GC Consumables Product Guide

GC Consumables Product Guide
C184-E034
GC Consumables Product Guide
GC Consumables Product Guide
GC CONSUMABLES
Contents
P. 4
SAMPLE PREPARATION
MEPS™
P. 5
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
Syringes
GC Inlet Liners
Septa
Accessories
SEPARATION
P. 8
P.11
P.13
P.13
Connections
TROUBLESHOOTING
P.14
P.16
GC CONSUMABLES
GC Consumables are designed to complement your Shimadzu GC-2010 and GC-2014 System. Shimadzu understands your
chromatography analysis does not end with the selection of the GC column - the combination of components selected
for your instrument make an important contribution to successful chromatography. Shimadzu GC Consumables are
designed to provide you with the best separation possible.
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION – Syringes
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION – Septa
Shimadzu's syringes for both manual and
Many chromatography problems are caused as a
autosampler use incorporate Diamond Syringe
result of the wrong septa material or
Technology offering significantly improved levels
inappropriate handling of the septa. Shimadzu
of durability, clarity and accuracy. Features of
septa are selected to contribute low bleed and
the Diamond Syringe Technology include:
optimum sealing for many injections.
• Longest working life in the industry
• Improved solvent resistance
• Greater operational temperature range
• Reduced dead volume and carryover
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
– GC Inlet Liners
The GC inlet liner is where the sample is
introduced and vaporized into the gaseous
phase. The geometry of each of Shimadzu's
inlet liners is important and the correct choice
of inlet liner can significantly improve the
performance of the chromatography. Inlet
liner deactivation, quartz wool quantity and
position are essential to ensure reproducible
and accurate sample introduction for each
sample type.
SEPARATION – GC Connections
(Ferrules and Unions)
Shimadzu provides an array of connection types
for use in the GC, each selected to ensure the
best connection solution is achieved. The correct
selection of the connection type will eliminate
4
SEPARATION – GC Capillary Columns
dead volumes, leaks during temperature cycling
Shimadzu offers a range of stationary phases
and problems with mismatched tubing sizes.
including non-polar and polar functionalities.
SAMPLE PREPARATION – MEPS™
MEPS™ is Micro Extraction by Packed Sorbent and is a development for sample preparation and handling. MEPS is the
GC CONSUMABLES
miniaturization of conventional SPE packed bed devices from milliliter bed volumes to microliter volumes. The MEPS
approach to sample preparation is suitable for reversed phases, normal phases, mixed mode or ion exchange
chemistries. MEPS is available in a variety of common SPE phases.
MEPS BARREL INSERT AND NEEDLE
FRITS
SAMPLE PREPARATION
END PLUG
The MEPS Barrel Insert and Needle (BIN) assembly
TO BARREL
contains the stationary phase, and is built into the
syringe needle.
NEEDLE
MEPS PACKED BED
PTFE SEALING RING
SAMPLE SIZE AND SENSITIVITY
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
Sample volumes may be as little as 10 μL, or by taking multiple aliquots of 100 μL or 250 μL, samples of 1 mL or larger may
be concentrated.
AUTOMATION
Extract samples and make injections on-line using a single device, reducing sample processing times and the need for operator
intervention.
SEPARATION
SORBENT LIFE
BIN life is dependent on the specific matrix being analyzed. For example, C18 analysis of whole plasma samples is
conservatively 25-100 samples before the BIN needs to be changed. BIN life of cleaner samples is significantly longer.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Chromatogram of 22 pesticides standard solution (40 ng/mL)
5
CARRYOVER
The small quantity of phase in the MEPS BIN is easily and effectively washed between samples to reduce the possibility of
carryover. This washing process is not practical with off-line SPE devices. With automation of MEPS, washing occurs while the
previous sample is running.
FLEXIBLE AND EASY TO USE
The dimensions of the sorbent bed ensure performance remains identical to conventional SPE devices when used for
extraction of similar samples. The AOC-MEPS system was developed to incorporate MEPS into a process automation workflow,
combining sample preparation and analysis in a single platform
AOC-MEPS System
When automated by AOC-MEPS system, the injection volume is much larger compared to the commonly used GC injection
volumes of 1 - 2 μL. With AOC-MEPS, the typical injections are 50 to 200 μL of elution solvent into the analytical instrument.
A large volume injection volume technique should be employed that removes the solvent volume from inside the injector unit
while condensing the target compounds.
6
OD (mm)
ID (mm)
Length (mm)
P/N
3.5
2.5
95
221-74830-09
GC CONSUMABLES
PTV Inlet Liner for AOC-MEPS System
(AOC-20i + GC-2010 + PTV configuration)
SAMPLE PREPARATION
AOC-20i
Syringe
Volume
PTFE Tipped Needle Length
Plunger
(mm)
Needle
Gauge
Needle OD
(mm)
Needle ID
(mm)
Needle
Tip
100 μL
Phase
P/N
Spare Parts
P/N
221-74830-01
Plunger Pk 1
221-74830-10
Qty per pack
P/N
C18
5
221-74830-03
Silica
5
221-74830-04
C8 + SCX
5
221-74830-05
C2
5
221-74830-06
C8
5
221-74830-07
PDVB
5
221-74830-02
SDVB
5
221-74830-11
5
221-74830-12
1 of each phase
221-74830-08
HDVB
Development Kit - contains 1 each of C18, C8, Silica, C8+SCX, C2
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
MEPS™ Syringe for AOC-20i
AOC-5000
PTFE Tipped Needle Length
Plunger
(mm)
Needle
Gauge
Needle OD
(mm)
Needle ID
(mm)
Needle
Tip
P/N
Spare Parts
P/N
100 μL
221-75202-01
Plunger Pk 1
221-75202-03
250 μL
221-75202-02
Plunger Pk 1
221-75202-04
Phase
Qty per pack
MEPS for 100 μL Syringe MEPS for 250 μL Syringe
P/N
P/N
C18
5
221-75198-01
221-75199-01
Silica
5
221-75198-02
221-75199-02
C8 + SCX
5
221-75198-03
221-75199-03
C2
5
221-75198-04
221-75199-04
5
221-75198-06
221-75199-06
1 of each phase
221-75198-05
221-75199-05
C8
Development Kit - contains 1 each of C18, C8, Silica, C8+SCX, C2
TROUBLESHOOTING
Syringe
Volume
SEPARATION
MEPS™ Syringes for AOC-5000
7
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION – Syringes
Shimadzu Diamond syringes are the result of technological advancements in materials, design, and engineering.
Designed to meet the ever increasing levels of sensitivity required by today’s analyses, Shimadzu Diamond syringes give
you a new level of accuracy and precision.
LONGER LIFE
Shimadzu Diamond syringes have a longer life. The improved solvent resistance and maximized operational temperature range
along with the smoothest available internal glass surface ensure you receive the longest lifetime from your Shimadzu syringe.
SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE AND ROBUSTNESS
Shimadzu Diamond syringes have superior performance and robustness with unsurpassed levels of operational strength and
durability. Potential for contamination is significantly reduced by the near-zero syringe dead volume and minimized adhesive in
the flow path.
REDUCED CARRYOVER
Engineering enhancements have eliminated areas where fluid can become trapped and potentially cause carryover, improving
accuracy, precision and analysis results.
8
GC CONSUMABLES
Manual Autosampler or Instrument Syringes
If a syringe is being used by hand, a manual syringe should be selected. If a syringe is installed in an AOC autosampler
then choose the appropriate syringe and volume to suit your instrument and application.
Shimadzu autosampler syringes are specifically designed to meet instrument dimensional specifications, have an
accuracy of better than ± 1 % and are designed for precise, worry-free overnight sampling.
LC: HPLC
The cone shaped needle tip is specially developed to
These needles are used for LC and HPLC valve injection
withstand multi injection demands and improve septum
and have a 90 ° square tip with rounded and polished
lifetime when used with the AOC autosampler. The cone
edges. This eliminates damage to the valve's rotor seal
design effectively “parts” the septum during piercing instead
and stator face. This needle tip style is a good choice for
of cutting it, as would a bevel needle.
general liquid dispensing.
Bevel: Manual GC
Side Hole Dome:
The standard general purpose needle tip style supplied with
Samples are filled and dispensed through the side hole
many Shimadzu syringes is a 20 ° bevel tip. It is the preferred
eliminating septum plugging of the needle. Ideal for
option for manual injection where piercing the septum in
large volume gas injection. The solid domed tip minimizes
exactly the same place is difficult. The bevel tip is designed for
septum damage.
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
Cone: GC Autosampler
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Needle Tip Styles
optimum septum penetration and prevention of septum coring.
SEPARATION
Dome:
This style needle is recommended for use with predrilled
septa. The tip is rounded and polished to help septum
penetration.
OPEN
CLOSE
OPEN
TROUBLESHOOTING
Valves
CLOSE
The push-button valve attaches directly to any luer lock
The push-button valve attaches to any luer lock 5 mL –
1 mL – 100 mL Shimadzu syringe.
100 mL Shimadzu syringe.
9
Syringe
Volume
PTFE Tipped
Plunger
Needle Length
(mm)
Needle
Gauge
Needle OD
(mm)
Needle ID
(mm)
Needle Tip
P/N
42
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-75173
42
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-74469
42
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-34618
42
23 − 26
0.63 − 0.47
0.11
Dome
221-37282-02
42
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-75174
Spare Parts
P/N
Plunger Pk 2
221-75173-01
Plunger Pk 2
221-75174-02
Needle Pk 2
221-75174-01
Syringes for AOC-20i
5 μL
10 μL
10 μL
10 μL
10 μL
50 μL
250 μL
42
23
0.63
0.24
Cone
221-45243
42
23
0.63
0.24
Cone
221-45244
Plunger Pk 2
221-45244-01
221-74830-01
Plunger Pk 1
221-74830-10
MEPS™ Syringe for AOC-20i
100 μL
Syringes for AOC-5000
10 μL
50
26
0.47
0.11
Cone
221-75175
10 μL
50
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-75175-01
10 μL
80
26
0.47
0.11
Cone
221-75176
10 μL
80
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-75176-01
10 μL
50
26
0.47
0.11
Cone
221-75175-02
10 μL
50
23
0.63
0.11
Cone
221-75175-03
25 μL
50
23
0.63
0.24
Cone
221-75177
1 mL
50
26
0.47
0.15
Side-Hole Dome
221-75178
1 mL
50
23
0.63
0.15
Side-Hole Dome 221-75178-01
2.5 mL
50
26
0.47
0.15
Side-Hole Dome
2.5 mL
50
23
0.63
0.15
Side-Hole Dome 221-75179-01
221-75179
MEPS™ Syringes for AOC-5000
100 μL
221-75202-01
Plunger Pk 1
221-75202-03
250 μL
221-75202-02
Plunger Pk 1
221-75202-04
Plunger Pk 2
221-75170-02
Plunger Pk 1
221-75171-01
Plunger Pk 1
221-75172-03
Plunger Pk 1
221-75172-04
Plunger Pk 1
221-75172-05
Manual Syringes
5 μL
50
26
0.47
0.11
Bevel
221-75170
10 μL
50
26
0.47
0.11
Bevel
670-12552-01
50
26
0.47
0.11
Bevel
221-75170-01
51
22
0.028"
0.17
LC
670-12554-01
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
670-12510-31
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
221-75171
51
22
0.028"
0.37
LC
670-12554-02
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
670-12510-36
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
221-75172
51
22
0.028"
0.37
LC
670-12554-03
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
670-12510-18
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
221-75172-01
51
22
0.028"
0.37
LC
670-12554-04
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
670-12510-19
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
221-75172-02
250 μL
51
22
0.028"
0.37
LC
670-12554-05
500 μL
50
25
0.5
0.2
Bevel
670-12510-20
500 μL
51
22
0.028"
0.37
LC
670-12554-06
10 μL
10 μL
25 μL
25 μL
25 μL
50 μL
50 μL
50 μL
100 μL
100 μL
100 μL
250 μL
250 μL
1 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-01
Plunger Pk 1
221-54778-11
5 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-02
Plunger Pk 1
221-54778-12
10 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-03
Plunger Pk 1
221-54778-13
25 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-04
Plunger Pk 1
221-54778-14
50 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-05
Plunger Pk 1
221-54778-15
100 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-06
Plunger Pk 1
221-54778-16
Luer Lock Needles
50
23
0.63
0.32
Bevel
221-54778-51
50
19
1.07
0.65
Bevel
221-54778-52
50
14
2.1
1.6
Bevel
221-54778-54
Syringe Valves
10
5 mL to 100 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-49
1 mL to 100 mL
Luer Lock
221-54778-50
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION – GC Inlet Liners
The GC inlet functions as the interface between the syringe and the GC capillary column, where the sample is
GC CONSUMABLES
introduced, vaporized, mixed with carrier gas and transferred to the column. Shimadzu instruments offer several types
of inlets - split, splitless, programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) and on-column.
The inlet liner prevents the sample contacting the metal walls of the injector block. Inlet liner geometry and packing
materials enable the inlet liner to achieve greater heated surface area; this additional surface area can often improve
sample vaporization. Conversely, choosing the wrong inlet liner geometry can significantly decrease the reproducibility
and quality of analysis.
Taper
Splitless
Split
Splitless
Direct
Split/Splitless
Trace Level Analyses/
Active Compounds
General Purpose/
Concentrated Samples/
Dirty Samples
Trace Level Analyses/
Dirty Samples/
Wide Boiling Point Range
Trace Level Analyses/
Active Compounds
General Purpose/
Concentrated Samples/
Dirty Samples (only if
quartz wool is present)/
Gaseous Samples (also
purge & trap, headspace)
FocusLiner™
Taper FocusLiner™
Direct Taper
Straight
Function
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Inlet Liner Geometry
A bottom taper focuses sample onto the head of the column
and minimizes sample contact with metal parts of the inlet.
The addition of quartz wool to your inlet liner promotes
mixing of analytes, aids the vaporization of liquid samples,
and works as a trap to collect non-volatile residue in the
sample (i.e. protects capillary column from ‘dirty’ samples).
Ensures quartz wool remains in the correct position in the
liner. Excellent reproducibility results from the wiping of the
sample from the syringe needle and the prevention of droplet
formation. Minimizes high molecular weight discrimination.
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
Sample Types
Bottom taper focuses sample onto the head of the column
and minimizes contact with metal parts of the inlet. Excellent
reproducibility results from the wiping of the sample from
the syringe needle and the prevention of droplet formation.
Minimizes high molecular weight discrimination.
Direct inlet liners facilitate maximum transfer of sample by
connecting directly to the GC column and inhibiting sample
degradation due to hot metal components inside inlet.
Straight inlet liners facilitate higher split flows. Narrow bore
straight inlet liners facilitate fast GC work. Small injection
volumes of less than 0.5 μL are best used with a narrow bore.
Narrow bore straight inlet liners improve focussing of
gaseous samples (purge, trap & headspace).
SEPARATION
Injection
Technique
Inlet Liner Deactivation
Every batch of inlet liners are tested for inertness using the EPA 8081B method. This standard method ensures that each
TROUBLESHOOTING
batch of inlet liners has less than 3 % Endrin breakdown from a 1 ppm injection.
11
Description & Geometry Sketch
OD (mm)
ID (mm)
Length
(mm)
Pack Size
P/N
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75193
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75194
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-41444-05
5.0
2.6
95
5
221-41544-05
5.0
2.6
95
5
221-41599-05
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75195
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75187
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75188
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75189
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75190
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75191
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75192
5.0
0.75
95
5
221-75196
5.0
3.4
95
5
221-75197
GC-2010
LINERGC20103.4MMIDGNWWOOLPKT5
LNRGC20103.4MMIDGNPKT5
GC-2014
LNRGC20143.4MMIDGNPKT5
LNRGC20142.6MMIDPKT5
LNRGC20142.6MMIDTAPPKT5
LINERGC20143.4MMIDWWOOLGNPKT5
GC-2010/GC-2014
LNRGC2010/20143.4MMIDTAPFOC(ontowool)PKT5
LNRGC2010/20143.4MMIDFOC(ontowool)PKT5
LNRGC2010/20143.4MMIDFOC(intowool)PKT5
LNRGC2010/20143.4MMIDPKT5(StraightThrough)
LNRGC2010/20143.4MMIDTAPFOC(intowool)PKT5
LNRGC2010/2014SINGLETAPPKT5
LNRGC2010/20140.75MMIDSPMEPKT5
GLASSINSERTSPLITLESS/WBIWWOOLPKT5
12
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION – Septa
• High temperature silicone
GC CONSUMABLES
• Excellent durability, resealing and solvent and tear resistant
• Injection temperature up to 350 °C
Septum Type
Description
Pack Size
P/N
50
221-75180
GC-2010/GC-2014
High thermal stable material in blue color
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Enduro Blue
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION – Accessories
Additional Accessories
Capillary Ceramic Tube Cutter (3 pc)
221-75181
Stainless Steel Nut/ SSNE-16-012S (Pk 5)
670-11009
SEPARATION
P/N
TROUBLESHOOTING
Description
13
SEPARATION - Connections
Ferrules are available in a variety of different materials, shapes and sizes depending on their use, the instrument
and the size of the capillary column being used. Probably the most important but difficult aspect of choosing a
ferrule is the selection of the material type. The table below will help you choose the appropriate ferrule material
for your application.
When choosing ferrules ensure you consider the following:
1) The material that best suits your application.
2) The connection type you want.
The following selection table will assist with your decision.
Ferrule
Material Type
Features
Graphite Vespel®
SilTite™ Metal
• Easy to use.
• A composite of graphite and Vespel®.
• Forms a stable seal.
• Mechanically robust.
• Soft material.
• Hard material, long lifetime.
• Specifically developed to overcome
the problems associated with the use
of 100% graphite and composite
ferrules.
• Porous to oxygen.
• Can be reused.
• Forms a strong grip with capillary
column.
• Forms a soft grip with capillary
column.
• Cannot be reused with another
capillary column.
• Low emissions.
• Requires re-tightening.
Graphite
• Strong seal on capillary columns.
• Leak free - The ferrule and nut expand
and contract at the same rate
eliminating any chance of leaks with
temperature cycling.
• Nut does not need re-tightening after
initial temperature cycles.
Suitable Uses
• Column to injector connection.
• Non-mass spectrometer detectors
(FID, ECD, TCD and NPD).
Ideal for MS interfaces due to leak free
seal.
Not Suitable For
Connecting columns to mass
spectrometers, as porous to oxygen.
High temperature applications.
Risks
• Can leave residue inside your column.
If not re-tightened after installation and
temperature cycles of the GC, air may
enter the column or detector
decreasing sensitivity of the analysis and
possibly degrading the column as well
as components of the system.
Over-tightening of the seal can
introduce leaks into the system.
Follow the recommended installation
instructions to avoid this problem.
Upper limit of 325 °C
No temperature limit in GC use.
• Can extrude into the injector or
detector if it is over-tightened.
Operating
Temperature
14
MS interfaces, although even with a
good seal will leak air compared to
SilTite™ ferrules.
Upper limit of 450 °C
GC CONSUMABLES
Ferrule Code/
Description
Graphite
GFF-505-050
10
221-75182
Graphite Vespel®
GVF16-005
10
670-15003-04
GVF16-008
10
670-15003-07
GVF16-004
10
670-15003-03
SilTite™ 0.25 mm ID Column
10
221-72563-04
SilTite™ 0.32 mm ID Column
10
221-72563-05
SilTite™ 0.53 mm ID Column
10
221-72563-08
SilTite™ 1/32" ID Column
10
221-75200-04
SilTite™ Kit 10/32" 0.25 mm ID Column
1
221-75200
SilTite™ Kit 10/32" 0.32 mm ID Column
1
221-75200-01
SilTite™ Kit 10/32" 0.53 mm ID Column
1
221-75200-02
SilTite™ Kit 1/32" ID Column
1
221-75200-03
SilTite™ Nut 10/32" 0.8 mm ID Column
5
221-75186
SEPARATION
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
P/N
TROUBLESHOOTING
Metal
Pack Size
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Ferrule
Material Type
15
TROUBLESHOOTING
The purpose of this information is to help you troubleshoot the performance of your chromatography - your system
manual is an excellent guide to help you troubleshoot the performance of the system.
The separation of structurally diverse analytes is often complicated by chance coelutions with other analytes or with
matrix related compounds. Often the column is blamed, but while such coelutions make analysis difficult, they do not
necessarily indicate a faulty column, poor chromatography or method design. No single column or method will
resolve all compounds that can be chromatographed, so selecting a column that matches the needs of the application
is an important first step. Rather than attempting to modify a method to resolve coeluting peaks, selecting a column
with subtly different selectivity can achieve this aim without significant changes to established methods, elution
orders or run times.
The following are good starting points to not only develop the ideal method for your chromatography, but also a
guide on where you can troubleshoot to improve your desired separation.
Phase Selection
• Select the least polar phase that will perform the separation you require. Non-polar stationary phases separate
analytes predominantly by order of boiling point. Increase the amount of phenyl and/ or cyanopropyl content in the
phase, and the separation is then influenced more by differences in dipole moments or charge distributions.
• To separate compounds that differ more in their hydrogen bonding capacities (for example aldehydes and alcohols),
polyethylene glycol type phases are best suited, such as CBP-20.
Column Diameter
• The smaller the diameter, the greater the efficiency, and better resolution. Fast columns (0.1 mm ID) are used for
faster analysis because the same resolution can be achieved in a shorter time.
Film Thickness
• For samples with a variation in solute concentration, a
thicker film column is recommended. This will reduce the
possibility of broad overloaded peaks coeluting with other
compounds of interest. If the separation of two solutes is
sufficient and co-elution is still unlikely, even with large
differences in concentration, then a thinner film can be used.
• The greater the film thickness the greater the retention of
solutes, therefore the higher the elution temperature. As a
rule, doubling the film thickness results in an increase in
elution temperature of approximately 15-20 °C under
isothermal conditions. Using a temperature program, the
increase in elution temperature is slightly less.
16
Effect of Film Thickness.
similar chromatography.
• Columns should be conditioned to the maximum continuous
temperature unless specified. When conditioning columns
with a film thickness > 1 μm at the maximum operation
temperature, it is recommended to do the initial
conditioning without a connection to the detector to
id
β = 4d
f
GC CONSUMABLES
• Maintain phase ratio among different ID columns to yield
where
β = phase ratio
id = column internal diameter (µm)
df = film thickness (µm)
minimize contamination from the siloxane bleed.
Formula to calculate Phase Ratio.
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Column Length
• Always try to select the shortest column length that will
provide the required resolution for the application. If the
maximum column length available is being used and
resolution of the sample mixture is still inadequate then try
changing the stationary phase or internal diameter.
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
• Resolution is proportional to the square root of the column
efficiency; therefore, doubling the column length will only
increase the resolving power of the column by
approximately 40%.
Injection
Effect of Length.
The function of the GC sample inlet is to introduce a representative portion of the sample as a narrow band onto the
chromatographic column – failure to achieve this objective will significantly reduce the separation capability of the
GC column. Because most samples are liquids, an essential feature of the common GC inlet type is that the sample
and solvent are vaporized prior to reaching the column. These GC inlets are known as ‘Vaporizing’ injectors. Below
SEPARATION
are several tips on the injector but you should also consider the function of the injection process and how it
influences the chromatography. If the injection is not performed correctly, you will end up with poor accuracy and
poor precision. If you have an autosampler fitted, you should follow the recommendations in your user manual to
determine whether the autosampler is performing to specification.
The Syringe
TROUBLESHOOTING
• Syringe life is influenced by the quality of the sample and the frequency of use – a blunt needle will potentially
deposit septa material into the inlet liner and severely impact your chromatography.
• For the best syringe life, ensure your syringe is rinsed five to ten times with clean solvent after use. Syringe washing
also helps to eliminate carryover but remember to discard the initial washes.
• For optimal reproducibility and accuracy, the smallest volume injected from any syringe should be no less than 10 %
of its total capacity, for example: the smallest recommended injection volume from a 10 μL syringe would be 1 μL.
17
The Injector
FocusLiner™
Conventional Liners
• If you are doing trace analysis work or working with high
injection port temperatures, replace the septum regularly.
• If the injection port temperature is not specified in the
method, 250 °C is usually the recommended temperature.
• Choose the appropriate inlet liner for your application –
review the inlet liner geometries in this Product Guide
(page 11) and suggested applications.
• If the inlet liner is not specified, it is recommended to use a
FocusLiner™ with quartz wool and bottom taper.
a
- The wool provides additional surface area for complete
volatilization of the sample to minimize sample discrimination.
- It traps non-volatile components and septum particles
from reaching the column.
- It wipes any sample from the syringe needle, thereby
increasing reproducibility and preventing sample residue
The two tapered sections
secure the quartz wool
plug effectively wiping the
needle tip during injection.
This results in improved
reproducibility
build-up at the septum.
• When choosing the inlet liner ensure the inlet liner volume
is larger than the volume of vaporized sample. If the vapor
b
Figure a
Quartz wool plug is in the
position to wipe needle tip.
Figure b
Quartz wool plug can be
moved in either direction
preventing the needle
wiping or sample
vaporization processes.
volume exceeds the liner's inner volume, there will be an
overflow of sample vapor from the liner, resulting in
contamination of the inlet system which in turn leads to
carryover (ghost peaks) and poor run-to-run reproducibility.
• The inlet liner is a consumable and its life is influenced by the
quality of the sample and the frequency of use – once the inlet
liner is contaminated with septa particles, it needs to be replaced.
Liquid Volume
(μL)
Inlet Temperature Inlet Pressure
(˚C)
(psi)
Gas Volume
(μL)
1
250
10
399
2
250
10
798
2
250
34.7
399
5
200
45
746
Dichloromethane as solvent
Recommended replacement is every 100 - 200 injections.
• When peak shape deteriorates, replace the inlet liner immediately and remove ~ 30 cm from the front of the capillary column.
• When replacing the inlet liner it is the ideal time to replace the septa and the inlet liner sealing O-ring.
GC Connections
Ferrules are the smallest, inexpensive and probably the most easily forgotten components that are used in every gas
chromatograph. Yet, without ferrules, the leak-free sealing that is required at the detector and injector of a GC system
would be impossible to achieve.
• Always cut the column after passing through a graphite ferrule – this eliminates the risk of graphite particles entering
into the column and impacting your chromatography.
• Always re-tighten Graphite / Vespel® ferrules by ¼ to ½ turn after the first 2-3 oven temperature cycles – Graphite /
Vespel® ferrules tend to “creep” during temperature cycling.
• For GC-MS connections always use SilTite™ metal ferrules to ensure a permanent leak-free connection.
18
Cause
Poor carrier gas quality
Solution
Use high quality gas, install gas traps. Replace septa and insert a new inlet liner
Cause
Exceeded the maximum temperature of the capillary column phase
Solution
Lower the programmed maximum temperature
Cause
System has become active
Solution
Replace the inlet liner with a new deactivated liner, cut 50 cm off the front of the column and re-install
Cause
Splitless conditions have changed
Solution
Re-check solvent and method temperatures. Consider introducing an internal standard.
Cause
Manual injection technique or operator has changed
Solution
Ensure technique is consistent
Cause
Dirty column - if samples are dirty, non-volatile materials have deposited onto the column causing a change in polarity
Solution
Cut 50 cm off the front of the column and re-install
Cause
Poor injection technique
Solution
Increase the manual plunger depression speed
Cause
The column has been inserted too far into the injector
Solution
Reposition the column according to the manufacturers recommendation
Cause
Too much sample injected onto column
Solution
Dilute the sample or increase the split ratio
Cause
Glass inlet liner has active surface
Solution
Replace with a fully deactivated inlet liner
Cause
Graphite ferrule contamination in the start of the column
Solution
Remove 5 cm off the front of the column and re-install
Cause
Split gas flow is too low
Solution
Increase split flow or use the 'solvent effect' to focus peaks
Cause
The column is contaminated
Solution
Cut 50 cm off the front of the column and re-install
Cause
Mass spectrometer sampling rate is too low
Solution
Increase sampling rate or reduce the number of ions detected in SIM mode
Cause
Co-elution of peaks
Solution
Change the temperature program or polarity of the column
Cause
Leaking septum
Solution
Tighten septum cap or replace septa
Cause
Dirty column - if samples are dirty, non-volatile materials have deposited onto the column causing a change in polarity
Solution
Cut 50 cm off the front of the column and re-install
Cause
Syringe is blocked or leaking around plunger
Solution
Inspect syringe and change if damaged
Cause
Column is blocked
Solution
Cut 5 cm off the front and back ends of the column and re-install
Cause
Syringe has become contaminated from previous run
Solution
Ensure syringe has been thoroughly washed with solvent between injections.
Cause
Septum bleed
Solution
Will appear as discrete peaks in a thermal gradient and disappear in an isothermal run. Replace septum
Cause
A backflush event has occurred
Solution
Inject twice the amount of pure solvent (repeat if necessary)
Split Peaks
Fronting Peaks
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Loss of Peak
Resolution
SAMPLE INTRODUCTION
Loss of Sensitivity
GC CONSUMABLES
High Baseline Level
Tailing Peaks
No Peaks
Ghost peaks
are appearing
TROUBLESHOOTING
Shifting Retention
Times
SEPARATION
Broad Peaks
19
GC Consumables Product Guide
© Shimadzu Corporation, 2013
Printed in Japan 3655-05331-10AIT
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