Thermodynamics and HYSYS - Cours en Ligne Chimie ParisTech

Thermodynamics and HYSYS - Cours en Ligne Chimie ParisTech
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
© 2000 AEA Technology plc - All Rights Reserved.
Chem 2_5.pdf
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Workshop
One of the main assets of HYSYS is its strong thermodynamic
foundation. Not only can you use a wide variety of internal property
packages, you can use tabular capabilities to override specific property
calculations for more accuracy over a narrow range. Or, you can use the
functionality provided through OLE to interact with externally
constructed property packages.
The built-in property packages in HYSYS provide accurate
thermodynamic, physical and transport property predictions for
hydrocarbon, non-hydrocarbon, petrochemical and chemical fluids.
The database consists of an excess of 1500 components and over 16000
fitted binary coefficients. If a library component cannot be found
within the database, a comprehensive selection of estimation methods
is available for creating fully defined hypothetical components.
HYSYS also contains a regression package within the tabular feature.
Experimental pure component data, which HYSYS provides for over
1000 components, can be used as input to the regression package.
Alternatively, you can supplement the existing data or supply a set of
your own data. The regression package will fit the input data to one of
the numerous mathematical expressions available in HYSYS. This will
allow you to obtain simulation results for specific thermophysical
properties that closely match your experimental data.
However, there are cases when the parameters calculated by HYSYS are
not accurate enough, or cases when the models used by HYSYS do not
predict the correct behaviour of some liquid-liquid mixtures
(azeotropic mixtures). For those cases it is recommended to use
another of Hyprotech’s products, DISTIL. This powerful simulation
program provides an environment for exploration of thermodynamic
model behaviour, proper determination and tuning of interaction
parameters and physical properties, as well as alternative designs for
distillation systems.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
3
Proper use of thermodynamic property package parameters is key to
successfully simulating any chemical process. Effects of pressure and
temperature can drastically alter the accuracy of a simulation given
missing parameters or parameters fitted for different conditions.
HYSYS is user friendly by allowing quick viewing and changing of the
particular parameters associated with any of the property packages. In
addition, you are able to quickly check the results of one set of
parameters and compare those results with another set.
In this module, you will explore the thermodynamic packages of HYSYS
and the proper use of their thermodynamic parameters.
Learning Objectives
Once you have completed this module, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
Select an appropriate Property Package
Understand the validity of each Activity Model
Enter new interaction parameters for a property package
Check multiphase behaviour of a stream
Understand the importance of properly regressed binary
coefficients
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Selecting Property Packages
The property packages available in HYSYS allow you to predict
properties of mixtures ranging from well defined light hydrocarbon
systems to complex oil mixtures and highly non-ideal (non-electrolytic)
chemical systems. HYSYS provides enhanced equations of state (PR
and PRSV)for rigorous treatment of hydrocarbon systems; semiempirical and vapour pressure models for the heavier hydrocarbon
systems; steam correlations for accurate steam property predictions;
and activity coefficient models for chemical systems. All of these
equations have their own inherent limitations and you are encouraged
to become more familiar with the application of each equation.
The following table lists some typical systems and recommended
correlations:
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Type of System
Recommended Property Package
TEG Dehydration
PR
Sour Water
PR, Sour PR
Cryogenic Gas Processing
PR, PRSV
Air Separation
PR, PRSV
Atm Crude Towers
PR, PR Options, GS
Vacuum Towers
PR, PR Options, GS <10mm Hg, Braun K10,
Esso K
Ethylene Towers
Lee Kesler Plocker
High H2 Systems
PR, ZJ or GS (see T/P limits)
Reservoir Systems
PR, PR Options
Steam Systems
Steam Package, CS or GS
Hydrate Inhibition
PR
Chemical Systems
Activity Models, PRSV
HF Alkylation
PRSV, NRTL (Contact Hyprotech)
TEG Dehydration with
Aromatics
PR (Contact Hyprotech)
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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Equations of State
For oil, gas and petrochemical applications, the Peng-Robinson EOS
(PR) is generally the recommended property package. HYSYS currently
offers the enhanced Peng-Robinson (PR) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong
(SRK) equations of state. In addition, HYSYS offers several methods
which are modifications of these property packages, including PRSV,
Zudkevitch Joffee (ZJ) and Kabadi Danner (KD). Lee Kesler Plocker
(LKP) is an adaptation of the Lee Kesler equations for mixtures, which
itself was modified from the BWR equation. Of these, the PengRobinson equation of state supports the widest range of operating
conditions and the greatest variety of systems. The Peng-Robinson and
Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations of state (EOS) generate all required
equilibrium and thermodynamic properties directly. Although the
forms of these EOS methods are common with other commercial
simulators, they have been significantly enhanced by Hyprotech to
extend their range of applicability.
• The Peng-Robinson property package options are PR, Sour
PR, and PRSV.
• Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state options are the SRK,
Sour SRK, KD and ZJ.
For the Chemical industry due to the common occurrence of highly
non-ideal systems, the PRSV EOS may be considered. It is a two-fold
modification of the PR equation of state that extends the application of
the original PR method for highly non-ideal systems.
• It has shown to match vapour pressure curves of pure
components and mixtures, especially at low vapour pressures.
• It has been successfully extended to handle non-ideal systems
giving results as good as those obtained by activity models.
• A limited amount of non-hydrocarbon interaction parameters
are available.
Activity Models
Although equation of state models have proven to be very reliable in
predicting properties of most hydrocarbon based fluids over a large
range of operating conditions, their application has been limited to
primarily non-polar or slightly polar components. Polar or non-ideal
chemical systems have traditionally been handled using dual model
approaches.
Activity Models are much more empirical in nature when compared to
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
the property predictions in the hydrocarbon industry. For example,
they cannot be used as reliably as the equations of state for generalized
application or extrapolating into untested operating conditions. Their
tuning parameters should be fitted against a representative sample of
experimental data and their application should be limited to moderate
pressures.
For every component i in the mixture, the condition of
thermodynamics equilibrium is given by the equality between the
fugacities of the liquid phase and vapour phase. This feature gives the
flexibility to use separate thermodynamic models for the liquid and gas
phases, so the fugacities for each phase have different forms. In this
approach:
• an equation of state is used for predicting the vapour fugacity
coefficients (normally ideal gas assumption or the Redlich
Kwong, Peng-Robinson or SRK equations of state, although a
Virial equation of state is available for specific applications)
• an activity coefficient model is used for the liquid phase.
Although there is considerable research being conducted to extend
equation of state applications into the chemical industry (e.g., PRSV
equation), the state of the art of property predictions for chemical
systems is still governed mainly by Activity Models.
Activity Models produce the
best results when they are
applied in the operating
region for which the
interaction parameters were
regressed.
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Activity coefficients are “fudge” factors applied to the ideal solution
hypothesis (Raoult’s Law in its simplest form) to allow the development
of models which actually represent real data. Although they are “fudge”
factors, activity coefficients have an exact thermodynamic meaning as
the ratio of the fugacity coefficient of a component in a mixture at P and
T, and the fugacity coefficient of the pure component at the same P and
T. Consequently, more caution should be exercised when selecting these
models for your simulation.
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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The following table briefly summarizes recommended activity
coefficient models for different applications (refer to the bulleted
reference guide below):
Application
Margules
van Laar
Wilson
NRTL
UNIQUAC
Binary Systems
A
A
A
A
A
Multicomponent
Systems
LA
LA
A
A
A
Azeotropic Systems
A
A
A
A
A
Liquid-Liquid
Equilibria
A
A
N/A
A
A
Dilute Systems
?
?
A
A
A
Self-Associating
Systems
?
?
A
A
A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
A
?
?
G
G
G
Polymers
Extrapolation
•
•
•
•
•
A = Applicable
N/A = Not Applicable
? = Questionable
G = Good
LA = Limited Application
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Overview of Models
Margules
One of the earliest activity coefficient expressions was proposed by
Margules at the end of the 19th century.
• The Margules equation was the first Gibbs excess energy
representation developed.
• The equation does not have any theoretical basis, but is useful
for quick estimates and data interpolation.
• In its simplest form, it has just one adjustable parameter and
can represent mixtures which feature symmetric activity
coefficient curves.
HYSYS has an extended multicomponent Margules equation with up to
four adjustable parameters per binary. The four adjustable parameters
for the Margules equation in HYSYS are the aij and aji (temperature
independent) and the bij and bji terms (temperature dependent).
The Margules equation should
not be used for extrapolation
beyond the range over which
the energy parameters have
been fitted.
• The equation will use parameter values stored in HYSYS or
any user supplied value for further fitting the equation to a
given set of data.
• In HYSYS, the equation is empirically extended and therefore
caution should be exercised when handling multicomponent
mixtures.
van Laar
The van Laar equation
performs poorly for dilute
systems and CANNOT
represent many common
systems, such as alcoholhydrocarbon mixtures, with
acceptable accuracy.
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The van Laar equation was the first Gibbs excess energy representation
with physical significance. This equation fits many systems quite well,
particularly for LLE component distributions. It can be used for
systems that exhibit positive or negative deviations from Raoult’s Law.
Some of the advantages and disadvantage for this model are:
• Generally requires less CPU time than other activity models.
• It can represent limited miscibility as well as three phase
equilibrium.
• It cannot predict maxima or minima in the activity coefficient
and therefore, generally performs poorly for systems with
halogenated hydrocarbons and alcohols.
• It also has a tendency to predict two liquid phases when they
do not exist.
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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The van Laar equation implemented in HYSYS has two parameters with
linear temperature dependency, thus making it a four parameter
model. In HYSYS, the equation is empirically extended and therefore its
use should be avoided when handling multicomponent mixtures.
Wilson
The Wilson equation, proposed by Grant M. Wilson in 1964, was the
first activity coefficient equation that used the local composition model
to derive the Gibbs Excess energy expression. It offers a
thermodynamically consistent approach to predicting multicomponent behaviour from regressed binary equilibrium data.
The Wilson equation CANNOT
be used for problems involving
liquid-liquid equilibrium.
• Although the Wilson equation is more complex and requires
more CPU time than either the van Laar or Margules
equations, it can represent almost all non-ideal liquid solutions
satisfactorily except electrolytes and solutions exhibiting limited
miscibility (LLE or VLLE).
• It performs an excellent job of predicting ternary equilibrium
using parameters regressed from binary data only.
• It will give similar results to the Margules and van Laar
equations for weak non-ideal systems, but consistently
outperforms them for increasingly non-ideal systems.
• It cannot predict liquid-liquid phase splitting and therefore
should only be used on problems where demixing is not an
issue.
Our experience shows that the Wilson equation can be extrapolated
with reasonable confidence to other operating regions with the same
set of regressed energy parameters.
NRTL
The additional parameter in
the NRTL equation, called the
alpha term, or nonrandomness parameter,
represents the inverse of the
coordination number of
molecule “i” surrounded by
molecules “j”. Since liquids
usually have a coordination
number between 3 and 6, you
might expect the alpha
parameter between 0.17 and
0.33.
The NRTL (Non-Random-Two-Liquid) equation, proposed by Renon
and Prausnitz in 1968, is an extension of the original Wilson equation. It
uses statistical mechanics and the liquid cell theory to represent the
liquid structure. These concepts, combined with Wilson’s local
composition model, produce an equation capable of representing VLE,
LLE, and VLLE phase behaviour. Like the Wilson equation, the NRTL
model is thermodynamically consistent and can be applied to ternary
and higher order systems using parameters regressed from binary
equilibrium data. The NRTL model has an accuracy comparable to the
Wilson equation for VLE systems.
• The NRTL combines the advantages of the Wilson and van
Laar equations.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
• It is not extremely CPU intensive.
• It can represent LLE quite well.
• However, because of the mathematical structure of the NRTL
equation, it can produce erroneous multiple miscibility gaps.
The NRTL equation in HYSYS contains five adjustable parameters
(temperature dependent and independent) for fitting per binary pair.
UNIQUAC
The UNIQUAC (UNIversal QUAsi Chemical) equation proposed by
Abrams and Prausnitz in 1975 uses statistical mechanics and the quasichemical theory of Guggenheim to represent the liquid structure. The
equation is capable of representing LLE, VLE and VLLE with accuracy
comparable to the NRTL equation, but without the need for a nonrandomness factor, it is a two parameter model.
The UNIQUAC equation is significantly more detailed and
sophisticated than any of the other activity models.
• Its main advantage is that a good representation of both VLE
and LLE can be obtained for a large range of non-electrolyte
mixtures using only two adjustable parameters per binary.
• The fitted parameters usually exhibit a smaller temperature
dependence which makes them more valid for extrapolation
purposes.
• The UNIQUAC equation utilizes the concept of local
composition as proposed by Wilson. Since the primary
concentration variable is a surface fraction as opposed to a
mole fraction, it is applicable to systems containing molecules
of very different sizes and shape, such as polymer solutions.
• The UNIQUAC equation can be applied to a wide range of
mixtures containing H2O, alcohols, nitriles, amines, esters,
ketones, aldehydes, halogenated hydrocarbons and
hydrocarbons.
In its simplest form it is a two parameter model, with the same remarks
as Wilson and NRTL. UNIQUAC needs van der Waals area and volume
parameters, and those can sometimes be difficult to find, especially for
non-condensable gases (although DIPPR has a fair number available).
Extended and General NRTL
The Extended and General NRTL models are variations of the NRTL
model, simple NRTL with a complex temperature dependency for the
aij and aji terms. Apply either model to systems:
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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• with a wide boiling point range between components
• where you require simultaneous solution of VLE and LLE, and
there exists a wide boiling range or concentration range
between components
The general NRTL model is
particularly susceptible to
inaccuracies if the model is
used outside of the intended
range.
Care must be taken to ensure
that you are operating within
the bounds of the model.
Extreme caution must be exercised when extrapolating beyond the
temperature and pressure ranges used in regression of parameters. Due
to the larger number of parameters used in fitting, inaccurate results
can be obtained outside the original bounds.
Chien-Null
Chien-Null is an empirical model designed to allow you to mix and
match models which were created using different methods and
combined into a multicomponent expression. The Chien-Null model
provides a consistent framework for applying existing activity models
on a binary by binary basis. In this manner, Chien-Null allows you to
select the best activity model for each pair in the case. For example,
Chien-Null can allow the user to have a binary defined using NRTL,
another using Margules and another using van Laar, and combine them
to perform a three component calculation, mixing three different
thermodynamic models.
The Chien Null model allows 3 sets of coefficients for each component
pair, accessible via the A, B and C coefficient matrices.
The Thermodynamics appendix in the HYSYS User Manual
provides more information on Property Packages,
Equations of State, and Activity Models, and the equations
for each.
Henry’s Law
No interaction between "noncondensable" component
pairs is taken into account in
the VLE calculations.
Henry’s Law cannot be selected explicitly as a property method in
HYSYS. However, HYSYS will use Henry’s Law when an activity model is
selected and "non-condensable" components are included within the
component list.
HYSYS considers the following components non-condensable:
Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, Acetylene, Hydrogen, Helium, Argon,
Nitrogen, Oxygen, NO, H2S, CO2, and CO.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
The extended Henry’s Law equation in HYSYS is used to model dilute
solute/solvent interactions. "Non-condensable" components are
defined as those components that have critical temperatures below the
system temperature.
Activity Model Vapour Phase Options
There are several methods available for calculating the Vapour Phase in
conjunction with the selected liquid activity model. The choice will
depend on specific considerations of your system.
Ideal
The ideal gas law can be used to model the vapour phase. This model is
appropriate for low pressures and for a vapour phase with little
intermolecular interaction. The model is the default vapour phase
fugacity calculation method for activity coefficient models.
Peng Robinson, SRK or RK
To model non-idealities in the vapour phase, the PR, SRK, or RK
options can be used in conjunction with an activity model.
• PR and SRK vapour phase models handle the same types of
situations as the PR and SRK equations of state.
• When selecting one of these three models, ensure that the
binary interaction parameters used for the activity model
remain applicable with the chosen vapour model.
• For applications with compressors and turbines, PR or SRK will
be superior to the RK or Ideal vapour model.
Virial
The Virial option enables you to better model vapour phase fugacities
of systems displaying strong vapour phase interactions. Typically this
occurs in systems containing carboxylic acids, or compounds that have
the tendency to form stable H2 bonds in the vapour phase.
Care should be exercised in
choosing PR, SRK, RV or Virial
to ensure binary coefficients
have been regressed with the
corresponding vapour phase
model.
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HYSYS contains temperature dependent coefficients for carboxylic
acids. You can overwrite these by changing the Association (ij) or
Solvation (ii) coefficients from the default values.
This option is restricted to systems where the density is moderate,
typically less than one-half the critical density.
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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Binary Coefficients
For the Property Packages which do include binary coefficients, the
Binary Coefficients tab contains a matrix which lists the interaction
parameters for each component pair. Depending on the property
method chosen, different estimation methods may be available and a
different view may be shown. You have the option of overwriting any
library value.
Equation of State Interaction Parameters
The Equation of State Interaction Parameters group appears as follows
on the Binary Coeffs tab when an EOS is the selected property package:
The numbers appearing in the
matrix are initially calculated
by HYSYS, but you have the
option of overwriting any
library value.
For all EOS parameters (except PRSV),
Kij = Kji
so when you change the value of one of these, both cells of the pair
automatically update with the same value. In many cases, the library
interaction parameters for PRSV do have Kij = Kji, but HYSYS does not
force this if you modify one parameter in a binary pair.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
If you are using PR or SRK (or one of the Sour options), two radio
buttons are displayed at the bottom of the page in the Treatment of
Interaction Coefficients Unavailable from the Library group:
• Estimate HC-HC/Set Non HC-HC to 0.0 – this radio button is
the default selection. HYSYS provides the estimates for the
interaction parameters in the matrix, setting all nonhydrocarbon pairs to 0.
• Set All to 0.0 – when this is selected, HYSYS sets all
interaction parameter values in the matrix to 0.0.
Activity Model Interaction Parameters
Activity Models are much more empirical in nature when compared to
the property predictions in the hydrocarbon industry. Their tuning
parameters should be fitted against a representative sample of
experimental data and their application should be limited to moderate
pressures.
The Activity Model Interaction Parameters group appears as follows
on the Binary Coeffs tab when an Activity Model is the selected
property package:
The interaction parameters for each binary pair will be displayed. You
can overwrite any value or use one of the estimation methods.
Note that the Kij = Kji rule does not apply to Activity Model interaction
parameters.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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Estimation Methods
When using Activity Models, HYSYS provides three interaction
parameter estimation methods. Select the estimation method by
choosing one of the radio buttons in the Coeff Estimation window. The
options are:
• UNIFAC VLE
• UNIFAC LLE
• Immiscible
You can then invoke the estimation by selecting one of the available
cells.
For UNIFAC methods the options are:
• Individual Pair – calculates the parameters for the selected
component pair, Aij and Aji. The existing values in the matrix
are overwritten.
• Unknowns Only – calculates the activity parameters for all the
unknown pairs. If you delete the contents of cells or if HYSYS
does not provide default values, you can use this option.
• All Binaries – recalculates all the binaries of the matrix. If you
had changed some of the original HYSYS values, you could
use this to have HYSYS re-estimate the entire matrix.
.
When the All Binaries button is used, HYSYS does not
return the original library values. Estimation values will be
returned using the selected UNIFAC method. To return to
the original library values, you must select a new property
method and then re-select the original property method
For the Immiscible method the options are:
The UNIFAC (UNIquac groupFunctional Activity
Coefficient) method is a group
contribution technique using
the UNIQUAC model as the
starting point to estimate
binary coefficients. This,
however, should be a last
solution as it is preferable to
try and find values estimated
from experimental data.
• Row in Clm pair – estimates the parameters such that the row
component (j) is immiscible in the column component (i).
• Clm in Row pair – estimates parameters such that the column
component (j) is immiscible in the row component (i).
• All in Row – estimates parameters such that both components
are mutually immiscible.
In Module 1, you chose the NRTL Activity Model, then select the
UNIFAC VLE estimation method (default) before pressing the
Unknowns Only cell.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Which Activity Coefficient Model
Should I Use?
This is a tough question to answer, but some guidelines are provided. If
you require additional assistance, it is best to contact Hyprotech’s
Technical Support department.
Basic Data
Activity coefficient models are empirical by nature and the quality of
their prediction depends on the quality and range of data used to
determine the parameters. Some important things you should be aware
of in HYSYS.
• The parameters built in HYSYS were fitted at 1 atm wherever
possible, or were fitted using isothermal data which would
produce pressures closest to 1 atm. They are good for a first
design, but always look for experimental data closer to the
region you are working in to confirm your results.
• The values in the HYSYS component database are defined for
VLE only, hence the LLE prediction may not be very good and
additional fitting is necessary.
• Data used in the determination of built in interaction
parameters very rarely goes below 0.01 mole fraction, and
extrapolating into the ppm or ppb region can be risky.
• Again, because the interaction parameters were calculated at
modest pressures, usually 1 atm, they may be inadequate for
processes at high pressures.
• Check the accuracy of the model for azeotropic systems.
Additional fitting may be required to match the azeotrope with
acceptable accuracy. Check not only for the temperature, but
for the composition as well.
• If three phase behaviour is suspected, additional fitting of the
parameters may be required to reliably reproduce the VLLE
equilibrium conditions.
UNIFAC or no UNIFAC?
UNIFAC is a handy tool to give initial estimates for activity coefficient
models. Nevertheless keep in mind the following:
• Group contribution methods are always approximate and they
are not substitutions for experimental data.
• UNIFAC was designed using relatively low molecular weight
condensable components (thus high boilers may not be well
represented), using temperatures between 0-150 oC and data
at modest pressures.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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• Generally, UNIFAC does not provide good predictions for the
dilute region.
Choosing an Activity Model
Again, some general guidelines to consider.
• Margules or van Laar - generally chosen if computation speed
is a consideration. With the computers we have today, this is
usually not an issue. May also be chosen if some preliminary
work has been done using one of these models.
• Wilson - generally chosen if the system does not exhibit phase
splitting.
• NRTL or UNIQUAC - generally chosen if the system exhibits
phase splitting.
• General NRTL - should only be used if an abundant amount of
data over a wide temperature range was used to define its
parameters. Otherwise it will provide the same modelling
power as NRTL.
Exploring with the Simulation
Proper use of thermodynamic property package parameters is key to
successfully simulating any chemical process. Effects of pressure and
temperature can drastically alter the accuracy of a simulation given
missing parameters or parameters fitted for different conditions.
HYSYS is user friendly in allowing quick viewing and changing of the
particular parameters associated with any of the property packages.
Additionally, the user is able to quickly check the results of one set of
parameters and compare against another.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Exercise 1
Di-iso-Propyl-Ether/H2O Binary
This example effectively demonstrates the need for having interaction
parameters. Do the following:
1.
2.
Open case DIIPE.hsc.
Enter the following conditions for stream DIIPE/H2O:
Conditions
Vapour Fraction
0.0
Pressure
1 atm
Molar Flow
1 kgmole/h (1 lbmole/hr)
Composition
di-i-P-Ether
50 mole %
H2O
50 mole %
What phases are present? __________
3.
Close the stream view and press the Enter Basis Environment
button.
4.
Select the Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package. Notice that the
interaction parameters for the binary are both set to 0.0.
5.
Press the Reset Params button to recall the default NRTL activity
coefficient model interaction parameters.
6.
Close the Fluid Package view.
7.
Return to the simulation environment by pressing the Return to
Simulation Environment button.
8.
Open the stream view by double clicking on the stream DIIPE/
H2O.
What phases are now present? __________
What is the composition of each? __________
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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Clearly, it can be seen how important it is to have interaction
parameters for the thermodynamic model. The xy phase diagrams on
the next page (figures 1 and 2) illustrate the homogeneous behaviour
when no parameters are available and the heterogeneous azeotropic
behaviour when properly fitted parameters are used. The majority of
the default interaction parameters for activity coefficient models in
HYSYS have been regressed based on VLE data from DECHEMA,
Chemistry Data Services.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Fig. 1 - Interaction Parameters set to 0.
Fig. 2 - Using the Default HYSYS Interaction Parameters.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
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Exercise 2
Phenol/H2O Binary
This binary shows the importance of ensuring that properly fitted
interaction parameters for the conditions of your simulation are used.
The default parameters for the Phenol/H2O system have been
regressed from the DECHEMA Chemistry data series and provide very
accurate vapour-liquid equilibrium since the original data source (1)
was in this format. However, the Phenol/Water system is also shown to
exhibit liquid-liquid behaviour (2). A set of interaction parameters can
be obtained from sources such as DECHEMA and entered into HYSYS.
The following example illustrates the poor LLE prediction than can be
produced by comparing the results using default interaction
parameters and specially regressed LLE parameters.
1.
2.
Open the case Phenolh2o.hsc.
Enter the following conditions for stream Phenol/H2O:
Conditions
Temperature
40°C
Pressure
1 atm
Molar Flow
1 kgmole/h (1 lbmole/hr)
Composition
Phenol
25 mole %
H2O
75 mole %
What phase(s) are present? __________
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
To provide a better prediction for LLE at 40 oC (105 oF) the following Aij
interaction parameters are to be entered. To enter the parameters do
the following:
1.
2.
Close the stream view and press the Enter Basis Environment
button.
Ensure the Fluid Package view is open and select the Binary
Coeffs tab.
3.
Enter the Aij interaction parameters as shown here:
4.
Select the Alphaij/Cij radio button.
5.
Enter an Alphaij = 0.2.
6.
Close the Fluid Package view.
7.
Return to the simulation environment by pressing the Return to
Simulation Environment button.
8.
Open the stream view for Phenol/H2O.
What phase(s) are present now? __________
What are the compositions? __________
The figures on the following page (figures 3 and 4) show the difference
between the two sets of interaction parameters. Therefore, care must be
exercised when simulating LLE as almost all the default interaction
parameters for the activity coefficient models in HYSYS are for VLE.
22
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
23
Fig. 3 - Using the Default (VLE) Interaction Parameters.
Fig. 4 - Using the Fitted (LLE Optimizied) Interaction Parameters.
23
24
Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Exercise 3
Benzene/Cyclohexane/H2O Ternary
This example again illustrates the importance of having interaction
parameters and also discusses how the user can obtain parameters
from regression. To illustrate the principles do the following:
1.
2.
Open the case Ternary.hsc.
Enter the following stream conditions for Benzene/CC6/H2O:
Conditions
Temperature
25°C
Pressure
1 atm
Composition
Benzene
20 mole %
H2O
20 mole %
CC6
60 mole %
How many phases are present? __________
To provide a more precise simulation the missing CC6/H2O interaction
parameter has to be obtained. Fortunately, some data is available at
25°C giving the liquid-liquid equilibrium between CC6 and H2O. Using
this data, and the regression capabilities within DISTIL, an AEA
Technology Engineering Software conceptual design and
thermodynamic regression product, you can obtain new interaction
parameters. The temperature dependent Bij parameters are to be left at
0 and the alphaij term is to be set to 0.2 for the CC6/H2O. To implement
these parameters, proceed with the steps on the following page.
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
25
1.
Return to the Basis Environment by pressing the Enter Basis
Environment button.
2.
Open the Fluid Package view and move to the Binary Coeffs tab.
3.
Enter the data in the Aij matrix as shown here:
4.
Select the Alphaij/Cij radio button.
5.
Enter a CC6/H2O alphaij value of 0.2.
6.
Close the Fluid Package view.
7.
Return to the Simulation Environment.
8.
Open the stream Benzene/CC6/H2O.
How many phases are now present? __________
What are the compositions? __________
The figures on the following page (figures 5 and 6) clearly show the
behaviour of the ternary system. Without the regressed CC6/H2O
binary, the thermodynamic property package incorrectly predicts the
system to be miscible at higher CC6 concentrations. This prediction is
correct given properly regressed CC6/H2O parameters.
References
1. Schreinemakers F.A.H., Z. Phys. Chem. 35, 459 (1900).
2. Hill A.E. and Malisoff W.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc.
48 (1926) 918.
25
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Thermodynamics and HYSYS
Fig. 5 - Without Regressed CC6/H2O Interaction Parameters.
Fig. 6 - With Regressed CC6/H2O Interaction Parameters.
26
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