the Text icon,
, and click on the plot. Enter the expression
in one text area,
and its derivative in another, as shown. You can move the text areas around on the plot so
that they indicate the correct lines.
For details on the rest of the drawing features, refer to the DrawingTools help page.
Canvas Style
You can alter the Canvas in the following ways:
• Add a grid of horizontal and/or vertical lines. By default, the canvas opens with a grid
of horizontal and vertical lines.
• Change the grid line color.
• Change the spacing between grid lines.
• Change the background color.
These options can be changed in the Drawing Properties Canvas Icon. See Figure 7.17.
7.5 Canvas • 319
Figure 7.17: Drawing Properties Canvas Icon - Change the Gridline Color
Inserting Images
You can insert images in these fil formats into
your document.
• Graphics Interchange Format - gif
• Joint Photographic Experts Group - jpe,
jpeg, jpg
• Portable Network Graphics - png
• Bitmap Graphics - bmp
• Tagged Image File Format - tif, tiff, jfx
• Portable aNyMap - pnm
• Kodak FlashPix - fpx
To insert an image into the document at the cursor location:
1. From the Insert menu, select Image. The Load Image dialog opens.
2. Specify a path or folder name.
3. Select a filename
4. Click Open. The image is displayed in the document.
If the source fil is altered, the embedded image does not change because the original object
is pasted into the document.
320 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
To resize an inserted image:
1. Click the image. Resizing anchors appear at the sides and corners of the image.
2. Move the mouse over the resize anchor. Resizing arrows appear.
3. Click and drag the image to the desired size.
Note: To constrain the proportions of the image as it is resized, press and hold the Shift
key as you drag.
You can also draw on images in the same way as the drawing canvas. For more information,
refer to the worksheet/documenting/drawingtools help page.
ImageTools Package
You can manipulate image data using the ImageTools package. This package is a collection
of utilities for reading and writing common image fil formats, and for performing basic
image processing operations within Maple.
Within Maple, images are represented as dense, rectangular Arrays of 64-bit hardware
floating-poin numbers. Grayscale images are 2-D, whereas color images are 3-D (the third
dimension representing the color channels).
In addition to the commands in the ImageTools package, many ordinary Array and Matrix
operations are useful for image processing.
For details about this feature, refer to the ImageTools help page.
7.6 Hyperlinks
Use a hyperlink in your document to access any of the following.
• Web Page (URL)
• Email
• Worksheet
• Help Topic
• Task
• Dictionary Topic
• Maplet
7.6 Hyperlinks • 321
Figure 7.18: Hyperlink Properties Dialog
Inserting a Hyperlink in a Document
To create a hyperlink from existing text in the document:
1. Highlight the text that you want to make a hyperlink.
2. From the Format menu, select Convert To and then Hyperlink.
3. In the Hyperlink Properties dialog box, the Link Text fiel is grayed out since the text
region you highlighted is used as the link text. This is demonstrated in Figure 7.18. The
highlighted text region, Diff is grayed out.
4. Specify the hyperlink Type and Target as described in the appropriate following section.
To insert a text or image hyperlink into the document:
1. From the Insert menu, select Hyperlink.
2. In the Hyperlink Properties dialog box, enter the Link Text.
Optionally, use an image as the link. Select the Image check box and click Choose Image
for the file In .mw files the image appears as the link. You can resize the image as necessary.
Click and drag from the corners of the image to resize.
3. Specify the hyperlink Type and Target as described in the appropriate following section.
322 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Linking to a Web Page
To link to a Web page:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select URL.
2. In the Target field enter the full URL, for example, http://www.maplesoft.com.
3. Click OK.
Linking to an Email Address
To link to an email address:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select Email.
2. In the Target field enter the email address.
3. Click OK.
Note: For information about email hyperlinks in the Classic Worksheet interface, see
Worksheet Compatibility (page 332).
Linking to a Worksheet
To link to a Maple worksheet or document:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select Worksheet.
2. In the Target field enter the path and filenam of the document or click Browse to
locate the file (Optional) In the Bookmark drop-down list, enter or select a bookmark.
Note: To link within a single Maple document, leave the Target fiel blank and choose the
bookmark from the Bookmark drop-down list.
Note: When linking to a custom document, the path is absolute. When sharing documents
that contain hyperlinks, ensure that target documents are in the same directory.
3. Click OK.
Linking to a Help Page
To link to a help page:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select Help Topic.
2. In the Target field enter the topic of the help page. (Optional) In the Bookmark dropdown list, enter or select a bookmark.
3. Click OK.
7.6 Hyperlinks • 323
Linking to a Task
To link to a task:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select Task.
2. In the Target field enter the topic name of the task template (see the status bar at the
bottom of the Task Browser window).
3. Click OK.
Linking to a Dictionary Topic
To link to a Dictionary topic:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select Dictionary Topic.
2. In the Target field enter a topic name. Dictionary topics begin with the prefi Definition ,
for example, Definition/dimensio .
3. Click OK.
Linking to a Maplet Application
To link to a Maplet application:
1. In the Type drop-down list, select Maplet.
2. In the Target field enter the local path to a fil with the .maplet extension. Optionally,
click Browse to locate the file
If the Maplet application exists, clicking the link launches the Maplet application. If the
Maplet application contains syntax errors, then error messages are displayed in a pop-up
window.
When linking to a custom Maplet application, the path is absolute. When sharing documents
that contain links to Maplet applications, ensure that target Maplet applications are in the
same directory.
3. Click OK.
Note: To link to a Maplet application available on a MapleNet Web page, use the URL
hyperlink type to link to the Web page. For information on MapleNet, see Embedded
Components and Maplets (page 385).
Example
For this example, link the text "horizontal range" to the dictionary page for domain. As indicated in the section for Linking to a Dictionary Topic, select Dictionary Topic in the
Type drop-down list, and then enter Definition/domai in the Target field
324 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Links to dictionary topics appear underlined and in red.
Result:
Bookmarks
Use a bookmark to designate a location in an active document. This bookmark can then be
accessed from other regions in your document or by using hyperlinks in other documents.
To display bookmark formatting icons, activate the Marker feature.
• From the View menu, select Markers.
Figure 7.19: Bookmark Indicator
Note: You can display bookmark properties by holding the pointer over a bookmark indicator. See Figure 7.19.
Inserting, Renaming, and Deleting a Bookmark
To insert a bookmark:
1. Place the cursor at the location at which to place the bookmark. For example, place the
cursor in the Parameters section title.
2. From the Format menu, select Bookmarks. The Bookmark dialog opens, listing existing
bookmarks in the document.
7.6 Hyperlinks • 325
3. Click New. The Create Bookmark dialog opens. See Figure 7.20. Enter a bookmark
name, "parameters", and click Create.
Figure 7.20: Create Bookmark Dialog
4. The new bookmark appears in the Bookmark dialog list. Click OK.
Note: You can also rename and delete bookmarks using the Bookmark dialog.
Result:
326 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Go to a Bookmark
You can automatically move the cursor to the location of the bookmark in the active document.
1. From the Edit menu, select Go To Bookmark. The Go To Bookmark dialog opens
with the current bookmarks listed.
2. Select the bookmark "parameters" and click OK. The cursor moves to the bookmark, at
the beginning of the Parameters section.
For more information, refer to the bookmarks help page.
7.7 Embedded Components
You can embed simple graphical interface components, such as a button, in your document.
These components can then be associated with actions that are to be executed. For example,
the value of a slider component can be assigned to a document variable, or a text fiel can
be used to input an equation.
Adding Graphical Interface Components
The graphical interface components can be inserted by using the Components palette
(Figure 7.21) or by cutting/copying and pasting existing components to another area of the
document. Although copied components have most of the same characteristics, they are
distinct.
By default, palettes are displayed when you launch Maple. If palettes are not visible, use
the following procedure.
1. From the View menu, select Palettes.
2. Select Expand Docks.
3. If the Components palette is not displayed, right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh)
the palette dock. From the context menu, select Show Palette, and then Components.
For more information, see Palettes (page 21).
You can embed the following items.
• Button, Toggle Button
• Combo Box, Check Box, List Box, Radio Button
• Text Area, Label
• Slider, Plot, Mathematical Expression
• Dial, Meter, Rotary Gauge, Volume Gauge
• Data Table
7.7 Embedded Components • 327
Figure 7.21: Components Palette
Task Template with Embedded Components
In your document, you can add components that have already been configure to work together, by using a task template. Here, we use the Interactive Application template. For
details on how to create and modify components, see Creating Embedded
Components (page 388).
To insert the task template, from the Tools menu, select Tasks → Browse. In the table of
contents, expand Document Templates, and select Interactive Application. Click Insert
Minimal Content. The following is inserted into your document.
328 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Figure 7.22: Interactive Application Task Template
This configuratio of components plots a linear function with slope and y-intercept given
and
, and displays the function
respectively by the two dials
on a gauge. For details on how these components work together, see Embedded
Components and Maplets (page 385).
7.8 Spell Checking
The Spellcheck utility examines all designated text regions of your document for potential
spelling mistakes, including regions that are in collapsed sections. It does not check input,
output, text in execution groups, or math in text regions. See Figure 7.23.
Note: The Spellcheck utility uses American spelling.
7.8 Spell Checking • 329
Figure 7.23: Spellcheck Dialog
How to Use the Spellcheck Utility
1. From the Tools menu, select Spellcheck. Alternatively, press F7. The Spellcheck dialog
appears. It automatically begins checking the document for potential spelling mistakes.
2. If the Spellcheck utility find a word that it does not recognize, that word is displayed
in the Not Found text box.
You have six choices:
• To ignore the word, click Ignore.
• To ignore all instances of the word, click Ignore All.
• To change the word, that is, accept the suggested spelling that is in the Change To text
box, click Change.
• To change all instances of the word, that is, accept the suggested spelling to replace all
instances of the word, click Change All.
• To add the word to your dictionary, click Add. For details, see the following User Dictionary section.
• To close the Spellcheck dialog and stop the spelling check, click Cancel.
3. When the Spellcheck is complete, a dialog containing the message "The spelling check
is complete" appears. Click OK to close this dialog.
330 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
Note: when using the Spellcheck utility, you can fi spelling errors in the dialog, but you
cannot change the text in document. The Spellcheck utility does not check grammar.
Selecting a Suggestion
To select one of the suggestions as the correct spelling, click the appropriate word from the
list in the Suggestions text box.
If none of the suggestions are correct, highlight the word in the Change To text box and
enter the correct spelling. Click Change to accept this new spelling.
User Dictionary
You can create and maintain a custom dictionary that works with the Maple Spellcheck
utility.
Properties of the Custom Dictionary File
• It must be a text file that is, have the fil extension .txt. For example, mydictionary.txt.
• It is a list of words, one word per line.
• It is case sensitive. This means that integer and Integer require individual entries in the
dictionary file
• It does not require manual maintenance. You build your dictionary fil by using the Add
functionality of the Spellcheck. However, you can manually edit the file
To specify a custom dictionary to be used with the Maple Spellcheck utility:
1. Create a .txt fil in a directory/folder of your choice.
2. In Maple, open the Options dialog, Tools → Options, and select the General tab.
3. In the User Dictionary field enter the path and name of the .txt fil you created, or click
Browse to select the location and filename
4. To ignore Maple words that are command and function names, clear the Use Maple
words in spellchecker check box.
5. Click Apply to Session or Apply Globally to save the settings, or Cancel to discard.
Adding a Word to Your Dictionary
When running the spellcheck, if the word in the Not Found text box is correct, you can add
the word to your dictionary.
1. Click the Add button. If this is the firs time you are adding a word, the Select User
Dictionary dialog opens.
2. Enter or select the custom dictionary (.txt file you created. See User
Dictionary (page 330).
7.9 Creating Graded Assignments • 331
3. Click Select. The word is automatically added to your custom dictionary file
Note: Specification in the Options dialog determine whether this word is recognized in
your next Maple session. If you set your custom dictionary and clicked Apply to Session,
then this word will not be recognized in a new Maple session. If you set your custom dictionary and clicked Apply Globally, then this new word will be recognized.
7.9 Creating Graded Assignments
You can use Maple to create graded assignments. Question types include multiple choice,
essay, true-or-false, fill-in-the-blanks and Maple-graded.
Note: This feature can be used to create questions for Maple T.A.—an online automated
testing and assessment system. For details about Maple T.A., see Maple T.A. (page 415).
Creating a Question
To create a question:
1. Open the Task browser (Tools→Tasks→Browser).
2. From the Maple T.A. folder, select the appropriate question type.
3. Insert the question template into a document.
4. Enter the question content as described in the template.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for each question to add to the document.
Viewing Questions in Maple
To view and test your questions in Maple:
• From the View menu, select Assignment. This view displays all of the questions in your
assignment with access to hints, plotting, and grading.
After answering your questions, you can test the grading function by clicking the Grade
button. A Maplet dialog is displayed indicating if the question was answered correctly. If
hints were provided in the question, these are also displayed.
Saving Test Content
When you save a document with test content, the authoring and assignment modes determine
what the user sees when opening your document.
• If you save the document in authoring mode (task template contents visible), the user
sees this content when opening the document.
• If you save the document in assignment mode, the user sees only the assignment layout.
332 • 7 Creating Mathematical Documents
In both cases the View→Assignment menu is accessible. As such, users (students) can
switch between the original document contents and the displayed assignment.
7.10 Worksheet Compatibility
Maple provides users with two worksheet interfaces: the Standard Worksheet and the
Classic Worksheet. Both have access to the full mathematical engine of Maple and take
advantage of the new functionality in Maple. The Classic Worksheet has the traditional
Maple worksheet look and uses less memory.
If you create a document in the Standard Worksheet interface of Maple and then open it in
the Classic Worksheet interface, you should note possible changes to your file For example,
a bulleted list in the Standard Worksheet will not be displayed with bullets in the Classic
Worksheet. Many of the graphical features in this manual, especially those in this chapter,
are not available in the Classic Worksheet interface.
If you are creating documents for distribution, refer to the Compatibility help page.
8 Maple Expressions
This chapter provides basic information on using Maple expressions, including an overview
of the basic data structures. Many of the commands described in this chapter are useful for
programming. For information on additional Maple programming concepts, such as looping,
conditional execution, and procedures, see Basic Programming (page 365).
8.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Creating and Using Data Structures (page 333) - • Expression Sequences
How to defin and use basic data structures
• Sets
• Lists
• Tables
• Arrays
• Matrices and Vectors
• Functional Operators
• Strings
Working with Maple Expressions (page 343)- Tools • Low-Level Operations
for manipulating and controlling the evaluation • Manipulating Expressions
of expressions
• Evaluating Expressions
8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures
Constants, data structures, mathematical expressions, and other objects are Maple expressions.
For more information on expressions, refer to the Maple Help System.
This section describes the key data structures:
• Expression sequences
• Sets
• Lists
• Tables
• Arrays
• Matrices and Vectors
• Functional operators
• Strings
333
334 • 8 Maple Expressions
Expression Sequences
The fundamental Maple data structure is the expression sequence. It is a group of expressions
separated by commas.
>
Accessing Elements
To access one of the expressions:
• Enter the sequence name followed by the position of the expression enclosed in brackets([
]).
For example:
>
Using negative integers, you can select an expression from the end of a sequence.
>
You can select multiple expressions by specifying a range using the range operator (..).
>
Note: This syntax is valid for most data structures.
Sets
A set is an expression sequence enclosed in curly braces ({ }).
>
A Maple set has the basic properties of a mathematical set.
• Each element is unique. Repeated elements are stored only once.
• The order of elements is not stored.
8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 335
For example:
>
Using Sets
To perform mathematical set operations, use the set data structure.
>
Note: The union operator is available in 1-D Math input as union For more information,
refer to the union help page.
For more information on sets, refer to the set help page.
Lists
A list is an expression sequence enclosed in brackets ([ ]).
>
Note: Lists preserve both the order and repetition of elements.
Accessing Entries
To refer to an element in a list:
• Use square brackets.
For example:
>
For more information, see Accessing Elements (page 334).
Using Lists
Some commands accept a list (or set) of expressions.
336 • 8 Maple Expressions
For example, you can solve a list (or set) of equations using a context menu or the solve
command.
>
For more information, see Solving Equations and Inequations (page 111).
For more information on sets and lists, refer to the set help page.
Arrays
Conceptually, the Array data structure is a generalized list. Each element has an index that
you can use to access it.
The two important differences are:
• The indices can be any integers.
• The dimension can be greater than one.
Creating and Using Arrays
To defin an Array, use the Array constructor.
Standard Array constructor arguments are:
• Expression sequences of ranges - Specify the indices for each dimension
• Nested lists - Specify the contents
For example:
>
>
To access entries in an Array, use either square bracket or round bracket notation.
8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 337
Square bracket notation respects the actual index of an Array, even when the index does
not start at 1.
>
>
>
>
Error, Array index out of range
Round bracket indexing normalizes the dimensions to begin at 1. Since this method is relative,
you can access the end of the array by entering
>
>
The Array constructor supports other syntaxes. It also supports many options. For more
information on the Array constructor and the Array data structure, refer to the Array help
page. For more information on indexing methods, refer to the rtable_indexing help page.
Large Arrays
Only one- and two-dimensional Arrays (with at most 10 indices in each dimension) display
in the document. Larger Arrays display as a placeholder.
>
338 • 8 Maple Expressions
To view large Arrays:
• Double-click the placeholder.
The Matrix Browser displays the Array. For more information, see Viewing Large Matrices
and Vectors (page 160).
Tables
Tables are conceptually an extension of the Array data structure, but the table data structure
is implemented using hash tables. Tables can be indexed by any values, not only integers.
Defining Tables and Accessing Entries
>
>
You can also assign anything, for example, a list, to each element.
>
>
For more information on tables, refer to the table help page.
Matrices and Vectors
Matrices and Vectors are specialized data structures used in linear algebra and vector calculus
computations.
>
For information on definin Matrices and Vectors, see Creating Matrices and Vectors
(page 156).
8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 339
>
>
>
For more information on these data structures, including how to access entries and perform
linear algebra computations, see Linear Algebra (page 155).
Functional Operators
A functional operator is a mapping
The value of
is the result of evaluating
Using functional operators, you can defin mathematical functions.
Defining a Function
To defin a function of one or two variables:
1. In the Expression palette, click one of the function definitio items. See Figure 8.1.
Maple inserts the function definition
2. Replace the placeholders, using Tab to move to the next placeholder. Note: If pressing
the Tab key indents the text, click the Tab icon
in the toolbar. This allows you to
move between placeholders.
3. Press Enter.
Figure 8.1: Function Definitio Palette Items
340 • 8 Maple Expressions
For example, defin a function that adds 1 to its input.
>
Note: To insert the right arrow, you can enter the characters ->. In 2-D Math, Maple replaces
-> with the right arrow symbol
. In 1-D Math, the characters are not replaced.
You can evaluate the function add1 with symbolic or numeric arguments.
>
Distinction between Functional Operators and Other Expressions
The expression
is different from the functional operator
Assign the functional operator
to f.
>
Assign the expression
to g.
>
To evaluate the functional operator f at a value of x:
• Specify the value as an argument to f.
>
To evaluate the expression g at a value of x:
• You must use the eval command.
>
>
8.2 Creating and Using Data Structures • 341
For more information on the eval command, and on using palettes and context menus to
evaluate an expression at a point, see Substituting a Value for a Subexpression (page 353).
Multivariate and Vector Functions
To defin a multivariate or vector function:
• Enclose coordinates or coordinate functions in parentheses (( )).
For example, a multivariate function:
>
>
A vector function:
>
>
Using Operators
To perform an operation on a functional operator, specify arguments to the operator. For
example, for the operator f, specify f(x), which Maple evaluates as an expression. See the
following examples.
Plotting:
Plot a three-dimensional operator as an expression using the plot3d command.
>
342 • 8 Maple Expressions
>
For information on plotting, see Plots and Animations (page 237).
Integration:
Integrate a function using the int command.
>
>
For information on integration and other calculus operations, see Calculus (page 172).
Strings
A string is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes (" ").
>
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 343
Accessing Characters
You can access characters in a string using brackets.
>
Using Strings
The StringTools package is an advanced set of tools for manipulating and using strings.
>
>
>
>
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions
This section describes how to manipulate expressions using commands. Topics covered
include testing the expression type, accessing operands of an expression, and evaluating an
expression.
Low-Level Operations
Expression Types
A Maple type is a broad class of expressions that share common properties. Maple contains
over 200 types, including:
• `+`
• boolean
• constant
• integer
• Matrix
• trig
344 • 8 Maple Expressions
• truefalse
For more information and a complete list of Maple types, refer to the type help page.
The type commands return true if the expression satisfie the type check. Otherwise, they
return false.
Testing the Type of an Expression
To test whether an expression is of a specifie type:
• Use the type command.
>
>
For information on enclosing keywords in right single quotes ('), see Delaying Evaluation
(page 361).
Maple types are not mutually exclusive. An expression can be of more than one type.
>
>
For information on converting an expression to a different type, see Converting (page 351).
Testing the Type of Subexpressions
To test whether an expression has a subexpression of a specifie type:
• Use the hastype command.
>
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 345
Testing for a Subexpression
To test whether an expression contains an instance of a specifie subexpression:
• Use the has command.
>
>
>
The has command searches the structure of the expression for an exactly matching subexpression.
For example, the following calling sequence returns false.
>
To return all subexpressions of a particular type, use the indets command. For more information, see Indeterminates (page 347).
Accessing Expression Components
Left and Right-Hand Side
To extract the left-hand side of an equation, inequality, or range:
• Use the lhs command.
To extract the right-hand side of an equation, inequality, or range:
• Use the rhs command.
346 • 8 Maple Expressions
For example:
>
(8.1)
>
(8.2)
>
(8.3)
For the following equation, the left endpoint of the range is the left-hand side of the righthand side of the equation.
>
(8.4)
>
(8.5)
Numerator and Denominator
To extract the numerator of an expression:
• Use the numer command.
To extract the denominator of an expression:
• Use the denom command.
>
If the expression is not in normal form, Maple normalizes the expression before selecting
the numerator or denominator. (For more information on normal form, refer to the normal
help page.)
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 347
>
>
>
The expression can be any algebraic expression. For information on the behavior for nonrational expressions, refer to the numer help page.
Components of an Expression
The components of an expression are called its operands.
To count the number of operands in an expression:
• Use the nops command.
For example, construct a list of solutions to an equation.
>
Using the nops command, count the number of solutions.
>
For more information on the nops command and operands, refer to the nops help page.
Indeterminates
To fin the indeterminates of an expression:
• Use the indets command.
The indets command returns the indeterminates as a set. Because the expression is expected
to be rational, functions such as sin(x), f(x), and sqrt(x) are considered to be indeterminate.
348 • 8 Maple Expressions
>
To return all subexpressions of a particular type, specify the type as the second argument.
For information on types, see Testing the Type of an Expression (page 344).
>
To test whether an expressions has subexpressions of a specifi type (without returning
them), use the has command. For more information, see Testing for a Subexpression
(page 345).
Manipulating Expressions
This section introduces the most commonly used manipulation commands. For additional
manipulation commands, see Iterative Commands (page 374).
Simplifying
To simplify an expression:
• Use the simplify command.
The simplify command applies simplificatio rules to an expression. Maple has simplificatio
rules for various types of expressions and forms, including trigonometric functions, radicals,
logarithmic functions, exponential functions, powers, and various special functions. You
can also specify custom simplificatio rules using a set of side relations.
>
>
To limit the simplification specify the type of simplificatio to be performed.
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 349
>
>
You can also use the simplify command with side relations. See Substituting a Value for
a Subexpression (page 353).
Factoring
To factor a polynomial:
• Use the factor command.
>
>
Maple can factor polynomials over the domain specifie by the coefficients You can also
factor polynomials over algebraic extensions. For details, refer to the factor help page.
For more information on polynomials, see Polynomial Algebra (page 148).
To factor an integer:
• Use the ifactor command.
>
For more information on integers, see Integer Operations (page 106).
Expanding
To expand an expression:
• Use the expand command.
The expand command distributes products over sums and expands expressions within
functions.
350 • 8 Maple Expressions
>
>
Combining
To combine subexpressions in an expression:
• Use the combine command.
The combine command applies transformations that combine terms in sums, products, and
powers into a single term.
>
Recall that was previously assigned to represent a two-dimensional array (see Creating
and Using Arrays (page 336)).
>
The combine command applies only transformations that are valid for all possible values
of names in the expression.
>
To perform the operation under assumptions on the names, use the assuming command.
For more information about assumptions, see Assumptions on Variables (page 142).
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 351
>
Converting
To convert an expression:
• Use the convert command.
The convert command converts expressions to a new form, type (see Expression
Types (page 343)), or in terms of a function. For a complete list of conversions, refer to the
convert help page.
Convert a measurement in radians to degrees:
>
To convert measurements that use units, use the Unit Converter or the convert/units command.
>
For information on the Unit Converter and using units, see Units (page 127).
Convert a list to a set:
>
Maple has extensive support for converting mathematical expressions to a new function or
function class.
352 • 8 Maple Expressions
>
Find an expression equivalent to the inverse hyperbolic cotangent function in terms of Legendre functions.
>
For more information on converting to a class of functions, refer to the convert/to_special_function help page.
Normalizing
To normalize an expression:
• Use the normal command.
The normal command converts expressions into factored normal form.
>
You can also use the normal command for zero recognition.
>
To expand the numerator and denominator, use the expanded option.
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 353
>
>
Sorting
To sort the elements of an expression:
• Use the sort command.
The sort command orders a list of values or terms of a polynomial.
>
>
>
For information on sorting polynomials, see Sorting Terms (page 150).
For more information on sorting, refer to the sort help page.
Evaluating Expressions
Substituting a Value for a Subexpression
To evaluate an expression at a point, you must substitute a value for a variable.
354 • 8 Maple Expressions
To substitute a value for a variable using context menus:
1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the expression. Maple displays a context
menu.
2. From the context menu, select Evaluate at a Point. The Evaluate at a Point dialog is
displayed. See Figure 8.2.
Figure 8.2: Evaluate at a Point
3. In the drop-down list, select the variable to substitute.
4. In the text field enter the value to substitute for the variable. Click OK.
In Worksheet mode, Maple inserts the eval command calling sequence that performs the
substitution. This is the most common use of the eval command.
For example, substitute
in the following polynomial.
>
>
To substitute a value for a variable using palettes:
1. In the Expression palette, click the evaluation at a point item
2. Specify the expression, variable, and value to be substituted.
.
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 355
For example:
>
Substitutions performed by the eval function are syntactical, not the more powerful algebraic form of substitution.
If the left-hand side of the substitution is a name, Maple performs the substitution.
>
If the left-hand side of the substitution is not a name, Maple performs the substitution only
if the left-hand side of the substitution is an operand of the expression.
>
>
Maple did not perform the evaluation because
is not an operand of
formation on operands, refer to the op help page.
For in-
For algebraic substitution, use the algsubs command, or the simplify command with side
relations.
356 • 8 Maple Expressions
>
>
Numerical Approximation
To compute an approximate numerical value of an expression:
• Use the evalf command.
The evalf command returns a floating-poin (or complex floating-point number or expression.
>
>
>
By default, Maple calculates the result to ten digits of accuracy, but you can specify any
number of digits as an index, that is, in brackets ([ ]).
>
For more information, refer to the evalf help page.
See also Numerically Computing a Limit (page 173) and Numeric Integration (page 181).
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 357
Evaluating Complex Expressions
To evaluate a complex expression:
• Use the evalc command.
If possible, the evalc command returns the output in the canonical form expr1 + i expr2.
In 2-D Math input, you can enter the imaginary unit using the following two methods.
• In the Common Symbols palette, click the i or j item. See Palettes (page 21).
• Enter i or j, and then press the symbol completion key. See Symbol Names (page 28).
>
>
In 1-D Math input, enter the imaginary unit as an uppercase i (I).
> evalc(2^(1 + I));
Evaluating Boolean Expressions
To evaluate an expression involving relational operators (
):
,
,
,
,
, and
• Use the evalb command.
Note: In 1-D Math input, enter
,
, and
using the <>, <=, and >= operators.
The evalb command uses a three-valued logic system. The return values are true, false,
and FAIL. If evaluation is not possible, an unevaluated expression is returned.
358 • 8 Maple Expressions
>
>
>
Important: The evalb command does not perform arithmetic for inequalities involving
,
,
, or
, and does not simplify expressions. Ensure that you perform these
operations before using the evalb command.
>
>
Applying an Operation or Function to All Elements in a List, Set, Table, Array,
Matrix, or Vector
You can use the tilde character (~) to apply an operation or function to all of the elements
in a list, set, table, Array, Matrix, or Vector.
In the following example, each element in the Matrix M is multiplied by 2 by adding a tilde
character after the multiplication operator( .
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 359
>
(8.6)
>
(8.7)
In the following example, the function sin is applied to each element in the Matrix M.
>
(8.8)
The tilde character can also be used to apply a function to multiple data sets, for example,
>
(8.9)
You can use values in one data structure type to compute values in another data structure
type, as long as both data structures are dimensional and contain the same number of elements. In the following example, the values in an Array are compared to the values in a
Matrix that contains the same number of elements.
>
(8.10)
For more information, refer to the elementwise help page.
360 • 8 Maple Expressions
Levels of Evaluation
In a symbolic mathematics program such as Maple, you encounter the issue of levels of
evaluation. If you assign y to x, z to y, and then 5 to z, what is the value of x?
At the top-level, Maple fully evaluates names. That is, Maple checks if the name or symbol
has an assigned value. If it has a value, Maple substitutes the value for the name. If this
value has an assigned value, Maple performs a substitution, recursively, until no more
substitutions are possible.
For example:
>
>
>
Maple fully evaluates the name x, and returns the value 5.
>
To control the level of evaluation of an expression:
• Use the eval command with an integer second argument.
If passed a single argument, the eval command fully evaluates that expression. If you specify
an integer second argument, Maple evaluates the expression to that level.
>
>
>
>
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 361
For more details on levels of evaluation, refer to the lastnameevaluation, assigned, and
evaln help pages.
Delaying Evaluation
To prevent Maple from immediately evaluating an expression:
• Enclose the expression in right single quotes (' ').
Because right single quotes delay evaluation, they are referred to as unevaluation quotes.
>
>
>
Using an Assigned Name as a Variable or Keyword
If you use an assigned name as a variable, Maple evaluates the name to its value, and passes
the value to the command. In this example, that causes Maple to return an error message.
>
Error, (in sum) summation variable previously assigned, second argument
evaluates to 4 = 1 .. n
Note: In general, it is recommended that you unassign a name to use it as a variable. See
Unassigning a Name Using Unevaluation Quotes (page 362).
To use an assigned name as a variable:
• Enclose the name in unevaluation quotes. Maple passes the name to the command.
>
Important: It is recommended that you enclose keywords in unevaluation quotes.
362 • 8 Maple Expressions
For example, if you enclose the keyword left in unevaluation quotes, Maple uses the name,
not its assigned value.
>
>
Full Evaluation of an Expression in Quotes
Full evaluation of a quoted expression removes one set of right single quotes.
>
>
(8.11)
>
(8.12)
>
(8.13)
For information on equation labels and equation label references, see Equation
Labels (page 95).
Enclosing an expression in unevaluation quotes delays evaluation, but does not prevent
automatic simplification
>
(8.14)
Unassigning a Name Using Unevaluation Quotes
To unassign a name:
• Assign the name enclosed in unevaluation quotes to itself.
>
8.3 Working with Maple Expressions • 363
>
You can also unassign a name using the unassign command. For more information, see
Unassigning Names (page 94).
364 • 8 Maple Expressions
9 Basic Programming
You have used Maple interactively in the previous chapters, sequentially performing operations such as executing a single command. Because Maple has a complete programming
language, you can also use sophisticated programming constructs.
In Maple, you can write programs called procedures, and save them in modules. These
modules can be used and distributed in the same way as Maple packages.
Important: It is strongly recommended that you use the Worksheet mode and 1-D Math
input when programming or using programming commands. Hence, all input in this chapter
is entered as 1-D Math.
9.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Flow Control (page 366) - Basic programming • Conditional Execution (if Statement)
constructs
• Repetition (for Statement)
Iterative Commands (page 374) - Specialized, • Creating a sequence
efficien iterative commands
• Adding and Multiplying Expressions
• Selecting Expression Operands
• Mapping a Command over a Set or List
• Mapping a Binary Command over Two Lists or
Vectors
Procedures (page 378) - Maple programs
• Definin and Running Simple Procedures
• Procedures with Inputs
• Procedure Return Values
• Displaying Procedure Definition
• Displaying Maple Library Procedure Definition
• Modules
Programming in Documents (page 382) - Dis- • Code Edit Region
play methods for Maple code
• Startup Code
• Document Blocks
365
366 • 9 Basic Programming
9.2 Flow Control
Two basic programming constructs in Maple are the if statement, which controls the conditional execution of statement sequences, and the for statement, which controls the repeated
execution of a statement sequence.
Conditional Execution (if Statement)
You can specify that Maple perform an action only if a condition holds. You can also perform
an action, from a set of many, depending on which conditions hold.
Using theif statement, you can execute one statement from a series of statements based on
a boolean (true, false, or FAIL) condition. Maple tests each condition in order. When a
condition is satisfied Maple executes the corresponding statement, and then exits the if
statement.
Syntax
The if statement has the following syntax.
The conditional expressions (conditional_expression1, conditional_expression2, ...) can be
any boolean expression. You can construct boolean expressions using:
• Relational operators - <, <=, =, >=, >, <>
• Logical operators - and, or, xor, implies, not
• Logical names - true, false, FAIL
The statement sequences (statement_sequence1, statement_sequence2, ..., statement_sequenceN) can be any sequence of Maple statements, including if statements.
The elif clauses are optional. You can specify any number of elif clauses.
The else clause is optional.
9.2 Flow Control • 367
Simple if Statements
The simplest if statement has only one conditional expression.
If the conditional expression evaluates to true, the sequence of statements is executed.
Otherwise, Maple immediately exits the if statement.
For example:
> x := 1173:
> if not isprime(x) then
ifactor(x);
end if;
else Clause
In a simple if statement with an else clause, if the evaluation of the conditional expressions
returns false or FAIL, Maple executes the statement sequence in the else clause.
For example:
> if false then
"if statement";
else
"else statement";
end if;
elif Clauses
In an if statement with elif clauses, Maple evaluates the conditional expressions in order
until one returns true. Maple executes the corresponding statement sequence, and then exits
the if statement. If no evaluation returns true, Maple exits the if statement.
> x := 11:
> if not type(x, integer) then
printf("%a is not an integer.", x);
elif x >= 10 then
printf("%a is an integer with more than one digit.", x);
elif x >= 0 then
368 • 9 Basic Programming
printf("%a is an integer with one digit.", x);
end if;
11 is an integer with more than one digit.
Order of elif Clauses: An elif clause's statement sequence is executed only if the evaluation
of all previous conditional expressions returns false or FAIL, and the evaluation of its
conditional expression returns true. This means that changing the order of elif clauses may
change the behavior of the if statement.
In the following if statement, the elif clauses are in the wrong order.
> if not(type(x, integer)) then
printf("%a is not an integer.", x);
elif x >= 0 then
printf("%a is an integer with one digit.", x);
elif x >= 10 then
printf("%a is an integer with more than one digit.", x);
end if;
11 is an integer with one digit.
elif and else Clauses
In an if statement with elif and else clauses, Maple evaluates the conditional expressions in
order until one returns true. Maple executes the corresponding statement sequence, and
then exits the if statement. If no evaluation returns true, Maple executes the statement sequence in the else clause.
> x := -12:
> if not type(x, integer) then
printf("%a is not an integer.", x);
elif x >= 10 then
printf("%a is an integer with more than one digit.", x);
elif x >= 0 then
printf("%a is an integer with one digit.", x);
else
printf("%a is a negative integer.", x);
end if;
-12 is a negative integer.
For more information on the if statement, refer to the if help page.
9.2 Flow Control • 369
Repetition (for Statement)
Using repetition statements, you can repeatedly execute a statement sequence. You can
repeat the statements in three ways.
• Until a counter variable value exceeds a limit (for/from loop)
• For each operand of an expression (for/in loop)
• Until a boolean condition does not hold (while loop)
for/from Loop
The for/from loop statement repeats a statement sequence until a counter variable value
exceeds a limit.
Syntax
The for/from loop has the following syntax.
The behavior of the for/from loop is:
1. Assign the initial value to the name counter.
2. Compare the value of counter to the value of fina . If the counter value exceeds the fina
value, exit the loop. (This is the loop bound test.)
3. Execute the statement_sequence.
4. Increment the counter value by the value of increment.
5. Repeat steps 2 to 4, until Maple exits the loop.
The from, by, and to clauses are optional and can be in any order between the for clause
and the do keyword. Table 9.1 lists the default clause values.
Table 9.1: Default Clause Values
Clause
from initial
by increment
to fina
Default Value
1
1
infinit (∞)
Examples
The following loop returns the square root of the integers 1 to 5 (inclusive).
370 • 9 Basic Programming
> for n to 5 do
evalf(sqrt(n));
end do;
When the value of the counter variable n is strictly greater than 5, Maple exits the loop.
> n;
The previous loop is equivalent to the following for/from statement.
> for n from 1 by 1 to 5 do
evalf(sqrt(n));
end do;
The by value can be negative. The loop repeats until the value of the counter variable is
strictly less than the fina value.
> for n from 10 by -1 to 3 do
if isprime(n) then
print(n);
end if;
end do;
9.2 Flow Control • 371
> n;
for/in Loop
The for/in loop statement repeats a statement sequence for each component (operand) of
an expression, for example, the elements of a list.
Syntax
The for/in loop has the following syntax.
The for clause must appear first
The behavior of the for/in loop is:
1. Assign the firs operand of expression to the name variable.
2. Execute the statement_sequence.
3. Assign the next operand of expression to variable.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each operand in expression. If there are no more operands, exit
the loop. (This is the loop bound test.)
Example
The following loop returns a floating-poin approximation to the sin function at the angles
(measured in degree) in the list L.
> L := [23.4, 87.2, 43.0, 99.7]:
372 • 9 Basic Programming
> for i in L do
evalf(sin(i*Pi/180));
end do;
while Loop
The while loop repeats a statement sequence until a boolean expression does not hold.
Syntax
The while loop has the following syntax.
A while loops repeats until its boolean expression conditional_expression evaluates to
false or FAIL. For more information on boolean expressions, see Conditional Execution
(if Statement) (page 366).
Example
The following loop computes the digits of 872,349 in base 7 (in order of increasing significance)
> x := 872349:
> while x > 0 do
irem(x, 7);
x := iquo(x, 7);
end do;
9.2 Flow Control • 373
To perform such conversions efficientl , use theconvert/base command.
> convert(872349, base, 7);
For information on non-base 10 numbers, see Non-Base 10 Numbers (page 108).
General Loop Statements
You can include a while statement in a for/from or for/in loop.
The general for/from loop has the following syntax.
374 • 9 Basic Programming
The general for/in loop has the following syntax.
After testing the loop bound condition at the beginning of each iteration of the for loop,
Maple evaluates conditional_expression.
• If conditional_expression evaluates to false or FAIL, Maple exits the loop.
• If conditional_expression evaluates to true, Maple executes statement_sequence.
Infinite Loops
You can construct a loop for which there is no exit condition, for example, a while loop in
which the conditional_expression always evaluates to true. This is called an infinit loop.
Maple indefinitel executes an infinit loop unless it executes a break, quit, or return
statement or you interrupt the computation using the interrupt icon For more information,
refer to the break, quit, return, and interrupt help pages.
Additional Information
For more information on the for statement and looping, refer to the do help page.
9.3 Iterative Commands
Maple has commands that perform common selection and repetition operations. These
commands are more efficien than similar algorithms implemented using library commands.
Table 9.2 lists the iterative commands.
Table 9.2: Iterative Commands
Command
seq
add
mul
select
remove
Description
Create sequence
Compute numeric sum
Compute numeric product
Return operands that satisfy a condition
Return operands that do not satisfy a condition
9.3 Iterative Commands • 375
Command
selectremove
map
zip
Description
Return operands that satisfy a condition and separately return operands that
do not satisfy a condition
Apply command to the operands of an expression
Apply binary command to the operands of two lists or vectors
Creating a Sequence
The seq command creates a sequence of values by evaluating a specifie expression over
a range of index values or the operands of an expression. See Table 9.3.
Table 9.3: The seq Command
Calling Sequence Syntax
seq(expression, name = initial .. fina );
Examples
seq(expression, name in expression);
> seq(u, u in [Pi/4, Pi^2/2,
> seq(exp(x), x=-2..0);
1/Pi]);
Adding and Multiplying Expressions
The add and mul commands add and multiply sequences of expressions over a range of
index values or the operands of an expression. See Table 9.4.
Table 9.4: The add and mul Commands
Calling Sequence Syntax
add(expression, name = initial .. fina );
mul(expression, name = initial .. fina );
Examples
> add(exp(x), x = 2..4);
> mul(2*x, x = 1 .. 10);
376 • 9 Basic Programming
Calling Sequence Syntax
add(expression, name in expression);
Examples
> add(u, u in [Pi/4, Pi/2, Pi]);
mul(expression, name in expression);
> mul(u, u in [Pi/4, Pi/2, Pi]);
The endpoints of the index range (initial and fina ) in the add and mul calling sequence
must evaluate to numeric constants. For information on symbolic sums and products, refer
to the sum and product help pages.
Selecting Expression Operands
The select, remove, and selectremove commands apply a boolean-valued procedure or
command to the operands of an expression. For information on operands, refer to the op
help page.
• The select command returns the operands for which the procedure or command returns
true.
• The remove command returns the operands for which the procedure or command returns
false or FAIL.
• The selectremove command returns two expressions of the same type as the input expression.
- The firs consists of the operands for which the procedure or command returns true.
- The second consists of the operands for which the procedure or command returns false
or FAIL.
The structure of the output is the same as the structure of the input. See Table 9.5.
For information on Maple procedures, see Procedures (page 378).
Table 9.5: The select, remove, and selectremove Commands
Calling Sequence Syntax
select(proc_cmd, expression);
Examples
> select(issqr, {198331, 889249,
11751184, 9857934});
9.3 Iterative Commands • 377
Calling Sequence Syntax
remove(proc_cmd, expression);
Examples
selectremove(proc_cmd, expression);
> selectremove(x -> evalb(x > round(x)),
> remove(var -> degree(var) > 3, 2*x^3*y
- y^3*x + z );
[sin(0.), sin(1.), sin(3.)]);
For information on optional arguments to the selection commands, refer to the select help
page.
Mapping a Command over a Set or List
The map command applies a name, procedure, or command to each element in a set or list.
See Table 9.6.
Table 9.6: The map Command
Calling Sequence Syntax
map(name_proc_cmd, expression);
Examples
> map(f, {a, b, c});
> map(u -> int(cos(x), x = 0 .. u),
[Pi/4, Pi/7, Pi/3.0]);
For information on mapping over the operands of other expressions, optional arguments to
the map command, and other mapping commands, refer to the map help page.
Mapping a Binary Command over Two Lists or Vectors
The zip command applies a name or binary procedure or command component-wise to two
lists or vectors.
By default, the length of the returned object is that of the shorter list or vector. If you specify
a value as the (optional) fourth argument, it is used as the value of the missing elements of
the shorter list or vector. In this case, the length of the return value is that of the longer list
or vector. See Table 9.7.
378 • 9 Basic Programming
Table 9.7: The zip Command
Calling Sequence Syntax
zip(proc_cmd, a, b);
Examples
> zip(f, [i, j], [k, l]);
zip(proc_cmd, a, b, fil );
> zip(AiryAi, [1, 2], [0], 1);
For more information on the zip command, refer to the zip help page.
Additional Information
For more information on looping commands, refer to the corresponding command help
page.
9.4 Procedures
A Maple procedure is a program consisting of Maple statements. Using procedures, you
can quickly execute the contained sequence of statements.
Defining and Running Simple Procedures
To defin a procedure, enclose a sequence of statements between proc(...) and end proc
statements. In general, you assign a procedure definitio to a name.
The following procedure returns the square root of 2.
> p := proc() sqrt(2); end proc;
Note: Maple returns the procedure definition
To improve readability of procedures, it is recommended that you defin a procedure using
multiple lines, and indent the lines using space characters. To begin a new line (without
evaluating the incomplete procedure definition) press Shift+Enter. When you have finishe
entering the procedure, press Enter to create the procedure.
9.4 Procedures • 379
For example:
> p := proc()
sqrt(2);
end proc:
To run the procedure p, enter its name followed by parentheses (( )).
> p();
Procedures with Inputs
You can defin a procedure that accepts user input. In the parentheses of the proc statement,
specify the parameter names. For multiple parameters, separate the names with commas.
> geometric_mean := proc(x, y)
sqrt(x*y);
end proc:
When the user runs the procedure, the parameter names are replaced by the argument values.
> geometric_mean(13, 17);
> geometric_mean(13.5, 17.1);
For more information on writing procedures, including options and local and global variables,
refer to the procedure help page.
Procedure Return Values
When you run a procedure, Maple returns only the last statement result value computed.
Maple does not return the output for each statement in the procedure. It is irrelevant
whether you use semicolons or colons as statement separators.
> p := proc(a, b)
a + b;
a - b:
end proc:
> p(1, 2);
380 • 9 Basic Programming
Displaying Procedure Definitions
Unlike simple Maple objects, you cannot display the value of a procedure by entering its
name.
> geometric_mean;
You must evaluate the name of the procedure using the print (or eval) command.
> print(geometric_mean);
Displaying Maple Library Procedure Definitions
Maple procedure definition are a valuable learning tool. To learn how to program in Maple,
it is recommended that you examine the procedures available in the Maple library.
By default, the print command returns only the proc and end proc statements and (if
present) the description field of a Maple procedure.
> print(lcm);
To display a Maple library procedure definition firs set the value of the interface verboseproc option to 2. Then re-execute the print calling sequence.
> interface('verboseproc' = 2):
9.4 Procedures • 381
> print(lcm);
Modules
Maple procedures associate a sequence of commands with a single command. The module,
a more complex programming structure, allows you to associate related procedures and
data.
A key feature of modules is that they export variables. This means that the variables are
available outside the module in which they are created. Most Maple packages are implemented as modules. The package commands are exports of the module.
For more information on modules, refer to the module help page.
Objects
Objects take the idea of associating data and procedures beyond what modules provide.
With objects, multiple instances of a class of objects can be created. Each individual object
can have its own data, yet share other values and procedures with the entire class objects.
A well implemented class of objects can be used in Maple as naturally as a built-in Maple
type.
For more information on objects, refer to the object help page.
382 • 9 Basic Programming
9.5 Programming in Documents
To write Maple code, you could simply open a Maple worksheet and start typing. However,
if you want to create a readable document with the code interspersed or hidden, there are
several options available.
Code Edit Region
The code edit region allows you to program in one contained region, in a natural way.
Features include the ability to press Enter for line breaking and indentation preservation.
Figure 9.1 shows the expanded code edit region.
To insert a new code edit region into your worksheet:
• From the Insert menu, select Code Edit Region.
Figure 9.1: Code Edit Region
To execute the code within this region, right-click in the region and select Execute Code.
You can hide the code in a code edit region by minimizing the region. To minimize, rightclick in the region and select Collapse Code Edit Region. When the region is minimized,
an icon appears with the firs line of the code written next to it. It is recommended that you
make the firs line a comment describing the program or programs contained in the region.
See Figure 9.2.
Figure 9.2: Collapsed Code Edit Region
To re-execute the code in the region while it is collapsed, click this icon.
For more information, refer to the CodeEditRegion help page.
9.5 Programming in Documents • 383
Startup Code
Startup code allows you to defin commands and procedures that are executed each time
the document is opened and after restart is called. This code is completely hidden to others
reading the document. For example, use this region to defin procedures that will be used
throughout the document code but that would take up space and distract readers from the
message of the document.
To enter startup code for a document:
1. From the Edit menu, select Startup Code. Alternatively, click the startup code icon in
the toolbar,
.
2. Enter commands to be run each time the worksheet is opened or restart is called.
3. Click Syntax to check the syntax of the entered code before closing.
4. Click Save to save the contents and close the dialog.
Figure 9.3: Startup Code Editor
For more information, refer to the startupcode help page.
384 • 9 Basic Programming
10 Embedded Components and Maplets
These graphical components help you to create documents to use and share with colleagues
or students, that interact with Maple code within the document without needing the reader
to understand that Maple code. Other methods of interaction with Maple are described
throughout this guide.
10.1 In This Chapter
Section
Using Embedded Components (page 385) - Basic interacting with Maple documents containing embedded components
Creating Embedded Components (page 388) - Methods
for creating embedded components that work together
and with your document
Topics
• Interacting with Components
• Printing and Exporting
• Inserting Components
• Editing Components
• Removing Components
• Integrating into a Document
Using Maplets (page 396) - Methods for launching a
Maplet
• Maplet File
Authoring Maplets (page 397) - Methods for authoring
and saving a Maplet
• Maplet Builder
• Maple Document
• Maplets Package
• Saving
10.2 Using Embedded Components
Interacting
Embedded components allow readers to interact with Maple code through graphical components, rather than commands. They can be used alone, as with a button that you click to
execute code, or together, such as a drop-down menu where you select an item, and a change
takes place in a plot component.
Component Descriptions
Table 10.1: Embedded Component Descriptions
Component Name and Description
Inserted Image
Button - Click to perform an action; that is, execute code.
Check Box - Select or de-select. Change the caption, and
enter code to execute when the value changes.
385
386 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
Component Name and Description
Combo Box - Select one of the listed options from the
drop-down menu. Change the items listed, and enter code
to execute when the value changes.
Data Table - Link this embedded component to a Matrix,
Vector, or Array in your worksheet.
Dial - Select or display an integer or floating-poin value.
Change the display, and enter code to execute when the
value changes.
Label - Display a label. The value can be updated based
on code in the document or another embedded component.
List Box - Display a list of items. Change the items listed,
and enter code to execute when an item is selected.
Math Expression - Enter or display a mathematical expression. The value can be updated based on code in the document or another embedded component.
Meter - Select or display an integer or floating-poin value.
Change the display, and enter code to execute when the
value changes.
Plot - Display a 2-D or 3-D plot or animation. This plot or
animation can be interacted with in the same way as other
plots (see Plots and Animations (page 237)). The value can
be updated based on code in the document or another embedded component. You can also enter code to be executed
when the execute code pointer is used to click or drag in
the plot region.
Radio Button - Use with other radio buttons to select one
in a group. Enter code to execute when the value changes.
Inserted Image
10.2 Using Embedded Components • 387
Component Name and Description
Inserted Image
Rotary Gauge - Select or display an integer or floating
point value. Change the display, and enter code to execute
when the value changes.
Slider - Select or display an integer or floating-poin value.
Change the display, and enter code to execute when the
value changes.
Text Area - Enter or display plain text. The value can be
updated based on code in the document or another embedded component, and you can enter code to execute when
the value changes.
Toggle Button - Select or display one of two options.
Change the images displayed, and enter to code to execute
when the value changes.
Volume Gauge - Select or display an integer or floating
point value. Change the display, and enter code to execute
when the value changes.
Example 1 - Using Embedded Components
This example demonstrates several components working together to perform a task. The
user inputs an expression, which is plotted when the button is clicked. Plot options are
controlled by text areas, a combo box, a math expression, and radio buttons.
For an interactive version of this example, see the .mw version of this manual. In Maple,
from the Help menu, select Manuals, Resources, and More... → Manuals → User
Manual.
388 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
Printing and Exporting a Document with Embedded Components
Printing: When printing a document, embedded components are rendered as they appear
on screen.
Exporting: Exporting a document with embedded components to other formats produces
the following results.
• HTML format - components are exported as .gif files
• RTF format - components are rendered as bitmap images in the .rtf document.
• LaTeX - components are exported as .eps files
• PDF - components are rendered as static images.
10.3 Creating Embedded Components
Embedded Components are graphical components that you can add to your document. They
provide interactive access to Maple code without requiring the user to know Maple commands, and include buttons, sliders, math and text input areas, and plot display.
10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 389
Inserting Components
The graphical interface components can be inserted by using the Components palette
(Figure 10.1) or by cutting/copying and pasting existing components to another area of the
document. Although copied components have most of the same characteristics, they are
distinct.
If the Components palette is not visible, see Palettes (page 21) for instructions on viewing
palettes.
Figure 10.1: Components Palette
Editing Component Properties: General Process
To edit properties of components embedded in the document:
1. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the component to display the context menu.
2. If available, select Component Properties...; otherwise, select Components → Component Properties.... The related dialog opens.
3. Enter values and contents in the field as necessary.
4. For actions, such as Action When Value Changes in the Slider component dialog, click
Edit. A blank dialog opens allowing you to enter Maple code that is executed when the
event occurs. For details, refer to the DocumentTools help page.
390 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
Removing Graphical Interface Components
You can remove an embedded component by:
• Using the Delete key
• Using the Backspace key
• Placing the cursor at the component and selecting from the document menu, Edit→Delete
Element
Integrating Components into a Document
Use embedded components to display information from calculations, obtain input from a
reader, or perform calculations at the click of a button, all without your readers having an
understanding of Maple commands. They can be entered in any part of a Maple document,
including a document block or table. For details on each component, see its help page.
This simple example inserts a slider with a label that indicates the current value of the slider.
1. Place the cursor in the location where the embedded component is to be inserted.
2. In the Components palette, click the Slider item. A slider is inserted into the document.
3. In the Components palette, click the Label item. A label is inserted next to the slider.
4. Right-click (Control-click, for Macintosh) the label component. Select Component
Properties. The Label Properties dialog opens. See Figure 10.2.
10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 391
Figure 10.2: Label Properties Dialog
Figure 10.3: Slider Properties Dialog
5. Name the component SliderLabel and click Ok.
6. Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) the slider component. Select Component
Properties. The Slider Properties dialog opens. See Figure 10.3.
7. Name the component Slider1.
8. Enter the value at the lowest position as 0 and the highest as 100.
9. Enter major tick marks at 20 and minor tick marks at 10.
10. To defin an action, click the Edit button for the Action When Value Changes. The
dialog that opens allows you to program the action of displaying the slider value in the
label component. The dialog includes instructions on how to program embedded components. The use...in/end use; statement allows you to specify routines using the short
form of accessing a package command without invoking the package. For details on this
command, refer to the use help page.
11. Before the end use; statement at the bottom of the dialog, enter the following command.
Do(%SliderLabel(caption)=%Slider1(value));
12. Click OK.
13. Make sure that the Update Continuously while Dragging check box is selected.
392 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
The value from the slider as you move the arrow indicator populates the Label caption field
For details on this command, refer to the DocumentTools[Do] help page.
Example 2 - Creating Embedded Components
In chapter 7 (see Embedded Components (page 326)), you created a document that included
embedded components, imported from a task template. Here, we re-create that configuratio
of components. This example takes two parameters, and as inputs, then plots the
function
and calculates
.
1. Create the components.
The table layout is best done after the components are finished in case the configuratio
of the components changes as you are working.
Create two DialComponents to set the parameters,
display the result,
and , one GaugeComponent to
, one PlotComponent to display the plot, and one MathContainer-
Component to display the function. Note that you do not need to use the dial and gauge
components here, there are others, such as the slider, that could also be used.
10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 393
Figure 10.4: The Inserted Components
2. Edit the display of the components.
Open the Component Properties dialog for the firs DialComponent, and notice that it
already has a name. This name is used to reference the component from other components,
and is unique. Change the display of each of the components as follows:
• Dial0: no changes.
• Dial1: change the Value at Highest Position to 10, the Spacing of Major Tick Marks
to 1, and the Spacing of Minor Tick Marks to 1.
• RotaryGauge0: change the Value at Highest Position to 40, the Spacing of Major
Tick Marks to 5, and the Spacing of Minor Tick Marks to 1.
• Plot0: no changes.
394 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
• MathContainer0: change the Width in Pixels to 200, and the Height in Pixels to 45.
Note the names of all of the components, and close each dialog before moving on.
3. Create actions for the components.
Components can perform actions when their values are changed, so the code to execute
needs to be in the dials. That way, whenever one of them is changed, the other components
are updated to reflec that change.
The following Maple commands retrieve the values of the parameters and display them in
the other three components:
> parameter1:=Do(%Dial0):
> parameter2:=Do(%Dial1):
> Do(%RotaryGauge0=parameter1/parameter2);
> Do(%Plot0=plot((parameter2*x+parameter1), x=-50..50,
y=-50..50));
> Do(%MathContainer0=(y=parameter2*x+parameter1));
4. Test the actions.
To test these commands, firs load the DocumentTools package with the following command.
>
Execute the commands in the document, and verify that the components you inserted are
updated: the gauge should change to the computed value, a plot should appear in the plot
component, and the function should display in the math container.
5. Troubleshooting.
The firs Do command gives an error, because the second parameter is 0. One way to avoid
this problem is to change the range of the second dial. In the Component Properties dialog
for the second DialComponent, change the Value at Lowest Position from 0 to 1. Alternatively, you could change the code to compensate, with an if statement.
6. Copy the actions to the components.
Once the commands work as expected, you can copy them into the components.
• Open the Component Properties dialog for the firs DialComponent and click the Edit
button for Action When Value Changes. Copy and paste the commands into the space
between the use statements.
10.3 Creating Embedded Components • 395
Figure 10.5: DialComponent Action Dialog
• Do the same for the second DialComponent.
7. Create the layout for the components.
Create a table, and then cut and paste the components into it, along with explanatory text.
Important: you must cut, not copy, the components, or their names will be changed to
avoid duplication. For information on creating and modifying tables, refer to
Tables (page 304).
396 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
10.4 Using Maplets
A Maplet is a pop-up graphical user interface that provides interactive access to the Maple
engine through buttons, text regions, slider bars, and other visual interfaces. You can create
your own Maplets, and you can take advantage of the built-in Maplets that cover numerous
academic and specialized topics. Built-in Maplets include some assistants and tutors, such
as the ODE Analyzer. For more information on this assistant, see Ordinary Differential
Equations (ODEs) (page 120).
Maplet applications are launched by executing Maplet code. Maplet code can be saved in
a Maplet (.maplet) fil or Maple document (.mw).
Maplet File
To launch a Maplet application saved as a Maplet file
• In Windows, double-click the fil from a Windows fil browser.
10.5 Authoring Maplets • 397
• In UNIX and on Macintosh, use the command-line interface. At the command-line, enter
maple -q <maplet_filenam >.
To view and edit the Maplet code contained within the .maplet file
1. Start Maple.
2. From the File menu, select Open. Maple displays the Open dialog.
3. In the Files of Type drop-down list, select .maplet.
4. Navigate to the location of the .maplet fil and select the file
5. Click Open.
Maple Document
To launch a Maplet application for which the Maple code is contained in a Maple document,
you need to execute the Maplet code. To display the Maplet application, you must use the
Maplets[Display] command. Note: The Maplet code may be quite large if the Maplet application is complex. In this case, execute the document to ensure user-define procedures
that are referenced in the Maplet application are also defined
Typical procedure:
1. If present, evaluate user-define procedures.
Myproc:=proc..
2. Load the Maplets[Elements] package.
with( Maplets[Elements] );
3. Evaluate the Maplet definition
Maplet_name:=Maplet( Maplet_definition );
4. Display the Maplet application.
Maplets[Display]( Maplet_name );
Important: When a Maplet application is running, you cannot interact with the Maple
document.
10.5 Authoring Maplets
To author Maplets, you can use the Maplet Builder (GUI-based) or the Maplets package
(syntax-based). The Maplet Builder allows you to drag and drop buttons, sliders, text regions, and other elements to defin the Maplet application and set the element properties
to perform an action upon selection or update of the element. The Maplet Builder is designed
398 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
to create simple Maplets. The Maplets package offers more capabilities, control, and options
when designing complicated Maplet applications.
Designing a Maplet application is similar to constructing a house. When building a house,
you firs construct the skeletal structure (that is, foundation, floors and walls) and then
proceed to add the windows and doors. Constructing a Maplet is no different. First defin
the rows and columns of the Maplet application and then proceed to add the body elements
(such as buttons, text fields and plot regions).
Simple Maplet
A Maplet application can be define using the commands in the Maplets[Elements] package
and then launched using the Maplets[Display] command. The following commands defin
and run a very simple Maplet application that contains the text string "Hello World".
> with(Maplets[Elements]):
> MySimpleMaplet:= Maplet([["Hello World"]]):
> Maplets[Display](MySimpleMaplet):
Figure 10.6: A Simple Maplet
Maplet Builder
To start the Maplet Builder:
• From the Tools menu, select Assistants → Maplet Builder.
10.5 Authoring Maplets • 399
Figure 10.7: Maplet Builder Interface
The Maplet Builder is divided into four different panes.
• The Palette pane displays palettes, which contain Maplet elements, organized by category.
For a description of the elements, see the MapletBuilder/Palette help page. The Body
palette contains the most popular elements.
• The Layout pane displays the visual elements of the Maplet.
• The Command pane displays the commands and corresponding actions define in the
Maplet.
• The Properties pane displays the properties of an instance of a define element in the
Maplet.
Example 3 - Design a Maplet Using the Maplet Builder
In this example, shown in Figure 10.8, the Maplet user enters a function and plots the result.
400 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
Figure 10.8: Image of the Maplet
Button element
Label element
Plot element
TextField element
Figure 10.9: Body Elements Used to Defin This Maplet
Action
Defin the number of rows in the
Maplet:
1. In the Properties pane:
a. In the drop-down list, select
BoxColumn1.
b. Change the numrows fiel
to 2.
Result in MapletBuilder
10.5 Authoring Maplets • 401
Action
Add a plot region to row 1:
2. From the Body palette, drag the Plotter element to the firs row in the
Layout pane.
Add columns to row 2:
3. In the Properties pane:
a. In the drop-down list, select
BoxRow2.
b. Change the numcolumns
fiel to 3.
Add a label to row 2:
4. From the Body palette, drag the Label
element to the left column in the Layout pane.
5. In the Properties pane:
a. In the drop-down list, select
Label1.
b. Change the caption fiel to
Enter a function of x.
Result in MapletBuilder
402 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
Action
Add a text region to row 2:
6. From the Body palette, drag the TextField element to the middle column.
The TextField element allows the
Maplet user to enter input that can be
retrieved in an action.
7. If necessary, resize the Maplet Builder
to display the entire Layout pane.
Add a button to row 2:
8. From the Body palette, drag the Button element to the right column in the
Layout pane.
9. In the Properties pane:
a. In the drop-down list, select
Button1.
b. Change the caption fiel to
Plot.
c. In the onclick property dropdown list, select <Evaluate>.
Result in MapletBuilder
10.5 Authoring Maplets • 403
Action
Result in MapletBuilder
10. In the Evaluate Expression dialog that
displays, the Target drop-down list
contains the define elements to which
you can send information, in this case,
Plotter1 and TextField1. The List
group box, located below the Expression group box, displays the define
elements to which you can retrieve information, in this case, TextField1.
a. In the Target drop-down
list, select Plotter1.
b. In the Command Form tab,
enter plot(TextField1, x=10..10) in the Expression
group box. (Note: Do not
include a semicolon (;) at the
end of the plot command.)
You can also double-click
TextField1 in the List group
box to insert this element in
the command syntax.
c. Click Ok.
Run the Maplet:
11. From the File menu, select Run. You are prompted to save the Maplet. Maplets created with the
Maplet Builder are saved as .maplet files
12. Click Yes and navigate to a location to save this Maplet.
For further information on the Maplet Builder, see the MapletBuilder help page. For more
examples of designing Maplets using the Maplet Builder, see examples/MapletBuilder.
Maplets Package
When designing a complicated Maplet, the Maplets package offers greater control. The
Maplets[Elements] subpackage contains the elements available when designing a Maplet
application. After you defin the Maplet, use the Maplets[Display] command to launch the
Maplet.
For more information on the Maplets package, refer to the MapletsPackage help page.
For more examples of designing Maplets using the Maplets package, see the
Maplets/Roadmap help page.
404 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
Example 4 - Design a Maplet Using the Maplets Package
To introduce the structure of designing Maplets using the Maplets package, this example
illustrates the equivalent syntax for the Example 3 - Design a Maplet Using the Maplet
Builder (page 399).
Load the Maplets[Elements] package.
> with(Maplets[Elements]):
Defin the Maplet application. To suppress the display of the data structure associated with
the Maplet application, end the definitio with a colon.
> PlottingMaplet:=Maplet(
BoxLayout(
BoxColumn(
# First Box Row
BoxRow(
# Define a Plot region
Plotter('reference' = Plotter1)
# End of first Box Row
),
# Second Box Row
BoxRow(
# Define a Label
Label("Enter a function of x "),
# Define a Text Field
TextField('reference' = TextField1),
# Define a Button
Button(caption="Plot", Evaluate(value =
'plot(TextField1,
x = -10..10)', 'target' = Plotter1))
# End of second Box Row
)
# End of BoxColumn
)
# End of BoxLayout
)
# End of Maplet
):
Launch the Maplet.
> Maplets[Display](PlottingMaplet);
10.5 Authoring Maplets • 405
For further examples using both the MapletBuilder and Maplets package commands, see
the Maplets example worksheets. For a listing, refer to the examples/index help page.
Saving
When saving a Maplet, you can save the document as an .mw fil or you can export the
document as a .maplet file
Maple Document
To save the Maplet code as an .mw file
1. From the File menu, select Save.
2. Navigate to the save location.
3. Enter a filename
4. Click Save.
If the document contains only Maplet code, it is recommended that you export the document
as a .maplet file
Maplet File
To export the Maplet code as a .maplet file
1. From the File menu, select Export As.
2. In the Files of Type drop-down list, select Maplet.
3. Navigate to the export location.
4. Enter the filename
5. Click Save.
406 • 10 Embedded Components and Maplets
11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other
Products
11.1 In This Chapter
Section
Topics
Writing to Files (page 407) - Saving to Maple • Saving Data to a File
fil formats
• Saving Expressions to a File
Reading from Files (page 409) -Opening Maple • Reading Data from a File
file
• Reading Expressions from a File
Exporting to Other Formats (page 412) - Export- • Exporting Documents
ing documents in fil formats supported by
• MapleNet
other software
• Maple T.A.
Connectivity (page 416) - Using Maple with
other programming languages and software
• Translating Maple Code to Other Programming
Languages
• Accessing External Products from Maple
• Accessing Maple from External Products
• Sharing and Storing Maple Worksheet Content
with the MapleCloudTM
11.2 Writing to Files
Maple supports fil formats in addition to the standard .mw fil format.
After using Maple to perform a computation, you can save the results to a fil for later
processing with Maple or another program.
Saving Data to a File
If the result of a Maple calculation is a long list or a large array of numbers, you can convert
it to Matrix form and write the numbers to a fil using the ExportMatrix command. This
command writes columns of numerical data to a file allowing you to import the numbers
into another program. To convert a list or a list of lists to a Matrix, use the Matrix constructor. For more information, refer to the Matrix help page.
407
408 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
>
>
If the data is a Vector or any object that can be converted to type Vector, use the ExportVector command. To convert lists to Vectors, use the Vector constructor. For more
information, refer to the Vector help page.
>
(11.1)
>
(11.2)
>
You can extend these routines to write more complicated data, such as complex numbers
or symbolic expressions. For more information, refer to the ExportMatrix and ExportVector
help pages.
For more information on matrices and vectors, see Linear Algebra (page 155).
Saving Expressions to a File
If you construct a complicated expression or procedure, you can save them for future use
in Maple. If you save the expression or procedure in the Maple internal format, Maple can
retrieve it more efficientl than from a document. Use the save command to write the expression to a .m file For more information on Maple internal fil formats, refer to the fil
help page.
11.3 Reading from Files • 409
>
In this example, small expressions are used. In practice, Maple supports expressions with
thousands of terms.
>
(11.3)
>
(11.4)
You can save these expressions to the fil qbinom.m.
>
Clear the memory using the restart command and retrieve the expressions using the read
command.
>
>
>
(11.5)
For more information on writing to files refer to the save help page.
11.3 Reading from Files
The most common reason for reading file is to load data, for example, data generated in
an experiment. You can store data in a text file and then read it into Maple.
410 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
Reading Data from a File
Import Data Assistant
If you generate data outside Maple, you can read it into Maple for further manipulation.
This data can be an image, a sound file or columns of numbers in a text file You can easily
import this external data into Maple using the Import Data Assistant, where the supported
fil formats include file of type Excel®, MATLAB, Image, Audio, Matrix Market, and
Delimited.
To launch the Import Data Assistant:
1. From the Tools menu, select Assistants, and then Import Data.
2. A dialog window appears where you can navigate to your data file Select the fil that
you want to import data from, and then select the fil type before clicking Next.
3. From the main window, you can preview the selected fil and choose from the applicable
options based on the format of the fil read in before importing the data into Maple. See
Figure 11.1Figure 11.1 for an example.
Figure 11.1: Import Data Assistant
ImportMatrix Command
The Import Data Assistant provides a graphical interface to the ImportMatrix command.
For more information, including options not available in the assistant, refer to the ImportMatrix help page.
11.3 Reading from Files • 411
Reading Expressions from a File
You can write Maple programs in a text fil using a text editor, and then import the fil into
Maple. You can paste the commands from the text fil into your document or you can use
the read command.
When you read a fil with the read command, Maple treats each line in the fil as a command. Maple executes the commands and displays the results in your document but it does
not, by default, insert the commands from the fil in your document.
For example, the fil ks.txt contains the following Maple commands.
S:= n -> sum( binomial( n, beta ) * ( ( 2*beta )! / 2^beta - beta!*beta ), beta=1..n );
S(19);
Note that the fil should not contain prompts (>) at the start of lines.
When you read the file Maple displays the results but not the commands.
(11.6)
>
>
(11.7)
If you set the interface echo option to 2, Maple inserts the commands from the fil into
your document.
412 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
>
> S:= n -> sum( binomial( n, beta ) * ( ( 2*beta )! / 2^beta beta!*beta ), beta=1..n );
> S(19);
(11.8)
For more information, refer to the read and interface help pages.
11.4 Exporting to Other Formats
Exporting Documents
You can save your documents by selecting Save or Save As from the File menu. By selecting
Export As from the File menu, you can also export a document in the following formats:
HTML, LaTeX, Maple input, Maplet application, Maple text, plain text, PDF, and Rich
Text Format. This allows you to access your work outside Maple.
HTML
The .html fil that Maple generates can be loaded into any HTML browser. Exported
mathematical content can be displayed in one of the following formats: GIF, MathML 2.0
Presentation, MathML 2.0 Content, or Maple Viewer, and is saved in a separate folder.
MathML is the Internet standard, sanctioned by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C),
for the communication of structured mathematical formulae between applications. For more
information about MathML, refer to the MathML help page.
Maple documents that are exported to HTML translate into multiple documents when using
frames. If the frames feature is not selected, Maple creates only one page that contains the
document contents.
LaTeX
The .tex fil generated by Maple is ready for processing by LaTeX. All distributions of
Maple include the necessary style files By default, the LaTeX style file are set for printing
the .tex fil using the dvips printer driver. You can change this behavior by specifying an
option to the \usepackage LaTeX command in the preamble of your .tex file For more information, refer to the exporttoLaTeX help page.
11.4 Exporting to Other Formats • 413
Maple Input
You can export a Maple document as Maple input so that it can be loaded using the Maple
Command-line version.
Important: When exporting a document as Maple input for use in Command-line Maple,
your document must contain explicit semicolons in 1-D Math input. If not, the exported
.mpl fil does not contain semicolons, and Command-line Maple generates errors.
Maplet Application
The Export as Maplet facility saves a Maple document as a .maplet file so that you can
run it using the command-line interface or the MapletViewer. The MapletViewer is an
executable program that can launch saved Maplet applications. It displays and runs Maplet
applications independently of the Maple Worksheet interface.
Important: When exporting a document as a Maplet Application for use in Command-line
Maple or the MapletViewer, your document must contain explicit semicolons. If not, the
exported .maplet fil does not contain semicolons, and Command-line Maple and the
MapletViewer generates errors.
Maple Text
Maple text is marked text that retains the distinction between text, Maple input, and Maple
output. Thus, you can export a document as Maple text, send the text fil by email, and the
recipient can import the Maple text into a Maple session and regenerate the computations
in the original document.
PDF
Export a Maple document to a Portable Document Format (PDF) fil so that you can open
the fil in a reader such as Adobe® Acrobat®. The PDF document is formatted as it would
appear when the Maple worksheet is printed using the active printer settings.
Note: Images, plots, and embedded components may be resized in the PDF file
Plain Text
Export a Maple document as plain text so that you can open the text fil in a word processor.
Rich Text Format (RTF)
Export a Maple document to a rich text format fil so that you can open and edit the fil in
a word processor.
Note: The generated .rtf format is compatible with Microsoft Word and Microsoft WordPad
only.
414 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
Summary of Translation
Table 11.1: Summary of Content Translation When Exporting to Different Formats
Content
Text
1-D Math
HTML
LaTeX
Maple
Input
Maplet
Application
Maintained Maintained PrePreceded
ceded by by #
#
Maintained Maintained MainMaintained
tained
GIF or
1-D Math 1-D
1-D
MathML
or LaTeX Math (if Math (if
2e
possible) possible)
Maple
Text
Preceded Mainby #
tained
Postscript
fil
Animation Animated
Not exporGIF
ted
Hidden
Not expor- Not exporcontent
ted
ted
Manually Not suppor- Not supporinserted
ted
ted
page break
Not exported
Not exported
Not exported
Not supported
Not exported
Not exported
Not exported
Not supported
Preceded
by >
1-D
Math or
character-based
typesetting
Not exported
Not exported
Not exported
Not supported
Hyperlink Links to
help pages
become
plain text.
Links to
documents
are renamed
and converted to
HTML links
Embedded GIF
image or
sketch output
SpreadHTML table
sheet
Plain
text
Plain
text
Plain
text
2-D Math
Plot
GIF
Plain text
Plain
Text
Preceded
by >
1-D
Math or
character-based
typesetting
Not exported
Not exported
Not exported
Not supported
Plain
text
Rich
Text
Format
Maintained
PDF
Format
Maintained
Static image
Static image
Static image
Either text
or shapes
depending
on option
selected
Static image
Not exported
Not exported
RTF
page
break object
Plain text
Static image
Static image
Not exported
Maintained
Plain text
Not expor- Not ex- Not ex- Not exted
ported ported ported
Not exported
Static im- Static image
age
LaTeX
tables
Not exported
RTF
table
Not ex- Not ex- Not exported ported ported
Static image
11.4 Exporting to Other Formats • 415
Content
HTML
LaTeX
Maple
Input
Maplet
Application
Document Approxim- LaTeX en- Not ex- Not exstyle
ated by
vironments ported ported
HTML style and secattributes
tions,
LaTeX 2e
macro calls
Maple
Text
Plain
Text
Not exported
Not exported
Rich
Text
Format
RTF
style
PDF
Format
Maintained
MapleNet
Overview of MapleNet
Using MapleNet, you can deploy Maple content on the web. Powered by the Maple computation engine, MapleNet allows you to embed dynamic formulas, models, and diagrams as
live content in web pages. The MapleNet software is not included with the Maple software.
For more information on MapleNet, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/maplenet.
MapleNet Documents and Maplets
After you upload your Maple document to the MapleNet server, it can be accessed by anyone
in the world using a Web browser. Even if viewers do not have a copy of Maple installed,
they can view documents and Maplets, manipulate 3-D plots, and execute code at the click
of a button.
TM
Custom Java Applets and JavaServer Pages
Technology
MapleNet provides a programming interface to the Maple math engine so commands can
be executed from a Java applet or using JavaServer PagesTM technology. Embed MapleNet
into your web application, and let Maple handle the math and visualization.
Maple T.A.
Overview of Maple T.A.
Maple T.A. is a web-based automated testing system, based on the Maple engine. Instructors
can use pre-written questions or create custom question banks and then choose from these
questions to form quizzes and assignments. Maple T.A. automatically grades responses as
students complete assignments and tests.
For more information, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/mapleta.
416 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
Exporting Assignments to Maple T.A.
You can use Maple to create graded questions for use in Maple T.A. For information on
creating and testing questions, see Creating Graded Assignments (page 331). Using the
Maple T.A. export feature, you can create and test Maple T.A. content.
To export the document:
1. From the File menu, select Export As.
2. In the Export As dialog, specify a filenam and the Maple T.A. (.zip) fil type. The .zip
fil containing your questions and assignment can be uploaded to Maple T.A. as a course
module.
Any document content outside Maple T.A. sections (indicated by green section markers)
is ignored by the export process.
For more details, refer to the exporttoMapleTA help page.
11.5 Connectivity
Translating Maple Code To Other Programming Languages
Code Generation
The CodeGeneration package is a collection of commands and subpackages that enable the
translation of Maple code to other programming languages. Languages currently supported
include C, C#, Fortran 77, Java, MATLAB, and Visual Basic.
For details on Code Generation, refer to the CodeGeneration help page.
Accessing External Products from Maple
External Calling
External calling allows you to use compiled C, C#, Fortran 77, or Java code in Maple.
Functions written in these languages can be linked and used as if they were Maple procedures.
With external calling you can use pre-written optimized algorithms without the need to
translate them into Maple commands. Access to the NAG library routines and other numerical algorithms is built into Maple using the external calling mechanism.
External calling can also be applied to functions other than numerical algorithms. Routines
exist that accomplish a variety of non-mathematical tasks. You can use these routines in
Maple to extend its functionality. For example, you can link to controlled hardware via a
serial port or interface with another program. The Database package uses external calling
to allow you to query, create, and update databases in Maple. For more information, refer
to the Database help page.
11.5 Connectivity • 417
For more information on using external calling, refer to the ExternalCalling help page.
Mathematica Translator
The MmaTranslator package provides translation tools for converting Mathematica® expressions, command operations, and notebooks to Maple. The package can translate Mathematica input to Maple input and Mathematica notebooks to Maple documents. The Mma
subpackage contains commands that provide translation for Mathematica commands when
no equivalent Maple command exists. In most cases, the command achieves the translation
through minor manipulations of the input and output of similar Maple commands.
Note: The MmaTranslator package does not convert Mathematica programs.
There is a Maplet interface to the MmaTranslator package. For more information, refer
to the MmaToMaple help page.
Matlab Package
The Matlab package enables you to translate MATLAB code to Maple, as well as call selected MATLAB functions from a Maple session, provided you have MATLAB installed
on your system.
For more information, refer to the Matlab help page.
Accessing Maple from External Products
Microsoft Excel Add-In
Maple is available as an add-in to Microsoft Excel. This add-in is supported for Excel 2010
and Excel 2007 for Windows, and provides the following features.
• Access to Maple commands from Excel
• Ability to copy and paste between Maple and Excel
• Access to a subset of the Maple help pages
• Maple Function Wizard to step you through the creation of a Maple function call
To enable the Maple Excel Add-in in Excel 2010:
1. Click the File menu and select Options.
2. Click Add-ins.
3. In the Manage box select Excel Add-ins, and then Go.
418 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
4. Navigate to the Excel subdirectory of your Maple installation and select the appropriate
file
- For 32-bit Windows, select WMIMPLEX.xla (that is, select $MAPLE/Excel/WMIMPLEX.xla), and click OK.
- For 64-bit Windows, select WMIMPLEX64.xla (that is, select $MAPLE/Excel/WMIMPLEX64.xla), and click OK.
5. Select the Maple Excel Add-in check box.
6. Click OK.
For details on enabling the Maple Excel Add-in for Excel 2007, refer to the Excel help
page.
For information on using this add-in, refer to the Using Maple in Excel help fil within
Excel.
To view this help file
1. Enable the add-in.
2. From the View menu, select Toolbars, and then Maple.
3. On the Maple toolbar, click the Maple help icon
.
OpenMaple
OpenMaple is a suite of functions that allows you to access Maple algorithms and data
structures in your compiled C, C#, Java, or Visual Basic programs. (This is the reverse of
external calling, which allows access to compiled C, C#, Fortran 77, and Java code from
Maple.)
To run your application, Maple must be installed. You can distribute your application to
any licensed Maple user. For additional terms and conditions on the use of OpenMaple,
refer to the extern/OpenMapleLicensing.txt fil in your Maple installation.
For more details on using OpenMaple functions, refer to the OpenMaple help page.
MapleSim
MapleSimTM is a complete environment for modeling and simulating multidomain engineering systems. During a simulation, MapleSim uses the symbolic Maple computation engine
to generate the mathematical models that represent the system behavior.
Because both products are tightly integrated, you can use Maple commands and technical
document features to edit, manipulate, and analyze a MapleSim model. For example, you
can use Maple commands and tools to manipulate your model equations, develop custom
components based on a mathematical model, and visualize simulation results.
11.5 Connectivity • 419
MapleSim software is not included with the Maple software. For more information on
MapleSim, visit http://www.maplesoft.com/maplesim.
MaplePlayer for iPad
The Maple Player is a free application for the iPad that uses the Maple computation engine
to enable you to view and interact with documents created in desktop Maple.
For more information on the Maple Player for iPad, visit
http://www.maplesoft.com/products/MaplePlayer.
Sharing and Storing Maple Worksheet Content
The MapleCloud
You can use the MapleCloud to share worksheet content with other users, view content
shared by other users, and store entire standard Maple worksheets or selected content from
standard Maple worksheets. Through the MapleCloud palette, you can upload standard
Maple worksheet content and allow other users to download a copy of that content. You
can also upload and store content in a user-specifi area that only you can access.
A list of shared worksheets that you have permissions to view are displayed in the MapleCloud palette. To share content with specifi users, you can either create a user group or
select an existing group and allow only those group members to access your content. For
more information about groups, refer to the worksheet,cloud,groups help page.
Users need an internet connection to use the MapleCloud. To share worksheet content,
create, manage and join user groups; and view group-specifi content, you must log in to
the MapleCloud using a Maplesoft.com, Gmail™, or Google Mail™ account name and
password.
A Maplesoft.com membership account gives you access to thousands of free Maple resources
and MaplePrimes, which is an active web community for sharing techniques and experiences
with Maple and related products. To sign up for a free Maplesoft.com membership account,
visit http://www.maplesoft.com/members/sign_up_form.aspx. The MapleCloud is integrated with several of these online features, so it is strongly recommended that you use a
Maplesoft.com membership account.
420 • 11 Input, Output, and Interacting with Other Products
Index
Symbols
! toolbar icon, 66
!!! toolbar icon, 66
"", 342
$, 175
%H, 168
%T, 168
&gt;, 78
&lt;&gt;, 156, 159
&x, 168
', 94, 361
(), 379
-&gt;, 94
., 167
1-D Math, 79
switching to 2-D, 79
2-D Math, 78
converting to 1-D, 80
entering, 5
shortcuts, 7
switching to 1-D, 79
:, 79, 80
::, 142
:=, 93
;, 79, 80
?
help topic, 54
[], 165, 334, 335
^, 6, 110
entering, 110
_, 95
entering, 95
_ZN~, 115
`, 95
{}, 334
|, 159
~, 115, 143
element-wise operations, 358
A
about command, 143
abs command, 107
absolute value, 107
add
word to your dictionary, 330
add command, 375
additionally command, 143
algebra, 153
linear, 171
polynomial, 148
algsubs command, 355
alignment format, 286
American spelling
spellcheck, 328
and operator, 366
angle brackets, 156, 159, 203
angles, 351
animations
creating, 275
customizing, 279
Application Center, 59
applications
sample documents, 57
apply
character styles, 288
paragraph styles, 291
approximation, 103
least-squares, 170
numeric, 356
arguments, 379
arithmetic, 66
finite-precision 102
interval, 138
matrix and vector, 166
modular, 107, 109
polynomial, 148
Arrays, 336
indexing, 336
large, 337
arrow operator, 94
assign command, 118
assigned command, 361
421
422 • Index
assignment operator (:=), 93
Assistants
Back-Solver, 35
CAD Link, 36
Curve Fitting, 34, 155
Data Analysis, 35, 194
eBook Publisher, 36
Equation Manipulator, 36
Import Data, 36, 410
Installer Builder, 36
Library Browser, 36
Maplet Builder, 36
ODE Analyzer, 36, 120
Optimization, 36, 184
overview, 32
Plot Builder, 36, 238
Scientifi Constants , 36
Special Functions, 36
Tools menu, 32
Unit Converter, 351
Units Calculator, 36, 128
Worksheet Migration, 36
assume command, 142
adding assumptions, 143
and procedure variables, 145
imposing multiple assumptions, 143
removing assumptions, 144
setting relationships between variables,
142
setting variable properties, 142
testing property, 143
using with assuming command, 145
viewing assumptions, 143
assuming command, 142, 144, 180, 350
additionally option, 145
and procedure variables, 145
applying to all names, 144
using with assume command, 145
Attributes submenu
character, 285
paragraph, 286
auto-execute, 302
repeating, 304
security levels, 304
Avogadro constant, 113, 134
B
Back-Solver Assistant, 35
bar chart, 192
basis
vector space, 170
binary numbers, 108
Bohr radius, 134
bold format, 283
bookmarks
using, 324
boolean expressions, 357, 366, 372
brackets
angle, 156, 159
break statement, 374
browser
Matrix, 160, 338
Task, 90
bullets
format, 286
button
embedding, 326
Button component, 385
by clause, 369
excluding, 369
negative, 370
C
CAD Link Assistant, 36
calculus, 183
clickable problem solving, 235
multivariate, 182
Student package, 183
of variations, 183
packages, 182
study guides, 196
teaching, 183, 196
vector, 182
Student package, 183
calling sequence, 81
Index • 423
canvas
inserting, 317
canvas style
sketch pad, 318
caret
entering, 110
central tendency, 138
character styles
creating, 289
description, 287
Check Box component, 385
Cholesky decomposition, 168
Classic Worksheet
tables, 313
Classic Worksheet Interface, xvii
clickable math, 235
Code Edit Region, 382
CodeGeneration
package description, 85
coeff command, 153
coefficient
polynomials, 153
coeffs command, 154
collect command, 153
colon, 79, 80
color
of plots, 267
combine command, 350
errors option, 141
Combo Box component, 386
command completion, 7, 47
Command-line Interface, xvii
commands, 85
and task templates, 91
displaying procedures, 380
entering, 45
help, 53
hiding, 382, 383
iterative, 377
mapping over set or list, 377
package, 83
top, 83
top-level, 81
compatibility
worksheet, 332
complex expressions, 357
complex numbers, 29
compoly command, 155
components
adding GUI elements, 326
palette, 326
computations
assistants, 90
commands, 85
context menus, 89
errors, 105
avoiding, 105
integers, 109
interrupting, 374
linear algebra, 166
mathematics, 147
numeric, 105
palettes, 87
performing, 101, 147
Real number system, 141
symbolic, 105
syntax-free, 75
task templates, 91
tutors, 90
under assumptions, 142
single evaluation, 144
updating, 66
with uncertainty, 140
with units, 131
conditional execution, 366
constants, 63
content command, 154
context
of unit, 128
context menus, 68, 89, 168
customizing animations, 277
equation, 111
integer, 88, 106
overview, 39
tutors, 74
using, 39
424 • Index
convert command, 351
base option, 108, 373
degrees option, 351
mathematical functions, 351
polynom option, 179
set option, 351
temperature option, 130
units option, 129, 351
copy, 283
examples, 56
copy expressions, 12
correlation, 140
coulditbe command, 144
covariance, 140
cross product, 168
Curl command, 183
Curve Fitting
package
PolynomialInterpolation command,
155
Curve Fitting Assistant, 34, 155
cut and paste
in tables, 306
D
D operator, 176
Data Analysis Assistant, 35, 194
data structures, 63, 333
creating, 341
Data Table component, 386
Database Integration, 416
datatype option, 163
degree
command, 154
polynomials, 153
demonstrations, 195
denom command, 346
derivatives, 174
directional, 176
partial, 63, 174
prime notation, 302
Tutor, 196
Dial component, 386
dictionary, 57, 195
dictionary topic
adding hyperlink to, 323
diff command, 121, 175
differential equations
ordinary, 120
partial, 124
differentiation, 174
with uncertainty, 140
with units, 132
Differentiation Methods Tutor, 197
Digits environment variable, 104
dimension, 127, 168
base, 127
Directional Derivative Tutor, 176
discrim command, 155
display
bookmark, 324
distribution
probability, 190
divide command, 149
divisors, 107
document blocks, 50, 299
Document mode, 61
documents
running, 9
DocumentTools, 394
double colon operator, 142
dsolve command, 124
E
e-notation, 104
eBook Publisher Assistant, 36
Edit menu
in help system, 56
eigenvalues, 168
eigenvectors, 168
element-wise operators, 358
elementary charge, 134
elements, 133
definition 135
isotopes, 135
definition 135
Index • 425
properties, 135
list, 135
properties
list, 135
uncertainty, 138
units, 137
using, 134
value, 136
value and units, 137
elif clauses, 367
order, 368
else clause, 367
email
adding hyperlink to, 322
embedded components, 326, 385
inserting, 388
properties, 389
end do keywords, 369, 371, 372
end if keywords, 366
end proc keywords, 378
engineers
portal for, 57
environment variables
Digits, 104
Order, 179
equation
solving step-by-step, 216
equation labels, 99
displaying, 96
features, 99
formatting, 50
inserting, 49
numbering schemes, 98
overview, 48
references to, 96
versus names, 99
with multiple outputs, 97
Equation Manipulator, 36, 216
equations
solving, 111
for real solutions, 141
numerically, 116
symbolically, 113
transcendental, 115
errors
quantities with, 138
Euclidean algorithm, 155
eval command, 354, 380
evalb command, 357
evalc command, 357
evalf command, 104, 115, 136, 139, 356
with Int command, 181
with Limit command, 173
evaln command, 361
evaluation
boolean expressions, 357
complex expressions, 357
delaying, 361
levels of, 360
Maple expressions, 353
of expression at a point, 353
output below, 65
output inline, 65, 68
updated computations, 66
exact
computation, 103
numbers, 102
quantities
converting to floating-point 104
example worksheets
copy, 56
execution group, 79
execution groups, 18
expand
command, 349
document block, 301
execution group, 301
series, 178
Exploration Assistant, 43
exponents
entering, 6
export, 381
to HTML, 412
to LaTeX, 412
to Maple input, 413
to Maple T.A., 416
426 • Index
to Maple text, 413
to Maplet application, 413
to other formats, 415
to PDF, 413
to plain text, 413
to Rich Text Format, 413
worksheets, 412
exporting
embedded components, 388
expression sequences, 113, 334
creating, 375
expressions, 63, 333
adding, 375
evaluating, 353
manipulating, 348
multiplying, 375
right-click, 40
versus functional operators, 340
F
factor
integers, 106
polynomials, 154
QR factorization, 170
factor command, 154, 349
factored normal form, 352
factorial command, 107
FAIL, 366, 372
false, 366, 372
Faraday constant, 134
Favorites palette, 21
file
image formats, 319
reading from, 411
writing to, 407
fil option, 163
finit fields 109
solving equations, 125
finit rings, 109
floating-poin
computation, 103
accuracy, 105
hardware, 105
significan digits, 104
numbers, 102
rational approximation, 89
Flux command, 183
font color, 283
foot-pound-second (FPS) system, 72, 128
footers, 296
for/from loops, 369
for/in loops, 371
formal power series solutions, 124
format labels, 49
Format menu
bookmarks, 324
quick formatting, 283
frac command, 144
fractions
approximating, 69
entering, 6
frequency plot, 192
Frobenius form
matrix, 170
from clause, 369
excluding, 369
fsolve command, 116
full evaluation, 360, 362
FunctionAdvisor command, 81
functional operators, 339
differentiating, 175
plotting, 341
versus expressions, 340
functions
converting between, 351
definin as functional operators, 339
G
Gaussian elimination, 170
Gaussian integers, 110
GaussInt package, 110
gcd command, 155
gcdex command, 155
Global Optimization Toolbox, 184
global variables, 379
glossiness
Index • 427
of 3-D plots, 267
go to
bookmark, 326
gradient, 199
Gradient Tutor, 198
Graphing Calculator, xvii
greatest common divisor, 107, 155
H
Handwriting palette, 27
has command, 345
hastype command, 344
HazardRate command, 191
headers, 296
Help Navigator
Using, 55
help page
adding hyperlink to, 322
help system
accessing, 53
description, 57
Edit menu, 56
Help Navigator, 54
manuals, 55
search, 55
table of contents, 55
tasks, 55
topic search, 55
tutorials, 55
View menu, 56
Hermitian transpose
matrix and vector, 168
Hessenberg form, 170
hexadecimal numbers, 108
hide
worksheet content, 297
highlight color, 283
Hilbert Matrix, 170
histogram, 192
How Do I ... topics, 57
hyperlinks
in worksheet, 320
I
i
entering, 29, 110
icons
open as example worksheet, 56
if statement, 366
ifactor command, 106, 107, 349
igcd command, 107
images
adding hyperlink to, 321
fil format, 319
inserting, 319
imaginary unit
entering, 29, 110
implied multiplication, 6
implies operator, 366
Import Data Assistant, 36, 410
indent
format, 286
indeterminates, 347
indets command, 347
indices, 81, 165
inequations
solving, 111
for real solutions, 141
symbolically, 113
infinit loops, 374
infolevel command, 124
input
1-D Math, 79
2-D Math, 78
prompt, 78
separating, 80
setting default mode, 80
insert
bookmark, 324
hyperlink, 321
images, 319
section, 295
sketch pad, 317
table, 304
Installer Builder Assistant, 36
instructor resources, 207
428 • Index
int command, 181
Int command, 181
integers
commands, 107
computations, 109
context menu, 88
factoring, 106
Gaussian, 110
modulo m, 109
solving equations, 125
solving modular equations, 125
integration, 67, 87, 179
definite 180
functional operators, 342
indefinite 180
iterated, 181
line, 181, 201
numeric, 181
surface, 181
with units, 132
interactive commands
Student, 38
Interactive Linear System Solving tutor, 73
Interactive Plot Builder Assistant
creating animations, 271
creating plots, 238
customizing animations, 277
customizing plots, 263
interface command
rtablesize option, 162
verboseproc option, 380
international system (SI), 128
InterquartileRange command, 191
interval arithmetic, 138
iquo command, 107
iroot command, 107
is command, 143
isprime command, 107
isqrt command, 107
italic format, 283
J
j
entering, 110
Jordan form, 168
K
keyboard keys
Command Completion, xviii
Context Menu, xviii
keystrokes, 6
L
Label component, 386
labels, 99
last name evaluation, 361
lcm command, 155
lcoeff command, 153
ldegree command, 154
least-squares, 170
left single quotes, 95
left-hand side, 345
levels of evaluation, 360
lexicographic order, 151
lhs command, 345
Library Browser
description, 36
limit command, 172
Limit command, 173
limits, 172
multidimensional, 173
line break, 286
line integrals, 201
linear algebra, 171
computations, 166
efficienc , 162, 171
LinearAlgebra package, 170
teaching, 171, 196
Linear System Solving tutor, 74
linear systems
solving, 125, 170
interactive, 73
LinearAlgebra
package description, 85
LinearAlgebra package, 168
Index • 429
commands, 170
numeric computations, 171
LinearSolve command, 125
List Box component, 386
lists, 165, 335
returning solutions as, 113
local variables, 379
logical operators, 366
loops, 369
general, 373
infinite 374
M
Macintosh
command complete, 7
context menus, 39
manipulate
equation, 216
map command, 377
Maple Application Center, 196
Maple library, 45
Maple Portal, 57, 195
Maple Student Help Center, 196
MapleCloud, 419
MaplePrimes, 59
Maplet Builder
description, 36
launching, 398
Maplet authoring, 398
Maplets
adding hyperlink to, 323
authoring, 405
Maplet Builder, 398
Maplets package, 403
launching
Maple worksheet, 397
Maplet fil type, 396
Maplets package
Display command, 403
Elements subpackage, 403
Maplet authoring, 403
saving
Maple worksheet, 405
maplet file 405
using, 396
markers
bookmarks, 324
displaying, 51
for document blocks, 299
math dictionary
description, 57
math educators
portal for, 195
Math Expression component, 386
Math mode, 19
shortcuts, 7
mathematical functions
list, 81
mathematics
computations, 147
teaching and learning, 207
matrices, 338
arithmetic, 166
context menus, 168
data type, 162, 163
defining 156
efficienc , 162
filling 163
Hermitian transpose, 168
image, 161
large, 160
multiplication, 167
operations, 168
random, 160
scalar multiplication, 167
selecting submatrices, 165
shape, 162, 163
transpose, 168
type, 162
Matrix
Browser, 160, 338
constructor, 163
data structure, 155
palette, 126, 156, 162
Matrix command, 156
max command, 107
430 • Index
maximize, 184
maximum, 107
Mean command, 191
Meter component, 386
min command, 107
minimize, 184
minimum, 107
mod command, 107
mod operator, 109
modes
Document, 61
Worksheet, 61
modify
table, 305
modp command, 109
mods command, 109
modular arithmetic, 107, 109
modules, 381
MPS(X) files 188
msolve command, 125
mul command, 375
multiplication
implied, 6
N
names, 63, 93
adding assumptions, 142
and symbols, 28
assigned, 361
assigning values to, 93
logical, 366
previously assigned, 361
protected, 94
removing assumptions, 144
reserved, 94
unassigning, 94, 144, 362
valid, 95
versus equation labels, 99
with assumptions, 143
nops command, 347
norm command, 155, 169
normal command, 352
normal form, 352
not operator, 366
numbers, 63
exact, 102
floating-point 102
non-base 10, 108
numer command, 346
numeric
approximation, 356
computation, 102
numtheory[divisors] command, 107
O
objects, 381
ODE Analyzer Assistant, 36, 120
online help, 60
operands, 347
selecting, 376
operators, 63
functional, 339
logical, 366
relational, 366
Optimization
package description, 85
optimization, 187
efficienc , 187
plotting, 186
point-and-click interface, 184
Optimization Assistant, 32, 36, 184
Plotter, 186
Options dialog, 20
or operator, 366
Order environment variable, 179
ordinary differential equations
plotting solution, 123
solving, 120
orthogonal matrix, 170
output
suppressing, 79
P
packages, 81
accessing commands, 47
Index • 431
definition 45
help, 53
loading, 83
top, 86
unloading, 84
page break, 286
page headers and footers, 296
palette
custom, 28
Snippets, 28
palettes, 63, 67, 87, 354
categories, 23
Components, 389
favorites, 21
managing, 24
Matrix, 156, 162
overview, 21
symbol recognition, 27
Units, 72, 130
paragraph styles
creating, 292
description, 287
parameters, 379
parametric solutions, 116
partial derivative
entering, 63
partial differential equations
solving, 124
paste, 283
examples, 56
PDEs, 124
pdsolve command, 124
pencil
sketch pad, 317
Physics
package description, 85
pie chart, 192
piecewise command, 190
Planck constant, 134
Plot Builder
description, 36
plot command, 179
Plot component, 386
plot3d command, 341
plots
analyzing, 269
pan, 269
point probe, 269
rotate, 269
scale, 269
code for color plates, 280
creating, 261
context menu, 245
displaying multiple plots, 261
insert plot, 248
Interactive Plot Builder, 238
plot command, 249
plot3d command, 249
plots package, 257
creating animations
animate command, 271
Interactive Plot Builder, 271
plot3d[viewpoint] command, 274
customizing, 267
context menu, 264
Interactive Plot Builder, 263
plot options, 267
plot3d options, 267
customizing animations, 279
command-line options, 278
context menu, 277
Interactive Plot Builder, 277
data, 270
exporting, 280
functional operators, 341
gradient, 200
line integral, 201
Live Data Plots palette, 270
ODEs
numeric solution, 122
symbolic solution, 123
optimization problem, 186
playing animations, 276
plots package
animate command, 271
contourplot command, 260
432 • Index
display command, 262
matrixplot command, 258
pointplot command, 257
series, 179
statistics, 192
viewing animations
animate context bar, 276
point-and-click, 32
polynomial equations
solving, 115
numerically, 116
polynomials
algebra, 148
arithmetic, 148
coefficients 153
collecting terms, 153
degree, 153
division, 148, 149
efficien arithmetic, 155
expanding, 149
factoring, 154
implied multiplication, 150
numeric
algebraic manipulation, 155
operations, 154
sorting, 150
pure lexicographic, 151
total degree, 151
PolynomialTools package, 155
IsSelfReciprocal command, 155
powers
entering, 6
precalculus
demos, 195
teaching, 196
precision, 104
prem command, 155
previously assigned, 361
primality testing, 107
primpart command, 155
print
command, 380
table, 312
printing
embedded components, 388
probability distribution, 190
proc key word, 378
procedures, 381
and assumptions, 145
calling, 378
defining 378
displaying, 380
inputs, 379
multiple lines, 378
output, 379
using, 378
product command, 376
products
entering, 6
implied, 6
programming, 365
access to Maple's programming guides,
58
programs, 365
modules, 381
objects, 381
procedures, 381
prompt
input, 78
properties
testing, 143
protected names, 94
Q
QPSolve command, 188
QR factorization, 170
quadratic programs, 188
quantities with uncertainty, 139
accessing error, 139
accessing value, 139
computing with, 140
constructing, 139
element properties, 140
rounding the error, 139
scientifi constants, 140
with units, 140
Index • 433
quick
character formatting, 283
paragraph formatting, 285
quit statement, 374
quo command, 148
quotes
double, 342
left single, 95
right single, 94, 361
unevaluation, 361
quotient
integer, 107
R
Radio Button component, 386
random
matrices, 160
variables, 190
randpoly command, 155
range
in plots, 265
operator, 165
rank, 168
rational expressions
entering, 6
read
from files 411
RealDomain
package description, 85
recurrence relation
solving, 126
reference
equation labels, 99
names, 93
relational operators, 366
rem command, 148
remainder
integer, 107
remove command, 376
repetition statements, 369
reserved names, 94
resources
in help system, 55
restart command, 84, 95
resultant command, 155
return
statement, 374
values, 379
rhs command, 345
right single quotes, 94, 361
right-click
expressions, 40
right-hand side, 345
RootOf structure, 115
roots
command, 155
of equations, 115
Rotary Gauge component, 387
row vector
creating, 163
rsolve command, 126
running
documents, 9
worksheets, 9
S
saving a Maple Document, 18
scatter plot, 192
scientifi constants, 133
list, 134
name, 134
symbol, 134
uncertainty, 138
units, 137
using, 134
value, 136
value and units, 137
Scientifi Constants Assistant, 36
ScientificConstant
package description, 85
ScientificConstant package, 133
extensibility, 138
objects, 136
ScientificErrorAnalysi
package description, 85
ScientificErrorAnalysi package, 138
434 • Index
extensibility, 141
objects, 139
search
help system, 55
sections
in worksheet, 294
security levels
auto-execute, 304
security tab
options dialog, 304
select command, 376
selection
execute, 9
selectremove command, 376
semicolon, 79, 80
seq command, 375
series, 178
command, 178
plotting, 179
Taylor, 178
type, 179
sets, 334
shape option, 163
show
worksheet content, 297
show contents dialog
using, 297
significan digits, 104
simplify command, 348, 355
sketch pad
canvas style, 298
slider
embedding, 326
Slider component, 387
Snippets palette, 28
solutions
assigning as expression, 118
assigning as function, 119
details, 124
formal, 124
formal power series, 124
integers, 125
real, 141
series, 124
verifying, 118
solve
equations, 111
for real solutions, 141
numerically, 116
symbolically, 113
inequations, 111
for real solutions, 141
symbolically, 113
integer equations, 125
linear system, 125, 170
modular integer equations, 125
ODEs, 120
PDEs, 124
recurrence relation, 126
transcendental equations, 115
solve command, 113, 336
findin all solutions, 115
findin parametric solutions, 116
real solutions, 141
solving procedures, 116
sort
lists, 353
polynomials, 150, 353
sort command, 150, 353
plex option, 151
spacing format, 286
Special Functions Assistant, 36
spellcheck, 328
American spelling, 328
dictionary, 330
sqrfree command, 155
Standard Document Interface, xvii
starting, 3
Standard Units environment, 131
Standard Worksheet Interface, xvii
startup code, 9
Startup Code, 383
statements
multiple lines, 378
Statistics package, 193
continuous distributions, 190
Index • 435
description, 85
discrete distributions, 190
plots, 192
strings, 342
StringTools package, 343
Student
package description, 86
Student Help Center, 59
Student package, 177, 195, 196
calculus subpackages, 183
LinearAlgebra subpackage, 171
Maplets, 195
Tutors, 195
student resources, 207
students
portal for, 195
study guides, 196
style set management, 293
subscripts
entering, 7
format, 283
substitute, 353
sum command, 376
superscript format, 283
Sylvester matrix, 170
symbol completion, 7
symbolic
computation, 102
objects, 103
symbols
entering, 28
names, 28
system of units, 128
controlling, 132
systeme international (SI), 72, 128
T
Tab
icon, 87
inserting, 87
key, 87
Tab icon, 9
table of contents
help system, 55
tables, 338
alignment, 309
and Classic worksheet, 313
appearance, 308
borders, 308
contents, 304
execution order, 313
physical dimensions, 308
printing, 312
using, 304
visibility of cell content, 312
Task Browser, 90
task template, 40
task templates, 91, 106, 127, 155, 172
taylor command, 178
Taylor series, 178
tcoeff command, 154
Teacher Resource Center, 59
teachers
portal for, 195
teaching with Maple, 207
Technical Support
access, 60
temperature conversion, 129
Text Area component, 387
text fiel
embedding, 326
Text mode, 19
text regions, 92
tilde, 115, 143, 358
to clause, 369
excluding, 369
Toggle Button component, 387
Tolerances package, 138
toolboxes
Global Optimization, 184
Tools menu
assistants, 32
Assistants and Tutors, 90
Tasks, 90
topic search, 55
Torsion command, 183
436 • Index
total degree, 151
transparency
of 3-D plots, 267
transpose
matrices and vectors, 168
true, 366
tutorials
help system, 55
Tutorials, 57
Tutors, 195, 196
Derivatives, 196
Differentiation Methods, 197
Directional Derivative, 176
Gradient, 198
Linear System Solving, 74
using, 37
tutors
accessing, 37
type command, 344
types, 142, 343
converting, 351
series, 179
testing, 344
subexpressions, 344
typesetting rule assistant, 298
U
unapply command, 119
unassign command, 94
unassigning names, 94, 362
uncertainty, 138
quantities with, 138
underline format, 283
unevaluation quotes, 94, 361
union
of sets, 335
Unit Converter Assistant, 351
units, 72, 127, 351
adding to expressions, 72
applying to expression, 130
computing with, 131
context, 128
converting between, 128
environment, 131
evaluating with, 73
in 1-D Math, 131
inserting, 130
overview, 127
prefixes 131
system of
controlling, 132
systems of, 128
Units
package description, 86
Units Calculator, 128
Units Calculator Assistant, 36
Units package, 127
environments, 131
extensibility, 133
UseSystem command, 133
UsingSystem command, 132
Units palettes, 72, 130
universal gravitational constant, 134
UNIX
command complete, 7
context menus, 39
unwith command, 84
URL
adding hyperlink to, 322
V
variables, 63
variance, 140
VariationalCalculus package, 183
Vector
constructor
vectorfiel attribute, 182
data structure, 155
vector fields 182
vector spaces
basis, 170
VectorCalculus
package description, 86
VectorCalculus package, 182
Student version, 183
vectors, 338
Index • 437
arithmetic, 166
column, 159
context menus, 168
cross product, 168
data type, 163
defining 159
efficienc , 162
filling 163
large, 160
multiplication, 167
row, 159, 163
scalar multiplication, 167
selecting entries, 164
shape, 163
transpose, 168
View menu
in help system, 56
markers, 51
Volume Gauge component, 387
W
Web page
adding hyperlink to, 322
Web site
access to Maple help pages, 60
Application Center, 59, 196
MaplePrimes, 59
Student Center, 196
Student Help Center, 59
Teacher Resource Center, 59
Technical Support, 60
Training, 59
Welcome Center, 58
Welcome Center, 58
while loops, 372
Windows
command complete, 7
context menus, 39
with command, 83
worksheet
adding hyperlink to, 322
Worksheet Environment, 3
Worksheet Migration Assistant, 36
Worksheet mode, 61, 77
worksheets
running, 9
write
to files 407
X
xor operator, 366
Z
zero recognition, 352
zip command, 377
438 • Index
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