AssayMaxTM Human GPIIb/IIIa ELISA Kit
AssayMaxTM
Human GPIIb/IIIa
ELISA Kit
Assaypro LLC
3400 Harry S Truman Blvd
St. Charles, MO 63301
T (636) 447-9175
F (636) 395-7419
www.assaypro.com
For any questions regarding troubleshooting or performing the assay, please contact our
support team at [email protected]
Thank you for choosing Assaypro.
Assay Summary
Step 1. Add 50 µl of Standard or Sample per well.
Incubate 2 hours.
Step 2. Wash, then add 50 µl of Biotinylated Antibody per well.
Incubate 1 hour.
Step 3. Wash, then add 50 µl of SP Conjugate per well.
Incubate 30 minutes.
Step 4. Wash, then add 50 µl of Chromogen Substrate per well.
Incubate 15 minutes.
Step 5. Add 50 µl of Stop Solution per well.
Read at 450 nm immediately.
Symbol Key
Consult instructions for use.
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Assay Template
Human Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) ELISA Kit
Catalog No. EG1060-1
Sample insert for reference use only
Introduction
Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa, integrin IIb3) is a member
of the integrin family of cell membrane receptors that play key roles in
thrombus formation, platelet aggregation, embryogenesis, and intercellular
adhesion. Each integrin receptor complex consists of a heavy (alpha) and a
light (beta) chain associated as a calcium-dependent heterodimer with a
molecular mass of 140 kDa and 90 kDa respectively (1). GPIIb/IIIa serves as an
inducible receptor for fibrinogen, fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and
vitronectin (2, 3). The simultaneous occupancy on adjacent platelets of
receptors with dimeric fibrinogen molecules leads to platelet aggregation (4).
Principle of the Assay
The AssayMax Human GPIIb/IIIa ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
kit is designed for detection of human GPIIb/IIIa in platelets, platelet-rich
plasma, and cell culture lysate samples. This assay employs a quantitative
sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique that measures GPIIb/IIIa in less
than 4 hours. A polyclonal antibody specific for human GPIIb/IIIa has been
pre-coated onto a 96-well microplate with removable strips. GPIIb/IIIa in
standards and samples is sandwiched by the immobilized antibody and the
biotinylated polyclonal antibody specific for GPIIb/IIIa, which is recognized by
a streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. All unbound material is washed away
and a peroxidase enzyme substrate is added. The color development is
stopped and the intensity of the color is measured.
Caution and Warning
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
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
This product is for Research Use Only and is Not For Use In Diagnostic
Procedures.
Prepare all reagents (working diluent buffer, wash buffer, standard,
biotinylated antibody, and SP conjugate) as instructed, prior to running
the assay.
Prepare all samples prior to running the assay. The dilution factors for
the samples are suggested in this insert. However, the user should
determine the optimal dilution factor.
Spin down the SP conjugate vial and the biotinylated antibody vial before
opening and using contents.
1
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
The Stop Solution is an acidic solution.
The kit should not be used beyond the expiration date.
Reagents
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Human GPIIb/IIIa Microplate: A 96-well polystyrene microplate (12 strips
of 8 wells) coated with a polyclonal antibody against GPIIb/IIIa.
Sealing Tapes: Each kit contains 3 pre-cut, pressure-sensitive sealing
tapes that can be cut to fit the format of the individual assay.
Human GPIIb/IIIa Standard: Human platelet GPIIb/IIIa in a buffered
protein base (48 ng, lyophilized).
Biotinylated Human GPIIb/IIIa Antibody (100x): A 100-fold concentrated
biotinylated polyclonal antibody against human GPIIb/IIIa (60 l).
MIX Diluent Concentrate (10x): A 10-fold concentrated buffered protein
base (30 ml).
Wash Buffer Concentrate (20x): A 20-fold concentrated buffered
surfactant (30 ml, 2 bottles).
Streptavidin-Peroxidase Conjugate (SP Conjugate): A 100-fold
concentrate (80 l).
Chromogen Substrate: A ready-to-use stabilized peroxidase chromogen
substrate tetramethylbenzidine (8 ml).
Stop Solution: A 0.5 N hydrochloric acid to stop the chromogen
substrate reaction (12 ml).
Storage Condition
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Upon arrival, immediately store components of the kit at recommended
temperatures up to the expiration date.
Store SP Conjugate and Biotinylated Antibody at -20°C.
Store Microplate, Diluent Concentrate (10x), Wash Buffer, Stop Solution,
and Chromogen Substrate at 2-8°C.
Unused microplate wells may be returned to the foil pouch with the
desiccant packs and resealed. May be stored for up to 30 days in a
vacuum desiccator.
Diluent (1x) may be stored for up to 30 days at 2-8°C.
Store Standard at 2-8°C before reconstituting with Diluent and at -20°C
after reconstituting with Diluent.
Other Supplies Required

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
2
Microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450 nm.
Pipettes (1-20 l, 20-200 l, 200-1000 l, and multiple channel).
Deionized or distilled reagent grade water.
Sample Collection, Preparation, and Storage
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

Platelet: Collect plasma using one-tenth volume of 0.1 M sodium citrate
as an anticoagulant containing 1 M prostaglandin E1. Centrifuge
samples at 100 x g for 15 minutes to obtain platelet-rich plasma. To
sediment the platelets, the platelet-rich plasma is further centrifuged at
1000 x g for 10 minutes. The platelet pellet is then washed twice in
Tyrode's HEPES buffer (pH 7.4) containing albumin (0.5%) and
prostaglandin E1 (1 M). The platelet is dissolved with 100 mM noctylglycoside buffer (pH 7.4) in 20 mM HEPES-buffered saline. Dilute
samples 1:40 into MIX Diluent and assay. The undiluted samples can be
stored at -20°C or below for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw
cycles.
Platelet-Rich Plasma: Collect plasma using one-tenth volume of 0.1 M
sodium citrate as an anticoagulant containing 1 M prostaglandin E1.
Centrifuge samples at 100 x g for 15 minutes to obtain platelet-rich
plasma. Dilute samples 1:40 into MIX Diluent and assay. The undiluted
samples can be stored at -20°C or below for up to 3 months. Avoid
repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Cell Culture Lysates: The cultured cells are lysed and solubilized with 15
mM octyl--D-glucopyranoside at 37°C for 15 minutes. Collect fresh cell
lysates; dilute it with MIX Diluent and assay.
Reagent Preparation



Freshly dilute all reagents and bring all reagents to room temperature
before use.
MIX Diluent Concentrate (10x): If crystals have formed in the
concentrate, mix gently until the crystals have completely dissolved.
Dilute the MIX Diluent Concentrate 1:10 with reagent grade water. Store
for up to 30 days at 2-8°C.
Standard Curve: Reconstitute the 48 ng of Human GPIIb/IIIa Standard
with 1.2 ml of MIX Diluent to generate a 40 ng/ml standard stock
solution. Allow the standard to sit for 10 minutes with gentle agitation
prior to making dilutions. Prepare duplicate or triplicate standard points
by serially diluting the standard stock solution (40 ng/ml) twofold with
equal volume of MIX Diluent to produce 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625
ng/ml solutions. MIX Diluent serves as the zero standard (0 ng/ml). Any
remaining solution should be frozen at -20°C and used within 3 days.
3
Standard Point
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
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

Dilution
1 part Standard (40 ng/ml)
1 part P1 + 1 part MIX Diluent
1 part P2 + 1 part MIX Diluent
1 part P3 + 1 part MIX Diluent
1 part P4 + 1 part MIX Diluent
1 part P5 + 1 part MIX Diluent
1 part P6 + 1 part MIX Diluent
MIX Diluent
[GPIIbIIIa] (ng/ml)
40.00
20.00
10.00
5.000
2.500
1.250
0.625
0.000
Biotinylated Human GPIIb/IIIa Antibody (100x): Spin down the antibody
briefly and dilute the desired amount of the antibody 1:100 with MIX
Diluent. Any remaining solution should be frozen at -20°C.
Wash Buffer Concentrate (20x): If crystals have formed in the
concentrate, mix gently until the crystals have completely dissolved.
Dilute the Wash Buffer Concentrate 1:20 with reagent grade water.
SP Conjugate (100x): Spin down the SP Conjugate briefly and dilute the
desired amount of the conjugate 1:100 with MIX Diluent. Any remaining
solution should be frozen at -20°C.
Assay Procedure
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4
Prepare all reagents, standard solutions, and samples as instructed. Bring
all reagents to room temperature before use. The assay is performed at
room temperature (20-25°C).
Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame and return them
immediately to the foil pouch with desiccants inside. Reseal the pouch
securely to minimize exposure to water vapor and store in a vacuum
desiccator.
Add 50 l of Human GPIIb/IIIa Standard or sample per well. Cover wells
with a sealing tape and incubate for 2 hours. Start the timer after the last
addition.
Wash five times with 200 l of Wash Buffer manually. Invert the plate
each time and decant the contents; hit 4-5 times on absorbent material
to completely remove the liquid. If using a machine, wash six times with
300 l of Wash Buffer and then invert the plate, decanting the contents;
hit 4-5 times on absorbent material to completely remove the liquid.
Add 50 l of Biotinylated Human GPIIb/IIIa Antibody to each well and
incubate for 1 hour.
Wash the microplate as described above.
Add 50 l of Streptavidin-Peroxidase Conjugate to each well and incubate
for 30 minutes. Turn on the microplate reader and set up the program in
advance.
Wash the microplate as described above.
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Add 50 l of Chromogen Substrate per well and incubate for 15 minutes
or till the optimal color density develops. Gently tap the plate to ensure
thorough mixing and break the bubbles in the well with pipette tip.
Add 50 l of Stop Solution to each well. The color will change from blue
to yellow.
Read the absorbance on a microplate reader at a wavelength of 450 nm
immediately. If wavelength correction is available, subtract readings at
570 nm from those at 450 nm to correct optical imperfections.
Otherwise, read the plate at 450 nm only. Please note that some
unstable black particles may be generated at high concentration points
after stopping the reaction for about 10 minutes, which will reduce the
readings.
Data Analysis
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

Calculate the mean value of the duplicate or triplicate readings for each
standard and sample.
To generate a standard curve, plot the graph using the standard
concentrations on the x-axis and the corresponding mean 450 nm
absorbance (OD) on the y-axis. The best-fit line can be determined by
regression analysis using log-log or four-parameter logistic curve-fit.
Determine the unknown sample concentration from the Standard Curve
and multiply the value by the dilution factor.
Typical Data

The typical data is provided for reference only. Individual laboratory
means may vary from the values listed. Variations between laboratories
may be caused by technique differences.
5
Standard Point
ng/ml
P1
40.00
P2
20.00
P3
10.00
P4
5.000
P5
2.500
P6
1.250
P7
0.625
P8
0.000
OD
Average OD
1.906
1.910
1.563
1.569
0.938
0.911
0.500
0.502
0.303
0.297
0.178
0.176
0.108
0.102
0.034
0.036
Sample: Normal,
Sodium Citrate Plasma (40x)
1.908
1.566
0.925
0.501
0.300
0.177
0.105
0.035
1.124
1.105
1.114
Standard Curve

The curve is provided for illustration only. A standard curve should be
generated each time the assay is performed.
H u m a n G P IIb /I II a S ta n d a r d C u r v e
O D 450 nm
1
0 .1
0 .1
1
10
[ h G P I Ib /III a ] (n g /m l)
6
100
Performance Characteristics
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
The minimum detectable dose of GPIIb/IIIa as calculated by 2SD from the
mean of a zero standard was established to be 0.5 ng/ml.
Intra-assay precision was determined by testing replicates of three
plasma samples in one assay.
Inter-assay precision was determined by testing three plasma samples in
twenty assays.
Sample
n
CV (%)
Average
CV (%)
Intra-Assay Precision
1
2
3
20
20
20
4.3%
4.0%
3.9%
Inter-Assay Precision
1
2
3
20
20
20
8.4%
8.5%
7.8%
4.0%
8.2%
Recovery
Standard Added Value
Recovery %
Average Recovery %
2.5 – 20 ng/ml
91 – 111%
101%
Linearity

Plasma samples were serially-diluted to test for linearity.
Average Percentage of Expected Value (%)
Sample Dilution
Plasma
1:20
91%
1:40
97%
1:80
95%
Cross-Reactivity
Species
Canine
Monkey
Mouse
Rat
Swine
Rabbit
Bovine
Cross Reactivity (%)
None
20%
2%
None
2%
None
None
7
Troubleshooting
Issue
Causes
Course of Action
Use of expired
components
 Check the expiration date listed before use.
 Do not interchange components from different lots.
 Check that the correct wash buffer is being used.
 Check that all wells are dry after aspiration.
 Check that the microplate washer is dispensing properly.
 If washing by pipette, check for proper pipetting
technique.
 Pipette properly in a controlled and careful manner.
Low Precision
Improper wash step
Splashing of reagents
while loading wells
Inconsistent volumes
loaded into wells
Insufficient mixing of
reagent dilutions
Deficient Standard Curve Fit
Unexpectedly Low or High Signal
Intensity
Improperly sealed
microplate
8
Microplate was left
unattended between
steps
Omission of step
Steps performed in
incorrect order
Insufficient amount of
reagents added to
wells
Wash step was skipped
Improper wash buffer
Improper reagent
preparation
Insufficient or
prolonged incubation
periods
Non-optimal sample
dilution
Contamination of
reagents
Contents of wells
evaporate
Improper pipetting
 Pipette properly in a controlled and careful manner.
 Check pipette calibration.
 Check pipette for proper performance.
 Thoroughly agitate the lyophilized components after
reconstitution.
 Thoroughly mix dilutions.
 Check the microplate pouch for proper sealing.
 Check that the microplate pouch has no punctures.
 Check that three desiccants are inside the microplate
pouch prior to sealing.
 Each step of the procedure should be performed
uninterrupted.
 Consult the provided procedure for complete list of steps.
 Consult the provided procedure for the correct order.
 Check pipette calibration.
 Check pipette for proper performance.
 Consult the provided procedure for all wash steps.
 Check that the correct wash buffer is being used.
 Consult reagent preparation section for the correct
dilutions of all reagents.
 Consult the provided procedure for correct incubation
time.
 Sandwich ELISA: If samples generate OD values higher
than the highest standard point (P1), dilute samples
further and repeat the assay.
 Competitive ELISA: If samples generate OD values lower
than the highest standard point (P1), dilute samples
further and repeat the assay.
 User should determine the optimal dilution factor for
samples.
 A new tip must be used for each addition of different
samples or reagents during the assay procedure.
 Verify that the sealing film is firmly in place before placing
the assay in the incubator or at room temperature.
 Pipette properly in a controlled and careful manner.
 Check pipette calibration.
 Check pipette for proper performance.
Insufficient mixing of
reagent dilutions
 Thoroughly agitate the lyophilized components after
reconstitution.
 Thoroughly mix dilutions.
References
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Kuhn, K. and Eble, J. (1994) Trends Cell Biol. 4:256
Kieffer, N. and Phillips, D.R. (1990) Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 6:329
Ruggeri, Z.M. et al. (1983) J. Clin. Invest. 72:1
George, J. N. et al. (1990) Blood 75:1383
Version 5.8R
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9
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