User Manual - ProvibTech
PCM370ForPT2060
Plant Condition Management System
User Manual
Installation, Operation, Maintenance
ProvibTech.
11011 Brooklet Dr., Ste 360, Houston, TX 77099, USA
Phone: +1-713-830-7601, Fax: +1-281-754-4972, Email: [email protected] , Web: www.provibtech.com
PCM370ForPT2060-USR-B-4
Copyright©2008 by ProvibTech
PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Table of Content
Table of Content ................................................................................................................................................................. 1
PCM370ForPT2060 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................ 2
Features....................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Running Environment ................................................................................................................................................. 2
Quick Configuration Guide ................................................................................................................................................ 3
PCM370ForPT2060 Installation ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Field Wiring Diagram ................................................................................................................................................. 5
Field Wiring Diagram 1-MODBUS-RTU for Short Distance ............................................................................ 5
Field Wiring Diagram 2- MODBUS-RTU for Long Distance ........................................................................... 5
Field Wiring Diagram 3-Modbus-TCP ............................................................................................................... 6
Install PCM370ForPT2060 Software ......................................................................................................................... 7
Uninstall PCM370ForPT2060 Software ................................................................................................................... 10
PCM370ForPT2060 Software Operation ......................................................................................................................... 12
Run PCM370ForPT2060 software ........................................................................................................................... 12
Device Bar ................................................................................................................................................................ 14
Bar Graph ................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Setup ......................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Database Management ...................................................................................................................................... 22
System Setup .................................................................................................................................................... 25
Modify Channel Name...................................................................................................................................... 26
Data Collection Setup ....................................................................................................................................... 27
Custom Trend Setup ......................................................................................................................................... 28
Upload PT2060 Information ............................................................................................................................. 31
Modify Password .............................................................................................................................................. 33
Acknowledge Alarm ................................................................................................................................................. 34
Trend Plot ................................................................................................................................................................. 35
Alarm List ................................................................................................................................................................. 41
Status List ................................................................................................................................................................. 43
Help .......................................................................................................................................................................... 44
Exit ........................................................................................................................................................................... 44
PCM370ForPT2060 Maintenance .................................................................................................................................... 45
Special Notes ............................................................................................................................................................ 45
Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................................................................ 45
No PT2060 Racks are found ............................................................................................................................. 45
Communication Error ....................................................................................................................................... 46
Communication Failed ...................................................................................................................................... 46
Appendix Glossary ........................................................................................................................................................... 48
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
PCM370ForPT2060 Introduction
Introduction
PCM370ForPT2060 is a type of plant condition monitoring system that is specially designed for PT2060 Rack. PT2060
Rack can be automatically integrated into the PCM370ForPT2060 system. Similarity with other plant condition
monitoring systems from ProvibTech, PCM370ForPT2060 can collect, store, analyze the data from PT2060 Rack, and
also it is capable of transmitting the machine status information to local network or internet.
Features
9
Only for PT2060 Rack
9
Integrate process data
9
User friendly system with touch panel
9
ProvibTech’s database
9
Data collection with time trigger and/or alarm trigger
9
Software alarms to indication of machine status
9
Modbus data collection and storage
Running Environment
Minimum system requirement:
9
Operation system: Windows XP or Windows 2000
9
CPU: P4 800MHz
9
Memory: 512MB
9
Hard Disk: 40G
9
Display: Touch panel or VGA
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Quick Configuration Guide
System Wiring
Connect the PT2060 Racks to the computer. You can refer to Field Wiring Diagram on PCM370ForPT2060 User
Manual.
System Installation
Install PCM370ForPT2060 software on the computer.
System Configuration
CAUTION: Make sure all PT2060 Racks have been already correctly configured by PT2060-CFG software. You should
pay attention to the following settings on PT2060 Racks.
A.
Rack Slave Address Setting: Ensure the slave addresses of racks are in range from 1 to 5 and each slave
address identifies a unique PT2060 Rack. You could refer to PT2060/91 SIM System Interface Module User
Manual to get detailed information about Rack Slave Address Setting.
B.
Other communication parameters Setting:
z
If PT2060 Rack uses MODBUS-RTU transmission mode, you should set the communication parameters
as below:
z
9
Baud Rate: 19200
9
Stop Bit: 2
9
Parity Bit: None
If PT2060 Rack uses MODBUS-TCP transmission mode, you should set the valid Rack IP Address for
each rack. The format of IP Address is “A.B.C.D”. A should be from 1 to 223 and can’t be 127; B should
be from 0 to 255; C should be from 0 to 255; D should be from 0 to 255. PCM370ForPT2060 software
scans maximum ten consecutive IP addresses that begin with the Starting IP. Make sure the “A.B.C”
fields of Rack IP are the same as those of the host computer IP. And we recommend that the racks in
the system are set with the consecutive IP Addresses. For example: the computer IP is 192.168.1.1 and the
system contains 5 PT2060 Racks. You could set the racks’ IP as “192.168.1.100”, “192.168.1.101”,
“192.168.1.102”, “192.168.1.103” and “192.168.1.104” if the five IP addresses are not used yet.
The system configuration process is below:
1.
Run PCM370ForPT2060 software.
2.
Set communication parameters in Search Option window.
A.
If PT2060 Rack uses MODBUS-RTU transmission mode, you should select “MODBUS-RTU” and then click
OK.
B.
If PT2060 Rack uses MODBUS-TCP transmission mode, you should select “MODBUS-TCP” and then set the
valid Port and Starting IP. And then click OK. The default Port is 502. Type the minimum rack IP address in
field of “Starting IP”. For example, there are five PT2060 racks in the system. The IP addresses of the racks are
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
“192.168.1.100”, “192.168.1.101”, “192.168.1.102”, “192.168.1.103” and “192.168.1.104”. So you should
type “192.168.1.100” in field of “Starting IP”.
PCM370ForPT2060 software will upload the information from PT2060 Racks. If you want to set other parameters, you
can click Setup button on main window. Default password is “password”.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
PCM370ForPT2060 Installation
Field Wiring Diagram
NOTE: A PCM370ForPT2060 system can monitor maximum 5 PT2060 Racks.
Field Wiring Diagram 1-MODBUS-RTU for Short Distance
Field Wiring Diagram 2- MODBUS-RTU for Long Distance
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Field Wiring Diagram 3-Modbus-TCP
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Install PCM370ForPT2060 Software
Put the installation CD into CD-driver, supposing that the CD-driver is G and then double-click file of Setup.exe in
directory of "G:\PCM370ForPT2060-Setup" to start this installation program.
1.
Show welcome information. Click Next to continue.
2.
Click Browse…button to select a destination folder or use the default folder. Then click Next to continue.
3.
Show current settings about copying files. Click Next to continue.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
4.
Show copying status window.
If you see Locked File Detected window in the process of copying files (see below picture), please check option of
“Don’t display this message again”.
And then click Ignore button. See below:
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
5.
Installation complete. Click Finish.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Uninstall PCM370ForPT2060 Software
There are two methods for you to uninstall PCM370 System.
Method 1: Directly select All Programs, PCM370ForPT2060, Uninstall;
Method 2: Select All Programs, Control Panel, Add or Remove Programs to open the Add or Remove Programs
window. Select PCM370ForPT2060 in Change or Remove Programs tab, and click Change/Remove button.
Click OK button in following picture:
Show uninstalling status window:
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
If you see Locked File Detected window in the process of copying files (see below picture), please check option of
“Don’t display this message again”.
And then click Ignore button. See below:
Un-installation process completes. Click Finish.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
PCM370ForPT2060 Software Operation
Run PCM370ForPT2060 software
CAUTION:
Before you run PCM370ForPT2060 software, please make sure that
1.
The PT2060 Racks have been correctly configured by PT2060-CFG software. You should pay attention to the
following settings on PT2060 Racks.
A.
Rack Slave Address Setting: Ensure the slave addresses of racks are in range from 1 to 5 and each slave
address identifies a unique PT2060 Rack. You could refer to PT2060/91 SIM System Interface Module User
Manual to get detailed information about Rack Slave Address Setting.
B.
Other communication parameters Setting:
z
If the PT2060 Rack uses the Modbus RTU mode, the communication parameters for each PT2060 Rack
should be set as:
z
9
Baud Rate: 19200
9
Stop Bit: 2
9
Parity Bit: None
If the PT2060 Rack uses MODBUS-TCP transmission mode, you should set the valid Rack IP Address for
each rack. The format of IP Address is “A.B.C.D”. A should be from 1 to 223 and can’t be 127; B should
be from 0 to 255; C should be from 0 to 255; D should be from 0 to 255. PCM370ForPT2060 software
scans maximum ten consecutive IP addresses that begin with the Starting IP. Make sure the “A.B.C”
fields of Rack IP are the same as those of the host computer IP. And we recommend that the racks in
the system are set with the consecutive IP Addresses. For example: the computer IP is 192.168.1.1 and the
system contains 5 PT2060 Racks. You could set the racks’ IP as “192.168.1.100”, “192.168.1.101”,
“192.168.1.102”, “192.168.1.103” and “192.168.1.104” if the five IP addresses are not used yet.
2.
The PT2060 Racks can communicate well with your PCM370ForPT2060 software and the device wirings are
correct.
There are two methods for you to run PCM370ForPT2060 software:
Method 1: Select Start, All Programs, PCM370ForPT2060, PCM370ForPT2060;
Method 2: Directly double-click shortcut icon of PCM370ForPT2060 on the desktop;
Condition 1: The current database didn’t record information about any PT2060 Racks. For example, first time to
start PCM370ForPT2060 software after the installation. In this condition, after you started PCM370ForPT2060 software,
you will see following window.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
In Search Option window, you should select the transmission mode of the system. If PT2060 Racks use MODBUS-RTU
transmission mode, you should select MODBUS-RTU and then click OK button. If PT2060 Racks use MODBUS-TCP
transmission mode, firstly you should select MODBUS-TCP, secondly type the minimum rack IP address in field of
“Starting IP”, thirdly type the valid port number in filed of “Port”(default value is 502), and finally click OK button.
After you finished the settings on Search Option window, click OK button. And then PCM370ForPT2060 software will
scan the PT2060 Racks.
If the scanning succeeded, the information of all PT2060 Racks will be uploaded to PCM370ForPT2060 software.
Condition 2: The current database has recorded information about one or more PT2060 Racks. In this condition,
PCM370ForPT2060 software will directly upload real time value and status from PT2060 Racks.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Device Bar
Device Bar displays the PT2060 Racks that are being monitored by PCM370ForPT2060 software. Each PT2060 Rack is
described with “status light+PT2060+No.(Rack slave address)” that just looks like below picture:
Clicking a PT2060 Rack from Device Bar, Bar Graph Tab will show bar graphs of channels under PT2060/10,
PT2060/20, PT2060/30, and PT2060/53 modules of the selected PT2060 Rack.
NOTES:
1.
The PCM370ForPT2060 software could monitor maximum 5 PT2060 Racks at the same time. And the total number
of PT2060/10, PT2060/20, PT2060/30, and PT2060/53 modules in all PT2060 Racks should be less than or equal to
32.
2.
Light color indication:
9
Green: Normal Status
9
Yellow: Alert Status
9
Red: Danger Status
9
Flashing: Alarm happened but hasn't been acknowledged.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Bar Graph
Clicking a PT2060 Rack from Device Bar, Bar Graph Tab will show bar graphs of channels under PT2060/10,
PT2060/20, PT2060/30, and PT2060/53 modules of the selected PT2060 Rack. A bar graph page can have bar graph of
maximum 24 channels. If the total channel number exceeds 24, you should go to other pages for additional bar graphs.
NOTES:
1.
The name of each bar graph is described as PT2060 (No. Rack slave address) Slot_ChChannel No.
2.
Bar graph color indication:
3.
9
Green: Normal Status
9
Yellow: Alert Status
9
Red: Danger Status
9
Blue: Background color
9
Flashing: Alarm happened but hasn't been acknowledged.
Channel Status Displaying
Left click a bar graph on the page and you will see channel status tab that looks like following picture:
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Following table show the color indication for each status bit.
4.
Light Color for
Light Color for
Normal Status
Abnormal Status
OK
Green
Gray
ALT
Alert
Gray
Red
DNG
Danger
Gray
Red
BYP
Bypass
Gray
Red
TRPM
Triple Multiply
Gray
Red
OFF
OFF
Gray
Red
GAP OK
GAP OK
Gray
Red
Status Bit
Full Name
OK
Other Plots and Lists Display
Double clicking will launch Diagram Selection window.
z
View real time trend plot of the selected channel
Check “Real Time Trend Plot” and then click OK. Following picture shows you the real time trend plot window of
the selected channel.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
i.
“1” shows the title of the trend plot. It is described as slotNo._ChChannel No.
ii.
“2” shows the real time measure value of the selected channel. It also shows the color indication of the
channel’s trend plot.
iii.
“3” shows the color indication for each status bit.
iv.
“4” shows the trend plot of the status bits.
v.
Red line on the upside shows danger set point; yellow line shows alert set point; blue line shows measure
value of this channel.
vi.
Acknowledge Confirm: Click it to acknowledge the alarm.
vii. Pre: Click it to view real time trend plot of the previous channel. If the current channel is the first channel,
this button will be disabled.
viii. Next: Click it to view real time trend plot of the next channel. If the current channel is the last channel, this
button will be disabled.
z
ix.
Print: Click it to print the current trend plot window.
x.
Return: Click it to back to the bar graph window.
View history trend plot of the selected channel
Check “History Trend Plot” and then click OK button. Following picture shows you the history trend plot window of
the selected channel.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
i.
“1” shows the title of the trend plot. It is described as slotNo._ChChannel No.
ii.
“2” shows the measure value of the last sample on the current trend plot and color indication for the channel's
measure value.
iii.
“3” shows the color indication for measure value of each status bit.
iv.
“4” shows the trend plot for each status bit. When the bit returns 0, the bit is in normal; and when the bit
returns 1, the bit is in abnormal.
v.
The yellow rectangle displays the measure value and collected time of the selected sample on the trend plot.
vi.
“5” shows the history trend plot of the selected channel.
vii.
“6” shows time slider, date picker, time picker and Refresh button. You can use the time slider to change the
starting time of trend plot. Also you can use date picker and time picker to change the starting time of trend
plot. After you changed the date and time, you should click "Refresh" button to refresh the data and time on
the current trend plot window.
viii. Magnify: It is used to zoom in the trend plot. Click this button and drag a rectangle, the plot in this rectangle
will be magnified.
ix.
Restore: Click it to restore the magnified plot to original size.
x.
Pre: Click it to view history trend plot of the previous channel. If the current channel is the first channel, this
button will be disabled.
xi.
Next: Click it to view history trend plot of the next channel. If the current channel is the last channel, this
button will be disabled.
xii. Print: Click it to print the current trend plot window.
xiii. Return: Click it to back to the bar graph window.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
z
View alarm list of the selected channel
Check “Alarm List” and then click OK button. Time range window is launched. In this window, you can select the
time range in which the channel’s alarm events happened. If you want to view all alarm events under the selected
channel, you should check "Total alarm list" and then click OK button. If you want to view alarm events in certain
time range, you should check "Partial alarm list", and set the start time and ending time, and finally click OK button.
Following picture shows you the total alarm list of Slot5_Ch1.
i.
Each alarm list page can display maximum 50 alarm events. If the alarm events number exceeds 50, you
could go to other pages for more alarm events by clicking “Pre” and “Next” button.
z
ii.
Print: Click this button to print the current alarm list window.
iii.
Return: Click this button to back to the bar graph window.
View status list of the selected channel
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Check “Status List” and then click OK button. Following picture shows you the status list of Slot5_Ch1.
Status list show the channel’s real time measure value and status.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Setup
Click Setup button on the main window. You will be asked to enter the password. Default password is “password”.
Keyboard button: Clicking this button will open On-Screen Keyboard window. You are strongly recommended that do
not close this window when PCM370ForPT2060 software is in configuration status.
Click OK button after you entered the correct password. Below is the configuration window.
NOTE:
PCM370ForPT2060 software stops data collection when it is in configuration state.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Database Management
Click Database Management button on configuration window to open DB Management window.
Delete Channel Data…button:
Click this button to open Delete Channel Data window. In this window, you can delete one or more channels’ data.
Select a PT2060 Rack from Device Name list. Check the name of the channel of which data you want to delete and then
click Delete Data button to delete the selected channels’ data.
If you want to delete all channels’ data, you can directly check “Select All” and then click Delete Data button.
Backup Database…button
Use this command to backup the current database. Click Backup Database button and then select a backup path. If you
select the path “C:\PCM370ForPT2060”, the database will be saved as “C:\PCM370ForPT2060\vibrate”.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Restore Database…button
Use this command to restore the current database to a backup database. Click Restore Database button and then select the
path of the backup database.
If the database file is saved under path of “C:\PCM370ForPT2060”, you should select the path of
“C:\PCM370ForPT2060\vibrate”.
Clear Database…button
Use this command to empty the current database. Click Clear Database button and CAUTION window is launched.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
All data even the rack information will be removed after the operation. If you are sure to clear database, you should click
Yes button.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
System Setup
Click System Setup button on configuration window to open System Setup window. In System Setup Window you can set
unit and trend depth.
Trend depth is the maximum number of the points to generate a trend plot. The maximum value is 2000.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Modify Channel Name
Click Modify Channel Name button on configuration window to open Modify Channel Name window. In Modify
Channel Name Window, you can change the channel’s name.
Select a PT2060 Rack from Device Name list and select a channel under this PT2060 Rack, and then click Modify Name
button.
Enter the new name in the edit box and click OK button. The maximum length of the channel number is 10 characters.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Data Collection Setup
Click Data Collection Setup button on configuration window to open Data Collection Setup window.
In this window, you can set data collection condition for each PT2060 Rack.
z
Time Trigger: Check it to set time trigger condition. Please select start time and enter the time interval.
z
Alarm Trigger: If you check this option, the PT2060 Rack will be triggered when a channel under this PT2060
Rack alarms. When first alarm happens, PCM370ForPT2060 software will automatically collect all channels’ data
under the selected PT2060 Rack. When alarm happens, you are strongly recommended to click Acknowledge Alarm
button to acknowledge the alarm event. If you don’t acknowledge the alarm this time, and when the alarm happens
next time, PCM370ForPT2060 software won’t collect the data.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Custom Trend Setup
Click Custom Trend Setup button on configuration window to open Custom Trend Setup window. Custom Trend Setup
Window is used to set the custom trend plot type. With this function, you can view trend plots of several channels on a
window. This function helps you compare data from different channels.
Trend Type Name: Display the name of a custom trend type.
Number of Selected Channels: Display total number of the channels that are contained in a custom trend type.
Add...button
Click this button to add a new custom trend type.
NOTE: Maximum 8 custom trend plot types can be added. Each custom trend plot type can contain maximum 16
channels.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Select Device: Display the PT2060 Racks that are monitored by PCM370ForPT2060 software.
Available Channel: If you select a PT2060 Rack, all channels under this rack are displayed.
<<: Left shift button.
>>: Right shift button.
Trend Plot Type Name: In this field, you should enter the name for the new custom trend type. Maximum length of the
custom trend type name is 31 characters.
Selected Channel: This field lists the selected channels.
Channel Name: You can change the name of the selected channel in this field by clicking the channel in Selected
Channel List. If you select a channel from Available Channel list and click << to move it to Selected Channel, the full
name of the selected channel will be displayed in this field. Maximum length of the channel name is 9 characters. If the
channel name length exceeds 9 characters, PCM370ForPT2060 will automatically throw off the part that exceeds 9
characters and save the anterior 9 characters as the channel name.
Example to add a new trend plot type
Step1: Select the PT2060 Rack.
Step2: Select the channel in the Available Channel list and click << to add this channel to Selected Channel list. You can
change the name in edit box of "Channel Name". You should control the length of the channel name in 9 characters.
Step3: Repeat Step1 and Step2 until you add all the channels you want.
Step4: Enter the name for the new custom trend plot type in edit box of "Trend Plot Type".
Step5: Click OK.
Modify...button
Select the custom trend plot type in Custom Trend Setup window and then click Modify...button.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
In the window, you can change the name of this custom trend plot type. And you can change the name of the channels
contained in the current custom trend plot type. Also you can change the channel member in the custom trend plot type:
adding new channels or deleting some channels.
Delete...button
Select the custom trend plot type in Custom Trend Setup window and then click Delete...button. If you are sure to delete
the selected trend plot type, please click Yes on the below window.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Upload PT2060 Information
Click Upload PT2060 Information button on configuration window. Search Option window is launched. In this window,
you can change the communication parameters. After the parameters’ setting, PCM370ForPT2060 software will upload
the information from PT2060 Racks.
If PT2060 Racks use MODBUS-RTU transmission mode, you should select MODBUS-RTU. The communication
parameters of PT2060 Racks should be set as follows:
9
Baud Rate: 19200
9
Stop Bit: 2
9
Parity Bit: None
If PT2060 Racks use MODBUS-TCP transmission mode, you should select MODBUS-TCP. And also enter the Starting
IP and Port in related edit box.
9
Starting IP: You should enter the starting IP address of the PT2060 Racks. This address is a string of 4 numbers.
The address format is “A.B.C.D”. A should be from 1 to 223 and can’t be 127; B should be from 0 to 255; C should
be from 0 to 255; D should be from 0 to 255. PCM370ForPT2060 software will automatically scan the maximum 10
consecutive valid IP addresses that begin with the starting IP. Make sure the “A.B.C” fields of Rack IP are the
same as those of the host computer IP. For example: 5 PT2060 Racks in the system all use MODBUS-TCP
transmission mode. The IP address of the PT2060 Racks are “192.168.1.100”, “192.168.1.101”, “192.168.1.102”,
“192.168.1.103”, and “192.168.1.104”. So you should enter “192.168.1.100” in field of “Starting IP”.
9
Port: Default value is 502.
Click OK button on Search Option window after the setting, and then PCM370ForPT2060 will upload information of the
PT2060 Racks.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
NOTES:
1.
When the PT2060 Racks use MODBUS-RTU transmission mode and PCM370ForPT2060 can’t scan any PT2060
Racks, you will see following window:
2.
When the PT2060 Racks use MODBUS-TCP transmission mode and PCM370ForPT2060 can’t scan any PT2060
Racks, you will see following window:
3.
When PCM370ForPT2060 find the PT2060 Racks by the two transmission modes and the uploading fails due to
some error, you will see following window:
4.
When the uploading succeeded, you will see following window:
5.
If the information in PT2060 Racks is changed, you should re-upload the rack information.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Modify Password
Click Modify Password button on configuration window to open Modify password window. You can change the
password in this window. Enter the new password in the edit boxes twice and then click OK button.
NOTE: Maximum password length is 31 characters.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Acknowledge Alarm
NOTE: Acknowledge Alarm command has only effect on the PT2060 Racks that are set “Alarm Trigger” on Data
Collection Setup window below:
Acknowledge Alarm command is used to acknowledge the alarm event. You could see this button on two types of
windows in PCM370ForPT2060 software. They are the main window and the real time trend plot window. Acknowledge
Alarm buttons on the two types of windows do the same work. When the PT2060 Rack with the “Alarm Trigger” property
set alarms at the first time, PCM370ForPT2060 software will automatically collect the data. You must click Acknowledge
Alarm button to acknowledge the alarm event. Because if you don’t acknowledge the alarm, when the alarm happens next
time, PCM370ForPT2060 software will not collect the data.
If the un-acknowledged alarm exists, the light color before the alarmed PT2060 Rack or the bar graph of the alarmed
channel will keep flashing.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Trend Plot
PCM370ForPT2060 software displays two types of trend plots: real time trend plot and history trend plot. Moreover,
PCM370ForPT2060 software supports displaying trend plot of a single channel, a custom trend plot type, and all channels
under a PT2060 Rack. Following figure shows you the detailed classification of the trend plot.
For more details about real time trend plot and history trend plot of the single channel, you could refer to chapter of Bar
Graph.
z
View real time trend plot of a custom trend plot type
Directly click Trend Plot on the main window, and a menu pops up. The custom trend plot types that have been defined on
Custom Trend Setup window are listed on the menu.
For example, we have defined a custom trend plot type that is named “Slot5” and you should select “Slot5(Real Time)”
from the list. The real time trend plot window of the custom trend plot type “Slot5” is below:
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
NOTES:
1.
“1” shows the title of the trend plot. It is described as “custom trend type name(Real Time)”.
2.
“2” shows the real time measure value of the channels that are contained in the selected custom trend type. It also
shows the color indication of the channels’ trend plot. When a channel is in alert status, the color of the measure
value will display yellow; when a channel is in danger status, the color of the measure value will display red; when
there existed the un-acknowledged alarm in a channel, the channel’s measure value will keep flashing.
3.
“3” shows the real time trend plot of the channels that are contained in the selected custom trend type.
4.
Acknowledge Confirm: Click it to acknowledge the alarm.
5.
Print: Click it to print the current trend plot window.
6.
Return: Click it to back to the main window.
z
View real time trend plot of all channels under a PT2060 Rack
Select a PT2060 Rack for example PT2060(No.3) on the Device Bar. Click Trend Plot on the main window and a menu
pops up.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
For example, you select PT2060(No.3)(Real Time) from the list. The real time trend plot window of the selected
PT2060(No.3) is below:
NOTES:
1.
“1” shows the title of the trend plot. It is described as “PT2060(No.rack salve address)(Real Time)”.
2.
“2” shows the real time measure value of the channels under the selected PT2060 Rack. It also shows the color
indication of the channels’ trend plot. When a channel is in alert status, the color of the measure value will display
yellow; when a channel is in danger status, the color of the measure value will display red; when there existed the
un-acknowledged alarm in a channel, the channel’s measure value will keep flashing.
3.
“3” shows the real time trend plot of the channels under the selected PT2060 Rack.
4.
Acknowledge Confirm: Click it to acknowledge the alarm.
5.
Pre button and Next button: A page can display maximum 16 channels’ trend plot. If the total channel number
exceeds 16, you can use Pre button and Next button to go to other pages for additional channels’ trend plot.
6.
Print: Click it to print the current trend plot window.
7.
Return: Click it to back to the main window.
z
View history trend plot of a custom trend plot type
Directly click Trend Plot on the main window, and a menu pops up. The custom trend plot types that have been defined on
Custom Trend Setup window are listed on the menu.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
For example, we have defined a custom trend plot type that is named “Slot5” and you should select “Slot5(History)” from
the list. The real time trend plot window of the custom trend plot type “Slot5” is below:
NOTES:
1.
“1” shows the title of the trend plot. It is described as “custom trend type name(History)”.
2.
“2” shows the last sample’s measure value of the channels that are contained in the selected custom trend type. It also
shows the color indication of the channels’ trend plot.
3.
“3” shows the history trend plot of the channels that are contained in the selected custom trend type.
4.
The yellow rectangle displays the measure value and collected time of the selected sample on the trend plot.
5.
“4” shows time slider, date picker, time picker and Refresh button. You can use the time slider to change the starting
time range of trend plots. Also you can use date picker and time picker to change the starting time of trend plot. After
you change the date and time, you should click “Refresh” button to refresh the data and time on the trend plot
window.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
6.
Magnify: It is used to zoom in the trend plot. Click this button and drag a rectangle, the plot in this rectangle will be
magnified.
7.
Restore: Click it to restore the magnified plot to original size.
8.
Print: Click it to print the current trend plot window.
9.
Return: Click it to back to the main window.
z
View history trend plot of all channels under a PT2060 Rack
Select a PT2060 Rack for example PT2060(No.3) on the Device Bar. Click Trend Plot on the main window and a menu
pops up.
For example, you select PT2060(No.3)(History) from the list. The history trend plot window of the selected
PT2060(No.3) is below:
NOTES:
1.
“1” shows the title of the trend plot. It is described as “PT2060(No.rack salve address) (History)”.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
2.
“2” shows the last sample’s measure value of the channels under the selected PT2060 Rack. It also shows the color
indication of the channels’ trend plot.
3.
“3” shows the history trend plot of the channels under the selected PT2060 Rack.
4.
The yellow rectangle displays the measure value and collected time of the selected sample on the trend plot.
5.
“4” shows time slider, date picker, time picker and Refresh button. You can use the time slider to change the starting
time range of trend plots. Also you can use date picker and time picker to change the starting time of trend plot. After
you change the date and time, you should click “Refresh” button to refresh the data and time on the trend plot
window.
6.
Magnify: It is used to zoom in the trend plot. Click this button and drag a rectangle, the plot in this rectangle will be
magnified.
7.
Restore: Click it to restore the magnified plot to original size.
8.
Pre button and Next button: A page can display maximum 16 channels’ history trend plot. If the total channel
number exceeds 16, you can use Pre button and Next button to go to other pages for additional channels’ trend plot.
9.
Print: Click it to print the current trend plot window.
10. Return: Click it to back to the main window.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Alarm List
PCM370ForPT2060 software display two types of alarm list: alarm list of a single channel and alarm list of a PT2060
Rack. For more details about alarm list of the single channel, you could refer to chapter of Bar Graph.
View alarm list of a PT2060 Rack
Select the PT2060 Rack from Device Bar and then click Alarm List button on main window. Time range window is
launched. In this window, you can select the time range in which the selected PT2060 Rack’s alarm events happened. If
you want to view all alarm events under the selected PT2060 Rack, you should check “Total alarm list” and then click OK
button. If you want o view alarm events in certain time range, you should check “Partial alarm list”, and set the start time
and ending time, and finally click OK button.
Following picture shows you the total alarm list of PT2060(No.3).
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
NOTES:
1.
Each alarm list page can display maximum 50 alarm events. If the alarm events number exceeds 50, you could go to
other pages for more alarm events by clicking “Pre” and “Next” button.
2.
Print: click this button to print the current alarm list window.
3.
Return: click this button to back to the bar graph window.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Status List
PCM370ForPT2060 software display two types of status list: status list of a single channel and status list of a PT2060
Rack. For more details about status list of the single channel, you could refer to chapter of Bar Graph.
View status list of a PT2060 Rack
Select the PT2060 Rack from Device Bar and then click Status List button on main window. Following picture shows you
the status list of the selected PT2060 Rack.
Status list show measure value and status of all channels under the selected PT2060 Rack.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Help
Click Help on main window or press F1 on keyboard to view help file of PCM370ForPT2060 software.
Click title of “PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management” on main window to view About PCM370ForPT2060
Window.
Exit
Click Exit on main window to exit from the software.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
PCM370ForPT2060 Maintenance
Special Notes
1.
Measurement units of “HZ” and “RPM” in PT2060 are replaced with “EU” in PCM370ForPT2060 software.
2.
PCM370ForPT2060 software can monitor maximum PT2060 Racks at the same time. Only PT2060/10, PT2060/20,
PT2060/30, and PT2060/53 modules on PT2060 Racks are monitored. The total number of PT2060/10, PT2060/20,
PT2060/30, and PT2060/53 modules in all PT2060 Racks should be less than or equal to 32.
3.
When the configuration information on PT2060 Racks is changed, you should re-upload the information on
PCM370ForPT2060 software.
Troubleshooting
No PT2060 Racks are found
“No PT2060 Racks are found” window may appear when you are uploading the PT2060 Rack’s information.
Condition 1: When PT2060 Racks work in MODBUS-RTU transmission mode.
If PCM370ForPT2060 software can’t find any PT2060 Racks by MODBUS-RTU transmission mode, you will see the
following window:
In this condition, you should check the communication parameters’ setting on PT2060 Racks first by PT2060-CFG
software.
9
Baud Rate: 19200
9
Parity Bit: None
9
Stop Bit: 2
9
Slave Address: the value from 1 to 5 is invalid
After checked the settings on racks’ communication parameters, you can re-start PCM370ForPT2060 software and then
upload the PT2060 information again. If the software can’t find the PT2060 Racks yet, please check:
9
The PT2060 Racks are powered.
9
The cables are good.
9
The wiring between computer and PT2060 Racks is correct.
9
The PT2060/91 module on PT2060 Rack works normally.
Condition 2: When PT2060 Racks work in MODBUS-TCP transmission mode.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
If PCM370ForPT2060 software can’t find any PT2060 Racks by MODBUS-TCP transmission mode, you will see the
following window:
In this condition, you should check the settings on Starting IP and Port. And mark sure the IP setting on
PCM370ForPT2060 software matches the IP address of PT2060 Racks. And make sure the current Port is available.
After checked the settings on Starting IP and Port, you can re-start PCM370ForPT2060 software and upload the PT2060
information again. If the software can’t find the PT2060 Racks yet, please check:
9
The PT2060 Racks are powered.
9
The network cables are good.
9
The wiring between PT2060 Racks and computer is correct.
9
The PT2060/91 module on PT2060 Rack works normally.
Communication Error
“Communication Error” window may appear when you are uploading the PT2060 Rack’s information.
If the window pops up in process of uploading PT2060 Rack’s information, this means that PCM370ForPT2060 software
has found the PT2060 Rack and some unpredictable error happens in the uploading.
In this condition, you should upload the information again. If the communication error always happens, you should check
the modules on PT2060 Rack. Ensure that all modules work normally. You can use PT2060-CFG software to check that.
Communication Failed
“Communication Failed” window may appears when PCM370ForPT2060 software works in displaying status.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Please check:
9
The PT2060 Racks are powered;
9
All cables are good;
9
The parameters on PT2060 Racks match the parameters on PT2060 Racks;
After checked the connection between computer and PT2060 Racks, please re-start PCM370ForPT2060 software.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Appendix Glossary
This glossary is a partial list of terms and definitions used in the field of rotating machinery measurement, monitoring, and analysis.
These definitions are not universal, but are expressed in the context of this specialized field.
In some instances, ProvibTech
Corporation has redefined terms from other technical fields for its own purposes.
Alphabetical Index Abbreviations
* Absolute Vibration
Vibration of an object as measured relative to an inertial (fixed) reference frame. Accelerometers and velocity transducers measure
absolute vibration typically of machine housings or structures; thus they are referred to as seismic transducers or inertial transducers.
* Acceleration
The time rate of change of velocity. For harmonic motion, this is often expressed as g or a. Typical units for acceleration are feet per
second per second (ft/s2), meters per second per second (m/s2), or more commonly "g" (where g = acceleration of earth's gravity =
386.1 in/s2 = 32.17 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2). Acceleration measurements are generally made with piezoelectric accelerometers and are
typically used to evaluate high frequency machine casing or bearing housing response characteristics.
* Accelerometer
An accelerometer is an inertial transducer which converts the acceleration characteristic of vibration into a proportional electric signal.
* Acceptance Region
Trend information of the 1X or 2X vibration vectors (amplitude and phase lag angle) presented in polar format, or the shaft average
centerline position in Cartesian format. The user defines the normal Acceptance Region for each shaft radial vibration or position
measurement on the machine, based on historical data for the machine under all normal operating conditions.
Some systems provide hardware and/or software alarm (Alert and Danger) set point capability. Alarm set points are set independently
for maximum and minimum values of both amplitude and phase. Acceptance Region information is the most important indicator of a
shaft crack.
* Aero-derivative
Aircraft jet engines that have been adapted and modified for industrial use.
* Aliasing
False frequency components caused by sampling a dynamic signal at too low a sampling frequency. The sampling frequency must be
at least twice the highest frequency of interest or the highest frequency component in the signal. This effect can be eliminated by
adjusting the sampling frequency, or using a low-pass filter on the signal prior to sampling (anti-aliasing.) The primary disadvantage of
anti-aliasing (as is the case with virtually any type of filtering) is that phase and amplitude errors are incurred.
* Alignment
The positioning of machine components; bearings, rotors, casing, foundation, piping, etc., with respect to each other for efficient
transfer of power. Various alignment requirements utilize different techniques of cold and hot machine measurement including optical,
mechanical (dial indicators), electronic (proximity probes), and laser.
* Amplification Factor, Non-synchronous
A measure of the susceptibility of a rotor system vibration response to a non-synchronous harmonic exciting force at a rotor system
natural frequency.
Synchronous amplification factor differs from non-synchronous amplification factor due to the existence of
destabilizing tangential forces which depend on shaft rotative speed.
At high rotative speeds these destabilizing factors cause a
decrease in system quadrature dynamic stiffness and result in a non-synchronous amplification factor higher than the synchronous
amplification factor.
* Amplification Factor, Synchronous
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
A measure of the susceptibility of a rotor system vibration response to an imbalance-related exciting force when shaft rotative speed is
equal to a rotor system natural frequency. A calculation technique is similar to measuring the Q of a filter (the center frequency divided
by the bandwidth), i.e., the balance resonance speed divided by the difference between the speeds at the -3dB amplitude values.
Caution should be used when applying this latter method because of the potential mechanical abnormalities of machinery vibration
response.
In general, a high synchronous amplification factor indicates low system quadrature dynamic stiffness, whereas a low amplification
factor generally indicates high system quadrature dynamic stiffness.
Due to several factors, amplification factor measured during machine startup is different from that measured during coast down. Also
called machine Q, synchronous amplification factor differs from non-synchronous amplification factor by an amount related to the
existence of a tangential force which depends on actual shaft rotative speed. See Dynamic Stiffness, Quadrature.
* Amplitude
The magnitude of periodic dynamic motion (vibration). Amplitude is typically expressed in terms of signal level, e.g., millivolts or
milliamps, or the engineering units of the measured variable, e.g., mils, micrometres (for displacement), inches per second (for
velocity), etc. The amplitude of a signal can be measured in terms of peak-to-peak, zero-to-peak, root mean square, or average.
* Amplitude and Phase Versus Time (APHT)
An acronym used to describe the trend plot of plot vibration amplitude and phase data. This data may be presented in both Cartesian and
polar formats. Commonly used for 1X, 2X and nX vibration data.
* Anti-aliasing Filter
A low-pass filter which is used to eliminate false frequency components from the spectrum of a digitally sampled signal. See Aliasing.
* Anti-Swirl
A technique used in fluid handling machines to decrease or prevent the development of fluid circumferential flow around the rotor in
bearings and seals, and to improve rotor stability.
* Asynchronous or Non-synchronous
Vibration frequency component which is different than shaft rotative speed. Sometimes used to mean any vibration frequency which is
not an integer multiple or fraction of rotative frequency. See Synchronous.
* Attitude Angle
The included angle between the direction of the vector sum of all the unidirectional, steady state, radial loads (Preloads) on a rotor and
a line connecting the bearing and shaft centers. Sometimes confused with Rotor Position Angle, since the preload historically and
incorrectly, was considered to be primarily gravity on horizontal machines. See Rotor Position Angle and Eccentricity Ratio, Average.
* Average
An amplitude detection technique used for sine wave vibration signals; the half cycle average is 0.637 x zero-to-peak amplitude.
Average amplitude detection is not used by ProvibTech because machinery vibration signals are most often non-sinusoidal in form and
the peak-to-peak, or peak amplitude, cannot be correctly computed.
* Average Shaft Position
The static or average position of the shaft relative to a stationary component on the machine to which the probe is mounted. The most
common application is rotor axial thrust position relative to the thrust bearing. Another important application is shaft average radial
position in the bearing. These measurements are made using the dc (position) component of the proximity probe signal. Two proximity
probes mounted in an XY configuration are required for the two-dimensional radial position measurement.
* Axial
In the same direction as the shaft centerline.
* Axial Position
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
The average position, or change in position, of a rotor in the axial direction with respect to some fixed reference. Typically, the
reference is the thrust bearing support structure or other casing member to which the probe is mounted. The probe may observe the
thrust collar directly or some other integral, axial shaft surface, as long as it is within about 12 inches of the thrust bearing. Also called
thrust position. See Differential Expansion.
* Balance-of-Plant Machinery
That group of rotating machinery which is not critical to any part of the overall plant process. Many of these machines operate in
tandem or spared installations.
* Balance Resonance Speed
A shaft rotative speed (or speed region) which equals a natural frequency of the rotor system. When a rotor accelerates or decelerates
through this speed region, the observed vibration characteristics are (1) a peak in the 1X Amplitude and (2) a more rapid change in the
1X vibration phase lag angle.
* Balancing
Adjusting the radical mass distribution of a rotor so that the mass centerline (principal inertia axis) approaches or coincides with the
rotor rotational axis. This reduces the 1X lateral vibration of the rotor and the forces on the bearings due to imbalance inertia forces.
* Band-Pass Filter
A filter that has a single transmission band extending from a non-zero lower corner frequency to a finite upper corner frequency. The
corner frequencies are the frequencies on either side of the center frequency where the amplitude is attenuated by 3dB. At the center
frequency, the signal amplitude is not attenuated.
* Bandwidth
The span between the corner frequencies of a band-pass filter. Normally expressed in terms of frequency for constant bandwidth filters
and as a percent of the center frequency for constant percentage (constant Q) filters. See Band-Pass Filter.
* Blade Passing Frequency
A potential vibration frequency on any bladed machine (turbine, axial compressor, fan, propeller, etc.). It equals the number of blades
(on a disk or stage) times shaft rotative speed.
* Bode Plot
A pair of graphs in Cartesian format displaying the 1X vibration vector (phase and amplitude) response as a function of shaft rotative
speed. The Y axis of the top graph represents 1X phase lag angle, while the Y axis of the bottom graph represents 1X amplitude. The
common X axis represents shaft rotative speed. Sometimes called an imbalance response plot. Also used for 2X, 3X, ETC. .Vibration
response vectors.
* Bow
A shaft condition such that the geometric shaft centerline is not straight. Usually the centerline is bent in a single plane due to gravity
sag, thermal warpage, etc.; however, the bow may be three dimensional (corkscrew). Shaft bow can be detected by measuring the shaft
relative displacement with a proximity probe(s) at rotor slow roll speed. See Eccentricity Peak-to-Peak.
* Calibration Weight
Used in rotor balancing procedures, a weight of known magnitude which is placed on the rotor at a known location, under known
operating conditions, in order to measure the resulting change in machine 1X vibration response.
In effect, such a procedure
"calibrates" the rotor system (a known input is applied, and the resultant output is measured) for its susceptibility to imbalance.
Sometimes called "trial weight"
* Campbell Diagram
A diagram used in rotating machinery design. A tool for selecting and checking shaft operational rotative speeds and other possible
forcing function frequencies against the spectrum of natural frequencies to avoid resonances. The X axis represents the various
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
possible excitation frequencies, i.e., rotative speed (1X), oil whirl (.40-.48X), blade or vane passing frequencies, gear mesh frequencies,
etc. The Y axis represents the lateral and torsional natural frequencies. The term is sometimes used incorrectly to describe the Cascade
Plot and Waterfall Plot. See torsional vibration
* Cartesian Format
A rectangular graphical format consisting of a vertical (Y) axis and a horizontal (X) axis. This format is used to graph the results of one
variable as a function of another; e.g., vibration amplitude versus time (trend), amplitude versus frequency (spectrum) and nX
amplitude versus shaft rotative speed (Bode).
* Cascade Plot
A graph in Cartesian format displaying amplitude versus frequency spectra at series shaft rotative speeds. Shaft rotative speed and
amplitude are usually presented on two separate vertical axes. Frequency is measured on the horizontal (X) axis. This data format is
used to evaluate the change in vibration frequency characteristics during machine transient conditions. See Waterfall Plot.
* Casing Expansion
A measurement of the axial position of the machine casing relative to a fixed reference, usually the foundation. The measurement is
typically made with an LVDT installed on the foundation at the opposite end of the machine from the point where the casing is attached
to the foundation. Changes in casing axial position are the result of thermal expansion and contraction of the casing during startup and
shutdown. The measurement is usually incorporated as part of a TSI system.
* Center Frequency
For band-pass filters the arithmetic center of a constant bandwidth filter or the geometric center (midpoint on a logarithmic scale) of a
constant percentage filter.
* Channel
A transducer and the instrumentation hardware to display its output signal.
* Cold Water Stands
An arrangement of piping and brackets installed along a machine foundation for hot alignment measurements. Proximity probes
observe exposed shaft areas or targets on the machine casing from brackets through which water circulates. This provides a thermally
stable reference for the alignment measurement.
* Communications Processor
An interface module used in an on-line monitoring system to communicate data from the monitor rack to the computer. ProvibTech
Communications Processors include Dynamic Data Manager (steady state static data and steady state dynamic data), Transient Data
Manager (steady state, transient static data and transient dynamic data), and Process Data Manager (process variable data).
* Constant Bandwidth Filter
A band-pass filters having a fixed frequency bandwidth regardless of center frequency.
* Constant Percentage Filter
A band-pass filters whose bandwidth is a fixed percentage of the center frequency. Also called constant Q filter.
* Critical Machinery
That group of rotating equipment which is absolutely necessary to a major part of the plant process. When critical machinery is not
operating, that part of the process is not operating. Machines in this category are usually un-spared and are typically monitored
continuously.
* Critical Speed(s)
In general, any shaft rotative speed which is associated with high (dangerous level) vibration amplitude. Often, critical speed is used to
describe a shaft rotative speed equal to a rotor system natural frequency. This is more correctly called a balance resonance speed.
* Critical Speed Map
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An XY (Cartesian) diagram used in rotating machinery design as a tool to approximate the effect of changes in bearings supports, and
pedestal designs on system natural frequencies. The X axis represents bearing stiffness and the Y axis represents rotor system natural
frequency.
* Cross Axis Sensitivity
The ratio of change in the signal output to an incremental change in the input along any axis perpendicular to the sensitive axis of an
inertial (seismic) transducer.
* Cross Talk
Interference or noise in a transducer signal or channel which originates in another transducer or channel. When using proximity probes,
cross talk can occur when the tips of two (or more) probes are too close together. The interaction of the probes' electromagnetic fields
causes a noise component in each of the transducers' output signals. The frequency of the noise component is the difference (beat
frequency) of the two proximate oscillator frequencies.
* Cycle
One complete sequence of values of a periodic quantity.
* Decibels
A numerical expression of the ratio of the power or voltage levels of electrical signals. dB = 10 log P1/P2 = 20 log V1/V2.
* Difference Analysis
A method for evaluating the change in a measurement variable. Two sets of data are collected at different points in time, or under
different conditions, and are subtracted from each other.
* Differential Expansion
The measurement of the axial position of the rotor with respect to the machine casing at some distance from the thrust bearing. Changes
in axial rotor position relative to the casing affect axial clearances and are usually the result of thermal expansion during startup and
shutdown. The measurement is typically made with a proximity probe transducer mounted to the machine casing and observing an
axial surface (e.g., collar) of the rotor. The measurement is usually incorporated as part of a TSI system.
* Differential Phase
A technique which measures the phase difference between vibration signals of a chosen single frequency at different longitudinal
locations on a rotor system. It is used for location of the source of instability. The vibration signal whose phase leads all others usually
indicates the transducer location closest to the source of the instability.
* Direct Data
Data or a signal, which represents the original transducer signal. Sometimes called unfiltered, raw, all pass, or overall data or signal.
* Displacement
The change in distance or position of an object relative to a reference. Machinery vibration displacement is typically a peak-to-peak
measurement of the observed vibrational motion, and is usually expressed in units of mils or micrometres. Proximity probes measure
displacement directly. Signal integration is required to convert a velocity signal to displacement.
* Dual Path
A signal conditioning technique used in vibration monitors whereby a single transducer input is processed through two separate signal
conditioning paths in the monitor.
Each signal conditioning path can have its own engineering units of measurement (e.g.,
displacement and velocity), optional filtering, alarm set points and displays.
* Dual Probe
A transducer set consisting of a proximity probe and velocity transducer installed radially at the same point (usually in a common
junction box on the machine bearing housing). Four separate measurements are provided by this transducer system. The proximity
probe measures (1) shaft relative radial position within the bearing clearance, and (2) shaft dynamic motion relative to the bearing. The
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velocity transducer measures (3) machine casing absolute vibration. When the velocity signal is integrated to displacement and added
to the shaft relative signal, the summation represents (4) shaft absolute motion.
* Dual Voting
A logical AND relationship between two independent monitor inputs; they must agree before any action is taken. For example, two
transducer input signals must both exceed an amplitude set point (usually the Danger set point only) before an actual alarm condition is
indicated by the monitor. If only one transducer input exceeds the set point, then no alarm is initiated in the monitor.
* Dynamic Data
Data (steady state and/or transient) which contain that part of the transducer signal representing the dynamic (e.g., vibration)
characteristics of the measured variable. Typical dynamic data presentations include Orbit, Timebase, spectrum, Polar, Bode, Cascade,
and Waterfall. From this data it is possible to derive static data such as amplitude, frequency filtered amplitude, and phase lag angle
from the signal. See Steady State Dynamic Data and Transient Dynamic Data.
* Dynamic Stiffness
Spring stiffness of the mechanical system complemented by the dynamic effects of mass and damping which act against an applied
dynamic force to limit vibration response.
* Dynamic Stiffness, Direct
The component of mechanical system Dynamic Stiffness, consisting of modal mass, stiffness, and cross couple damping terms, which
collinearly opposes the applied force.
* Dynamic Stiffness, Quadrature
The component of a Dynamic Stiffness mechanical system Dynamic Stiffness in a fluid environment, consisting of 1) the viscous
damping (the reaction of the fluid when the shaft presses on it); and 2) the fluid wedge support term (the reaction of the shaft when the
fluid pushes on it).
The latter is cross-coupled stiffness (tangential force component).
Quadrature dynamic stiffness acts
perpendicularly to the applied force (90 degrees out of phase).
* Eccentricity, Mechanical
The variation of the outer diameter of a shaft surface when referenced to the true geometric centerline of the shaft. Out-of-roundness.
See Mechanical Runout.
* Eccentricity Peak-to-Peak
The measurement of shaft bow at slow roll speed. The shaft bow may be due to; (1) fixed mechanical bow, (2) temporary thermal bow,
or (3) temporary bow due to any sort of sag or bow at rest, sometimes called gravity bow.
* Eccentricity Ratio, Average
A dimensionless quantity representing the average position of the shaft within the bearing (or seal). The average eccentricity ratio,
obtained by dividing the distance between the average position of the shaft centerline and the bearing (seal) centerline by the radial
clearance, can vary between zero and one. Zero represents the shaft concentric with the bearing (seal), and one represents the shaft in
contact with the bearing (seal). A trend of decreasing eccentricity ratio can indicate a potential stability problem. See Rotor Position
Angle and Attitude Angle.
* Eccentricity Ratio, Dynamic
A dimensionless quantity representing the instantaneous position of the shaft within the bearing (or seal). The dynamic eccentricity
ratio, obtained by dividing the distance between shaft and bearing (seal) centerlines by the radial clearance, can vary between zero and
one. Zero represents the shaft concentric with the bearing (seal), and one represents the shaft in contact with the bearing (seal). See
Eccentricity Ratio, Average.
* Eddy Current
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Electrical current which is generated in a conductive material when such material intercepts the electromagnetic field of a proximity
probe.
* Electrical Runout
A noise component in the output signal of a proximity probe transducer system resulting from non-uniform electrical conductivity and
magnetic permeability properties of the observed material. Also caused by local (spot) magnetic fields on the circumference of the
shaft surface. A change in the Proximate output signal which does not result from a probe gap change (dynamic motion or change in
average shaft position). The error repeats exactly with each shaft revolution. See Mechanical Runout.
* Element Passage Frequency
(EPx) For purposes of studying rolling element bearings, using either bearing housing transducers or the ProvibTech REBAM system,
EPx is a symbolic indication of the rate at which rolling elements pass a fixed point on either the inner or outer race. Harmonics of the
element passage frequency are then indicated as 2EPx, 3EPx, .., nEPx.
* Error
The difference between the indicated value and the true value of the measured variable. It is often expressed as relative error, i.e., as a
percent of the output reading of the transducer.
* Essential Machinery
That group of rotating equipment which is critical to part of the plant process. When essential machinery is not operating, the overall
plant is not operating to full capacity. Machines in this category can be spared or un-spared and are typically monitored continuously.
* Filter
Electronic circuitry designed to pass or reject a specific frequency band of a signal.
* Fluid Circumferential Average Velocity Ratio
A dimensionless ratio of the average rate of rotation of a fluid (in a bearing or seal clearance or in rotor to stator periphery) in the
direction of shaft rotation divided by shaft rotative speed. Lambda times rotative speed is the angular velocity at which the fluid force
rotates. Sometimes this is used as the ratio of oil (fluid) whirl frequency to rotative frequency (approximate value).
* Fluid Induced Instabilities
Rotor self-excited lateral vibrations (whirl and whip) due to fluid/solid interaction in bearings, seals, and other "cylinder within a
cylinder'' parts of a machine.
Whirl causes the shaft dynamic motion to be forward and circular (or elliptical), and at a frequency proportional to shaft rotative speed.
The vibration frequency of whirl is a function of the fluid circumferential average velocity in the bearing, seal or rotor periphery.
Typically whirl for bearings varies from 0.3X to 0.49X (just less than one-half of shaft rotative speed).
Whip occurs when whirl vibration frequency approaches a rotor system's natural frequency, most often the rotor first balance
resonance. The mechanism is not limited to oil lubricated bearings, but can occur when any fluid (e.g., oil, steam, process gas, etc.) is
enclosed within a small clearance area between two body surfaces, one of which is rotating and dragging the enclosed fluid into
circumferential rotation. While the fluid average frequency is then usually below half rotative speed, changes may occur when the fluid
is tangentially accelerated, for instance due to recirculation, or decelerated such as in anti-swirl seals.
* Forced Vibration
The response vibration of a mechanical system due to a forcing function (exciting force). Typically, forced vibration has the same
frequency at that of the exciting force.
* Free Vibration
Vibration response of a mechanical system following an initial perturbation (change of position, velocity or force). Depending on the
kind of perturbation, the mechanical system responds with free vibrations at one or more of its natural frequencies.
* Frequency
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The repetition rate of a periodic vibration per unit of time. Vibration frequency is typically expressed in units of cycles per second
(Hertz) or cycles per minute (to more easily relate to shaft rotative speed frequency). In fact, since many common machine
malfunctions produce vibration which has a fixed relationship to shaft rotative speed, vibration frequency is often expressed as a
function of shaft rotative speed. 1X is a vibration with a frequency equal to shaft rpm, 2X vibration is twice shaft rpm, 0.5X is a
frequency equal to one-half shaft rpm, etc.
* Frequency Component
The amplitude, frequency and phase characteristics of a component of a dynamic signal.
* Frequency Response
The measured amplitude and phase response characteristics of a mechanical or electronic system with respect to frequency.
*g
The value of acceleration yielded by the force of earth's gravity, which varies somewhat with latitude and elevation. By international
agreement, 9.8 m/s2 = 386 in/s2 = 32.17 ft/s2 has been chosen as the standard acceleration due to gravity.
* Gear Mesh Frequency
A potential vibration frequency on any machine which contains gears. It equals the number of gear teeth times shaft rotative speed.
* Harmonics
A series of vibration signal components whose frequencies are integer multiples of the fundamental, or lowest frequency, vibration
component.
* Harmonic Vibration
Sinusoidal vibration with a single frequency component.
* Heavy Spot
A term used to describe the position of imbalance. It is the angular location of the imbalance vector (the summation of the mass
imbalance distribution) at a specific lateral location (in one plane) on a rotor. See High Spot.
* Hertz
(Hz) Unit of frequency measurement in cycles per second.
* High Frequency
For purposes of studying rolling element bearings, a frequency range, typically above 5 kHz, used to measure the very high vibration
frequencies associated with microscopic faults in bearing components.
While this technique may provide the earliest warning of impending bearing failure for some types of bearing faults, there are several
other machine malfunctions which can produce vibrations in this range (e.g., cavitation, rubs, etc.) In addition, the high frequency
measurement technique sometimes provides warnings too early, long before any maintenance (bearing replacement) needs to be
considered.
* High-Pass Filter
A filter having a single transmission band extending from some finite lower corner frequency (defined as the point where amplitude is
attenuated by 3 dB) to infinite frequency (or the upper frequency response limit of the transducer or instrument).
* High Spot
The term used to describe the response of the shaft due to imbalance force. It is the angular location on the shaft directly under the
vibration probe when the shaft makes its closest approach to that probe. Also, the location on the shaft surface under a proximity probe
when the 1X filtered vibration signal produced by the probe reaches its positive peak.
* Hysteresis
The difference in levels (dead band) between the trigger threshold and the reset designed to reduce false triggering.
* Inertially Referenced
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Motion that is referenced to a mass whose inertia keeps it stationary, yielding absolute motion. Also describes a transducer with an
internal inertial reference mass.
* Influence Vector
Used in balancing, the 1X vibration response vector due to a calibration weight, divided by the calibration weight vector at a particular
shaft rotative speed. The measured vibration vector divided by the unbalance force vector represents the rotor's transfer function. If the
description of the influence vector contains the shaft rotative speed term and the radius at which the calibration weight is placed on (or
removed from) the rotor, the influence vector is the inverse of the synchronous dynamic stiffness vector. See Influence Vector, Direct
and Influence Vector, Longitudinal.
* Influence Vector, Direct
An influence vector where the measured vibration vector and the unbalance force vector are at or near the same plane along the rotor
axis.
* Influence Vector, Longitudinal
An influence vector where the measured vibration vector and the unbalance force vector are at different longitudinal planes along the
rotor axis.
* Integrator
An electronic circuit that converts a velocity signals to a displacement signal or converts an acceleration signal to a velocity signal.
* Isotropic Supports
Rotor support systems that provide uniform dynamic stiffness in all radial/lateral directions.
* Keyphasor Pulse
That change in the output signal of the Keyphasor Transducer caused by the Keyphasor Event.
* Keyphasor Transducer
A transducer that produces a once-per-shaft-turn voltage pulse, called the Keyphasor signal. This signal is used primarily to measure
shaft rotative speed and as a reference for measuring vibration phase lag angle. It is an essential element in measuring rotor slow roll
bow/runout information.
The Keyphasor transducer is typically a proximity probe (recommended for permanent installations in which the probe observes a
physical gap change event), an optical pickup (used for temporary installations in which the pickup observes a change in reflectivity
event) or a magnetic pickup. Keyphasor is a ProvibTech registered trademark.
* Linearity (Calibration)
The closeness of a calibration curve to a specific straight line, expressed as the maximum deviation of any calibration point on a
specified straight line, in any one calibration increment.
* Load Zone
An angular region around a rolling element bearing where there is maximum compressive force between the shaft and the outer race of
the bearing. Probes for bearing activity measurement (REBAM) would normally be placed in this zone for best (or most sensitive)
measurements. Also, the direction of steady state load on any, including fluid film, bearing. "Normal" load can result from the force of
gravity (for horizontal machines), gear mesh forces, fluidic forces, etc.
* Low-Pass Filter
A filter having a single transmission band extending from zero frequency (or the lower frequency response limit of the transducer or
instrument) to some finite upper corner frequency (defined as the point where amplitude is attenuated by 3 dB).
* LVDT
Acronym for Linear Variable Differential Transformer. A contacting displacement transducer consisting of a movable core and a
stationary transformer. The core is attached to the part to be measured and the transformer is attached to a fixed reference. The most
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common application is casing expansion measurement where the core is attached to the casing and the transformer (LVDT housing) is
attached to the machine foundation. Also used for valve position measurements.
* Mechanical Runout
A noise component in the output signal of a proximity probe transducer system; a probe gap change which does not result from either a
shaft centerline position change or shaft dynamic motion. Common sources include out-of-round shafts, scratches, chain mark, dents,
rust or other conductive build-up on the shaft, stencil mark, flat spots, and engravings. See Runout and Electrical Runout.
* Micro-inch
A unit of length or displacement equal to 10^-6 inches or 10^-3 mils.
* Micro-metre
A unit of length or displacement equal to 10^-6 metres. One micro-metre equals 0.0394 mil. Also called micron (obsolete).
* Micro-Prox
A high sensitivity ProvibTech Proximitor used to accurately and rapidly measure probe gap changes of a few micro-inches.
* Mil
A unit of length or displacement equal to 0.001 inch. One mil equals 25.4 micrometres.
* Mode Shape of the Rotor
The deflected shape of a rotor at a specific rotative speed caused by an applied specific forcing function such as imbalance. Note, this is
a three dimensional presentation of rotor lateral (See Lateral Vibration) deflection in vibration mode along the shaft axis.
* Modulation, Amplitude (AM)
The process whereby variation in the amplitude of a vibration signal results in modulation of the amplitude of a carrier signal. AM is
used when high frequency signal recordings are needed (i.e. gear mesh). AM tape recorders, also called direct, have a finite lower
frequency response above zero (dc) Hertz. They capture dynamic data above the lower response frequency, but not the average shaft
position data (dc voltage) which is available from a proximity probe signal.
* Modulation, Frequency (FM)
The process whereby variation in the amplitude of a vibration signal results in a variation a carrier frequency. FM tape recordings have
a low frequency response down to dc (zero Hertz). This allows recording of proximity probe dc gap voltages which represent average
shaft position.
* Narf
Acronym for Natural Axial Resonant Frequency; usually refers to axially compliant couplings.
* Natural Frequency
The frequency of free vibration of a system. The frequency at which a lightly damped system will oscillate upon momentary
displacement from its steady position by a transient force. The natural frequencies of a multiple degree of freedom system are the
frequencies of the normal modes of vibration. See Resonance.
* Nodal Point (Node)
A point of minimum (or zero) shaft deflection in a specific mode shape. May readily change location along the shaft axis due to changes
in residual imbalance or other forcing functions, or due to changes in dynamic stiffness such as increased bearing clearance. This is
often a location of minimum shaft absolute displacement. Vibration immediately on each side of the node is 180 degrees out of phase.
See Pivotal/Conical Diagram under Mode Shape.
* Noise
Any component of a transducer signal which does not represent the variable intended to be measured.
* Non-symmetric (Anisotropic) Rotor
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A rotor whose cross-section has two different geometric moments of inertia (for example, an elliptical cross-section) and/or the
supports have different stiffness characteristics in the horizontal and vertical directions. See Symmetric Rotor.
* Notch Filter
A filter which has a single rejection band extending from a finite lower cutoff frequency greater than zero to a finite upper cutoff
frequency. Frequencies within the rejection band are eliminated or attenuated while frequencies outside the rejection band are retained.
The opposite of a band-pass filter.
* Nulling
Subtraction of the shaft slow roll speed value for 1X electrical runout or mechanical runout vector component from the corresponding
transducer signal nX vector component.
* Nyquist Plot
A type of graphical presentation in polar format used to evaluate the stability of an automatic control system. This term should not be
used to describe a similar polar presentation of machine vibration vector data. See Polar Plot.
* Octave
A 2 to 1 ratio between two frequencies. An octave higher than some frequency F is 2F; an octave lower is one-half F.
* 1X
In a complex vibration signal, notation for the signal component that occurs at the rotative speed frequency. Also called synchronous.
* 1/2X, 1/3X, 2/5X, 4/9X, ETC.
In a complex vibration signal, notations for signal components having frequencies equal to fractions of rotative speed. Also called
sub-harmonic and sub-synchronous.
* Optical Pickup
A non-contacting transducer which emits light from an internal infrared LED, and detects the level of reflected light with a
phototransistor. The most common application of this pickup is as a temporary Keyphasor transducer, observing a once-per-turn
change in shaft reflectivity (dark or light paint spot or small strip of highly reflective tape on the shaft).
* Orbit
The dynamic, two dimensional path of the centerline motion of a machine component, which is observed by XY transducers, in the
plane of those transducers. When the transducers are XY shaft proximity probes, it is the shaft centerline lateral vibration, called
precession. Observed with an oscilloscope in the X versus Y mode. Sometimes called orbital motion, or Lissajous presentation.
* Outer Race
For rolling element bearings, a generally cylindrical component which is positioned between the rolling elements and the bearing
housing.
* Peak-to-Peak Value
The difference between positive and negative extreme values of an electronic signal or dynamic motion. See Amplitude.
* Period
The time required for a complete oscillation or for a single cycle of events. The reciprocal of frequency.
* Periodic Vibration
Oscillatory motion whose amplitude pattern repeats in time.
* Perturbation
Application of a forcing function to a system by means of an external device in order to study the system characteristics. Also called
excitation.
* Perturbation Technique
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A part of modal testing. A method of identifying the dynamic characteristics of a mechanical system (rotors in particular) by comparing
a known input force to the measured response. The perturbation force may be at any frequency, including shaft rotative frequency, (as
in the case of unbalance) and zero frequency (zero speed), as in the case of a steady state load.
The perturbation force may be applied in one direction only (unidirectional), or in two directions simultaneously, as in the case of a
circular or elliptical force. If the non-synchronous perturbation force is applied to the rotating shaft in two axes simultaneously, it may
be forward (in the direction of shaft rotation) or reverse (against the direction of rotation).
Direct perturbation of the rotating shaft by a rotating force input of known force amplitudes, phase and frequency across ranges of all of
these, while measuring the motion response vectors of the rotor system at the same frequency, can yield the meaningful dynamic
stiffness of a rotor system. This methodology can be applied for identification of nonlinear, non-symmetric, and discontinuous
systems.
A "gong” test (impulse test) may yield some basic simple data. A unidirectional swept sine perturbation applied to the support system
is an improvement over the "gong" test. Swept sine input to the rotor by a known displacement is another improvement, but the readout
must be the response force vector which is very difficult to instrument accurately.
* Phase Lag Angle
The timing relationship, in degrees, between two vibration signals, or a Keyphasor pulse and a vibration signal; also, the phase
difference between two signals such as the input force signal and output response signal. The "lag" corresponds to "minus" in
mathematical formulations.
* Piezoelectric
Any material which provides a conversion between mechanical and electrical energy. For a piezoelectric crystal, if mechanical stresses
are applied on two opposite faces, electrical charges appear on another pair of faces.
* Plant Summary Report
Information available from on-line computerized monitoring systems typically representing the status of all measured variables,
monitors, alarms, and trends for a user-defined time period (usually the previous work shift or 24 hours).
* Polarity
In relation to transducers, the direction of output signal change (positive or negative) caused by motion toward or away from the
transducer in its sensitive axis. Convention is that motion toward the transducer will produce a positive signal change.
* Polar Format
A graphical format consisting of a center reference point surrounded by concentric circles. Vector information is graphed on this format
by plotting magnitude (vibration amplitude) as the length of a radial line, and phase (vibration phase lag angle) as the clock position of
the line.
* Polar Plot
Polar format presentation of the locus of the 1X (or 2X,...) shaft vibration vector from a single channel as a function of shaft rotative
speed. The Polar Plot is generated by in-phase and quadrature signals, usually during machine startup or coast down (transient
operation). This plot is sometimes incorrectly called a Nyquist Plot.
* Preload
A unidirectional, radial (side) load due to external or internal mechanisms. Categorized as a "soft" or "hard" preload. A soft preload
may shift in direction or magnitude, and can act to stabilize or destabilize the dynamic condition of the machine. A hard preload is
usually fixed and acts to stabilize.
* Prime Spike
In the study of rolling element bearings, a frequency range which encompasses, as a minimum, the primary bearing fault frequencies
and harmonics.
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* Probe Gap
The physical distance between the face of a proximity probe tip and the observed surface. The distance can be expressed in terms of
displacement mils, micrometres, or in terms of voltage (millivolts). Standard polarity convention dictates that a decreasing gap results
in an increasing (less negative) output signal.
* Probe
Specifically, a proximity probe transducer, although sometimes used to describe any transducer.
* Probe Orientation
The angular location of a probe with respect to a polar coordinate system when viewed from the driver end of the machine. Typically,
zero degrees are at top dead center (vertical) or at the horizontal right (3 o'clock) position on the coordinate system.
* Proximitor
A ProvibTech signal conditioning device which sends a radio frequency signal to an eddy current proximity probe, demodulates the
probe output, and provides output signals proportional to both the average and dynamic probe gap distances. Also called an
oscillator-demodulator. Proximitor is a ProvibTech registered trademark.
* Proximity Probe
A non-contacting device which measures the displacement motion and position of an observed surface relative to the probe mounting
location. Typically, proximity probes used for rotating machinery measurements operate on the eddy current principle and measure
shaft displacement motion and position relative to the machine bearing(s) or housing. See Relative Transducer.
* Q, Filter
Filter selectivity, i.e, the relative band of frequencies passed or rejected by the filter. The narrower the band of frequencies, the higher
the Q, and the broader the band, the lower the Q. This is computed by Q = fc / delta-f where fc is the center frequency and delta-f is the
bandwidth of the filter at the 3dB points.
* Q, Machine
Derived from Q, Filter. Used to describe the synchronous amplification factor of a rotor system. See Synchronous Amplification
Factor.
* Radial
A direction on a machine which is perpendicular to the shaft centerline in the XY plane; usually refers to direction of shaft lateral or
casing motion or measurement.
* Radial Vibration
Shaft dynamic motion or casing vibration which is measured in a direction perpendicular to the shaft axis.
* Raster Plot
A type of Cascade or Waterfall plot, usually with a skewed Y axis so that the plot has an isometric appearance.
* Real Time Analyzer
A term used to describe an instrument which displays a vibration frequency spectrum.
* REBAM
An acronym for Rolling Element Bearing Activity Monitor, which is a ProvibTech method and system for monitoring and analyzing
the performance of rolling element bearings using eddy current transducers and Micro-PROX .
* Relative Vibration
Vibration measured relative to a chosen reference. Proximity probes measure shaft dynamic motion and position relative to the probe
mounting, usually the bearing or bearing housing.
* Relative Transducer
A proximity probe observing shaft motion relative to the probe mounting, usually the bearing or bearing housing.
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* Repeatability
The ability of a transducer or readout instrument to repeat measurements, under the same conditions, within narrow limits. Precision is
the measure of repeatability.
* Resolution
The smallest change in applied stimulus that will produce a detectable change in the instrument output.
* Resonance
The condition in which a forcing frequency coincides with a natural frequency of the system. A resonance typically is identified by an
amplitude peak, accompanied by a maximum rate of change of phase lag angle. See Balance Resonance Speed.
* Rod Drop
On a reciprocating compressor, the measurement of the position change of the piston rod relative to a fixed reference point as the piston
drops in the cylinder due to piston rider ring deterioration. The position measurement can indicate either the average position of the rod
over the full stroke or the instantaneous position of the rod at a specific point in the stroke.
* Rod Drop, Average Position
On a reciprocating machine, the measurement of the average position change of a piston rod over the full stroke of the piston relative to
a fixed reference on the cylinder. This measurement is usually achieved by evaluating the average dc gap voltage change of a proximity
probe mounted to the fixed reference.
* Rod Drop, Instantaneous Position
On a reciprocating machine, the measurement of the position change of a piston rod at one specific event during the full stroke of the
piston, relative to a fixed reference of the cylinder. This measurement is usually achieved by evaluating the instantaneous dc gap
voltage change of a proximity probe mounted to the fixed reference. Timing of the measurement is provided by a Keyphasor probe.
* Rolling Element Bearing
(Antifriction Bearing) A bearing which uses rolling elements (rollers or balls) to support the load of a rotating shaft and to minimize
friction.
* Rolloff
The rate of attenuation of amplitude and phase with respect to frequencies above (or below) a certain point. Thus a low-pass filter is
designed to provide amplitude and phase rolloff at high frequencies, and a high-pass filter is designed to provide rolloff at low
frequencies. Commonly rated in dB per octave.
* Rolling Elements
Components in a rolling element bearing (generally rollers or balls) which support the rotating load of a shaft.
* ROMIS Rotating Machinery Information Systems and Services
ProvibTech's ROMIS product offerings include on-line and periodic monitoring systems and diagnostic instruments/systems which
provide information for operations personnel, plant engineers, and rotating machinery specialists including: overall values, trends,
correlation of performance-related variables, steady-state dynamic data, and transient dynamic data. ROMIS is applicable to
transducer and monitoring systems, diagnostics and test equipment, and services.
* Root Mean Square (RMS)
Square root of the arithmetic average of a set of squared instantaneous values. Used as a measure of amplitude; rms equals 0.707 x peak
(sine wave only). (0.707 = 1/squareroot (2)). See Amplitude.
* Rotor Position Angle
The angle between an arbitrary reference through the center of a bearing (typically vertical down in a horizontal machine) and the line
connecting the bearing and shaft centers, measured in the direction of rotor rotation. Used to indicate the presence of abnormal preloads
on a machine, but NOT the stability of the rotor/bearing system. See Attitude Angle.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
* Rotor Vibration Region
As applied to the study of rolling element bearings, using either bearing housing transducers or the ProvibTech REBAM system, a
low-pass frequency range which includes vibration signals of the principal frequency components due to rotor/rolling element defects,
but excludes any significant frequency components due to internal bearing defects. Typically, this frequency range is from one-fourth
times shaft rotative speed (1/4X) to approximately three times shaft rotative speed.
* RTD
An acronym for Resistance Temperature Detector; a sensor which measures temperature and change in temperature as a function of
resistance.
* RUB
Machine malfunction consisting of contact between the rotating and stationary parts of a machine involving friction, impacting, and
changes in system stiffness.
* Runout Compensation
Electronic correction of a transducer output signal for the error resulting from runout. See Nulling
* Scale Factor
The change in output per change in input (sensitivity) of a transducer. Also, the factor by which a signal must be increased or decreased
to meet the input requirements of an instrument.
* Seismic Transducer
Any vibration transducer which measures the absolute vibration of an object. Accelerometers and velocity transducers measure
absolute vibration, typically of machine housing or structures, and thus are both referred to as seismic, or inertial, transducers.
* Sensitivity
The ratio of the change in the output to a change in the input. A typical sensitivity for a proximity probe transducer is 200 millivolts per
mil (7.84 volts per millimetre).
* Shaft Average Centerline Plot
Transient or trend plot of the shaft average radial centerline position within the bearing clearance, presented in Cartesian format. See
Average Shaft Position.
* Shaft Rotative Speed
The frequency at which a shaft is rotating at a given moment, usually expressed in units of revolutions per minute (rpm); may also be
expressed in radians per second (mostly for laboratory work). 100 rpm equals approximately 10 radians per second; (100 rpm = 100
PI/30 radians per second).
* Signal Attenuation
A desired reduction in amplitude of a signal without changing the frequency and phase. Also, the decrease in amplitude and phase that
results from the transmission of vibration energy from one machine part to another (e.g., shaft to bearing housing).
* Signal Conditioner
A device placed between a signal source and a readout instrument to change the signal. Examples: attenuators, preamplifiers, signal
converters (for changing one electrical quantity into another, such as volts to amps or analog to digital), and filters.
* Signal Gain
The increase (or decrease) in magnitude of a signal. Also, the amount of voltage amplification utilized to enlarge small electronic
signals up to full scale range on instruments such as FM tape recorders. This nondimensional number is usually in even steps of 2, 5,
and 10.
* Signature
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Term sometimes applied to a vibration frequency spectrum which is distinctive and special to a particular machine or component,
system or subsystem at a specific point in time, under specific machine operating conditions, etc. Often fails to include the basic signal
measurement of phase. Used for historical comparison of mechanical condition over the operating life of the machine.
* Slow Roll Speed
Low rotative speed at which dynamic motion effects from such forces as imbalance are negligible. The speed at which shaft bow and
runout can be measured.
* Spall
In rolling element bearings, a flake or chip of metal removed from one of the bearing races or from a rolling element. Spalling is
evidence of serious bearing degradation and may be detected during normal bearing operation by observing increases in the signal
amplitude of the high frequency or Prime Spike region vibration signals.
* Spectrum
Commonly a presentation of the amplitudes of a signal's components as a function of its frequency.
* Spectrum Plot
An XY plot in which the X axis represents vibration frequency and the Y axis represents vibration amplitude.
* Stability of a Mechanical System (Liapunoff Definition, Stability "In The Small")
A mechanical system is stable if external small perturbation of its regime will create a resultant small change of the previous steady
state regime. The perturbation can be introduced by applying an impulse force or changing the initial conditions of displacement and/or
velocity. A system is asymptotically stable if small perturbation causes a decaying transient response, leading to the previous steady
state regime.
Note that these definitions refer to some quantitatively undefined "small" actions. If a mechanical system exhibits several steady state
regimes of motion, the definitions apply equally to each one. Note also that, according to these definitions, oil whirl is stable (while the
rotor undergoes instability).
* Stability of a Mechanical System (Practical Definition)
A mechanical system is stable if any practical perturbation results in a system response with amplitudes within acceptable, prescribed
levels.1
* Stability of a Rotating Machine
A rotating machine is stable if, at operating speeds, the rotational motion of all rotating elements (shafts, disks, blades, etc.) and the
steady equilibrium of non-rotating parts (supports, bearings, cases, foundations, etc.) are not accompanied by various modes of
vibration with amplitudes exceeding prescribed acceptable levels. This definition also applies to machine startups and coast downs
when shaft rotative speed is variable.
* Static Data
Data which describes the quantitative characteristics of the measured parameter. Static data can also include quantitative values
describing the conditions under which the parameter was measured. For predictive maintenance purposes, static data is typically
presented in various forms of trend plot and displays/lists of current values. Examples of static data include vibration amplitude, phase
lag angle, frequency, average shaft position, shaft rotative speed, time, date, monitor alarm and OK status.
* Steady State Data
Data (static and/or dynamic) acquired from a machine, at constant shaft rotative speed.
* Steady State Dynamic Data
Dynamic data acquired under steady state machine conditions. Typical data presentations include orbit, timebase and spectrum. This
data can be instantaneously trended. See Dynamic Data and Steady State Data.
* Steady State Static Data
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Static data acquired under steady state machine conditions. Example: shaft centerline position. See Static Data and Steady State Data.
* Strain Gauge
A transducer which reacts to changes in strain, typically through changes in resistance.
* Stress
A force acting on a body (e.g., shaft) per unit area. Usually measured in terms of lbs/in^2 or Newton/meter^2.
* Sub-harmonic
Sinusoidal component of a vibration signal that is a sub-multiple (integer fraction) of a fundamental frequency.
* Sub-synchronous
Component of a vibration signal which has a frequency less than shaft rotative speed.
* Super-harmonic
Sinusoidal component of a vibration signal that is an integer multiple of a fundamental frequency.
* Super-synchronous
Component of a vibration signal which has a frequency greater than shaft rotative speed.
* Suppression
The practice of using electronic circuitry to arithmetically subtract (suppress) the amplitude of an unwanted signal (noise). It is not
recommended for vibration measurement and/or monitoring because most noise sources are vector, not scalar, quantities.
* Sweep Frequency Filter
A type of bandpass filter which is automatically swept (tuned) through a frequency range of interest. An instrument which incorporates
this type of filter can be used to generate a vibration frequency spectrum. A change in the frequency content of the measured signal
during the time required to sweep through the frequency range will cause the spectrum to smear.
* Swirl Ratio
See Fluid Circumferential Average Velocity Ratio.
* Synchronous
The component of a vibration signal that has a frequency equal to the shaft rotative frequency (1X).
* Thermocouple
A temperature sensing device comprised of two dissimilar metal wires which, when thermally affected (heated or cooled), produce a
proportional change in electrical potential at the point where they join.
* Threshold
The level at which a trigger or other function is initiated.
* Timebase Plot
A presentation of the instantaneous amplitude of a signal as a function of time. A vibration waveform can be observed on an
oscilloscope in the time domain.
* Torque
A measure of the tendency of a force to cause rotation. Equal to the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the line of
action of the force and the center of rotation.
* Torque, Average
The constant amplitude component of the moment (force couple) applied to a rotor, in order to sustain rotational speed, angular
acceleration or load requirements.
* Torque, Dynamic
The instantaneous amplitude of the time-varying component of the moment applied to a rotor, typically resulting from a variation in
driving load or torque.
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* Torque, Static
The force times the perpendicular distance between the force's line of action and the center of rotation (moment) as applied to a
structure (non-rotating).
* Torsional Vibration
Time variation of the angle of twist, typically measured in tenths of degrees pp.
* TorXimitorTM
A ProvibTech non-contacting, signal conditioning device which senses strain and outputs a signal proportional to torque.
TorXimitorTM continuously measures dynamic as well as static torque. TorXimitorTM is a trademark of ProvibTech Corporation.
* Transducer
A device for translating the magnitude of one quantity into another quantity. The second quantity often has units of measure different
from the first and serves as the source of a useful signal. Vibration transducers convert mechanical motion into a proportional
electronic signal (typically a voltage-proportional signal).
* Transient Data
Data (static and/or dynamic) acquired under transient machine conditions (startup and coast-down).
* Transient Dynamic Data
Dynamic data acquired under transient machine conditions. Typical transient dynamic data presentations include Polar, Bode and
Cascade. See Dynamic Data and Transient Data.
* Transient Static Data
Static data acquired under transient machine conditions. See Static Data and Transient Data.
* Transient Vibration
The temporarily sustained vibration of a mechanical system. It may consist of forced or free vibration or both. Usually transient
vibration is associated with instantaneous changes in machine condition such as speed, load, etc.
* Trend Data
The periodic recording/storage of static and/or dynamic data for the purpose of observing changes as a function of time. Trend data is
the most fundamental level of information in any predictive maintenance program.
* Trend Interval
The time period between consecutive data points on a Trend Plot.
* Trend Period
The complete time frame (beginning to end of data) of a Trend Plot
*Trend Plot
A presentation in Cartesian format or polar format of a plot with the measured variable versus time.
* Trigger
Any event which can be used as a timing reference. A trigger for an oscilloscope will initiate the sweep of the beam across the face of
the CRT. A trigger signal for a digital vector filter is a Keyphasor pulse which serves to align the center frequency of the band-pass
filter to shaft rotative speed. It provides a reference from which to measure shaft rotative speed, 1X amplitude and phase lag angle.
* Trip Multiplier
That function provided in a monitor system to temporarily increase the alarm (Alert and Danger) setpoint values by a specific multiple
(usually two or three). This function is normally applied by manual (operator) action during startup to allow a machine to pass through
high vibration speed ranges without monitor alarm indications. Such high vibration speed ranges may include system resonances and
other normal transient vibrations. Also called set point multiplier.
* TSI
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
Acronym for Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation. A TSI system is a continuous monitoring system generally used on turbogenerator
sets. It can include such measurement parameters as shaft radial vibration, shaft absolute vibration, axial position, differential
expansion, case expansion, valve position, eccentricity peak-to-peak, zero speed, and shaft rotative speed. The system may also include
a vector filter which measures vibration phase lag angle for each vibration frequency. The TSI system consists of measurement
transducers, monitors, interconnecting wiring and usually strip chart recorders or a microprocessor-based monitoring/data acquisition
system.
* 2X, 3X, ETC.
In a complex vibration signal, notation for signal components having frequencies equal to exact multiples of shaft rotative speed. Also
called harmonic, super-harmonic, and super-synchronous.
* Unbalance
Unequal radial mass distribution on a rotor system; a shaft condition where the mass centerline (principal inertial axis) does not
coincide with the geometric centerline. Also, the effective mass that causes rotor vibration.
* Valve Position
A measurement of the position of the process inlet valves on a machine, usually expressed as a percentage of the valve opening; zero
percent is fully closed, 100 percent is fully open. The measurement is usually made with an LVDT and is incorporated as part of a TSI
system.
* Vane Passing Frequencies
A potential vibration frequency on vaned impeller compressors, pumps, and other machines with vaned rotating elements. It is
represented by the number of vanes (on an impeller or stage) times shaft rotative speed.
* Vector
A quantity which has both magnitude and direction. For a vibration vector, magnitude is expressed as amplitude (displacement,
velocity, or acceleration) and direction as phase lag angle (degrees). For example, the 1X vibration vector measured at shaft operating
speed, e.g., for balancing purposes, will be described as a magnitude (mils or micrometres) acting in a particular direction (degrees).
The vector data presentation which is easiest to interpret is the polar format. See Acceptance Region and Polar Plot.
* Vector Filter
An electronic instrument that automatically adjusts a band-pass filter center frequency to coincide with the frequency determined by an
external electronic input pulse (Keyphasor). Typically, a digital vector filter is used to automatically filter a vibration signal at rotative
speed (1X) frequency, (or 2X or other single frequency) especially under transient rotor speed conditions. Among other functions, a
vector filter provides the dc proportional signals (shaft centerline).
* Velocity
The time rate of change of displacement. Typical units for velocity are inches/second or millimeters/second, zero-to-peak. Velocity
measurements are used to evaluate machine housing and other structural response characteristics. Electronic integration of a velocity
signal yields displacement.
* Velocity Transducer
An electromechanical transducer, typically of inertial design, used for measuring bearing housing and other structural absolute
vibration. Seismoprobe is a ProvibTech registered trademark for this type of velocity transducer.
* Velomitor®
A piezoelectric velocity sensor with no moving parts that contains an accelerometer crystal and a built-in amplifier/integrator. This type
of seismic sensor is used for casing vibration measurements on rotating machinery equipped with rolling element bearings and frame
vibration measurements on reciprocating machinery. It measures absolute vibration relative to free space. Also see Seismic
Transducer.
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PCM370ForPT2060 Plant Condition Management System
* Vibration
The oscillatory (back and forth) motion of a physical object.
* Vibration Form
The characteristics of vibration signals which may be observed on an oscilloscope. Typical displays are timebase waveform and shaft
Orbit. See Orbit and Waveform.
* Waterfall Plot
Similar to Cascade plot, except that one vertical axis is usually time instead of shaft rotative speed (rpm). See Cascade Plot.
* Waveform
A presentation or display of the instantaneous amplitude of a signal as a function of time. A vibration waveform can be observed on an
oscilloscope in the timebase mode.
* Wobulator
A mechanical device which generates dynamic motion of an observed surface at a known amplitude and frequency. The surface is
observed by a proximity probe for the purpose of calibration of a vibration monitor. ProvibTech's TK3-2 incorporates a wobulator.
* XY
Orthogonal (perpendicular) axes in a Cartesian coordinate system. Usually used as a reference for orthogonal (mutually perpendicular)
radial vibration transducers. Y represents the vertical axis and X represents the horizontal axis.
* Zero-to-Peak Value
One-half of the peak-to-peak value. See Amplitude.
* REFERENCES:
1.
Dictionary of Instrumentation Technology, Machine Design. Penton/IPC, Inc. Cleveland, Ohio.
2.
Electrical Transducer Nomenclature and Terminology. Instrument Society of America, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
3.
Electronic Engineer's Handbook. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York.
4.
Mark's Mechanical Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York.
5.
Mechanical Equipment Standards for Refinery Service. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
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