3.2 The pylon API
Basler scout
USER’S MANUAL
(for Scout-f Cameras Used with Basler’s Pylon API)
Document Number: AW000125
Version: 09 Language: 000 (English)
Release Date: 22 August 2008
For customers in the U.S.A.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used
in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
You are cautioned that any changes or modifications not expressly approved in this manual could
void your authority to operate this equipment.
The shielded interface cable recommended in this manual must be used with this equipment in
order to comply with the limits for a computing device pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules.
For customers in Canada
This apparatus complies with the Class A limits for radio noise emissions set out in Radio
Interference Regulations.
Pour utilisateurs au Canada
Cet appareil est conforme aux normes Classe A pour bruits radioélectriques, spécifiées dans le
Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique.
Life Support Applications
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where
malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Basler
customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and
agree to fully indemnify Basler for any damages resulting from such improper use or sale.
Warranty Note
Do not open the housing of the camera. The warranty becomes void if the housing is opened.
All material in this publication is subject to change without notice and is copyright Basler
Vision Technologies.
Contacting Basler Support Worldwide
Europe:
Basler AG
An der Strusbek 60 - 62
22926 Ahrensburg
Germany
Tel.: +49-4102-463-500
Fax.: +49-4102-463-599
[email protected]
Americas:
Basler, Inc.
855 Springdale Drive, Suite 160
Exton, PA 19341
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1-877-934-8472
Fax.: +1-610-280-7608
[email protected]
Asia:
Basler Asia Pte. Ltd
8 Boon Lay Way
# 03 - 03 Tradehub 21
Singapore 609964
Tel.: +65-6425-0472
Fax.: +65-6425-0473
[email protected]
www.baslerweb.com
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3
Spectral Response for Mono Cameras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4
Spectral Response for Color Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5
Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1 Standard Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.1
Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.2
Sensor Positioning Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2 90° Head Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2.1
Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2.2
Sensor Positioning Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.3 Maximum Thread Length on Color Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.4 Mechanical Stress Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6
Software Licensing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.7
Avoiding EMI and ESD Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.8
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.8.1 Temperature and Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.8.2 Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.9
Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
20
20
20
23
25
25
27
28
29
2 Software and Hardware Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3 Tools for Changing Camera Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1
The pylon Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2
The pylon API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1
Overview (All Models Except scA750-60). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.2
Overview (scA750-60 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5 Physical Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.1
General Description of the Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.2
Connector Pin Assignments and Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 IEEE 1394b Socket Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 12-pin Receptacle Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Pin Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3
Connector Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.3.1 IEEE 1394b Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.3.2 12-pin Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
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5.4
Cabling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 IEEE 1394b Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Standard I/O Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 PLC I/O Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
47
47
49
5.5
IEEE 1394b Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.6
Camera Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.7
Input and Output Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1 Input Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1.1
Voltage Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1.2
Line Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 Output Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2.1
Voltage Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2.2
Line Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3 Output Line Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
51
51
53
54
54
54
57
6 Image Acquisition Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.1
Controlling Image Acquisition with Parameters Only (No Triggering) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Switching Off Triggering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Acquiring One Image at a Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3 Acquiring Images Continuously (Free-run) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
59
60
60
6.2
Controlling Image Acquisition with a Software Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Enabling the Software Trigger Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 Acquiring a Single Image by Applying One Software Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of Software Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
62
63
64
6.3
Controlling Image Acquisition with a Hardware Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Exposure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Setting the Camera for Hardware Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Acquiring a Single Image by Applying One Hardware Trigger Transition . . . .
6.3.4 Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of Hardware Trigger Transitions . . . .
66
67
69
70
71
6.4
Exposure Time Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
6.4.1 Setting the Exposure Time Using "Raw" Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
6.4.2 Setting the Exposure Time Using "Absolute" Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.5
Overlapping Exposure and Sensor Readout (All Models Except scA750-60) . . . . . . . 77
6.5.1 Guidelines for Overlapped Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.6
Exposure Must Not Overlap Sensor Readout (scA750-60 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.7
Trigger Ready Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.7.1 Trigger Ready Signal (All Models Except scA750-60) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.7.2 Trigger Ready Signal (scA750-60 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.8
Exposure Active Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.9
Acquisition Timing Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.10 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame Rate (All Models Except scA750-60) . . . . . . . . 88
6.10.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate . . . . 91
6.11 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame Rate (scA750-60 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.11.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate . . . . 96
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7 Pixel Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7.1
Setting the Pixel Data Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7.2
Pixel Data Formats for Mono Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7.2.1 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7.2.2 Mono 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.2.3 Mono 12 Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.2.4 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format (Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7.2.5 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7.3
Pixel Data Output Formats for Color Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 The Bayer Color Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1.1
Color Filter Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 Bayer BG 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3 Bayer RG 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4 Bayer BG 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5 Bayer BG 12 Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.6 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format (Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2) . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.7 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.8 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4
Pixel Transmission Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
106
106
107
108
110
112
114
116
119
121
8 I/O Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.1
Configuring Input Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.1.1 Assigning an Input Line to Receive a Hardware Trigger Signal. . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.1.2 Using an Unassigned Input Line to Receive a User Input Signal. . . . . . . . . . 126
8.2
Configuring Output Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 Assigning a Camera Output Signal to a Physical Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2 Setting the State of User Settable Output Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3 Setting an Output Line for Invert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 Working with Timers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.1
Setting the Trigger Source for a Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2
Setting a Timer Delay Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.3
Setting a Timer Duration Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3
Checking the State of the I/O Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.3.1 Checking the State of a Single Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.3.2 Checking the State of All Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
127
127
128
129
130
130
131
133
9 Standard Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
9.1
Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
9.2
Black Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.3
White Balance (on Color Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.4
Integrated IR Cut Filter (on Color Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.5
Area of Interest (AOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.5.1 Changing AOI Parameters "On-the-Fly" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.6
Binning (All Models Except scA750-60) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
9.6.1 Considerations When Using Binning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
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9.7
Luminance Lookup Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9.7.1 Lookup Table (All Models Except scA750-60) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9.7.2 Lookup Table (scA750-60 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.8
Gamma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
9.9
Auto Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.1 Common Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.1.1
Modes of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.1.2
Auto Function AOI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.1.3
Using an Auto Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.2 Gain Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.3 Exposure Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.4 Balance White Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
161
161
162
163
167
168
170
172
9.10 Disable Parameter Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
9.11 Debouncer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.12 Event Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
9.13 Test Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
9.14 Device Information Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
9.15 Configuration Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.15.1 Saving Configuration Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.15.2 Loading a Saved Set or the Default Set into the Active Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.15.3 Selecting the Default Startup Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
185
186
187
187
10 Chunk Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
10.1 What are Chunk Features? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
10.2 Making the "Chunk Mode" Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
10.3 Frame Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
10.4 Time Stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
10.5 Line Status All. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
10.6 CRC Checksum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
11 Using Multiple Cameras on a Single Bus and Managing Bandwidth . . . . . 199
11.1 Using Multiple Cameras Where All Devices are 1394b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
11.2 Using Multiple Cameras Where 1394a and 1394b Devices are Mixed . . . . . . . . . . . 202
11.2.1 Recommended Packet Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
12 Troubleshooting and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
12.1 Tech Support Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
12.2 Troubleshooting with the Camera LED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
12.3 Troubleshooting Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1 My Camera Is Not Being Recognized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.2 I Do Not Get an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.3 I Can’t Get the Full Frame Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.4 I Get Poor Image Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
209
210
211
212
214
12.4 Before Contacting Basler Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
iv
Basler scout
Table of Contents
Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Basler scout
v
Table of Contents
vi
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1 Specifications, Requirements,
and Precautions
This section lists the camera models covered by the manual. It provides the general specifications
for those models and the basic requirements for using them.
This section also includes specific precautions that you should keep in mind when using the
cameras. We strongly recommend that you read and follow the precautions.
1.1
Models
The current Basler scout GigE Vision camera models are listed in the top row of the specification
tables on the next pages of this manual. The camera models are differentiated by their sensor size,
their maximum frame rate at full resolution, and whether the camera’s sensor is mono or color.
The scout GigE Vision camera models are available in the following housing variants:
„
standard housing
„
90° head housing
The housing variants other than the standard housing are appended to the camera’s name, e.g.
scA640-70gm/gc 90° head.
Unless otherwise noted, the material in this manual applies to all of the camera models listed in the
tables. Material that only applies to a particular camera model or to a subset of models, such as to
color cameras or a specific housing variant only, will be so designated.
Basler scout
1
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.2
General Specifications
Specification
scA640-70fm/fc
scA640-74fm/fc
scA750-60fm/fc
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
fm: 659 x 494
fm: 659 x 494
fm: 752 x 480
fc: 658 x 492
fc: 658 x 492
fc: 750 x 480
Sensor Type
Sony ICX424 AL/AQ
Sony ICX414 AL/AQ
Micron MT9V022
Progressive scan CCD
Progressive Scan CMOS
Optical Size
1/3"
1/2"
1/3"
Pixel Size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
9.9 µm x 9.9 µm
6.0 µm x 6.0 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution
71 fps
74 fps
64.9 fps
Mono/Color
All models available in mono or color
Data Output Type
IEEE 1394b
Pixel Data Formats
Mono Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed
( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
Color Models
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Bayer BG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer RG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer BG 16 ( = DCAM Raw 16)
Bayer BG 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed
( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+ 8 to + 36 VDC supplied via the IEEE 1394 cable < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
2 opto-isolated input ports and 4 opto-isolated output ports
Lens Adapter
C-mount (CS-mount optional)
2
2.5 W @ 12 V
10 bits
1.7 W @ 12 V
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA640-70fm/fc
scA640-74fm/fc
scA750-60fm/fc
Size (L x W x H)
(standard housing)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
(90° head housing)
91.65 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without connectors and front module)
97 mm x 44 mm x 41.8 mm (with connectors and front module)
Weight
(standard housing)
160 g (typical)
(90° head housing)
180 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, IP30
Table 1: General Specifications
Basler scout
3
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA780-54fm/fc
scA1000-20fm/fc
scA1000-30fm/fc
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
fm: 782 x 582
fm: 1034 x 779
fm: 1034 x 779
fc:
fc:
fc: 1032 x 778
Sensor Type
Sony ICX415 AL/AQ
780 x 580
1032 x 778
Sony ICX204 AL/AK
Sony ICX204 AL/AK
Progressive scan CCD
Optical Size
1/2"
1/3"
1/3"
Pixel Size
8.3 µm x 8.3 µm
4.65 µm x 4.65 µm
4.65 µm x 4.65 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution
58 fps
21 fps
30 fps
Mono/Color
All models available in mono or color
Data Output Type
IEEE 1394b
Pixel Data Formats
Mono Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
Color Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Bayer BG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer BG 16 ( = DCAM Raw 16)
Bayer BG 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+ 8 to + 36 VDC supplied via the IEEE 1394 cable < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
2 opto-isolated input ports and 4 opto-isolated output ports
Lens Adapter
C-mount (CS-mount optional)
4
2.5 W @ 12 V
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA780-54fm/fc
scA1000-20fm/fc
scA1000-30fm/fc
Size (L x W x H)
(standard housing)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
(90° head housing)
91.65 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without connectors and front module)
97 mm x 44 mm x 41.8 mm (with connectors and front module)
Weight
(standard housing)
160 g (typical)
(90° head housing)
180 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, IP30
Table 2: General Specifications
Basler scout
5
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA1300-32fm/fc
scA1390-17fm/fc
scA1400-17fm/fc
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
fm: 1296 x 966
fm: 1392 x 1040
fm: 1392 x 1040
fc: 1294 x 964
fc: 1390 x 1038
fc:
Sensor Type
Sony ICX445 ALA/AQA
Sony ICX267 AL/AK
Sony ICX285 AL/AQ
1390 x 1038
Progressive scan CCD
Optical Size
1/3"
1/2"
2/3"
Pixel Size
3.75 µm x 3.75 µm
4.65 µm x 4.65 µm
6.45 µm x 6.45 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution)
33 fps
17 fps
17 fps
Mono/Color
All models available in mono or color
Data Output Type
IEEE 1394b
Pixel Data Formats
Mono Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
Color Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Bayer BG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer BG 16 ( = DCAM Raw 16)
Bayer BG 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+ 8 to + 36 VDC supplied via the IEEE 1394 cable < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
2 opto-isolated input ports and 4 opto-isolated output ports
Lens Adapter
C-mount (CS-mount optional)
3.0 W @ 12 V
2.75 W @ 12 V
3.0 W @ 12 V
* The information for the scA1300-32fm/fc camera is preliminary.
6
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA1300-32fm/fc
scA1390-17fm/fc
scA1400-17fm/fc
Size (L x W x H)
(standard housing)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
(90° head housing)
Not applicable
91.65 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without connectors and
front module)
97 mm x 44 mm x 41.8 mm (with connectors and front
module)
Weight
(standard housing)
160 g (typical)
160 g (typical)
170 g (typical)
(90° head housing)
Not applicable
180 g (typical)
190 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, IP30
Table 3: General Specifications
* The information for the scA1300-32fm/fc camera is preliminary.
Basler scout
7
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA1400-30fm/fc
scA1600-14fm/fc
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
fm: 1392 x 1040
fm: 1626 x 1236
fc: 1390 x 1038
fc: 1624 x 1234
Sensor Type
Sony ICX285 AL/AQ
Sony ICX274 AL/AQ
Progressive scan CCD
Optical Size
2/3"
1/1.8"
Pixel Size
6.45 µm x 6.45 µm
4.4 µm x 4.4 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution)
30 fps
14 fps
Mono/Color
All models available in mono or color
Data Output Type
IEEE 1394b
Pixel Data Formats
Mono Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
Color Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Bayer BG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer BG 16 ( = DCAM Raw 16)
Bayer BG 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+ 8 to + 36 VDC supplied via the IEEE 1394 cable < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
2 opto-isolated input ports and 4 opto-isolated output ports
Lens Adapter
C-mount (CS-mount optional)
8
3.7 W @ 12 V
2.75 W @ 12 V
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
scA1400-30fm/fc
scA1600-14fm/fc
Size (L x W x H)
(standard housing)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
(90° head housing)
91.65 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without connectors and front module)
97 mm x 44 mm x 41.8 mm (with connectors and front module)
Weight
(standard housing)
170 g (typical)
160 g (typical)
(90° head housing)
190 g (typical)
180 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, IP30
Table 4: General Specifications
Basler scout
9
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.3
Spectral Response for Mono Cameras
The following graphs show the spectral response for each available monochrome camera model.
Note
Relative Response
The spectral response curves excludes lens characteristics and light source
characteristics.
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 1: scA640-70fm Spectral Response
10
Basler scout
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Wave Length (nm)
Quantum Efficiency (%)
Fig. 2: scA640-74fm Spectral Response
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 3: scA750-60fm Spectral Response
Basler scout
11
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 4: scA780-54fm Spectral Response
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 5: scA1000-20fm and scA1000-30fm Spectral Response
12
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.0
0.9
Relative Response
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 6: scA1300-32fm Spectral Response
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 7: scA1390-17fm Spectral Response
Basler scout
13
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 8: scA1400-17fm and scA1400-30fm Spectral Response
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 9: scA1600-14fm Spectral Response
14
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.4
Spectral Response for Color Cameras
The following graphs show the spectral response for each available color camera model.
Note
The spectral response curves exclude lens characteristics, light source
characteristics, and IR cut filter characteristics.
To obtain best performance from color models of the camera, use of a
dielectric IR cut filter is recommended. The filter should transmit in a range
from 400 nm to 700 ... 720 nm, and it should cut off from 700 ... 720 nm to 1100
nm.
Relative Response
A suitable IR cut filter is included in the standard C-mount lens adapter on
color models of the camera. (An IR cut filter is not included in the optional CSmount adapter.)
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 10: scA640-70fc Spectral Response
Basler scout
15
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 11: scA640-74fc Spectral Response
Quantum Efficiency (%)
Blue
Green (B)
Green (R)
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 12: scA750-60fc Spectral Response
16
Basler scout
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 13: scA780-54fc Spectral Response
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 14: scA1000-20fc and scA1000-30fc Spectral Response
Basler scout
17
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.0
0.9
Relative Response
0.8
0.7
0.6
Blue
0.5
Green
Red
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
4 00
450
5 00
550
60 0
650
700
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 15: scA1300-32fc Spectral Response
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 16: scA1390-17fc Spectral Response
18
Basler scout
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 17: scA1400-17fc and scA1400-30fc Spectral Response
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 18: scA1600-14fc Spectral Response
Basler scout
19
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5
Mechanical Specifications
1.5.1
Standard Housing
The camera housing conforms to protection class IP30 provided the lens mount is covered by a lens
or by the cap that is shipped with the camera.
1.5.1.1
Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points
The cameras are manufactured with high precision. Planar, parallel, and angular sides guarantee
precise mounting with high repeatability.
The dimensions in millimeters for cameras equipped with a standard C-mount lens adapter are as
shown in Figure 19. The dimensions for cameras equipped with an optional CS-mount lens adapter
are shown in Figure 20 on page 22.
Camera housings are equipped with four mounting holes on the top and four mounting holes on the
bottom as shown in the drawings.
20
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
2 x M3; 4.5 deep
Bottom
9.7
67.2
2 x M3; 4 deep
80.15
4.5
6.45
72.3
44
73.7
16
2x M3; 4.5 deep
12.5
32
85.5
Photosensitive
surface
of the sensor
17.5
2 x M3; 3.5 deep
Top
2 x M3; 4.5 deep
9.7
67.2
Fig. 19: Mechanical Dimensions (in mm) for Cameras with the Standard C-mount Lens Adapter
Basler scout
21
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
2x M3; 4.5 deep
Bottom
4.7
67.2
2x M3; 4 deep
4.5
1.45
16
72.3
44
73.7
2x M3; 4.5 deep
12.5
32
80.5
12.5
2x M3; 3.5 deep
Photosensitive
surface of the
sensor
Top
2x M3; 4.5 deep
4.7
67.2
Fig. 20: Mechanical Dimensions (in mm) for Cameras with an Option CS-mount Lens Adapter
22
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5.1.2
Sensor Positioning Accuracy
The sensor positioning accuracy for cameras equipped with a standard C-mount lens adapter is as
shown in Figure 21. The sensor positioning accuracy for cameras equipped with an optional CSmount lens adapter is as shown in Figure 22 on page 24.
± 0.25 *
± 0.4 **
= reference plane
to the center of the
* = tolerance
lens mount (optical axis)
** = tolerance to the reference planes
± 0.02 (This is the sensor tilt tolerance. It applies to every point on the
photosensitive surface and is relative to the center of the die.)
Photosensitive
surface
of the sensor
17.5
+0
- 0.06
(This tolerance is for the distance between the front of the
lens mount and the sensor’s photosensitive surface.
Note that this tolerance and the sensor tilt tolerance (see
above) must be combined to obtain the total tolerance for
every point on the photosensitive surface.)
Maximum Sensor Tilt Angle (Degrees)
Camera
Tilt X
Tilt Y
Camera
Tilt X
Tilt Y
scA640-70fm/fc
0.47
0.63
scA1300-32fm/fc
0.47
0.63
scA640-74fm/fc
0.35
0.47
scA1390-17fm/fc
0.31
0.42
scA750-60fm/fc
0.51
0.80
scA1400-17fm/fc
0.25
0.34
scA780-54fm/fc
0.35
0.47
scA1400-30fm/fc
0.25
0.34
scA1000-20fm/fc
0.46
0.63
scA1600-14fm/fc
0.34
0.52
scA1000-30fm/fc
0.46
0.63
Fig. 21: Sensor Positioning Accuracy for Cameras with the Standard C-mount Lens Adapter
(in mm unless otherwise noted)
Basler scout
23
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
± 0.25 *
± 0.4 **
= reference plane
* = tolerance to the center of the
lens mount (optical axis)
± 0.02
** = tolerance to the reference planes
(This is the sensor tilt tolerance. It applies to every point on the
photosensitive surface and is relative to the center of the die.)
Photosensitive
surface of the
sensor
12.5
+0
- 0.06
(This tolerance is for the distance between the front of the
lens mount and the sensor’s photosensitive surface.
Note that this tolerance and the sensor tilt tolerance (see
above) must be combined to obtain the total tolerance for
every point on the photosensitive surface.)
Maximum Sensor Tilt Angle (Degrees)
Camera
Tilt X
Tilt Y
Camera
Tilt X
Tilt Y
scA640-70fm/fc
0.47
scA640-74fm/fc
0.35
0.63
scA1300-32m/fc
0.47
0.63
0.47
scA1390-17fm/fc
0.31
0.42
scA750-60fm/fc
0.51
0.80
scA1400-17fm/fc
0.25
0.34
scA780-54fm/fc
0.35
0.47
scA1400-30fm/fc
0.25
0.34
scA1000-20fm/fc
0.46
0.63
scA1600-14fm/fc
0.34
0.52
scA1000-30fm/fc
0.46
0.63
Fig. 22: Sensor Positioning Accuracy for Cameras with an Optional CS-mount Lens Adapter
(in mm unless otherwise noted)
24
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5.2
90° Head Housing
The camera housing conforms to protection class IP30 provided the lens mount is covered by a lens
or by the cap that is shipped with the camera.
1.5.2.1
Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points
In scout cameras with the 90° head housing the camera’s direction of view is at right angle to the
direction of view of standard scout cameras.
The cameras are manufactured with high precision. Planar, parallel, and angular sides guarantee
precise mounting with high repeatability.
The dimensions in millimeters for cameras equipped with a standard C-mount lens adapter are as
shown in Figure 23.
Camera housings are equipped with four mounting holes on the top and four mounting holes on the
bottom as shown in the drawings. In addition, there are four mounting holes in the front module (4x
M3; 4.5 mm deep).
Note
For optimum accuracy in the positioning of the camera's optical axis, we
recommend using the front module reference plane (see the figure in the
Sensor Positioning Accuracy section) as mounting surface.
Basler scout
25
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
2 x M3; 4.5 Deep
32.1
3.75
3.25
2 x M3; 4.8 Deep
32.1
15.6
51.15
3.1
Bottom
12.9
2 x M3; 4 Deep
12.85
97
91.65
2 x M3; 4.5 Deep
2 x M3; 4.5 Deep
72.65
Ø 28.5
29
3.25
86.3
Photosensitive
surface of the
sensor
2 x M3; 4.5 Deep
Top
2 x M3; 3.5 Deep
Fig. 23: Mechanical Dimensions (in mm) for Cameras (90° Head) with the Standard C-mount Lens Adapter
26
Basler scout
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5.2.2
Sensor Positioning Accuracy
The sensor positioning accuracy for cameras equipped with a standard C-mount lens adapter is as
shown in Figure 24.
X ± 0.4 **
center lines of the thread
± 0.25 *
// 0.4 A
A
to the length of the housing
center lines of the sensor
* = tolerance to the center of the
= reference plane
lens mount (optical axis)
= front module reference plane
Photosensitive
surface of the
sensor
** = tolerance to the reference planes
± 0.02 (This is the sensor tilt tolerance. It applies to every point on the
photosensitive surface and is relative to the center of the die)
Maximum Sensor Tilt Angle (Degrees)
( 2 : 1)
17.5
+0
- 0.06
Camera
Tilt X
Tilt Y
Camera
Tilt X
Tilt Y
scA640-70fm/fc
0.47
0.63
scA1000-30fm/fc
0.46
0.63
scA640-74fm/fc
0.35
0.47
scA1390-17fm/fc
0.31
0.42
scA750-60fm/fc
0.51
0.80
scA1400-17fm/fc
0.25
0.34
scA780-54fm/fc
0.35
0.47
scA1400-30fm/fc
0.25
0.34
scA1000-20fm/fc
0.46
0.63
scA1600-14fm/fc
0.34
0.52
(This tolerance is for the distance between the front of the
lens mount and the sensor’s photosensitive surface.
Note that this tolerance and the sensor tilt tolerance (see
above) must be combined to obtain the total tolerance for
every point on the photosensitive surface.)
Fig. 24: Sensor Positioning Accuracy for Cameras (90° Head) with the Standard C-mount Lens Adapter
(in mm unless otherwise noted)
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5.3
Maximum Thread Length on Color Cameras
The C-mount lens adapter on color models of the camera is normally equipped with an internal IR
cut filter. As shown below, the length of the threads on any lens you use with a color camera must
be less than 8.0 mm. If a lens with a longer thread length is used, the IR cut filter will be damaged
or destroyed and the camera will no longer operate.
< 8.0 mm
Not to Scale
C-mount Lens
Lens Adapter
IR Cut Filter
Fig. 25: Maximum Lens Thread Length on Color Cameras
Note
An internal IR cut filter is not included on color cameras equipped with the
optional CS-mount adapter.
C-mount color cameras that do not include an internal IR cut filter are available
on request.
Monochrome cameras are not normally equipped with an internal IR cut filter,
however, they can be equipped with an internal filter on request.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5.4
Mechanical Stress Test Results
Scout cameras were submitted to an independent mechanical testing laboratory and subjected to
the stress tests listed below. The mechanical stress tests were performed on selected camera
models with standard housing. After mechanical testing, the cameras exhibited no detectable
physical damage and produced normal images during standard operational testing.
Test
Standard
Conditions
Vibration
(sinusoidal, each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-6
10-58 Hz / 1.5 mm_58-500 Hz / 20 g_1 Octave/Minute
Shock (each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-27
10 repetitions
20 g / 11 ms / 10 shocks positive
20 g / 11 ms / 10 shocks negative
Bump (each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-29
20 g / 11 ms / 100 shocks positive
20 g / 11 ms / 100 shocks negative
Vibration
(broad-band random,
digital control, each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-64
15-500 Hz / 0.05 PSD (ESS standard profile) / 00:30 h
Table 5: Mechanical Stress Tests
The mechanical stress tests were performed with a dummy lens connected to a C-mount. The
dummy lens was 35 mm long and had a mass of 66 g. Using a heavier or longer lens requires an
additional support for the lens.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.6
Software Licensing Information
The software in the camera includes the LWIP TCP/IP implementation. The copyright information
for this implementation is as follows:
Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Swedish Institute of Computer Science. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted
provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
distribution.
3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.7
Avoiding EMI and ESD Problems
The cameras are frequently installed in industrial environments. These environments often include
devices that generate electromagnetic interference (EMI) and they are prone to electrostatic
discharge (ESD). Excessive EMI and ESD can cause problems with your camera such as false
triggering or can cause the camera to suddenly stop capturing images. EMI and ESD can also have
a negative impact on the quality of the image data transmitted by the camera.
To avoid problems with EMI and ESD, you should follow these general guidelines:
„
Always use high quality shielded cables. The use of high quality cables is one of the best
defenses against EMI and ESD.
„
Try to use camera cables that are the correct length and try to run the camera cables and
power cables parallel to each other. Avoid coiling camera cables. If the cables are too long,
use a meandering path rather then coiling the cables.
„
Avoid placing camera cables parallel to wires carrying high-current, switching voltages such as
wires supplying stepper motors or electrical devices that employ switching technology. Placing
camera cables near to these types of devices may cause problems with the camera.
„
Attempt to connect all grounds to a single point, e.g., use a single power outlet for the entire
system and connect all grounds to the single outlet. This will help to avoid large ground loops.
(Large ground loops can be a primary cause of EMI problems.)
„
Use a line filter on the main power supply.
„
Install the camera and camera cables as far as possible from devices generating sparks. If
necessary, use additional shielding.
„
Decrease the risk of electrostatic discharge by taking the following measures:
„
Use conductive materials at the point of installation (e.g., floor, workplace).
„
Use suitable clothing (cotton) and shoes.
„
Control the humidity in your environment. Low humidity can cause ESD problems.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.8
Environmental Requirements
1.8.1
Temperature and Humidity
Housing temperature during operation:
0 °C ... +50 °C (+32 °F ... +122 °F)
Humidity during operation:
20 % ... 80 %, relative, non-condensing
Storage temperature:
-20 °C ... +80 °C (-4 °F ... +176 °F)
Storage humidity:
20 % ... 80 %, relative, non-condensing
1.8.2
Ventilation
Allow sufficient air circulation around the camera to prevent internal heat build-up in your system
and to keep the camera’s housing temperature below 50 °C. Additional cooling devices such as
fans or heat sinks are not normally required, but should be provided if necessary.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.9
Precautions
Avoid Dust on the Sensor
CAUTION
The camera is shipped with a cap on the lens mount. To avoid collecting dust
on the camera’s IR cut filter (color cameras) or sensor (mono cameras), make
sure that you always put the cap in place when there is no lens mounted on
the camera.
To further enhance dust protection, the internal space in the camera that
contains the imaging sensor is sealed off from the camera’s other internal
spaces.
Lens Thread Length is Limited
CAUTION
Color models of the camera with a C-mount lens adapter are equipped with an
IR cut filter mounted inside of the adapter. The location of this filter limits the
length of the threads on any lens you use with the camera. If a lens with a very
long thread length is used, the IR cut filter will be damaged or destroyed and
the camera will no longer operate.
For more specific information about the lens thread length, see Section 1.5.3 on page 28.
Incorrect Power Can Cause Damage
CAUTION
The polarity of the power on the camera’s IEEE 1394b socket must be as
shown in the pin assignment table. Do not reverse the power polarity.
Reversing the polarity will damage the camera.
If the voltage to the camera is greater than +36 VDC, damage to the camera
can result. If the voltage is less than +8 VDC, the camera may operate
erratically.
Inappropriate Code May Cause Unexpected Camera Behavior
CAUTION
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The code snippets provided in this manual are included as sample code only.
Inappropriate code may cause your camera to function differently than
expected and may compromise your application.
To ensure that the snippets will work properly in your application, you must
adjust them to meet your specific needs and must test them thoroughly prior to
use.
33
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Warranty Precautions
To ensure that your warranty remains in force:
Do not remove the camera’s serial number label
If the label is removed and the serial number can’t be read from the camera’s registers, the warranty
is void.
Do not open the camera housing
Do not open the housing. Touching internal components may damage them.
Keep foreign matter outside of the camera
Be careful not to allow liquid, flammable, or metallic material inside of the camera housing. If
operated with any foreign matter inside, the camera may fail or cause a fire.
Avoid Electromagnetic fields
Do not operate the camera in the vicinity of strong electromagnetic fields. Avoid electrostatic
charging.
Transport Properly
Transport the camera in its original packaging only. Do not discard the packaging.
Clean Properly
Avoid cleaning the surface of the camera’s sensor if possible. If you must clean it, use a soft, lint
free cloth dampened with a small quantity of high quality window cleaner. Because electrostatic
discharge can damage the sensor, you must use a cloth that will not generate static during cleaning
(cotton is a good choice).
To clean the surface of the camera housing, use a soft, dry cloth. To remove severe stains, use a
soft cloth dampened with a small quantity of neutral detergent, then wipe dry.
Do not use solvents or thinners to clean the housing; they can damage the surface finish.
Read the manual
Read the manual carefully before using the camera!
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Software and Hardware Installation
2 Software and Hardware
Installation
The information you will need to install and operate the camera is included in the Installation and
Setup Guide for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API, (AW000611xx000).
You can obtain the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API from the
Basler pylon SDK installation CD, or free of charge as a download from the Basler website:
www.baslerweb.com.
The guide includes the information you will need to install both hardware and software and to begin
capturing images.
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Software and Hardware Installation
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Tools for Changing Camera Parameters
3 Tools for Changing Camera
Parameters
This section explains the options available for changing the camera’s parameters. The available
options let you change parameters either by using standalone tools that access the camera via a
GUI or by accessing the camera from within your software application.
3.1
The pylon Viewer
The Basler pylon Viewer is a standalone application that lets you view and change most of the
camera’s parameter settings via a GUI based interface. The viewer also lets you acquire images,
display them, and save them. Using the pylon Viewer software is a very convenient way to get your
camera up and running quickly when you are doing your initial camera evaluation or doing a camera
design-in for a new project.
The pylon Viewer is included in the pylon Software Development Kit and is also included in the
freely available pylon runtime software package.
For more information about using the viewer, see the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras
Used with Basler’s pylon API, (AW000611xx000).
3.2
The pylon API
You can access all of the camera’s parameters and can control the camera’s full functionality from
within your application software by using Basler’s pylon API. The Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference contains an introduction to the API and includes information about all of the
methods and objects included in the API.
The Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK) includes a set of sample programs that illustrate
how to use the pylon API to parameterize and operate the camera. These samples include
Microsoft® Visual Studio® solution and project files demonstrating how to set up the build
environment to build applications based on the API.
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Tools for Changing Camera Parameters
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Functional Description
4 Functional Description
This section provides an overview of the camera’s functionality from a system perspective. The
overview will aid your understanding when you read the more detailed information included in the
next sections of the user’s manual.
4.1
Overview (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the scA750-60
fm/fc. For information about scA750-60 cameras, see Section 4.2 on page 41.
Each camera provides features such as a full frame shutter and electronic exposure time control.
Exposure start, exposure time, and charge readout can be controlled by parameters transmitted to
the camera via the Basler pylon API and the IEEE 1394b interface. There are also parameters
available to set the camera for single frame acquisition or continuous frame acquisition.
Exposure start can also be controlled via an externally generated hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal.
The ExTrig signal facilitates periodic or non-periodic acquisition start. Modes are available that
allow the length of exposure time to be directly controlled by the ExTrig signal or to be set for a preprogrammed period of time.
Accumulated charges are read out of the sensor when exposure ends. At readout, accumulated
charges are transported from the sensor’s light-sensitive elements (pixels) to the vertical shift
registers (see Figure 26 on page 40). The charges from the bottom line of pixels in the array are
then moved into a horizontal shift register. Next, the charges are shifted out of the horizontal
register. As the charges move out of the horizontal shift register, they are converted to voltages
proportional to the size of each charge. Each voltage is then amplified by a Variable Gain Control
(VGC) and digitized by an Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). After each voltage has been amplified
and digitized, it passes through an FPGA and into an image buffer. All shifting is clocked according
to the camera’s internal data rate. Shifting continues in a linewise fashion until all image data has
been read out of the sensor.
The pixel data leaves the image buffer and passes back through the FPGA to an IEEE1394b link
layer controller where it is assembled into data packets. The packets are passed to a 1394b
physical layer controller which transmits them isochronously to an interface board in the host PC.
The physical and link layer controllers also handle transmission and receipt of asynchronous control
data such as changes to the camera’s parameters.
The image buffer between the sensor and the link layer controller allows data to be read out of the
sensor at a rate that is independent of the data transmission rate between the camera and the host
computer. This ensures that the data transmission rate has no influence on image quality.
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Functional Description
CCD Sensor
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
ADC
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
VGC
Horizontal
Shift Register
Fig. 26: CCD Sensor Architecture
ExTrig
24 MB
Image
Buffer
I/O
ExpActive
TrigRdy
Image
Data
Sensor
VGC
ADC
Image
Data
FPGA
Image
Data
Link
Layer
Controller
Isochronous
and
Asynchronous
Data
Physical
Layer
Controller
Isochronous
and
Asynchronous
Data
IEEE
1394b
Bus
Control
Control:
AOI, Gain, Black Level
MicroController
Asynchronous
Data
Fig. 27: Camera Block Diagram
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Functional Description
4.2
Overview (scA750-60 Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to scA750-60 fm/fc cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 4.1 on page 39.
Each camera provides features such as a full frame shutter and electronic exposure time control.
The sensor chip includes gain controls, ADCs, and other digital devices.
Exposure start, exposure time, and charge readout can be controlled by parameters transmitted to
the camera via the Basler pylon API and the GigE interface. There are also parameters available
to set the camera for single frame acquisition or continuous frame acquisition.
Exposure start can also be controlled via an externally generated hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal.
The ExTrig signal facilitates periodic or non-periodic acquisition start. Exposure can be set for a
preprogrammed period of time.
Accumulated charges are read out when the programmed exposure time ends. At readout, the
accumulated charges are transported from the sensor’s light-sensitive elements (pixels) to the
sensor’s column buses (see Figure 26 on page 40). The charges from the bottom line of pixels in
the array are then moved into the analog processing section of the sensor. As the charges move
from the pixels to the analog processing section, they are converted to voltages proportional to the
size of each charge. The voltages from the analog processing section are next passed to a bank of
Analog-to-Digital converters (ADCs).
Finally, the voltages pass through a section of the sensor where they receive additional digital
processing and then they are moved out of the sensor. As each voltage leaves the sensor, it passes
through an FPGA and into an image buffer. All shifting is clocked according to the camera’s internal
data rate. Shifting continues in a linewise fashion until all image data has been read out of the
sensor.
The pixel data leaves the image buffer and passes back through the FPGA to an IEEE1394b link
layer controller where it is assembled into data packets. The packets are passed to a 1394b
physical layer controller which transmits them isochronously to an interface board in the host PC.
The physical and link layer controllers also handle transmission and receipt of asynchronous control
data such as changes to the camera’s parameters.
The image buffer between the sensor and the link layer controller allows data to be read out of the
sensor at a rate that is independent of the data transmission rate between the camera and the host
computer. This ensures that the data transmission rate has no influence on image quality.
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Functional Description
CMOS Sensor
Pixel
Array
Analog Processing
Digital Processing
ADCs
Digitized
Pixel Data
Fig. 28: CMOS Sensor Architecture
ExTrig
24 MB
Image
Buffer
I/O
ExpActive
TrigRdy
Image
Data
Sensor
Image
Data
FPGA
Image
Data
Control:
AOI
Gain
Black Level
Link
Layer
Controller
Isochronous
and
Asynchronous
Data
Physical
Layer
Controller
Isochronous
and
Asynchronous
Data
IEEE
1394b
Bus
Control
MicroController
Control
Data
Fig. 29: Camera Block Diagram
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Physical Interface
5 Physical Interface
This section provides detailed information, such as pinouts and voltage requirements, for the
physical interface on the camera. This information will be especially useful during your initial designin process.
5.1
General Description of the
Connections
The camera is interfaced to external circuity via connectors located on the back of the housing:
„
an IEEE 1394b socket used to provide power and a bus connection to the camera.
„
a 12-pin receptacle used to provide access to the camera’s I/O ports.
There is also an LED indicator on the back.
The drawing below shows the location of the two connectors and the LED.
12-pin
Receptacle
IEEE
1394b
Socket
LED
Fig. 30: Camera Connectors and LED
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Physical Interface
5.2
Connector Pin Assignments and
Numbering
5.2.1
IEEE 1394b Socket Pin Assignments
The IEEE 1394b socket is used to supply power to the camera and to interface video data and
control signals. The pin assignments for the socket are as shown in Table 6. Note that these are the
standard pin assignments for IEEE 1394b sockets.
Pin
Signal
1
TPB -
(twisted pair B minus)
2
TPB +
(twisted pair B plus)
3
TPA -
(twisted pair A minus)
4
TPA +
(twisted pair A plus)
5
TPA R
(twisted pair A ground)
6
VG
(power ground)
7
Not connected
8
VP
(+8 to +36 VDC power)
9
TPB R
(twisted pair B ground)
Table 6: Pin Assignments for the IEEE 1394b Socket
Pin numbering for the IEEE 1394b socket is as shown in Section 5.2.3 on page 45.
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Physical Interface
5.2.2
12-pin Receptacle Pin Assignments
The 12 pin receptacle is used to access the two physical input lines and four physical output lines
on the camera. The pin assignments for the receptacle are shown in Table 7.
Pin
Designation
1
Not connected
2
Not connected
3
I/O Input 1
4
I/O Input 2
5
I/O Input Gnd
6
I/O Output 1
7
I/O Output 2
8
Not connected
9
Not connected
10
I/O Output VCC
11
I/O Output 3
12
I/O Output 4
Table 7: Pin Assignments for the 12-pin Receptacle
Pin numbering for the 12-pin receptacle is as shown in Section 5.2.3 on page 45.
5.2.3
Pin Numbering
12
5
6
9 8 7 6 5
4
7
3
8
2
9
1 2
3 4
11
1
10
Fig. 31: Pin Numbering for the IEEE 1394b Socket and the 12-pin Receptacle
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Physical Interface
5.3
Connector Types
5.3.1
IEEE 1394b Connector
The 1394b socket on the camera is a standard, 9-pin IEEE 1394b bilingual socket.
The recommended mating connector is any standard, 9-pin IEEE 1394b plug.
5.3.2
12-pin Connector
The 12-pin connector on the camera is a Hirose micro receptacle (part number HR10A-10R-12P)
or the equivalent.
The recommended mating connector is the Hirose micro plug (part number HR10A-10P-12S) or the
equivalent.
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Physical Interface
5.4
Cabling Requirements
5.4.1
IEEE 1394b Cable
The maximum length of the IEEE 1394b cable used between the camera and the adapter in your
PC or between the camera and a 1394b hub is 4.5 meters as specified in the IEEE 1394 standard.
Standard, 9-pin, shielded 1394b to 1394b cables should be used.
Note
The camera is backward compatible with IEEE 1394a devices. If you will be
connecting the camera to an IEEE 1394a device, you must use a conversion
cable. The cable should have a 9-pin IEEE 1394b plug on the end that
connects to the camera and a 6-pin IEEE 1394a plug on the end that connects
to the device.
5.4.2
Standard I/O Cable
Note
The standard I/O cable is intended for use if the camera is not connected to a
PLC device. If the camera is connected to a PLC device, we recommend using
a PLC I/O cable rather than the standard I/O cable.
You can use a PLC I/O cable when the camera is not connected to a PLC
device, if power for the I/O input is supplied with 24 VDC.
See the following section for more information on PLC I/O cables.
The end of the standard I/O cable that connects to the camera must be terminated with a Hirose
micro plug (part number HR10A-10P-12S) or the equivalent. The cable must be wired as shown in
Figure 32.
The maximum length of the standard I/O cable is at least 10 meters. The cable must be shielded
and must be constructed with twisted pair wire. Use of twisted pair wire is essential to ensure that
input signals are correctly received.
Close proximity to strong magnetic fields should be avoided.
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47
Physical Interface
The required 12-pin Hirose plug is available from Basler. Basler also offers a standard I/O cable
assembly that is terminated with a 12-pin Hirose plug on one end and unterminated on the other.
Contact your Basler sales representative to order connectors or standard I/O cables.
An Incorrect Plug Can Damage the 12-pin Connector
CAUTION
The plug on the cable that you attach to the camera’s 12-pin connector must
have 12 pins. Use of a smaller plug, such as one with 10 pins or 8 pins, can
damage the pins in the camera’s 12-pin connector.
Hirose
HR10A-10P-12S
12-pin Plug
Not Connected
Not Connected
I/O In 1
I/O In 2
I/O In Gnd
I/O Out 1
I/O Out 2
Not Connected
Not Connected
I/O Out VCC
I/O Out 3
I/O Out 4
Standard I/O Cable
Fig. 32: Standard I/O Cable
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Physical Interface
5.4.3
PLC I/O Cable
As with the standard I/O cable described in the previous section, the PLC I/O cable is a single cable
that connects to the camera’s I/O lines.
The PLC I/O cable adjusts the voltage levels of PLC devices to the voltage levels required by the
camera, and it protects the camera against negative voltage and reverse polarity.
Close proximity to strong magnetic fields should be avoided.
Note
We recommend using a PLC I/O cable if the camera is connected to a PLC
device.
You can use a PLC power and I/O cable when the camera is not connected to
a PLC device, if power for the I/O input is supplied with 24 VDC.
Basler offers PLC I/O cables with 3 m and 10 m lengths. Each cable is terminated with a 12-pin
Hirose plug (HR10A-10P-12S) on the end that connects to the camera. The other end is
unterminated. Contact your Basler sales representative to order the cables.
For information about the applicable voltage levels, see Section 5.7.1.1 on page 51.
5.5
IEEE 1394b Device Information
The camera uses an IEEE1394b - 2002 compliant physical layer device that can transmit at speeds
up to 800 Mbit/s (S800). The device is backward compatible with IEEE 1394a - 2000 devices.
Detailed spec sheets for IEEE 1394b - 2002 compliant physical layer devices of the type used in
the camera are available at the Texas Instruments website: www.ti.com.
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Physical Interface
5.6
Camera Power
Camera power must be supplied to the camera via the IEEE 1394b cable. Power consumption is
as shown in the specification tables in Section 1 of this manual.
If your camera is connected to an IEEE 1394b adapter in a desktop computer, consult the
instructions for the adapter and make sure that the adapter is properly configured to supply power
to the camera.
If your camera is connected to a powered hub, consult the instructions for the hub and make sure
that it is properly configured to supply power to the camera.
Many laptop computers have a connector for an IEEE 1394 device. In most cases, laptops do not
supply power to the connected IEEE 1394 device. In this situation, you must use a powered hub
between the laptop and the camera or you must install a PCMCIA IEEE 1394 adapter card that
connects to an external power supply.
Incorrect Power Can Cause Damage
CAUTION
The polarity of the power on the camera’s IEEE 1394b socket must be as
shown in the pin assignment table. Do not reverse the power polarity.
Reversing the polarity will damage the camera.
If the voltage supplied to the camera is greater than +36 VDC, damage to the
camera can result. If the voltage is less than +8 VDC, the camera may operate
erratically.
The following voltage requirements apply to the camera power (supplied via the IEEE 1394b cable):
Voltage
Significance
< +8 VDC
The camera may operate erratically.
+12 VDC
Recommended operating voltage; < 1 % ripple required.
+36 VDC
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 8: Voltage Requirements for the Camera Power
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Physical Interface
5.7
Input and Output Lines
5.7.1
Input Lines
5.7.1.1
Voltage Requirements
:
Note
Different voltage levels apply, depending on whether the standard I/O cable or
a PLC I/O cable is used (see below)..
Voltage Levels When the Standard I/O Cable is Used
The following voltage requirements apply to the camera’s I/O input (pins 3 and 4 of the 12-pin
receptacle):
Voltage
Significance
+0 to +24 VDC
Recommended operating voltage.
+0 to +1.4 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 0.
> +1.4 to +2.2 VDC
Region where the transition threshold occurs; the logical state is not defined in this
region.
> +2.2 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 1.
+30.0 VDC
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 9: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Input When Using the Standard Power and I/O Cable
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Voltage Levels When a PLC I/O Cable is Used
The following voltage requirements apply to the input to the PLC I/O cable. The PLC I/O cable will
adjust the voltages to the levels required at the camera’s I/O input (see the previous table).
Voltage
Significance
+0 to +24 VDC
Recommended operating voltage.
+0 to +8.4 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 0.
> +8.4 to +10.4 VDC
> +10.4 VDC
+30.0 VDC
Region where the transition threshold occurs; the logical state is not defined in this
region.
The voltage indicates a logical 1.
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 10: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Input When Using a PLC I/O Cable
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5.7.1.2
Line Schematic
The camera is equipped with two physical input lines designated as Input Line 1 and Input Line 2.
The input lines are accessed via the 12-pin receptacle on the back of the camera.
As shown in the I/O line schematic, each input line is opto-isolated. See the previous section for
input voltages and their significances. The absolute maximum input voltage is +30.0 VDC. The
current draw for each input line is between 5 and 15 mA.
Figure 33 shows an example of a typical circuit you can use to input a signal into the camera.
By default, Input Line 1 is assigned to receive an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal that can
be used to control the start of image acquisition.
12-Pin
Receptacle
Camera
Q
BF545C
3.3 V
3.3 V
180 Ω
5.1k
In_1_Ctrl
1
I/O_In_1 2
3
I/O_In_Gnd 4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Your
Gnd
Input
Voltage
+30 VDC
Absolute
Max.
Your
Gnd
Gnd
Fig. 33: Typical Input Circuit
For more information on input line pin assignments and pin numbering, see Section 5.2 on page 44.
For more information about how to use an ExTrig signal to control acquisition start, see Section 6.3
on page 66.
For more information about configuring the input lines, see Section 8.1 on page 125.
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5.7.2
Output Lines
5.7.2.1
Voltage Requirements
The following voltage requirements apply to the I/O output VCC (pin 10 of the 12-pin receptacle):
Voltage
Significance
< +3.3 VDC
+3.3 to +24 VDC
+30.0 VDC
The I/O output may operate erratically.
Recommended operating voltage.
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 11: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Output VCC
5.7.2.2
Line Schematic
The camera is equipped with four physical output lines designated as Output Line 1, Output Line 2,
Output Line 3, and Output Line 4. The output lines are accessed via the 12-pin receptacle on the
back of the camera.
As shown in the I/O schematic, each output line is opto-isolated. See the previous section for the
recommended operating voltage. The absolute maximum voltage is +30.0 VDC. The maximum
current allowed through an output circuit is 100 mA.
A conducting transistor means a logical one and a non-conducting transistor means a logical zero.
Figure 34 shows a typical circuit you can use to monitor an output line with a voltage signal. The
circuit in Figure 34 is monitoring output line 1.
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Out_1_Ctrl
Q
BC847BS
220 Ω
Gnd
D
BAS16
Camera
1
2
3
4
I/O_Out_1 5
6
7
8
I/O_Out_VCC 9
10
11
12
12-Pin
Receptacle
Your Gnd
270 Ω
Voltage
Output
Signal
to You
+3.3 to +24
VDC
Your Gnd
Fig. 34: Typical Voltage Output Circuit
Figure 35 shows a typical circuit you can use to monitor an output line with an LED or an optocoupler. In this example, the voltage for the external circuit is +24 VDC. Current in the circuit is
limited by an external resistor. The circuit in Figure 35 is monitoring output line 1.
Out_1_Ctrl
Q
BC847BS
220 Ω
Gnd
D
BAS16
I/O_Out_1
I/O_Out_VCC
Camera
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
12-Pin
Receptacle
LED
Output
to You
Your Gnd
2.2k Ω
+24 VDC
Your Gnd
Fig. 35: Typical LED Output Signal at +24 VDC for the External Circuit (Example)
By default, the camera’s exposure active (ExpAc) signal is assigned to Output Line 1. The exposure
active signal indicates when exposure is taking place.
By default, the camera’s trigger ready (TrigRdy) is assigned to Output Line 2. The trigger ready
signal goes high to indicate the earliest point at which exposure start for the next frame can be
triggered.
The assignment of camera output signals to physical output lines can be changed by the user.
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For more information about output line pin assignments and pin numbering, see Section 5.2 on
page 44.
For more information about the exposure active signal, see Section 6.8 on page 84.
For more information about the trigger ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 80.
For more information about assigning camera output signals to physical output ports, see
Section 8.2 on page 127.
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5.7.3
Output Line Response Time
Response times for the output lines on the camera are as shown below.
Camera
Output
Signal
TDR
90%
Output
Line
Voltage
TDF
FT
RT
90%
Time
Fig. 36: Output Line Response Times
Time Delay Rise (TDR) = 1.5 µs
Rise Time (RT) = 1.3 - 5.0 µs
Time Delay Fall (TDF) = 1 - 20 µs
Fall Time (FT) = 1 - 5 µs
Note
The response times for the output lines on your camera will fall into the ranges
specified above. The exact response time for your specific application will
depend on the external resistor and the applied voltage you use.
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Fig. 37: I/O Line Schematic
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6 Image Acquisition Control
This section provides detailed information about controlling image acquisition. You will find details
about setting the exposure time for each acquired image and about how the camera’s maximum
allowed acquisition frame rate can vary depending on the current camera settings.
6.1
Controlling Image Acquisition with
Parameters Only (No Triggering)
You can configure the camera so that image acquisition will be controlled by simply setting the value
of several parameters via the camera’s API. When the camera is configured to acquire images
based on parameter values only, a software trigger or an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal
is not required.
You can set the camera so that it will acquire images one at a time or so that it will acquire images
continuously.
6.1.1
Switching Off Triggering
If you want to control image acquisition based on parameter settings alone, you must make sure
that the camera’s acquisition start trigger is set to off. Setting the acquisition start trigger is a two
step process:
„
First use the camera’s Trigger Selector parameter to select the Acquisition Start trigger.
„
Second use the camera’s Trigger Mode parameter to set the selected trigger to Off.
You can set the Trigger Selector and the Trigger Mode parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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6.1.2
Acquiring One Image at a Time
In “single frame” operation, the camera acquires and transmits a single image. To select single
frame operation, the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter must be set to Single Frame.
To begin image acquisition, execute an Acquisition Start command. Exposure time is determined
by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameter.
When using the single frame method to acquire images, you must not begin acquiring a new image
until the previously captured image has been completely transmitted to the host PC.
You can set the Acquisition Mode parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
You can also execute the Acquisition Start command by using the API.
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
6.1.3
Acquiring Images Continuously (Free-run)
In “continuous frame” operation, the camera continuously acquires and transmits images. To select
continuous frame operation, the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter must be set to Continuous.
(Note that operating the camera in continuous frame mode without the use of a trigger is also
commonly called "free run".)
To begin acquiring images, issue an Acquisition Start command. The exposure time for each image
is determined by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameter. Acquisition start for the
second and subsequent images is automatically controlled by the camera. Image acquisition and
transmission will stop when you execute an Acquisition Stop command.
When the camera is operating in continuous frame mode without triggering, the acquisition frame
rate is determined by the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter:
„
If the parameter is enabled and set to a value less than the maximum allowed acquisition
frame rate, the camera will acquire images at rate specified by the parameter setting.
„
If the parameter is disabled or is set to a value greater than the maximum allowed acquisition
frame rate, the camera will acquire images at the maximum allowed.
Note that before you can use the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter to control the frame rate,
the parameter must be enabled.
You can set the Acquisition Mode parameter value and you can enable and set the Acquisition
Frame Rate Abs parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter values:
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// set camera in continous mode
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// set a frame rate and getting the resulting frame rate
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( true );
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateAbs.SetValue( 20.5 );
double resultingFrameRate = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Stop commands by using the API.
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate, see
Section 6.10 on page 88.
Note
The explanations in Section 6.1.2 and Section 6.1.3 are intended to give you
a basic idea of how parameters alone can be used to control image
acquisition. For a more complete description, refer to the Basler pylon
Programmer’s Guide and to the sample programs included in the Basler pylon
Software Development Kit (SDK).
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6.2
Controlling Image Acquisition
with a Software Trigger
You can configure the camera so that image acquisition will be controlled by issuing a software
trigger. The software trigger is issued by executing a Trigger Software command.
Image acquisition starts when the Trigger Software command is executed. The exposure time for
each image is determined by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameter. Figure 38
illustrates image acquisition with a software trigger.
Software Trigger Issued
Image
Acquisition
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 38: Image Acquisition with a Software Trigger
When controlling image acquisition with a software trigger, you can set the camera so that it will
react to a single software trigger or so that it will react to a continuous series of software triggers.
6.2.1
Enabling the Software Trigger Feature
To enable the software trigger feature:
„
Use the camera’s Trigger Selector parameter to select the Acquisition Start trigger.
„
Use the camera’s Trigger Mode parameter to set the mode to On.
„
Use the camera’s Trigger Source parameter to set the trigger source to Software.
„
Use the Exposure Mode parameter to set the exposure mode to timed.
You can set these parameter values from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue(TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart);
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue( TriggerSource_Software );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
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You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
6.2.2
Acquiring a Single Image by Applying
One Software Trigger
You can set the camera to react to a single software trigger and then issue a software trigger to
begin image acquisition. To do so, follow this sequence:
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameter for your desired exposure time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Single Frame.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to a software
trigger.
4. When you are ready to begin an image acquisition, execute a Trigger Software command.
5. Image acquisition will start and exposure will continue for the length of time you specified in
step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. At this point, the camera would ignore any additional software triggers. To acquire another
image, you must:
a. Repeat step 3 to prepare the camera to react to a software trigger.
b. Repeat step 4 to issue a software trigger.
If you use the single image acquisition process repeatedly, you must not begin acquisition of a new
image until transmission of the previously acquired image is complete.
You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Trigger
Software commands. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter
values and execute the commands:
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
// prepare for image capture
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// retrieve the captured image
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
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6.2.3
Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of
Software Triggers
You can set the camera to react to multiple applications of the software trigger and then apply a
series of software triggers to acquire images. To do so, follow this sequence:
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameter for your desired exposure time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Continuous.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to software triggers.
4. When you are ready to begin an image acquisition, execute a Trigger Software command.
5. Image acquisition will start and exposure will continue for the length of time you specified in
step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. To acquire another image, go to step 4.
8. Execute an Acquisition Stop command. The camera will no longer react to software triggers.
If you are acquiring images using a series of software triggers, you must avoid acquiring images at
a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed with the current camera settings.
You should also be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, it will
influence the rate at which the Trigger Software command can be applied:
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value less than the maximum allowed,
you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the set value.
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value greater than the maximum
allowed, you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the maximum allowed image acquisition
rate with the current camera settings.
You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Trigger
Software commands. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter
values and execute the commands:
// issuing software trigger commands
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// prepare for image acquisition here
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// retrieve acquired image here
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
// how to set and test the Acquisition Frame Rate
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateAbs.SetValue( 60.0 );
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double resultingFrameRate = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue( );
// how to disable the FrameRateAbs parameter
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( false );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate, see
Section 6.10 on page 88.
Note
The explanations in Section 6.2.2 and Section 6.2.3 are intended to give you
a basic idea of how the use of a software trigger works. For a more complete
description, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide and to the sample
programs included in the Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK).
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6.3
Controlling Image Acquisition
with a Hardware Trigger
You can configure the camera so that an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal applied to one of
the input lines will control image acquisition. A rising edge or a falling edge of the ExTrig signal can
be used to trigger image acquisition.
The ExTrig signal can be periodic or non-periodic. When the camera is operating under control of
an ExTrig signal, the period of the ExTrig signal will determine the rate at which the camera is
acquiring images:
1
------------------------------------------------------------------ = Acquisition Frame Rate
ExTrig period in seconds
For example, if you are operating a camera with an ExTrig signal period of 20 ms (0.020 s):
1
--------------- = 50 fps
0.020
So in this case, the acquisition frame rate is 50 fps.
The minimum high time for a rising edge trigger (or low time for a falling edge trigger) is 100
nanoseconds.
By default, input line 1 is assigned to receive an ExTrig signal.
When you are triggering image acquisition with an ExTrig signal, you must not acquire images at a
rate that exceeds the maximum allowed for the current camera settings.
For more information about setting the camera for hardware triggering and selecting the input line
to receive the ExTrig signal, see Section 6.3.2 on page 69.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate, see
Section 6.10 on page 88.
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6.3.1
Exposure Modes
If you are triggering exposure start with an ExTrig signal, two exposure modes are available, "timed"
and "trigger width."
Timed Exposure Mode
When timed mode is selected, the exposure time for each image is determined by the value of the
camera’s exposure time parameter. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure time
starts when the ExTrig signal rises. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the exposure time
starts when the ExTrig signal falls. Figure 39 illustrates timed exposure with the camera set for
rising edge triggering.
ExTrig Signal Period
ExTrig Signal
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameter)
Fig. 39: Timed Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
Trigger Width Exposure Mode
When trigger width exposure mode is selected, the length of the exposure will be directly controlled
by the ExTrig signal. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure time begins when
the ExTrig signal rises and continues until the ExTrig signal falls. If the camera is set for falling edge
triggering, the exposure time begins when the ExTrig signal falls and continues until the ExTrig
signal rises. Figure 40 illustrates trigger width exposure with the camera set for rising edge
triggering.
Trigger width exposure is especially useful if you intend to vary the length of the exposure time for
each captured image.
ExTrig Signal Period
Exposure
ExTrig Signal
Fig. 40: Trigger Width Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
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Note
The trigger width exposure mode is not available on scA750-60 cameras. The
trigger width exposure mode is available on all other camera models.
When you operate the camera in trigger width exposure mode, you must use the camera’s
exposure setting to set an exposure time. The exposure time setting will be used by the camera to
operate the trigger ready signal.
You should adjust the exposure setting to represent the shortest exposure time you intend to use.
For example, assume that you will be using trigger width exposure and that you intend to use the
ExTrig signal to vary the exposure time in a range from 3000 µs to 5500 µs. In this case you would
use the exposure setting to set the exposure time to 3000 µs.
If you are using the trigger width exposure mode and the camera is operating with overlapped
exposures, there is something you must keep in mind. If the action of the ExTrig signal would end
the current exposure while readout of the previously acquired image is still taking place, the camera
will automatically continue the exposure until readout of the previous image is complete. This
situation is illustrated Figure 39 for rising edge operation. On the first cycle of the ExTrig signal
shown in the figure, the signal rises and falls while readout is taking place. Normally you would
expect exposure to take place only when the ExTrig signal is high. But since the signal falls while
the previous frame is still reading out, the camera automatically extends exposure until the readout
is complete. On the second cycle of the ExTrig signal shown in the figure, the signal rises during
previous frame readout, but falls after the readout is complete. This is a normal situation and
exposure would be determined by the high time of the ExTrig signal as you would expect.
TrigRdy
Signal
Exposure
Exposure
ExTrig Signal
Frame Readout
Frame N-1
Frame N
Fig. 41: Trigger Width Exposure Mode with Overlapped Exposure
Selecting an Exposure Mode
You can set the exposure time parameter value and select an exposure mode from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to
set the exposure time parameter and select the exposure mode:
// set for the timed exposure mode, set exposure time to 3000 µs
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
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Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// set for the width exposure mode, set minimum exposure time to 3000 µs
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_TriggerWidth );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
For more information about overlapped exposure, see Section 6.5 on page 77.
For more detailed information about using the trigger width exposure mode with overlapped
exposure, refer to the application notes called "Using a Specific External Trigger Signal with
Overlapped Exposure" (AW000565xx000). The application notes are available in the downloads
section of the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com.
6.3.2
Setting the Camera for Hardware Triggering
To set the camera for hardware triggering:
„
Use the Trigger Selector parameter to select the Acquisition Start trigger.
„
Use the Trigger Mode parameter to set the trigger mode to On.
„
Use the Trigger Source parameter to set the camera to accept the hardware trigger signal on
input line 1 or on input line 2.
„
Use the Trigger Activation parameter to set the camera for rising edge triggering or for falling
edge triggering.
You can set these parameter values from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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6.3.3
Acquiring a Single Image by Applying One
Hardware Trigger Transition
You can set the camera to react to a single transition of an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal
and then you can transition the ExTrig signal to begin image acquisition. When you are using an
ExTrig signal to start image acquisition, you should monitor the camera’s trigger ready (TrigRdy)
output signal and you should base the use of your ExTrig signal on the state of the trigger ready
signal.
To set the camera to react to a single ExTrig signal transition, follow the sequence below. The
sequence assumes that you have set the camera for rising edge triggering and for the timed
exposure mode.
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameter for your desired exposure time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Single Frame.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to a single trigger.
(In single frame mode, executing the start command prepares the camera to react to a single
trigger.)
4. Check the state of the camera’s Trigger Ready signal:
a. If the TrigRdy signal is high, you can transition the ExTrig signal when desired.
b. If the TrigRdy signal is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then transition the ExTrig signal
when desired.
5. When the ExTrig signal transitions from low to high, image acquisition will start. Exposure will
continue for the length of time you specified in step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. At this point, the camera would ignore any additional ExTrig signal transitions. To acquire
another image, you must:
a. Repeat step 3 to prepare the camera to react to a hardware trigger transition.
b. Repeat step 4 to check if the camera is ready to acquire an image.
c. Repeat step 5 to begin image acquisition
You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start command.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values and execute the
command:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
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For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the Trigger Ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 80.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
6.3.4
Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of
Hardware Trigger Transitions
You can set the camera so that it will react to a continuous series of external hardware trigger
(ExTrig) transitions and then you can cycle the ExTrig signal as desired to begin image acquisition.
When you are using an ExTrig signal to start image acquisition, you should monitor the camera’s
trigger ready (TrigRdy) output signal and you should base the use of your ExTrig signal on the state
of the trigger ready signal.
To set the camera to react continuously to ExTrig signal transitions, follow the sequence below. The
sequence assumes that you have set the camera for rising edge triggering and for the timed
exposure mode.
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameters for your desired exposure
time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Continuous.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to the trigger
signals.
4. Check the state of the camera’s Trigger Ready signal:
a. If the TrigRdy signal is high, you can transition the ExTrig signal when desired.
b. If the TrigRdy signal is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then transition the ExTrig signal
when desired.
5. When the ExTrig signal transitions from low to high, image acquisition will start. Exposure will
continue for the length of time you specified in step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. Repeat steps 4 and 5 each time you want to start another image acquisition.
8. Execute an Acquisition Stop command. The camera will no longer react to hardware triggers.
If you are acquiring images using a series of hardware trigger transitions, you must avoid acquiring
images at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed with the current camera settings. You can
avoid triggering image acquistion at too high a rate by using the trigger ready signal as described
above.
You should also be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, it will
influence the rate at which images can be acquired:
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value less than the maximum allowed,
you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the set value.
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value greater than the maximum
allowed, you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the maximum allowed image acquisition
rate with the current camera settings.
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You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Stop
commands. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values and
execute the commands:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the Trigger Ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 80.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 73.
Note
The explanations in Section 6.3.3 and Section 6.3.4 are intended to give you
a basic idea of how the use of a hardware trigger works. For a more complete
description, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide and to the sample
programs included in the Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK).
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6.4
Exposure Time Parameters
Many of the camera’s image acquisition modes require you to specify an exposure time. There are
two ways to set exposure time: by setting "raw" values or by setting an "absolute value". The two
methods are described below. You can use whichever method you prefer to set the exposure time.
The exposure time must not be set below a minimum specified value. The minimum exposure time
varies by camera model as shown in Table 12.
The maximum exposure time that can be set also varies by camera model as shown in Table 12.
Camera Model
Minimum Allowed Exposure Time
Maximum Possible Exposure Time
scA640-70fm/fc
80 µs
10000000 µs
scA640-74fm/fc
80 µs
10000000 µs
scA750-60fm/fc
124 µs
126976 µs
scA780-54fm/fc
80 µs
10000000 µs
scA1000-20fm/fc
120 µs
10000000 µs
scA1000-30fm/fc
100 µs
10000000 µs
scA1300-32fm/fc
60 µs
10000000 µs
scA1390-17fm/fc
100 µs
10000000 µs
scA1400-17fm/fc
100 µs
10000000 µs
scA1400-30fm/fc
100 µs
10000000 µs
scA1600-14fm/fc
100 µs
10000000 µs
Table 12: Minimum Allowed Exposure Time and Maximum Possible Exposure Time
Note
Exposure time can not only be manually set (see below), but can also be
automatically adjusted.
Exposure Auto is an auto function and the "automatic" counterpart to manually
setting an "absolute" exposure time. The exposure auto function automatically
adjusts the Auto Exposure Time Abs parameter value.
In contrast to the manually set "absolute" exposure time, the automatically
adjusted "absolute" exposure time is not restricted to multiples of the current
exposure time base. The automatic adjustment is not available when trigger width
exposure mode is selected.
For more information about auto functions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For more information about the Exposure Auto function, see Section 9.9.3 on
page 170.
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For information on parameter settings for obtaining the maximum possible exposure time, see
Section 6.4.1 on page 74.
6.4.1
Setting the Exposure Time Using "Raw" Settings
When exposure time is set using "raw" values, the exposure time will be determined by a
combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter,
and the second element is the Exposure Time Base. The exposure time is determined by the
product of these two elements:
Exposure Time = (Exposure Time Raw Parameter Value) x (Exposure Time Base)
By default, the Exposure Time Base is fixed at 20 µs on all camera models except the scA750-60.
On scA750-60 cameras, the default Exposure Time Base is 31 µs.
Typically, the exposure time is adjusted by setting only the Exposure Time Raw parameter. The
Exposure Time Raw parameter value can range from 1 to 4095. So if the parameter value was set
to 100 on an scA640-70 camera, for example, the exposure time will be 100 x 20 µs or 2000 µs.
Settings for Obtaining the Maximum Possible Exposure Time
On all camera models except the scA750-60, you can obtain the maximum possible exposure time
(10000000 µs) by setting the Exposure Time Raw parameter value to 1 and the Exposure Time
Base Abs value to 10000000 µs.
On scA750-60 cameras, you can obtain the maximum possible exposure time (126976 µs) by e.g.
setting the exposure time raw parameter value to 2048 and the Exposure Time Base Abs value to
62 µs.
Changing the Exposure Time Base
Normally, the exposure time is adjusted by setting the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter
as explained above. However, if you require an exposure time that is longer than what you can
achieve by changing the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter alone, the Exposure Time
Base Abs parameter can be used to change the exposure time base.
The Exposure Time Base Abs parameter value sets the exposure time base in µs and this
parameter can be used to change the exposure time base.
On all camera models except the scA750-60, the default exposure time base is 20 µs and the time
base can be changed in increments of 1 µs.
On scA750-60 cameras, the default exposure time base is 31 µs and the time base can be changed
in increments of 31 µs.
You can set the Exposure Time Raw and Exposure Time Base Abs parameter values from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the parameter values:
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Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 100 );
Camera.ExposureTimeBaseAbs.SetValue( 186 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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6.4.2
Setting the Exposure Time Using
"Absolute" Settings
You can also set the exposure time by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Exposure Time Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
When you use the Exposure Time Abs parameter to set the exposure time, the camera
accomplishes the setting change by automatically changing the Exposure Time Raw parameter to
achieve the value specified by your Exposure Time Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you
must keep in mind if you use Exposure Time Abs parameter to set the exposure time. That is, you
must set the Exposure Time Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could
achieve by using the Exposure Time Raw parameter with the current Exposure Time Base
parameter. For example, if the time base was currently set to 62 µs, you could use the Exposure
Time Base Abs parameter to set the exposure to 62 µs, 124 µs, 186 µs, etc.
Note that if you set the Exposure Time Abs parameter to a value that you could not achieve by using
the Exposure Time Raw and Exposure Time Base parameters, the camera will automatically
change the setting for the Exposure Time Abs parameter to the nearest achieveable value.
You should also be aware that if you change the exposure time using the raw settings, the Exposure
Time Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new exposure time.
Setting the Absolute Exposure Time Parameter
You can set the Exposure Time Abs parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 124 );
double resultingExpTime = Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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6.5
Overlapping Exposure and Sensor
Readout (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the scA750-60
fm/fc. For information about scA750-60 cameras, see Section 6.6 on page 79.
The image acquisition process on the camera includes two distinct parts. The first part is the
exposure of the pixels in the imaging sensor. Once exposure is complete, the second part of the
process – readout of the pixel values from the sensor – takes place.
In regard to this image acquisition process, there are two common ways for the camera to operate:
with “non-overlapped” exposure and with “overlapped” exposure. In the non-overlapped mode of
operation, each time an image is acquired, the camera completes the entire exposure/readout
process before acquisition of the next image is started. This situation is illustrated in Figure 42.
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 42: Non-overlapped Exposure
While operating in a non-overlapped fashion is perfectly normal and is appropriate for many
situations, it is not the most efficient way to operate the camera in terms of acquisition frame rate.
On this camera, however, it is allowable to begin exposing a new image while a previously acquired
image is being read out. This situation is illustrated in Figure 43 and is known as operating the
camera with “overlapped” exposure.
As you can see, running the camera with readout and exposure overlapped can allow higher
acquisition frame rates because the camera is performing two processes at once.
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Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+3
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 43: Overlapped Exposure
Determining whether your camera is operating with overlapped or non-overlapped exposures is not
a matter of issuing a command or switching a setting on or off. Rather the way that you operate the
camera will determine whether the exposures are overlapped or not overlapped. If we define the
“frame period” as the time from the start of exposure for one image acquisition to the start of
exposure for the next image acquisition, then:
„
Exposure will overlap when:
Frame Period ≤ Exposure Time + Readout Time
„
Exposure will not overlap when:
Frame Period > Exposure Time + Readout Time
You can calculate the readout time for a captured image by using the formula on page 85.
6.5.1
Guidelines for Overlapped Operation
If you will be operating the camera with overlapped exposure, there are two important guidelines to
keep in mind:
„
You must not begin the exposure time for a new image acquisition while the exposure time of
the previous acquisition is in progress.
„
You must not end the exposure time of the current image acquisition until readout of the
previously acquired image is complete.
The camera will ignore any trigger signals that violate these guidelines.
When you are operating a camera with overlapped exposure and using a hardware trigger signal
to trigger image acquisition, you could use the camera’s exposure time parameter settings and
timing formulas to calculate when it is safe to begin each new acquisition. However, there is a much
more convenient way to know when it safe to begin each acquisition. The camera supplies a “trigger
ready” signal that is specifically designed to let you trigger overlapped exposure safely and
efficiently.
For more information about using the Trigger Ready signal with all camera models except the
scA750-60 gm/gc, see Section 6.7.1 on page 80.
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For more detailed guidelines about using an external trigger signal with the trigger width exposure
mode and overlapped exposure, refer to the application notes called "Using a Specific External
Trigger Signal with Overlapped Exposure" (AW000565xx000). The application notes are available
in the downloads section of the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com.
6.6
Exposure Must Not Overlap Sensor
Readout (scA750-60 Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to scA750-60 fm/fc cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 6.5 on page 77.
The image acquisition process on the camera includes two distinct parts. The first part is the
exposure of the pixels in the imaging sensor. Once exposure is complete, the second part of the
process – readout of the pixel values from the sensor – takes place.
On these cameras, exposure for a new acquisition must not begin until readout of the previously
acquired image is complete. This situation is illustrated in Figure 42.
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 44: Non-overlapped Readout and Exposure
A result of this characteristic is that the exposure time setting on the camera will have a direct effect
on the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate. At longer exposure times, the maximum allowed
frame rate will be lower.
When you are operating a camera and using a hardware trigger to trigger image acquisition, you
could use the camera’s exposure time parameter settings and the timing formulas to calculate when
it is safe to begin each new acquisition. However, there is a more convenient way to know when it
safe to begin each acquisition. The camera supplies a “trigger ready” signal that is specifically
designed to let you trigger acquisitions safely and efficiently.
For more information about using the Trigger Ready signal with scA750-60 gm/gc cameras, see
Section 6.7.2 on page 82.
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6.7
Trigger Ready Signal
6.7.1
Trigger Ready Signal (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the scA750-60
fm/fc. For information about scA750-60 cameras, see Section 6.7.2 on page 82.
As described in the previous section, the cameras can operate in an “overlapped” acquisition
fashion. When the camera is operated in this manner, it is especially important that:
„
the exposure time of a new image acquisition not start until exposure of the previously
acquired image is complete, and
„
the exposure time of a new image acquisition not end until readout of the previously acquired
image is complete.
The camera supplies a “Trigger Ready” (TrigRdy) output signal you can use to ensure that these
conditions are met when you are using a hardware trigger signal to trigger image acquisition. When
you are acquiring images, the camera automatically calculates the earliest moment that it is safe to
trigger each new acquisition. The trigger ready signal will go high when it is safe to trigger an
acquisition, will go low when the acquisition has started, and will go high again when it is safe to
trigger the next acquisition (see Figure 45). The camera calculates the rise of the trigger ready
signal based on the current exposure time parameter setting, the current size of the area of interest,
and the time it will take to readout the captured pixel values from the sensor.
The trigger ready signal is especially useful if you want to run the camera at the maximum
acquisition frame capture rate for the current conditions. If you monitor the trigger ready signal and
you trigger acquisition of each new image immediately after the signal goes high, you will be sure
that the camera is operating at the maximum acquisition frame rate for the current conditions.
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Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+1
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+1 begins
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+2
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+2 begins
TrigRdy
Signal
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 45: Trigger Ready Signal
You should be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, the operation of
the trigger ready signal will be influenced by the value of the parameter:
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than zero but less than the maximum allowed, the
trigger ready will go high at the rate specified by the parameter value. For example, if the
parameter is set to 10, the trigger ready signal will go high 10 times per second.
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with
the current camera settings, the trigger ready signal will work as described above and will go
high at a point that represents the maximum acquisition frame rate allowed.
Note
If you attempt to start an image acquisition when the trigger ready signal is low,
the camera will simply ignore the attempt.
The trigger ready signal will only be available when hardware triggering is
enabled.
By default, the trigger ready signal is assigned to physical output line 2 on the camera. However,
the assignment of the trigger signal to a physical output line can be changed.
For more information about changing the assignment of camera output signals to physical output
lines, see Section 8.2 on page 127.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output lines, see
Section 5.7.2 on page 54.
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6.7.2
Trigger Ready Signal (scA750-60 Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to scA750-60 fm/fc cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 6.7.1 on page 80.
As described in an earlier section, on these cameras the exposure for an image acquisition must
not begin until readout of the previously acquired image has ended. The camera supplies a “Trigger
Ready” (TrigRdy) output signal you can use to ensure that these conditions are met when you are
using a hardware trigger signal to trigger image acquisition. When you are acquiring images, the
camera automatically calculates the earliest moment that it is safe to trigger each new acquisition.
The trigger ready signal will go high when it is safe to trigger an acquisition, will go low when the
acquisition has started, and will go high again when it is safe to trigger the next acquisition (see
Figure 45). The camera calculates the rise of the trigger ready signal based on the current exposure
time parameter setting, the current size of the area of interest, and the time it will take to readout
the captured pixel values from the sensor.
The trigger ready signal is especially useful if you want to run the camera at the maximum
acquisition frame capture rate for the current conditions. If you monitor the trigger ready signal and
you begin acquisition of each new image immediately after the signal goes high, you will be sure
that the camera is operating at the maximum acquisition frame rate for the current conditions.
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+1
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+1 begins
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+2
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+2 begins
TrigRdy
Signal
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 46: Trigger Ready Signal
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You should be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, the operation of
the trigger ready signal will be influenced by the value of the parameter:
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than zero but less than the maximum allowed, the
trigger ready will go high at the rate specified by the parameter value. For example, if the
parameter is set to 10, the trigger ready signal will go high 10 times per second.
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with
the current camera settings, the trigger ready signal will work as described above and will go
high at a point that represents the maximum acquisition frame rate allowed.
Note
If you attempt to start an image acquisition when the trigger ready signal is low,
the camera will simply ignore the attempt.
The trigger ready signal will only be available when hardware triggering is
enabled.
By default, the trigger ready signal is assigned to physical output line 2 on the camera. However,
the assignment of the trigger signal to a physical output line can be changed.
For more information about changing the assignment of camera output signals to physical output
lines, see Section 8.2 on page 127.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output lines, see
Section 5.7.2 on page 54.
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6.8
Exposure Active Signal
The camera’s “exposure active” (ExpAc) signal goes high when the exposure time for each image
acquisition begins and goes low when the exposure time ends as shown in Figure 47. This signal
can be used as a flash trigger and is also useful when you are operating a system where either the
camera or the object being imaged is movable. For example, assume that the camera is mounted
on an arm mechanism and that the mechanism can move the camera to view different portions of
a product assembly. Typically, you do not want the camera to move during exposure. In this case,
you can monitor the ExpAc signal to know when exposure is taking place and thus know when to
avoid moving the camera.
Exposure
Exposure
Frame N
Exposure
Frame N+1
2 - 3.5 µs
2 - 3.5 µs
10 - 26 µs
ExpAc
Signal
Exposure
Frame N+2
10 - 26 µs
Timing charts are not drawn to scale
Times stated are typical
Fig. 47: Exposure Active Signal
Note
When you use the exposure active signal, be aware that there is a delay in the
rise and the fall of the signal in relation to the start and the end of exposure.
See Figure 47 for details.
By default, the ExpAc signal is assigned to physical output line 1 on the camera. However, the
assignment of the ExpAc signal to a physical output line can be changed.
For more information about changing the assignment of camera output signals to physical output
lines, see Section 8.2 on page 127.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output lines, see
Section 5.7.2 on page 54.
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6.9
Acquisition Timing Chart
Figure 48 shows a timing chart for image acquisition and transmission. The chart assumes that
exposure is triggered with an ExTrig signal with rising edge activation and that the camera is set for
programmable exposure mode.
As Figure 48 shows, there is a slight delay between the rise of the ExTrig signal and the start of
exposure. After the exposure time for an image capture is complete, the camera begins reading out
the captured image data from the CCD sensor into a buffer in the camera. When the camera has
determined that a sufficient amount of image data has accumulated in the buffer, it will begin
transmitting the data from the camera to the host PC.
This buffering technique avoids the need to exactly synchronize the clock used for sensor readout
with the clock used for data transmission over the IEEE 1394b bus. The camera will begin
transmitting data when it has determined that it can safely do so without over-running or underrunning the buffer. This buffering technique is also an important element in achieving the highest
possible frame rate with the best image quality.
The exposure start delay is the amount of time between the point where the trigger signal
transitions to the point where exposure actually begins.
The frame readout time is the amount of time it takes to read out the data for a captured image
from the CCD sensor into the image buffer.
The time to transmission end is the amount of time between the point where the camera begins
reading out the captured image data from the sensor to the point where it finishes transmitting the
data for the captured image from the buffer to the host PC.
The exposure start delay varies from camera model to camera model. The table below shows the
exposure start delay for each camera model:
Camera Model
Exposure Start Delay
scA640-70fm/fc
31.37 µs
scA640-74fm/fc
29.87 µs
scA750-60fm/fc
180.0 µs
scA780-54fm/fc
31.89 µs
scA1000-20fm/fc
64.91 µs
scA1000-30fm/fc
45.33 µs
scA1300-32fm/fc
32.17 µs
scA1390-17fm/fc
58.90 µs
scA1400-17fm/fc
57.71 µs
scA1400-30fm/fc
33.40 µs
scA1600-14fm/fc
60.52 µs
Table 13: Exposure Start Delays
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Note that, if the debouncer feature is used, the debouncer setting for the input line must be added
to the exposure start delays shown in Table 13 to determine the total start delay. For example,
assume that you are using an scA640-70 camera and that you have set the cameras for hardware
triggering. Also assume that you have selected input line 1 to accept the hardware trigger signal
and that you have set the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter for input line 1 to 5 µs. In this case:
Total Start Delay = Start Delay from Table 13+ Debouncer Setting
Total Start Delay = 31.37 µs+ 5 µs
Total Start Delay = 36.37 µs
TrigRdy
Signal
ExTrig
Signal
Exposure Start Delay
Exposure
Frame
Readout
Frame
Transmission
Exposure Start Delay
Exposure
Frame N+1
Exposure
Frame N
Exposure
Frame N+2
Frame N Readout to the Image Buffer
Frame N+1 Readout to the Image Buffer
Frame N Transmission to Host PC
Frame N+1 Transmission to Host PC
Frame N Time to Transmission End
Frame N+1 Time to Transmission End
Timing charts are not drawn to scale
Fig. 48: Exposure Start Controlled with an ExTrig Signal
You can calculate the frame readout time by using this formula:
Frame Readout Time = Tr = ( AOI Height x C1) + C2
Where the values for the constants C1 and C2 are from the table in Section 6.10 on page 88 for all
camera models except the scA750-60 or from the table in Section 6.11 on page 93 for scA750-60
cameras.
For more information about the frame height, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
You can calculate the time to transmission end (Te) using these three steps:
1. Calculate the frame readout time (Tr) using the formula above.
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2. Calculate the base transmission time (Tb) using these formulas:
Value of the Payload Size Parameter
Packets per frame = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Value of the Packet Size Parameter
(round the result up to the nearest integer)
Tb = Packets per frame x 125 µs
3. Compare the results:
If Tb ≤ Tr, then Te = Tr + 250 µs
If Tb > Tr, then Te = Tb + 250 µs
You can determine the value of the Payload Size and Packet Size parameters from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
work with the parameter values:
// Get payload size
int64_t payloadSize = Camera.PayloadSize.GetValue();
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSizeSize.SetValue( 4096 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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6.10 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame
Rate (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the scA750-60
fm/fc. For information about scA750-60 cameras, see Section 6.11 on page 93.
In general, the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate can be limited by three factors:
„
The amount of time it takes to read an acquired image out of the imaging sensor and into the
camera’s frame buffer (an acquired image is also known as a frame). This time varies
depending on the height of the frame. Shorter frames take less time to read out of the sensor.
The frame height is determined by the camera’s AOI settings.
„
The exposure time for acquired frames. If you use very long exposure times, you can acquire
fewer frames per second.
„
The number of packets needed to transfer an acquired frame from the camera to your PC.
To determine the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with your current camera settings, you
can read the value of the camera’s Resulting Frame Rate parameter. This parameter indicates the
camera’s current maximum allowed frame rate taking the AOI, exposure time, and packet size
settings into account.
You can read the current value of the Resulting Frame RateAbs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
get the parameter values:
// Resulting Framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
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Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate
You may find that you would like to acquire frames at a rate higher than the maximum allowed with
the camera’s current settings. In this case, you must first use the three formulas described below
to determine what factor is restricting the maximum frame rate the most. Next, you must try to make
that factor less restrictive:
„
You will often find that the sensor readout time is most restrictive factor. Decreasing the height
of the acquired frames will decrease the sensor readout time and will make this factor less
restrictive.
„
If you find that the number of packets needed to transmit an image is restricting the frame rate,
you may be able to decrease the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The next
section in this manual explains more about the effect of changing the packets per frame.
„
If you are using normal exposure times and you are using the camera at it’s maximum
resolution, your exposure time will not normally be the most restrictive factor on the frame rate.
However, if you are using long exposure times or small areas of interest, it is quite possible to
find that your exposure time is the most restrictive factor on the frame rate. In this case, you
should lower your exposure time. (You may need to compensate for a lower exposure time by
using a brighter light source or increasing the opening of your lens aperture.)
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
Formula 1:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the sensor readout time:
1
Max. Frames/s = ----------------------------------------------------------------( AOI Height × C 1 ) + C 2
Where:
AOI Height = the height of the acquired frames as determined by the AOI settings.
The constants C1 and C2 depend on the camera model as shown in the table below:
scA640-70
fm/fc
scA640-74
fm/fc
scA780-54
fm/fc
scA1000-20
fm/fc
scA1000-30
fm/fc
scA1300-32
fm/fc
scA1390-17
fm/fc
scA1400-17
fm/fc
C1
25.21 µs
24.01 µs
25.70 µs
51.13 µs
36.57 µs
25.21 µs
44.71 µs
44.37 µs
C2
1623 µs
1546 µs
2231 µs
7822 µs
4699 µs
5367.03 µs
12215 µs
11465 µs
scA1400-30
fm/fc
scA1600-14
fm/fc
C1
25.80 µs
52.37 µs
C2
6450 µs
6896 µs
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Formula 2:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the exposure time for the acquired frames:
1
Max. Frames/s = -------------------------------------------------------------------Exposure time in µs + C 3
Where the constant C3 depends on the camera model as shown in the table below:
C3
scA640-70
fm/fc
scA640-74
fm/fc
scA780-54
fm/fc
scA1000-20
fm/fc
scA1000-30
fm/fc
scA1300-32
fm/fc
scA1390-17
fm/fc
scA1400-17
fm/fc
94.56 µs
90.06 µs
95.70 µs
194.82 µs
136.47 µs
96.68 µs
176.76 µs
173.83 µs
:
scA1400-30 scA1600-14
fm/fc
fm/fc
C3
100.83 µs
181.64 µs
Formula 3:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the number of packets needed to transmit a captured
frame from the camera to your host PC via the IEEE 1394 bus:
Value of the Payload Size Parameter
Packets per frame = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Value of the Packet Size Parameter
(round the result up to the nearest integer)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------Packets per frame × 125 µs
Example
Assume that you are using a monochrome scA640-70 camera set for an exposure time of 2000 µs
and for 600 x 400 resolution. Also assume that you have checked the value of the Payload Size
parameter and the Packet Size parameters and found them to be 327100 and 8192 respectively.
Formula 1:
1
Max Frames/s = -----------------------------------------------------------------------( 400 × 25.21 µs ) + 1623 µs
Max Frames/s = 85.4 frames/s
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Image Acquisition Control
Formula 2:
1
Max Frames/s = --------------------------------------------------2000 µs + 94.56 µs
Max Frames/s = 477.4 frames/s
Formula 3:
327100
Packets per frame = -------------------8192
Packets per frame = 39.9
(Round the result up to 40.)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------40 × 125 µs
Max Frames/s = 200 frames/s
Formula one returns the lowest value. So in this case, the limiting factor is the sensor readout time
and the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate would be 85.4 frames per second.
6.10.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum
Allowed Frame Rate
After a camera acquires a frame, the image data is read out from the sensor into a buffer. Once the
frame has been read out to the buffer, the data is packetized and transmitted across the IEEE 1394b
bus to your host PC.
A parameter called Packet Size determines the number of bytes of data that will be included in each
packet transferred across the bus. The minimum value for the Packet Size parameter is 1 and the
maximum value is 8192. Normally, the value of the Packet Size parameter is set to the maximum
and at maximum, the Packet Size parameter has no noticeable effect on the operation of the
camera.
If you lower the value of the Packet Size parameter, the amount of image data included in each
packet transmitted across the bus will be lower. This means that it will take more packets to transmit
each frame and since the cycle time of the IEEE 1394b bus is fixed, it also means that it will take
more time to transmit each frame. If you lower the Packet Size parameter enough, the slower data
transfer rate can begin to affect the maximum allowed frame capture rate of your camera. If you
look at the formulas the previous section, you will notice that one of the factors that can limit the
maximum allowed frame rate is the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The number of
packets per frame is directly related to the Packet Size parameter setting.
You can see the effect of changing the Packet Size parameter by looking at the read only parameter
called Resulting Frame Rate Abs. The Resulting Frame Rate Abs parameter indicates the
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maximum frame rate with the current camera settings. If you gradually decrease the setting for the
Packet Size parameter, you will eventually find that the value of the Resulting Frame Rate Abs
parameter will also decrease.
If you are operating a single camera on your IEEE 1394b bus, you would ordinarily leave the Packet
Size parameter set at the maximum. However, if you are operating multiple cameras on a single
IEEE 1394b bus, you will probably need to change the Packet Size parameter so that the cameras
can effectively share the available bus bandwidth.
You can set the value of the Packet Size parameter and read the current value of the resulting
Frame Rate parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following
code snippet illustrates using the API to work withthe parameter values:
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSize.SetValue( 4096 );
// Get resulting framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about using multiple cameras on a single bus, see Section 11 on page 199.
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6.11 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame
Rate (scA750-60 Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to scA750-60 fm/fc cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 6.10 on page 88.
In general, the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate can be limited by two factors:
„
The sum of the exposure time plus the amount of time it takes to read the acquired image out
of the imaging sensor and into the camera’s frame buffer. (An acquired image is also known as
a frame.)
The exposure time is set by the user. If you use very long exposure times, you can acquire fewer
frames per second.
The readout time varies depending on the height of the frame. Shorter frames take less time to
read out of the sensor. The frame height is determined by the camera’s AOI Height settings.
„
The number of packets needed to transfer an acquired frame from the camera to your PC.
To determine the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with your current camera settings, you
can read the value of the camera’s Resulting Frame Rate parameter. This parameter indicates the
camera’s current maximum allowed frame rate taking the AOI, exposure time, and packet size
settings into account.
You can read the current value of the Resulting Frame RateAbs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
get the parameter values:
// Resulting Framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
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Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate
You may find that you would like to acquire frames at a rate higher than the maximum allowed with
the camera’s current settings. In this case, you must first use the two formulas described below to
determine what factor is restricting the maximum frame rate the most. Next, you must try to make
that factor less restrictive:
„
You will often find that the sum of the exposure time plus the sensor readout time is the most
restrictive factor.
Decreasing the AOI height for the acquired frames will decrease the sensor readout time and
will make this factor less restrictive.
If you are using long exposure times, it is quite possible to find that your exposure time is making
this factor the most restrictive. In this case, you should lower your exposure time. (You may
need to compensate for a lower exposure time by using a brighter light source or increasing the
opening of your lens aperture.)
„
If you find that the number of packets needed to transmit an image is restricting the frame rate,
you may be able to decrease the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The next
section in this manual explains more about the effect of changing the packets per frame.
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
Formula 1:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the sum of the exposure time plus the sensor readout
time:
1
Max. Frames/s = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exposure Time in µs + ( AOI Height × C 1 ) + C 2
Where:
AOI Height = the height of the acquired frames as determined by the AOI settings.
The constants C1 and C2 depend on the camera model as shown in the table below:
scA750-60 fm/fc
94
C1
31.0 µs
C2
397.0 µs
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Formula 2:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the number of packets needed to transmit a captured
frame from the camera to your host PC via the IEEE 1394 bus:
Value of the Payload Size Parameter
Packets per frame = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Value of the Packet Size Parameter
(round the result up to the nearest integer)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------Packets per frame × 125 µs
Example
Assume that you are using a monochrome scA750-60 camera set for an exposure time of 2000 µs
and for 600 x 400 resolution. Also assume that you have checked the value of the Payload Size
parameter and the Packet Size parameters and found them to be 327100 and 8192 respectively.
Formula 1:
1
Max. Frames/s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2000 µs + ( 400 × 31.0 µs ) + 397.0 µs
Max. Frames/s = 67.6 frames/s
Formula 2:
327100
Packets per frame = -------------------8192
Packets per frame = 39.9
(Round the result up to 40.)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------40 × 125 µs
Max Frames/s = 200 frames/s
Formula one returns the lowest value. So in this case, the limiting factor is the sum of the exposure
time plus the sensor readout time and the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate would be 67.6
frames per second.
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6.11.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum
Allowed Frame Rate
After a camera acquires a frame, the image data is read out from the sensor into a buffer. Once the
frame has been read out to the buffer, the data is packetized and transmitted across the IEEE 1394b
bus to your host PC.
A parameter called Packet Size determines the number of bytes of data that will be included in each
packet transferred across the bus. The minimum value for the Packet Size parameter is 1 and the
maximum value is 8192. Normally, the value of the Packet Size parameter is set to the maximum
and at maximum, the Packet Size parameter has no noticeable effect on the operation of the
camera.
If you lower the value of the Packet Size parameter, the amount of image data included in each
packet transmitted across the bus will be lower. This means that it will take more packets to transmit
each frame and since the cycle time of the IEEE 1394b bus is fixed, it also means that it will take
more time to transmit each frame. If you lower the Packet Size parameter enough, the slower data
transfer rate can begin to affect the maximum allowed frame capture rate of your camera. If you
look at the formulas the previous section, you will notice that one of the factors that can limit the
maximum allowed frame rate is the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The number of
packets per frame is directly related to the Packet Size parameter setting.
You can see the effect of changing the Packet Size parameter by looking at the read only parameter
called Resulting Frame Rate Abs. The Resulting Frame Rate Abs parameter indicates the
maximum frame rate with the current camera settings. If you gradually decrease the setting for the
Packet Size parameter, you will eventually find that the value of the Resulting Frame Rate Abs
parameter will also decrease.
If you are operating a single camera on your IEEE 1394b bus, you would ordinarily leave the Packet
Size parameter set at the maximum. However, if you are operating multiple cameras on a single
IEEE 1394b bus, you will probably need to change the Packet Size parameter so that the cameras
can effectively share the available bus bandwidth.
You can set the value of the Packet Size parameter and read the current value of the resulting
Frame Rate parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following
code snippet illustrates using the API to work withthe parameter values:
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSize.SetValue( 4096 );
// Get resulting framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about using multiple cameras on a single bus, see Section 11 on page 199.
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7 Pixel Data Formats
By selecting a pixel data format, you determine the format (layout) of the image data transmitted by
the camera. This section provides detailed information about the available pixel data formats.
7.1
Setting the Pixel Data Format
The setting for the camera’s Pixel Format parameter determines the format of the pixel data that will
be output from the camera. The available pixel formats depend on the camera model and whether
the camera is monochrome or color. Table 14 lists the pixel formats available on each monochrome
camera model and Table 15 lists the pixel formats available on each color camera model.
Mono Camera
Model
Mono 8
Mono 16
Mono 12
Packed
YUV 4:2:2
Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)
Packed
scA640-70
•
•
•
•
•
scA640-74
•
•
•
•
•
scA750-60
•
•
•
scA780-54
•
•
•
•
•
scA1000-20
•
•
•
•
•
scA1000-30
•
•
•
•
•
scA1300-32
•
•
•
•
•
scA1390-17
•
•
•
•
•
scA1400-17
•
•
•
•
•
scA1400-30
•
•
•
•
•
scA1600-14
•
•
•
•
•
Table 14: Pixel Formats Available on Monochrome Cameras ( • = format available)
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Color Camera
Model
Mono 8
Bayer
RG 8
Bayer
BG 8
Bayer
BG 16
Bayer BG 12
Packed
YUV 4:2:2
Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)
Packed
scA640-70
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA640-74
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA750-60
•
•
•
scA780-54
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1000-20
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1000-30
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1300-32
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1390-17
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1400-17
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1400-30
•
•
•
•
•
•
scA1600-14
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Table 15: Pixel Formats Available on Color Cameras ( • = format available)
Details of the monochrome formats are described in Section 7.2 on page 99 and details of the color
formats are described in Section 7.3 on page 106.
You can set the Pixel Format parameter value from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono8 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono12Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono16 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_YUV422Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_YUV422_YUYV_Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_BayerBG8 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_BayerBG16 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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7.2
Pixel Data Formats for Mono Cameras
7.2.1
Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8)
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono 8 pixel data format, it outputs 8 bits of brightness
data per pixel.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono8 output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Brightness value for P0
B1
Brightness value for P1
B2
Brightness value for P2
B3
Brightness value for P3
B4
Brightness value for P4
B5
Brightness value for P5
B6
Brightness value for P6
B7
Brightness value for P7
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-3
Brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Brightness value for Pn-1
Bm
Brightness value for Pn
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Pixel Data Formats
With the camera set for Mono8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The
available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in the
table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
100
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7.2.2
Mono 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 16)
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono16 pixel data format, it outputs 16 bits of brightness
data per pixel with 12 bits effective. The 12 bits of effective pixel data fill from the least significant
bit. The four unused most significant bits are filled with zeros.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono16 output. Note that the data is placed in the image
buffer in little endian format.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Low byte of brightness value for P0
B1
High byte of brightness value for P0
B2
Low byte of brightness value for P1
B3
High byte of brightness value for P1
B4
Low byte of brightness value for P2
B5
High byte of brightness value for P2
B6
Low byte of brightness value for P3
B7
High byte of brightness value for P3
B8
Low byte of brightness value for P4
B9
High byte of brightness value for P4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-5
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-3
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of brightness value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Low byte of brightness value for Pn
Bm
High byte of brightness value for Pn
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When the camera is set for Mono 16, the pixel data output is 16 bit data of the “unsigned short (little
endian)” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are
as shown in the table below. Note that for 16 bit data, you might expect a value range from 0x0000
to 0xFFFF. However, with the camera set for Mono16 only 12 bits of the 16 bits transmitted are
effective. Therefore, the highest data value you will see is 0x0FFF indicating a signal level of 4095.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
Note
When a camera that is set for Mono 16 has only 12 bits effective, the leader
of transmitted frames will indicate Mono 12 as the pixel format.
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7.2.3
Mono 12 Packed Format
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono 12 Packed pixel data format, it outputs 12 bits of
brightness data per pixel. Every three bytes transmitted by the camera contain data for two pixels.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono 12 Packed output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
P5 bits 11 ... 4
B9
P6 bits 11 ... 4
B10
P7 bits 3 ... 0
B11
P7 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Pn bits 11 ... 4
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P0 bits 3 ... 0
P2 bits 3 ... 0
P4 bits 3 ... 0
P6 bits 3 ... 0
•
Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
103
Pixel Data Formats
When a monochrome camera is set for Mono 12 Packed, the pixel data output is 12 bit data of the
“unsigned” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels
are as shown in the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
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Pixel Data Formats
7.2.4
YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format
(Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
When a monochrome camera is set for the YUV 4:2:2 Packed pixel data format, the camera
transmits Y, U, and V values in a fashion that mimics the output from a color camera set for YUV
4:2:2 Packed.
The Y value transmitted for each pixel is an actual 8 bit brightness value similar to the pixel data
transmitted when a monochrome camera is set for Mono 8. The U and V values transmitted will
always be zero. With this format, a Y value is transmitted for each pixel, but the U and V values are
only transmitted for every second pixel.
The order of the pixel data for a received frame in the image buffer in your PC is similar to the order
of YUV 4:2:2 Packed output from a color camera.
For more information about the YUV 4:2:2 Packed format on color cameras, see Section 7.3.6 on
page 116.
7.2.5
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format
When a monochrome camera is set for the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed pixel data format, the camera
transmits Y, U, and V values in a fashion that mimics the output from a color camera set for YUV
4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed.
The Y value transmitted for each pixel is an actual 8 bit brightness value similar to the pixel data
transmitted when a monochrome camera is set for Mono 8. The U and V values transmitted will
always be zero. With this format, a Y value is transmitted for each pixel, but the U and V values are
only transmitted for every second pixel.
The order of the pixel data for a received frame in the image buffer in your PC is similar to the order
of YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed output from a color camera.
For more information about the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed format on color cameras, see
Section 7.3.7 on page 119.
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7.3
Pixel Data Output Formats for
Color Cameras
7.3.1
The Bayer Color Filter
The sensor used in color models of the camera is equipped with an additive color separation filter
known as a Bayer filter. The pixel data output formats available on color cameras are related to the
Bayer pattern, so you need a basic knowledge of the Bayer filter to understand the pixel formats.
With the Bayer filter, each individual pixel is covered by a micro-lens that allows light of only one
color to strike the pixel. The pattern of the Bayer filter used on the camera is as shown in Figure 49
(the alignment of the Bayer filter with repect to the sensor is shown as an example only; the figure
shows the "BG" filter alignment). As the figure illustrates, within each square of four pixels, one pixel
sees only red light, one sees only blue light, and two pixels see only green light. (This combination
mimics the human eye’s sensitivity to color.)
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
Sensor
Pixels
Fig. 49: Bayer Filter Pattern
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.1.1
Color Filter Alignment
The alignment of the Bayer filter to the pixels in the images acquired by color cameras is either
Bayer BG or Bayer RG depending on the camera model. Table 16 shows the filter alignment for
each available camera model.
Color Camera Model
Filter Alignment
scA640-70
BG
scA640-74
BG
scA750-60
RG
scA780-54
BG
scA1000-20
BG
scA1000-30
BG
scA1300-32
BG
scA1390-17
BG
scA1400-17
BG
scA1400-30
BG
scA1600-14
BG
Table 16: Bayer Filter to Sensor Alignment
Bayer BG alignment means that pixel one and pixel two of the first line in each image transmitted
will be blue and green respectively. And for the second line transmitted, pixel one and pixel two will
be green and red respectively. Since the pattern of the Bayer filter is fixed, you can use this
information to determine the color of all of the other pixels in the image.
Bayer RG alignment means that pixel one and pixel two of the first line in each image transmitted
will be red and green respectively. And for the second line transmitted, pixel one and pixel two will
be green and blue respectively. Since the pattern of the Bayer filter is fixed, you can use this
information to determine the color of all of the other pixels in the image.
Because the size and position of the area of interest on color cameras must be adjusted in
increments of 2, the color filter alignment will remain the same regardless of the camera’s area of
interest (AOI) settings.
The Pixel Color Filter parameter indicates the current alignment of the camera’s Bayer filter to the
pixels in the images captured by a color camera. You can tell how the current AOI is aligned to the
Bayer filter by reading the value of the Pixel Color Filter parameter.
For more information about the camera’s AOI feature, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.2
Bayer BG 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 8)
When a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 8 pixel data format, it outputs 8 bits of data per pixel
and the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way. So, for each pixel covered with a red
lens, you get 8 bits of red data. For each pixel covered with a green lens, you get 8 bits of green
data. And for each pixel covered with a blue lens, you get 8 bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data
is sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
The "BG" in the name Bayer BG 8 refers to the alignment of the colors in the Bayer filter to the pixels
in the acquired images. For even lines in the images, pixel one will be blue, pixel two will be green,
pixel three will be blue, pixel four will be green, etc. For odd lines in the images, pixel one will be
green, pixel two will be red, pixel three will be green, pixel four will be red, etc.
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 7.3.1 on page 106.
The tables below describe how the data for the even lines and for the odd lines of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer BG 8 output.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
B0 = the first byte of data for a line
Bm = the last byte of data for a line
Even Lines
Odd Lines
Byte
Data
Byte
Data
B0
Blue value for P0
B0
Green value for P0
B1
Green value for P1
B1
Red value for P1
B2
Blue value for P2
B2
Green value for P2
B3
Green value for P3
B3
Red value for P3
B4
Blue value for P4
B4
Green value for P4
B5
Green value for P5
B5
Red value for P5
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
Bm-5
Blue value for Pn-5
Bm-5
Green value for Pn-5
Bm-4
Green value for Pn-4
Bm-4
Red value for Pn-4
Bm-3
Blue value for Pn-3
Bm-3
Green value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Green value for Pn-2
Bm-2
Red value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Blue value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Green value for Pn-1
Bm
Green value for Pn
Bm
Red value for Pn
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Pixel Data Formats
With the camera set for Bayer BG 8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type.
The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in
the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.3
Bayer RG 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 8)
When a color camera is set for the Bayer RG 8 pixel data format, it outputs 8 bits of data per pixel
and the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way. So, for each pixel covered with a red
lens, you get 8 bits of red data. For each pixel covered with a green lens, you get 8 bits of green
data. And for each pixel covered with a blue lens, you get 8 bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data
is sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
The "RG" in the name Bayer RG 8 refers to the alignment of the colors in the Bayer filter to the pixels
in the acquired images. For even lines in the images, pixel one will be red, pixel two will be green,
pixel three will be red, pixel four will be green, etc. For odd lines in the images, pixel one will be
green, pixel two will be blue, pixel three will be green, pixel four will be blue, etc.
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 7.3.1 on page 106.
The tables below describe how the data for the even lines and for the odd lines of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer RG 8 output.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera a line
B0 = the first byte of data for a line
Bm = the last byte of data for a line
Even Lines
Odd Lines
Byte
Data
Byte
Data
B0
Red value for P0
B0
Green value for P0
B1
Green value for P1
B1
Blue value for P1
B2
Red value for P2
B2
Green value for P2
B3
Green value for P3
B3
Blue value for P3
B4
Red value for P4
B4
Green value for P4
B5
Green value for P5
B5
Blue value for P5
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
Bm-5
Red value for Pn-5
Bm-5
Green value for Pn-5
Bm-4
Green value for Pn-4
Bm-4
Blue value for Pn-4
Bm-3
Red value for Pn-3
Bm-3
Green value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Green value for Pn-2
Bm-2
Blue value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Red value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Green value for Pn-1
Bm
Green value for Pn
Bm
Blue value for Pn
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Pixel Data Formats
With the camera set for Bayer RG8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type.
The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in
the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.4
Bayer BG 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 16)
When a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 16 pixel data format, it outputs 16 bits of data per pixel
with 12 bits effective. The 12 bits of effective pixel data fill from the least significant bit. The four
unused most significant bits are filled with zeros.
With the Bayer BG 16 the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way. So, for each pixel
covered with a red lens, you get 12 effective bits of red data. For each pixel covered with a green
lens, you get 12 effective bits of green data. And for each pixel covered with a blue lens, you get 12
effective bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data is sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
The "BG" in the name Bayer BG 16 refers to the alignment of the colors in the Bayer filter to the
pixels in the acquired images. For even lines in the images, pixel one will be blue, pixel two will be
green, pixel three will be blue, pixel four will be green, etc. For odd lines in the images, pixel one
will be green, pixel two will be red, pixel three will be green, pixel four will be red, etc.
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 7.3.1 on page 106.
The tables below describe how the data for the even lines and for the odd lines of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer BG 16 output. Note
that the data is placed in the image buffer in little endian format.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
B0 = the first byte of data for a line
Bm = the last byte of data for a line
Even Lines
Odd Lines
Byte
Data
Byte
Data
B0
Low byte of blue value for P0
B0
Low byte of green value for P0
B1
High byte of blue value for P0
B1
High byte of green value for P0
B2
Low byte of green value for P1
B2
Low byte of red value for P1
B3
High byte of green value for P1
B3
High byte of red value for P1
B4
Low byte of blue value for P2
B4
Low byte of green value for P2
B5
High byte of blue value for P2
B5
High byte of green value for P2
B6
Low byte of green value for P3
B6
Low byte of red value for P3
B7
High byte of green value for P3
B7
High byte of red value for P3
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Low byte of blue value for Pn-3
Bm-7
Low byte of green value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of blue value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of green value for Pn-3
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Pixel Data Formats
Bm-5
Low byte of green value for Pn-2
Bm-5
Low byte of red value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of green value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of red value for Pn-2
Bm-3
Low byte of blue value for Pn-1
Bm-3
Low byte of green value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of blue value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of green value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Low byte of green value for Pn
Bm-1
Low byte of red value for Pn
Bm
High byte of green value for Pn
Bm
High byte of red value for Pn
When the camera is set for Bayer BG 16, the pixel data output is 16 bit data of the “unsigned short
(little endian)” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal
levels are as shown in the table below. Note that for 16 bit data, you might expect a value range
from 0x0000 to 0xFFFF. However, with the camera set for Bayer BG 16 only 12 bits of the 16 bits
transmitted are effective. Therefore, the highest data value you will see is 0x0FFF indicating a
signal level of 4095.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
Note
When a camera that is set for Bayer BG 16 has only 12 bits effective, the
leader of transmitted frames will indicate Bayer BG 12 as the pixel format.
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.5
Bayer BG 12 Packed Format
When a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 12 Packed pixel dataformat, it outputs 12 bits of data
per pixel. Every three bytes transmitted by the camera contain data for two pixels.
With the Bayer BG 12 Packed coding, the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way.
So, for each pixel covered with a red lens in the sensor’s Bayer filter, you get 12 bits of red data.
For each pixel covered with a green lens in the filter, you get 12 bits of green data. And for each
pixel covered with a blue lens in the filter, you get 12 bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data is
sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 7.3.1 on page 106.
The tables below describe how the data for the even lines and for the odd lines of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer BG12 Packed
output.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
B0 = the first byte of data for a line
Bm = the last byte of data for a line
Even Lines
Byte
Data
B0
Blue value for P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
Green value for P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
Green value for P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
Blue value for P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
Green value for P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
Green value for P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
Blue value for P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
Green value for P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
Green value for P5 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Blue value for Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Green value for Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Green value for Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Blue value for Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Green value for Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Green value for Pn bits 11 ... 4
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Blue value for P0 bits 3 ... 0
Blue value for P2 bits 3 ... 0
Blue value for P4 bits 3 ... 0
•
Blue value for Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Blue value for Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
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Pixel Data Formats
Odd Lines
Byte
Data
B0
Green value for P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
Red value for P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
Red value for P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
Green value for P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
Red value for P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
Red value for P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
Green value for P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
Red value for P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
Red value for P5 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Green value for P0 bits 3 ... 0
Green value for P2 bits 3 ... 0
Green value for P4 bits 3 ... 0
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Green value for Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Red value for Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Red value for Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Green value for Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Red value for Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Red value for Pn bits 11 ... 4
Green value for Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Green value for Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
When a color camera is set for Bayer BG 12 Packed, the pixel data output is 12 bit data of the
“unsigned” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels
are as shown in the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.6
YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format
(Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
When a color camera is set for the YUV 422 Packed pixel data format, each pixel in the captured
image goes through a two step conversion process as it exits the sensor and passes through the
camera’s electronics. This process yields Y, U, and V color information for each pixel.
In the first step of the process, an interpolation algorithm is performed to get full RGB data for each
pixel. This is required because color cameras use a Bayer filter on the sensor and each individual
pixel gathers information for only one color.
For more information on the Bayer filter, see Section 7.3.1 on page 106.
The second step of the process is to convert the RGB information to the YUV color model. The
conversion algorithm uses the following formulas:
Y =
0.30 R + 0.59 G + 0.11 B
U = - 0.17 R - 0.33 G + 0.50 B
V =
0.50 R - 0.41 G - 0.09 B
Once the conversion to a YUV color model is complete, the pixel data is transmitted to the host PC.
Note
The values for U and for V normally range from -128 to +127. Because the
camera transfers U values and V values with unsigned integers, 128 is added
to each U value and to each V value before the values are transferred from
the camera. This process allows the values to be transferred on a scale that
ranges from 0 to 255.
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Pixel Data Formats
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 Packed output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
U value for P0
B1
Y value for P0
B2
V Value for P0
B3
Y value for P1
B4
U value for P2
B5
Y value for P2
B6
V Value for P2
B7
Y value for P3
B8
U value for P4
B9
Y value for P4
B10
V Value for P4
B11
Y value for P5
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
U value for Pn-3
Bm-6
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-5
V Value for Pn-3
Bm-4
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-3
U value for Pn-1
Bm-2
Y value for Pn-1
Bm-1
V Value for Pn-1
Bm
Y value for Pn
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Pixel Data Formats
When the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 Packed output, the pixel data output for the Y component is
8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The range of data values for the Y component and the
corresponding indicated signal levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
The pixel data output for the U component or the V component is 8 bit data of the “straight binary”
type. The range of data values for a U or a V component and the corresponding indicated signal
levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
127
0xFE
126
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x81
1
0x80
0
0x7F
-1
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
-127
0x00
-128
The signal level of a U component or a V component can range from -128 to +127 (decimal). Notice
that the data values have been arranged to represent the full signal level range.
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.7
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format
On color cameras, the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) packed pixel data format is similar to the YUV 4:2:2 pixel
format described in the previous section. The only difference is the order of the bytes transmitted
to the host PC. With the YUV 4:2:2 format, the bytes are ordered as specified in the DCAM standard
issued by the 1394 Trade Association. With the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) format, the bytes are ordered to
emulate the ordering normally associated with analog frame grabbers and Windows® frame buffers.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) output.
With this format, the Y component is transmitted for each pixel, but the U and V components are
only transmitted for every second pixel.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Y value for P0
B1
U value for P0
B2
Y value for P1
B3
V value for P0
B4
Y value for P2
B5
U value for P2
B6
Y value for P3
B7
V value for P2
B8
Y value for P4
B9
U value for P4
B10
Y value for P5
B11
V value for P4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-6
U value for Pn-3
Bm-5
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-4
V value for Pn-3
Bm-3
Y value for Pn-1
Bm-2
U value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Y value for Pn
Bm
V value for Pn-1
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Pixel Data Formats
When a color camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) output, the pixel data output for the Y component
is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The range of data values for the Y component and the
corresponding indicated signal levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
The pixel data output for the U component or the V component is 8 bit data of the “straight binary”
type. The range of data values for a U or a V component and the corresponding indicated signal
levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
127
0xFE
126
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x81
1
0x80
0
0x7F
-1
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
-127
0x00
-128
The signal level of a U component or a V component can range from -128 to +127 (decimal). Notice
that the data values have been arranged to represent the full signal level range.
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Pixel Data Formats
7.3.8
Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8)
When a color camera is set for the Mono 8 pixel data format, the pixel values in each captured
image are first interpolated and converted to the YUV color model as described for the YUV 4:2:2
Packed format. The camera then transmits the 8 bit Y value for each pixel to the host PC. In the
YUV color model, the Y component for each pixel represents a brightness value. This brightness
value can be considered as equivalent to the value that would be sent from a pixel in a monochrome
camera. So in essence, when a color camera is set for Mono 8, it outputs an 8 bit monochrome
image. (This type of output is sometimes referred to as "Y Mono 8".)
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when a color camera is set for Mono 8 output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Y value for P0
B1
Y value for P1
B2
Y value for P2
B3
Y value for P3
B4
Y value for P4
B5
Y value for P5
B6
Y value for P6
B7
Y value for P7
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-3
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Y value for Pn-1
Bm
Y value for Pn
With the camera set for Mono 8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The
available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in the
table below.
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Pixel Data Formats
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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Pixel Data Formats
7.4
Pixel Transmission Sequence
For each captured image, pixel data is transmitted from the camera in the following sequence:
Row 0 Col 0,
Row 0 Col 1,
Row 0 Col 2
.. ..
Row 0 Col m-2,
Row 0 Col m-1,
Row 0 Col m
Row 1 Col 0,
Row 1 Col 1,
Row 1 Col 2
.. ..
Row 1 Col m-2,
Row 1 Col m-1,
Row 1 Col m
Row 2 Col 0,
Row 2 Col 1,
Row 2 Col 2
.. ..
Row 2 Col m-2,
Row 2 Col m-1,
Row 2 Col m
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Row n-2 Col 0,
Row n-2 Col 1,
Row n-2 Col 2
.. ..
Row n-2 Col m-2,
Row n-2 Col m-1,
Row n-2 Col m
Row n-1 Col 0,
Row n-1 Col 1,
Row n-1 Col 2
.. ..
Row n-1 Col m-2,
Row n-1 Col m-1,
Row n-1 Col m
Row n Col 0,
Row n Col 1,
Row n Col 2
.. ..
Row n Col m-2,
Row n Col m-1,
Row n Col m
Where Row 0 Col 0 is the upper left corner of the sensor
The columns are numbered 0 through m from the left side to the right side of the sensor
The rows are numbered 0 through n from the top to the bottom of the sensor
The sequence assumes that the camera is set for full resolution.
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Pixel Data Formats
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I/O Control
8 I/O Control
This section describes how to configure the camera’s two physical input lines and four physical
output lines. It also provides information about monitoring the state of the input and output lines.
For more detailed information about the physical and electrical characteristics of the input and
output lines, see Section 5.4 on page 47.
8.1
Configuring Input Lines
8.1.1
Assigning an Input Line to Receive a
Hardware Trigger Signal
You can assign one of the camera’s input lines to receive a external hardware trigger (ExTrig)
signal. The incoming ExTrig signal can then be used to control image acquisition.
Section 6.3.2 on page 69 explains how to configure the camera to react to a hardware trigger signal
and how to assign an input line to receive the hardware trigger signal.
Note
By default, physical input line 1 is assigned to receive the ExTrig signal. You
can assign only one line to receive the ExTrig input signal.
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8.1.2
Using an Unassigned Input Line to Receive
a User Input Signal
You can use an unassigned input line to receive your own, user-generated input signal. The
electrical characteristics of your input signal must meet the requirements shown in the Physical
Interface section of this manual.
You can use the Line Status or Line Status All parameters to monitor the state of the input line that
is receiving the user-defined signal.
Note
The line assigned to receive the ExTrig input signal can’t be used to receive a
user-designed input signal.
For more information about using the Line Status and Line Status All parameters, see Section 8.3.1
on page 135 and Section 8.3.2 on page 135.
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8.2
Configuring Output Lines
8.2.1
Assigning a Camera Output Signal to a Physical
Output Line
You can use the camera’s output signal assignment capability to assign one of the camera’s
standard output signals as the source signal for a physical output line. The camera has a variety of
standard output signals available including:
„
Exposure Active
„
Trigger Ready
„
Timer 1, Timer 2, Timer 3, Timer 4
You can also designate an output line as "user settable". If an output line is designated as a user
settable, you can use the camera’s API to set the state of the line as desired.
To assign an output signal to an output line or to designate the line as user settable:
„
Use the Line Selector to select Output Line 1, Output Line 2, Output Line 3, or Output Line 4.
„
Set the value of the Line Source Parameter to one of the available output signals or to user
settable. This will set the source signal for the selected line.
Note
By default, the Exposure Active signal is assigned to Output Line 1 and the
Trigger Ready Signal is assigned to Output Line 2.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Source parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_ExposureActive );
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out2 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_TriggerReady );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about setting the state of user settable output signals, see Section 8.2.2 on
page 128.
For more information about working with the timer output signals, see Section 8.2.4 on page 130
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For more information about the exposure active signal, see Section 6.8 on page 84.
For more information about the trigger ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 80.
8.2.2
Setting the State of User Settable Output Lines
As mentioned in the previous section, you can designate one or more of the user output lines as
"user settable". Once you have designated an output line as user settable, you can use camera
parameters to set the state of the line.
Setting the State of a Single User Settable Output Line
To set the state of a single user settable output line:
„
Use the User Output Selector to select the output line you want to set. For example, if you
have designated output line 3 as user settable, you would select user settable output 3.
„
Set the value of the User Output Value parameter to true (high) or false (low). This will set the
state of the selected line.
You can set the Output Selector and the User Output Value parameter from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to designate
output line 3 as user settable and setting the state of the output line:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out3 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_UserOutput );
Camera.UserOutputSelector.SetValue( UserOutputSelector_UserOutput3 );
Camera.UserOutputValue.SetValue( true );
bool currentUserOutput3State = Camera.UserOutputValue.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Setting the State of Multiple User Settable Output Lines
The User Output Value All parameter is a 32 bit value. As shown in Figure 50, the lowest four bits
of the parameter value will set the state of the user settable outputs. If a bit is 0, it will set the state
of the associated output to low. If a bit is high, it will set the state of the associated port to high.
Sets user output 4 state
Sets user output 3 state
Sets user output 2 state
Sets user output 1 state
Not used
LSB
Fig. 50: User Output Value All Parameter Bits
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To set the state of multiple user settable output lines:
„
Use the User Output Value All parameter to set the state of multiple user settable outputs.
You can set the User Output Value All parameter from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter:
Camera.UserOutputValueAll.SetValue( 0x3 );
int64_t currentOutputState = Camera.UserOutputValueAll.GetValue( );
Note
If you have the invert function enabled on an output line that is designated as
user settable, the user setting sets the state of the line before the inverter.
8.2.3
Setting an Output Line for Invert
You can set each individual output line to invert or not to invert the outgoing signal. To set the invert
function on an output line:
„
Use the Line Selector to select an output line.
„
Set the value of the Line Inverter parameter to true to enable inversion on the selected line and
to false to disable inversion.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Inverter parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
// Enable the inverter on output line 1
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineInverter.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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8.2.4
Working with Timers
The camera has four timer output signals available: Timer 1, Timer 2, Timer 3, and Timer 4. As
shown in Figure 51, each timer works as follows:
„
A trigger source event occurs that starts the timer.
„
A delay period begins to expire.
„
When the delay expires, the timer signal goes high and a duration period begins to expire.
„
When the duration period expires, the timer signal goes low.
Duration
Delay
Trigger source event occurs
Fig. 51: Timer Signal
Currently, the only trigger source event available to start the timer is "exposure active". In other
words, you can use exposure start to trigger the start of a timer.
Timer 1 can only be assigned to output line 1. Timer 2 can only be assigned to output line 2. Timer
3 can only be assigned to output line 3. Timer 4 can only be assigned to output line 4.
If you require the timer signal to be high when the timer is triggered and to go low when the delay
expires, simply set the output line to invert.
8.2.4.1
Setting the Trigger Source for a Timer
To set the trigger source for a timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1 or timer 2.
„
Set the value of the Timer Trigger Source parameter to exposure active. This will set the
selected timer to use the start of exposure to begin the timer.
You can set the Trigger Selector and the Timer Trigger Source parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerTriggerSource.SetValue( TimerTriggerSource_ExposureStart );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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8.2.4.2
Setting a Timer Delay Time
There are two ways to set the delay time for a timer: by setting "raw" values or by setting an
"absolute value". You can use whichever method you prefer to set the delay time.
Setting the Delay with Raw Values
When the delay time for a timer is set using "raw" values, the delay time will be determined by a
combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter, and
the second element is the Timer Delay Time Base. The delay time is the product of these two
elements:
Delay Time = (Timer Delay Raw Parameter Value) x (Timer Delay Time Base)
By default, the Timer Delay Time Base is fixed at 1 µs. Typically, the delay time is adjusted by setting
the Timer Delay Raw parameter value.
The Timer Delay Raw parameter value can range from 0 to 4095. So if the value is set to 100, for
example, the timer delay will be 100 x 1 µs or 100 µs.
To set the delay for a timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select a timer.
„
Set the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Delay Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDelayRaw.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Changing the Delay Time Base
By default, the Timer Delay Time Base is fixed at 1 µs (minimum value), and the timer delay is
normally adjusted by setting the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter. However, if you require
a delay time that is longer than what you can achieve by changing the value of the Timer Delay Raw
parameter alone, the Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter can be used to change the delay time
base.
The Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter value sets the delay time base in µs. The default is 1 µs
and it can be changed in 1 µs increments.
Note that there is only one timer delay time base and it is used by all four of the available timers.
You can set the Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter value from within your application software
by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter
value:
Camera.TimerDelayTimebaseAbs.SetValue( 5 );
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Setting the Delay with an Absolute Value
You can also set the Timer delay by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting the
Timer Delay Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be set in
increments of 1 µs.
To set the delay for a timer using an absolute value:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select a timer.
„
Set the value of the Timer Delay Abs parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Delay Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDelayAbs.SetValue( 100 );
When you use the Timer Delay Abs parameter to set the delay time, the camera accomplishes the
setting change by automatically changing the Timer Delay Raw parameter to achieve the value
specified by the Timer Delay Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you must keep in mind if you
use Timer Delay Abs parameter to set the delay time. That is, you must set the Timer Delay Abs
parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could achieve by using the Timer Delay Raw
and the current Timer Delay Base parameters. For example, if the time base was currently set to
50 µs, you could use the Timer Delay Abs parameter to set the delay to 50 µs, 100 µs, 150 µs, etc.
Note that if you set the Timer Delay Abs parameter to a value that you could not achieve by using
the Timer Delay Raw and current Timer Delay Time Base parameters, the camera will automatically
change the setting for the Timer Delay Abs parameter to the nearest achieveable value.
You should also be aware that if you change the delay time using the raw settings, the Timer Delay
Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new delay time.
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8.2.4.3
Setting a Timer Duration Time
There are two ways to set the duration time for a timer: by setting "raw" values or by setting an
"absolute value". You can use whichever method you prefer to set the duration time.
Setting the Duration with Raw Values
When the duration time for a timer is set using "raw" values, the duration time will be determined by
a combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter,
and the second element is the Timer Duration Time Base. The duration time is the product of these
two elements:
Duration Time = (Timer Duration Raw Parameter Value) x (Timer Duration Time Base)
By default, the Timer Duration Time Base is fixed at 1 µs. Typically, the duration time is adjusted by
setting only the Timer Duration Raw parameter value.
The Timer Duration Raw parameter value can range from 1 to 4095. So if the value is set to 100,
for example, the timer duration will be 100 x 1 µs or 100 µs.
To set the duration for a timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select a timer.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationRaw.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Changing the Duration Time Base
By default, the Timer Duration Time Base is fixed at 1 µs, and the timer duration is normally adjusted
by setting the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter. However, if you require a duration time
that is longer than what you can achieve by changing the value of the Timer Duration Raw
parameter alone, the Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter can be used to change the duration
time base.
The Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter value sets the duration time base in µs. The default
is 1 µs and it can be changed in 1 µs increments.
Note that there is only one timer duration time base and it is used by all four of the available timers.
You can set the Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
parameter value:
Camera.TimerDurationTimebaseAbs.SetValue( 5 );
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Setting the Duration with an Absolute Value
You can also set the Timer duration by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Timer Duration Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
To set the duration for a timer using an absolute value:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select a timer.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationAbs.SetValue( 100 );
When you use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time, the camera accomplishes
the setting change by automatically changing the Timer Duration Raw parameter to achieve the
value specified by the Timer Duration Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you must keep in
mind if you use Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time. That is, you must set the
Timer Duration Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could achieve by using
the Timer Duration Raw and the current Timer Duration Base parameters. For example, if the time
base was currently set to 50 µs, you could use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration
to 50 µs, 100 µs, 150 µs, etc.
If you read the current value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter, the value will indicate the product
of the Timer Duration Raw parameter and the Timer Duration Time Base. In other words, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will indicate the current duration time setting.
You should also be aware that if you change the duration time using the raw settings, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new duration time.
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8.3
Checking the State of the I/O Lines
8.3.1
Checking the State of a Single Output Line
You can determine the current state of an individual output line. To check the state of a line:
„
Use the Line Selector parameter to select an output line.
„
Read the value of the Line Status parameter to determine the current state of the selected line.
A value of true means the line’s state is currently high and a value of false means the line’s
state is currently low.
You can set the Line Selector and read the Line Status parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and read the parameter value:
// Select output line 2 and read the state
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out2 );
bool outputLine2State = Camera.LineStatus.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
8.3.2
Checking the State of All Lines
You can determine the current state of all input and output lines with a single operation. To check
the state of all lines:
„
Read the value of the Line Status All parameter.
You can read the Line Status All parameter value from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to read the parameter value:
int64_t lineState = Camera.LineStatusAll.GetValue( );
The Line Status All parameter is a 32 bit value. As shown in Figure 52, certain bits in the value are
associated with each line and the bits will indicate the state of the lines. If a bit is 0, it indicates that
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the state of the associated line is currently low. If a bit is 1, it indicates that the state of the associated
line is current high.
Indicates output line 4 state
Indicates output line 3 state
Indicates output line 2 state
Indicates output line 1 state
Indicates input line 2 state
Indicates input line 1 state
Fig. 52: Line Status All Parameter Bits
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9 Standard Features
This section provides detailed information about the standard features available on each camera.
It also includes an explanation of the operation and the parameters associated with each feature.
9.1
Gain
The camera’s gain setting is adjustable. As
shown in Figure 53, increasing the gain
increases the slope of the response curve for
the camera. This results in a higher gray
value output from the camera for a given
amount of output from the imaging sensor.
Decreasing the gain decreases the slope of
the response curve and results in a lower
gray value for a given amount of sensor
output.
Gray Values
(12-bit)
(8-bit)
Increasing the gain is useful when at your
brightest exposure, a gray value lower than
255 (in modes that output 8 bits per pixel) or
4095 (in modes that output 12 bits per pixels)
Sensor Output Signal (%)
is reached. For example, if you found that at
your brightest exposure the gray values
Fig. 53: Gain in dB
output by the camera were no higher than
127 (in an 8 bit mode), you could increase the
gain to 6 dB (an amplification factor of 2) and thus reach gray values of 254.
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Setting the Gain (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the scA750-60
fm/fc. For information about scA750-60 cameras, see the next section.
Note
Gain can not only be manually set (see below), but can also be automatically
adjusted. The Gain Auto function is the "automatic" counterpart of the gain feature
and adjusts the Gain Raw parameter value automatically.
For more information about auto fuctions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For more information about the Gain Auto function, see Section 9.9.2 on
page 168.
The camera’s gain is determined by the value of the Gain Raw parameter. Gain Raw is adjusted on
a decimal scale. The minimum decimal setting varies depending on the camera model and on
whether vertical binning is enabled (see Table 17). The maximum setting depends on whether the
camera is set for a pixel data format that yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, Bayer BG 8, YUV
4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed) or yields an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel
(Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed, Bayer BG 16, Bayer BG 12 Packed).
.
Camera Model
Min Setting
Min Setting
with Vertical
Binning
Max Setting
(8 bit depth)
Max Setting
(16 bit depth)
scA640-70
320
260
1023
511
scA640-74
280
200
1023
511
scA780-54
350
280
1023
511
scA1000-20
330
260
1023
511
scA1000-30
360
280
1023
511
scA1300-32
300
200
850
400
scA1390-17
360
280
1023
511
scA1400-17
192
110
1023
511
scA1400-30
150
0
850
400
scA1600-14
350
280
1023
511
Table 17: Minimum and Maximum Allowed Gain Raw Settings
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Standard Features
To set the Gain Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Gain Selector to Gain All.
„
Set the Gain Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Gain Selector and the Gain Raw parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.GainSelector.SetValue( GainSelector_All );
Camera.GainRaw.SetValue( 400 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
If you know the current decimal setting for the gain raw, you can use the formulas below to calculate
the dB of gain that will result from that setting.
Calculation for the Models Except scA1400-30:
For gain raw settings from 110 to 511:
658 + Gain Raw Setting
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ ------------------------------------------------------------------⎞ – G c
⎝ 658 – Gain Raw Setting ⎠
For gain raw settings from 512 to 1023:
Gain dB = (0.0354 × Gain Raw Setting) – G c
Where:
658 + Min Gain Raw Setting
G c = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------⎞
⎝ 658 – Min Gain RawSetting ⎠
Example:
Assume that you are working with a monochrome scA1400-17 camera that is set for the Mono 8
color coding and has a gain raw setting of 500. Calculating the gain is a two step process:
Step 1:
658 + 192
G c = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------⎞
⎝ 658 – 192 ⎠
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G c = 5.22 dB
Step 2::
658 + 500
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------⎞ – 5.22 db
⎝ 658 – 500 ⎠
Gain dB = 12.1 dB
Calculation for the scA1400-30:
For the entire range of raw settings:
Gain dB = ( 0.0359 × Gain Raw Setting ) – 5.385 dB
Table 18 shows the minimum and maximum gain in dB for each camera model.
Camera Model
dB Gain at
Min Setting
dB Gain at Max Setting
(8 bit depth)
dB Gain at Max Setting
(16 bit depth)
scA640-70
0
27
8.8
scA640-74
0
28.3
10.1
scA780-54
0
25.9
7.7
scA1000-20
0
26.6
8.4
scA1000-30
0
25.5
7.3
scA1300-32
0
25.13
9.0
scA1390-17
0
25.5
7.3
scA1400-17
0
31.0
12.8
scA1400-30
0
25.13
9.0
scA1600-14
0
25.9
7.7
Table 18: Minimum and Maximum db of Gain
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Standard Features
Setting the Gain (scA750-60 Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to scA750-60 fm/fc cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see the previous section.
Note
Gain can not only be manually set (see below), but can also be automatically
adjusted. The Gain Auto function is the "automatic" counterpart of the gain feature
and adjusts the Gain Raw parameter value automatically.
For more information about auto fuctions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For more information about the Gain Auto function, see Section 9.9.2 on
page 168.
The camera’s gain is determined by the value of the Gain Raw parameter. Gain Raw is adjusted on
a decimal scale. The range for the Gain Raw parameter setting is from 0 to 22.
To set the Gain Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Gain Selector to Gain All.
„
Set the Gain Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Gain Selector and the Gain Raw parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.GainSelector.SetValue( GainSelector_All );
Camera.GainRaw.SetValue( 20 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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If you know the current decimal setting for the gain raw, you can use the following formula to
calculate the dB of gain that will result from that setting:
Gain Raw Setting
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ 1 + --------------------------------------------------⎞
⎝
⎠
6
Example:
Assume that you are working with an scA750-60 camera that has a gain raw setting of 18. The gain
is calculated as follows:
18
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ 1 + --------⎞
⎝
6 ⎠
Gain dB = 12.0 dB
Table 19 shows the dB of gain that will be achieved at various Gain Raw settings.
Gain Setting
dB Gain
0
0
5
5.3
10
8.5
15
10.9
20
12.7
22
13.4
Table 19: dB of Gain at Various Settings
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9.2
Black Level
Adjusting the camera’s black level will result in an offset to the pixel values output by the camera.
Increasing the black level setting will result in a positive offset in the digital values output for the
pixels. Decreasing the black level setting will result in a negative offset in the digital values output
for the pixels.
Effect on All Camera Models Except the scA750-60, scA1300-32, and scA1400-30
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, Bayer BG
8, Bayer RG 8, YUV 4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed), an increase of 16 in the black level
parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for the pixels. And a
decrease of 16 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output for the
pixels.
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel
(Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed, Bayer BG 16, Bayer RG 16, Bayer BG 12 Packed), an increase of 1
in the black level parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for
the pixels. A decrease of 1 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output
for the pixels.
Effect on scA750-60 Models
An increase of 4 in the black level parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital
values output for the pixels. And a decrease of 4 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in
the digital values output for the pixels.
Effect on scA1300-32 and scA1400-30 Models
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, Bayer BG
8, Bayer RG 8, YUV 4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed), an increase of 64 in the black level
parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for the pixels. And a
decrease of 64 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output for the
pixels.
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel
(Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed, Bayer BG 16, Bayer RG 16, Bayer BG 12 Packed), an increase of 4
in the black level parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for
the pixels. A decrease of 4 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output
for the pixels.
Setting the Black Level
The black level can be adjusted by changing the value of the Black Level Raw parameter. The Black
Level Raw parameter value can range from 0 to 255 on all camera models except the scA750-60
gm/gc. On scA750-60 fm/fc cameras, the parameter value can range from 0 to 64. On scA1300-32
fm/fc and scA1400-30 fm/fc cameras, the parameter value can range from 0 to 1023.
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To set the Black Level Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Black Level Selector to Black Level All.
„
Set the Black Level Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Black Level Selector and the Black Level Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.BlackLevelSelector.SetValue ( BlackLevelSelector_All );
Camera.BlackLevelRaw.SetValue( 32 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.3
White Balance (on Color Models)
White balance capability has been implemented on color models of the camera. White balancing
can be used to adjust the color balance of the images transmitted from the camera.
Note
White balance can not only be manually set (see below), but can also be
automatically adjusted. The Balance White Auto function is the "automatic"
counterpart of the white balance feature and adjusts the white balance
automatically.
For more information about auto fuctions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For more information about the Balance White Auto function, see Section 9.9.4 on
page 172.
Setting the White Balance
With the white balancing scheme used on these cameras, the red intensity, green intensity, and blue
intensity can each be adjusted. For each color, a Balance Ratio parameter is used to set the
intensity of the color. If the Balance Ratio parameter for a color is set to a value of 1, the intensity
of the color will be unaffected by the white balance mechanism. If the ratio is set to a value lower
than 1, the intensity of the color will be reduced. If the ratio is set to a value greater than 1, the
intensity of the color will be increased. The increase or decrease in intensity is proportional. For
example, if the balance ratio for a color is set to 1.2, the intensity of that color will be increased by
20%.
The balance ratio value can range from 0.00 to 3.98. But you should be aware that if you set the
balance ratio for a color to a value lower than 1, this will not only decrease the intensity of that color
relative to the other two colors, but will also decrease the maximum intensity that color can achieve.
For this reason, we don’t normally recommend setting a balance ratio less than 1 unless you want
to correct for the strong predominance of one color.
To set the Balance Ratio parameter for a color:
„
Set the Balance Ratio Selector to red, green, or blue.
„
Set the Balance Ratio Abs parameter to the desired value for the selected color.
You can set the Balance Ratio Selector and the Balance Ratio Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.BalanceRatioSelector.SetValue( BalanceRatioSelector_Green );
Camera.BalanceRatioAbs.SetValue( 1.20 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.4
Integrated IR Cut Filter (on Color Models)
Color models of the camera that have a C-mount lens adapter are equipped with an IR cut filter as
standard equipment. The filter is mounted inside of the lens adapter. Cameras without an IR cut
filter are available on request.
Color cameras that have the optional CS-mount lens adapter do not include an IR cut filter in the
adapter.
Monochrome cameras do not include an IR cut filter in the lens adapter. Monochrome cameras with
a C-mount lens adapter can be equipped with a filter on request.
Lens Thread Length is Limited
CAUTION
The location of the IR cut filter limits the length of the threads on any lens you
use with the camera. If a lens with a very long thread length is used, the IR cut
filter will be damaged or destroyed and the camera will no longer operate.
For more information about the location of the IR cut filter, see Section 1.5.3 on page 28.
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9.5
Area of Interest (AOI)
The area of interest (AOI) feature lets you specify a portion of the sensor array and after each image
is acquired, only the pixel information from the specified portion of the array is transmitted to the
host PC.
The area of interest is referenced to the top left corner of the sensor array. The top left corner is
designated as column 0 and row 0 as shown in Figure 54.
The location and size of the area of interest is defined by declaring an X offset (coordinate), a width,
a Y offset (coordinate), and a height. For example, suppose that you specify the x offset as 10, the
width as 16, the y offset as 6, and the height as 10. The area of the array that is bounded by these
settings is shown in Figure 54.
The camera will only transfer pixel data from within the area defined by your settings. Information
from the pixels outside of the area of interest is discarded.
Column
Row
X
Offset
Height
The camera
will only
transmit the
pixel data
from this
area
Y Offset
Width
Fig. 54: Area of Interest
One of the main advantages of the AOI feature is that decreasing the height of the AOI can increase
the camera’s maximum allowed acquisition frame rate.
For more information about how changing the AOI height affects the maximum allowed frame rate,
see Section 6.10 on page 88.
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Setting the AOI
Except for the scA1300-32 camera, the AOI is set by default to use the full resolution of the
camera’s sensor. For the scA1300-32 cameras, the default resolution is set to 1280 x 960 pixels for
mono models, and to 1278 x 958 pixels for color models.
You can change the size and the position of the AOI by changing the value of the camera’s X Offset,
Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters.
„
The value of the X Offset parameter determines the starting column for the area of interest.
„
The value of the Y Offset parameter determines the starting row for the area of interest.
„
The value of the Width parameter determines the width of the area of interest.
„
The value of the Height parameter determines the height of the area of interest.
When you are setting the camera’s area of interest, you must follow these guidelines:
„
The sum of the current X Offset setting plus the current Width setting must not exceed the
width of the sensor in the camera model you are using. For example, on the monochrome
version of the scA640-70, the sum of the current X Offset setting plus the current Width setting
must not exceed 659.
„
The sum of the current Y Offset setting plus the current Height setting must not exceed the
height of the sensor in the camera model you are using. For example, on the monochrome
version of the scA640-70, the sum of the current Y Offset setting plus the current Height setting
must not exceed 494.
On monochrome cameras:
„
The X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters can be set in increments of 1.
On color cameras:
„
The X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters can be set in increments of 2 and they
must be set to an even number. For example, the X Offset parameter can be set to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8,
etc.
Note
Normally, the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter settings refer to
the physical columns and lines in the sensor. But if binning is enabled, these
parameters are set in terms of "virtual" columns and lines. For more
information, see Section 9.6 on page 150.
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You can set the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to get the
maximum allowed settings and the increments for the Width and Height parameters. They also
illustrate setting the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values
int64_t widthMax = Camera.Width.GetMax( );
int64_t widhInc = Camera.Width.GetInc();
Camera.Width.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.OffsetX.SetValue( 100 );
int64_t heightMax = Camera.Height.GetMax( );
int64_t heightInc = Camera.Height.GetInc();
Camera.Height.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.OffsetY.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
9.5.1
Changing AOI Parameters "On-the-Fly"
Making AOI parameter changes “on-the-fly” means making the parameter changes while the
camera is capturing images continuously. On-the-fly changes are only allowed for the parameters
that determine the position of the AOI, i.e., the X Offset and Y Offset parameters. Changes to the
AOI size are not allowed on-the-fly.
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9.6
Binning (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
„
The binning feature is only available on the monochrome cameras.
„
The binning feature is not available on scA750-60 cameras.
Binning increases the camera’s response to light by summing the charges from adjacent pixels into
one pixel. Two types of binning are available: vertical binning and horizontal binning.
With vertical binning, adjacent pixels from 2 lines, 3 lines, or a maximum of 4 lines in the imaging
sensor array are summed and are reported out of the camera as a single pixel. Figure 55 illustrates
vertical binning.
Vertical Binning by 2
Vertical Binning by 3
Vertical Binning by 4
Fig. 55: Vertical Binning
With horizontal binning, adjacent pixels from 2 columns, 3 columns, or a maximum of 4 columns are
summed and are reported out of the camera as a single pixel. Figure 56 illustrates horizontal binning.
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Horizontal Binning by 2
Horizontal Binning by 3
Horizontal Binning by 4
Fig. 56: Horizontal Binning
You can combine vertical and horizontal binning. This, however, may cause objects to appear distorted in the image. For more information on possible image distortion due to combined vertical and
horizontal binning, see below.
Setting Binning
You can enable vertical binning by setting the Binning Vertical parameter. Setting the parameter’s
value to 2, 3, or 4 enables vertical binning by 2, vertical binning by 3, or vertical binning by 4 respectively. Setting the parameter’s value to 1 disables vertical binning.
You can enable horizontal binning by setting the Binning Horizontal parameter. Setting the parameter’s value to 2, 3, or 4 enables horizontal binning by 2, horizontal binning by 3, or horizontal binning by 4 respectively. Setting the parameter’s value to 1 disables horizontal binning.
You can set the Binning Vertical or the Binning Horizontal parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the parameter values:
// Enable vertical binning by 2
Camera.BinningVertical.SetValue( 2 );
// Enable horizontal binning by 4
Camera.BinningHorizontal.SetValue( 4 );
// Disable vertical and horizontal binning
Camera.BinningVertical.SetValue( 1 );
Camera.BinningHorizontal.SetValue( 1 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
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9.6.1
Considerations When Using Binning
Increased Response to Light
Using binning can greatly increase the camera’s response to light. When binning is enabled, acquired images may look overexposed. If this is the case, you can reduce the lens aperture, reduce
the intensity of your illumination, reduce the camera’s exposure time setting, or reduce the camera’s
gain setting.
When using vertical binning, the limits for the minimum gain settings are automatically lowered. This
allows you to use lower gain settings than would otherwise be available.
For the lowered limits for the minimum gain settings, see Section 9.1 on page 137.
Reduced Resolution
Using binning effectively reduces the resolution of the camera’s imaging sensor. For example, the
sensor in the scA780-54gm camera normally has a resolution of 782 (H) x 582 (V). If you set this
camera to use horizontal binning by 3 and vertical binning by 3, the effective resolution of the sensor
is reduced to 260 (H) by 194 (V). (Note that the 782 pixel horizontal dimension of the sensor was
not evenly divisible by 3, so we rounded down to the nearest whole number.)
Possible Image Distortion
Objects will only appear undistorted in the image if the numers of binned lines and columns are
equal. With all other combinations, the imaged objects will appear distorted. If, for example, vertical
binning by 2 is combined with horizontal binning by 4 the widths of the imaged objects will appear
shrunk by a factor of 2 compared to the heights.
If you want to preserve the aspect ratios of imaged objects when using binning you must use vertical
and horizontal binning where equal numbers of lines and columns are binned, e.g. vertical binning
by 3 combined with horizontal binning by 3.
Binning’s Effect on AOI Settings
When you have the camera set to use binning, keep in mind that the settings for your area of interest
(AOI) will refer to the binned lines and columns in the sensor and not to the physical lines in the
sensor as they normally would. Another way to think of this is by using the concept of a "virtual sensor." For example, assume that you are using a scA780-54gm camera set for 3 by 3 binning as described above. In this case, you would act as if you were actually working with a 260 column by 194
line sensor when setting your AOI parameters. The maximum AOI width would be 260 and the maximum AOI height would be 194. When you set the X Offset and the Width for the AOI, you will be
setting these values in terms of virtual sensor columns. And when you set the Y Offset and the
Height for the AOI, you will be setting these values in terms of virtual sensor lines.
For more information about the area of interest (AOI) feature, see Section 9.5 on page 147.
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Binning’s Effect on the Sensor Readout and Frame Rate Formulas
In several areas of the manual, formulas appear for sensor readout time and for calculating the
maximum frame rate. In several of these formulas, you must enter the current height of the area of
interest (AOI). If you are not using binning, you would enter the height of the AOI in physical sensor
lines. If binning is enabled, however, you must use the concept of a "virtual" sensor as described
above and the height of the AOI that you use in the formulas would be in terms of virtual sensor
lines.
The affected formulas are on page 86, page 89.
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9.7
Luminance Lookup Table
9.7.1
Lookup Table (All Models Except scA750-60)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the scA750-60
fm/fc. For information about scA750-60 cameras, see Section 9.7.2 on page 157.
On these cameras, pixel data is acquired at 12 bit depth. When a monochrome camera is set for
the Mono 16 or Mono 12 packed pixel format or a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 16 or the
Bayer BG 12 packed pixel format, the camera outputs pixel data with 12 effective bits. Normally, the
effective 12 bits transmitted out of the camera for each pixel directly represent the 12 bits reported
by the camera’s ADC. The luminance lookup table feature lets you use a custom 12 bit to12 bit
lookup table to map the 12 bits reported out of the ADC to 12 bits that will be transmitted by the
camera.
The lookup table is essentially just a list of 4096 values, however, not every value in the table is
actually used. If we number the values in the table from 0 through 4095, the table works like this:
„
The number at location 0 in the table represents the effective 12 bits that will be transmitted out
of the camera when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 0.
„
The numbers at locations 1 through 7 are not used.
„
The number at location 8 in the table represents the effective 12 bits that will be transmitted out
of the camera when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 8.
„
The numbers at locations 9 through 15 are not used.
„
The number at location 16 in the table represents the effective 12 bits that will be transmitted
out of the camera when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 16.
„
The numbers at locations 17 through 23 are not used.
„
The number at location 24 in the table represents the effective 12 bits that will be transmitted
out of the camera when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 24.
„
And so on.
As you can see, the table does not include a user defined 12 bit value for every pixel value that the
sensor can report. So what does the camera do when the sensor reports a pixel value that is
between two values that have a defined 12 bit output? In this case, the camera performs a straight
line interpolation to determine the value that it should transmit. For example, assume that the
sensor reports a pixel value of 12. In this case, the camera would perform a straight line
interpolation between the values at location 8 and location 16 in the table. The result of the
interpolation would be reported out of the camera as the 12 bit output.
Another thing to keep in mind about the table is that location 4088 is the last location that will have
a defined 12 bit value associated with it. (Locations 4089 through 4095 are not used.) If the sensor
reports a value above 4088, the camera will not be able to perform an interpolation. In cases where
the sensor reports a value above 4088, the camera simply transmits the 12 bit value from location
4088 in the table.
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The advantage of the luminance lookup table feature is that it allows a user to customize the
response curve of the camera. The graphs below show the effect of two typical lookup tables. The
first graph is for a lookup table where the values are arranged so that the output of the camera
increases linearly as the sensor output increases. The second graph is for a lookup table where the
values are arranged so that the camera output increases quickly as the sensor output moves from
0 through 2048 and increases gradually as the sensor output moves from 2049 through 4096.
4095
12 Bit
Camera
Output
3072
2048
1024
0
0
1024
2048
3072
4095
12 Bit Sensor Reading
Fig. 57: Lookup Table with Values Mapped in a Linear Fashion
4095
12 Bit
Camera
Output
3072
2048
1024
0
0
1024
2048
3072
4095
12 Bit Sensor Reading
Fig. 58: Lookup Table with Values Mapped for Higher Camera Output at Low Sensor Readings
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Using the Luminance Lookup Table to Get 8 Bit Output
As mentioned above, when the camera is set for a pixel format where it outputs 12 effective bits,
the lookup table is used to perform a 12 bit to 12 bit conversion. But the lookup table can also be
used in 12 bit to 8 bit fashion. To use the table in 12 bit to 8 bit fashion, you enter 12 bit values into
the table and enable the table as you normally would. But instead of setting the camera for a pixel
format that results in a camera output with 12 bits effective, you set the camera for a pixel format
that results in 8 bit output (such as Mono 8, Bayer BG 8, or YUV 4:2:2 Packed). In this situation, the
camera will first use the values in the table to do a 12 bit to 12 bit conversion. It will then drop the 4
least significant bits of the converted value and will transmit the 8 most significant bits.
Changing the Values in the Luminance Lookup Table and Enabling the Table
You can change the values in the luminance lookup table (LUT) and enable the use of the lookup
table by doing the following:
„
Use the LUT Selector to select a lookup table. (Currently there is only one lookup table
available, i.e., the "luminance" lookup table described above.)
„
Use the LUT Index parameter to select a value in the lookup table. The LUT Index parameter
selects the value in the table to change. The index number for the first value in the table is 0,
for the second value in the table is 1, for the third value in the table is 2, and so on.
„
Use the LUT Value parameter to set the selected value in the lookup table.
„
Use the LUT Index parameter and LUT value parameters to set other table values as desired.
„
Use the LUT Enable parameter to enable the table.
You can set the LUT Selector, the LUT Index parameter and the LUT Value parameter from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the selector and the parameter values:
// Select the lookup table
Camera.LUTSelector.SetValue( LUTSelector_Luminance );
// Write a lookup table to the device.
// The following lookup table causes an inversion of the sensor values
// ( bright -> dark, dark -> bright )
for ( int i = 0; i < 4096; i += 8 )
{
Camera.LUTIndex.SetValue( i );
Camera.LUTValue.SetValue( 4095 - i );
}
// Enable the lookup table
Camera.LUTEnable.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.7.2
Lookup Table (scA750-60 Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to scA750-60 fm/fc cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 9.7.1 on page 154.
On these cameras, pixel data is acquired at 10 bit depth. Before the pixel values are transmitted out
of the camera, the two least significant bits are dropped and the pixel data is transmitted at 8 bit
depth.
Normally, the 10 bit pixel data reported by the sensor’s ADCs is directly used to generate the 8 bit
output transmitted by the camera. The luminance lookup table feature lets you use a custom 10 bit
to 10 bit lookup table to map the 10 bit output reported by the ADCs to 10 bit values of your choice.
The mapped 10 bit values will then be truncated and transmitted by the camera as 8 bit values.
The lookup table is essentially just a list of 1024 values, however, not every value in the table is
actually used. If we number the values in the table from 0 through 1023, the table works like this:
„
The number at location 0 in the table represents the mapped 10 bit value that will be used
when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 0.
„
The number at location 1 is not used.
„
The number at location 2 in the table represents the mapped 10 bit value that will be used
when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 2.
„
The number at location 3 is not used.
„
The number at location 4 in the table represents the mapped 10 bit value that will be used
when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 4.
„
The number at location 5 is not used.
„
The number at location 6 in the table represents the mapped 10 bit value that will be used
when the sensor reports that a pixel has a value of 6.
„
And so on.
As you can see, the table does not include a mapped 10 bit output value for every pixel value that
the sensor can report. So what does the camera do when the sensor reports a pixel value that is
between two values that have a mapped 10 bit output? In this case, the camera performs a straight
line interpolation between the two nearest neighbors to determine the value that it should use. For
example, assume that the sensor reports a pixel value of 5. In this case, the camera would perform
an interpolation between the values at location 4 and location 6 in the table. The result of the
interpolation would be used as the mapped 10 bit value.
Another thing to keep in mind about the table is that location 1022 is the last location that will have
a mapped 10 bit value associated with it. If the sensor reports a pixel value of 1023, the camera will
not be able to perform an interpolation. In this case, the camera simply uses the mapped 10 bit
value from location 1022 in the table.
The advantage of the luminance lookup table feature is that it allows a user to customize the
response curve of the camera. The graphs on the next page show the effect of two typical lookup
tables. The first graph is for a lookup table where the values are arranged so that the output of the
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camera increases linearly as the sensor output increases. The second graph is for a lookup table
where the values are arranged so that the camera output increases quickly as the sensor output
moves from 0 through 512 and increases gradually as the sensor output moves from 513 through
1023.
1023
10 Bit
Mapped
Value
768
512
256
0
0
256
512
768
1023
10 Bit Sensor Reading
Fig. 59: Lookup Table with Values Mapped in a Linear Fashion
1023
10 Bit
Mapped
Value
768
512
256
0
0
256
512
768
1023
10 Bit Sensor Reading
Fig. 60: Lookup Table with Values Mapped for Higher Camera Output at Low Sensor Readings
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Changing the Values in the Luminance Lookup Table and Enabling the Table
You can change the values in the luminance lookup table (LUT) and enable the use of the lookup
table by doing the following:
„
Use the LUT Selector to select a lookup table. (Currently there is only one lookup table
available, i.e., the "luminance" lookup table described above.)
„
Use the LUT Index parameter to select a value in the lookup table. The LUT Index parameter
selects the value in the table to change. The index number for the first value in the table is 0,
for the second value in the table is 1, for the third value in the table is 2, and so on.
„
Use the LUT Value parameter to set the selected value in the lookup table.
„
Use the LUT Index parameter and LUT value parameters to set other table values as desired.
„
Use the LUT Enable parameter to enable the table.
You can set the LUT Selector, the LUT Index parameter and the LUT Value parameter from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the selector and the parameter values:
// Select the lookup table
Camera.LUTSelector.SetValue( LUTSelector_Luminance );
// Write a lookup table to the device.
// The following lookup table causes an inversion of the sensor values
// ( bright -> dark, dark -> bright )
for ( int i = 0; i < 1024; i += 2 )
{
Camera.LUTIndex.SetValue( i );
Camera.LUTValue.SetValue( 1023 - i );
}
// Enable the lookup table
Camera.LUTEnable.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.8
Gamma
The gamma correction feature lets you modify the brightness of the pixel values output by the
camera’s sensor to account for a non-linearity in the human perception of brightness. To accomplish
the correction, a gamma correction factor (γ) is applied to the brightness value (Y) of each pixel
according to the following formula:
Y uncorrected γ
Y corrected = ⎛ ---------------------------⎞ × Y max
⎝ Y max ⎠
The formula uses uncorrected and corrected pixel brightnesses that are normalized by the
maximum pixel brightness. The maximum pixel brightness equals 255 for 8 bit output and 4095 for
12 bit output.
When the gamma correction factor is set to 1, the output pixel brightness will not be corrected.
A gamma correction factor between 0 and 1 will result in increased overall brightness, and a gamma
correction factor greater than 1 will result in decreased overall brightness.
In all cases, black (output pixel brightness equals 0) and white (output pixel brightness equals 255
at 8 bit output and 4095 at 12 bit output) will not be corrected.
Setting the Gamma
You can enable or disable the gamma correction feature by setting the value of the Gamma Enable
parameter.
When gamma correction is enabled, the correction factor is determined by the value of the Gamma
parameter. The Gamma parameter can be set in a range from 0 to 3.99902. So if the Gamma
parameter is set to 1.2, for example, the gamma correction factor will be 1.2.
You can set the Gamma Enable and Gamma parameter values from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
parameter values:
// Enable the Gamma feature
Camera.GammaEnable.SetValue( true );
// Set the Gamma value to 1.2
Camera.Gamma.SetValue( 1.2 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.9
Auto Functions
9.9.1
Common Characteristics
Auto functions control image properties and are the "automatic" counterparts of certain features like
the gain feature or the white balance feature, which normally require "manual" setting of the related
parameter values.
Auto functions are particularly useful when an image property must be adjusted quickly to achieve
a specific target value and when a specific target value must be kept constant in a series of images.
In addition, an Auto Function AOI allows chosing a specific part of the image as the base for
adjusting an image property.
An auto function automatically adjusts a parameter value until the related image property reaches
a target value. Note that the manual setting of the parameter value is not preserved. For example,
when the Gain Auto function adjusts the gain parameter value, the manually set gain parameter
value is not preserved.
For some auto functions, the target value is fixed. For other auto functions, the target value can be
set, as can the limits between which the related parameter value will be automatically adjusted. For
example, the gain auto function allows setting an average gray value for the image as a target value
and setting a lower and an upper limit for the gain parameter value.
Each auto function uses the pixel data from an individual Auto Function Area of Interest (Auto
Function AOI) for automatically adjusting a parameter value and, accordingly, for controlling the
related image property. Some auto functions share a single Auto Function AOI.
Generally, the different auto functions can operate at the same time. For exceptions, see the
sections below, describing the individual auto functions.
Note that auto functions do not affect the camera’s frame rate.
A target value for an image property can only be reached if it is in accord with all
pertinent camera settings and with the general circumstances used for capturing
images. Otherwise, the target value will only be approached.
For example, with a short exposure time, insufficient illumination, and a low setting
of the upper limit for the gain parameter value, the Gain Auto function may not be
able to achieve the set target average gray value for the image.
You can use an auto function when also using binning (monochrome cameras
only; not available on scA750-60 cameras). An auto function uses the binned pixel
data and controls the image property of the binned image.
For more information about binning, see Section 9.6 on page 150.
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9.9.1.1
Modes of Operation
The following modes of operation are available:
„
All auto functions provide the "once" mode of operation. When the "once" mode of operation is
selected, the parameter values are automatically adjusted until the related image property
reaches the target value. After the automatic parameter value adjustment is complete, the auto
function will automatically be set to "off" and the new parameter value will be applied to the
following images.
The parameter value can be changed by using the "once" mode of operation again, by using
the "continuous" mode of operation, or by manual adjustment.
„
Some auto functions also provide a "continuous" mode of operation where the parameter value
is adjusted repeatedly while images are acquired.
Depending on the current frame rate, the automatic adjustments will usually be carried out for
every or every other image, unless the camera’s micro controller is kept busy by other tasks.
The repeated automatic adjustment will proceed until the "once" mode of operation is used or
until the auto function is set to "off", in which case the parameter value resulting from the latest
automatic adjustment will operate unless it is manually adjusted.
„
When an auto function is set to "off", the parameter value resulting from the automatic
adjustment will operate unless it is manually adjusted.
You can enable auto functions and change their settings while the camera is
capturing images ("on the fly").
After having set an auto function to "once" or "continuous" operation mode, while
the camera was continuously capturing images, the auto function will become
effective with a short delay and the first few images may not be affected by the
auto function.
If an auto function is set to "once" operation mode and if the circumstances do not
allow reaching a target value for an image property, the auto function will try to
reach the target value for a maximum of 30 images and will then be set to "off".
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9.9.1.2
Auto Function AOI
An Auto Function AOI must be set separately from the AOI used to define the size of captured
images (Image AOI). You can specify a portion of the sensor array and only the pixel data from the
specified portion will be used for auto function control.
An Auto Function AOI is referenced to the top left corner of the sensor array. The top left corner is
designated as column 0 and row 0 as shown in Figure 54.
The location and size of an Auto Function AOI is defined by declaring an X offset (coordinate), a
width, a Y offset (coordinate), and a height. For example, suppose that you specify the X offset as
14, the width as 5, the Y offset as 7, and the height as 6. The area of the array that is bounded by
these settings is shown in Figure 54.
Only the pixel data from within the area defined by your settings will be used by the related auto
function.
Column
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Row 0
1
2
3
X
Offset
4
5
6
7
8
Height
Auto
Function
Area of
Interest
9
10
11
12
13
14
Image
Area of
Interest
15
16
17
18
19
Y Offset
Width
Fig. 61: Auto Function Area of Interest and Image Area of Interest
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Relative Positioning of an Auto Function AOI
The size and position of an Auto Function AOI can be, but need not be, identical to the size and
position of the Image AOI. Note that the overlap between Auto Function AOI and Image AOI
determines whether and to what extent the auto function will control the related image property.
Only the pixel data from the areas of overlap will be used by the auto function to control the image
property of the entire image.
Different degrees of overlap are illustrated in Figure 62. The hatched areas in the figure indicate
areas of overlap.
„
If the Auto Function AOI is completely included in the Image AOI (see (a) in Figure 62), the
pixel data from the Auto Function AOI will be used to control the image property.
„
If the Image AOI is completely included in the Auto Function AOI (see (b) in Figure 62), only
the pixel data from the Image AOI will be used to control the image property.
„
If the Image AOI only partially overlaps the Auto Function AOI (see (c) in Figure 62), only the
pixel data from the area of partial overlap will be used to control the image property.
„
If the Auto Function AOI does not overlap the Image AOI (see (d) in Figure 62), the Auto
Function will not or only to a limited degree control the image property. For details, see the
sections below, describing the individual auto functions.
We strongly recommend completely including the Auto Function AOI in the Image
AOI, or, depending on your needs, choosing identical positions and sizes for Auto
Function AOI and Image AOI.
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0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Auto Function AOI
9
10
11
12
13
14
Image AOI
15
16
17
18
19
(a)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Auto Function AOI
9
10
Image AOI
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
(b)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
0
1
2
3
4
Auto Function AOI
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Image AOI
14
15
16
17
18
19
(c)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
0
1
2
3
4
5
Auto Function AOI
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Image AOI
14
15
16
17
18
19
(d)
Fig. 62: Various Degrees of Overlap Between the Auto Function AOI and the Image AOI
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Setting an Auto Function AOI
Setting an Auto Function AOI is a two-step process: You must first select the Auto Function AOI
related to the auto function that you want to use and then set the size and the position of the Auto
Function AOI.
By default, an Auto Function AOI is set to the full resolution of the camera’s sensor. You can change
the size and the position of an Auto Function AOI by changing the value of the Auto Function AOI’s
X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters.
„
The value of the X Offset parameter determines the starting column for the Auto Function AOI.
„
The value of the Y Offset parameter determines the starting line for the Auto Function AOI.
„
The value of the Width parameter determines the width of the Auto Function AOI.
„
The value of the Height parameter determines the height of the Auto Function AOI.
When you are setting an Auto Function AOI, you must follow these guidelines:
„
The sum of the X Offset setting plus the Width setting must not exceed the width of the
camera’s sensor. For example, on the scA640-70, the sum of the X Offset setting plus the
Width setting must not exceed 659.
„
The sum of the Y Offset setting plus the Height setting must not exceed the height of the
camera’s sensor. For example, on the scA640-70, the sum of the Y Offset setting plus the
Height setting must not exceed 494.
The X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters can be set in increments of 1.
On color cameras, we strongly recommend setting the X Offset, Y Offset, Width,
and Height parameters for an Auto Function AOI in increments of 2 to make the
Auto Function AOI match the Bayer filter pattern of the sensor. For example, you
should set the X Offset parameter to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, etc.
Normally, the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter settings for an Auto
Function AOI refer to the physical columns and lines in the sensor. But if binning
is enabled (monochrome cameras only; not available on scA750-60 cameras),
these parameters are set in terms of "virtual" columns and lines, i.e. the settings
for an Auto Function AOI will refer to the binned lines and columns in the sensor
and not to the physical lines in the sensor as they normally would.
For more information about the concept of a "virtual sensor", see Section 9.6.1 on page 152.
You can select an Auto Function AOI and set the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter
values for the Auto Function AOI from within your application software by using the pylon API. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to select an Auto Function AOI and to get the
maximum allowed settings for the Width and Height parameters. The code snippets also illustrate
setting the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values. As an example, Auto Function
AOI1 is selected:
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// Select the appropriate auto function AOI for luminance statistics
// Currently AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI1 is predefined to gather
// luminance statistics
// Set position and size of the auto function AOI
Camera.AutoFunctionAOISelector.SetValue( AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI1 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetX.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetY.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.GetMax() );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.GetMax() );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
9.9.1.3
Using an Auto Function
To use an auto function, carry out the following steps:
1. Select the Auto Function AOI that is related to the auto function you want to use.
2. Set the postion and size of the Auto Function AOI.
3. If necessary, set the lower and upper limits for the parameter value.
4. If necessary, set the target value.
5. Enable the auto function by setting it to "once" or "continuous".
For more information the individual settings, see the sections below, describing the indvidual auto
functions.
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9.9.2
Gain Auto
Gain Auto is an auto function and the "automatic" counterpart of the manual gain feature. The gain
auto function automatically adjusts the Auto Gain Raw parameter value within set limits, until a
target average gray value for the pixel data from Auto Function AOI1 is reached.
The gain auto function uses Auto Function AOI1 and can be operated in the "once" and continuous"
modes of operation.
When the gain auto function is used, the exposure auto function can not be used at the same time.
If Auto Function AOI1 does not overlap the Image AOI (see the "Auto Function AOI" section) the
pixel data from Auto Function AOI1 will not be used to control the image brightness. Instead, the
current manual setting of the Gain Raw parameter value will control the image brightness.
For more information about gain, see Section 9.1 on page 137.
To use the gain auto function, carry out the following steps:
1. Select Auto Function AOI1.
2. Set the postion and size of Auto Function AOI1.
3. Set the lower and upper limits for the Auto Gain Raw parameter value.
4. Set the target average gray value.
5. Enable the gain auto function by setting it to "once" or "continuous".
The currently settable limits for the Auto Gain Raw parameter value depend on the current pixel
data format, on the current settings for binning, and on whether or not the Gain Raw parameter
limits for the manually set gain feature are disabled.
The target average gray value may range from 0 (black) to 255 (white). Note that this range of
numbers applies to 8 bit and to 16 bit (12 bit effective) output modes. Accordingly, also for 16 bit
output modes, black is represented by 0 and white by 255.
You can carry out steps 1 to 5 from within your application software by using the pylon API. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter values:
„
Selecting and setting Auto Function AOI1
„
Setting the limits for the Auto Gain Raw parameter value. The currently accessible minimum
and maximum parameter values are chosen as examples
„
Setting the target average gray value. A medium gray value is chosen as an example
„
Enabling the gain auto function and selecting, for example, the "once" mode of operation
// Select the appropriate auto function AOI for luminance statistics
// Currently AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI1 is predefined to gather
// luminance statistics
// Set position and size of the auto function AOI
Camera.AutoFunctionAOISelector.SetValue( AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI1 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetX.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetY.SetValue( 0 );
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Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.GetMax() );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.GetMax() );
// Select gain for automatic luminance control.
// Set gain limits for luminance control
Camera.GainSelector.SetValue( GainSelector_All );
Camera.AutoGainRawLowerLimit.SetValue( Camera.GainRaw.GetMin() );
Camera.AutoGainRawUpperLimit.SetValue( Camera.GainRaw.GetMax() );
// Set target value for luminance control. This is always expressed
// by an 8 bit value, regardless of the current pixel format
// i.e. 0 -> black, 255 -> white
Camera.AutoTargetValue.SetValue( 128 );
// Set mode of operation for gain auto function
Camera.GainAuto.SetValue( GainAuto_Once );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For general information about auto functions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For information about Auto Function AOIs and how to set them, see Section 9.9.1.2 on page 163.
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9.9.3
Exposure Auto
Exposure Auto is an auto function and the "automatic" counterpart to manually setting an "absolute"
exposure time. The exposure auto function automatically adjusts the Auto Exposure Time Abs
parameter value within set limits, until a target average gray value for the pixel data of the related
Auto Function AOI is reached.
In contrast to the manually set "absolute" exposure time, the automatically adjusted "absolute"
exposure time and the settable limits for parameter value adjustment are not restricted to multiples
of the current exposure time base.
The exposure auto function uses Auto Function AOI1 and can be operated in the "once" and
continuous" modes of operation.
The exposure auto function is not available, when trigger width exposure mode is selected.
When the exposure auto function is used, the gain auto function can not be used at the same time.
If Auto Function AOI1 does not overlap the Image AOI (see the "Auto Function AOI" section) the
pixel data from Auto Function AOI1 will not be used to control the image brightness. Instead, the
current manual setting of the Exposure Time Abs parameter value will control the image brightness.
For more information about "absolute" exposure time settings and related limitations, see
Section 6.4.2 on page 76.
For more information about exposure modes and how to select them, see Section 6.2.1 on page 62
and Section 6.3.1 on page 67.
To use the exposure auto function, carry out the following steps:
1. Make sure trigger width exposure mode is not selected.
2. Select Auto Function AOI1.
3. Set the postion and size of Auto Function AOI1.
4. Set the lower and upper limits for the Auto Exposure Time Abs parameter value.
5. Set the target average gray value.
6. Enable the exposure auto function by setting it to "once" or "continuous".
The settable limits for the Auto Exposure Time Abs parameter value are limited by the minimum
allowed and maximum possible exposure time of the camera model.
The target average gray value may range from 0 (black) to 255 (white). Note that this range of
numbers applies to 8 bit and to 16 bit (12 bit effective) output modes. Accordingly, also for 16 bit
output modes, black is represented by 0 and white by 255.
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You can carry out steps 1 to 6 from within your application software by using the pylon API. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter values:
„
Selecting and setting Auto Function AOI1: See the "Auto Function AOI" section above.
„
Setting the limits for the Auto Exposure Time Abs parameter value (the set parameter values
serve as examples):
„
Setting the target average gray value. A medium gray value is selected as an example:
„
Enabling the exposure auto function and selecting, for example, the "continuous" mode of
operation:
// Select the appropriate auto function AOI for luminance statistics
// Currently AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI1 is predefined to gather
// luminance statistics
// Set position and size of the auto function AOI
Camera.AutoFunctionAOISelector.SetValue( AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI1 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetX.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetY.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.GetMax() );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.GetMax() );
// Set exposure time limits for luminance control
Camera.AutoExposureTimeAbsLowerLimit.SetValue( 1000 );
Camera.AutoExposureTimeAbsUpperLimit.SetValue( 1.0E6 );
// Set target value for luminance control. This is always expressed
// by an 8 bit value, regardless of the current pixel format
// i.e. 0 -> black, 255 -> white
Camera.AutoTargetValue.SetValue( 128 );
// Set mode of operation for exposure auto function
Camera.ExposureAuto.SetValue( ExposureAuto_Continuous );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For general information about auto functions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For information about Auto Function AOIs and how to set them, see Section 9.9.1.2 on page 163.
For information about minimum allowed and maximum possible exposure time, see Section Table
12: on page 73 in Section 6.4 on page 73.
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9.9.4
Balance White Auto
Balance White Auto is an auto function and the "automatic" counterpart of the manual white balance
feature. The balance white auto function is only available on color models.
The automatic white balance is a two-step process: First, the Balance Ratio Abs parameter values
for red, green, and blue are each set to 1.5. Then, assuming a "grey world" model, the Balance
Ratio Abs parameter values are adjusted such that the average gray values for the "red" and "blue"
pixels match the average gray value for the "green" pixels.
The balance white auto function uses Auto Function AOI2 and can only be operated in the "once"
mode of operation.
If Auto Function AOI2 does not overlap the Image AOI (see the "Auto Function AOI" section) the
pixel data from Auto Function AOI2 will not be used to control the white balance of the image.
However, as soon as the Balance White Auto function is set to "once" operation mode, the Balance
Ratio Abs parameter values for red, green, and blue are each set to 1.5. These settings will control
the white balance of the image.
For information on the white balance feature, see Section 9.3 on page 145.
To use the balance white auto function, carry out the following steps:
1. Select Auto Function AOI2.
2. Set the postion and size of Auto Function AOI2.
3. Enable the balance white auto function by setting it to "once".
You can carry out steps 1 to 3 from within your application software by using the pylon API. The
following code snippet illustrates using the API to use the auto function:
„
Selecting and setting Auto Function AOI2: See the "Auto Function AOI" section above.
„
Enabling the balance white auto function and selecting the "once" mode of operation:
// Set AOI for white balance statistics
// Currently AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI2 is predefined to gather
// white balance statistics
// Set position and size of the auto function AOI
Camera.AutoFunctionAOISelector.SetValue( AutoFunctionAOISelector_AOI2 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetX.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIOffsetY.SetValue( 0 );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIWidth.GetMax() );
Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.SetValue( Camera.AutoFunctionAOIHeight.GetMax() );
// Set mode of operation for gain auto function
Camera.BalanceWhiteAuto.SetValue( BalanceWhiteAuto_Once );
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For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For general information about auto functions, see Section 9.9.1 on page 161.
For information about Auto Function AOIs and how to set them, see Section 9.9.1.2 on page 163.
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9.10 Disable Parameter Limits
For each camera parameter, the allowed range of parameter values normally is limited. The factory
limits are designed to ensure optimum camera operation and, in particular, good image quality. For
special camera uses, however, it may be helpful to set parameter values outside of the factory limits.
The disable parameter limits feature lets you disable the factory parameter limits for certain
parameters. When the factory parameter limits are disabled, the parameter values can be set within
extended limits. Typically, the range of the extended limits is dictated by the physical restrictions of
the camera’s electronic devices, such as the absolute limits of the camera’s variable gain control.
The values for the extended limits can be seen using the Basler pylon Viewer or from within your
application via the pylon API.
Note
Currently, the parameter limits can only be disabled on the Gain feature.
Disabling Parameter Limits
To disable the limits for a parameter:
„
Use the Parameter Selector to select the parameter whose limits you wish to disable.
„
Set the value of the Remove Limits parameter.
You can set the Parameter Selector and the value of the Remove Limits parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
// Select the feature whose factory limits will be disabled
Camera.ParameterSelector.SetValue( ParameterSelector_Gain );
// Disable the limits for the selected feature
Camera.RemoveLimits.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters. Note that the
disable parameter limits feature will only be available at the "guru" viewing level.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.11 Debouncer
The debouncer feature aids in discriminating between valid and invalid input signals and only lets
valid signals pass to the camera. The debouncer value specifies the minimum time that an input
signal must remain high or remain low in order to be considered a valid input signal.
We recommend setting the debouncer value so that it is slightly greater than the
longest expected duration of an invalid signal.
Setting the debouncer to a value that is too short will result in accepting invalid
signals. Setting the debouncer to a value that is too long will result in rejecting valid
signals.
Note that the debouncer delays a valid signal between its arrival at the camera and its transfer. The
duration of the delay will be determined by the debouncer value.
The following diagram illustrates how the debouncer filters out invalid input signals, i.e. signals that
are shorter than the debouncer value. The diagram also illustrates how the debouncer delays a
valid signal.
Unfiltered arriving signals
Debouncer
debouncer
value
Transferred valid signal
delay
TIMING CHARTS ARE NOT DRAWN TO SCALE
Fig. 63: Filtering of Input Signals by the Debouncer
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Setting the Debouncer
The debouncer value is determined by the value of the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter value.
The parameter is set in microseconds and can be set in a range from 0 to approximately 1 s.
To set a debouncer:
„
Use the Line Selector to select the camera input line for which you want to set the debouncer
(input line1 or 2).
„
Set the value of the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter.
You can set the Line Selector and the value of the Line Debouncer Abs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
// Select the input line
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Line1 );
// Set the parameter value to 100 microseconds
Camera.LineDebouncerTimeAbs.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.12 Event Reporting
Event reporting is available on the camera. With event reporting, the camera can generate an
"event" and transmit it to the PC whenever a specific situation has occurred.
Currently, the camera can generate and transmit an event for two types of situations:
„
An end of an exposure has occurred
„
An event overrun has occurred
An Example of Event Reporting
As an example of how event reporting works, assume that "end of exposure" event reporting has
been enabled in the camera. Also assume that an end of exposure has just occurred in the camera.
In this case:
1. An "end of exposure event" is created. The event contains:
An Event Type Identifier. In this case, the identifier would show that an end of exposure type
event has occurred.
A Stream Channel Identifier. Currently this identifier is always 0.
A Frame ID. This number indicates the frame count at the time that the event occurred.
A Timestamp. This is a timestamp indicating when the event occurred. *
2. The event is placed in an internal queue in the camera.
3. As soon as bus transmission time is available, the camera will transmit an event message. If
only one event is in the queue, the message will contain the single event. If more than one
event is in the queue, the message will contain multiple events.
* The timestamp is a 32 bit value. The structure of this timestamp is similar to the timestamp
described in Section 10.4 on page 193.
The Event Queue
As mentioned in the example above, the camera has an event queue. The intention of the queue is
to handle short term delays in the camera’s ability to access the bus and send event messages.
When event reporting is working "smoothly", a single event will be placed in the queue and this
event will be sent to the PC in an event message before the next event is placed in queue. If there
is an occasional short term delay in event message transmission, the queue can buffer several
events and can send them within a single event message as soon as transmission time is available.
However if you are operating the camera at high frame rates with a small AOI, the camera may be
able to generate and queue events faster than they can be transmitted and acknowledged. In this
case:
1. The queue will fill and events will be dropped.
2. An event overrun will occur.
3. Assuming that you have event overrun reporting enabled, the camera will generate an "event
overrun event" and place it in the queue.
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4. As soon as transmission time is available, an event message containing the event overrun
event will be transmitted to the PC.
The event overrun event is simply a warning that events are being dropped. The notification
contains no specific information about how many or which events have been dropped.
Setting Your System for Event Reporting
To use event reporting, two conditions must be met:
„
Event reporting must be enabled in the camera
„
A pylon "event grabber" must be created within your application (assuming that you are using
the pylon API)
The main purpose of the pylon event grabber is to receive incoming event messages.
An event adapter object of the event grabber can be used to parse the information contained within
each event message.
You can enable event reporting, create a pylon event grabber, and use the event adapter object
from within your application software by using the pylon API. The pylon software development kit
includes a "Camera Events" code sample that illustrates the entire process.
For more detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s
Guide and API Reference.
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9.13 Test Images
All cameras include the ability to generate test images. Test images are used to check the camera’s
basic functionality and its ability to transmit an image to the host PC. Test images can be used for
service purposes and for failure diagnostics. For test images, the image is generated internally by
the camera’s logic and does not use the optics, the imaging sensor, or the ADC. Six test images are
available.
The Effect of Camera Settings on Test Images
When any of the test image is active, the camera’s analog features such as gain, black level, and
exposure time have no effect on the images transmitted by the camera. For test images 1, 2, 3 and
6, the cameras digital features, such as the luminance lookup table, will also have no effect on the
transmitted images. But for test images 4 and 5, the cameras digital features will affect the images
transmitted by the camera. This makes test images 4 and 5 as good way to check the effect of using
a digital feature such as the luminance lookup table.
Enabling a Test Image
The Test Image Selector is used to set the camera to output a test image. You can set the value of
the Test Image Selector to one of the test images or to "test image off".
You can set the Test Image Selector from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the selector:
// set for no test image
Camera.TestImageSelector.SetValue( TestImageSelector_Off );
// set for the first test image
Camera.TestImageSelector.SetValue( TestImageSelector_Testimage1 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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Test Image 1 - Fixed Diagonal Gray Gradient (8 bit)
The 8 bit fixed diagonal gray gradient test image is best suited for use when the camera is set for
monochrome 8 bit output. The test image consists of fixed diagonal gray gradients ranging from 0
to 255.
If the camera is set for 8 bit output and is operating at full resolution, test image one will look similar
to Figure 64.
The mathematical expression for this test image:
Gray Value = [column number + row number] MOD 256
Fig. 64: Test Image One
Test Image 2 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient (8 bit)
The 8 bit moving diagonal gray gradient test image is similar to test image 1, but it is not stationary.
The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever a new image acquisition is initiated. The
test pattern uses a counter that increments by one for each new image acquisition.
The mathematical expression for this test image is:
Gray Value = [column number + row number + counter] MOD 256
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Test Image 3 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient (12 bit)
The 12 bit moving diagonal gray gradient test image is similar to test image 2, but it is a 12 bit
pattern. The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever a new image acquisition is
initiated. The test pattern uses a counter that increments by one for each new image acquisition.
The mathematical expression for this test image is:
Gray Value = [column number + row number + counter] MOD 4096
Note
On scA750-60 cameras, test image 3 is a 10 bit pattern. Since these cameras
do not have a 10 bit output mode available, use of test image 3 on scA750-60
cameras is not recommended.
Test Image 4 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient Feature Test (8 bit)
The basic appearance of test image 4 is similar to test image 2 (the 8 bit moving diagonal gray
gradient image). The difference between test image 4 and test image 2 is this: if a camera feature
that involves digital processing is enabled, test image 4 will show the effects of the feature while
test image 2 will not. This makes test image 4 useful for checking the effects of digital features such
as the luminance lookup table.
Test Image 5 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient Feature Test (12 bit)
The basic appearance of test image 5 is similar to test image 3 (the 12 bit moving diagonal gray
gradient image). The difference between test image 5 and test image 3 is this: if a camera feature
that involves digital processing is enabled, test image 5 will show the effects of the feature while
test image 3 will not. This makes test image 5 useful for checking the effects of digital features such
as the luminance lookup table.
Note
On scA750-60 cameras, test image 5 is a 10 bit pattern. Since these cameras
do not have a 10 bit output mode available, use of test image 5 on scA750-60
cameras is not normally recommended. However, one situation where test
image 5 is useful on scA750-60 cameras is to check the effect of the
luminance lookup table.
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Test Image 6 - Moving Diagonal Color Gradient
The moving diagonal color gradient test image is available on color cameras only and is designed
for use when the camera is set for YUV output. As shown in Figure 65, test image six consists of
diagonal color gradients. The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever you signal the
camera to capture a new image. To display this test pattern on a monitor, you must convert the YUV
output from the camera to 8 bit RGB.
Fig. 65: Test Image Six
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9.14 Device Information Parameters
Each camera includes a set of "device information" parameters. These parameters provide some
basic information about the camera. The device information parameters include:
„
Device Vendor Name (read only) - contains the name of the camera’s vendor. For scout
cameras, this string will always indicate Basler as the vendor.
„
Device Model Name (read only) - contains the model name of the camera, for example,
scA640-70fm.
„
Firmware Version (read only) - contains the version of the firmware in the camera.
„
Device ID (read only) - contains the serial number of the camera.
„
Device Scan Type (read only) - contains the scan type of the camera, for example, area scan.
„
Sensor Width (read only) - contains the physical width of the sensor in pixels.
„
Sensor Height (read only) - contains the physical height of the sensor.
„
Max Width (read only) - Indicates the camera’s maximum area of interest (AOI) width setting.
„
Max Height (read only) - Indicates the camera’s maximum area of interest (AOI) height setting.
You can read the values for all of the device information parameters or set the value of the Device
User ID parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following code
snippets illustrate using the API to read the parameters or write the Device User ID:
// Read the Vendor Name parameter
Pylon::String_t vendorName = Camera.DeviceVendorName.GetValue();
// Read the Model Name parameter
Pylon::String_t modelName = Camera.DeviceModelName.GetValue();
// Read the Firmware Version parameter
Pylon::String_t firmwareVersion = Camera.DeviceFirmwareVersion.GetValue();
// Write and read the Device User ID
Camera.DeviceUserID = "custom name";
Pylon::String_t deviceUserID = Camera.DeviceUserID.GetValue();
// Read the Sensor Width parameter
int64_t sensorWidth = Camera.SensorWidth.GetValue();
// Read the Sensor Height parameter
int64_t sensorHeight = Camera.SensorHeight.GetValue();
// Read the Max Width parameter
int64_t maxWidth = Camera.WidthMax.GetValue();
// Read the Max Height parameter
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int64_t maxHeight = Camera.HeightMax.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily read the parameters and to read or
write the Device User ID.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.15 Configuration Sets
A configuration set is a group of values that contains all of the
parameter settings needed to control the camera. There are
three basic types of configuration sets: the active configuration
set, the default configuration set, and user configurations sets.
Active Configuration Set
The active configuration set contains the camera’s current
parameter settings and thus determines the camera’s
performance, that is, what your image currently looks like. When
Fig. 66: Configuration Sets
you change parameter settings using the pylon API or the pylon
Viewer, you are making changes to the active configuration set.
The active configuration set is located in the camera’s volatile memory and the settings are lost if
the camera is reset or if power is switched off. The active configuration set is usually called the
"active set" for short.
Default Configuration Set
When a camera is manufactured, a test setup is performed on the camera and an optimized
configuration is determined. The default configuration set contains the camera’s factory optimized
configuration. The default configuration set is saved in a permanent file in the camera’s non-volatile
memory. It is not lost when the camera is reset or switched off and it cannot be changed. The default
configuration set is usually just called the "default set" for short.
User Configuration Sets
As mentioned above, the active configuration set is stored in the camera’s volatile memory and the
settings are lost if the camera is reset or if power is switched off. The camera can save most of the
settings from the current active set to a reserved area in the camera’s non-volatile memory. A
configuration set saved in the non-volatile memory is not lost when the camera is reset or switched
off. There are three reserved areas in the camera’s non-volatile memory available for saving
configuration sets. A configuration set saved in a reserved area is commonly referred to as a "user
configuration set" or "user set" for short.
The three available user sets are called User Set 1, User Set 2, and User Set 3.
Note
The settings for the luminance lookup table are not saved in the user sets and
are lost when the camera is reset or switched off. If used, these settings must
be set again after each camera reset or restart.
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Default Startup Set
You can select the default configuration set or one of the user configuration sets stored in the
camera’s non-volatile memory to be the "default startup set." The configuration set that you
designate as the default startup set will be loaded into the active set whenever the camera starts
up at power on or after a reset. Instructions for selecting the default startup set appear on the next
page.
9.15.1 Saving Configuration Sets
Saving the current active set into the camera’s non-volatile memory is a three step process:
„
Make changes to the camera’s settings until the camera is operating in a manner that you
would like to save.
„
Set the User Set Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, or User Set 3.
„
Execute a User Set Save command to save the active set to the selected user set.
Saving an active set to a user set in the camera’s non-volatile memory will overwrite any parameters
that were previously saved in that user set.
You can set the User Set Selector and execute the User Set Save command from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and execute the command:
Camera.UserSetSelector.SetValue( UserSetSelector_UserSet1 );
Camera.UserSetSave.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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9.15.2 Loading a Saved Set or the Default Set
into the Active Set
If you have saved a configuration set into the camera’s non-volatile memory, you can load the saved
set from the camera’s non-volatile memory into the camera’s active set. When you do this, the
loaded set overwrites the parameters in the active set. Since the settings in the active set control
the current operation of the camera, the settings from the loaded set will now be controlling the
camera.
You can also load the default set into the camera’s active set.
To load a saved configuration set or the default set from the camera’s non-volatile memory into the
active set:
„
Set the User Set Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, User Set 3, or Default.
„
Execute a User Set Load command to load the selected set into the active set.
You can set the User Set Selector and execute the User Set Load command from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and execute the command:
Camera.UserSetSelector.SetValue( UserSetSelector_UserSet2 );
Camera.UserSetLoad.Execute( );
Note
Loading a user set or the default set into the active set is only allowed when
the camera is idle, i.e. when it is not acquiring images continuously or does not
have a single image acquisition pending.
Loading the default set into the active set is a good course of action if you have
grossly misadjusted the settings in the camera and you are not sure how to
recover. The default settings are optimized for use in typical situations and will
provide good camera performance in most cases.
9.15.3 Selecting the Default Startup Set
You can select the default configuration set or one of the user configuration sets stored in the
camera’s non-volatile memory to be the "default startup set". The configuration set that you
designate as the default startup set will be loaded into the active set whenever the camera starts
up at power on or after a reset.
The User Set Default Selector is used to select the default startup set:
„
Set the User Set Default Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, User Set 3, or Default.
You can set the User Set Default Selector from within your application software by using the pylon
API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the selector:
Camera.UserSetDefaultSelector.SetValue( UserSetDefaultSelector_Default );
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10 Chunk Features
This section provides detailed information about the chunk features available on each camera.
10.1 What are Chunk Features?
In most cases, enabling a camera feature will simply change the behavior of the camera. The Test
Image feature is a good example of this type of camera feature. When the Test Image feature is
enabled, the camera outputs a test image rather than a captured image. This type of feature is
referred to as a "standard" feature.
When certain camera features are enabled, the camera actually develops some sort of information
about each image that it acquires. In these cases, the information is added to each image as a
trailing data "chunk" when the image is transferred to the host PC. Examples of this type of camera
feature are the Frame Counter feature and the Time Stamp feature. When the Frame Counter
feature is enabled, for example, after an image is captured, the camera checks a counter that tracks
the number of images acquired and develops a frame counter stamp for the image. And if the Time
Stamp feature is enabled, the camera creates a time stamp for the image. The frame counter stamp
and the time stamp would be added as "chunks" of trailing data to each image as the image is
transferred from the camera. The features that add chunks to the acquired images are referred to
as “chunk” features.
Before you can use any of the features that add chunks to the image, you must make the chunk
mode active. Making the chunk mode active is described in the next section.
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10.2 Making the "Chunk Mode" Active
Before you can use any of the camera’s "chunk" features, the "chunk mode" must be made active.
To make the chunk mode active:
„
Set the Chunk Mode Active parameter to true.
You can set the Chunk Mode Active parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.ChunkModeActive.SetValue( true );
Note that making the chunk mode inactive switches all chunk features off.
Also note that when you enable ChunkModeActive, the PayloadType for the camera changes from
"Pylon::PayloadType_Image" to "Pylon::PayloadType_ChunkData".
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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10.3 Frame Counter
The Frame Counter feature numbers images sequentially as they are acquired. When the feature
is enabled, a chunk is added to each image containing the value of the counter.
The frame counter is a 32 bit value. The counter starts at 0 and wraps at 4294967296. The counter
increments by 1 for each acquired image. Whenever the camera is powered off, the counter will
reset to 0.
Be aware that if the camera is acquiring images continuously and continuous capture is stopped,
several numbers in the counting sequence may be skipped. This happens due to the internal image
buffering scheme used in the camera.
Note
The chunk mode must be active before you can enable the frame counter
feature or any of the other chunk feature. Making the chunk mode inactive
disables all chunk features.
To enable the frame counter chunk:
„
Use the Chunk Selector to select the Frame Counter chunk.
„
Use the Chunk Enable parameter to set the value of the chunk to true.
Once the frame counter chunk is enabled, the camera will add a frame counter chunk to each
acquired image.
To retrieve data from a chunk appended an image that has been received by your PC, you must
first run the image and its appended chunks through the chunk parser included in the pylon API.
Once the chunk parser has been used, you can retrieve the frame counter information by doing the
following:
„
Read the value of the Chunk Frame Counter parameter.
You can set the Chunk Selector and Chunk Enable parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. You can also run the parser and retrieve the chunk data. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to activate the chunk mode, enable the frame
counter chunk, run the parser, and retrieve the frame counter chunk data:
// make chunk mode active and enable Frame Counter chunk
Camera.ChunkModeActive.SetValue( true );
Camera.ChunkSelector.SetValue( ChunkSelector_Framecounter );
Camera.ChunkEnable.SetValue( true );
// retrieve date from the chunk
IChunkParser &ChunkParser = *Camera.CreateChunkParser();
GrabResult Result;
StreamGrabber.RetrieveResult( Result );
ChunkParser.AttachBuffer( (unsigned char*) Result.Buffer(),
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Result.GetPayloadSize() );
int64_t frameCounter = Camera.ChunkFramecounter.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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10.4 Time Stamp
The Time Stamp feature adds a chunk to each acquired image containing a time stamp that was
generated when image acquisition was triggered.
The time stamp is a 32 bit value. The time stamp is based on the cycle timers for the IEEE 1394b
bus. The counters start at camera reset or at power off/on. The table below how the cycle timers
are assigned to the 32 bits in the chunk.
Bits
Description
0 ... 6
Seconds - counts in seconds. Wraps to zero after 127 seconds.
7 ... 19
Cycle Count - counts the number of 125 µs isochronous bus cycles.
Wraps to zero after counting to 7999.
20 ... 31
Cycle Offset - counts at 24.576 MHz and wraps to zero after
counting to 3071 (resulting in a 125 µs cycle)
Note
The chunk mode must be active before you can enable the time stamp feature
or any of the other chunk feature. Making the chunk mode inactive disables all
chunk features.
To enable the time stamp chunk:
„
Use the Chunk Selector to select the Time Stamp chunk.
„
Use the Chunk Enable parameter to set the value of the chunk to true.
Once the time stamp chunk is enabled, the camera will add a time stamp chunk to each acquired
image.
To retrieve data from a chunk appended to the image you must first run the image and its appended
chunks through the chunk parser that is included in the camera’s API. Once the chunk parser has
been used, you can retrieve the time stamp information by doing the following:
„
Read the value of the Chunk Time Stamp parameter.
You can set the Chunk Selector and Chunk Enable parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. You can also run the parser and retrieve the chunk data. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to activate the chunk mode, enable the time stamp
chunk, run the parser, and retrieve the frame counter chunk data:
// make chunk mode active and enable Time Stamp chunk
Camera.ChunkModeActive.SetValue( true );
Camera.ChunkSelector.SetValue( ChunkSelector_Timestamp );
Camera.ChunkEnable.SetValue( true );
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// retrieve data from the chunk
IChunkParser &ChunkParser = *Camera.CreateChunkParser();
GrabResult Result;
StreamGrabber.RetrieveResult( Result );
ChunkParser.AttachBuffer( (unsigned char*) Result.Buffer(),
Result.GetPayloadSize() );
int64_t timeStamp = Camera.ChunkTimestamp.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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10.5 Line Status All
The Line Status All feature samples the status of all of the camera’s input lines and output lines each
time an image acquisition is triggered. It then adds a chunk to each acquired image containing the
line status information.
The line status all information is a 32 bit value. As shown in Figure 67, certain bits in the value are
associated with each line and the bits will indicate the state of the lines. If a bit is 0, it indicates that
the state of the associated line was low at the time of triggering. If a bit is 1, it indicates that the state
of the associated line is was high at the time of triggering.
Indicates output line 4 state
Indicates output line 3 state
Indicates output line 2 state
Indicates output line 1 state
Indicates input line 2 state
Indicates input line 1 state
Fig. 67: Line Status All Parameter Bits
Note
The chunk mode must be active before you can enable the line status all
feature or any of the other chunk feature. Making the chunk mode inactive
disables all chunk features.
To enable the line status all chunk:
„
Use the Chunk Selector to select the Line Status All chunk.
„
Use the Chunk Enable parameter to set the value of the chunk to true.
Once the line status all chunk is enabled, the camera will add a line status all chunk to each
acquired image.
To retrieve data from a chunk appended to an image that has been received by your PC, you must
first run the image and its appended chunks through the chunk parser included in the pylon API.
Once the chunk parser has been used, you can retrieve the line status all information by doing the
following:
„
Read the value of the Chunk Line Status All parameter.
You can set the Chunk Selector and Chunk Enable parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. You can also run the parser and retrieve the chunk data. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to activate the chunk mode, enable the line status
all chunk, run the parser, and retrieve the line status all chunk data:
// make chunk mode active and enable Line Status All chunk
Camera.ChunkModeActive.SetValue( true );
Camera.ChunkSelector.SetValue( ChunkSelector_LineStatusAll );
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Camera.ChunkEnable.SetValue( true );
// retrieve data from the chunk
IChunkParser &ChunkParser = *Camera.CreateChunkParser();
GrabResult Result;
StreamGrabber.RetrieveResult( Result );
ChunkParser.AttachBuffer( (unsigned char*) Result.Buffer(),
Result.GetPayloadSize() );
int64_t lineStatusAll = Camera.ChunkLineStatusAll.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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10.6 CRC Checksum
The CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) Checksum feature adds a chunk to each acquired image
containing a CRC checksum calculated using the Z-modem method. As shown in Figure 6-2, the
checksum is calculated using all of the image data and all of the appended chunks except for the
checksum itself. The CRC chunk is always the last chunk appended to the image data.
CRC checksum is calculated on this data
Image Data
(including any required padding)
Chunk X
Data
Chunk Y
Data
Chunk
CRC
Fig. 68: CRC Checksum
Note
The chunk mode must be active before you can enable the CRC feature or any
of the other chunk feature. Making the chunk mode inactive disables all chunk
features.
To enable the CRC checksum chunk:
„
Use the Chunk Selector to select the CRC chunk.
„
Use the Chunk Enable parameter to set the value of the chunk to true.
Once the CRC chunk is enabled, the camera will add a CRC chunk to each acquired image.
To retrieve CRC information from a chunk appended to an image that has been received by your
PC, you must first run the image and its appended chunks through the chunk parser included in the
pylon API. Once the chunk parser has been used, you can retrieve the CRC information. Note that
the CRC information provided by the chunk parser is not the CRC checksum itself. Rather it is a
true/false result. When the image and appended chunks pass through the parser, the parser
calculates a CRC checksum based on the received image and chunk information. It then compares
the calculated CRC checksum with the CRC checksum contained in the CRC checksum chunk. If
the two match, the result will indicate that the image data is OK. If the two do not match, the result
will indicate that the image is corrupted.
You can set the Chunk Selector and Chunk Enable parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. You can also run the parser and retrieve the chunk data. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to activate the chunk mode, enable the time stamp
chunk, run the parser, and retrieve the frame counter chunk data:
// Make chunk mode active and enable CRC chunk
Camera.ChunkModeActive.SetValue( true );
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Camera.ChunkSelector.SetValue( ChunkSelector_PayloadCRC16 );
Camera.ChunkEnable.SetValue( true );
// Check the CRC checksum of an grabbed image
IChunkParser &ChunkParser =
*Camera.CreateChunkParser();
GrabResult Result;
StreamGrabber.RetrieveResult( Result );
ChunkParser.AttachBuffer( (unsigned char*) Result.Buffer(),
Result.GetPayloadSize() );
if ( ChunkParser.HasCRC() && ! ChunkParser.CheckCRC() )
cerr << "Image corrupted!" << endl;
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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11 Using Multiple Cameras on a
Single Bus and Managing
Bandwidth
This section includes information about using multiple cameras on a single IEEE 1394 bus.
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11.1 Using Multiple Cameras Where All
Devices are 1394b
Most of the information included in this manual assumes that you have a single camera attached to
your IEEE 1394b bus. But is it also quite common to attach more than one camera to a single bus.
One of the main advantages of the IEEE 1394 bus architecture is that it is designed to handle
multiple devices (such as cameras) connected to a single bus. And the connected devices can
share the available bandwidth on the bus.
One way you can manage two cameras on a single bus is to operate the cameras so that only on
camera is transmitting an image at any given time. In this situation, the camera transmitting images
can use 100% of the bus bandwidth. In many situations, however, you would like to have two (or
more) cameras transmitting images at the same time. In this case, the cameras that are transmitting
images simultaneously must share the available bus bandwidth.
To understand how bandwidth is shared on an IEEE 1394 bus, we need to look at a few bus
architecture basics. The IEEE 1394b bus operates on a 125 microsecond cycle. During each cycle,
the bus can carry a single packet from one device with a packet size up to 8192 bytes. As an
alternative, the bus can carry several packets from different devices where the sum of the packet
sizes is 8192 bytes or less. These two situations are illustrated in Figure 69.
In situation 1 shown in the figure, a single camera (camera A) is attached to the bus and we want
that camera to use 100% of the bandwidth available during each bus cycle. In this case, we would
set the camera so that it would put 8192 bytes into the packet that it sends on each cycle of the bus.
In situation 2, we have three cameras (cameras A, B, and C) attached to the bus and all three
cameras will transmit image data simultaneously. We want camera A to use 25%, of the available
bus bandwidth, camera B to use 25%, and camera 3 to use 50%. In this case, we would set camera
A so that it would put 2048 bytes, i.e., 25% of the 8192 byte maximum, into each packet it sends.
We would set camera B so that it would put 2048 bytes (25% of 8192) into each packet it sends.
And we would set camera C so that it would put 4096 bytes (50% of the 8192) into each packet it
sends. As shown in the figure, the bus carries the packets sequentially on each cycle. The total byte
load in all of the packets combined is 8192 and is equal to the maximum allowed per cycle. Note
that we could have made the packet sizes smaller and thus the total byte load per cycle would be
less than the maximum allowed. It is OK to make the total byte load smaller than the maximum, but
not larger.
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Situation 1:
125 µs
125 µs
8192 Byte Packet Camera A
8192 Byte Packet Camera A
Situation 2:
125 µs
125 µs
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera A
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera B
4096 Byte
Packet
Camera C
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera A
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera B
4096 Byte
Packet
Camera C
Fig. 69: Packet Transmission During Bus Cycles
A parameter called the Packet Size is used to set the size of the packet that the camera will transmit
on each cycle of the bus. For an IEEE 1394b camera attached to an IEEE 1394b bus, the minimum
value for this setting is 1 byte and the maximum is 8192 bytes. If you set the packet size to 8192,
the camera will use 100% of the available bus bandwidth when it is transmitting images. If you set
the bytes per packet to a lower value, the camera will use less of the bandwidth. For example, if you
set the value to 5120 (62.5% of 8192), then the camera will send 5120 byte packets when it is
transmitting image data and will use 62.5% of the available bus bandwidth.
You can set the value of the Packet Size parameter from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSize.SetValue( 4096 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameter.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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11.2 Using Multiple Cameras Where 1394a
and 1394b Devices are Mixed
The descriptions in the previous section assume that all of the devices on the bus are IEEE 1394b
devices. If the bus has mixed IEEE 1394a devices and IEEE 1394b devices, determining how to
share bandwidth between devices is a bit more difficult. As a first step toward understanding the
situation, consider the difference between 1394a devices and 1394b devices:
„
„
„
„
A 1394a device can transmit at what is known as S400 speed (400 Mbit/s).
During a single bus cycle, a device operating at S400 speed can transmit a single packet of up
to 4096 bytes. Alternatively, several devices operating at S400 speed can transmit packets
during a single bus cycle as long as the sum of the bytes in the packets is 4096 bytes or less.
A 1394b device can transmit at what is known as S800 speed (800 Mbit/s).
During a single bus cycle, a device operating at S800 speed can transmit a single packet of up
to 8192 bytes. Alternatively, several devices operating at S800 speed can transmit packets
during a single bus cycle as long as the sum of the bytes in the packets is 8192 bytes or less.
The next thing that we must consider in a bus that has mixed 1394a and 1394b devices is the speed
at which each device will transmit:
„
A 1394a device will always be capable of transmitting at S400 speed on a mixed 1394a /
1394b bus. (The 1394a device can transmit at slower speeds, but we are assuming that you
always want to transmit at the fastest speed.)
„
A 1394b device will transmit at S800 speed if all of the devices in its path to the host PC,
including the adapter card in the PC, are 1394b devices. If the path to the PC passes through
any 1394a device, then the 1394b device will transmit at S400 speed.
Figure 70 illustrates some situations where 1394a devices and 1394b devices are mixed on a single
bus. If you look at the figure, you will notice:
„
Camera 1 will transmit image data at S400 speed. This is simply because the camera itself is a
1394a device and S400 is the maximum speed for 1394a devices.
„
Camera 2 will transmit image data at S400 speed. The camera is a 1394b device, which
means that it is capable of S800 speed. But the camera’s path to the host PC passes through
a 1394a adapter, so this limits the camera’s actual maximum speed to S400.
„
Camera 3 will transmit image data at S800 speed. This is because the camera is a 1394b
device and its path to the host PC passes through only 1394b devices.
„
Camera 4 will transmit image data at S400 speed. This is simply because the camera itself is a
1394a device.
„
Camera 5 will transmit image data at S400 speed. The camera is a 1394b device, but its path
to the host PC passes through a 1394a hub, so this limits the camera’s maximum speed to
S400.
„
Camera 6 will transmit image data at S400 speed. This is simply because the camera itself is a
1394a device.
„
Camera 7 will transmit image data at S800 speed. This is because the camera is a 1394b
device and its path to the host PC passes through only 1394b devices.
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PC
PC
1394a
Adapter
1394a
Adapter
1394b
Adapter
1394b
Adapter
1394b
Adapter
S400
S400
S800
S800
S800
1394a Hub
1394b Hub
S400
S800
1
2
3
1394a
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S800
4
5
6
7
1394a
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394a
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S800
Fig. 70: Examples of Mixed Device Types
Note
The BCAM driver will always set each device to operate at the fastest possible
speed for the current network configuration. This behavior of the driver can’t
be changed by the user.
So what does all of this mean when we are trying to share bandwidth between devices operating at
different speeds on the same bus? Some examples will provide the best explanation.
Example 1: Assume that you have two cameras on the bus and that you want them to capture and
transmit images simultaneously. Camera 1 is operating at S400 speed and the camera 2 is
operating at S800 speed. Also assume that you want camera one to use 40% of the available
bandwidth and camera 2 to use 60%. How would you set the packet size on the cameras so that
each one would use the desired portion of the bandwidth available in each bus cycle?
For camera 1, the calculation would be:
0.40 x 4096 = 1638.4 bytes per packet
(the packet size must be set to a multiple of 4, so we would round the setting down to 1636)
For camera 2, the calculation would be:
0.60 x 8192 = 4915.2 bytes per packet
(the packet size must be set to a multiple of 4, so we would round the setting down to 4912)
So in this case, you would set the packet size for camera 1 to 1636 bytes and for camera 2 to 4912
bytes.
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You may be asking why we multiply the percentage for camera 1 by 4096 and the percentage for
camera 2 by 8192. The reason is:
During the part of the bus cycle when the packet for camera 1 is transmitted, the bus will operate
at S400 speed. At S400, the maximum number of bytes that can be transmitted in a bus cycle
is 4096.
During the part of the bus cycle when the packet for camera 2 is transmitted, the bus will operate
at S800 speed. At S800, the maximum number of bytes that can be transmitted in a bus cycle
is 8192.
Example 2: Assume that you have three cameras on the bus and that you want these camera to
capture and transmit images simultaneously. Camera one is operating at S800 speed and is set for
a packet size of 4200 bytes. Camera two is operating at S800 speed and is set for a packet size of
1800 bytes. Camera 3 is operating at S400 speed and is set for a packet size of 1000 bytes. How
much of the available bandwidth would each camera use?
For camera 1, the calculation would be:
4200 / 8192 = 51.3%
For camera 2, the calculation would be:
1800 / 8192 = 22.0%
For camera 3, the calculation would be:
1000 / 4096 = 24.4%
If you add these three results together, you find that 97.7% of the available bandwidth is being used.
Keep in mind that if the sum was greater than 100%, you would need to lower the packet size setting
for one or more of the cameras.
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11.2.1 Recommended Packet Size
When you change the value of the packet size setting on a camera, there is something that you
must keep in mind. If you lower the packet size setting, the camera takes longer to transmit each
acquired image. And if you lower the packet size enough, it will begin to restrict the maximum frame
rate that the camera can achieve. A read only parameter called the Recommended Packet Size can
help you avoid this problem.
The recommended packet size parameter indicates the lowest value you can use for the packet size
setting without restricting the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate. Assume, for example, that
you checked the packet size parameter value and you found it to be 2400. This would mean that if
you set the camera’s packet size to 2400 bytes or more, the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate
would not be affected by the packet size setting. And if you set the packet size lower than 2400, the
camera’s maximum allowed frame rate would be affected. The farther below 2400 you set the
packet size, the more restricted the maximum frame rate would be.
You read the value of the Recommended Packet Size parameter from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to get the
parameter values:
// RecommendedPacketSize
int64_t recommendedPacketSize = Camera.RecommendedPacketSize.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
For more information about the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate and how it can be restricted
by the packet size setting, see Section 6.10 on page 88.
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Troubleshooting and Support
12 Troubleshooting and Support
This section outlines the resources available to you if you need help working with your camera. It
also provides some basic troubleshooting information that you can use to solve problems.
12.1 Tech Support Resources
The troubleshooting resources in this section of the manual will help you to find the cause of many
common problems. If you need more assistance, you can contact the Basler technical support team
for your area. Basler technical support contact information is located in the front pages of this
manual.
If you do decide to contact Basler technical support, please take a look at the form that appears on
the last two pages of this section before you call. Filling out this form will help make sure that you
have all of the information the Basler technical support team needs to help you with your problem.
You will also find helpful information such as frequently asked questions, downloads, and technical
notes at our website: www.baslerweb.com.
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12.2 Troubleshooting with the Camera LED
If the camera boots up successfully, the LED on the back of the camera will light and will remain
green continuously.
If an error condition is detected, the LED will begin to flash. The number of flashes indicates the
detected error as shown in Table 20.
LED State
Status Indication
Off
No power to the camera
Continuous green
The camera is OK.
Continuous red
Internal error. Contact Basler technical support.
Table 20: LED Indications
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12.3 Troubleshooting Charts
The following pages contain several troubleshooting charts that can help you find the cause of
problems users sometimes encounter. The charts assume that you are familiar with the camera’s
features and settings. If you are not, we suggest that you review the camera manual before you
troubleshoot a problem.
The charts also assume that you have the pylon Viewer software installed on your host PC and that
you are familiar with using the software.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 37.
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12.3.1 My Camera Is Not Being Recognized
Use this chart if your camera is connected to a PC, but is not being recognized by the PC.
Does your PC have a Windows XP or a
Windows 2000 operating system?
The cameras will only work with these
operating systems
No
Yes
Start the pylon Viewer software. Is your camera listed in
the device tree at the left side of the viewer window?
Go to the “I Do Not Get an Image”
troubleshooting chart.
Yes
No
Open the Windows device manager. Do you see a
device listing for “Basler pylon 1394 Digital Cameras”?
Yes
Make sure that the correct camera driver is
associated with the camera. To do this, perform
the "Associating the Driver with Additional
Cameras" portion of the installation procedure.
No
Check the camera power source:
If the camera is connected to an IEEE 1394 adapter in a desktop computer, consult the instructions for
the adapter and make sure that the adapter is properly configured to supply power to the camera.
If the camera is connected to a powered hub, make sure that the
power supply for the hub is working properly.
If the camera is connected to a laptop, you should use a powered hub between the laptop and the
camera or you should install a PCMCIA IEEE 1394 adapter card that connects to an external power
supply. (The IEEE 1394 connector available on many laptops does not supply power to the camera.)
Is your power source correct?
Correct
the
power
source
No
Yes
Replace the IEEE 1394 cable(s) that runs between the
camera and the PC with a known good cable.
Does this correct the problem?
Troubleshooting
is complete. Exit
this chart.
Yes
No
If you are using a desktop PC or a laptop equipped with an IEEE 1394
adapter card, swap the adapter card with a known good card.
Does this correct the problem?
Yes
Troubleshooting
is complete. Exit
this chart.
No
Contact Basler technical support. The contact
numbers appear on the title page of this manual.
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12.3.2 I Do Not Get an Image
Use this chart if you get no image at all when you attempt to capture an image. If you get a poor
quality image, use the "Poor Image Quality" chart.
Start the pylon Viewer software. Is your
camera listed in the device tree at the
left side of the viewer window?
No
Go to the “My Camera Is Not Being
Recognized” troubleshooting chart.
Yes
Go to the Image Format Controls parameters
group, enable one of the test images, and use the
single grab button to capture an image.
Do you see a test image in the viewer?
Yes
No, I just
see a
uniform
gray image
in the
viewer
Go to the Acquisition Controls parameters group and
check to see if the trigger mode is set to on. If the trigger
mode is set to "on", set it to "off" now.
Use the single grab button to capture an image.
Do you see a test image in the viewer now?
No
Yes
Disable test images and then use
the single grab button to capture a
live image.
Do you see a captured image in the
viewer now?
Yes
No, I just
see a
uniform
black
image in
the viewer
Triggering was enabled but you were not supplying an
external trigger signal. When triggering is enabled, you must
supply a trigger signal to start image capture. Exit this chart.
First, make sure that the lens cap has been removed. Next, try
increasing the brightness of your lighting, decreasing the f/stop
setting on your lens, increasing the exposure time setting,
increasing the gain setting, or increasing the black level setting.
After you make each change, use the single grab button to
capture an image.
Do you see a captured test image in the viewer now?
No
Yes
The camera was badly misadjusted. Exit this chart.
No, I just
see a
uniform
white
image in
the viewer
If the image
quality is poor,
go to the “Poor
Image Quality”
troubleshooting
chart.
If the image
quality is
acceptable,
troubleshooting
is complete.
Basler scout
Try decreasing the brightness of you lighting, increasing the
f/stop setting on your lens, decreasing the exposure time setting,
decreasing the gain setting, or decreasing the black level setting.
After you make each change, use the single grab button to
capture an image.
Do you see a captured test image in the viewer now?
No
Yes
The camera was badly misadjusted. Exit this chart.
Contact Basler technical support. The contact
numbers appear on the title page of this manual.
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Troubleshooting and Support
12.3.3 I Can’t Get the Full Frame Rate
Use this troubleshooting chart if you are attempting to run the camera at its maximum stated frame
rate and you are not able to do so.
Start the pylon Viewer software,
enter the Transport Layer group,
and check the setting for the
Packet Size parameter.
Is the packet size set the to the
maximum?
No
Yes
Set the packet size to the maximum and then use the
continuous grab button to start image capture.
Can you achieve the full frame rate now?
Yes
No
When the packet size setting is set low, it increases
the number of packets that it takes to transmit an
image from the camera to the PC. This means that
it takes longer to transmit each image and
decreases the maximum possible frame rate.
Exit this chart.
Go to the Acquisition Controls
parameter group and check the
exposure time raw setting.
Is the exposure time set near to the
minimum?
No
Yes
Set the exposure time near to the minimum and then
use the continuous grab button to start image capture.
Can you achieve the full frame rate now?
Yes
No
If the exposure time is very high, it can be a limiting
factor on the maximum frame rate that can be
achieved. You will need to run with a lower exposure
time. (If this makes your image too dark, try
increasing your lighting, decreasing the f/stop on
your lens, increasing the gain setting, or increasing
the black level setting.)
Exit this chart.
Are you using an external trigger
signal to trigger image capture?
No
Yes
Increase the frequency of the trigger signal.
Does this give you an increase in the frame rate?
No
Yes
When you are operating the camera with an
external trigger signal, the frequency of the
signal determines the frame rate. If the
frequency is too low, you will not achieve
the maximum allowed frame rate.
Exit this chart.
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Is there more than one camera
attached to the IEEE 1394 bus?
No
Yes
Leave one camera attached to the bus and
detach all of the others.
Can the attached camera now run at a
higher frame rate?
No
Yes
The IEEE bus does not have sufficient
bandwidth to transmit the data from multiple
cameras running at high frame rates. Try
attaching each camera to a separate IEEE
1394 adapter card in the PC.
Exit this chart.
Contact Basler technical support. The
contact numbers appear on the title
page of this manual.
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12.3.4 I Get Poor Image Quality
Use this chart if you can capture images, but they are poor quality. (If you can’t capture images at
all, use the "I Do Not Get an Image" troubleshooting chart.)
Start the pylon Viewer software.
Go to the Image Formats Controls
parameter group, enable one of the test
images, and use the single grab button
to capture an image.
Do test images look OK?
Yes
Is the imaging system operating in an environment with
strong EMI generators such as stepper motors, switching
power supplies, or other high-current AC devices?
No
Yes
No
Make sure that you are
using high quality cables
and that the cables and
the system are placed as
far as possible from
sources of EMI.
Did this correct the
problem?
Suspect the IEEE1394 cables, the
adapter card in your PC, or the hub (if
you are using one). The best way to
troubleshoot these devices is to swap
them with known good devices and
then see if the problem is corrected.
Did this correct the problem?
Yes
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical support. The contact numbers
appear on the title page of this manual.
Disable the test image.
Place an object in the field of view of the
camera. Using your normal lighting and
camera settings, capture several images.
Are the images too dark?
No
214
Yes
Take the following actions. After you complete each
action, capture several images to see if the problem has
been corrected:
Make sure that the lens cap has been removed.
Check your light source. Try increasing the intensity of
your light source if possible.
Check the f/stop (lens aperture) on your lens. Try
decreasing the f/stop to let more light into the camera.
Check the exposure time setting (in the Acquisition
Controls group on the pylon Viewer). Try increasing
the exposure time.
Check the gain setting. Try increasing the gain setting.
Check the black level setting. Try increasing the black
level setting.
Has the problem been corrected?
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
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Troubleshooting and Support
Are the images too light?
Yes
No
Do the images appear “noisy”?
No
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
Basler scout
Yes
Take the following actions. After you complete each
action, capture several images to see if the problem has
been corrected:
Check your light source. Try decreasing the intensity
of your light source if possible.
Check the f/stop (lens aperture) on your lens. Try
increasing the f/stop to let less light into the camera.
Check the exposure time setting (in the Acquisition
Controls group on the pylon Viewer). Try decreasing
the shutter setting.
Check the gain setting. Try decreasing the gain
setting.
Check the brightness setting. Try decreasing the
brightness setting.
Has the problem been corrected?
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
Take the following actions. After you complete each action,
capture several images to see if the problem has been
corrected:
Make sure that you are using a DC light source. Using an
AC light source can make images appear noisy due to the
inherent intensity variations normally seen with AC light
sources. (Note: Some very specialized AC light sources are
designed to output a constant light level even though they
operate on AC. If you must use an AC light source, check
with the manufacturer to make sure that it outputs an
absolutely constant light intensity.)
Make sure that the camera has proper ventilation. If the
camera gets extremely hot, it may produce noisy images.
Check the exposure time setting (in the Acquisition
Controls group on the pylon Viewer). If the camera is set for
a very long exposure time, the images can become noisy.
Check the gain setting. Using a very low or a very high gain
setting can cause noisy images
Examine the objects you are imaging. Objects with
characteristics such as changing surface texture or
reflectance will produce images that appear noisy.
Has the problem been corrected?
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
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Troubleshooting and Support
12.4 Before Contacting Basler
Technical Support
To help you as quickly and efficiently as possible when you have a problem with a Basler camera,
it is important that you collect several pieces of information before you contact Basler technical
support.
Copy the form that appears on the next two pages, fill it out, and fax the pages to your local dealer
or to your nearest Basler support center. Or, you can send an e-mail listing the requested pieces of
information and with the requested files attached. Our Basler technical support contact information
is shown in the title section of this manual.
1
The camera’s product ID:
2
The camera’s serial number:
3
1394 adapter that you use
with the camera:
4
Describe the problem in as much
detail as possible:
(If you need more space,
use an extra sheet of paper.)
5
If known, what’s the cause
of the problem?
6
When did the problem occur?
After start.
While running.
After a certain action (e.g., a change of parameters):
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7
How often did/does the problem
occur?
Once.
Every time.
Regularly when:
Occasionally when:
8
How severe is the problem?
Camera can still be used.
Camera can be used after I take this action:
Camera can no longer be used.
9
10
Did your application ever run
without problems?
Yes
No
Parameter set
It is very important for Basler technical support to get a copy of the exact camera parameters that
you were using when the problem occurred.
To make a copy of the parameters, use the dump register tool available from the support section of
www.baslerweb.com (the tool is available for XP PCs only). Send the generated file to Basler
technical support. Or, you can look up the settings with the pylon Viewer.
If you cannot access the camera, please try to state the following parameter settings:
Pixel format:
Packet size:
Exposure time:
Frame rate:
11
Live image/test image
If you are having an image problem, try to generate and save live images that show the problem.
Also generate and save test images. Please save the images in BMP format, zip them, and send
them to Basler technical support.
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Revision History
Revision History
Doc. ID Number
Date
Changes
AW00012501000
10 Jan 2007
Initial release of this document.
AW00012502000
20 Mar 2007
Updated the camera weights in the specification table in Section 1.2 on
page 2.
Added the dimensions for cameras equipped with CS-mount lens
adaptors to Section 1.5 on page 20.
Added Section 9.12 on page 177 to describe the new configuration sets
feature.
Corrected the description of the available device information parameters in
Section 9.14 on page 183.
Added Section 9.12 on page 177 to describe the new event reporting
standard feature.
Added Section 10.6 on page 197 to descrice the new CRC checksum
chunk feature.
Added information for the newly released scA750-60gm/gc camera.
Updated all affected text and tables as appropriate.
AW00012503000
11 Jun 2007
Added information on IP30, Section 1.5.1.1 on page 20 and
Section 1.5.2.1 on page 25.
Added information (drawings inclusive) on the 90° head housing variant:
Section 1.5.2 on page 25.
Added information on mechanical stress test results: Section 1.5.4 on
page 29.
Modified Section 2 for the installation of the Basler pylon software, version
1.0.
Added information on the 8 bits effective pixel data: Section 7.2.1 on
page 99, Section 7.2.4 on page 105, Section 7.2.5 on page 105,
Section 7.3.3 on page 110, Section 7.3.6 on page 116, Section 7.3.7 on
page 119 and Section 7.3.8 on page 121.
Added minimum gain raw settings with vertical binning in Section 9.1 on
page 137.
Minor modifications througout the manual: modified frame height to AOI
height.
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Revision History
Doc. ID Number
Date
Changes
AW00012504000
12 Oct 2007
Modified mechanical drawings in Section 1.5.1.1 on page 20
(dimensions), Section 1.5.2.1 on page 25 (dimensions), Section 1.5.2.2 on
page 27 (front module reference planes), and deleted excess receptacle in
Figure 20 in Section 1.5.1.1 on page 20.
Added note on internal dust seal in Section 1.9 on page 33.
Added warning not to remove the serial number in Section Section 1.9 on
page 33.
Updated times in Section 5.7.3 on page 57.
Corrected receptable pin assignments in Fig 36 in Section 5.7.3 on
page 57.
Removed note on scA750-60 output in Sections 7.2.4, 7.2.5, 7.3.6, 7.3.7,
7.3.8.
Corrected sequence of colors for Bayer BG 12 Packed format in
Section 7.3.5 on page 114.
Minor corrections throughout the manual.
AW00012505000
21 Dec 2007
Added guidelines for avoiding EMI and ESD problems in Section 2.1.1 on
page 34.
Corrected the voltage ranges relating to logic 0 and logic 1in Section 5.7.1
on page 51.
Added references to Application Notes AW000565xx000 in Section 6.3.1
on page 67 and Section 6.5.1 on page 78.
Added reference to binning in Section 9.5 on page 147.
Added the binning feature in Section 9.6 on page 150.
Added the Gamma feature in Section 9.8 on page 160.
Added the Disable Parameter Limits feature in Section 9.10 on page 174.
Added the Debouncer feature in Section 9.11 on page 175.
Minor corrections throughout the manual.
AW00012506000
15 Feb 2008
Included the "Software Licensing Information" section on page 30.
Moved the guidelines for avoiding EMI and ESD problems to Section 1.7
on page 31.
Included the warning related to code snippes in Section 1.9 on page 33.
Transferred the "Software and Hardware Installation" section to the
"Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API",
(AW000611xx000).
Added the reference to the "Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras
Used with Basler’s pylon API" in Section 2 on page 35.
Corrected the minimum value for the Timer Delay Raw parameter and
indicated the minimum value for the Timer Delay Time Base Abs
parameter in Section 8.2.4.2 on page 131.
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Revision History
Doc. ID Number
Date
Changes
AW00012507000
5 Mar 2008
Integrated the scA1400-30fm/fc.
Corrected the type of interface in the table in Section 1.5.2.2 on page 27.
Added information on the lens to which the mechanical shock tests apply
in Section 1.5.4 on page 29.
Added information on the input line transition threshold in Table 7 on
page 45.
Added the maximum exposure times and related settings in Section 6.4.1
on page 74.
Minor modifications and corrections throughout the manual.
AW00012508000
18 Jul 2008
Integrated the scA1300-32fm/fc.
Updated the distances and related tolerances between the front of the lens
mount and the sensor’s photosensitive area in Section 1.5 on page 20.
Indicated the applicability of the mechanical stress test to cameras with
standard housing and an extended duration of the broad-band vibration
test in Section 1.5.4 on page 29.
Removed voltage information from Table 7 in Section 5.2.2 on page 45.
Added Section 5.4.3 on page 49 and notes in Section 5.4.2 on page 47,
introducing the PLC cable.
Included detailed voltage information in Section 5.6 on page 50,
Section 5.7.1.1 on page 51, and Section 5.7.2.1 on page 54.
Modified the absolute maximum rating to +30 VDC in Section 5.7.1.2 on
page 53, and Section 5.7.2.2 on page 54.
Added a note relating to the debouncer in Section 6.9 on page 85.
Updated the black level feature description and the Black Level Raw
parameter range for the scA1400-30 in Section 9.2 on page 143.
Corrected the minimum value for the white balance ratio in Section 9.3 on
page 145.
Corrected the name of the Gamma parameter in Section 9.8 on page 160.
(The Gamma parameter was incorrectly referred to as the Gamma Raw
parameter.)
Included the "Auto Functions" section on page 161 and added related
information in other parts of the manual.
Extended the description of the debouncer in Section 9.11 on page 175.
Minor modifications and corrections throughout the manual.
AW00012509000
22 Aug 2008
Updated contact addresses and phone numbers.
Official release of the auto functions.
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221
Revision History
222
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Index
Index
A
acquisition frame rate
and AOI size ................................88, 93
maximum allowed .......................88, 93
acquisition frame rate abs parameter
.................................................... 60, 64, 71
acquisition mode parameter
........................................ 60, 63, 64, 70, 71
acquisition start command ...........................
........................................ 60, 63, 64, 70, 71
AOI
see area of interest
API ...........................................................37
area of interest
auto function AOI ............................161
default resolution .............................148
explained .........................................147
image AOI .......................................163
setting ..............................................148
using with binning ............................152
auto function ..........................................161
mode of operation ...........................162
using with binning ............................161
auto function AOI
explained .........................................161
setting ..............................................166
B
balance white auto ................................172
bandwidth ................................... 91, 92, 96
sharing with multiple cameras .........200
Basler technical support ........................216
Bayer BG 12 packed pixel format ..........114
Bayer BG 16 pixel format ......................112
Bayer BG 8 pixel format ........................108
Bayer filter .............................................106
Bayer RG 8 pixel format ........................110
binning ...................................................150
AOI settings .....................................152
image distortion ...............................152
reduced resolution ...........................152
response to light ..............................152
setting ..............................................151
bit depth ........................................ 2, 4, 6, 8
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black level
explained ........................................ 143
setting ............................................. 143
black level raw parameter ..................... 144
black level selector ............................... 144
block diagram ................................... 40, 42
C
cables
IEEE 1394 ........................................ 47
PLC I/O cable ................................... 49
standard I/O cable ............................ 47
camera power requirements ... 2, 4, 6, 8, 50
chunk enable parameter 191, 193, 195, 197
chunk frame counter parameter ............ 191
chunk line status all parameter ............. 195
chunk mode active parameter .............. 190
chunk parser ................. 191, 193, 195, 197
chunk selector ............... 191, 193, 195, 197
chunk time stamp parameter ................ 193
cleaning the camera and sensor ............. 34
code snippets, proper use ...................... 33
color filter .............................................. 106
configuration set loaded at startup ........ 187
configuration sets .......................... 185–187
defined ............................................ 185
conformity ..................................... 3, 5, 7, 9
connector types ...................................... 46
connectors ........................................ 43, 46
CRC checksum chunk .......................... 197
D
debouncer
and exposure start delay .................. 86
explained ........................................ 175
setting ............................................. 176
signal delay ..................................... 175
default startup set ................................. 187
device firmware version parameter ....... 183
device ID parameter ............................. 183
device model name parameter ............. 183
device scan type parameter .................. 183
device vendor name parameter ............ 183
225
Index
dimensions ..............................................25
disable parameter limits
explained ........................................174
E
electromagnetic interference ...................31
electrostatic discharge ............................31
EMI ..........................................................31
environmental requirements ...................32
ESD .........................................................31
event reporting ......................................177
exposure
controlling with an ExTrig signal .......66
overlapped ..................................77, 79
exposure active signal ............................84
exposure auto .......................................170
exposure mode
timed ...........................................62, 67
trigger width ......................................67
exposure modes .....................................67
exposure start delay ................................85
exposure time
maximum possible ............................73
minimum allowed ..............................73
setting .........................................73, 74
exposure time abs parameter .................76
exposure time base abs parameter ........74
exposure time raw parameter .................74
external trigger signal
controlling exposure with ..................66
min high/low time ..............................66
F
frame counter chunk .............................191
frame rate
controlling with a hardware trigger ....66
controlling with a software trigger .....64
maximum allowed .......................88, 93
setting with a parameter ...................60
frame readout time .................................. 86
frame transmission end time ...................86
free run ....................................................60
front module ............................................25
functional description ..............................39
226
G
gain
explained ........................................ 137
setting ..................................... 138, 141
gain auto ............................................... 168
gamma correction ................................. 160
H
horizontal binning ................................. 150
housing
90° head ....................................... 1, 25
standard ....................................... 1, 20
humidity .................................................. 32
I
IEEE 1394b device information .............. 49
image distortion .................................... 152
image property
target value ..................................... 161
input lines
configuring ...................................... 125
electrical characteristics ................... 53
voltage requirements ........................ 51
installation
hardware .......................................... 35
software ............................................ 35
integrate enabled signal ......................... 84
inverter
output lines ..................................... 129
IP30 .................................................. 20, 25
IR cut filter ................................ 15, 28, 146
L
LED ................................................ 43, 208
lens adapter .................................. 2, 4, 6, 8
lens thread length ................................... 28
line inverter parameter .......................... 129
line selector .......................................... 127
line source parameter ........................... 127
line status all chunk .............................. 195
line status parameter ............................ 135
lookup table .................................. 154, 157
luminance lookup table ................. 154, 157
LUT ............................................... 154, 157
LUT enable parameter .................. 156, 159
LUT index parameter .................... 156, 159
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Index
LUT selector ..................................156, 159
M
max height parameter ...........................183
max width parameter .............................183
maximum acquisition frame rate .......88, 93
maximum lens thread length ...................28
mechanical stress tests ...........................29
mode of operation
continuous .......................................162
once ................................................162
models .......................................................1
mono 12 packed pixel format ................103
mono 16 pixel format .............................101
mono 8 pixel format .........................99, 121
mounting holes ........................................25
multiple cameras on a bus ............199, 200
O
optical size of the sensor .............. 2, 4, 6, 8
output lines
configuring .......................................127
electrical characteristics ....................54
inverter ............................................129
response time ....................................57
voltage requirements .........................54
overlapped exposure .........................77, 79
P
packet size ............... 91, 96, 200, 203, 205
packet size parameter .......................91, 96
parameter sets ......................................185
parameter sets, saving ..........................186
parameters loaded at startup ................187
pin assignments ................................44, 45
pixel data formats ....................................97
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed ................105
YUV 422 packed .............................105
pixel format parameter ............................98
pixel formats
Bayer BG 12 packed .......................114
Bayer BG 16 ....................................112
Bayer BG 8 ......................................108
Bayer RG 8 .....................................110
mono 12 packed ..............................103
mono 16 ..........................................101
mono 8 ......................................99, 121
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YUV 422 (YUYV) packed ............... 119
YUV 422 packed ............................. 116
pixel size ....................................... 2, 4, 6, 8
pixel transmission sequence ................. 123
PLC I/O cable ......................................... 49
polarity, power ........................................ 50
power consumption ................................. 50
precautions ............................................. 33
programmable exposure mode
with an external trigger signal ........... 67
protection class ................................. 20, 25
pylon API ................................................ 37
pylon Viewer ........................................... 37
R
recommended packet size parameter .. 205
reduced resolution ................................ 152
response to light ................................... 152
resulting frame rate abs parameter
............................................... 88, 92, 93, 96
S
s400 speed ........................................... 202
s800 speed ........................................... 202
saving parameter sets .................. 185, 186
sensor
architecture ................................. 40, 42
optical size .............................. 2, 4, 6, 8
pixel size ................................. 2, 4, 6, 8
position accuracy ........................ 23, 27
size ..................................... 1, 2, 4, 6, 8
type ......................................... 2, 4, 6, 8
sensor height parameter ....................... 183
sensor width parameter ........................ 183
serial number .......................................... 34
sets of parameters, saving .................... 186
software development kit ........................ 37
software trigger ....................................... 62
spectral response ............................. 10–19
standard I/O cable .................................. 47
startup parameter set ............................ 187
stress tests .............................................. 29
support .................................................. 216
227
Index
T
W
target value ...........................................161
technical support ...................................216
temperature .............................................32
test image selector ................................ 179
test images ............................................179
time delay time base abs parameter .....131
time stamp ............................................193
timed exposure mode .......................62, 67
timer delay ............................................132
timer delay abs parameter ....................132
timer delay raw parameter ....................131
timer delay time .....................................131
timer delay time base ............................131
timer duration ........................................133
timer duration abs parameter ................134
timer duration raw parameter ................133
timer duration time base .......................133
timer duration time base abs parameter 133
timer selector ................130, 131, 133, 134
timer trigger source parameter ..............130
transition threshold ............................51, 52
transportation ..........................................34
trigger mode parameter ..............59, 62, 69
trigger ready signal .................................80
trigger selector parameter ...........59, 62, 69
trigger software command ................63, 64
trigger source parameter ...................62, 69
trigger width exposure mode ...................67
troubleshooting
charts .............................................. 209
with the LED ...................................208
white balance
explained ........................................ 145
setting ............................................. 145
white balance auto
see balance white auto
Y
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed pixel data format
............................................................... 105
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed pixel format .. 119
YUV 422 data range ............................. 118
YUV 422 packed pixel data format ....... 105
YUV 422 packed pixel format ............... 116
U
user output selector ..............................128
user output value parameter .................128
V
ventilation ................................................ 32
vertical binning ......................................150
viewer ......................................................37
voltage, input ...........................................50
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